• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 The American Navy
 Cuba and the wrecked Maine
 The Hawaiian Islands
 Back Matter
 Back Cover






Group Title: American Navy
Title: The American Navy
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001623/00001
 Material Information
Title: The American Navy with introduction and descriptive text : reproductions of photographs. Cuba and the wrecked Maine : with introduction and descriptive text : reproductions of photographs. The Hawaiian Islands : the paradise of the Pacific : reproductions of photographs
Alternate Title: Cuba and the wrecked Maine
The Hawaiian Islands
The American Navy, Cuba and Hawaii
Physical Description: 3 v. in 1 : chiefly ill. ; 27 x 35 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: G.M. Hill
Place of Publication: Chicago
Publication Date: 1898
 Subjects
Subject: Pictorial works -- Cuba   ( lcsh )
Pictorial works -- Hawaii   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Cover title: The American Navy, Cuba and Hawaii.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00001623
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000487288
oclc - 15300308
notis - ACQ5395

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Front Matter
        Page 3
        Page 4
    The American Navy
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Cuba and the wrecked Maine
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    The Hawaiian Islands
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
    Back Matter
        Page 177
    Back Cover
        Page 178
        Page 179
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NAVY


WITH INTRODUCTION


AND DESCRIPTIVE TEXT


REPRODUCTIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHS








CHICAGO
GEO. M. HILL & COMPANY
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COPYRIGHT, 1898, BY BELFORD, MIDDLEBROOK & CO.

R. R. DONNELLEY & SONS Co., PRINTERS,
CHICAGO, ILL.












INTRODUCTION


A battle between a barn and a cheese-box in 1861 revolutionized naval
architecture. The "barn" was the hull of the United States steam frigate
"Merrimac,'' raised by the Confederates, armed with an iron beak for ram-
ming, and roofed over above the berth-deck with 4-inch iron plates, sup-
ported by massive timbers. The "cheese-box" was Ericsson's newly fin-
ished "Monitor," a war-vessel consisting of an ironclad turret upheld by
a nearly submerged hull, driven by powerful engines. At nightfall, March
8th, the wooden ships "Congress" and "Cumberland" were beneath the
waves in Hampton Roads, rammed and shattered by an adversary invul-
nerable to their broadsides. With the dawn of March 9th, the "Merrimac"
(christened "Virginia" by the Confederates) steamed back to destroy the
helpless "Minnesota," and was encountered by the "Monitor," which
had arrived meanwhile. Four hours' mutual thumping with the heaviest
ordnance of the period resulted in a drawn battle, which the retirement of
the "Merrimac" made a tactical victory for the "Monitor." Neither was
able to pierce or seriously injure the other's armor.
This was the first engagement between iron-clads, and it made obso-
lete for war purposes the wooden ships of all existing navies. Maritime
nations at once began to rebuild and rearm. The evolution was com-
menced which transformed the three-decker into the battle-ship-her sides
armored like the "Merrimac's,'' her guns mounted in impregnable turrets
like the "Monitor's." Steam had already doomed sail-power for war-
ships, and smooth-bore guns were giving place to high-power rifles. The
close of the Civil War found the United States with about sixty monitors
in commission on the seaboard, while the navigable rivers swarmed with
gunboats of the "Merrimac" type. Our enthusiasm for iron had not
been cooled by the sinking of the original "Monitor" off Cape Hatteras, in
1862, and seaworthiness was still secondary to shot-resisting power, when
the battle of Lissa, July 20, 1866, again put naval architects to thinking.
In that engagement the Austrian wooden vessels boldly rammed the Italian
iron-clads, and found them to be as unstable as floating tea-kettles. Since
that time buoyancy has been regarded as a prime requisite, and all classes
of steel vessels are made staunch enough to weather a hurricane. However,
there was no satisfactory test of the offensive and defensive qualities of the
new constructions till 1893, when the Brazilian insurrection furnished the
spectacle of a contest between the latest model of battle-ship and of fortifi-
cations. The armor-clad "Aquidaban" (built in England in 1885)
engaged the harbor forts day after day and suffered no injury, though the


gunners of Fort Santa Cruz got her range and repeatedly struck her with
projectiles from their Io-inch rifles. These rattled harmlessly from her
Io-inch and I -inch armor, and did not prevent her from anchoring where
she pleased. On the other hand, her 9-inch and 6-inch rifles could effect
nothing against the forts, with which the vain expenditure of the ship's
ammunition and stores left the advantage ultimately.
The next year, in the war between Japan and China, there was a more
conclusive test. Off the Yalu River, September 17, 1894, modern battle-
ships opposed each other for the first time, and the lesson was hardly less
instructive than that afforded by their prototypes at Newport News, thirty-
three years before. As the "Monitor's" commander learned too late that
he could have destroyed the "Merrimac" by using a larger powder-charge
in his II-inch Dahlgren guns, so, too, European shipbuilders saw that
they had, in some cases, sacrificed efficiency to size; that for close quarters
numerous rapid-fire guns-each firing twenty shells a minute-are more
effective than larger guns less rapidly served. A shell from the latter is
more likely to pierce an adversary's armor, but a concentration of fire by
enough of the former will hinder a turret from presenting its port-holes.
To do so would be to admit a storm of shot and shell, stripping gun and
turret of their defenders.
This closes the list of instructive battles, and it remains to be seen
what would be the outcome of an encounter between evenly matched bat-
tle-ships or cruisers, officered and manned by Americans or Europeans.
Every nation having maritime interests to protect has steadily
increased its naval appropriations, and striven to raise the efficiency of its
fleet, but the test of war has not been made. Some have thought the
United States rather behind the times, but this error will be dispelled by
the illustrations and explanatory text of the PORTFOLIO SERIES. The
perfection our vessels have attained could not find an abler exponent than
Mr. G. W. Melville, Engineer-in-chief, U. S. Navy. He describes a typi-
cal American battle-ship and cruiser as follows:*
The "Kearsarge" may be taken as a typical battle-ship, and a description of her will
serve for that of other battle-ships, and, with certain modifications, which will be stated, for
that of other types of naval vessels. She is built entirely of steel, is 368 feet long on the
water-line, 72.2 feet beam, 25.5 feet mean draft, and of II,500 tons displacement. She has
engines of 1o,ooo horse-power, and will steam at the rate of 16 knots an hour. In outward
appearance, she resembles the "Indiana," except in the arrangement of the turret for the
*These extracts are from his article "'The Navy of the United States," in the New Supplement to the
Encyclopedia Brittanica, The Werner Company, publishers, Akron. Ohio.










8-inch guns, and in that she has two military masts instead of one. In previous battle-ships
the practice had been to mount the very heavy guns in turrets, a pair of each calibre in a
separate turret, those of medium calibre in rear of, above and outboard of the heaviest
ones; but in the Kearsarge" and "Kentucky" the turrets are superposed, or "two-story,"
the 8-inch ones being on top of the 13-inch, and revolving with them. This arrangement gives
the greatest concentration of fire, and it is believed that there is not a battle-ship afloat that
can withstand the fire from the guns as arranged in the Kearsarge." The main battery
consists of four 13-inch and four 8-inch rifles, and fourteen 5-inch, rapid-fire guns; and the
secondary battery of twenty 6-pounder, four i-pounder, four Gatlings, and one field gun. The
5-inch guns are placed in the citadel between the turrets, and the rapid-fire and machine
guns on the deck above, in the military tops, and on the deck below the main deck.
The armor belt extends along the water-line from the bow to the barbette, and is .53
feet above and 4 feet below the water-line; it is 15 inches thick at the top, and tapers to 4
inches at the bow, where it meets the ram. The protective deck, which extends from the
ends of the armor belt to the bow and stern, respectively, varies in thickness from 2Y to 5
inches. Above the belt, to the height of the main deck, the armor is 5 inches thick, and that
of the citadel containing the 5-inch guns, 6 inches. The armor on the 13-inch turrets is 17
and 15 inches, on the 8-inch turrets, II and 9 inches, on the barbettes 15 inches, and on the
conning-towers o1 inches. All the armor is Harveyized nickel steel. Each 13-inch gun
throws a projectile weighing 600 pounds, and each 8-inch gun one weighing 290 pounds.
There are two military masts, with fighting tops, in which will be mounted rapid-fire guns.
Five torpedo-tubes, one in the stem and the others in broadside on the lower deck, com-
plete the armament. The supply of torpedoes, which are of the automobile type, is eight.
The engines are of the triple-expansion type, and have been designed to develop 1o,ooo
horse-power at full speed; they have three cylinders each, and are placed in separate
water-tight compartments, each operating its own screw. The boilers are designed to
work at a pressure of 160 pounds per square inch, and to furnish all the steam that the
engines can work off at that pressure; when working at full power the draft is forced by
steam fans, delivering air under pressure into an air-tight fire-room, in which each boiler is
placed. When fully equipped and ready for sea, she carries 1,21o tons of coal, and draws
25 feet of water. The contract price for her construction, exclusive of the cost of her armor
and guns, is $2,250,000, and when completed and ready for sea she will have cost about
$3,500,000.


