Group Title: Florida. University, Gainesville. State Museum. Bulletin. Biological sciences
Title: The freshwater decapod crustaceans of the Apalachicola drainage system in Florida, southern Alabama, and Georgia
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001564/00001
 Material Information
Title: The freshwater decapod crustaceans of the Apalachicola drainage system in Florida, southern Alabama, and Georgia
Series Title: Florida. University, Gainesville. State Museum. Bulletin. Biological sciences
Physical Description: 146-191 p. : illus., maps. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hobbs, Horton Holcombe, 1914-
Hart, C. W. ( jt. author )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1959
 Subjects
Subject: Decapoda (Crustacea)   ( lcsh )
Decapoda (Crustacea) -- Southern States   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 189-191.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00001564
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0984
notis - ACK0488
alephbibnum - 000440179
oclc - 02201204
lccn - a 59009645

Full Text





THE FRESHWATER DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS OF THE
APALACHICOLA DRAINAGE SYSTEM IN FLORIDA,
SOUTHERN ALABAMA, AND GEORGIA

HORTON H. HOBBS, JR., AND C. W. HART, JR. 1

SYNOPSIS: Two families of freshwater decapod crustaceans frequent the
lower Apalachicola drainage system. The family Palaemonidae is represented
by 2 shrimps of the genus Palaemonetes and the Astacidae by 21 crayfishes be-
longing to the genera Procambarus (15 species), Cambarus (4), Orconectes (1),
and Cambarellus (1). An illustrated key is provided for identifying these animals,
and a tabular summary of their ecological distributions precedes an annotated
list of species. The latter includes for each species a bibliographic synonomy,
diagnostic characters, color notes, ecological data, range, life history notes, and
a list of crayfish associates. Locality records in the area are indicated on ap-
pended maps. Procambarus rogersi expletus, new subspecies, is described from
Calhoun County, Florida.
INTRODUCTION

The area treated in this study is bounded on the west by the Choc-
tawhatchee River; on the north by Henry County, Alabama, Clay,
Calhoun, and Dougherty counties, Georgia; on the east by Dougherty,
Mitchell, and Grady counties, Georgia, and Leon and Wakulla
counties, Florida; and on the south by the Gulf of Mexico.
Here occur almost half of the freshwater decapod crustaceans
found within the political boundaries of the State of Florida-23
species and subspecies belonging to 5 genera. Some of the crayfish
frequent the larger streams; others appear to be confined to a few
small streams, while certain of them are apparently restricted to
subsurface waters which they reach by burrowing, sometimes to a
depth of more than 10 feet. The shrimp have invaded most of the
permanent bodies of water except the smaller streams, and are fre-
quently encountered in semipermanent aquatic environments.

1Horton H. Hobbs, Jr. is Professor of Biology at the University of Virginia
and Director of the Mountain Lake Biological Station. His chief interest is in
the taxonomy, geographic and ecological distribution of freshwater decapod crus-
taceans. C. W. Hart, Jr. is a Research Associate in the Department of Limnology
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and is also Editor of Scientific
Publications of the Academy. He is particularly interested in the taxonomy of
ostracods and in the morphology of crayfishes. These investigations were sup-
ported in part by Research Grant No. G-942 from the National Science Founda-
tion. Manuscript submitted 9 September 1958.-ED.






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Within this area a wide diversity of habitats is available to the
decapod stocks that have invaded it and, in spite of the slight vari-
ation in topography, the development of diverse soil types in rela-
tively small areas has resulted in swamp and marsh areas partially
or completely isolated by well-drained soils. Many of the streams
flow through areas that, because of the nearly xeric conditions pre-
vailing adjacent to them, are accessible only to those crayfishes and
shrimps able to reach them by migrating upstream. Too, the lower
Apalachicola River itself appears to have functioned as a barrier to
certain species as effectively as xeric habitats. Thus it is apparent
that barrier effects, insofar as these decapods are concerned, are just
as efficient in a monotonous terrain as in regions with striking diversity
of elevations. The importance of soil types becomes apparent when
it is realized that in Florida the total variation in topographic relief
ranges from sea level to approximately 500 feet, and the area of the
State above 300 feet is small indeed. In Florida only along the Apa-
lachicola River does one find a situation that recalls the deep shaded
ravines so typical of the upper Piedmont and foothills of the Appa-
lachian System, and it is of interest that only here are found a flora
and fauna with so many upper Piedmont and southern Appalachian
elements.
The senior author's interest in the Apalachicola drainage system
began when he first collected in the area in 1934. Since then he has
made many collections in the vicinity to ascertain its crayfish fauna.
In September 1955 both of us spent 10 days in the area visiting as
many localities as possible. This visit was initiated through the ac-
tivities of a group of biologists associated with the Florida State
Museum and the Department of Biology, University of Florida, and
led by Dr. J. C. Dickinson, Jr. They became interested, upon learning
of the proposed impoundment of the Flint and Chattahoochee rivers,
in making a study of the flora and fauna that the lake resulting from
the construction of the Jim Woodruff Dam would displace.
A number of important contributions have been made to our knowl-
edge of the fauna and flora of the region, most of which have been
cited in the excellent study by Hubbell, Laessle, and Dickinson (1956).
They have presented a comprehensive treatment of the physical fea-
tures and natural regions of the area together with a classification
of the major habitats. Since then Clench and Turner (1956) com-
pleted a monographic study of the mollusks from the Escambia to
the Suwannee River, and Berner (1958) has published a list of the
mayflies of the lower Apalachicola River Drainage.


146


Vol. 4






1959 HOBBS AND HART: FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS


The history of work on the crayfishes of this area is indeed brief,
dating back only to 1938 when the senior author described Cambarus
rogersi (now Procambarus rogersi) from the Apalachicola flatwoods
near Blountstown. The bibliography at the end of this paper cites
all the subsequent work published on the subject to date.

THE ORIGIN OF THE FAUNA
The region under consideration lies wholly within the Coastal
Plain province, and although opinions differ as to how long it has
been above sea level (c.f. Cook 1945 and Coin 1958), almost certainly
some of it was inundated as recently as the latter part of the Pleisto-
cene. With the retreat of the sea three principal highways seemed
to have been opened to the decapods: (1) The confluence of the Flint
and Chattahoochee rivers to form the Apalachicola provided a route
for the Piedmont fauna to reach the Florida panhandle. (2) The
second route from the northeast developed along the Ochlockonee
drainage system and allowed the Coastal Plain fauna in southeastern
Georgia to move into the coastal flatwoods of the panhandle. (3)
The third route, from the northwest, provided a highway for stocks
moving southeastward from Alabama into the panhandle. In spite
of the fact that the molluscan fauna is apparently derived totally from
a northwestern stock (Clench and Turner, 1958: 103), considerable in-
terest and importance attaches to the role that these three routes
have played in the population of the Apalachicola region, for not only
does an examination of them shed light on the evolution of the several
decapod stocks, but also should contribute to an understanding of
the origin and evolution of much of the biota of the area.
The crayfishes and shrimps of the Apalachicola drainage system
represent 10 somewhat closely related groups, and only 2 species
are endemic to the region, the others being found in other drainage
systems.
East of the developing Apalachicola River the Ochlockonee sys-
tem paralleled to some degree the developing Flint River. This re-
sulted in a well-drained area between the two and, except for the
possibility of stream piracy developing in the intervening area, there
could have been little opportunity for the faunas of the two systems
to mix. Only in the continuous flatwoods between the lower reaches
of these two streams could decapods have migrated from one stream
to the other.
Immediately west of the Apalachicola River the land is drained
chiefly by the Chipola River which rises in the southeastern part of


147







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Alabama and joins the Apalachicola some 25 miles above its mouth.
Between these two rivers, and particularly in Alabama and northern
Florida, the land lies at a relatively high elevation with few streams.
Even though the Chipola is a small stream it has undoubtedly facili-
tated the migrations of several stocks now found in the coastal flat-
woods.
Of the 6 crayfishes that have apparently invaded the region from
the north along the Flint and Chattahoochee rivers, 3 are primarily
stream dwellers. One, Procambarus paeninsulanus, is somewhat ubi-
quitous 2 and two, Cambarus floridanus and C. diogenes, are burrow-
ing species that excavate complex burrows in the immediate vicinity
of streams. Of the stream-dwelling species, one representative, C.
latimanus, typically a Piedmont form, is found in a few localities in
the deep ravines along the east side of the Apalachicola River in
Florida as well as in a few places in the Flint and Chattahoochee
drainages below the Fall Line in Georgia and Alabama. Another,
P. spiculifer, occurs in most of the major river systems in Alabama,
Georgia, and northern Florida, both in the Piedmont and Coastal
Plain provinces. The third, P. versutus, has been found in only a
single locality in the area, a small brook in the Apalachicola Bluffs.
It occurs abundantly in streams to the west and northwest, and the
small population here is probably a relict one. It is so considered
because it is known elsewhere in the drainage from only two localities
near Phenix City, Alabama, and it is assumed that these are the only
ones where the species, once widely dispersed in this drainage system,
has survived to the present. Of the burrowing species, C. diogenes
is found from New Jersey and the Great Lakes southwestward to
Texas. The other, C. floridanus, appears to be confined to the Apa-
lachicola and the Ochlockonee systems. Procambarus paeninsulanus
frequents most aquatic habitats from the Choctawhatchee River east-
ward to the Atlantic Ocean.
Whereas representatives of only two crayfish genera entered the
region from the north along the Apalachicola River, representatives
of three appear to have arrived from the northwest. The only stream-
dwelling species in this group is the pigmy crayfish, Cambarellus
schmitti, which is found in springs and streams from southern Ala-
bama to the northern part of the peninsula of Florida. In the flat-
woods in temporary lentic and lotic situations occur five species that

2 The word ubiquitous is here used to designate a broad ecological tolerance,
and is applied to those species that frequent lentic and lotic habitats as well as
burrows.


