• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Of birds
 Table of Contents
 Main
 Advertising
 Back Cover
 Spine






Group Title: Book of birds
Title: Book of birds ; intended for the amusement and instruction of young people
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001697/00001
 Material Information
Title: Book of birds ; intended for the amusement and instruction of young people
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: George S. Appleton
D. Appleton & Co.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
New York
Publication Date: 1850
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Bibliographic ID: UF00001697
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page i-a
    Frontispiece
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Of birds
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    Table of Contents
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
    Main
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    Spine
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Full Text
























A:




















.. . . . .............






THI


4


BOOK OF BIRDS;


INTENDED olr TH AMN VIENT A"ND INMTEUroIO


OF


YOUNG PEOPLE.


ILUITRATED WITH SIXTEI EILEAMT PLATI. .




PHILADELPHIA:
GEORGE 8. APLETON, 164 CBR'TNIT. I.
NEW TO1K:
D. APPLWTON l 00., aMamAT.
1 .


-* *-.


























Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 180, by
GEO. S. APPLETON,

in the Clerk's OCee of the Distriet Court of the United States, in and for the
EaMern District of Pnnsylvania.




/







OF BIIRDS.



No class of the animal kingdom is more interesting than
BIRDS. Their infinite variety of form, habits, and manners;
their plumage, always beautiful, often rich and gorgeous;
their powers of flight and grace of motion, their curious
nests, their varied music; the bittern's boom, the cawing of
the busy rooks, the cock's shrill clarion, the capricious lay
of the mocking-bird, or the sweet warbling of the oriole--
nay, even the hoarse cries of the sea-birds, and-the garrulous
clucking of the barn-fowls-these all combine to endear us
to the feathered creation, since all are appropriate-ll are
the voice of Nature. The birds are associated with many
delightful scenes dear to memory.
Who sees the swallow on his first return and dreams Mot





vi 01 DISI.
d qfut ib atim loa pot Who hse twhe ng dth
Ma bhd or the bobolink without a dlightfl nirimwl
d dhoo-boy dayj, redy to npu with Wedrworh:
"Aad I ne HNL to the ye
a Hep"m th plai;
Ahad IHr tl Ido be
Thrt go" tim ela.

IH. it is thit L, lthogh an bLird'*e tinag, the
bleI ow e ~ soeny m A ut- netl. We br
s teir wyr; we hm nwt tLhe bMing thei
mN* Ml em ng their Jyong; we hm litel to their
ingig not when "aepieng like ail awillingly to
shool," ad lgng fr a nambl m the d ieM. TIhey are
auIeelat with a o rald pli-an adl ou hlidq
uor; d we lon theM for their being laMd lty lib
ia oa mmuor with a hap y pl
ehmrstMrii wik dsgihu bird& frem the o&he
d-a d vrdebeaed am lu, nm tht they lky h m
e their yo. m han e by wra is iall btheB
t*ir sin u -m e wl wMi ath d, their JMm
*q, wths tetJi. Their lsed is m l k l






01 BIRDI. vii
like that of the Nammalia. The six orders of birds, re
as follows:
1. Raptore, or birds of prey. These birds are distin-
guished by a very strong and sharp bill more or less curved,
but always hooked at the extremity of the upper mandible,
which is covered at the base with a kind of skin called the
cere. The nostrils are usually open. The legs are very
strong, and generally only partially covered with feathers;
the feet are large, and the toes, which are four in number,
are armed with very strong, sharp, curved, prehensile claws.
The principal raptorial birds are the vultures, including the
condor; the falcon family, including the eagles, hawks,
kites, and buzzards; and the owls.
2. InAsewo or perching birds. These birds have all feet
formed for perching, the hind toe springing from the same
place as the other toes, which gives them great power of
grasping. Their legs are of moderate length, and their
claws not sharply curved. This order includes the thrushes,
nightingales, and all the finest songsters of our groves, with
the robin-redbreast, the sparrow, and other birds seen about
dwellings, the swallows, the larks, the crow family, the king-
fishers, the birds of paradise, and the humming birds.





ul OF BIRDS.
8. Scanore, or climbers. These birds have two toes
before and two behind, or rather they have the power of
throwing one of the fore toes back at pleasure. This con-
struction gives them such great power of climbing, that they
can ascend the perpendicular trunk of a tree. The princi-
pal birds in this order are the parrot family and the wood-
peckers.
4. Rasores, or gallinaceous birds. These birds have the
head small in proportion to the body. The bill is generally
short, with the other mandible somewhat curved, and fur-
nished with a cere. The nostrils have usually a protecting
fleshy membrane. The tarsus, or lower part of the leg, is
long and bare, and there are four toes, those in front being
united by a slight membrane, while that behind is generally
higher up the leg, and smaller than the others. This
order comprises nearly all the birds used as food, and it
includes the peacock, the turkey, the common cock and
hen, the partridge, the pheasant, and the pigeon family.
5. Gratatores, or Waders. These birds are characterized
by their)ong and slender legs, and generally bare thighs.
Their feet have generally three toes, more or less united at
tab bse by a web, and the central toe is often longer aad





OF BIRDS. ix
stronger than the rest; the hind toe is sometimes wanting.
This order contains the ostrich family, the bustards aad
plovers ; the cranes, herons, and storks; and the snipes ad
woodcocks.
6. Palmipedes, or web-footed birds. These birds have
the legs and feet short, and placed behind, with their fore
toes united by a thick and strong membrane. The neck is
much longer than the legs, and their bodies are covered
with a dense layer of down, beneath the outer plumage,
which is close, and imbued with an oily fluid that repels the
water. The principal birds in this order are the coots and
grebes, the auks and penguins, the petrels, the pelican and
cormorant, and the swans, ducks, and geese.

Not only does the form of the bird fit it for flying, but
its lungs are extended by means of air-cells extending among
the muscles; and its bones are hollow, and not filled with
marrow, but with air. Other circumstances in their internal
structure serve to freilitate the fight of 'birds, and to make
them quite at ease when on the wing.
In variety birds far exceed quadrupeds. There are many
thousand species, distinguished from each other by dir-






1 OF BIRDS.
enees of onfiguration, colour, and habits; but the grand
distinctions are so few that a tolerably correct idea of this
part of the animal kingdom may be formed, even by such
a general and succinct view as that which we propose to
give to the reader; and we hope, by enlivening our descrip-
tions with occasional illustrative anecdotes, to render our
account interesting as well as instructive.















CONTENTS.


PASW
TH CONDO 21
THE TURKEY-BUZZAD 25
THE WASHINGTON EAGLE. 26
THE WHITE-HEADED, OB BALD EAGLE . 29
TH 81
THE OSPREY, O FISHING-HAWK 85
THE AMEICAN GOSHAWK 86
THE HAWK OWL 88
THE GREAT HORNED OWL. 89
THE SWALLOW 4
THE HIMNY SWALLOW 47
THX BANK SWALLOW 47


3.







xii CONTENT.
*AA
TE BALTIMORE OIOL 48
TH ROBIN 52
THE NIGHTINGALE 65
THE RED-WINGED BLACKBIRD, OR TROOPIAL 58
THE SKYLARK. 62
THE CARDINAL BIRD 64
THE MOCKING-BIRD 67
THE OW 70
THE WHIP-POOR-WILL 74
THE CUCKOO 76
T KINGFISHER 78
TE OBEEN WOODPECKE 79
STOUCA . 79
THE CABOLINA PARROT. 80
TX P OO 86
T T K 86
TEN PINTADO, oR GINEA n 87
THE TAME PIGEON 89
TE OBTRICH 90
SCAowAY 98
THE WHOOPING CANE 94
THE BLACK-NOKED STILT 97






CONTENTS. B
PAI
TH FLAMINGO 99
WILSON's BSTOBM PETBR 101
THE PIED OYTB-CATCHEB 106
THE GREAT HEBON 111
THE WOOD IBIS 118
THE SNOW OOS 119
THE WANDERING ABATOSS 122
THE SWAN 125
THE CINEREOUS COOT 127
THE SUMMER, OR WOOD DUCK 181
THE COMMON DUCK, OR MA.LAD 187
THE CANVASS-BACK DUCK 189
THE PELIAN 148
THE COMOANT 161
THE BLACK AND WHITE GULL 162
THE GREAT TEN 14
THE PURPLE GAoJNULE .. 166
THE GREAT NORTHERN DIVER, OB LOON. 150
THE BLAK-HADED ULL 161
THE EIDER DUCK 167
THE CANADA OOOSE 169
THE SKUA aUL 176







COONT NTB.


THr WOODCOCK
TNH NJaAT AUX
TE BSNIPS
THE CAROLINA ILAUJ
TEU XDRu


P'A
178
. 188
184
. 189
196









THR


BOOK OF BIRDS.



THE CONDOR. (Sarcoramphui gayphu .f
Txn first ordew t Jcphew, includes T
Faloons, and Owls. They are diribed by a Lroa
curved bill, aded o **n ac sh dae
towards the rltoothe e be is h.
quently oovered iM ked membrane, allied a qwe;
the leg are short, and the alaw sharp-pointd sad ea
iderably curved. It is a remra=ble fot tatbhe fe als 4
of birds of prey, like those of the other codwn, ar ratl r '
larger and more powerfo than the males.
The Vulture general have no feather on head and
upper part of the neck, a peculiarity which enable them
to feed more easily on carrion, which is their aonvrit
food. Of these the mot parkble is the Mr.
uttallU ay that the Cndor derives its ope $ a
hatdla word which 0l9de to its supposed agaOuL.
'A

t .






22 THE CONDOR.
It inhabits the whole chain of the Andes of Mexico, Pm,
Chili, and Patagonia to the Straits of Magellan, and, on the
authority of Lewis and Clarke, they are sometimes seen in
the range of the Rocky Mountains, towards the sources of
the Missouri. Their peculiar residence is the great chain
of the high Andes, where they associate three or four together
upon the points of cliffs without either fearing or injuring
men, so that they may be approached within four yards with-
out showing alarm, or making on their part any attempt at
attack. Hardly an instance is really known of their even
assaulting an infant, though some credulous naturalists,
with the exaggerating privilege of travellers, have given
accounts of their killing young persons of ten or twelve years
of age. Their ability for such rapine is not to be doubted,
but their natural cowardice forbids the attempt At the
same time, it is not unoommon.to see them follow and hover
mound a young bull until they have torn out his eyes and
tongue.
A pair of Condors will not only in this way attack the
Sdeer of the Andes, the puwn or American lion (eur
panther), the vioogne, and the Ilama (or American camel),
but also the wild heifer. They will pursue it for a long
time, ocesionally wounding it with their bill and claws, until
the unfortunate animal, now stifled and overcome with
fatigue, extends its tongue and groans; on which occasion
the Condor mies this member, being a very tender and
fvearie mcm4, and eas out the eyes of his prey, which at






THI OONDOR. XO
leth calls prcstrate to the earth and swly empes. Th
Oondor then gorges himself, and rests in stpidity, ad
almost gluttonous inebriation, perched upon the highest
neighboring rooks. The formidable hunter, now loaded with
his meal, may be driven about without his attempting.to
ly; and in this state the Indians sometimes pursue them
with the lauo or noose, and easily take them captive. Thus
restrained, the Condor makes extraordinary efforts to rise
into the air; but fatigued by the attempt, he begins to
disgorge himself freely, an effort he appears to assist by
lengthening and shortening the neck, and bringing forward
the sheath of his beak. They will approach dwellings whn
allured by the scent of food; and a dead animal will draw
down a crowd of these gluttones where noe at the time me
at all visible; they tear and eat with the greatest voracit
pushing sometimes with their feet, and lapping their
wings.
They make no nest, bqt deposit their eggs upon the naked
rook; these are two, wholly white, and three or four inaeh
in length. It is said that the female remains with hae
young for the space of a year. The young Condor ha no
feathers. His body, fbr several months, is ved oaly
with a very fine down or whitish friszled -br, which
resembles that of young owls. This down dilames the
young bird so much, that in this state it appears dhest
large a an adult.
The de of the Conder has been greatly eznsa ti .11




24 THE CONDOR.
seldom exceeds three feet in length and nine and a half
feet in extent.* The tail one foot. two inches. The
bill is straight and hooked at the point; the plumage is white
in front, everywhere else of a brownish gray; head bare of
feathers and covered with hard wrinkled skin, scattered over
with blackish hairs, and it has a collar of white silky down
between the bare and the feathered part of the neck. The
feet are stout, and the nails long and crooked.