The next most important vessels in our navy are the cruisers, which are built primarily
for speed, and which differ in construction from the battle-ships principally in having little
or no vertical armor along the water-line, the protection to the vitals of the ship being
afforded by a thick protective deck, and in having lighter protection for the guns than the
battle-ships have. The vessels are smaller than the battle-ships, and also carry a lighter
battery. In them, offensive and defensive qualities have been sacrificed for speed and for
coal-carrying capacity, in order that they may be able to remain at sea a considerable
length of time, and overtake a merchantman once he is sighted; that they may act as scouts
for a fleet, and perform those duties, in peace, necessary for the protection of our commerce
and the maintenance of our position amongst the great nations of the earth. Two of our
cruisers, the New York and the Brooklyn," have a small amount of light side-armor,


three inches thick in the former and four in the latter. The "New York" mounts six
8-inch and twelve 4-inch, and the Brooklyn eight 8-inch and twelve 5-inch guns. These
vessels are regarded justly as the finest vessels of their class afloat, and the former, on her
trial in 1892, maintained for four hours a speed of 21 knots an hour. Her engines are of
17,400 horse-power, and have been designed so that the ship may cruise economically at
low speed. For this reason there are four engines of the same size in the ship, two on each
shaft, and so arranged that the forward ones, which, like the after ones, are each in a
separate water-tight compartment, may be disconnected when cruising at low speed. The
operation of disconnecting or connecting takes only about twenty minutes, as compared
with thirty-six hours on the English cruiser Blake," of similar construction. Two others
of our cruisers which have been the subject of universal commendation, and of no little
amazement, are the "Columbia" and the "Minneapolis," of 7,375 tons displacement,
which, on trial, made the unparalleled speed of 22.81 and 23.07 knots, respectively. These
vessels are intended as commerce-destroyers," and in them much of the offensive power
of previous cruisers has been sacrificed to speed and endurance, their battery comprising
but one 8-inch, two 6-inch, and eight 4-inch guns. To get such speed as these vessels
attained, and at the same time to make them fairly economical cruisers in time of peace,
the power was divided among three screws, one in the center and one on either side, as is
usual in twin-screw steamers, each screw operated by an engine of equal power. While
this system of propulsion had previouslybeen tried on a few small vessels, the Columbia "
marked its first successful application to vessels of considerable size and power, and since her
advent a number of similar designs have been projected abroad. Up to 1896 there was not
a vessel of their size in any navy with a speed equal to theirs, and there was not in any navy
a vessel of any size which had maintained such a speed over a measured course for so long
a time as they did. In July, 1895, the "Columbia" made the run from the Needles to
Sandy Hook, a distance of 3,090 miles, in 6 days 23 hours and 49 minutes, thus maintaining
an average speed of 18.41 knots for the distance, a performance which no other man-of-war
afloat, except the Minneapolis," could approach, and one which has never been equaled
by any vessel of her size, naval or merchant. That she did not make greater speed is due
entirely to the fact that she does not carry coal enough to enable her to cross the ocean at a
much higher rate.

Millions are expended every year on naval armaments and fortifica-
tions, and the end is not yet. Each new improvement in artillery is met
by one in defensive armor. The limit in the former is approached by our
coast-defense 16-inch gun, which hurls its 2,350-pound conical projectile
over a distance of sixteen miles. Its charge of powder is 1,050 pounds, pro-
ducing a striking-energy sufficient to annihilate any existing armor, afloat
or ashore. Under the appalling impact of its steel missile-larger and
longer than a flour-barrel-armor a yard thick and two miles off would be
riven asunder. Nature's everlasting hills are the only bastions able to
withstand it; the bowels of the earth are the only bomb-proofs it cannot
reach.
























































THE OREGON.
THE first-class twin-screw battle-ship Oregon" is a sister ship of the "Indiana," having exactly the same dimensions, armament and armor, as follows: length,
348 ft.; breadth, 69.25 ft.; mean draft, 24 ft.; main battery, four 13-inch, eight 8-inch, and four 6-inch rifles; secondary battery, 30 rapid-fire guns of small calibre;
armor, 18 inches on the sides, from 6 to 15 inches on the turrets, and from 6 to 17 inches on the barbettes.
However, her engines are more powerful than the "Indiana's" having i iii indicated horse-powei, and giving a speed of 16.79 knots an hour. Her crew num-
,bers 38 officers and 424 men. The Oregon's keel was laid in 1891 and her entire cost was $3,180,000.
9. .' '


















THE OREGON.
THE first-class twin-screw battle-ship Oregon is a sister ship of the "Indiana," having exactly the same dimensions, armament and armor, as follows: length,
348 ft.; breadth, 69.25 ft.; mean draft, 24 ft.; main battery, four I3-inch, eight 8-inch, and four 6-inch rifles; secondary battery, 30 rapid-fire guns of small calibre;
armor, 18 inches on the sides, from 6 to 15 inches on the turrets, and from 6 to 17 inches on the barbettes.
However, her engines are more powerful than the "Indiana's" having ii,ii indicated horse-powel, and giving a speed of 16.79 knots an hour. Her crew num-
,bers 38 officers and 424 men. The Oregon's" keel was laid in 1891 and her entire cost was $3,18o,ooo.




























F T


Copyright 1893 by W. H. Rau.


THE NEW YORK.


THE armored cruiser "New York" is of a type intermediate between the battle-ship and unprotected cruisers. Her enormous engines of 17,400 indicated horse-
power give her a speed of 21 knots an hour, so that she can overtake the fastest merchant ships afloat. Her armament of six 8-inch and twelve 4-inch rifles renders her
superior to any but the first-class battle-ships, and from them she could easily escape. Armor 4 inches thick protects her sides, while that of turrets and barbettes is
5% and io inches thick respectively. The keel of this superb vessel was laid in 1890, and when completed she represented the sum of $2,985,000. The following
are the "New York's" dimensions: length, 380.5 ft.; breadth, 64.8 ft.; mean draft, 23.3 ft.; so that her displacement is 8,200 tons. For handling her 40 officers and
526 men are necessary.


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THE INDIANA'S I3-INCH GUNS.


FOR piercing an adversary's armor, or for breaching modern fortifications, a battle-ship relies chiefly on the heavy guns mounted in pairs in her movable turrets.
These monster 13-inch rifles throw their 6oo-lb. projectiles 12 miles with an initial velocity of more than 2,000 feet a second. Under their impact the strongest
fortresses of masonry ever planned by Vauban would crumble, and it is believed that a dozen such guns could easily chip away the face of Gibraltar's rock, and
make untenable the seaward galleries which honeycomb it. No ship nor fort now defending Havana could survive the converging fire of the six i3-inch rifles mounted
in the forward turrets of the "Indiana,"" Iowa," and "Massachusetts," at present anchored at the Dry Tortugas.


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THE MASSACHUSETTS.


THIS first-class, twin-screw battle-ship has precisely the same dimensions, armor, and armament as the "Indiana," but her engines of 10,400 indicated horse-power
enable her to steam 16.2 knots an hour, which makes her .65 of a knot faster than her sister ship. Accordingly we have the following: length, 348 ft.; breadth, 69.25 ft.;
mean draft, 24 ft.; armor on the sides, 18 inches, on the turrets, from 6 to 15 inches, on the barbettes, from 6 to 17 inches; armament, four 13-inch, eight 8-inch, and
four 6-inch rifles. Besides she has a secondary battery of thirty rapid-fire guns of small calibre. The keel of the Massachusetts was laid in 189i, and the cost of the
completed ship was $3,020,000. Her complement of men and officers is 424 and 38 respectively.


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THE MAINE.
THE recent destruction of this fine battle-ship in the harbor of Havana has aroused general interest in everything pertaining to her. While the Maine" was
only a second-class battle-ship, she possessed fighting qualities of no mean order, as will be apparent from her dimensions, armor, and armament, as follows: length,
318 ft.; breadth, 57 ft.; mean draft, 21.5 ft.; armor, 12 inches thick on the sides, 8 inches on the turrets, and from io to 12 inches on the barbettes; guns, four io-inch,
six 6-inch. Her displacement was 6,682 tons and her engines, of 9,293 indicated horse-power, propelled her at the rate of 17 knots an hour. Had she been an
unarmored cruiser, instead of a strongly constructed, floating fortress, she would have been crushed like an eggshell from stem to stern, and not one of her officers and
men would have been found alive. As is was, her massive sides were riven and twisted, and her upper works torn away. She kept afloat barely long enough to permit
the escape of those who were not killed or carried overboard by the explosion.







































































Copyright 1895 by W. H. Rau. THE INDIANA.

THE first-class twin-screw battle-ship Indiana" has a displacement of 10,288 tons, and engines of 9,738 indicated horse-power, which will drive her at the rate of
15.55 knots an hour. Her dimensions are: length, 348 ft.; breadth, 69.25 ft.; mean draft, 24 ft. In the main batter,- are four 13-inch, eight 8-inch, and four 6-inch
breech-loading rifles; in the secondary battery are thirty rapid-fire guns of small calibre, intended chiefly for repelling torpedo-boats and raking an antagonist during
action. There are six tubes for launching torpedoes. The hull is entirely of steel, and the protective armor is: sides, 18 inches; turrets, from 6 to 15 inches; barbettes,
from 6 to 17 inches.
The Indiana's" keel was laid in 1891, and her cost when completed was $3,020,000. She has a complement of 38 officers and 427 men.


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THE DOLPHIN.
THE steel dIFpar,-i,..l,[ -- D.I'-lphin:" has the following dimensions: length, 240 ft.; breadth, 32 ft.; mean draft, 14.3 ft. With a displacement of 1,486 tons, and
engines of 2,253 .ndi,,'.,td I,.r-e.-power shei's able to steam 15.5 knots an hour. She carries two 4-inch guns which are adequate for driving off torpedo-boats or
other interfering small craft, but her principal function is to carry dispatches from the flag-ship to the various vessels composing the squadron; or from these to some
point on the coast where the telegraph will connect her with the authorities at Washington. Her light draft enables her to enter nearly every harbor on the Gulf and
Atlantic Coast, so that at no time need the commanding admiral be long deprived of communication with his superiors.






























































THE ATLANTA.

THE "Atlanta" is an unarmored single-screw steel cruiser of 3,000 tons displacement, propelled by engines of 4,000 indicated horse-power, which permit a
speed of 15.6 knots an he ir. Her crew consists of 19 officers and 265 men, and she carries two 8-inch' and six 6-inch breech-loading rifles in her main battery-a
powerful one for a vessel of her class. Besides she has fourteen rapid-fire guns for repelling boarders, and torpedo-boats. The ship's dimensions are as follows:
length, 271.3 ft.; breadth, 42.1 ft.; mean draft, 16.83 ft.
The Atlanta's" keel was laid in 1883, but she has lately undergone extensive repairs and alterations which greatly increase her efficiency.

















































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THE MIANTONOMOH.
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THE "Miantonomoh" is a double-turreted, twin-screw, iron monitor intended chiefly for coast defense. Her speed is twelve knots an hour, derived from engines
of i,600 indicated horse-power. The vessel's dimensions are: length, 259.5 ft.; breadth, 55.8 ft.; mean draft, 14.5 ft.; giving a displaceme it of 3,990 tons. The
turrets are protected by armor In' inches thick, while that of the sides is 7 inches. The main battery consists of Ijur lo-inch rifles-two in each turret-and the
secondary battery of six rapid-fire guns of small calibre.
The Miantonoohs" keel was laid in 1874, and her cost when completed was 3,178,046. The crew consists of 13 officers and 136 men.
.; .. ... : .