148


Vol. 4







1959 HOBBS AND HART: FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS


dig shallow burrows during seasons of drought. Orconectes clypeatus
is found from Oklahoma to South Carolina, C. fodiens from Ontario
southward and eastward through the upper Mississippi basin to Geor-
gia, and the remaining three, P. latipleurum, P. apalachicolae, and
P. hubbelli, have small ranges in the region, latipleurum being en-
demic to the Apalachicola drainage system. The remaining species
that appears to have arrived in the area from the northwest is P.
pycnogonopodus, another ubiquitous form found abundantly in the
western drainage of the Apalachicola River in Florida.
Only one genus, Procambarus, is represented by the crayfish stocks
that arrived in the Apalachicola region from the northeast. From one
of them arose two burrowing species, P. rogersi and P. pygmaeus.
The range of rogersi is largely restricted to this area; that of pygmaeus
is apparently discontinuous, records having been established in iso-
lated localities on both sides of the Apalachicola River and in the
vicinity of the Okefenokee Swamp. Another northeastern stock is
represented by P. kilbyi, a secondary burrower (see below) which
ranges through the coastal flatwoods from the Apalachicola drainage
system eastward to Levy County, Florida. From the other two stocks
arose the ubiquitous P. leonensis, the range of which extends from
the eastern tributaries of the Apalachicola River to the Suwannee
River, and the stream-dwelling, endemic P. young.
Of the two species of shrimps in the area, Palaemonetes kadiaken-
sis seems to have arrived from the northwest and P. paludosus, by
far more abundant in the area, from the northeast.
The hypogean crayfishes, Procambarus pallidus (Hobbs, 1940: 394)
and Cambarus cryptodytes Hobbs (1941: 110), known respectively from
sinkholes in the Tallahassee region and from a well two miles south
of Graceville, Jackson County, Florida may eventually be found with-
in the area; however, they have not been included in this report.

KEY TO THE DECAPODS OF THE AREA
1 Rostrum compressed, with a row of spines above and at least one or
two below (figs. 1, 3). Third pair of walking legs not chelate......------
.....-.---------------------------- Palaemonidae (shrimp)
1' Rostrum depressed, never with a row of spines above (fig. 5). Third
pair of walking legs chelate ------------ -Astacidae (crayfish)

KEY TO PALAEMONIDAE

1 Branchiostegal spine located on anterior margin of carapace immediately
below the branchiostegal groove (fig. 1). Posterior pair of dorsal spines


149







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


on telson lying midway between anterior pair and caudal margin of telson
(fig. 4) ---- ----- Palaemonetes (Palaemonetes) paludosus
1' Branchiostegal spine lying behind anterior margin of carapace and below
the branchiostegal groove (fig. 3). Posterior pair of dorsal spines on telson
lying almost on caudal margin of telson, sometimes in a line with the ter-
minal spines (fig. 2) --- --- Palaemonetes (Palaemonetes) kadiakensis

THE SHRIMP
We have observed only two species of freshwater shrimp in the
area and, while they are abundant in certain places, no systematic
attempt has been made to record all the localities from which they
have been collected. They cannot be separated reliably without
some magnification to see the diagnostic characteristics given in the
key. The number of spines on the rostrum varies, but the predomi-
nent numbers are indicated in figures 1 and 3.

Palaemonetes (Palaemonetes) paludosus (Gibbes)

(Figures 1 and 4)
Hippolyte paludosa Gibbes 1850, Proc. Amer. Ass. Adv. Sci., 3: 197.
Palaemonetes exilipes Stimpson 1871, Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., N. Y.,
10: 130.
Palaemonetes (Palaemonetes) paludosus Holthuis 1949, Koninklijke
Nederlandsche Akademie van Wetenschappen, 52 (1): 7.
This species is abundant in the lower Piedmont and Coastal Plain
provinces from New Jersey to Florida. It has also been reported from
Mississippi, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas.

Palaemonetes (Palaemonetes) kadiakensis Rathbun

(Figures 2 and 3)
Palaemonetes kadiakensis Rathbun 1902, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24: 903.
Palaemonetes (Palaemonetes) kadiakensis Holthuis 1949, Koninklijke
Nederlandsche Akademie van Wetenschappen, 52 (1): 8.

According to Holthuis (loc. cit.) this species occurs in the "fresh-
waters of Central U.S.A. west of the Alleghenies from the Great Lakes
to the Gulf coast, also in S. Ontario (Canada) and N. E. Mexico".
Although it is not rare in this area, it is not so common as P. paludosus.


150


Vol. 4







1959 HOBBS AND HART: FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS


KEY TO ASTACIDAE
1 Male ---------------- --------------------- 22
1' Female ------------...----------------------- 2
2(1') Annulus ventralis freely movable-not fused wih sternum anterior
to it -- -------------------------- 6
2' Annulus ventralis only slightly movable-fused with sternum an-
terior to it -------_ ----------------------- Cambarus...... 3
3(2',23) Areola linear or obliterated (fig. 35) ----------- 4
3' Areola narrow or broad but never reduced to a line (fig. 6) ----- 5
4(3) Movable finger of chela with a distinct excision on opposable mar-
gin; fingers concolorous, not red-tipped (fig. 11) _------C. fodiens
4' Movable finger with no well-defined excision on opposable mar-
gin; fingers red-tipped (fig. 10) ----------------- -. --- C. diogenes
5(3') Areola with three or four punctations across narrowest part; color
brownish or greenish gray ------ -------------------- C. latimanus
5' Areola with only one or two punctations across narrowest part; color
reddish purple or red ---.- -------------------- C. floridanus
6(2) Mesial surface of carpus (fig. 7) of cheliped without a prominent
tubercle or spine, except sometimes on distal margin; rostrum with-
out lateral spines or tubercles -----Orconectes clypeatus
6' Mesial surface of carpus of cheliped with a prominent tubercle or
spine, or if without, then rostrum always bears lateral spines or
tubercles --------- ......----......-------.--- 7
7(6') Sclerite between fifth walking legs in the form of an acute triangle;
adult individuals never more than one inch in length ----
-------------------- ........Cambarellus schmitti
7' Sclerite between fifth walking legs variable in shape but never in
the form of an acute triangle; adult individuals always more than
one inch in length ------------- 8
8(7') Lateral surface of carapace with two spines on each side immedi-
ately behind cervical groove ----------- 9
8' Lateral surface of carapace without or with only one spine on each
side immediately behind cervical groove -------------- -.-- --------- 10
9(8,31) Spine present on mesial margin of basipodite of cheliped (fig. 9sb)
.--.-.----------------------- ...Procambarus versutus
9' No spine present on mesial margin of basipodite of cheliped ---
------------------------------------ P. spiculifer
10(8') Palm of chela flattened (depressed) with a cristiform row of tubercles
on inner margin (fig. 30) ----------------------------- 11
10' Palm of chela not conspicuously depressed and never with a single
cristiform row of tubercles on inner margin ------------------- --- -- 15
11(10) Annulus ventralis distinctly longer than wide-. P. rogersi ochlocknensis
11' Annulus ventralis either broader than long or with the two dimen-
sions subequal in length ----------------------------- 12


151







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


12(11') Annulus ventralis distinctly broader than long and without con-
spicuous tubercles anteriorly .-_.-.......--.. .....---.. _--_P. rogersi rogersi
12' Annulus ventralis with length and width subequal or with con-
spicuous tubercles anteriorly ---- -..---------. -------..---.....-- 13
13(12') Annulus ventralis without tubercles anteriorly; carapace green with
scarlet markings --------------- --- P. pygmaeus
13' Annulus ventralis with tubercles anteriorly (fig. 37); carapace
purplish red ---------------------.--.. 14
14(13') Inner margin of antennal scale evenly rounded (fig. 39) ----------....--.
.. ..---...........------------------ P. rogersi expletus


Explanation of Figures 1-11
Figure 1. Lateral view of anterior portion of Palaemonetes paludosus.
Figure 2. Dorsal view of telson of Palaemonetes kadiakensis.
Figure 3. Lateral view of anterior portion of Palaemonetes kadiakensis.
Figure 4. Dorsal view of telson of Palaemonetes paludosus.
Figure 5. Lateral view of carapace of Procambarus young.
Figure 6. Dorsal view of carapace of Procambarus young.
Figure 7. Dorsal view of distal three podomeres of cheliped of male of Pro-
cambarus young.
Figure 8. Dorsal view of chela of male of Procambarus hubbelli.
Figure 9. Ventral view of proximal podomeres of left cheliped and second
walking leg of Procambarus versutus.
Figure 10. Movable finger of chela of Cambarus diogenes diogenes.
Figure 11. Movable finger of chela of Cambarus fodiens.