ILLUSTRATIVE ANECDOTES.
Sir Francis Head, in his gallop across the Pampas, and
his visit to the Andes, frequently encountered Condors. He
relates the account of a struggle between one of his Cornish
miners and a Condor gorged with food, and therefore not in
the best state for a fray. The man began by grasping the
bird round the neck, which he tried to break; but the bird,
roused by the unceremonious attack, struggled so violently
as to defeat the plan; nor, after an hour's struggling, though
the miner brought away several of the wing-feathers in
token of victory, does it 'appear that the bird was des-
patched.
The Condor is not only captured with the lasso, but he is
taken by various traps and stratagems. According to Mr.
Darwin, the Chilenos are in the habit of marking the trees

The term agt, applied to the description of brds, means the
disteaoe o tip to tip of the extended wimp.






THE TURKEY-BUZZARD. 86
in which they roost frequently to the number of ie or six
together, and then at night climbing up and noosing them.
They are such heavy sleepers that this is not a difeult
tak. Lieutenant Maw saw the Condor's quill used a a
pen in the Cordillera.



THE TURKEY-BUZZARD. (VuZr aura.)
THERE are many species of Vultures distributed over the
various parts of the world, chiefly in the warmer countries,
where they are considered very serviceable in consuming
the carcasses of dead animals, which would otherwise taint
the air. The King Vulture, found in South America and
Mexico, and the California Vulture, found on our western
coast, are among the American species; but of these the
most common, and therefore the most interesting, is the
Turkey-Bunard, which abounds in our Southern States and
in the West Indies, where they are commonly protected for
their services as scavengers of carrion. In the winter they
generally seek out warmth and shelter, hovering often like
grim and boding spectres in the suburbs, and on the roofs
and chimney of the houses around the cities of the South-
ern States.
Mr. Nuttall describes the Turkey-Buard as follows:
The Turkey Vulture is about two sm a half fw in
2




S.


26 THE WASHINGTON EAGLE.
length, and six in breadth. Eyes dark or reddish-hazel.
The head and neck for about an inch and a half below the
ears, furnished with a reddish wrinkled skin, and some
tints of blue, sprinkled with.short black hairs. From the
hind-head to the neck-feathers the space is covered with a
black down. The fore-part of the neck is bare to the
breast-bone. The plumage of the neck is large and tumid,
and, with that of the back and shoulders, nearly black;
almost all the rest of the body is of the same colour, in
parts inclining to brown. Third primary longest. The
wings extend to the end of the tail. The upper plumage is
generally glossed with green and bronze, having purplish
rejections. Legs feathered to the knees; the feet some-
what webbed. The bill nearly white, often tipped with
bright olive green. Weight from four and a half to five
pounds.



WASHINGTON EAGLE. (Paco WaAingtoii.)
Tms splendid bird is found in the mountain regions of
Kentucky. It is the largest of all the Eagle tribe. Its
lgth is three feet seven inches; extent of wings ten feet
two inches; bill three inches and a quarter. Length of
w bg when folded thirtytwo inches; length of tail MeeA
iash; middle law four inches and thres6 eartr; hind






THE WASHINGTON BAGLI. ST
olaw two inches and a half The upper parts of the body
are dark, shining, coppery-brown; throat, front, and breast,
rich bright cinnamon colour. The whole appearance of the
bird grand and majestic.
ILLUSTRATIVE ANEODOTES.
Mr. Nuttall says, "It is to the indefatigable Audubon,
that we owe the distinct notice and description of this noble
Eagle, which first drew his attention while voyaging far up
the Mississippi, in the month of February, 1814. At length,
he had the satisfaction of discovering its eyry in the high
cliffs of Green River in Kentucky, near to its junction with
the Ohio; two young were discovered loudly hissing from a
fissure in the rooks, on the approach of the male, from whom
they received a fish. The female now also cane, and with
solicitous alarm for the safety of her young, gave a load
scream, dropped the food she had brought, and hovering
over the molesting party, kept up a growling and threatea-
ing cry by way of intimidation; and, in fact, as our disap.
pointed naturalist soon discovered, she fom this time
forsook the spot, and found means to convey away her
young. The discoverer considers the species as rar; indeed,
its principal residence appears to be in the northern parts
of the continent, particularly the rooky solitudes omad the
great orth-western lakes, when ist at all time aoletS
its hny prey, and rear its young witheat the dead am.
In the water season, about Jae ry ad M py, a wil






28 THE WASHINGTON EAGLE.
as at a later period of the spring, these birds are ocession-
ally seen in this vicinity,* rendered perhaps bolder and
more familiar by want, as the prevalence of the ice and
cold, at this season, drives them to the necessity of wander-
ing further than usual in search of food. At this early
period, Audubon observed indications of the approach of the
breeding season. They are sometimes seen contending in
the air, so that one of the antagonists will suddenly drop
many feet downwards as if wounded or alarmed. My
friend, Dr. Hayward of Boston, had in his possession one
of these fine docile Eagles for a considerable time; but
desirous of devoting it to the then Linnweum Museum, he
attempted to poison it, by corrosive sublimate of mercury;
several times, however, doses even of two drams were given
to it concealed in fish, without producing any injurious
effect on its health.
"The Washington Eagle, bold and vigorous, disdains
the piratical habits of the Bald Eagle, and invariably
obtains his own sustenance without molesting the osprey.
The circles he describes in his flight are wider than those
of the White-headed Eagle; he also flies nearer to the land
or the surface of the water; and when about to dive for his
prey, he descends in circuitous, spiral rounds, as if to check
the retreat of the fish, on which he darts only when within
the distance of a few yards. When his prey is obtained,


* Cambridg, Mas.






THB BALD EAGLE. 29

he lies out at a low elevation to a considerable distance to
enjoy his repast at leisure.
The quantity of food consumed by this enormous bird
is very great, according to the account of thoee who have
had them in confinement. Mr. Audubon's male bird
weighed fourteen and a half pounds avoirdupois. One in a
small museum in Philadelphia (according to the account of
my friend Mr. C. Pickering), also a male, weighed much
more, by which difference it would appear that they are
capable of becoming exceedingly fat; for the length of this
bird was about the same as that of Audubon, three feet six
or seven inches. The width, however, was only about seven
feet, agreeing pretty nearly with a specimen now in the
New England Museum. The male of the Golden Eagle,
the largest hitherto known, is seldom more than three feet
long."



THE WHITE-HEADED, OR BALD EAGLE.
(Haliatu leucocepWalu.)
THIs bird is about three feet long, and seven feet broad
from tip to tip of the wings. The bill resembles that of
the golden eagle, and from the chin hang some mall
hairy feathers like a beard. As it is found alike in region
of excessive cold and in the torrid sone it is povided fr






80 THE BALD EAGLE.
enduring rapid changes of temperament, and its whole body
is clothed under the feathers with a kind of down, white
and soft like that of the swan. This bird builds its nest
on some romantic cliff by the sea-shore, or on the bank of
some river or lake, and feeds almost entirely upon fish.
It is generally regarded by our countrymen with pecu-
liar respect, as the chosen emblem of our native land.
The great cataract of Niagara is mentioned as one of its
favourite places of resort, not merely as a fishing station,
where it is enabled to satiate its hunger upon its most con-
genial food, but also in consequence of the vast quantity of
four-footed beasts, which unwarily venturing into the stream
above, are borne away by the torrent, and precipitated down
those tremendous falls.
High o'er the watery uproar silent seen,
Sailing sedate in majesty serene,
Now 'midst the pillr'd spray sublimely lost,
And now emerging, down the rapids toss'd,
Glides the Bald Eagle, gazing calm and slow
O'er all the horrors of the scene below;
Intent alone to sate himself with blood,
From the torn victims of the raging food.

The number of birds of prey of various kinds, which
assemble at the foot of the rocks to glut themselves upon
the banquet thus provided for them, is said to be incredibly
great, but they are all compelled to give place to the Eagle
when he digns to feed on dead animals; and the crow and






2 E IALCON. 81
the vulture submit without a struggle to the exerise of
that tyranny, which they knowit would be in vain to reasbt

ILLUSTRATIVE ANECDOTES.
"We have ourselves," says Wilson, "seen the Bald
Eagle, while seated on the dead carcass of a horse, keep a
whole flok of vultures at a respectful distance, until he had
fully sated his own appetite:" and he adds another instance,
in which many thousands of tree squirrels having been
drowned, in one of their migrations, in attempting to pass
the Ohio, and having furnished for some length of time a
rich banquet to the vultures, the sudden appearance among
them of the Bald Eagle at once put a stop to their festivi-
ties, and drove them to a distance from their prey, of
which the Eagle kept sole possession for several successive
days.



THE FALCON. (Fato commmsis.)
THE Falcon is a predaceous bird, of which there are
several species. The Gerfacon is the largest, and it is
found in the northern parts of Europe; and, next to the
eagle, it is the most formidable, the most active, and the
most intrepid of all voracious birds, and is the dearest and
most esteemed for falconry. The bill is crooked 1 yel-






8Z THE FALCON.
low; the irides of the eye dusky; and the whole plumage
of a whitish hue, marked with dark lines on the breast, and
dusky spots on the back.
The Peregrine Falcon, which is the most common kind,
is as large as the moor buzzard. The bill is blue at the
base, and black at the point; the head, back, scapulars,
and coverts of the wings are barred with deep.black and
blue; the throat, neck, and upper part of the breast are
white, tinged with yellow; the bottom of the breast, belly,
and thighs are of a grayish white; and the tail is black
and blue.
Wilson enumerates no less than ten varieties, dependent
chiefly upon age, sex, and country. It is found, more or
less abundantly, throughout the whole of Europe, princi-
pally in the mountain districts in North, and probably
South America, and in New Holland, dwelling in the clefts
of rocks, especially such as are exposed to the mid-day sn.
It breeds upon the cliffs in several parts of England, but
appears to be more common in Scotland and Wales. Its
food consists principally of small birds; but it scruples not
to attack the larger species, and sometimes gives battle
even to the kite.
Falcons rarely take their prey upon the ground, like the
more ignoble birds of the class to which they belong; but
pounce upon it from aloft, in a directly perpendicular
descent as it flies through the air, bear it downwards by the
united impulse of the strength and rapdity of their attack,






THE lALOON. 8B
and sticking their talons into its lesh, carry it off in tri-
umph to the place of their retreat. Like most predatory
animals, they are stimulated to action by the pressure of
hunger alone, and remain inactive and almost motionless
while the process of digestion is going on, and until the
renewed cravings of their appetite stimulate them to fur-
ther exertion.
In different stages of its growth, the Peregrine Falcon
has been known by various English names. Its proper
appellation among falconers is the Slight Falcon, the term
Falcon Gentle being equally applicable to all the species
when rendered manageable. In the immature state, this
Falcon is also called a Red Hawk, from the prevailing
colour of its plumage. The male is called a Tiereel, to dis
tinguish it from the female, which, in the Falcon tribe, is
most commonly one-third larger than the male.
ILLUSTRATIVE ANECDOTES.
In China there is said to be a variety which is mottled
with brown and yellow. These birds are said to be used
by the emperor of China in his sporting excursions, when
he is usually attended by his great falconer, and a thousand
of inferior rank. Every bird has a silver plate fastened to
its foot, with the name of the falconer who has the charge
of it, that, in ease it should be lost, it may be restored to
the proper person; but if it should not be found the nam
is delivered to another ofier, called the guardian







lost birds, who, to make his situation known, erects his
standard in a conspicuous place among the army of hunters.
In Syria, also, there is a variety of the Gentle Falcon,
which the inhabitants call Shaheen, and which is of so
fierce and courageous a disposition, that it will attack any
bird, however large or powerful, which presents itself.
"Were there not," says Dr. Russel, in his account of
Aleppo, "several gentlemen now in England to bear wit-
ness to the fact, I should hardly venture to assert that,
with this bird, which is about the size of a pigeon, the
inhabitants sometimes take large eagles.
"This Hawk was in former times taught to seize the eagle
under the pinion, and thus depriving him of the use of one
wing, both birds fell to the ground together; but the pre-
sent mode is to teach the Hawk to fix on the back, between
the wings, which has the same effect, only that the bird
tumbling down more slowly, the falconer has more time to
come to his Hawk's assistance; but in either cae, if he be
not very expeditious, the Falcon is inevitably destroyed.
"I never saw the Shaheen fly at eagles, that sport having
been disused before my time; but I have often seen him
take herons and storks. The Hawk, when thrown off, flies
for some time in a horizontal line, not six feet from the
ground; then mounting perpendicularly, with astonishing
siftness, he seizes his prey under the wing, and both toge.
jckr oome tumbling to the ground."