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THE DYNAMITE CRUISER VESUVIUS.
THIS vessel is an experiment and her utility remains to be seen. Her three 15-inch guns, specially constructed for throwing dynamite projectiles, are expected to
be effective against armored vessels. If she could escape an adversary's rapid-fire guns long enough to explode one charge of dynamite against her side, that single
shot would win the victory. The "Vesuvius" has the following dimensions: length, 252.3 ft.; breadth, 26.5 ft.; mean draft, o1.6 ft. Her displacement is 929 tons,
and her engines, of 3,795 indicated horse-power, will drive her through the water at the rate of 21.4 knots an hour. Thus she can steam away from a battle-ship and
from any but the fastest cruisers. The keel of the "Vesuvius was laid in 1887, and her total cost upon completion was $350,000. She has 6 officers and 64 men aboard.









































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THIS is an armored cruiser like the New York," but is larger, swifter and in every way more formidable except in point of armor, which is as follows: Sides, 3
inches; turrets, 5Y inches; barbettes, from 4 to 8 inches. The Brooklyn's" displacement is 9,271 tons, and her twin screws are driven by engines of 18,770 indi-
cated horse-power, giving her a speed of 21.91 knots an hour. The triple-screw unarmored cruisers "Minneapolis" and Columbia" are the only vessels in our navy
which can overtake her, and hostile ships of this class would not dare to come within range of her powerful main battery, consisting of eight 8-inch and twelve 5-inch
rifles. The "Brooklyn's" dimensions are: length, 400.5 ft.; breadth, 64-7 ft.; mean draft, 24 ft. Her construction was commenced in 1893, and her total cost on
completion was $2,986,000.


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THE CHARLESTON.
THIS unarmored cruiser has a displacement of 3,730 tons, and her engines of'6,666 indicated horse-power enable her to steam 18.2 knots an hour. Her armament
consists of two 8 inch and six 6-inch rifles, besides rapid-fire guns of small calibre. She has the following dimensions: length, 312.6 ft.; breadth, 46.2 ft.; mean
draft, 18.6 ft.
The Charleston" was constructed from plans secured abroad, and differs from the accepted type of American cruisers in being very low at the bow and stern.
Her keel was laid in 1887, and her entire cost was $1,017,000. She carries a complement of 20 officers and 280 men.


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THE CHICAGO.

THE unarmored twin-screw cruiser Chicago has been subjected to a thorough overhauling since her completion in 1883, and with her new equipment of
machinery and guns is fully equal to the other vessels of her class. Her dimensions are: length, 325 ft.; breadth, 48.2 ft.; mean draft, 19 ft.; giving a displacement
of 4,500 tons. Her new engines have 9,000 indicated horse-power, enabling her to steam 19 knots an hour. The main battery consists of four 8-inch, eight 6-inch,
and two 5-inch rifles, and she carries seventeen rapid-fire guns of small calibre. Her crew numbers 33 officers and 376 men. The "Chicago's" original cost was
$889,ooo, but to this must be added the expense of her recent equipment.


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THE MONTGOMERY.

THIS unarmored cruiser was selected to replace the ill-fated battle-ship "Maine" in the harbor of Havana. Her dimensions are: length, 257 ft.; breadth,
37 feet; mean draft, 14.6 ft.; giving her a displacement of 2,089 tons. She has engines of 5,580 indicated horse-power, which can propel her at the rate of 19
knots an hour. Nine 5-inch rifles constitute her main battery, and ten rapid-fire guns of small calibre suffice for repelling hostile torpedo-boats, or for raking at short
range a disabled adversary. Work was commenced on the Montgomery in 1890 and her total cost was $612,500. She has a complement of 20 officers and 254 men.


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Copright 1896 by W. H. Rau. THE RALEIGH.

rhe Raleigh is an unarmored cruiser of 3,213 tons' displacement and has engines of io,ooo indicated horse-power, permitting a speed of 20 knots an hour.
Her dimensions are : length, 300 ft.; breadth, 42 ft.; mean draft, 18 ft. Her armament consists of one 6-inch and ten 5-inch rifles, and fourteen smaller rapid-fire
guns. The keel of this cruiser was laid in 1889 and her total cost amounted to $I,Ioo,ooo. At present she has 20 officers and 292 men aboard.


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THE U. S. BATTLE-SHIP MAINE.


THE verdict of the naval court of inquiry exculpated the officers of the Maine" and ascribed her destruction to the explosion of a mine at 9:40 P. M. Tuesday,
February 15, 1898. History's list of infamous deeds has received an addition, and in the harbor of Havana a wreck has become a monument to a living idea as well
as to the uncoffined dead pinned under tons of iron.
The battle-ship "Maine was a thing of beauty as she proudly steamed to the spot that was to be her grave. She was more than a match for any Spanish vessel
anchored near, and to practised eyes, on ship or shore, her formidable power must have been discernible. Aboard the ship there was not a soul unaware of her
dangerous mission, and of the responsibility which weighed on all.


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COMMANDING OFFICERS OF THE MAINE.
CAPT. SIGSBEE and his officers doubtless assembled for social pleasures while anchored before Havana as was their custom; tor, beyond the maintenance of a
discipline sharpened because of our strained relations with Spain, their routine duties were few and their hours of relaxation many. Still, in the light of subsequent
events we can well imagine that to the officers playing draughts, the "Maine" often seemed like an exposed man on the checker-board, and the issue of many a
game at dice must have hung upon a throw as hopeless as the fire of the "Maine's" io-inch rifles replying to hostile forts and fleet around her!


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REVOLVER PRACTICE.
FIRING at a target with the new-model "navy" revolvers is another part of the drill on board a war-ship. A section of the "Maine's" crew is here shown, one
rank firing above the heads of the other kneeling. Of course there is no use for such a weapon in a naval engagement, as the contending ships will rarely approach
within pistol-range, and no men are in sight. But when a detachment is sent ashore to do guard duty, serviceable revolvers enable the men to defend themselves
against a mob, which might overpower them if they had only their fists for defense. It would be a bold hundred that could face and attack eighteen men firing with
heavy revolvers in this order. The experience of the "Baltimore's" men ashore at Valparaiso will not be forgotten soon.


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SINGLE-STICK PRACTICE.
THIS is an exercise to impart skill in the use of the cutlass, or seaman's sword. However, seamen are not armed with cutlasses now, nor can modern war-ships
be captured by boarding, so that single-stick practice is merely an agreeable system of calisthenics, pretty much the same as fencing with foils, but rougher and
requiring greater strength. This illustration shows the "Maine's" expert fencers engaged in their regular drill. They were reputed the most skilful in our navy,
and their friendly rivalry with the crews of the other vessels was encouraged by their officers, who took great pride in their prowess.


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A FEW Of the men who posed for this picture may have seen ex-Secretary Herbert come aboard the "Maine," but most of them look too young to have been in
service so long. How many of these lusty fellows were of the 260 who perished on that fateful Tuesday night ? Who can say ? The roll-call of this picture has not
been made, and only the survivors can determine the number of the missing. Here they are portrayed when care and responsibility are farthest from their minds.
But in an instant a scene like this can change, for these men have onerous duties at stated hours.


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TEACHING THE WIGWAG SYSTEM OF SIGNALING.
ONE of the most important lessons the apprentice seamen are required to learn is "wigwag" signaling. This is by means of a small white flag held in the hand,
and moved horizontally or vertically according to a certain system. A powerful glass enables these different motions to be distinctly recognized and interpreted on
board a sister ship miles away, and thus communication is established.
It is obvious that sudden emergencies may require the speedy issuance of orders from the flag-ship to her consorts near enough to see, but too far to hear.
"Wigwagging" is the means employed by day, and the illustraticr shows practice in the art, as it was aboard the "Maine."


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CHIEF OFFICERS OF THE MAINE.
To the younger officers the curtailment of shore privileges made their stay at Havana far from pleasant. In February West Indian harbors are unusually attractive,
and in casinos, club-rooms and hotels, to say nothing of balls and special fetes, a round of pleasures is offered, such as makes cruising in those waters highly enjoyable.
When the "Maine" took her assigned anchorage, even the youngest cadet from Annapolis had no thought of anything but discipline. Jealous eyes were always turned
upon the ship, and it was felt that at any moment an announcement of war might render it necessary .to fight their way past forts and fleet. Every precaution was
taken to meet a probable danger. The actual one was unknown to the world's experience.


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SECRETARY HERBERT'S VISIT TO THE MAINE.
MANY will recall the general interest felt in the Maine" when she was ready for- her speed trial. The act which authorized her construction provided that every
part of her should be of American manufacture, and this encouraged the building of armor-plate mills in this country. Although the Maine" was only a second-
class battle-ship, the beauty of her lines and the symmetry of her proportions elicited the praise of naval constructors and officers alike, and it was felt that we were at
last able to build and armor our own ships. Secretary Tracy's wise policy was continued by his successor, Mr. Herbert, and to the enthusiasm enkindled by this visit
to the "Maine" is due, no doubt, his advocacy of naval expansion. Mr. Herbert was received aboard with befitting honors, and his inspection extended to every part
of the ship's equipment, including the men and their quarters.


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SEAMEN'S MESS (Maine).
PLAINER than that shown in the preceding illustration, but withal neat and clean, were the Maine's tables for the common seamen. The food served was sub-
stantial, well-cooked and of the best quality. The accommodations exhibited a scrupulous regard for the comfort of the men, and it is certain that many of them had
never known a better home than was theirs aboard the battle-ship. It must be remembered that a war-vessel is seldom as much as ten days out of port, and there-
fore her men are subjected to none of the privations which attended long voyages, in the old-fashioned men-of-war.


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RETURNING TO THE MAINE AFTER A SHAM BATTLE ASHORE.
THE summons to go ashore is always welcomed by the marines as a pleasant variation of their duties on shipboard, and especially gratifying to them is the news
that there is to be a sham battle in which the men from other ships will take part. Opportunity is given of seeing old friends and renewing acquaintances, and as the
men embark for the ship after a day's arduous drill, their recollection of the interspersed pleasures make them forget their fatigue. The officers of the "Maine"
had brought their men to a state of high efficiency and their discipline was never more conspicuous than in that awful catastrophe in Havana harbor.


























































BACHELORS' GLEE-CLUB (on the Maine).
IT is never difficult to find musicians when one can select from several hundred men, and a peculiar gravitation always helps to bring music-makers together. The
"Maine's" glee-club was deservedly popular from its excellent rendition of songs dear to the seaman's heart. Instrumental music was not wanting, but the club's fame
rested chiefly on its songs, which were in great request among the officers and men alike. With one exception the members were all young men, and some of them
perished in the fatal explosion which occurred shortly after their last songs floated out over the harbor of Havana.