Abbreviations Used
ar-areola
as-anterior dorsal spine
B-1-basipodite of cheliped (first walking leg)
B-2-basipodite of second walking leg
bg-branchiostegal groove
bs-branchiostegal spine
C-1-coxopodite (coxa) of cheliped (first walking leg)
C-2-coxopodite of second walking leg
car--carpus
ex---excision
I-1-Ischiopodite of cheliped (first walking leg)
I-2--Ischiopodite of second walking leg
Isc-lateral spine on carapace
Isr-lateral spine on rostrum
mf-movable finger
plm-palm of chela
ps-posterior dorsal spine
s-spine
sb-spine on basipodite


152


Vol. 4







1959 HOBBS AND HART: FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS 153








bs 2
bg







bg 3 4


t







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


14' Anterior half of inner margin of antennal scale straight--- -
------ P---------. P--- rogersi campestris
15(10') Areola at least one-third as broad as long and acumen as long as
remainder of rostrum (fig. 6) ------- ---------.----- P. young
15' Areola always less than one-third as broad as long and acumen
never as long as remainder of rostrum -----. ----- 16
16(15') Lateral spines present on carapace and usually on margins of
rostrum (fig. 6) --...------------------..---------... 17
16' Lateral spines lacking on carapace and seldom present on rostrum -- 19
17(16) Surface of annulus ventralis subplane except for sinuous sinus --
-......------------------------------P. paeninsulanus
17' Surface of annulus ventralis not flat but bearing prominences or
ridges -------- -- .- .. ..- -- -.. . .....-- 18
18(17') Annulus ventralis usually with a broad transverse furrow (east of
the Apalachicola River) __- --- ------ P. leonensis
18' Annulus ventralis usually with a median longitudinal elevation
(west of the Apalachicola River) _--- __-----_P. pycnogonopodus
19(16') Anterolateral surfaces of annulus ventralis with spines or tubercles 20
19' Anterolateral surfaces of annulus ventralis without spines or tubercles 21
20(19) Rostrum acute lanceolate --------- _------- P. latipleurum


Explanation of Figures 12-26
First left pleopods of first form males. All are lateral views except figures 14-16
and 25 which are caudal views. Pubescence is not indicated in any of the pleo-
pods illustrated.

Figure 12. Procambarus leonensis.
Figure 13. Procambarus pygmaeus.
Figure 14. Procambarus rogersi rogersi.
Figure 15. Procambarus rogersi ochlocknensis.
Figure 16. Procambarus rogersi campestris.
Figure 17. Procambarus pycnogonopodus.
Figure 18. Procambarus paeninsulanus.
Figure 19. Procambarus kilbyi.
Figure 20. Procambarus apalachicolae.
Figure 21. Procambarus latipleurum.
Figure 22. Procambarus versutus.
Figure 23. Procambarus spiculifer.
Figure 24. Cambarus floridanus.
Figure 25. Orconectes clypeatus.
Figure 26. Procambarus young.

Abbreviations Used
ck-caudal knob
cp-cephalic process
cpj--central projection
mp--mesial process


154


Vol. 4











1959 HOBBS AND HART: FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS


12


'






-





:.


.





.

..



15


17


26


155


22


;








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


20' Rostrum broadly ovate ---------- ----- -..----.---P. apalachicolae
21(19') Dorsal surface of carapace and abdomen usually with a light median
longitudinal band (Apalachicola drainage system and eastward)- P. kilbyi
21' Dorsal surface of carapace and abdomen speckled; adults never
with a light median longitudinal band (Choctawhatchee drain-
age system) --- .-_... .-------.. ------------- P. hubbelli
22(1) First pleopod terminating in two parts that if not markedly unequal
in length are bent posteriorly at at least right angles to the main
shaft of the appendage (figs. 24, 25) ------ 2:3
22' First pleopod terminating in two or more conspicuous parts; if only
two, then subequal in length and never bent posteriorly at as much
as at right angles (figs. 12-23, 26) --- ------ 24
23(22) Tips of first pleopod consisting of one short and one long ramus
(fig. 25) ---------------Orconectes clypeatus
23' Tips of first pleopod consisting of two rami of subequal length
bent approximately at right angles to the main shaft of the append-
age (fig. 24) ----------------Cambarus- 3
24(22') Hooks present on ischiopodites (third joint from base) of second
and third pereiopods ------- Cambarellus schmitti
24' Hooks present on ischiopodites of third (fig. 36) or third and fourth
pereiopods _..... ----------------------------- 25
25(24') Hooks present on ischiopodites of third pereiopods only -- 26
25' Hooks present on ischiopodites of third and fourth pereiopods 31
26(25) Palm of chela flattened and with a cristiform row of tubercles along
inner margin (fig. 30) --_ -----------27
26' Palm of chela not flatttened, never with a cristiform row of tubercles,
and usually with a conspicuous tuft of plumose setae along inner
margin (fig. 8) ------ _- Procambarus hubbelli
27(26) Caudal knob of first pleopod conspicuous (figs. 14-16, 34) 28


Explanation of Figures 27-39
Procambarus rogersi expletus, subsp. nov.
Figure 27. Mesial view of first pleopod of holotype.
Figure 28. Mesial view of first pleopod of morphotype.
Figure 29. Lateral view of carapace of holotype.
Figure 30. Upper surface of distal three podomeres of cheliped of holotype.
Figure 31. Lateral view of first pleopod of morphotype.
Figure 32. Lateral view of first pleopod of holotype.
Figure 33. Cephalic view of distal portion of first pleopod of holotype.
Figure 34. Caudal view of distal portion of first pleopod of holotype.
Figure 35. Dorsal view of carapace of holotype.
Figure 36. Basipodite and Ischiopodite of third pereiopod of holotype.
Figure 37. Annulus ventralis of allotype.
Figure 38. Epistome of holotype.
Figure 39. Antennal scale of holotype.


156


Vol. 4







1959 HOBBS AND HART: FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS 157


35







158 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM Vol. 4

27' Caudal knob of first pleopod vestigial so that only two terminal ele-
ments are apparent (fig. 13) ---------------- --------- P. pygmaeus
28(27) Caudal knob bent mesially at a right angle to the main shaft of the
appendage (fig. 14) -------- P. rogersi rogersi
28' Caudal knob bent no more than at a 45 degree angle to the main
shaft of the appendage (figs. 15, 16, 34) ---- --- 29
29(28') Inner margin of antennal scale evenly rounded (fig. 39) ----
........---------------------------P. rogersi expletus
29' Anterior half of inner margin of antennal scale straight 30
30(29') Plate-like central projection of first pleopod directed obliquely cau-
dad across cephalic border of tip, cephalic process present (fig. 15)
-----------------P. rogersi ochlocknensis
30' Plate-like central projection of first pleopod directed laterad across
cephalic border of tip, cephalic process rudimentary or absent
(fig. 16) ----------P. rogersi campestris
31(25') Lateral surface of carapace with two spines on each side ----- 9
31' Lateral surface of carapace with only one spine on each side (fig. 5) 32
32(31') Areola at least one-third as broad as long and acumen as long as
remainder of rostrum (fig. 6) ---- ------ ---------------- P. young
32' Areola always less than one-third as broad as long and acumen
never as long as remainder of rostrum ------- 33
33(32') Areola less than one-fifth as broad as long ---- 34
33' Areola at least one-fifth as broad as long ----- 36
34(33) First left pleopod with a conspicuous angular prominence on ceph-
alic margin (fig. 18) -------- P. paeninsulanus
34' First left pleopod without an angular prominence on cephalic
margin (figs. 12, 17) --- ------ 35
35(34') Distal portion of first pleopod somewhat tapering and directed
caudodistad (fig. 12) -------------------------- P. leonensis
35' Distal portion of first pleopod not tapering, and directed distad
(fig. 17) ----------------------- ....... P. pycnogonopodus
36(33') Mesial process of first pleopod heavy, subspatulate, and directed
caudad (fig. 19) ...------------------------- P. kilbyi
36' Mesial process slender and never directed caudad (figs. 20, 21) 37
37(36') Mesial process subspiculiform and curved cephalad (fig. 21)
-------------------------------------- P. latipleurum
37' Mesial process slender, but not so spiculiform, and directed caudo-
distad (fig. 20) .--- -------------------------- P. apalachicolae







1959 HOBBS AND HART: FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS


SUMMARY OF ECOLOGICAL HABITS AND HABITATS OF THE CRAYFISHES

A-Species that Occur in Burrows

The burrowing forms show three somewhat different relationships
to the burrowing habit, indicated by: P-primary (restricted to bur-
rows); S-secondary (generally occupying burrows but wandering
into open water during rainy seasons); and T-tertiary (burrowing
only when the aquatic basin becomes dry, or occasionally, but not
necessarily, as its breeding period approaches).