84


THE FALCON.






THE OSPRBY.


THE OSPREY, OR FISHING HAWK.
(Falco, or Pandion HaliUtus.)
True to the season, o'er our sea-beat shore,
The sailing Osprey high is seen to soar
With broad unmoving wing; and circling slow,
Marks each loose straggler in the deep below;
Sweeps down like lightning, plunges with a roar,
And bears his struggling victim to the shore.
Tars bird is always found on the sea-shore, or near
rivers or lakes, as it feeds entirely on fish. It is common
in Great Britain, and also in America, where large colonies
are found of it, the birds living together like rooks. "When
looking out for its prey," says Dr. Richardson, "it sails
with great care and elegance, in undulating and curved
lines" at a considerable height above the water, till it per-
ceives its prey, when it pounces down upon it. It seises
the fish with its claws, sometimes 4earely appearing to dip
its feet in the water, and at other times plunging entirely
under the surface with force sufficient to throw up a con-
siderable spray. It emerges again, however, so speedily, as
to render it evident that it does not attack ish swimming
at any great depth."
The Osprey builds a large nest either on trees or rooks,
and lays two or three eggs, which have a reddish tinge, and
are spotted with brown at the larger end. The old birds
feed the young ones even after they have left the nest and
only rear one brood in the year.






THE GOSHAWK.


AMERICAN GOSHAWK.-(Astur atricapiusw.)

ArmT the eagles and falcons, come the Hawks, which are
similar in appearance, but smaller. They, as well as some
of the falcons, are famous for having been trained to use in
the chase. In the feudal times hawking was the favourite
amusement of kings and nobles. We have never heard of
its being practised in our country, although it is still com-
mon in Persia, and sometimes, though rarely, there are
hawking parties on the continent of Europe.
The American Goshawk is twenty-one inches long; extent
of wings thirty-seven inches. Its colour is dark ash, tinged
with brown. Our species is related to a European one,
which extends over the northern countries of the Old World.
It is rare, migrating to the south in winter.

ILLUSTRATIVE ANEODOTES.
In Mr. Nttall's Ornithology we find the following inte-
resting particulars concerning this bird:
On the 26th of October, 1880, I received one of these
birds from the proprietor of Fresh Pond Hotel, in the
meult, having the stomach crammed with moles and mice,
and it was shot in the act of devouring a pigeon.
The Goshawk was held in considerable esteem for fal-
conry, and, according to Bell, was employed for this amuse-
ment by the emperor of China, who moved sometimes to
these excusions in great state, often bearing a hawk on his






THE GOSHAWK. 87
hand, to let ly at any game that might be raised; which
was usually pheasants, partridges, quails, or cranes. In
1269, Marco Paulo witnessed this diversion of the emperor,
which probably had existed for many ages previous. The
falconers distinguished these birds of sport into two classes,
namely, those of falconry properly so called, and those of
hawking; and in this second and inferior class were included
the Goshawk, the Sparrow-hawk, Buzzard, and Harpy.
This species does not soar so high as the longer-winged
Hawks, and darts upon its quarry by a side glance, not by
a direct descent, like the true falcon. They were caught
in nets baited with live pigeons, and reduced to obedience
by the same system of privation and discipline as the falcon.
A pair of these birds were kept for a long time in a cage
by Buffon; he remarks, that the female was at least a third
larger than the male, and the wings, when closed, did not
reach within six inches of the end of the tail. The male,
though smaller, was much more fierce and untameable. They-
often fought with their claws, but seldom used the bill for
any other purpose than tearing their food. If this consisted
of birds, they were plucked as neatly as by the hand of the
poulterer; but mice were swallowed whole, and the hair and
skin, and other indigestible parts, after the manner of the
genus, were discharged from the mouth rolled up in little
balls. Its cry was raucous, and terminated by sharp, reite-
rated, piercing notes, the more disagreeable the oftener they
wee repeated, ad the cage could never be approved with.






88 THE HAWK OWL.
out exciting violent gestures and screams. Though of dif-
ferent sexes, and confined to the same cage, they contracted
no friendship for each-other which might soothe their impri-
sonment, and finally, to end the dismal picture, the female,
in a fit of indiscriminate rage and violence, murdered her
mate in the silence of the night, when all the other feathered
race were wrapped in repose. Indeed their dispositions are
so furious, that a Goshawk, left with any other falcons,
soon effects the destruction of the whole. Their ordinary
food is young rabbits, squirrels, mice, moles, young geese,
pigeons, and small birds, and, with a cannibal appetite, they
sometimes even prey upon the young of their own species.
They construct their nests in the highest trees, and lay from
two to four eggs of a bluish-white, marked with lines and
spots of brown. The egg of our bird, according to Audu-
bon, is without spots.



THE HAWK OWL.--(&Liz fnmea.)

TMu remarkable species, says Mr. Nuttall, forming a oon-
moting link with the preceding genus of the Hawks, is
nearly confned to the artio wilds of both continents, being
freqMet in Siberia and the for countries from Hudson's
Bay to the Pacie. A few straggler, now and then, at dia-
tat blatr and in the depths of winter, penetate on the
















I






BTH GZRAT HORRID OWL. 89
one side into the northern parts of the United States; and,
on the other, they occasionally appear in Germany, and more
rarely in France. At Hudon's Bay they are observed by
day lying high, and preying on the white grouse and other
birds, sometimes even attending the hunter like a falcon,
and boldly taking up the wounded game as it butter on the
ground. They are also sid to feed on mice and imsets,
and accordingg to Meyer) they nest upon trees, laying two
white eggs. They are mid to be constant attendants on the
ptarmigans in their spring migrations towards the north;
and are observed to hover round the camp-fres of the na-
tives, in quest probably of any offal or rejected game.



GREAT HORNED OWL.-(Bsbo VIyMiaa.)
TIs noted and formidable Owl is found in alw every
quarter of the United State. His favourite resides, hbow-
ever, is in the dark solitudes of deep swamp, coeed with
a growth of gigantic timber; and here, as soon evening
draws on, and mankind retire to rest, he sends forth smo
sounds as seem saroely to belong to this world, siteling
the solitary pilgrim as he slumbers by his rset Ire,
MaLam ish t dius.
Alak the moutaiams sha s of the Ohio, id amubt the






40 THE GREAT HORNED OWL
deep forests of Indiana, alone, and reposing in the woods,
this ghostly watchman has frequently warned the traveller of
the approach of morning, and amused him with his singular
exclamations, sanetimes sweeping down and around the fire,
uttering a loud and sudden Waugh 0 Waugh 0! sufficient
to have alarmed a whole garrison. He has other nocturnal
solos, no lees melodious, one of which very strikingly resem-
bles the half-suppressed screams of a person suffocating, or
throttled, and cannot fail of being exceedingly entertaining
to a lonely, benighted traveller, in the midst of an Indian
wilderness 1
This species inhabits the country round Hudson's Bay;
and according to Pennant, who considers it a mere variety
of the Eagle Owl (Strix bubo) of Europe, is found in Kamt-
schatka; extends even to the arctic regions, where it is
often found white; and occurs as low as Astrakan. It has
also been seen white in the United States; but this has
doubtless been owing to disease or natural defect, and not
to climate.
It preys on young rabbits, squirrels, rats, mice, partridges,
and small birds of various kinds.

ILLUSTRATIVE ANECDOTES.
The Great Horned Owl is famous for his depredations on
the poultry-yard. A very large one, who had his wing
broken by a shot while on a foraging expedition of this






THB GBBAT HOINBD OWL. 41
hind about a hrm-hoase, was captured and kept for several
days, and at length disappeared, no one knew whither..
Almost every day after this, hen and chickens also di
appeared, one. by one, in an unaccountable manner, till in
eight or ten days very few were left remaining. The fin,
the minz, and weasel, were alternately the reputed author
of this mischief, until one morning, the old lady herans
rising before day to bake, in passing towards the oven,
surprised her late prisoner, the Owl, regaling himself on
the body of a newly killed hen I The thief instantly made
for his hole under the house, from whence the enraged
matron soon dislodged him with the brush-handle, and
without merey despatched him. In this snug reteat wer
found the greater part of the feathers, and many large fag.
ments, of her whole family of hiekems.
There is something in the character of the Owl so reeluse,
solitary, and mysterious, something so discordant in th
tones of its voie, heard only amid the silence and glam
of night, and in the most lonely and sequestered siuats,
as to have strongly impressed the minds of mankind in
general with sensations of awe ad abhorred of the whou
tribe. The poets have indulged freely in this general
prejudice; .and in their desriptions and delineatios of
midnight storm, and gloomy scnes of nature, the Owl
is geeally introduced to heighten the horror of the pis-
ture.
Ipwame m ad supstitt, in all ages, gad in ll ecounsls,
8





42 THB GBR AT HORNED OWL.
listen to the voiee of the Owl, and even contemplate its
physiognomy with feeling of disgust, and a kind of fearful
we. The priests, or conjurers, among some of our Indian
nations, have taken advantage of the reverential horror for
tis bird, and have adopted the Great Horned Owl, the
object of the present account, as the symbol or emblem of
their ofice.
Among the Creeks," says Mr. Bartram, in his Travek,
p. 504, "the junior priests, or students, constantly wear a
white mantle, and have a Great Owl skin cased and stuffed
very ingeniously, so well executed as almost to appear like
the living bird, having large, sparkling glass beads or
buttons, fixed in the head for eyes. This insignia of wi-
dem and divination they wear sometimes a crest on the
top of the head; at other times the image sits on the arm,
or is borne o the hand. These bachelo are alo distin-
guished ftom the other people by their taciturnity, grave
and solemn countenance, dignified atp, and singing to
themselves songs or hymns in a low, sweet voice, as they
stroll about the town."
Nothing is a more effectual cure for superstition than a
knowledge of the general laws and productions of nature;
nor more foribly leads our elections to the rst, great,
slf-eistent CAusn of all, to whom our reverential awe is
then humbly devoted, and not to any of his dependent
creatures. With all the gloomy habits and ungracious
toms the Owl, there is nothing in this bird supernatural






THw GBRAT HOBNED OWL 45
or mysterious, or more than that of a simple bird of prey,
formed for feeding by night, like many other animals and of
reposing by day. The harshness of its voice, ocasioned by
the width and capacity of its throat, may be intended by
Heaven a an alarm and warning to the birds and animals
on which it preys, to secure themselves from danger. The
voices of all carnivorous birds and animals are ao observed
to be harsh and hideous, probably for this very purpose.
The Great Horned Owl is not migratory, but remain
with us the whole year. During the day he clumbers in
the thick evergreens of deep swamps, or seeks shelter in
large hollow trees. He is very rarely een abroad by day,
and never but when disturbed. In the month of May they
usually begin to build. The nest is generally played in te
fork of a tall tree and is construed of sticks piled in eac-
siderable quantities, lined with dry leaves and a few feathm.
.Sometimes they choose a hollow tree; and, in that eas
carry in but few materials The fmal lays four eg,
nearly a large as those of a hen, almost globlar, and of
a pure white. In one of these nests, after the young had
lown, were found the heads and bones oftwo hiadam, the
legs and head of the golden-winged woodpecker, and part
of the wings and feather of several other bids. It is
generally onjected that they hatch but nce in the

According to all authorities, Owls have bee regarded a
objects of superstition; and this has sometimes been taken





44 THE GREAT HORNED OWL.
advantage of by the well informed, for purposes far from
what ought to be the duty of a better education to ineulcate.
None are more accessible to such superstitions than the
primitive natives of Ireland, and the north of Scotland. Dr.
Richardson thus relates an instance, which came to his own
knowledge, of the consequences arising from a visit of this
nocturnal wanderer:-
A party of Scottish Highlanders, in the service of the
Hudson's Bay Company, happened, in a winter journey, to
encamp after nightfall in a dense clump of trees, whose dark
tops and lofty stems, the growth of more than one century,
gave a solemnity to the scene that strongly tended to excite
the superstitious feelings of the Highlanders. The effect was
heightened by the discovery of a tomb, which, with a natural
taste often exhibited by the Indians had been placed in this
secluded spot. Our travellers, having finished their supper,
were trimming their ire preparatory to retiring to rest, when
the slow and dismal notes of the Horned Owl fell on the ear
with a startling nearness. None of them being acquainted
with the sound, they at once concluded, that so unearthly
a voice must be the moaning of the spirit of the departed,
whose repose they supposed they had disturbed, by inad-
vertently making a fire of some of the wood of which his
tomb had been constructed. They passed a tedious night
of fear, and, with the rst dawn of day, hastily quitted the
ilum emd spot"






THE SWALLOW.