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CONTRARY to the belief of many, the fare of our seamen is excellent, consisting of the best prepared foods and dishes. Service afloat requires the highest physical
efficiency such as is found only in well-nourished men, and nothing is omitted that can add to the relish of their meals. This illustration of a specimen mess of the
"Maine" shows that these men shared as well as the second-cabin passengers on the big liners. The officers' table had more elegant appurtenances but the quality of
the food was no better.


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ALTHOUGH there are specially constructed torpedo-boats whose sole means of offense is the torpedo, yet every modern battle-ship is provided with tubes for
launching torpedoes while in action. One of the Maine's" tubes is here shown, with gunner and guard on duty. The tube and its dangerous ammunition are con-
stantly under surveillance and their handling is committed only to experts. This tube's torpedo was exploded by the force of the concussion from the mine beneath
the ship, and the destruction wrought was terrible to behold.
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BOATSWAIN CARPENTERS, AND ENGINEERS OF THE MAINE
Most of the designations in use on sailing-ships are retained on our war-vessels but it is obvious that propulsion by steam now gives the engineer the importance
possessed by the carpenter or sail-maker of Decatur's time. There is small use for a wood-worker on a ship constructed of steel, and none for the sail-maker where
no canvas is spread. Still, the capture of a prize in time of war might call for a crew of old-time sailors to carry it into port ; and therefore every iron-clad has repre-
sentative sailors as well as a full complement of engineers. The landsman will scarcely be able to distinguish them in the illustration.


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TORPEDO-TUBE AND GUNNERS (on the Maine).
A PREVIOUs illustration showed the unceasing vigilance which guarded this engine of destruction. The same tube is pictured here with the five men who served
it. They all perished in the second explosion which followed the terrible upward blow from the mir2 beneath the Maine." Few would suspect the latent power of
a torpedo like this, but whatever is able to sink a hostile ship by striking its hull after traversing unseen a mile of intervening water, is far more destructive when
exploded in its tube by a shock from without. To realize this one should see in the harbor of Havana the unsightly wreck which marks the latest scene of American
heroism and Spanish perfidy.


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TIE MAINE'S MASCOT.
IT is well-known that sailors fasten their affections upon the most nondescript pets, and are allowed by their officers to keep them in their quarters aboard the
ship. Such a pet is known as a mascot," and good treatment of it is supposed to bring luck to the ship. Sometimes it is a monkey, sometimes a parrot. The mas-
cot of one of our war-ships is an ugly goat, whose stubbornness has completely effaced any amiability he ever possessed. The Maine's mascot was a cat and strange
-t say, it survived the horrors of that awful explosion, being rescued by the sailors who were searching for dead and dying comrades. It has not been stated whether
this cat is eligible to the mascotship of one of the newly launched vessels, but it is scarcely likely, as that honor is determined by chance and not by election.






















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THE BANCROFT.
THOUGH built for the use of the United States naval cadets at Annapolis, the "Bancroft" has been in commission as a station cruiser and is more serviceable than
her tonnage and lack of armor would seem to indicate. Her engines of 1,213 indicated horse-power give her a speed of 14 knots, which would be considerably
augmented by a favorable wind, as she has large sail-power. Her length is 187.5 ft.; breadth, 32 ft.; mean draft, 12.2 ft., giving a displacement of 838 tons. Her
armament consists of four 4-inch rifles with auxiliary rapid-fire guns of smaller calibre. The "Bancroft's" keel was laid in 1891 and her total cost was $250,ooo. To
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THE NEWARK, BALTIMORE AND FLEET AT HAMPTON ROADS.
THESE two fast cruisers, though of nearly the same displacement and power, are entirely different in appearance, as the "Newark is bark rigged and can spread
1o,ooo sq. ft. of canvas if need be, whereas the Baltimore" has merely two small military masts. The Newark's" dimensions are: length 310 ft.; breadth, 49.2 ft.;
mean draft, 18.8 ft.; giving a displacement of 4,098 tons. Her speed is 19 knots an hour, her engines are of 8,869 indicated horse-power, and she is armed with
twelve 6-inch rifles and sixteen auxiliary rapid-fire guns. The "Baltimore's" displacement is 4,413 tons, with the following dimensions: length, 327.5 ft.; breadth,
48.6 ft.; mean draft, 19.5 feet. Her engines have 10,064 indicated horse-power, giving her a speed of 20 knots an hour. She mounts a main battery of four 8-inch
and six 6-inch rifles, and a secondary one of fourteen rapid-fire guns.


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THE MASSACHUSETTS (BROADSIDE VIEW).


THIS first-class battle-ship is described under the illustration of her elsewhere in this Volume "The American Navy." This view of her shows the strength
of her broadside. Guns mounted in turrets have great freedom of fire, as they are aimed by revolving the turret, and not by changing the course of the ship.
Accordingly, the "Massachusetts" can concentrate in broadside the fire of six turrets, carrying rifles of the following calibres: Four of 13-inch, four of 8-incn, and
two of 6-inch. The weight of metal thrown by these at each discharge is two tons, and the striking-energy of the projectiles impinging simultaneously is sufficient to
sink any but the most solidly constructed iron-clads of her own class. It is not known what resistance the armor of these would offer, as history furnishes no instance
of such an engagement.


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THE AMPHITRITE.
THE "Amphitrite" is a double-turreted monitor of the following dimensions: length, 259.5 ft.; breadth, 55.8 ft.; mean draft, 14.5 ft. Her displacement is 3,990
tons, and her speed 12 knots an hour, derived from engines of 1,600 indicated horse-power. Her side armor varies in thickness from 5 to 9 inches; that of her turrets
and barbettes is 7 and ii I% inches thick respectively. Four lo-inch and two 4-inch rifles constitute her main battery, and eight smaller guns of the rapid-fire pattern
furnish the means of repelling torpedo-boats. Work was commenced on the "Amphitrite" in 1874, and her entire cost was $3,178,046. Monitors are chiefly intended
for coast-defense and for fighting in smooth water, as their low free-boards are unsuited for navigation in a heavy sea. The "Amphitrite" would be a dangerous
antagonist for a second-class battle-ship of the same metal and armor. She lies so low in the water that she presents a small target, and her lo-inch rifles would
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THE COLUMBIA.


THE "Columbia" is almost a duplicate of the Minneapolis," having the same displacement, dimensions and armament as that cruiser, but somewhat less speed,
due to engines of smaller horse-power. The exact figures are: displacement, 7,375 tons; speed, 22.8 knots an hour; engines of 18,509 indicated horse-power; length,
412 ft.; breadth, 58.2 ft.; mean draft, 22.5 fc.; main battery, one 8-inch, two 6-inch, and eight 4-inch rifles; secondary battery, sixteen rapid-fire guns of small calibre.
Her keel was laid in 1890 and her cost, $2,725,000, exceeded that of the sister cruiser begun the year following. Her present crew consists of 40 officers and 429 men.
The mission of the "Columbia" and the "Minneapolis" is to overhaul and destroy the enemy's merchant vessels, and to keep out of the way of armored cruisers,
or battle-ships. Their great speed enables them to do this, yet their fighting power is greatly superior to that of armed merchant liners, such as hostile nations would
certainly use as auxiliary cruisers. These they could easily run down and destroy.


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THE PHILADELPHIA.
THIS cruiser's keel was laid in 1888, but the recent overhauling to which she has been subjected has increased her efficiency notably. Her dimensions are:
length, 327.5 ft.; breadth, 48.6 ft.; mean draft, 19.2 ft., which give a displacement of 4,324 tons. Her speed is 19.7 knots an hour, derived from engines of 8,815
indicated horse-power, and she carries twelve 6-inch rifles, besides fifteen auxiliary guns of smaller calibre. The vessel's first cost was $1,350,000, to which must be
added the sum recently expended in refitting her. Her present complement of officers and men is 34 and 350 respectively.


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THE SAN FRANCISCO, BANCROFT AND FLEET AT HAMPTON ROADS.
THESE vessel are specially described and illustrated elsewhere in this Volume. Their introduction here is for the purposes of comparison and contrast, the San
Francisco" having five times the Bancroft's" displacement and carrying three times as many guns in her main battery. However, it must not be inferred that the
"Bancroft" is serviceable merely as a training-ship. She has no mean powers of offense as a cruiser, since she can keep the sea a long time aided by her auxiliary
sail-power, and can enter shallow harbors inaccessible to larger war-ships. Both vessels have beautiful lines and exhibit a happy union of strength and symmetry.













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SPINNING A YARN.

THE innovations in ship-building have made the "old salt" of Marryat's novels less conspicuous (because less needed) aboard a war-ship. Moreover as steam
renders a vessel independent of wind and tide, there are fewer periods of enforced idleness during which seamen may assemble for the purpose of narrating their
adventures--"spinning yarns" as it is still called. Yet, even now, when steam and electricity do nearly every thing aboard the war-vessels, many old sailors can be
found whose experience dates from the time of sails and wood, and their "yarns" are deservedly in request whenever this kind of "spinning"-circle is formed.


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THE TORPEDO-BOAT STILETTO.

THIS is the smallest vessel of this class in our navy, as she has a displacement of only 31 tons. However, that is an element of strength as she is expected to
steal upon a war-ship and launch her torpedoes at the enemy's hull. Her smallness renders her less conspicuous and her light draft permits her to escape into shallow
waters, whither larger vessels can not go. Her dimensions are: length, 88.5 ft.; breadth, II ft.; mean draft, 3 ft. Her engines of 359 indicated horse-power
give her a speed of 18.2 knots an hour. For repelling the boats that a hostile ship might send after her; she has six rapid-fire guns of small calibre. One officer and
five men compose her crew. The "Stiletto" cost $25,000.


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THE INDIANA'S FORWARD-DECK 13-INCH GUNS.