I. Burrowing in Seepage Areas [Bayheads and Bogs, Hubbell et al.,
1956: 34, 36]


P. rogersi rogersi P
P. rogersi expletus P
P. rogersi ochlocknensis P
P. rogersi


C. latimanus S
C. floridanus P
C. diogenes P or S
campestris P


II. Burrowing in Flatwoods [Slash Pine Flatwoods-Marginal thicket
type and Pitcher-plant type, Hubbell et al., 1956: 35]


rogersi rogersi P
rogersi expletus P
rogersi ochlocknensis P
rogersi campestris P
paeninsulanus T
pycnogonopodus T
0. clypeatus


P. hubbelli S
P. apalachicolae S
P. latipleurum S
P. kilbyi S
P. leonensis T
P. pygmaeus P or S
S or T


III. Burrowing in Floodplains of Large Streams [Alluvial Swamps,
Hubbell et al., 1956: 33]


C. diogenes P-S

IV. Burrowing in Banks of Streams


P. hubbelli S
P. paeninsulanus T
P. kilbyi S
P. spiculifer T


C. floridanus P


P. versutus T
C. diogenes P-S
C. latimanus S
C. fodiens S
C. floridanus P


V. Burrowing in Drying Ponds or Ditches [Cypress Ponds, Hubbell
et al., 1956: 33]


P.
P.
P.
P.
P.
P.


159







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


P. hubbelli S
P. kilbyi S
P. apalachicolae S
P. latipleurum S
P. paeninsulanus T


P. pycnogonopodus T
P. leonensis T
P. pygmaeus P or S
0. clypeatus S or T
C. fodiens S


B-Species Occasionally or Usually Found Outside of Burrows

I. Inhabiting Ponds, Lakes, and Ditches. L-permanent lakes or
ponds; T-temporary or fluctuating ponds or ditches [Including
Cypress Ponds, Hubbell et al., 1956: 33]


P. hubbelli T
P. kilbyi T
P. leonensis L-T
0. clypeatus T


P. apalachicolae T
P. pycnogonopodus L-T
P. paeninsulanus L-T
P. paludosus L (shrimp)


II. Inhabiting Lotic Situations. A-ravine brooks; I-intermittent
streams; B-rivers, creeks, and brooks not in deep ravines.
P. kilbyi I P. versutus A
P. leonensis I-B P. young B
P. pycnogonopodus-I-B P. pygmaeus I
P. paeninsulanus I-B C. schmitti B
P. spiculifer A-B 0. clypeatus I
C. latimanus A P. paludosus I-B (shrimp)
P. kadiakensis B (shrimp)

III. Inhabiting Sluggish Streams and Sloughs.
P. kilbyi P. paeninsulanus
P. hubbelli 0. clypeatus
P. leonensis C. schmitti
P. pycnogonopodus P. paludosus (shrimp)
P. kadiakensis (shrimp)

ANNOTATED LIST
Both the keys and the diagnostic characters have been designed
for the recognition of the crayfishes and shrimps of this area, and
should not be utilized to identify or to confirm an identification of
specimens collected outside of the region. Notes on color and ref-
erences to the habits of the several species are, insofar as we are
aware, applicable to any localities where the animals are found.


160


Vol. 4






1959 HOBBS AND HART: FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS 161

Life history notes and the list of crayfish associates apply only to the
crayfishes collected in the general region and not throughout the
range of each species or subspecies.
The maps indicate the distribution of each of the crayfishes in
the area; exact locality data are given only for those species that
are known from only a few localities.
In the Life History Notes reference is made to "first form males".
These are breeding males as opposed to "second form males" which
are adult but apparently incapable of transferring sperm to the fe-
male. The first form male may be distinguished from the second
by the presence of at least one corneous apical process on the first
abdominal appendage, pleopod, whereas none of them is corneous in
the second form male.
Those species, some of the habitats of which have been or prob-
ably will be affected by the impoundment of the Jim Woodruff Dam
are P. spiculifer, P. paeninsulanus, 0. clypeatus, C. latimanus, C. flori-
danus, C. fodiens, and C. diogenes.

Procambarus young Hobbs
(Figures 5, 6, 7, 26; Map 6)
Procambarus young Hobbs 1942, Univ. Fla. Pub., Biol. Sci. Ser., 3
(2): 131, 15 figs.
This species is known from only three localities, one each in the
drainage systems of the Chipola River, St. Marks River, and Wetappo
Creek (see below). Further collecting in the permanent streams in
the Apalachicola flatwoods and bordering uplands should be under-
taken to determine whether or not this species is as limited in its
distribution as it appears to be.
DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS.-A combination of the acumen of the
rostrum being subequal in length to the remainder of the rostrum,
the areola comprising one-third of the length of the carapace, and,
in the male, the length of the inner margin of the palm of the chela
being longer than that of the movable finger is sufficient to distinguish
this crayfish from any other.
COLOR NOTES.-Not available.
ECOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS.-The type locality, Guard House
Branch, is a small clear stream flowing through gently sloping flat-
woods. Wetappo Creek is a somewhat larger stream that is fre-
quently coffee-colored, and the St. Marks River is a large spring-fed
stream, crystal-clear except during periods of heavy rains when it,






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


too, becomes somewhat coffee colored. In the larger streams P.
young was found only in the littoral areas among the vegetation and
debris.
KNOWN LOCALITIES.-Florida, Gulf County: Guard House Branch,
1 mile west of Weewahitchka, on State Highway 22 (old no. 52); 6.4
miles east of Bay County line on State Highway 22. Wakulla County:
St. Marks River, 6.3 miles east of Woodville.
LIFE HISTORY NOTES.-First form males have been collected in
April, September, and November. No females with eggs or young
have been observed.
CRAYFISH ASSOCIATES.-P. paeninsulanus, P. spiculifer, and C.
schmitti.
Procambarus spiculifer (LeConte)
(Figure 23; Map 2)
Astacus spiculifer LeConte 1856, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philad., 7: 401.
Cambarus spiculifer Hagen 1870, Illus. Cat. Mus. Comp. Zool., Har-
vard Coll., (3): 9.
Procambarus spiculifer Hobbs 1942, Amer. Midl. Nat., 28 (2): 342 (by
implication).
Procambarus spiculifer is the largest and one of the most abundant
species in the area. Its range has been recently reviewed by Hobbs
(1953: 416) who reported it to inhabit streams from the headwaters of
the Chattahoochee River south to the Suwannee River in Florida and
west to Mobile County, Alabama. In Alabama it is not known to
occur north of a line drawn from Washington County to Lee County.
DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS.-The presence of two lateral spines on
each side of the carapace and the absence of a spine from the mesial
margin of the basipodite of the cheliped will distinguish this crayfish
from any other in the area under consideration.
COLOR NOTEs.-This is the most strikingly marked species in the
area, and while the actual colors vary considerably, the patterns of
the markings are remarkably constant in those individuals that fre-
quent the Apalachicola drainage system. The most conspicuous of
these markings is a dark longitudinal band on each side of the cara-
pace which extends dorsally at the posterior margin of the carapace
toward the corresponding band on the opposite side; a conspicuous
gap separates the two bands. In addition other dark patches and
bands are symmetrically arranged on the carapace. The ground
color varies from light tan and dark brown to bluish green; the chelae


162


Vol. 4









1959 HOBBS AND HART: FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS 163






" ii
CJ



a -j




oo
-0))

I 0( ~
Z z X
44w
U r wo(

.j0

.0,
w LL
a .


w 3 3
oO ~
00
44














%0

bsM
LL
LJ





0
0 LL.