THE SWALLOW. (sZ mdo v utica.)
Tau second order of birds, Iswmsores, or Perching Bid,
includes an immense number of genera and species. We
shall notice the more interesting, without troubling dur
readers with their numerous rbdivisions. We commence
with the Swallow, as one of the most common.
Swallows are easily distinguished from all other birds,
not only by their general structure, but by their twittering
note and mode of lying, or rather darting from place to
place.
They appear in the temperate regions in April, and bild-
ing in some out-houe, or in part of a human dwelling they
lay their eggs and hateh their young. Aboat Augt
they disappear, and do not return till the following spring.
Swallow kept in a age moult about Christmas, and selm
live till spring.
The are seral species of the Swallow: the g~ eal
characters, a small beak, but large wide mouth, for the per-
pose of swallowing lying insets, their natural food; ad
long forked tall &ad etensive wings, to enable them to
puarue their prey, belong to all of them. The eommo
house Swallow build under the waves of houses, or in
ohimneys, near their top: the Martin abo build ader
eare, and very commonly against the upper corner or id
of our very windows, and seem not afaid at the digk o
man, yet it cannot be tamed, or een kept long in a eage.






46 THE SWALLOW.
The nature of the Swallow's nest is worthy our serious
observation: how the mud is extracted from the sea-shores,
rivers, or other watery places; how masoned and formed
into a solid building, strong enough to support a whole
family, and to face the pelting storm," are wonders which
ought to raise our mind to Him who bestowed that instinct
upon them.
ILLUSTRATIVE ANEODOTE.
It is related that a pair of Swallows built their nest for
two succesive years on the handle of a pair of garden
shears, that were stuck up against the boards in an out-
house; and, therefore, must have had their nest spoiled
whenever the implement was wanted. And what is still
me strange, a bird of the same species built its nest on
the wing and body of an owl that happened to hang dead
and dry from the rafters of a barn, and so looe as to be
moved by every gut of wind. This owl, with the est on
its wings, add with eggs in the nest, was taken to the
muean of Sir Ashton Lever as a curiosity. That gentle
man, struck with the singularity of the sight, furnished the
person who brought it with a large shell, desiring him to'
ix it just where the owl had hung. The man did so; and
in the allowing year a pair of Swallows, probably the same,
blt their e in the l, and laid eggs.






THB BANK SWALLOW. 47

TM OItMNB SWALLW.
Tai Chimney Swallow is on the head, neak, bok, saa
.-mp, of a shining black colour, with purple glom mad
sometimes with a blue hade; the throat and neok e of
the ame colour; th. beat and belly e white, with a
duh of red. The tail is forked, aad oomsst o twelve
feather. The wings ar of'the ae colour with the bsk.
Swallows feed upon fie, worms, ad ieots; and gene-
rally hunt their prey on the wing.




THE BANK SWALLOW.
Toh appear (ys Mr..Wilson) to be the Bmot oeable
with its And, ad the leat intimate with man, d ad ow
swallow; living together in large communiti t Me-
tie three or four hundred. On the high sm y bank
a rier, qury, r gmel-pif st a foo ortwo fra ther s-
fae, they oamnly sarmth at holes for their asm, I
rnmnng thame n a b teosomml;direato to tes &th d of
adA sometimes thnee S. Snfl of the hdsam te
win a few iM lob d e oAir, mad efta~ in weO
strat sog the frt of theM* p mueics, om tes i
or wem Inb y t.Lh. e iys-iar thi 6s






45 THR BALTIMORB ORIOLD.
little ne, dry grass, with a few large, downy feathers, form
the bed on which their eggs, generally five in number, and
pure white, are deposited.
The young are hatched late in May; and here I have
taken notice of the common orow, in parties of four or
fie, watching at the entrance of these holes, to seise the
first straggling young that should make its appearance.
From the clouds of Swallo& s that usually play round these
breeding-places, they remind one at a distance of a swarm
of bees.
The Bank Swallow arrives here earlier than either of the
preceding; begins to build in April, and has commonly two
broods in the season. Their voice is a low mutter. They
are particularly fond of the shores of rivers, and, in several
places along the Ohio, they congregate in immense multi-
tudes.



BALTIMORE ORIOLE. (Ori Yo Balimore.)
TaU is a bird of passage, arriving in Pennsylvania, from
the south, about the beginning of May, and departing
towards the latter end of August, or beginning of Sepember.
Daring migration, the flight of the Baltimore is high above
all the trees, ad is straight sad continuous; it is motly
pImed during the day, as they are usually obsred
alitieg alwayJ singly, about ti setting of the son. ttr-






THI BALTIMOBE ORIOLL. 4
ing a note or two, and darting into the lown amb to
feed, and aftrwards to ret.
SFrom the singularity of its colours, the conanet ti of
its nest, and its prefrring the apple-trees, weeping willows,
walnut and tuliptree, joining the arm-houa, to buai
on, it is generally known, and, as usual, honoured wit a
variety ofames, suooh as Hang-nest Hanging-Bird, Gold.e
Robin, Fire-Bird (from the bright orange seen through the
green leave, resembling a flash of re), be., but moe
generally the Baltimore Bird, so named, a Catesby inform
us, from its colours, which are black and orange, being
those ofthe arms or livery of Lord Baltimore, formerly
proprietary of Maryland.
Their principal food consists of caterpillars, beeles, aad
bugs, particularly one of a brilliant glossy green, fragments
of which are almost always found in their stomae, aad
sometimes these only.
The Baltimore inhabits North America from Oands to
Mexico, and is even found a for mouth a BrasiL

ILLUSTRATIVE ANiODOT9S.
The is nothing more remarkable (ay. Mr. Nttall) in
the whole iinnct of our Golden Bobin, than the inm
displayed in the falrication of its nst, which is, in bht,
pendlous eylindrie pom of ve to asea ihes in h,
usually speed *a uear the eatnitiea of *e i,






50 THR BALTIMORB ORIOLI.
drooping branehes of trees (rch as the elm, the pear, or
appletree, wild cherry, weeping willow, tulip4ree, or but
tonwood). It is began by firmly fastening natural strings
of the flax of the silk weed, or swamp-hollyhook, or stout
artificial threads round two or more forked twigs, oorre-
ponding to the intended width and depth of the nest. With
the mme materials, willow down, or any accidental ravel-
lings, strings, thread, sewing-slk, tow, or wool, that may be
lying'near the neighboring houses, or round the graft of
trees, they interweave and fabricate a sort of oarse cloth
into the form intended; towards the bottom of which they
place the real nest, made chiefly of lint, wiry gra, hore
and oow hair, sometimes, in defeat of hair, lining the inte-
rior with a mixture of slender stripe of smooth vine bark,
md rarely with a few feathers, the whole being of a oona-
derable thickness and more or le attached to the external
pouch. Over the top, the leaves, a they grow out, form a
vrdant and agreeable canopy, defending the young from the
an and rain. There is sometimes a comiderable difienas
in the manufacture of thee nests, as well a in the materials
which enter into their composition. Both sea mm to be
equally adepts at this sort of labour, and I have llk
male alone perform the whole without any ansimis~le, W
he male also complete this laboriou task nearly with
the aid of his ounort; who, however, in general, i the
prieipl worker. I have obsrred a nmt made almost
wholly of tow, whi.was laid out tr the oveiame aot






TIH BALTIMOIN O1IOL1. U
male bird; who, with this id, completed his labor in a w
short time, and frequently sung in a very lodhimu mm,
while his mouth was loaded with a m n larger than hi
head. So eager ae they to obtain fibrous materials, th
they will readily tug at, and even untie hard knots made of
tow: In Audubon's magnificent plates, a net isrepreented
as formed outwardly of the long-moe; where this abounds,
of course, the labour of obtaining material must be greatly
abridged. The author likewise remarks, that the whole
fabric consists almost entirely of this material, loosely inter-
woven, without any warm lining, a labour which our uge.-
nious artist seem aware would be spertuous in the warm
forests of the lower Mimippi. A female, whieh Iobsmrd
attentively, carried of to her nmo a piece of lamp-wk *a
or twelve feet long. This long string, and may ethd
shorter ones, were left hanging out for about a wek bemn
both the ends were wattled into the side of the net. Sam
other little birds, making ue of similar matials, asthies
twitched these lowing ends, and generally brought out the
busy Baltimore hro her occpation in great angry.
The haste and sagereae of one of these airy arehiIe
which I seaidentally observed on the banks of the 8i qi
hanna, appeared likely to prove fatal to a busy female, who,
in wearing, got a loop round her neck, and no soaer w
she disengaged oem this mare, than it wea dippe ,d u
her feet, ad thus held her a Ibeyead the power d e I
The male am e freently t the sem, nw eWgdl dMa






62 THI ROBIN.
that of joy mad hope into despair, but seemd wholly i es
pbe od mprhending or relieving the distress of his mate.
In a second instnee, I have been told that a female has
be observed dead in the like predicament.




THE ROBIN. (Trdw u gratoriw.)
THs well-known bird, being fmilir to almost every-
body, wil require but a short deseripem. It nu
ime in oes d a half in length; the bil is sr an inoh
lg, mad of a full yellow, th sometimes blaok, or
desk Ur the tip o the upper mandible; the head, back
d the Lek, ad tdl, blek; the bhekam nmp, au sk
r; the wsin ae black, edged with liht ash; the
imW tip dt tmhe o eerior teiltaathe am whie ;.tree
Sspts of whit border the ye; the threat ad A ppr
past the best i blak, the frer stnked wih hits;
t whoe a do to heset the bmne dw asu fr a the
I o4 ek dak d oran e; bely d t et, whi, ightly
wand with daky ash; legs, dk brown; daws, blok nd
sn 1 Te eoloers of the femle ae more o the light
*, Asedur d wei blbaLk;a d the or a
is a pd mad mee biaty irtda g
-To amwdads bl sp shi a **,, IS


.**- *.-** '.** *'- *. ***.. 1.. fl ? .i"






THB 3011r. 5
a all the direct spehes d Atshe we hm; b#t
one we ae now deeribig, bein moe -mad, mel a
tinally roving about frm one regio to another, Aing
fll and winter, seem puiorly mom atitL the as iqp
tion. Beuoe a winter p us but innumerable th d dof
them are seen in the lower put of the whole A nmtie
state, from New Hamphiire to uaolina, padtilrly in
the neighbourhood of our towns; and, fom thi aram-
stance of their leaving, d*ing that son, the eontry to
the north-west of the grt range of the Alleglay, em
Maryland northward, it would appear that they mot
migrate om north to south, but fom west to wt, toMra
the deep snow that generally prevail on theM ilmom
for at leas four months in the year.
The Robin builds a large nsi, e m am iskee,
phea i in the iide with mud,nl ied it wl h a
hfe gnu. The fiale lays e egg, d a bea B
greeab. Their principal food i beries, w e d Maim
pillars. Of thehe ir he pf ns thsat fth e m a.
So ftod am they of guar-brne, that, wh Iw theam
i one of thee kseer are with aih, em si at
Robies i the sighborhood, the fsortaM amdl d .
take hi& stad ner i, Isad, t ai, d he ; m k
mooeadin ametMh, with little lanpi, t to
whole ay: by "hl methol,peedigelsi eb rhbub
-e me" twa a aops. mWb boom 4

S. .d .id d .
^ ^^ \ 5i'...a--Air^^ ..&i. .- ,&






64 TRH ROBIN.
ftoe, in Mseuh of worms and other inseete. Sometimes
they will disappear for a week or two, and return again in
great number than before; at which time the cities poor
out their sportsmen.by sores, and the markets are plenti-
fuly supplied with them at a cheap rate.