THESE like the pair of after-deck guns of the same calibre are mounted in a heavily armored turret, which revolves through a large arc so as to give much freedom
of fire. Thus it is not necessary to change the vessel's course in order to bring her heaviest guns to bear upon an object directly ahead or on either side. In assailing
a fort the "Indiana" could present her bow and fire with her two 13-inch and four 8-inch rifles. The latter are mounted in the two smaller revolving turrets just
behind and higher than the large one. At a distance of ten miles the ship's breadth (69Y4 ft.) would subtend no larger visual angle than'a croquet-ball floating in
the water roo yards off, and she would be much harder to hit by reason of refraction and atmospheric disturbances which are very deceptive at such a distance.


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NAVAL PARADE LEAVING HAMPTON ROADS.
IT is doubtful whether a fleet of modern war-ships ever presents the picturesqueness of the old-time frigates and line-of-battle ships. The funnels, the armor, the
huge guns, the small and usually sailless masts, and above all, the black smoke of the former, are far less gratifying to the eye than the trim wooden hulls, the sym-
metrical tiers of guns, the tapering masts, the cloud of white canvas of the latter. But if iron and steam are less pleasing to the eye than oak and sails, they are much
more satilnclcoryv to the mind. Modern vessels perform their tactical evolutions with as much precision as do soldiers, and they can lay their co'irse for a given port
regardless of wind and tide, and reach their destination without loss of time. That an aggregation of such vessels is reassuring in troublous times, is apparent from
this illustration.


















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THE SAN FRANCISCO.
THE "San Francisco" is an unarmored cruiser of 4,098 tons' displacement, and has engines of 9,913 indicated horse-power, enabling her to steam 19.5 knots an
hour. Her dimensions are: length, 310 ft.; breadth, 49.2 ft.; mean draft, 18.8 ft. She carries a main battery of twelve 6-inch rifles and a secondary one of fifteen
rapid-fire guns of small calibre. Thus she would possess a high efficiency as a "commerce-destroyer." The "San Francisco's keel was laid in 1888, and her total
cost was $1,428,000. Her complement of officers and men is 33 and 350 respectively.


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FIRING A PIVOT-GUN.

GUNS of this kind are usually mounted on a ship's upper deck, military mast, or behind an elevated parapet, whence it is desirable to fire rapidly on a small
moving object. The pivot allows the gunners to sweep the piece through a large angle and to change its aim instantly. Thus if it should be seen that their fire had
sunk or repulsed an approaching torpedo-boat, they could turn their gun upon the port-holes of a hostile turret, and greatly impede the handling of the heavy ord-
nance within; or they might aim it at the platform of an enemy's military mast--a difficult target for large guns. It is believed by many naval constructors that one
*of the chief dangers to be avoided now is the explosion of ammunition by the searching fire of the comparatively small pivot-guns.


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THE NEWARK.
THE Newark embodies in part the ideas of those who believe that a cruiser should have considerable auxiliary sail-power, both to economize her coal when she
:s not pressed, and also to add to her speed when the wind favors this during a chase. She is bark rigged and can spread io,ooo sq. ft. of canvas to augment her
steaming speed of 19 knots an hour, derived from engines of 8,869 indicated horse-power. The "Newark's" dimensions are: length, 310 ft.; breadth, 49.2 ft.; mean
draft, 18.8 ft.; which make her displacement 4,098 tons. She carries twelve 6-inch rifles in her main battery, and sixteen auxiliary rapid-fire guns of small calibre. In
another illustration of this issue a comparison may be made between the Newark and the Baltimore," a cruiser of the same size but of different design.


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Cuba and


the Wrecked


Maine


WITH INTRODUCTION


REPRODUCTIONS


AND DESCRIPTIVE TEXT


OF PHOTOGRAPHS


CHICAGO
GEO. M. HILL & COMPANY


MDCCCXCVIII














































COPYRIGHT, 1898, BY BELFORD, MIDDLEBROOK & CO.


RAND, MCNALLY & CO., PRINTERS,
CHICAGO. ILL.













INTRODUCTION


The West Indies comprise a chain of islands more than two thousand
miles long, encompassing the Caribbean Sea on the east and north, and
extending from the mouth of the Orinoco, in South America, to the
entrance of the Mexican Gulf. One-third of this immense distance is cov-
ered by the Windward and the Leeward Islands, one-third by Porto Rico
and Hayti, while the remaining third is occupied by Cuba, the largest and
most considerable of the Antilles.
It would have been wonderful if Columbus had not discovered Cuba
shortly after leaving the small island he had first sighted in the Western
Hemisphere. The natives there had a tradition of a vast body of land
stretching far away toward the setting sun, and the great navigator con-
cluded that this could be no other than the object of his search-the
continent of Asia. It was scarcely possible for him to miss Cuba. Its
bold mountains are visible for miles at sea, and the mariner sailing west-
ward in this latitude has their outlines on his horizon for days before reach-
ing the Gulf of Mexico. Columbus saw them one clear October morning,
in 1492, and, landing, claimed possession for his sovereigns. In twenty
years the Spaniards had completely subjugated the island and exterminated
the natives. It was their first secure possession in the New World-with
Porto Rico it is now their last. Of that splendid Western empire whose
treasures built the Escorial, equipped the Armada, and marched an invin-
cible infantry to battle-fields far beyond the confines of the Peninsula, only
these two islands remain under Spanish rule-or misrule; and one of them
has already cost more men and money than the English spent in driving
the French out of Spain.
If it is strange that Cuba did not seek independence when the South
American states and Mexico were asserting theirs in arms, it is no less
strange that Spain should have eventually prized this island far above any
possession on the mainland. It is worth while to note the economic and
other conditions which explain these facts, as otherwise they may seem
anomalous.
In Cuba, no aboriginal population survived to receive a Spanish tinc-
ture and become assimilated, nor were there any mines of precious metals
to divert the attention of the first colonists. The natives had been
replaced by African slaves able to endure the hardships of the plantations,
and crops for export yielded a surer, though less dazzling, wealth than that
which filled the visions of a Cortez, or stimulated the efforts of a Pizarro.
On the other hand, in Mexico and South America the early Spaniards


were conquerors, not colonizers, and they made it their business to amass
and send home the metallic wealth of their viceroyalties, rather than' to
develop an agriculture less favored by location and climate than that of
the Antilles. As there was no occasion to substitute African slaves for
the aborigines, most of the latter were suffered to live, and thus the bulk
of the population was (and still is) of Indian blood. The descendants of
the conquerors and the conquered coalesced in tolerably homogeneous
nationalities, quite ready to declare their independence when Napoleon's
seizure of Spain furnished the opportunity.
It was impossible for the home government to extort any more riches
from them. The galleons had carried beyond the ocean the visible supply
of bullion, and there was little agriculture or commerce to provide another
source of wealth. Oppression bore its fruit after three centuries. The
various dependencies rebelled. Spain was too remote, too hard pressed
herself to send adequate reinforcements to her viceroys, and her cruel flag
was hauled down forever on the American continent.
The success of these revolts on the mainland changed the commercial
status of the islands at once, but did not affect their loyalty to Spain.
Ships which before had loaded silver bars at Vera Cruz or Callao, now
took aboard sugar and tobacco at Havana. The European consumption
of these two commodities increased to such an extent that Cuba could not
meet the demand with her existing facilities for production. Thousands
of new haciendas were established, and armies of slaves brought under sub-
jection the additional areas of virgin soil needed for cane and tobacco.
Not infrequently vessels cast anchor in the harbors before their cargoes
had been gathered from the fields! No such scale of agricultural operations
had ever been witnessed, nor were any before so profitable. It seemed as
if the planters had made with Nature a compact like Peter Schlemihl's
with the man in gray.'' Whatever their extravagances, an appeal to her
bounty was always as effectual as to empty the magic purse of Chamisso's
story: the squandered wealth was immediately renewed. But, notwith-
standing this material prosperity, a vague unrest was abroad in the island,
and it was slowly changing into discontent. The Cubans were of Spanish
race and loyal to Spain, yet they were not intrusted with the management
of the island's affairs. Young men, educated in the foremost institutions
abroad, found themselves ineligible to positions offered lavishly to Span-
iards in favor with the court at Madrid. Older men, possessing vast inter-
ests and unbounded social influence, found themselves without a voice















when measures affecting the island's welfare were discussed. Their fore-
fathers had reclaimed a wilderness; they cultivated the now arable fields,
but sojourning aliens controlled the wealth the harvests yielded. This
was bad enough, but when the injustice of such appointments was made
more aggravating by the countenanced peculation of the appointees, it was
evident that Cuba, too, was ready for independence. It took years to
reach this condition. Successive captain-generals, with their hordes of
satellites, had grown rich and returned to Spain; enormous deficits in the
Madrid exchequer had been covered by loans saddled upon the revenues
of the island. Representation was a mockery, autonomy a dream. Spain
steadily refused to be warned by the example of the South American
states, or to be instructed by England's experience with her colonies. It
was not surprising that "filibuster" ceased to be an opprobrious epithet
except on the lips of those whose abuses had provoked a special method
of redress! If, in 1851, the fate of Lopez and his associates aroused in
the United States only a passing sympathy, it cannot be said that the
Virginius affair found us easy to placate in 1873. Since the butchery of
Captain Fry and his men, the Cuban cause has received constant encour-
agement and support in the United States. In the island, organized re-
sistance to Spanish authority had always been easily crushed till 1868,
when the insurrection assumed the proportions of a war-if the barbarities
perpetrated allow the use of so humane a word! For ten years that con-
test went on, devastating the island from one end to the other. Thou-
sands of lives were sacrificed, and money was poured out like water. The
Peninsula was drained of its resources, the island bristled with forts and
block-houses, but in their mountain fastnesses the insurgents defied all
efforts to reduce them.
Finally, in 1878, a peace was agreed upon which was, properly speak-
ing, an armistice. The abolition of slavery in 1880 came too late to con-
ciliate a class ten years in arms. Negroes who had so long made common
cause with the white Cubans against the despoilers, were not rendered less
patriotic by the tardy removal of personal disabilities. When every pledge
had been violated and every grievance revived, shoulder to shoulder with
the whites they took up arms again in 1895, to do battle for Cuba's
freedom.
To narrate the occurrences of these three terrible years is beyond the


scope of this Introduction. They have shown that Cuba is not less worthy
for having suffered so long. However scanty the rewards of her heroism,
her place in the annals of freedom is secure.