wo
0
aO 0


0 0
a 0
0

a x
o

It u Q
U a
\r 0



1151






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


are usually dark with red-tipped fingers and with cream-colored
tubercles. Red splotches are present on the epimera of the abdominal
segments.
ECOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS.-Procambarus spiculifer appears to be
confined to lotic habitats and is the only crayfish that has been taken
from the rivers in the area. "The size of the stream is not of primary
importance-almost any well areated, lotic situation which the cray-
fish can reach by suitable highways is likely to be occupied. P. spic-
ulifer has never been collected in standing water, and only rarely
have I taken it from the still reaches of a stream. . In the ravines
along the Apalachicola and Ochlocknee rivers where small springs
and seepage areas combine their waters to form small creeks, spiculifer
is abundant, although it does not seem to invade the shallow head-
waters. In these streams the water is very clear and cool, and usually
flows with a moderate current over a sand or clay bottom" Hobbs
1942b: 123, 124). While this species does not appear to penetrate the
headwaters of the small creeks in the ravines south of Chattahoochee,
it is found in the small headwater brooks to the north as well as in
those streams flowing into the Ochlockonee River in Decatur County,
Georgia and Gadsden County, Florida. The presence or absence of
vegetation in the stream appears to have little effect on the popula-
tion. Frequently specimens are more easily obtainable where aquatic
vegetation is abundant, but some of the largest populations were en-
countered in streams totally devoid of aquatic vascular plants. Some
kind of cover, whether it be an undercut bank, vegetation, or debris,
is always associated with a sizable population. In streams affording
few places for concealment the population is always small.
Whereas P. spiculifer does not burrow to the extent that many
of the species in the area do, it does dig shallow horizontal tunnels
into the banks of streams, and many of the larger specimens have
been taken from such tunnels during the day. In most places larger
series of specimens may be obtained from the open water at night
when the animals leave their places of concealment.
LIFE HISTORY NOTES.-First form males have been collected in
every month of the year, and while there are few records of females
with eggs, they have been observed in January, March, and August.
CRAYFISH ASSOCIATES.-P. young, P. paeninsulanus, P. leonensis,
P. pycnogonopodus, P. kilbyi, 0. clypeatus, C. schmitti, C. diogenes,
C. floridanus, C. latimanus, and C. fodiens.


164


Vol. 4






1959 HOBBS AND HART: FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS


Procambarus versutus (Hagen)
(Figures 9, 22; Map 5)

Cambarus versutus Hagen 1870, Illus. Cat. Mus. Comp. Zool., Har-
vard Coll., (3): 51.
Procambarus versutus Hobbs 1942, Amer. Midl. Nat., 28 (2): 342 (by
implication).
The easternmost limit of the range of this species occurs in the
Apalachicola drainage system, and in its lower reaches is known from
a single stream, Little Sweetwater Creek in Liberty County, Florida.
Its range extends from Mississippi eastward to the Apalachicola drain-
age system.
DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS.-The presence of two lateral spines on
each side of the carapace and the presence of a spine on the mesial
margin of the basipodite of the cheliped will distinguish this crayfish
from any other in the region.
COLOR NoTEs.-Like its close relative, P. spiculifer, this crayfish
is strikingly colored. The most conspicuous markings are found on
the carapace; on its tan background a brick-red longitudinal band on
each side extends dorsally from the posterior margin of the carapace
toward the corresponding band on the opposite side. Another brick-
red longitudinal stripe extends along each side just ventral to this
one, separated from it by a cream stripe. Additional red and cream
markings are symmetrically arranged. The chelipeds are reddish
brown with black tubercles.
ECOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS.-P. versutus, insofar as known, has
never been found in lentic situations, and it appears to be most abund-
ant in small, sand-bottomed, spring-fed streams. In such habitats
it occurs under the undercut banks or in clumps of debris. In streams
containing Vallesneria, Potomageton, and other aquatic plants P.
versutus may occur in large numbers. In Little Sweetwater Creek
it was taken near the headwaters where the depth of the water was
no more than 3 inches. Although efforts were made to locate this
species in other ravine streams in the Apalachicola Bluff area, this
is the only place it was found.
KNOWN LOCALITIES.-Headwater ravine tributary to Little Sweet-
water Creek near Rock Bluff, Liberty County, Florida, and several
localities in Washington County.
LIFE HISTORY NOTES.-First form males have been collected every
month of the year except January, February, July, and November.


165










166 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM Vol. 4


4
4. J
-j
0 *.
'W







0 0

x
























4 o
0
IL





















-i. t










o .0






1959 HOBBS AND HART: FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS


Only in April and June have females with eggs been found, and the
single female that was found with young attached to the pleopods was
collected in April.
CRAYFISH ASSOCIATES.-No other crayfishes were collected in
the single locality where P. versutus is known to occur in this region.
In the Choctawhatchee drainage system in the southwestern part of
Washington County it was associated with C. diogenes.

Procambarus leonensis Hobbs
(Figure 12; Map 1)

Procambarus leonensis Hobbs 1942, Univ. Fla. Publ., Biol. Sci. Ser.,
3 (2): 114, figs. 121-125; Hobbs 1943, Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci., 6 (1):
49, 12 figs.
Procambarus leonensis frequents both lentic and lotic habitats be-
tween the Apalachicola and Suwannee rivers in Florida; however it
does not appear to be abundant in the Apalachicola drainage system.
Perhaps this is not actually true, for very little collecting has been
done in the southern part of Liberty and the western part of Franklin
counties, Florida.
DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS.-The only reliable criterion for recog-
nizing this species is the structure of the terminal elements of the
first pleopod of the male. A single small lateral spine or tubercle is
present on both sides of the carapace and the pleopod tapers distally,
is somewhat recurved, and bears four terminal "teeth", two of which
are spine-like, one subspatulate and corneous (in the first form male),
and the fourth vestigial in the form of a small tooth lying caudal to
the subspatulate element. Hooks are present on the ischiopodites
of the third and fourth walking legs of the male.
COLOR NOTES.-P. leonensis is rather drab when compared with
P. spiculifer or P. versutus; its greenish brown background shows
darker irregular markings dorsally and lighter markings laterally,
and usually two pairs of black spots on the dorsolateral surfaces of
the branchiostegites. The legs are usually bluish green and in mature
specimens the chelipeds are often conspicuously brownish orange on
the lower surface.
ECOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS.-Procambarus leonensis is the sole in-
habitant of many of the sinkhole ponds in the limestone sections of
its range, and is the only species known to inhabit many of the
larger lakes in the Tallahassee region. It has also invaded most of


167







168 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM Vol. 4

the streams, roadside ditches, and swamps throughout the extent of
its range. Individuals living in temporary bodies of water construct
during dry seasons simple burrows, which may or may not reach
the water table, and where they remain until the ground water rises
once again to fill the ditches or ponds.
LIFE HISTORY NoTES.-First form males have been collected in
January, April, May, June, August, September, November, and De-
cember. Females with eggs were found in April, May, August, and
September.
CRAYFISH ASSOCIATES.-P. kilbyi, P. rogersi campestris (and inter-
grades), P. pygmaeus, P. spiculifer, P. paeninsulanus, and 0. clypeatus.

Procambarus pycnogonopodus Hobbs
(Figure 17; Map 1)
Procambarus pycnogonopodus Hobbs 1942, Univ. Fla. Publ., Biol. Sci.
Ser., 3 (2): 117, figs. 126-130; Hobbs 1943, Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci., 6
(1): 53, 15 figs.
This species occurs in most bodies of water in which collections
have been made between the Apalachicola and Yellow rivers in Flor-
ida and, while it has not been encountered in the Flint-Chattahoochee
region, it is abundant in streams flowing into the Apalachicola in Cal-
houn County, Florida. It has not been reported from the Yellow River
system.
DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS.-A single small lateral spine or tubercle
is present on each side of the carapace, and the first pleopod of the
male is of almost uniform thickness up to the tip. Projecting from the
latter are only three small elements: one that is spiniform, a hooklike
one, and (in the first form male) a very small corneous tooth that, in
lateral aspect, lies between the two. Hooks are present on the ischio-
podites of the third and fourth walking legs in the male.
COLOR NOTEs.-Ground color reddish brown with a greenish cast.
Lateral portion of carapace lighter with more tan, becoming cream
to light green along ventral margins of branchiostegites. Dorsolateral
portion of branchiostegites with a pair of black spots, one just posterior
to the cervical groove and the other just anterior to caudal margin
of carapace, both on a level with the eyes. Legs olive green above
and greenish cream below. Cheliped dark orange brown with black
tubercles above, orange below with black and cream tubercles.
ECOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS.-P. pycnogonopodus has an ecological
tolerance as wide as that of any of the crayfishes in the region, and









1959 HOBBS AND HART: FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS 169






I I

J --

%

S00


z 0

Z x









0 0



oLL






i Y < \ I \








0 0
40 o
o l
J







0












.6 .L







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


is the only one that has been found in brackish water. Wherever
epigean water occurs within its range, with the possible exception of
the larger rivers, this species is usually present. Even in temporary
bodies of water, such as pools, ditches, and some streams, it is usually
present; and when the water disappears, it constructs simple burrows
as much as 3 feet in depth. The presence or absence of vegetation
in the water appears not to restrict it, but it seems to be more
abundant in habitats rich in aquatic plants.
LIFE HISTORY NOTES.-First form males have been collected in
April, May, June, October, and November. Females with eggs have
been observed in April, May, and October.
CRAYFISH ASSOCIATES.-P. spiculifer, P. kilbyi, P. rogersi rogersi,
P. latipleurum, P. pygmaeus, P. hubbelli, P. paeninsulanus, P. apa-
lachicolae, and Cambarellus schmitti.