ILLUSTRATIVE ANEOOOTES.

In January, 1807, two young men, in one excursion, shot
thirty dosen Robins. In the midst of such devastation,
which continued many weeks, and, by accounts, extended
from Massahmehtt to Maryland, some humane person took
advantage of a circumstance common to these birds in
winter, to stop the general slaughter. The fruit called
poke-berrie s a favourite repast with the Robin, after
they ae mellowed by the frost. The juice of the berries
is of a beautiful erimo, and they re eaten in such quanti-
ties by these birds, that their whole stomachs are strongly
tiged with the ame red colour.
A paragraph appueed in the public news papers, inti-
ating, that, from the great quantities of these berries
which the Robins had fed on, they had become unwhole-
same, and even dangerous food; and that several person
ad aesa ed by eating of them. The strangC appearance of
the bowebl of the birds seemed to corroborate this aecoout.
The dm d for, and ue of them, eeaed almost imstntly;





THES NIO.TIeGALL O6
and motes of ldf.presaraio pro rced at oMe what a
the pleading of humanity could not eolet.
When ft, they aue in considerate eteem for the tbe,
and probably not inferior to the Turdi of the aiam ts,
which they bestowed so mneh pain on in feeding mad fA.
toning. The young birds ae frequently and easily rated,
ber the oninement of the cage, feed on bread, fruit,, o.,
sing well, readily learn to imitate parts of tunes, and ae
very pleasant and cheerful domestic. In these I have
always observed (mys Wilson) that the orange on the breast
is of a much deeper tint, often a dark mahogany or ohestat
colour owing, no doubt, to their food and connemet.




THE NIGHTINGALE. (Sylia hwuabe.)
ALL the birds we have hitherto described re Ameriea
We now come toa bird of the Old World, celebrated by th
poet of all ages. It is thus described by an glih
writer:-
The Nightingale ha little to boat, if we consider its
plumge, which is of a pale tawny olour on the head and
back, dahed with a little shade of olive; the breast a
upper pert t m belly incline to a grayish tit, d the
lower part of the belly is almost white; the eterior web






00 THE NIGHTINGALE.
of the quill-feathers i of a reddish brown; the tail of
dull red; the legs and feet ash-coloured; the irides hasal;
and the eyes large, bright, and staring. It is hardly po
sible to give an idea of the extraordinary power which this
small bird possesses in its throat, as to extension of sound,
sweetness of tone, and versatility of notes. Its song is
composed of several musical passage, each of which does
not continue more than the third part of a minute; but
they are so varied, the passing from one tone to another is
so fanciful and so rapid, and the melody so sweet and so
mellow, that the most consummate musician is pleasingly
led to a deep sense of admiration at hearing it. Sometimes
joyful and merry, it runs down the diapason with the
velocity of lightning, touching the treble and the bass nearly
at the amne instant; at other times, mournful and plaintive,
the unfortunate Pilomela draws heavily her lengthened
notes, and breathes a delightful melancholy around. These
have the appearance of sorrowful sighs; the other modulsa
tes resemble the laughter of the happy. Solitary on the
trig of a smll tree, and cautiously at a certain distance
bee the nest, where the pledges of his love a treasured
under the fostering breast of his mate, the male fill on-
stntly the silent woods with his harmonious trains; and
during the whole night entertains and repays his female for
the irkome duties of incubation. For the Nightingale not
oely aiag at intervals during the day, but he waits till the
blacbird Mnd the thrsmh hre uttrd their evening all,





THE NIOHTINALIL
even till the stock and -rin doves hae, by their soAt a
mnringM, lulled ash other to res, and then he pomrs r
his fall tide of melody.
U-tenin Philomels ddelps
To let them joy, and purpoe,'in thought
Elte, to make her night excel their day.
ThOXsoN.
It is a great ubjeot of astonishment that so small a bird
should be endowed with seh potent lung. If the evening
is alm, it is supposed that its song may be heard above
half a mile. This bird, the ornament and charm of the
spring and early summer evenings, as it arrives in April,
and continues singing till June, disappears on a sudde
about September or October, when it leaves England to ps
the winter in the North of Afria ad Syria. Its vis to
England are limited to certain counties, mostly in the
south and easm; as, though it is plentiful in the neighborhood
of London, and along the soath coast ia SBes, Ha&ipd&hn
sad Dorsetshire: it is not fonad in either Orwall r
Wale. A soo a the young an hated, the soq d
male bird ceases, and he only utters a harsh oak, by wy
of giving alarm when any one approaches the nest. Night.
igals ae sometimes rared up, and doomed to the pria
of a cese; in this tte they sin ten months in the yer,
though in their wild ife they sing only as mny wee
aLgley say that a caed Nightingale spe mueh
weet than these whih we hear shead in tdo il.e
4






568 THU RD-WINGUD BLACKBIRD.


THER RD-WINGRD BLACKBIRD, O TROOPIAL.
(stursM predatoris.)
Tahs bird is common in al part of North America. He
is nine inches in length and fourteen in extent The gene-
ral colour i glosy black, with a very splendid earlet
marking, like a broad epaulette, on hi shoulders Hi
habits wil be learned from the following

ILLUSTRATIVE ANIODOTrS.
Mr. Wilso calls this bird the B ingd Starling, anad
gi us fa bom hi own observaio te Mollowing eri
pmirsm sed hs winter habit :-
The Beadigad starian, though gailAy migratory
in the sr Mnerth of MyalM, are fcud dubg winter in
b G mshi, r mmi a aM ilie with te prple g a
* r MM, *h ba ft by themlvs, song the whol lower paet.
Y~ Ti &o th ot Georgia, d IAL k per-
S*mb Mer the eiaoa1 sad in the ioiiay of large rise
sad emdeMs.
In the moth of Janary ad Febrary, while peing
ie Ah eaI f ,er of these oetris, I w eas Im y
turti writah the aerial modlties d theme gr bedi
f ONliLg. .. thsafcap s .a draing aW" be lB
a m- uMa deed o h bdr Oe theO ba wi, w~igt
%b 6 d wry Sm" t; ase*mi ,di rly 6 *em





,23 3D9-WINReOD ULAOCIIBI 0-
the field around as with a moim like thunder; while the
glittering of innumerable wings of the brightets vrWllr
amid the black dloud they formed, produced on these owese
sions a very trying and splendid effot. Then, descending
like a torren, and covering the branuhee of some detemhed
grove,orclumpof trees, the whole congregated multitude oom-
menoed one general concert or choru, that I have plainly di-
tinguished at the distnoe of more than two mile, and, when
listened to at the int*rediate spate of about a quarter of a
mile, with a slight breeze of wind to swell and soften the
flow of its cadenoe, was to me grand, and even sublime.
The whole season of winter, that, with most bird, is
passed in struggling to sustain life in silent melancholy, i,
with the Red-wings, one continued carnival. The prodme
gleanings of the old rice, corn, and buckwheatsdldm, pply
them with abundant food, at once ready and nukitio; sad
the intermediate time is spent either in aerial manePur s,
or in grand voal performances, as if sliitous to m ly
the absence of all the tuneful summer tribes and to eer
the dejected face of nature with their whole combine
powers of harmony.
From the same excellent authority we gather the fiorw-
ing particulars of the Troopia's ravages in the oearn-Se -
Before te beginning of September, the iooks here beme
numerous end formidble; and the yenog an of malb ,
or India ear, beiAg then a tir aot, semumnS, miah,
state, present a tempatio that enst he eueiL. Iab.






60 THB RB D-WIHNG D BLACKBIRD.
forced by numerous and daily oocks from all parts of the
interior, they pour down on the low countries in prodigious
multitudes. Here they are seen, like vast clouds, wheelia
and driving over the meadows and devoted corn-fields,
darkening the air with their numbers. Then commences
the work of destruction on the corn, the husks of which,
though composed of numerous envelopments of cloeely-
wrapped leaves, are soon completely or partially torn off;
while from all quarters myriads continue to pour down like
a tempest, blackening half an acre at a time; and, if not
disturbed, repeat their depredations, till little remains but
the cob and the shrivelled skins of the grain; what little is
left of the tender ear, being exposed to the rains and weather,
is generally much injured.
All the attacks and havoc made at this time among them
with the gun, and by the hawks,-several species of which
are their constant attendants,-has little effect on the
remainder. When the hawks make a sweep among them,
they suddenly open on all sides, but rarely in time to dis-
appoint them of their victim; and, though repeatedly hired
atwith mortal effect, they only remove from one field to
an adjoining one, or to another quarter of the same enclosure.
From dawn to nearly sunset, this open and daring devasta
tion is carried on, under the eye of the proprietor; and a
farmer, who has any considerable extent of corn, would
ami 4e halfedonea men at least, with S, to guad it;
ad even thee, all their igilance ad r wold not






THE BDD-WINGB D BLACKBIRD. 61
prevent a good tithe of it from becoming the prey of &he
Blacbirds. The Indians, who usually plant their corn in
one general field, keep the whole young boys of the village
all day patrolling round and among it; and each being fur-
nished with bow and arrows, with which they are very
expert, they generally contrive to destroy great numbers of
them.
It must, however, be observed, that this scene of pillage
is principally carried on in the low countries, not far from
the sea-coast, or near the extensive fats that border our
large rivers; and is also chiefly confined to the months
of August and September. After this period, the corn
having acquired its hard, shelly coat, and the seeds of the
reeds or wild oats, with a profusion of other plants, that
abound along the river shores, being now ripe, and in great
abundance, they present a new and more extensive field for
these marauding multitudes. The reeds also supply them
with convenient roosting places, being often in ahnost
unapproachable morasses; and thither they repair every
evening, from all quarters of the country.
In some places, however, when the reeds become dry,
advantage is taken of this circumstance, to destroy these
birds, by a party secretly approaching the place, under
cover of a dark night, setting fire to the reeds in several
places at once, which being soon enveloped in one general
lame, the uproar smag the Blackbirds beooms universal;
ad, by the light of the conaation, they re sho down






62 THE SKYLARK.
in vast numbers, while hovering and screaming over the
place. Sometimes straw is used for the same purpose,
being previously strewed near the reeds and alder bushes,
where they are known to roost, which being instantly set
on ire, the consternation and havoc are prodigious; and the
party return by day to pick up the slaughtered game.
About the first of November, they begin to move off towards
the south; though, near the sea-coast, in the states of New
Jersey and Delaware they continue long after that period.



THE SKYLARK. (Alada arenusi.)
OwI of the most celebrated of all the English birds is the
Skylark. His msio being associated with the rural em-
ployments and pleasures of that enlightened and refined
nation, has ocasioned his being described in rapturous
terms by their poets and novelists.
The Skylark is generally distinguished from most other
birds, by the long spur on his back toe, the earthy colour
of his feathers, and by singing as he mounts up in the air.
The common Skylark is not much bigger than the house-
sparrow. These birds generally make their nest in meadows
ameog the high gras, and the tint of their plumage resembles
so muh that of the ground, that the body d the bird is
hardly ditingumhable as it hop along. '





Pages
63-66
Missing
From
Original






THI MOCKING BIRD. OT
re hardy birds, easily kept, ig six or eight months i the
year, and are most lively in wet weather. They a
generally known by the names, ed-Bird, Virginia Bed-
Bird, Virginia Nightingale, and Creeted Red-Bird, to distin-
guish them from another beautiful species, the Seariet
Tanager.
I do not know that any suonesful attempts have been
made to induce these birds to pair and breed in oonnement;
Sbut I have no doubt of its practicability, by proper meage.
ment. Some months ago, I placed a young, dged
cow-bird, whose mother, like the cuckoo of Europe, aban-
dons her eggs and progeny to the meroy and managnent
of other smaller birds, in the same cage with a Bed-Bid,
which fed and reared it with great tenderness. They both
continue to inhabit the same eage, and I have hopes tat
the Bed-Bird will finish his pupil's eduetion by teurmi
him his song.