Cuba's approximate geographical position is between the parallels
20o and 230 of north latitude, and the meridians 740 and 850 of longitude
west from Greenwich. The island is about 750 miles long, and from 25
to Ioo miles wide. 'From the mainland of Florida it is separated by 150
miles of water, from Mexico by the Yucatan Channel, 130 miles wide.
Commanding, therefore, both entrances to the Gulf of Mexico, and lying
close to the track of our carrying-trade with the Atlantic ports of South
America, Cuba is not only well situated for commerce, but is also strateg-
ically of great importance to a power at war with us.
On an area equal to Indiana's, it had in 1890 only three-fourths as large
a population, while Ireland, which it exceeds in size by one-eighth, sup-
ported three times as many inhabitants. To be more precise, Cuba's area
is 36,013 square miles, and population (1890), 1,637,681. The chief ports
are Havana (pop. 230,000), Matanzas (pop. 87,000), Santiago de Cuba
(pop. 71,000), and Cienfuegos (pop. 65,ooo).
The exports, principally raw sugar and tobacco, have greatly fallen off
since the last insurrection began, but were previously of a magnitude to
overshadow the combined output of the other West Indian islands.
The chief imports from the United States are food-stuffs and manufac-
tures. One of the island's standing grievances is the repression of domes-
tic manufactures for the purpose of favoring Barcelona and other Spanish
cities which need raw products and desire to sell to the island manufactured
ones. Cigars are an exception, but not all "Havanas" are made in
Havana, or even in Cuba. The restrictions placed upon this industry by
the Spanish authorities caused the removal of many establishments to Key
West, Tampa, and even as far as New York, where they receive and make
up large shipments of Cuban tobacco. The disturbed condition of the
island for the last three years render all obtainable statistics more or less
misleading, but there is little doubt that it could easily support three times
its present population, and produce five times as much for export if it
had a good government.


















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CONSUL-GENERAL FITZHUGH LEE.
FOR two years General Lee has held a most trying position in Havana and he has performed its duties to the entire satisfaction of his Government.
His has been no mere civilian's task, for he was surrounded from the first by the conditions of war, and was expected to pass a soldier's judgment on them.
This his West Point training and subsequent career as a Confederate officer eminently qualified him to do, while his later public and private life in Virginia
showed him possessed of the discriminating tact and courtly dignity requisite to one in his present delicate position.
On the wall is the portrait of another Virginian related to the Lees, and near the General's desk'hangs a map of Spain. Some shelves filled with choice
volumes complete the equipment of this unassuming office in which of late momentous questions have been weighed.


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THE COURT OF INQUIRY (ON BOARD THE "MANGROVE").
WHEN the news of the disaster was flashed to Washington shortly after its occurrence, our Government's first act was to succor the victims, and
the next to appoint a Court of Inquiry. This consisted of the four naval officers here shown. Beginning on the left their names are: Captain French
E. Chadwick, Lieutenant-Commander Adolph Marix, Captain William T. Sampson, and Lieutenant-Commander William P. Potter. Captain Sampson
acted as President of the Court, and Lieutenant-Commander Marix as Judge-Advocate. The Court held its sittings on board the light-house tender
"Mangrove," anchored near the wreck, and had the advantage of being able to inspect for itself any part that remained above the water, or was
brought up by the divers. In the exercise of its judicial functions, such a court brings to bear the technical knowledge and special skill which are
inseparable from the vocation and rank of its members.


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VIEW OF THE WRECK AMIDSHIPS.
THE wreckers are here shown at work on the carriage of a 6-inch gun. The chief difficulty lay in disentangling the carriage from the
encumbering debris, so as to make a clear lift. The view of the plates, frames, and machinery exhibit the destructive nature of the explosive used
in the mine. The fact that none of the ship's magazines not directly over the mine exploded is one proof of the exceeding care used on the
"Maine" to isolate these, and to minimize the danger of carrying in them such large quantities of ammunition. The "Maine" did not go to Havana
to fight, but she was held in readiness to repel an attack, and unceasing vigilance guarded her against the surprises of war. She did not anticipate
assassination


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MORRO CASTLE.
THE name of this celebrated fortification (often incorrectly written Moro ") is due to the eminence upon which it is built, the word morro, in Spanish,
being equivalent to (isolated) mountain. In this instance the mountain is also a promontory commanding the entrance to the harbor of Havana. and is
distinctly visible to ships miles out at sea. Although an imposing pile of masonry, the Morro Castle has little value as a defensive work, and under the
fire of modern rifled ordnance would soon become untenable. The interest which attached to it by reason of its medieval appearance and highly
picturesque location has long since given place to the horror inspired by its noisome dungeons and the inhuman executions of which its inclosure has been
the scene. The waters which wash the base of the cliff swarm with sharks, and many gruesome stories are told of their usefulness in removing all traces
of inconvenient suspects temporarily confined in the dungeons above.
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THE CASINO ESPAROL, SANTIAGO DE CUBA.

THE Casino (or club-house) of Santiago, like those of other Cuban cities, was built for comfort rather than for display, and to that end has windows as
large as doors to admit freely the breeze which even during the hot months comes sweeping in from the Caribbean Sea. The squat appearance of the
building is somewhat relieved by the stone vestibule, massive and deep, where one may lounge and look forth upon the plaza bordered by superb trees. At
nightfall fireflies of a size and brilliancy unknown outside the tropics light up the scene, shooting through the air like a phosphorescent shower oblivious
of gravitation, and contrasting their mellow radiance with the rich green of the foliage. As the day declines, the Casino fills with people and presents an
animated scene out of keeping with its somnolent appearance by day.


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ENTRANCE TO THE PLAZA, CIENFUEGOS.

IN the substantial cities of Cuba the beholder is impressed by the solidity and appositeness of everything around him. The plazas were no
chance openings for market purposes in or between the streets, but like the spacious grounds which inclose the residences, were expressly laid out
on a scale in keeping with what Spain built to be her own forever. The plaza of Cienfuegos is the most attractive part of the once prosperous city,
and is the first which travelers visit. Here, at suitable hours, they are sure to see congregated people that they might vainly seek elsewhere. The
ravages of war have nearly destroyed the commerce which enriched Cienfuegos, but massive buildings, wide streets, and the magnificent plaza all
attest its former importance.


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THE work of these men was carried on under exceptional difficulties, such as rarely present themselves in a diver's experience. Ordinarily the hull of
a wreck suffers very little after it has settled firmly in its position, and, therefore, a diver can work with tolerable ease and safety; but the "Maine was
torn out of shape and a large part of her was converted into a tortuous maze of frames, plates, pipes, rods, etc., all bent, broken, or twisted. Through
these the divers had to work their way to reach the bodies of the victims, the guns, and the uninjured parts of the ship's equipment. The yielding ooze
which covers the bottom of the harbor was not only difficult to traverse, but had allowed the heavy detached parts of the wreck to subside, and thus
increased labor preparatory to hoisting.


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WRECKING-BOATS AT WORK.
IN order to hoist the guns and their carriages out of the wreck, it was found necessary to employ the most powerful floating derricks obtainable. Even
the frames and riven parts of the superstructure were bent and entangled in such a manner as to defy a vertical lift. Often the divers worked for hours
before getting ready for the derrick to apply its power.
In the distance are seen the Montgomery and the Vizcaya." The former is the cruiser which was sent to Havana to replace the Maine," the
latter is a Spanish armored cruiser having a displacement of 7,000 tons and a speed of 20 knots. She is of the Brooklyn class, but her heaviest guns are
only two in number and of i -inch calibre. It will be observed that the "stars and stripes" floating over the wreck indicated that the United States still
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THIS illustration shows the wreck as seen from the "Maine's" fighting top, or circular platform around the mast. When the vessel sank the
mast remained upright, with the fighting top about fifty feet above the water. The three objects beyond the small boat in the centre of the picture
are pieces of plate blown upward by the explosion, and sundered from frames 17, 18, and 19. They were made objects of the most searching
investigation, and much expert testimony was taken concerning them. The condition of this plate was one of the conclusive proofs of an explosion
under and outside the "Maine's" hull.


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IT will be remembered that the Spanish authorities deemed it advisable to make an independent investigation with the aid of divers. Their operations
were leisurely, if not perfunctory, and they were occupied fewer hours than the American divers. The illustration shows the Spanish crew in the act of
letting a diver down. The report they made has not been published in detail, but from the utterances of the Madrid papers, as well as from the diplomatic
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SANTIAGO DE CUBA.
THIS city, the capital of the island's easternmost province of the same name, is situated on a small land-locked bay or harbor on the southern coast.
Before the last insurrection it had a considerable export trade in sugar, coffee, tobacco, and copper ore, but commerce is now at a standstill, being restricted
to the city's bare necessities.
It was to Santiago that the Spaniards steered the Virginius," captured on the high seas in October, 1873; and it was here that Captain Fry and a part
of his comrades were marched out and butchered at 4 p. M., November 7th. That the rest did not suffer the same fate is due, not to our Government's
intervention, but to the commander of the British ship Niobe," who had steamed at full speed from Jamaica for the express purpose of saving the lives of
these Americans. While our Government was preparing a diplomatic note, the Niobe's" guns were trained upon the city. The threatened bombardment
stayed the execution of the remaining prisoners, and the diplomatic correspondence secured their subsequent release. It is easy to see where the credit
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ST. THOMAS STREET, SANTIAGO DE CUBA.
THIs narrow street leads directly off from the Plaza towards the outskirts of the city, and apparently was intended mainly for pedestrians, as there
is barely room for two vehicles to pass each other. The signs on the two buildings in the foreground are expected to attract foreigners as well as natives,
whence it may be inferred that sailors sometimes pass this way in need of cigars and a SHAMPOOM." The photographer farther down the street has
addressed himself to a larger public, with a less cosmopolitan sign, FOTOGRAFIA," reaching across the street. The elevation in the distance is a
continuation of the Sierra del Cobre, where copper ore was mined before the present insurrection broke out.


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THE AMERICAN CLUB, JAGUEY STREET, SANTIAGO DE CUBA.
THE Americans whom the exigencies of business held in Santiago were sufficiently numerous to maintain a club, and there they met for
conversation, games, and reading, after their monotonous labors in the counting-house were over. The interior equipment of the club-house cannot
be inferred from its unpretentious exterior, though this is a model of neatness compared with shabby brick walls of the opposite building, to which
the stucco lazily refuses to adhere However, extremes meet in Cuba as in most Spanish-American countries, and squalor is often next door to wealth.
The American Club has lately been the scene of much anxious discussion regarding the measures to be taken to insure the safety of resident
Americans.





