Procambarus paeninsulanus (Faxon)
(Figure 18; Map 3)
Cambarus clarkii paeninsulanus Faxon 1914, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool.,
40 (8): 369.
Procambarus clarkii paeninsulanus Hobbs 1942, Amer. Midl. Nat., 28
(2): 342 (by implication).
Procambarus paeninsulanus Hobbs 1942, Univ. Fla. Publ., Biol. Sci.
Ser., 3 (2): 104, 5 figs.
Procambarus paeninsulanus is not only relatively abundant in the
area, but is common throughout its range, which extends from the
Choctawhatchee River system in Florida eastward to the Atlantic
Ocean and from southeastern Alabama and southern Georgia south-
ward to Hillsborough County, Florida.
DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS.-The purplish red color of the adults of
this species coupled with an almost flat annulus ventralis in the female
and a distinct angular prominence on the cephalic surface of the first
left pleopod of the male will readily separate this species from others
in the area.
COLOR NOTES.-Ground color purplish red with purplish to black
markings. Lateral surface of carapace lighter in color ventrally, pass-
ing from pink to pinkish cream. Branchiostegites with a dark band
running longitudinally from almost the caudal margin of the carapace
to the cervical groove on a level with the eyes. Chelipeds red or
reddish orange with black or cream tubercles; lower surface more
brilliantly colored than upper surface.


170


Vol. 4






1959 HOBBS AND HART: FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS 171

ECOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS.-This species, like P. pycnogonopodus
and P. leonensis, is not limited to one or two types of ecological situ-
ations but is found in almost all aquatic habitats in its range. Like
the two previous species it constructs simple burrows, and almost all
the females carrying eggs have been collected from the straight or
gently sloping tunnels. Although there is no evidence that these
animals undergo mass migrations overland as do their close relative
P. clarkii (see Penn 1943: 15), specimens have been collected at least
Y2 mile from the nearest body of water. It was formerly quite a-
bundant in several localities now inundated by the impounded waters
of the Jim Woodruff Dam, both along the western border of the
Chattahoochee in Florida and in the lower Flint in Georgia.
LIFE HISTORY NOTES.-First form males have been collected in
every month of the year except January and December, and females
with eggs in March, May, and August through November. Females
with young were also collected from August through November.
CRAYFISH ASSOCIATES.-P. kilbyi, P. spiculifer, P. pygmaeus, P.
pycnogonopodus, P. hubbelli, P. young, P. leonensis, Orconectes cly-
peatus, Cambarellus schmitti, Cambarus diogenes, and C. fodiens.

Procambarus apalachicolae Hobbs
(Figure 20; Map 5)
Procambarus apalachicolae Hobbs 1942, Univ. Fla. Publ., Biol. Sci.
Ser., 3 (2) 55, 15 figs.
This species, although abundant in its relatively small range, is
apparently confined to the Apalachicola flatwoods in southern Bay
and Gulf counties, Florida. Its range in relation to those of P.
latipleurum and P. econfinae (Hobbs 1942: 49) is discussed by Hobbs
(idem, pp. 57-58).
DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS.-The absence of spines on the rostrum
and on the lateral surfaces of the carapace together with the rela-
tively broad areola (approximately three times as long as wide), hooks
on the ischiopodites of the third and fourth pereiopods of the male,
prominent tubercles on the cephalolateral borders of the annulus ven-
tralis of the female, and a caudodistally directed spine on the first
pleopod of the male serve to identify this species.
COLOR NOTES.-None available.
ECOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS.-P. apalachicolae is a secondary bur-
rower and typically inhabits depressions in the Apalachicola flatwoods
where water stands during some period each year. When the de-








172 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM Vol. 4






< -


JJ

0
a i




0
I I

























l
SLL














0o 0










J \





13 L
32, .
__1\\%F
i '. ', (.






1959 HOBBS AND HART: FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS


pressions become dry the crayfish construct simple burrows with en-
trances marked by small chimneys. Burrows to a depth of 3 feet
are not unusual.
LIFE HISTORY NOTES.-First form males have been collected in
April, May, June, and October and females with eggs in May and
June. A single female with young was collected in June.
CRAYFISH ASSOCIATES.-P. pycnogonopodus, P. rogersi rogersi (and
intergrades).
Procambarus latipleurum Hobbs
(Figure 21; Map 3)

Procambarus latipleurum Hobbs 1942, Univ. Fla. Publ., Biol. Sci. Ser.,
3 (2): 52, 15 figs.

This species is known only from a small area in Gulf County,
Florida, within a 13-mile radius of Weewahitchka. Because the
closely related P. apalachicolae is abundant to the south and west of
its range and well drained areas lie to the north and east of it, it
seems probable that the species does have a limited range.
DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS.-The acute lanceolate rostrum, the ab-
sence of spines or tubercles on the lateral surfaces of the carapace,
the spiniform tubercles on the cephalolateral borders of the annulus
ventralis of the female, and the subspiculiform cephalically-curved
spine on the first pleopod of the male readily distinguish this crayfish
from any others in the region.
COLOR NOTES.-None available.
ECOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS.-This species is known from only four
localities in the vicinity of Weewahitchka where it was collected from
pools in roadside ditches and borrow pits, sluggish streams, and simple
burrows. It is almost certainly a secondary burrower.
KNOWN LOCALITIES.-Florida, Gulf County: 5.8 miles west of
Weewahitchka on State Highway 22 (old no. 52); 6.1 miles south of
Weewahitchka on State Highway 71 (old no. 6); and 12.6 miles south
of Weewahitchka on State Highway 71.
LIFE HISTORY NOTES.-First form males were collected in October,
and no females with eggs or young have been reported.
CRAYFISH ASSCIATES.-P. pycnogonopodus, P. kilbyi, and P. pyg-
maeus.


173






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Procambarus kilbyi (Hobbs)
(Figure 19; Map 4)
Cambarus kilbyi Hobbs 1940, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 89 (3097): 410,
fig. 20.
Procambarus kilbyi Hobbs 1942, Amer. Midi. Nat., 28 (2): 343.

This species ranges throughout the Florida coastal flatwoods from
Jackson, Calhoun, and Gulf counties eastward to Levy County. It
is the only member of the Barbatus Group in the region (P. apalachi-
colae, P. latipleurum, P. hubbelli, and P. kilbyi) that occurs on both
sides of the Apalachicola River.
DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS.-The absence of spines on the rostrum
and on the lateral surfaces of the carapace, the relatively broad areola
(approximately four times as long as wide), the absence of tubercles
on the cephalolateral borders of the annulus ventralis of the female,
hooks on the ischiopodites of the third and fourth pereiopods of the
male, and a large, subspatulate, caudally projecting process on the
tip of the first pleopod distinguish this crayfish from all others in the
region.
COLOR NOTES.-The ground color varies from straw brown to
olive green, and a cream or gray stripe, about the width of the areola,
extends from the tip of the rostrum to the tip of the telson. Laterally
a pair of narrow, similarly colored stripes extend almost the entire
length of the animal but are most prominent on the branchiostegites
and along the bases of the epimera of the abdominal segments. Cheli-
peds dark brown or green with darker tubercles, a few of them with
cream tips.
ECOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS.-P. kilbyi, although a secondary bur-
rower frequenting temporary pools, borrow pits, and roadside ditches,
also occurs in small temporary streams. It is apparently just as well
suited to life in open water as it is to burrows; however at all locali-
ties in which it was collected from open water the water table at times
drops below the level of the basin and forces the crayfish to burrow.
LIFE HISTORY NOTES.-First form males have been collected from
February to June and from September to November. Females with
eggs and others with young were found in May and June.
CRAYFISH ASSOCIATES.-P. pycnogonopodus, P. paeninsulanus, P.
latipleurum, P. leonensis, P. pygmaeus, P. rogersi campestris, P. rogersi
rogersi, and P. spiculifer.