THE MOCKING BIRD. (JdMu bppeios.)
THIs splendid songster is not remarkable for the beaty
of his plumage. His general colour is ashy, mwhitbi hs
tips of the wing-oerto sad lateral taili
pme formu Alder and graole; ihgti aim s
a t extent thirUte imoes. He i hsad isir 1






0t THE MOORING BIRD.
of America, from the Middle States to Brasil. His food
consists of insects, berries, and worms.
ILLUSTRATIVE ANECDOTES.
Mr. Wilson, an enthusiastic admirer of the Mocking Bird,
thus describes his song:-
The Mocking Bird loses little of the power and energy
of his song by confinement. In his domesticated state,
when he commences his career of song, it is impossible to
stand by uninterested. He whistles for the dog,-Cmesar
starts up, wags his tail, and runs to meet his master. He
squeaks out like a hurt chicken,-and the hen hurries
about with hanging wings, and bristled feathers, clucking
to protect its injured brood. The barking of the dog, the
mewing of the eat, the creaking of a passing wheelbarrow,
fellow with great truth and rapidity. He repeats the tune
taught him by his master, though of considerable bhgth,
fully and faithfully. He runs over the quivering st the
canary, and the clear whistling of the Virginia nim tin-
gale, or red-bird, with such superior execution and effect,
that the mortified songsters feel their own inferiority, and
become altogether silent; while he seems to triumph in their
defeat by redoubling his exertions.
fere it not to seem invidious in the eyes of foreigners, I
might, in this place, make a comparative statement between
the powers of the Mocking Bird, and the only bird, I believe,
in the word, worthy of being compared with himn-the






THE MOOKIE O BIAD. U9
European nightingale. This, however, I am anabl to do
from my own observation, having never myself heard the
song of the latter; and, even if I bad, perhaps something
might be laid to the score of partiality, which, as a fithful
biographer, I am anxious to avoid. I shall, therefore,
present the reader with the opinion of a distinguished English
naturalist and curious observer, on this subject, the Honour-
able Daines Barrington, who, at the time he made the eom-
munication, was vice-president of the Boyal Society, to which
it was addressed.
It may not be improper here," says this gentleman, to
consider whether the nightingale may not have a very
formidable competitor in the American Mocking Bird,
though almost all travellers agree, that the concert in the
European woods is superior to that of the other parts of the
globe." "I have happened, however, to hea the American
Mocking Bird, in great perfection, at Mers. Vogels aad
Sootts, in Love Lane, Eastoheap. This bid is believed to
be still living, and hath been in England the six years.
During the space of a minute, he imitated the woodlrk
haffinch, blackbird, thrush, and sparrow. I was told also
that he would bark like a dog; so that the bird sees to
have no choice in his imitation, though his pipe eomr
nearest to our nightingale of say bird I have yet met with.
"With regard to the original noes, shower, of this bid,
we are still at a loss, as this ea oly.be am by ths
who ar asouately aequ ited wA the m of the her






70 THE 0aow.
American birds. Kalm indeed informs us, that the natural
song is excellent; but this traveller seems not to have
been long enough in America to have distinguished what
were the genuine notes: with us, mimics do not often su-
oeed but in imitations. I have little doubt, however, but
that this bird would be fully equal to the song of the
nightingale in its whole compass; but then, from the atten-
tion which the Mocker pays to any other sort of disagreeable
noise, these capital notes would be always debased by a bad
mixture."



THE CROW. (Corvu morone.)
Ms. WLUsON considers our American Crow identical
with the European species. It is eighteen inches and a
half lng, and three feet two inches in extent; the colour
shining glomy blueblack; bill and legs black. In other
particulars it agrees with the European Crow.
He is the most generally known and least beloved of all
our land birds; having (as Mr. Wilson observes) neither
melody of song, nor beauty of plumage, nor excellence of
slea, nor civility of manners to recommend him; on the
etratry, he is branded as a thief and a pluderer-a kind
of blaoek. ed vagabond, who hovers over the fields of the
idurktrius, fatming on their labours, and, by his vra j,






TIE GOOW. n7

often blasting their expectation. Hatad as he is by the
farmer, watched and persecuted by almost every bek of a
gun, who all triumph in his destruction, had not Heaven
bestowed on him intelligence and agacity far beyond com-
mon, there is reason to believe that the whole tribe (in
these parts at least) would long ago have eased to exit.
It is in the month of May, and until the middle of June,
that the Crow is most destructive to the corn-eld, digging
up the newly planted grains o maise, pulling up by the
roots those that have begun to vegetate, and thus frequently
obliging the farmer to replant, or lose the benefit of the
soil; and this sometimes twice, and even three times, occa-
sioning a considerable additional expense, and inequality
of harvest. No mercy is now shown him. The myriads of
worms, moles, mice, caterpillars, grabe, and beetles, which
he has destroyed, are altogether overlooked on these oea-
sions. Detected in robbing the hens' nests, pulling up the
orn, and killing the young chickens, he is considered as
an outlaw, and sentenced to destruction. But the great
diiculty is, how to put this sentence in execution. In
vain the gnner skulks along the hedges and fences; his
faithful sentinels, planted on some commanding point, ai
the alarm, and disappoint vengeance of its object The
coast again clear, he return once more in silence, to fnish
the repast he had begun. Sometimes he approsms the
fh-house by stealth, in sesreh of young ehis which
he is in the habit of Maathing off, when he an elde the






7T THE CROW.
vigilance of the mother hen, who often proves too formida-
ble for him.

ILLUSTRATIVE ANEODOTES.
A few days ago (says Mr. Wilson), a Crow was observed
eagerly attempting to seize some young chickens in an
orchard, near the room where I write; but these clustering
close round the hen, she resolutely defended them, drove
the Crow into an apple-tree, whither she instantly pursued
him with such spirit and intrepidity, that he was glad to
make a speedy retreat, and abandon his design.
The Crow himself sometimes falls a prey to the superior
strength and rapacity of the great owl, whose weapons of
ofenoe are by far the more formidable of the two.
"A few years ago," says a correspondent of Mr. Wilson,
"I resided on the banks of the Hudson, about seven miles
frm the city of New York. Not far from the place of my
residence was a pretty thiek wood or swamp, in which great
numbers of Crows, who used to atoes the river from the
opposite shore, were accustomed to roost. Returning home-
ward one afternoon, from a shooting exoersion, I had occa-
sio to pas through this swamp. It was near sunset, and
troops of Crows were lying in all directions over my head.
While engaged in observing their light, and endeavouring
to select from among them an object to shoot at, my ears
were suddenly failed by the distress eaie a a Crow,
who wm evidently struggling auder the talos of a meri-






THE CROW. 78
less and rapacious enemy. I hastened to the spot whence
the sonds-proceeded, and, to my great surprise, found a
Crow lying on the ground, just expiring, and, seated upon
the body of the yet warm and bleeding quarry, a lare
brown owl, who was beginning to make a meal of the unfor-
tunate robber of corn-fields. Perceiving my approach, he
forsook his prey with evident reluctance, and flew into a
tree at a little distance, where he sat watching all my
moveAnts, alternately regarding, with longing eyes, the
victim he had been forced to leave, and darting at me no
very friendly looks, that seemed to reproach me forhaving
deprived him of his expected regale.
"I confess that the scene before me was altogether novel
and surprising. I am but little conversant with natural
history; but I had always understood, that the depredations
of the owl were confined to the smaller birds, and animals
of the lesser ind, sub as mice, young rabbits, Ac., and
that he obtained his prey rather by fraud and stratagem,
than by open rapacity and violence., I was the more con-
firmed in this belief, from the recollection of a page in
Macbeth, which now forcibly recurred to my memory. The
courtiers of King Dunean are recounting to each other the
various prodigies that preceded his death, and one of them
relates to his wondering auditors, that
An eagle, towering in his pride of plaoe,
Was by a mei owl hawked at sad kiled.






THE WHI P-P00 -WILL.


But to resume my relation: That the owl was the mur-
derer of the unfortunate Crow, there could be no doubt.
No other bird of prey was in sight; I had not fired my gun
since I entered the wood; nor heard any one else shoot:
besides, the unequivocal situation in which I found the
parties, would have been sufficient, before any 'twelve good
men and true,' or a jury of Crows, to have convicted him
of his guilt. It is proper to add, that I avenged the death
of the hapless Crow, by a well-aimed shot at the feaious
robber, that extended him breathless on the ground."




THE WHIP-POOR-WILL. ( Cprimulgw vocifernu.)

Tms celebrated bird is common in various parts of the
United States. Its name is derived from its notes, which
seem pretty plainly to articulate the words wipor.m ,
the first and last syllable being uttered with great emphasis,
and the whole in about a second to each repetition. It has
been sometimes confounded with the two other species of
the genus, the church-will's-widow and the night-hawk.
Mr. Wilson, however, has settled the question, by examin-
ing and accurately deearibing the different species. The
Whip-poor-will is nine inches long and nineteen in extent;
the bill is blackish, a quarter of an inch long, much strongr






THE WHIP-POOR-WILL. 70
than that of the night-hawk, and bent at the point. The
mouth is very large, and beset on the ides with long
elastic bristles, which serve u feeler and prevent the
escape of the winged insects on which it feeds. Our
engraving shows its figure in flight, and its curious markings.
The Whip-poor-will is never seen during the day, unless
in circumstances such as have been described. Their food
appears to be large moths, grasshoppers, pismires, and suoh
inseoae frequent the bark of old rotten and decaying tim-
ber. They are also expert in darting after winged insects.
They will sometimes skim in the dust, within a few feet of
a person, uttering a kind of low chatter as they pas. In
their migrations north, and on their return, they probe*y
stop a day or two at some of their former stages, and i
not advance in one continued light.

ILLUSTRATIVE ANEODOTE.

The following little incident, narrated by Mr. Wilson,
illustrates at once a trait in the character of the bird, and
,the gentle and humane disposition of the naturalist:-
In traversing the woods one day in the early pat of
June, along the brow of a rocky declivity, a Whip-poo-
will roe from my feet, and fluttered along, sometimes
prostrating herself, and beating the ground with her wing,
as if just expiring. Aware of her purpose, I stood still,
ad began to examine the space immediately around me for






THE CUCKOO.


the eggs or young, one or other of which I was certain
must be near. After a long search, to my mortification, I
could find neither; and was just going to abandon the spot,
when I perceived somewhat like a slight mouldiness among
the withered leaves, and, on stooping down, discovered it
to be a young Whip-poor-will, seemingly asleep, as its eye-
lids were nearly closed; or perhaps this might only be to
protect its tender eyes from the glare of day. I sat down
by it on the leaves, and drew it as it then appeared. It
was probably not a week old. All the while I was thus
engaged, it neither moved its body, nor opened its eyes
more than half; and I left it as I found it. After I had
walked about a quarter of a mile from the spot, recollecting
that I had left a pencil behind, I returned and found my
pencil, but the young bird was gone.




THE CUCKOO. (OCculu canonu.)
TaI third order of birds, &anwores, or Climbers, includes
some species which are very interesting. Of these we will
first notice the English Cuckoo. She is twelve inches in
length from the tip of the bill to the end of the tail; yel.
low breast, with transverse lines; head, wings, and body
marked with black and tawny stripes, legs short and covered






THE CUCKOO. 7I
with feathers. The curious pat of this bird's history i
the fact that the female does not build a nest, but lay her
eggs in that of another bird, generally the sparrow.
The American Cuckoo, or Cow-bird, i quite different
in its habit from the European Cuckoo, a it builds a nest
for its eggs, and hatches its young itself, like other birds.
On the 18th June, 1787, Dr. Jenner examined a nest of
a hedge-sparrow, which then contained a Cuckoo's and three
hedge-eprrow's eggs. On inspecting it the day following,
the bird had hatched; but the nest then contained only a
young Cuckoo and one young hedge-sparrow. The nest
was placed so near the extremity of a hedge, that he could
distinctly see what was going forward in it; and, to his
great astonishment, he saw the young Cuckoo, though so
lately hatched, in the act of turning out the young hedge-
sparrow.
The mode of accomplishing this was curious: the little
animal, with the assistance of its rump and wings, contrived
to get the bird upon its back, and making a lodgment for
its burden by elevating its elbows, limbed backward with
it up the side of the nest, till it reached the top; where,
resting for a moment, it threw of its load with a jerk, and
quite disengaged it from the nest. After remaining a short
time in this situation, and feeling about with the extremists
of its wings, as if to be convinced that the business was pro-
perly executed, it dropped into the nest again.
Dr. Jener made several experiments in different nests,






78 THE KING ISHER.
by repeatedly putting in an egg to the young Cuckoo;
which he always found to be disposed of in a similar
manner.