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ALONG THE DOCKS, CIENFUEGOS.
THE expansion of the beet-sugar industry in Europe lessened the demand for cane-sugar, but Cuba's marvelous fertility and the introduction of
improved methods enabled the island to hold a good part of its trade by meeting competition. It even gained some trade that had previously gone to
the other islands, and but for the disastrous interference of the present war, the docks of Cienfuegos would be crowded with vessels seeking cargoes. The
harbor is well protected, and large enough to accommodate all the vessels which the rich back country can produce sugar to freight. Cienfuegos nearly
covers a peninsula jutting into the harbor, and thus has an abundance of dock room. Though steamers are multiplying, there are still many sailing vessels
which regularly make up their entire return cargoes here.






























































SAN FERNANDO STREET, CIENFUEGOS.
THESE massive pillars supporting a succession of archways seem a waste of strength and material in a structure of this height. But what the
Spaniards built in Cuba they intended should be theirs forever, whether it was private residences, public buildings, or warehouses. Many of the
latter were on a scale which nothing could justify except the mountains of crude sugar stored there in expectation of vessels to carry it to refineries
beyond the seas. From the monotony of stone archways the eye turns to the shady inclosures on the opposite side of the street and farther down
rests on the obtrusive Hotel Union, blocking half the street. The name seems inappropriate at a time when there is no union between the
Spaniards and the Cubans!

































































By permission of Stone Printing Company, Roanoke, Va.
AN EFFICIENT SQUADRON.
THIS is a small but efficient squadron. The two ships on the left are the armored cruisers," New York" and "Brooklyn," illustrated and described
in Part i of the American Navy. The "Cincinnati," nearer the centre of the background, is a 2o-knot cruiser of 3,213 tons, with engines of io,ooo
indicated horse-power. Her dimensions are: length, 300 feet; breadth, 42 feet; mean draft, 18 feet. She carries one 6-inch and ten 5-inch rifles in her
main battery, and has twenty smaller auxiliary guns. The "Newport," in the centre and farther to the front, is a 12-knot gunboat of i,ooo tons' dis-
placement, with engines of 800 indicated horse-power. She carries six 4-inch rifles and has the following dimensions, viz.: length, .168 feet; breadth, 36
feet; mean draft, 12 feet. The "Iowa," on the right of the illustration, is a first-class battle-ship, resembling the "Indiana." Her displacement is 11,410
tons and her speed 16.5 knots an hour, derived from engines of ,o000o indicated horse-power. She mounts four 12-inch, eight 8-inch, and six 4-inch rifles
as a main battery, and has twenty-eight smaller auxiliary guns. The Iowa's dimensions are: length, 360 feet; breadth, 72.2 feet; mean draft, 24 feet.


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MORRO CASTLE (NEAR VIEW).
PRIOR to the era of armored ships and rifled ordnance, this fortress was considered impregnable, but it is now entirely obsolete for defensive purposes. For many
years its chief use has been as a place of confinement for prisoners, and its foul dungeons have destroyed more human lives than all the cannon ever mounted on its
walls. Some few immured in this Bastille of Cuba have come back into the bright world, but unnumbered hundreds have perished in a captivity which was but a
lingering death! Fear of burying alive the prisoners there will probably deter our battle-ships from bombarding the Morro Castle, and therefore its ultimate fate will
be the ignoble one of demolition by Cuban hands after Havana falls. There is little foundation for the rumor that the Castle's masonry is pierced through to the
outer shell with port-holes for modern guns in readiness to be unmasked. That would invite destruction, for our fleet's 13-inch rifles would convert the fortress into
heap of rock!


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THE CAPTAIN GENERAL'S PALACE, HAVANA.
THE military functions of Spain's chief executive in Cuba are partly revealed by his title, while the regal splendor which surrounds him gives token of the
despotic power which he possesses. True, Spain herself is governed with the forms of a constitutional monarchy, but the edicts which issue from this lordly pile on
Obispo street are tempered only by the mercy or malevolence of its chief occupant. The former quality is so rare in a Spaniard that its exhibition may be safely
ascribed to fear, the latter is so common that its absence in the individual would render him an object of suspicion. Cruelty passes unquestioned in Cuba!
The eye may find a momentary pleasure in the symmetry of these columns, in the harmony of these portals; but the mind wanders off into a consideration of the
evils which had their origin behind these walls of the horrors planned within these gloomy chambers!


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HOMES OF THE POOR.
A HALF-HEARTED attempt to secure a street-level along the face of this hill left a foot-hold for these cabins, and their builders crowded them together without
much regard for anything except a vague municipal requirement as to front alignment! The photograph which this illustration reproduces was made before the recon-
centrados had been driven into the towns to die, therefore it conveys no idea of the misery now prevalent.. Though suffering from the stringency growing out of the
conditions of war, their lot was beatific compared with what befell them when Weyler invented the new barbarity of wholesale starvation. This street was forbidding
enough already, but when these roofs sheltered none but emaciated bodies, when these doorways opened only for the passage of the dead, humanity seemed to present
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THE CAPTAIN-GENERAL'S PALACE (INTERIOR).
THE impression left by this structure's exterior, shown elsewhere in this issue, is strengthened by this view of its stately interior. A' height that would have
sufficed for three stories is devoted to two, and this provision, together with the wide archways and protecting jalousies, make endurable the heat of a Cuban summer.
Perhaps there is a waste of materials here. The palace was built when wealth was abundant and it was desirable to erect a pile which should be a monument to Span-
ish enterprise, as well as a worthy abode of Spain's viceroy. The orders issued hence, the atrocities sanctioned, here, have made it seem to Cuban eyes rather a memorial
of Spanish oppression, and it is doubtful whether the Cuban chief executive can bring himself to occupy it when the Spaniards have left the Island.


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A LOWLY COUNTRY HOME.
IN Cuba, as in the other West Indian Islands, nature has lavished her richest gifts. A small area planted with bananas or yams will feed an entire family, and in
the tropics fuel and clothing cease to be costly factors in a poor man's life. He may not earn much as a plantation laborer, but he certainly ceases to need much.
The house is walled in with heavy planks, and roofed with a heavy thatch. The doors are low and the windows few according to the needs of a family spending no
time indoors except for sleeping. Before the present insurrection broke out there was no class more independent than the small farmers; since the fatal edict sum-
moning them into the cities thousands of them have perished. Over an expanse of many miles the eye wanders in a vain search for the humble chozas and the
comfortable farm-houses. Like the lordly haciendas they are gone !


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PLAZA SAN FRANCISCO, HAVANA.

HAVANA'S plazas are usually the scenes of varied activity, where carriages are in imminent danger of running into carts, standing and moving in all directions, and
where pedestrians thread their way among inconsiderate mules and vociferous drivers -all bent on securing the best positions. The supplies for the Spanish troops
which garrison the small towns are conveyed into the interior in carts like those shown here. The mules are hitched tandem, the number depending on the load, and
the drivers walk by their side alternating blows and oaths. Of late the destruction of locomotives by dynamite has been so frequent that mules are considered safer.
The contrast between the buildings around the plaza and the traffic in front of them is something which the observer does not explain to his own satisfaction until he
has acquainted himself thoroughly with the Spanish regime in Cuba.


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CUBAN OX-CARTS.

ONE'S first thought on seeing these cumbrous vehicles on such a fine highway is that in Cuba agriculture has not kept pace with road-making, or at least that the
use of oxen scarcely warrants the construction of macadamized roads. The fact is that the production is (or was) so great that only the best-made highways can stand
the loads to be hauled, and oxen are economical because they are cheaply fed on the coarse forage which abounds on the plantations. The advantage of carts over
wagons is not so apparent, but one is that on plantation roads or in the crowded thoroughfares, they can be turned in a small circle. Furthermore, carts can be made
unbreakable by using large axles and strong wheels, and if they become stalled or mired, it is easy to dislodge them by stringing oit additional oxen in front, and
attaching their chains to those behind. However stupid the ox may appear to be, he is guided chiefly by the voice of his driver, and in Cuba as in southern Missis-
sippi it is amusing to see an uncouth team of six or eight oxen turn a corner in obedience to a command from a negro driver on the sidewalk fifty yards in the rear!


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HAVANA (AT A BOAT-LANDING).
WHERE these queer-looking boats land their passengers and freight the tourist is regaled with sights which he may vainly seek outside of Cuba. These boats are
truly the hacks of the water-front-the vehicles for intercourse between ship and shore. Their breadth of beam allows two benches lengthwise for passengers and
space between their knees for luggage and bundles. Overhead is an arched framework on which canvas or matting is laid so as to be rolled up according to the
direction of the sun's rays. Their small draft and great breadth enable them to carry immense loads in shallow waters, and their capacity never showed to such
advantage as when they conveyed the hooting, jeering Spaniards out to the wrecked Maine." Here from daylight to dark Havana's rabble found amusement in
circling around the spot where 260 brave men had perished-assassinated by a spark flashed to the mine beneath the ship while they slept!


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HARBOR OF HAVANA.
HAVANA'S commercial importance is due quite as much to its harbor as to the richness of the province tributary to it. Railroads can be built anywhere for the
transportation of merchandise, but harbors are not so easily made to order. A city will always be built where a good one exists, providing the ships anchoring there
can secure cargoes. Before Cuba was devastated by war, this beautiful expanse of water was the destination of vessels from all parts of the world. So great was their
number that in course of time the offal and rubbish thrown overboard from them has seriously lessened the depth of the water. Though no rivers discharge their
waters into this harbor, its bottom is covered to the depth of many feet with soft mud and offensive slime. Beneath this deposit are the mines which constitute the
city's chief defense. The Spanish cruiser shown in the illustration closely resembles the Newark but is less powerfully armed. She sought the open sea long ago
lest the arrival of our Key West squadron should shut her up in the harbor.