174


Vol. 4






1959 HOBBS AND HART: FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS 175

Procambarus hubbelli (Hobbs)
(Figure 8; Map 4)
Cambarus hubbelli Hobbs 1938 (nomen nudum), Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci.,
2: 90.
Cambarus hubbelli Hobbs 1940, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 89 (3097): 406,
fig. 19.
Procambarus hubbelli Hobbs 1942, Amer. Midi. Nat., 28 (2): 342.
This species appears to be confined to the flatwoods adjacent to
the Choctawhatchee River and its tributaries in Alabama and Florida.
DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS.-The absence of spines on the rostrum
and on the lateral surfaces of the carapace, the relatively broad areola,
hooks on the ischiopodites of the third pereiopods only of the male,
and the tuft of plumose setae along the inner margin of the palm of
the chela of the male distinguish this species from any other crayfish
in the area.
COLOR NoTEs.-The ground color varies from straw brown to olive
green with darker brown or greenish black flecks over the entire dor-
sal surface including the chelipeds. Young specimens are frequently
colored like the adults of P. kilbyi, but the adults have never been
observed to exhibit the distinct stripes so characteristic of P. kilbyi.
ECOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONs.-The habits of this species appear not
to differ from those of P. kilbyi except that it has been taken from
permanent sluggish streams.
LIFE HISTORY NOTES.-First form males have been collected from
February through July, and females with eggs in April and May.
CRAYFISH ASSOCIATES.-P. pycnogonopodus, P. paeninsulanus, and
0. clypeatus.
Procambarus pygmaeus Hobbs
Procambarus pygmaeus Hobbs 1942, Univ. Fla. Publ., Biol. Sci. Ser.,
3 (2): 83, 14 figs.
The range of this species appears to be discontinuous. It is
known from Clinch and Wayne counties, Georgia, and from Gulf
and Liberty counties, Florida.
DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS.-Its bright green color set off by scarlet
tubercles, ridges, and terminal margins of joints readily distinguishes
this crayfish from any other known. Its rostrum and lateral carapace
surfaces are without spines, its areola is very narrow (more than 20
times longer than broad), the annulus ventralis of the female is oval







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


with a longitudinal oval depression, and the first pleopod of the male
terminates in two conspicuous teeth with a corneous ridge along the
base of the lateral one in the first form male.
COLOR NOTEs.-The ground color varies from olive to forest green,
and practically all ridges, tubercles, and rims of joints are scarlet red.
Red markings are also present on the epimera of the abdominal seg-
ments.
ECOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS.-P. pygmaeus should probably be clas-
sified as a secondary burrower. Wherever it has been collected
Juncus repens, a red and green semiaquatic plant, has also been
present. Many specimens were collected at night and occasional
ones by day by pushing a dipnet through beds of Juncus. The bur-
rows this crayfish constructs are as complex as those of P. rogersi
rogersi and, except for the smaller size of the tunnels, similar to them
in every way. This species, like its relatives, the several subspecies
of P. rogersi, is associated primarily with a flatwoods terrain.
KNOWN LOCALITIES.-Florida, Gulf County: 11.7 miles west of
Weewahitchka on State Highway 22 (old no. 52); 6.6 miles east of
Bay Co. line on State Highway 22; 1.7 miles east of Bay Co. line on
State Highway 22; 6.1 miles south of Weewahitchka on State Highway
71 (old no. 6). Liberty County: 11.3 miles south of Telogia on State
Highway 65 (old no. 135); 5.4 miles south of Telogia on State Highway
65. The remaining known localities are in Clinch and Wayne counties,
Georgia.
LIFE HISTORY NoTEs.-First form males have been collected in
April, May, and October, and a female with eggs was found in May.
CRAYFISH ASSOCIATES.-P. kilbyi, P. pycnogonopodus, P. latipleu-
rum, P. paeninsulanus, and P. leonensis.

Procambarus rogersi rogersi (Hobbs)
(Figure 14; Map 7)
Cambarus rogersi Hobbs 1938, Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci., 28 (2): 62, 11 figs.
Procambarus rogersi Hobbs 1942, Amer. Midl. Nat., 28 (2): 344.
Procambarus rogersi rogersi Hobbs 1942, Univ. Fla. Publ., Biol. Sci.
Ser., 3 (2) 89, 5 figs.; Hobbs 1945, Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci., 35 (8): 248,
5 figs.
This subspecies occupies a narrow strip of flatwoods between the
Chipola and Apalachicola rivers in Gulf (?) and Calhoun counties,
Florida. To the south it intergrades with the other three subspecies,


Vol. 4


176






1959 HOBBS AND HART: FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS


F. r. ochlocknensis, P. r. campestris, and probably with P. r. expletus
(see below).
DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTrERS.-The absence of spines on the rostrum
and lateral surfaces of the carapace, the linear areola, an annulus ven-
tralis in the female that is distinctly broader than long, and the first
pleopod of the male terminating in three parts with the caudal knob
bent mesiad at a right angle to its main shaft are diagnostic for this
subspecies.
COLOR NoTEs.-Ground color pinkish lavender to lavender red
with the colors fading ventrally on the branchiostegites to a pinkish
or lavender cream. Legs pinkish to cream and chelipeds lavender
red above with light tubercles and pinkish or lavender cream below.
No striking markings are present.
ECOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS.-This species is a primary burrower,
spending practically its entire life in complex tunnels underground.
It has never been collected outside of burrows. It is abundant in
seepage areas and in flatwoods where the water table is near
the ground surface. In most places within its range where pitcher
plants (Sarracenia), sundews (Drosera), club mosses (Lycopodium),
and hatpins (Ericaulon) occur, one is likely to find this crayfish. The
burrows may extend horizontally 5 feet or more with tunnels ex-
tending in several directions. One spiral or vertical passage always
reaches below the water table and in many burrows more than one.
Each burrow usually has two or more chimneys that range from 4
to 8 inches in height. The soil in which the burrows are constructed
may be a mucky sand or a mixture of sand and clay, both types usually
underlain by clay.
LIFE HISTORY NOTES.-First form males have been found in April,
May, and December, and a single female with eggs in April.
CRAYFISH ASSOCIATES.-P. kilbyi, P. apalachicolae, and P. pycnogo-
nopodus.
Procambarus rogersi campestris Hobbs
(Figure 16; Map 7)

Procambarus rogersi campestris Hobbs 1942, Univ. Fla. Publ., Biol.
Sci. Ser., 3 (2): 90, 5 figs.; Hobbs 1945, Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci., 35
(8): 255, 7 figs.
This subspecies appears to be confined to southwestern Leon
County and western Wakulla County, Florida. It intergrades with
the other subspecies of P. rogersi in Franklin and Liberty counties.


177







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS.-The absence of spines on the rostrum
and lateral surfaces of the carapace, the obliterated areola, the an-
tennal scale with a straight anteromesial margin, the subcylindrical
annulus ventralis with a deep troughlike opening anteriorly in the
female, and the first pleopod of the male terminating in four parts,
the cephalic one of which is vestigial and the caudal knob bent mesiad
at less than a right angle are typical of this subspecies.
COLOR NOTES.-Essentially identical to P. rogersi rogersi.
ECOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS.-Habits the same as those of P. rogersi
rogersi.
LIFE HISTORY NOTES.-First form males were collected in June
and November; no females with eggs have been observed.
CRAYFISH ASSOCIATES.-P. kilbyi and P. leonensis.

Procambarus rogersi ochlocknensis Hobbs
(Figure 15; Map 7)

Procambarus rogersi ochlocknensis Hobbs 1942, Univ. Fla. Publ., Biol.
Sci. Ser., 3 (2): 89, 5 figs.; Hobbs 1945, Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci., 35
(8): 252, 8 figs.
This subspecies is known only from Gadsden and northern Liberty
counties, Florida. To the south it intergrades with P. r. campestris
and P. r. rogersi (See Hobbs 1945: 257-260).
DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS.-The absence of spines on the rostrum
and lateral surfaces of the carapace, the obliterated areola, the an-
tennal scale with a straight anteromesial margin, an annulus ventralis
in the female that is longer than broad, and the first pleopod of the
male terminating in four parts, the caudal knob of which is bent
mesiad at less than a right angle to the main shaft of the appendage,
and the well developed cephalic process not visible in caudal aspect
characterize this subspecies.
COLOR NOTES.-Essentially identical to P. rogersi rogersi.
ECOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONs.-Habits the same as those of P. rogersi
rogersi.
LIFE HISTORY NOTES.-First form males were collected in March,
April, and December, and females with eggs were taken in March
and April.
CRAYFISH ASSOCIATES.-P. kilbyi, P. leonensis, P. paeninsulanus,
and 0. clypeatus.