THE KINGFISHER. (Aleedo ipida.)
Tars bird is nearly as small as a common sparrow, but
the head and beak appear proportionally too big for the
body. The bright blue of the back and wings claims our
admiration, as it changes into deep purple or lively green,
according to the angles of light under which the bird pre-
sents itself to the eye. It is generally seen on the banks
of rivers, for the purpose of seizing small fish, on which it
subsists, and which it takes in amazing quantities, by
balancing itself at a distance above the water for a certain
time, and then darting on the fish with unerring aim. It
dives perpendicularly into the water, where it continues
- several seconds, and then brings up the fish, which it car-
ries to the land, beats to death, and afterwards swallows.
When the bird cannot find a projecting bough, it sits on
some stone near the brink, or even on the gravel; but the
moment it perceives the fish, it takes a spring upwards of
twelve or fifteen feet, and drops from that height upon its
prey.






THE TOUCAN.


THE GREEN WOODPECKER, (Piw viridis,)
RBamvu his name from the facility with which he
peeks the insect from the chinks of trees and holes in the
bark. The bill is straight, strong, and angular at the end;
and in most of the species is formed like a wedge, for the
purpose of piercing the trees. The nostrils are covered
with bristles. The tongue is very long, slender, cylindrical,
bony, hard, and jagged at the end. The toes are placed
two forward and two backward; and the tail consists of ten
hard, stiff, and shap-pointed feathers. A Woodpecker is
often seen hanging by his claws, and resting upon his
breast against the stem of a tree; when, after drting, with
great strength and noise, his beak against the bark, he runs
round the tree with great alacrity, which maneuvre has
made the country people suppose that he goes round to me
whether he has not pierced the tree through its trunk;
though the fact is, the bird is in search of the insets, which
he hopes to have driven out by his blow.




THE TOUCAN, (RBawplru s wmes,)
Is a native bf South America, very conspicuous fo the
magnitude and shape of his bill. It is about the ie of





80 TH COAROLINA PARROT.
the magie, but the beak alone is nearly as big u the rest
of the body; the head is large and strong, and the neck
shut, in he more easily to support the bulk of sech
a bekh. rW d, neck, and wing are black; the breast
shis with a most lovely sffron colour, with a certain red-
am ear the beginning; the lower part of the body and
te thighs are of a most beautiful vermilion; the tail is
bleak, but of a bright red at the end.
One of these birds that was kept in a cage was very fond
od ait, which it held for some time in its beak, touching
it with great delight with the tip of its feathery tongue, and
thm toeing them into its throat by a sudden upright jerk;
it also fed on birds and other small anihln.




SCA-o LINA PARROT. (IWtaew vo Qw Maes.)
Or ome hadred and sixtyight kinds o^Parrots (says
Wison) enumerated by writers as inhabiting the various
nri of the globe, this is the only species found native
within the territory of the United States. Our engraving
shows that this bird has a fr more elegant form than the
i mrtd parrots which we ee in ages. It is thirteen
minss 'ag and twenty-oe in extat; its forehead and
dbs ao Mrange red; bqyond this, for an inh ad a half






TH OAR'OLINA PARROT. 81
down and round the nek, a rik and pm yellow; shoulder
and bend of the wing, also edged with rich orange red. The
general oolour of the rest of the plmage is a bright ye-
lowish, silky green, with light blue reotions; fet a pale
fesh-oolour; bill white, inclining to creamoolour It is
found in the Southern and Western States.
ILLUSTRATIVE ANEODOTOS.
Mr. Wilson gives the following very lively account of the
captive state of one of these birds:-
Anxious to try the effects of education on one of those
which I had procured at Big Bone Lick, and whioh was
but slightly wounded in the wing, I fixed up a place for it
in the stern of my boat, and presented it with some cookle
bunr, which it freely fed on in lem than an hour after being
on board. The intermediate time between eating amd
sleeping was occupied in gnawing the sticks that formed is
place of confinement, in order to make a practicable breah;
which it repeatedly effected. When I abandoned the river,
and travelled by land, I wrapped it up loosely in milk
handkerchief, tying it tightly around, and arrid it is my
pocket. |
When I stopped for refrehment, I unbound aP ,
and gave it its allowance, which t generally deomaed
with great dexterity, U uksing the seds firo the hr in
a twinkling; in doing whic, i always emp- lo hI lb
foot to hold the bur, as dMd srealothesth I hbotfer





82 THE CAROLINA PARROT.
some time. I began to think that this might be peculiar
to the whole tribe, and that the whole were, if I may use
the expremion, left-footed; but, by shooting a number
afterward while engaged in eating mulberries, I found
sometimes the left, sometimes the right, foot stained with
the fruit, the other always clean; from which, and the con-
stant practice of those I kept, it appears, that, like the
human species in the use of their hands, they do not prefer
one or the other indiscriminately, but are either left or
right-footed.
But to return to my prisoner: In recommitting it to
durancee vile," we generally had a quarrel; during which
it frequently paid me in kind for the wound I had inflicted,
and for depriving it of liberty, by cutting and almost dis-
abling several of my fingers with its sharp and powerful
bill. The path through the wilderness between Nashville
and Natches is in some places bad beyond description.
There are dangerous creeks to swim, miles of morass to
struggle through, rendered almost as gloomy as night by a
prodigious growth of timber, and an underwood of means
and other evergreens; while the descent into these sluggish
streams is often ten or fifteen feet perpendicular, into a led
of deep olay. In some of the worst of these places, where
I had, as it were, to eight my way thlgh, the Pysqet
frequently escaped from my pocket, 4oRing me to di-
mount and pursue it through the worst of the moras before
I could regain it. On these occasions, I was several tes






THU CAROLINA PARROT. 88
tempted to abandon it; but I persisted in bringing it
along.
When at night I encamped in the woods, I placed it on
the baggage beside me, where it usually sat with great com-
posure, dosing and gaing at the fire till morning. In this
manner I carried it upwards of a thousand miles, in my
pocket, where it was exposed all day to the jolting of the
horse, but regularly liberated at meal-times and in the
evening, at which it always expressed great satisfaction.
In passing through the Chickasaw and Choctaw nations,
the Indians, wherever I stopped to feed, collected around
me, men, women, and children, laughing, and seeming
wonderfully amused with the novelty of my companion.
The Chickasaws called it in their language "Keinky;"
but when they heard me call it Poll, they soon repeated
the name; and wherever I chanced to stop among these
people, we soon became familiar with each other through
the medium of Poll.
On arriving at Mr. Dunbar's, below Natehes, I procured
a cage, and placed it under the.pissa, where, by its all, it
soon attracted the paying Rloks; such is the attbahment
they have for esah other. Numerous parties frequently
alighted on the trees immediately above, keeping up a oen-
stant conversation with the prisoner. One of these I
wounded slightly in the wing, and the pleasure Poll
expressed on meeting with this new companion was ely
amusing. She crept close up to it as it hung on the sMd






84 THE CAROLINA PARROT.
of the cage; chattered to it in a low tone of voice, as if
sympathizing in its misfortune; scratched about its head
and neck with her bill; and both at night nestled as close
as possible to each other, sometimes Poll's head being
thrust among the plumage of the other. On the death of
this companion, she appeared restless and inconsolable for
several days.
On reaching New Orleans, I placed a looking-glass beside
the place where she usually sat, and the instant she per-
ceived her image, all her former fondness seemed to return,
so that she could scarcely absent herself from it a moment.
It was evident that she was completely deceived. Always
when evening drew on, and often during the day, she laid
her head close to that of the image in the glass, and began
to dose with great composure and satisfaction. In this
short space she had learned to know her name; to answer,
and come when called on; to climb up my clothes, sit on
my shoulder, and eat from my mouth. I took her with me
to se, determined to persevere in her education; but,
destined to another fate, poor Poll, having one morning,
about day-break, wrought her way through the cage, while
I was asleep, instantly flew overboard and perished in the
Gulf of Mexico.





T'HE PEACOCK.


THE PEACOCK. (Paw criatwu.)
THE Gallinaceous birds (Raworea) form the fourth order,
which includes many of the domestic fowls, and others use-
ful to man. The Peacock is the most celebrated of the
order, the beauty of its plumage having rendered it a
favourite in all ages of the world; indeed, there is scareely
anything in nature that can vie with the transcendent lustre
of the Peacock's feathers. The changing glory of his neck
eclipses the deep azure of ultramarine; and at the least
evolution, it assumes the green tint of the emerald, and the
purple hue of the amethyst. His head, which is small and
finely shaped, has several curious stripes of'white and black
round the eyes, and is surmounted by an elegant plume, or
tuft of feathers, each of which is composed of a slender
stem and a small tuft at the top. Displayed with oonscius
pride, and exposed under a variety of angles to the rolesf
tions of versatile light, the broad and variegated disks of
his tail, of which the neck, head, and breast of the bird
become the centre, claims our well merited admiration. By
an extraordinary mixture of the brightest colours, it displays
at once the richness of gold, and the paler tints of silver,
fringed with bronse-ooloured edges, and surrounding eye-
like spots of dark brown and sapphire. The female does'
not share in the beauty of the cook, and her feathers are
generally of a light brown. She lays only a few eg at a
time, and these at a distance of usually three or four days





M0 THE TURKEY.
from each other; they are white and spotted, like the eggs
of the turkey. She sits from twenty-seven to thirty
days.
The loud screaming of the Peacock are worse than the
harsh croaking of the raven, and a sure prognostic of bad
weather; and his feet, more clumsy than those of the turkey,
make a sad contrast with the elegance of the rest.



THE TURKEY, (Meleagris Gallo-Pavo,)
WAs originally an inhabitant of America, whence he was
brought to Europe by some Jesuit missionaries, which ac-
counts for his being called a Jesuit in some parts of continental
Europe. Except the tuft on the head, which he does not
share with the peacock, and his plumage, which is very
different from that of the latter, he is like him in many par-
tieulars. The general colour of the feathers is brown and
black; and turkeys have about the head, especially the cook,
naked and tuberous lumps of flesh of a bright red colour. A
long fleshy appendage hangs from the base of the upper
mandible, and seems to be lengthened and shortened at
pleasure. The hen lays from fifteen to twenty eggs, which
ae whitish and freckled. The chickens are very tender,
and require grat ca and attentive nursing, before they
a able to seek their food.






THE PINTADO. ST
The wild Turkey-cok is, in our Ameriean forests, an
object of considerable interest. It perches on the tops of the
deciduous cypress and magnolias.

ILLUSTRATIVE ANECDOTE.
A gentleman of New York received from a distant part a
Turkey-cock and hen, and with them a pair of bantams;
which were put all together into the yard with his other
poultry. Some time afterward, as he was feeding them
from the barn-door, a large hawk suddenly turned the corner
of the barn, and made a pounce at the bantam hen; she
immediately gave the alarm, by a noise which is natural to
her on such occasions; when the Turkey-cock, who was at
the distance of about two yards, and without doubt under-
stood the hawk's intention, flew at the tyrant with such
violence, and gave him so severe a stroke with his spurs,
as to knock him from the hen to a considerable distance; by
which means the bantam was rescued from destruction.




THE PINTADO, or GUINEA HEN.
(N.mida Mdeagris.)
THE Pintado is somewhat larger than the common hen;
the head is bare of feathers, and covered with a asked






Oa THE PINTADO.
skin of a bluish colour; on the top is a callous protuberance
of a conical form. At the base of the bill on each aide
hangs a loose wattle, red in the female and bluish in the
male. The general colour of the plumage is a dark bluish
gray, sprinkled with round white spots of different sizes,
resembling pearls, from which circumstance the epithet of
pearled has been applied to this bird; which, at first sight,
appears as if it had been pelted by a strong shower of hail.
These spots, which we find of a larger dimension upon some
of the feathers of the pheasant, and bigger still on the tail
of the peacock, are convincing proofs of a near relationship
between these fowls.

ILLUSTRATIVE ANECDOTE.
M. Brue informs us, that when he was on the coast of
Senegal, he received, as a present from an African princess,
two Guinea fowls. Both these birds were so familiar that
they would approach the table and eat out of his plate;
and, when they had liberty to ly about upon the beach,
they always returned to the ship when the dinner or supper
bell rang.
In a wild state it is asserted that the Pintado associates
in ntmerous locks. Dampier speaks of having seen betwixt
two and three hundred of them together in the Cape de
Verd Islands.