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THE WORLD'S LARGEST SUGAR PLANTATION.
LARGE as are some of the establishments in southern Louisiana and the Hawaiian Islands, they are all eclipsed by the vast sugar estates of Cuba. Successive
generations have added to the cultivated areas they inherited till some of the estates seem like principalities, and employ an army of laborers. Many plantations,
owned by stock companies, and backed by foreign capital, reached the very highest development, and were models of scientific enterprise. The illustration shows
where the cane of the world's largest plantation, Constancia," is (or rather, was) ground, and its juice converted into sugar. With the burning of the cane-fields and
the enforced cessation of sugar-making came starvation for the laborers and ruin for the owners. Estates that formerly produced sugar enough to freight a line of
vessels, have been swept by fire and sword. The fields are given up to weeds, the live-stock driven off, the laborers killed outright, or herded into the towns to die of
starvation !



































































CIENFUEGOS FROM THE HARBOR).
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THE preceding issue of this Series contains a view along the docks of Cienfuegos; this one exhibits them as they appear to an observer half a mile out in the
harbor. The city is situated on a low peninsula which projects into a land-locked body of water more than 25 square miles in area, but badly silted up by the two
rivers flowing into it. The province of Santa Clara, of which Cienfuegos is the chief Caribbean port, has suffered so much during the insurrection that little could be
raised to ship, and therefore few vessels come here for cargoes. Properly dredged, the harbor is capacious enough to shelter the navies of the world, and the fertile
country around the city might produce the coffee and sugar to freight them. Only the evacuation of Cuba by the Spaniards can restore Cienfuegos to its former
position.






























































HAVANA (PANORAMA FROM ACROSS THE BAY).
THE city leaves a better impression when viewed from this eminence than when seen from a carriage or steamer. The attention is not arrested by strikingly beau-
tiful architecture, but rests upon a vast area solidly built up to the water's edge. The trade which brought prosperity to the builders of thek massive blocks has gone
to other ports-other islands, and few ships now arrive except those freighted with supplies for the Spanish troops. The four-masters anchored under the cliff doubt-
less brought provisions to maintain the recruits who dawdle about the streets, with no more serious occupation than jostling Americanos off the sidewalk and crying
Viva Espaia! Standing there and musing upon Havana's former greatness one can not help trying to imagine what this panorama will be after the Cuban flag floats
above it, and a new nation begins its existence.
































































MATANZAS.
IF mention is seldom made of Matanzas, it is not because of its obscurity, for it is the second city in the island, and handles the trade of Matanzas province, of
which it is the capital.. -The city is about 75 miles by rail east from Havana, and is situated on Matanzas Bay, which affords a secure anchorage except during strong
northeast gales. Theword matanzas in Spanish signifies "slaughterings," and the name was probably given to the city because so many wild cattle were formerly
slaughtered oh the wide savannas near. The appropriateness of the name has received a terrible confirmation in the butcheries perpetrated by the Spaniards, to say
nothing of the deaths caused by famine! The view along the San Juan shows houses very much like those of Cadiz and other cities in southern Spain, whence came
most of the early Spanish adventurers and colonists. The estimated population of Matanzas was 87,000, but less than one-half of this number is now more nearly
correct. Commerce has greatly fallen off since the suspension of sugar-making and comparatively few vessels now anchor in the harbor.































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INGLATERRA HOTEL, HAVANA.

THIS is one of Havana's leading hotels, and was the abode of General Fitzhugh Lee during his stay in the city, The full name is Gran Hotel Inglaterra, but
there is nothing "great" about it except its pretensions and prices, nor was there ever anything suggestive of England except the vernacular of the American guests who
submitted to the first-mentioned items of greatness. The hotel's situation, near Central Park, is highly attractive in a city where shade in large quantities belongs
to the unpurchasable luxuries, and this advantage is reinforced by the fame of a cuisine entirely dependent on importations from the United States. The investment
of Havana by our Key West squadron will call for a limited use of canned goods while the land batteries are being knocked to pieces, so the hotel's reputation is
threatened less than its walls, which would not stand up if hit by a chance shell from the "Indiana's" big forward guns.


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VIEW IN THE PLAZA, CIENFUEGOS.

THE stone blocks which floor the Plaza, no less than the palatial residences which inclose it would seem to substantiate the claim made for the Spaniards, that
they built in the forms and after the manner bequeathed them by their Roman progenitors. What is more certain is that they have improved on the refinements of
cruelty used by the Romans, and made their name hated throughout the Island whose cities they were so careful to invest with enduring beauty. A stroll through
this spacious plaza leaves many ineffaceable impressions. It is not so much the majesty of the place, heightened by the tropical magnificence of the trees which skirt
it, as it is the consciousness that all this material grandeur is coexistent with the misery which its possessors-have created and will not relieve. The plaza's beauty is
lost on a beholder who has looked upon the destitution of the city's reconcentrados!


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CHAPEL IN THE CEMETERY, HAVANA.

ONE of Havana's quaintest churches is that which looks out upon the quietude of a cemetery. Its architecture is plain but imposing, such as befits a place
where the living pay their last offices to the dead. Through these portals generations have been borne, and beneath this dome the grand burial service of the Church
has continued to lay its accustomed spell upon earth's anguished hearts. The noise and tumult remain afar, and round about the spot former benedictions seem to
have rested on the very flowers, for they breathe a sweeter fragrance here where the pulseless marble bears record of the dead.


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PLAZA DE TOROS.
HAVANA'S appreciation of bull-fighting should not be gauged by the accommodations here shown, for the spectacle in this arena is well attended, notwithstanding
the other forms of barbarity which have of late shared in the general interest. What is lost in the quality of the bovine gore is made up by its profusion: if Cuban
bulls are less courageous than those of the Peninsula, they are also cheaper, and more of them are slain.
Many of Spain's celebrated bull-fighters have exhibited their skill in Havana's Plaza de Toros, their feats'receiving here as much applause as in Madrid.
















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AVENUE OF ROYAL PALMS.
IN the Botanical Garden, which justly counts as one of Havana's attractions, are specimens of this truly royal tree, measuring
from 80 to 1oo feet to the beautiful foliage which crowns their trunks. Even the oldest trees show the ring markings indicative of
growth, but their mast-like stems are perfectly smooth, with no irregularity save now and then a slight enlargement close to where the
markings leave off. Here the trunk has scarcely hardened into wood, and a short distance above exhibits the sheathing out of which
the leaves proceed.
In Cuba's prosperous days the planters were wont to line with royal palms the avenues leading up to their mansions on the great
sugar estates. Those were, indeed, the Island's "palmy" days, for wealth abounded and beauty loved to ride along the palm-shaded
avenues to hospitable abodes.


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PLAZA DE TOROS.
HAVANA'S appreciation of bull-fighting should not be gauged by the accommodations here shown, for the spectacle in this arena is well attended, notwithstanding
the other forms of barbarity which have of late shared in the general interest. What is lost in the quality of the bovine gore is made up by its profusion: if Cuban
bulls are less courageous than those of the Peninsula, they are also cheaper, and more of them are slain.
Many of Spain's celebrated bull-fighters have exhibited their skill in Havana's Plaza de Toros, their feats receiving here as much applause as in Madrid.









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A CUBAN WINDOW.
THE difference between a window of this sort and a prison door is not apparent to an American eye-unless it is by the faces of
those behind the bars. In fact, the homes of the upper class in Cuba, as in Spain, are veritable prisons for the unmarried daughters,
and outside they do not appear except under the guardianship of the watchful dueia. Furthermore, riding in victorias is the only
form of outdoor locomotion they are permitted to employ, no matter how short the distance to be traversed. The size of these
barred openings, as compared with the inconspicuous reja of the Peninsula, is explained by the fact that in tropical countries there
must be a constant circulation of fresh air through the entire house, and only large windows make this possible.


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THE CORONA CIGAR FACTORY.
HAVANA'S principal export after sugar is tobacco, which is of a quality to defy competition. A large part of it is manufactured in the city's one hundred factories,
which are run to their full capacity to fill the standing orders from abroad. Contrary to what one might expect, the large establishments are not barrack-like structures,
but commodious stone buildings, with every convenience and appliance for the proper handling of the tobacco to be converted into the famous Havanas." The
processes do not differ from those employed in Key West and Tampa, but are much favored by climatic conditions not found elsewhere. In the factory called
"La Corona," many hundred workmen are engaged in making special brands known all over the world.


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THlE SPANISH CASINO.
IT is here that the officers garrisoned in Havana idle away in frivolous amusements the time they should consume in drilling recruits. The structure's exterior is
commonplace enough, but inside are found all the appurtenances of club pleasures-according to Spanish ideas. In the Casino's lofty rooms and airy corridors the
insurrection has received the attention its gravity deserved, being repeatedly suppressed in order to vary the monotony of garrison existence. Latterly, also, to the
delight of the civilian habitues, an invasion of the United States was discussed and pronounced feasible, though attended by the inconvenience of crossing a hundred
miles of water-farther than to where Gomez was burning cane-fields the other day to interrupt billiard practice in the Casino.
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A FRUIT-STAND.
BESIDES pineapples, bananas, and cocoanuts, which improved transportation facilities have made familiar fruits throughout the United States, the venders in
Havana offer fresh from the tree many that are too tender to be grown outside the tropics, and too perishable to be shipped to us. Of these the principal ones are the
cherimoyer, sapodilla, mango, avocado pear (which, by the way, is not a pear at all) and papaya. The Cuban orange is inferior to that grown in Florida, and in Havana
appears to be less in favor than the grape-fruit and shaddock, both members of the citrus family, and in acidity intermediate between the orange and the lemon,
which they greatly exceed in size. The taste for the rarer tropical fruits has to be acquired, and really they are.less palatable than the apples, pears and peaches of
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CENTRAL PARK FROM THE INGLATERRA HOTEL.
THIS small park is brilliantly illuminated in the evening, and is thronged with people, eager to see and be seen, to hear and be heard. Many disinclined to walk
are accommodated with seats and listen to the stirring music dispensed in front of the hotel. The location of the park makes it accessible from any direction, and the
sea-breeze reaches it without obstruction, rendering it an attractive rendezvous for Havana's public. When the explosion of a mine wrecked the"Maine," Central Park
was the scene of animated discussion every evening while the Amexican Court of Inquiry pursued its investigations.




































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HARBOR OF HAVANA (looking north).
THE observer's point of view here is not far from the anchorage to which the Maine was assigned preparatory to destroying her. In the distance the Morro
Castle, with its lighthouse, is seen, and on the right-hand shore are supplementary fortifications commanding the city. The water here is deep, but the bottom is foul,
and from the slime and mud rises, during the hot months, an unendurable stench. A south or southeast wind drives this into the city, and causes foreigners to migrate
from the hotels close to the water-front. There are no tides here and no cleansing river to remove the filth drained from the low-lying city directly into the harbor.
Hence the prevalence of yellow fever and other fatal maladies among foreigners not acclimated.




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