THE TAME PIGEON.


THE TAME PIGEON. (Columba livia.)
PASSING over the common barn fowl and the partridge,
pheasant, quail, and grouse, we come to the common tame
Pigeon, as a specimen of the genus Columba, of which there
are many species. The tame Pigeon is well known se to
the shape, but the colour varies so much, that it eludes the
rules of classification. They prefer a gregarious life, and
abide often, to the number of five or six thousand, in a cot
purposely built for them in the neighbourhood of a farm-
yard, with proper holes to nestle in. The female Pigeon,
through the whole species, lays two eggs at a time, which
produce generally a male and a female. It is pleasing to
see how eager the male is to sit upon the eggs, in order
that his mate may rest and feed herself. The young ones,
when hatched, require no food for the first three days,
warmth is their only nourishment; they are then fed from
the crop of the mother; who has the power of forcing up the
halfdigested peas which she has swallowed to give them to
her young. The young ones, open-mouthed, receive this
tribute of affetion, and are thus fed three times a day.

ILLUSTRATIVE ANsODOTr.
There are upwards of twenty varieties of the domestic
Pigeon, and of these the barriers are the moat celebrated.
They obtain their ame from being sometime employed to
6






90 THE OSTRICH.
convey letters or small packets from one place to another.
The rapidity of their flight is very wonderful. Leithgow
assures us that one of them will carry a letter from Babylon
to Aleppo (which, to a man, is usually thirty days' journey)
in f6rty-eight hours. To measure their speed with some
degree of exactness, a gentleman many years ago, on a
trailing wager, sent a Carrier Pigeon from London, by the
coach, to a friend at Bury St. Edmond's; and along with it
a note, desiring that the/ Pigeon, two days after its arrival
there, might be thrown up precisely when the town clock
struck nine in the morning. This was accordingly done,
and the Pigeon arrived in London at half-past eleven o'clock
of the same morning, having flown seventy-two miles in two
hours and a half. From the instant of its liberation, its
fight is directed through the clouds, at a great height, to
its home. By an instinct altogether inconceivable, it darts
onward, in a straight line, to the very spot whence it was
taken, but how it can direct its flight so exactly will pro-
bably for ever remain unknown to us.




THE OSTRICH. (Srvthio camelss)
Wa place the Ostrich at the head of the fifth order of
birds, the Gro iotore or Wader. The Ostrih is a native
of Abfie. It s one of the tallest of birds; a when it






THI OSTRIOH.


holds up its head it can resoh eleven feet.in height. The
head is very small in comparison with the body, being
hardly bigger than one of the toes; it is covered, a well a
the neck, with a certain down, or thin-set hairs, instead of
feathers. The sides and thighs are entirely bare and flesh
coloured. The lower part of the neck, where the feathers
begin, is white. The wings are short and of no use in
flying, but when the bird runs, which it does with a strange
jumping kind of motion, it raises its short wings, and holds
them quivering over its back, where they seem to serve as
a kind of sail to gather the wind and carry the bird on-
wards. The feathers of the back, in the cook, are coal-
black; in the hen only dusky, and so soft that they resemble
a kind of wool. The tail is thick, bushy, and round; in
the cook whitish, in the hen dusky with white tops. These
are the feathers so generally in requisition, to decorate the
head-dress of ladies and the helmets of warriors.
The Ostrich swallows anything that presents itself, lea
their, glae, iron, bread, hair, &c.; and the power of digestion
in the stomach is so strong that even iron is very much
affected by it. An Ostrich in the Zoological Gardens in the
Regent's Park, was, however, killed by swallowing a lady's
parasol.
O'e the wild waste the stupid Osr strays,
In devious search to pick her santy meal,
Wkes ee digestin Paews the mper'd sted.
Maonas's IuAi.







U THE OBTRICH..
They are polygamous birds; one male being generally
seen with two or three, and sometimes with five females.
The female Ostrich, in the tropical regions, after depositing
her eggs in the sand, trusts them to be hatched by the heat
of the climate, and leaves the young ones to provide for
themselves.
ILLUSTRATIVE ANECDOTES.
That Ostriches have great affection for their offspring,
may be inferred from the assertion of Professor Thunberg,
that he once rode past the place where a hen Ostrich was
sitting in her nest; when the bird sprang up and pursued
him, evidently with a view to prevent his noticing her eggs
or young. Every time he turned his horse towards her,
she retreated ten or twelve paces; but as soon as he rod6
on again, she pursued him, till he had got to a considerable
distance from the place where he had started her. In the
tropical regions, some persons breed Ostriches in flocks; for
they may be tamed with very little trouble; and in their
domestic state, few animals may be rendered more useful.
When M. Adanson was at Podar, a French factory on the
southern bank of the river Niger, two young but full-grown
Ostriches, belonging to the factory, aforded him a very
amusing sight. They were so tame that two little blacks
mounted both together on the back of the largest. No
ooner did-he feel their weight, than he began to run as fst
as peable and arrived them several times round the village;






THB CA88OWAIT. V5
and it was impossible to stop him otherwise than by obsturoo-
ing the passage. This sight pleased M. Adanson so much,
that he wished it to be repeated; and to try their strength,
he directed a full-grown negro to mount the smaller, and
two others the larger of the birds. This burden did not
seem at all disproportioned to their strength. At first, they
went at a tolerably sharp trot; but when they became heated
a little, they expanded their wings, as though to catch the
wind, and moved with such fleetness that they scarcely
seemed to touch the ground. The foot of the Ostrich has
only two toes; one of which is extremely large and strong,
to make its way through the moving sands of the desert.




THE CASSOWARY, (Cac rius gakeatu,)
Is next in Aise to the ostrich, but of a diftrent nature.
His wings are hardly perceptible, being very short, and
entirely edhoealed under the plumage. The general tint
of his feathers is brown, with some spots of vermilion red;
his head is small and.depreased, with a horny crown; the
head and neck are deprived of feathers, and only set with a
kind of hairy down. From the bill to the claws the body.
measures about five feet and a half; about the neck are two
protberances of a bluish eolour, and in shape like the






94 THE WHOOPING CRANE.
wattles of a cook. Unlike other birds, the feathers of the
) wings, and other parts of the body, are exactly the same;
so that at a distance he looks rather as if he were entirely
covered with hairs like a bear, than with plumage like a
bird. The Cassowary eats indiscriminately whatever comes
in his way, and does not seem to have any sort of predileo-
tion in the choice of his food. He is a native of the southern
parts of India; the eggs of the female are nearly ffteen
inches in circumference, of a grayish ah-oolour, marked with
green. It has been aid of the Cassowary, that he has the
head of a warrior, the eye of a lion, the armament of a por-
cupine, and the swiftness of a oourser.



THE WHOOPING CRANE. (Grn Americana.)
THa satetly Crane (mys Mr. Nuttall), the largest of all
the featherd tribes in the United Sttes, like the ret of
Ie family, dwelling amidst nushe, ad dark and deolate
w p, according to the seao, is met with in almost every
part of North Ameia, hom the islands of the Wes ladies,
to which it retires to pas the winter,to the utmost habital
gioms ad fur countries of the North. A few hyberae in
-e wamer part of the Uni, md some have been hlown
Ai liagr togh the whole of the hinelM t me s a the
wamp of New Jersey, ner to 4ape )ay. Whe di.





THs1 OOPIwG O caIa. 95
eovred in their retreat, they are observed watering sag
the marshes and muddy fla near the sm.hors, in quet d
rptils fish, and marine worms. Oooasioally they am
ailing along from place to place with a heavy, lt light,
elevated but little above the smrace of the earth. Mver
wary, and stealing from the view of all obsuver, these
gaunt hades of something which oomtatly avoid, the m1ei
light, impress the mind no leIs with ouriosity than avus a,
and it is surpriing, that furtive and inhanroaimo as owb,
they have not excited the prejudice of the supetiios.
At times they utter a loud, lear, and pierdOg cry, tat
may be heard to a very considerable distance, aad w h,
being not unsptly compared to the whoop or yell of e
savages when rushing to batt e has confered up"m or wed
his peliar appellation. Other special of t Sd M poemn
also the sne sonorous cry. When wounded, they and
those who approach them with considerable vigpou, s m
o as to have been known n to dart their harp aa demsiG
bill through the inatious hand held out for thir oaep
Indeed, according to Dr. Richardson, they have somest
driven the fowler fairly out of the fld.

ILLUSTRATIVE AJlODOTES.
Oaptain Amida (the hai anish nm who ever mt foe
in North Aerica) thas gipqiealy daribe thel di
of t WIhoeping Orames, a leading e th 4 GA We-





96 THE WHOOPING CRANE.
kokoe, of the coast of North Carolina, in the month of
July: "Suh a took of Cranes (the most part white) arose
under us, with such a cry, redoubled by many echoes, as if
sa army of men had shouted altogether." But though this
display of their discordant calls may be amusing the bustle
of their great migrations, and the passage of their mighty
armies, ll the mind with wonder.
In the month of December, 1811 (says Mr. Nuttall), while
leisurely descending on the bosom of the Mississippi, in one
of the trading boats of that period, I had an opportunity of
witnesing one of these vast migrations of the Whooping
Orame, asembled by many thousands from all the marshes
amd impasable swamps of the north and west. The whole
scotinent seemed as if giving up its quota of the species to
mse the mighty host. Their fight took place in the night,
dow the great aerial alley of the river, whose southern
wese ee dueted them every instant towards warmer and
mn hotable elimes. The clangoar of these numerous
legl passing along high in air, seemed almost deafening;
the emfmed e17 of the vast army continued, with the length.
maag poMeswon, as the voeal call continued nearly
throughout the whole night, without intermission, some idea
may be fmred of the immensity of the numbers now assem-
bled o their annualjourney to the regions of the south.





THI STILT.

THE BLACK-NECKED STILT.
(Bimnatopus nigricoiU.)


Tais ourious bird, under the name of Long-legged Avos,
is described by Mr. Wilson in his usual lively and intreot.
ing style. He says:-
This species arrives on the sesooast of New Jeey about
the 25th of April, in small, detached looks, of twenty or
thirty together. These sometimes again subdivide into
lesser parties; but it rarely happens that a pair is fod
solitary, as, during the breeding season, they usually se-
oiate in small companies. On their t arrival, ad,
indeed, during the whole of their residence, they inUhbi
those particular parts of the salt marshes pretty bgi up
towards the land, that are broken into onnmrous raalB
pools, but are not usually overlowed by the tio daing
the summer. These pools, or ponds, ma generally a d-
low, that, with their long legs, the Arvee ca e adly wad
them in every direction; and, a they abound wlh iMe
shelldh, and multitudes oft quati insects ad dt irla
besides the eggs and spawn of others depted in ie s
mud below, these birds ind hue an abundant smpq d
food, and are almost continually seen wading about i
place often up to the beat in water.
In the icinity of these aUld faeas they are eM
by the eomary peele, and at the dite frety or
yards e amog the thiek tlt of guB, oe of d M 0s


S1i

"4.


)i
~
-,1


"* f
*A
1


:






THE STILT.


associations, consisting perhaps of six or eight pair, takes
up its residence during the breeding season. About the
first week in May they begin to construct their nests, which
are at firt slightly formed of a small quantity of old grass,
scarcely suffioent to keep the eggs from the wet mash.
As they lay and sit, however, either dreading the rise of
the tides, or for some other purpose, the nest is increased
in height, with dry twigs of a shrub very common in the
marshes, roots of the salt grass, sea-weed, and various other
substances, the whole weighing between two and three
pounds. This habit of adding materials to the nest after
the female begins sitting, is common to almost all other
birds that breed in the marshes. The eggs re four in
number, of a dark yellowish clay-colour, thickly marked
with large blotches of black. These nets are often placed
within fifteen or twenty yards of each other; but the
greatest harmony seems to prevail among the poprietors
While the females are sitting, the males are either wading
through the ponds, or roaming over the joining marshes;
bat should a peson make his appearance, the whole collect
together in the air, ying with their long legs extended
behad them, keeping up a continual yelping note of ick,
lhck, clik. Their light is steady, and not in short, snd-
den jerks, like that of the plover. As they frequently
alight on the bae marsh they drop their wings, stand with
their legs half bent, d trembling, a if nable to msstain
the burden of their bodies. In this riicos ponte they




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