Vol. 4


178






1959 HOBBS AND HART: FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS


Procambarus rogersi expletus,3 new subspecies
(Figures 27-39; Map 7)

This new crayfish is known only from a single locality in Calhoun
County, Florida. Because of its obvious close relationship with the
three recognized subspecies of P. rogersi, it is also designated a sub-
species. The recognition of this crayfish as a distinct race seems
justified because it is so markedly different from P. rogersi rogersi,
the subspecies that occurs just across the Chipola River to the east.
It is relatively distantly removed geographically from its apparent
closest relative, P. rogersi campestris, and it is distinct from any of the
available specimens of the intergrade population from the area to the
south. At the same time it is no more different from P. r. campestris
than the other three races, and is apparently allopatric to all the other
forms of rogersi.
DIAGNOSIs.-Rostrum without marginal spines; areola obliterated;
males with hooks on ischiopodites of third pereiopods only; chela
depressed and bearing a cristiform row of tubercles along inner mar-
gin of palm; postorbital ridges without spines or tubercles; no lateral
spines present on carapace; inner margin of antennal scale evenly
rounded. First pleopod terminating in four parts; mesial process
subspiculiform and extending laterodistally beyond the tips of the
other terminal elements; cephalic process considerably better de-
veloped than in the other three subspecies, an irregular elongate
process visible in caudal aspect (that in campestris and ochlocknensis
not visible in caudal aspect); caudal process thumb-like and directed
mesially at about a 20 degree angle to the main shaft of the append-
age; central projection forming a large corneous fan across the
cephalic side of the tip and bent laterodistad at about a 70 degree
angle to the main shaft of the appendage. Annulus ventralis sub-
cylindrical with the cephalolateral surfaces tuberculate.
HOLOTYPIC MALE, FORM I.-Body subovate, slightly compressed
laterally. Width of carapace in region of caudodorsal margin of cervi-
cal groove slightly less than height (13.9 and 14.2 mm.). Greatest
width of carapace (14.5 mm.) about midway between cervical groove
and caudal margin of carapace.
Areola obliterated and constituting 40 percent of the entire length
of carapace (12.0 and 30.0 mm.).

SExpletus L.-perfect or complete. Name chosen because of the well de-
veloped cephalic process of the first pleopod of the male, giving it a complete
complement of terminal elements.


179







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Rostrum short (4.0 mm.) with converging margins and a short,
poorly delimited, triangular acumen that is slightly upturned distally.
Upper surface excavate with a row of fine setiferous punctations just
mesial to margins; no marginal spines present. Subrostral ridges evi-
dent in dorsal aspect for a short distance anterior to posterior margin
of orbit. Postorbital ridges, although not prominent, are long and
terminate anteriorly without spines or tubercles.
Surface of carapace punctate dorsally and granulate laterally with
a small, inconspicuous tubercle on lateral surface just posterior to
cervical groove. Branchiostegal spines very small.
Abdomen shorter and narrower than carapace (see measurements).
Anterior section of telson with 1 spine in the right and 2 in the left
posterolateral angles.
Epistome (Fig. 38) broadly subtriangular and terminating cephali-
cally in a small cephalomedian tubercle.
Antennules of the usual form with a small spine on ventral side of
basal segment. Antennae reaching cephalic margin of third abdom-
inal segment. Antennal scale (Fig. 39) small with inner margin evenly
rounded; spine on outer distal extremity moderately strong and in-
curved.
Cheliped (Fig. 30) with a broad flattened palm tuberculate above
and below, and with setiferous punctations on the lower lateral sur-
face. A row of large punctations with conspicuously long setae ex-
tends from lower articular knob of propus almost to tip of immovable
finger. A prominent ridge marks the articulation with the dactyl and
with a prominent tubercle on lower surface. Outer margin of hand
costate, and both fingers with distinct ridges above and below; that
on lower surface of immovable finger with a row of tubercles prox-
imally and a single tubercle on its mesial side just distal to fourth
tubercle (counting from base). Inner margin of palm with a cristi-
form row of 10 tubercles. Opposable margin of immovable finger
with a row of 6 tubercles (second from base largest), the distal one
of which passes under the dactyl when the fingers are closed. Op-
posable margin of movable finger with a row of 9 tubercles, the fourth
from base largest and marking a distinct excision in the margin at its
base. A single row of minute denticles on opposable margins of
both fingers between and distal to the large tubercle marking the
excision. Mesial margin with a row of 5 tubercles along its proximal
half and setiferous punctations distally. Upper and lateral surfaces
of carpus with setiferous punctations, lower surface polished, and
mesial one with spikelike tubercles. Groove on upper surface of carpus


180


Vol. 4






1959 HOBBS AND HART: FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS


moderately deep. Merus with polished mesial surface, sparsely punc-
tate lateral surface, scattered tubercles on upper margin, only one
of which is conspicuous, and with a lower surface bearing 2 well
defined rows of tubercles; mesial row consists of 12 or 13 tubercles
and lateral one of 11 or 12; those in the mesial row much more prom-
inent than those in the lateral one. Ischiopodite with a row of 4 or 5
tubercles on lower margin.
Ischiopodites of third pereiopods with hooks. Coxa of fifth pereio-
pods with a prominent tubercle on caudomesial margin just below
opening of vas deferens.
First pleopods asymmetrical and extending cephalad to base of
second pereiopod. See DIAGNOSIS for description.
MORPHOTYPIC MALE, FORM II.-This specimen is smaller than the
holotype and is probably juvenile. Most of the differences are prob-
ably to be associated with age. The areola is linear, not quite oblit-
erated. The anterior section of the telson bears 2 spines in each cau-
dolateral corner, and all of the podomeres bear 1 or 2 fewer tubercles
than appear in the holotype. The first pleopods exhibit a transverse
suture line (Fig. 31), but all the terminal elements are present al-
though reduced in size and, as usual, none are corneous.
ALLOTYPIC FEMALE.-Differs from the holotype in the following
respects: No tubercle larger than surrounding granulations on lat-
eral surface of carapace immediately posterior to cervical groove.
Branchiostegal spine represented by a small angular prominence.
Anterior section of telson with 2 spines in each posterolateral angle.
Epistome slightly more subquadrangular and without a small cephalo-
median tubercle. The row of conspicuous long setae on lower surface
of propus of cheliped is augmented by others lateral and mesial to it.
Inner margin of palm with cristiform row of 6 tubercles on left, and
9 on right chela. Opposable margin of right immovable finger with
a row of 5 tubercles. Opposable margin of right dactyl with only 3
tubercles. No one of the tubercles on upper distal surface of merus
larger than others; mesial row of tubercles on lower surface of merus
consists of 10 on right and 12 on left merus, corresponding lateral
rows with 9 and 7. Ischiopodite with 3 tubercles on lower margin
of right cheliped and 2 on left. Annulus ventralis (Fig. 37) subcylin-
drical with high cephalolateral walls bearing tubercles and cephalo-
median trough leading to a deep centrally located depression. Ster-
nite between fifth pereiopods a small conical plate.


181






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Measurements.-(In. mm.)

Holotype Allotype Morphotype
Carapace: height 14.2 12.0 10.1
width 13.9 12.5 10.6
length 30.0 25.9 22.0
Areola: width 0 0 0
length 12.0 10.0 8.7
Rostrum: width 4.0 4.0 2.9
length 4.0 3.7 3.1
Abdomen: width 10.0 8.9 6.8
length 26.1 20.8 18.7
Chela: length of inner margin
of palm 7.5 5.6 4.3
width of palm 11.4 9.3 6.7
length of outer margin
of hand 21.2 16.1 12.9
length of dactyl 13.3 10.2 8.2

COLOR NOTES.-Almost identical to P. rogersi rogersi (see above).
TYPE LOCALITY.-A seepage slope, 0.9 mile north of Clarksville,
Calhoun County, Florida on State Highway 73. This slope lies in a
cleared area with a few scattered pines. Common in the area are
Sarracenia, Drosera, Lycopodium, and wiregrass. The soil is a sandy
clay, and at the time of collecting the water was not more than 1 or 2
inches below the surface. Here a large colony of crayfishes has con-
structed a maze of complex burrows, in some places so interwoven
that it was difficult to determine, after using a shovel, which tunnel
we had been following.
Disposition of Types.-The holotype, allotype, and morphotype
are in the collection of the U. S. National Museum (nos. 102125,
102127, and 102126 respectively). Four female paratypes are in my
personal collection at the University of Virginia.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.-Only the seven specimens collected in the
type locality in September 1955 have been assigned to this subspecies;
however, it is possible that two collections from Bay County, 3 miles
west of Youngstown and from a flatwoods west of the Econfina River
west of Bennett, should also be assigned to it. Until first form males
from these localities become available it seems advisable to refrain
from making a subspecific determination of these specimens.
VARIATIONs.-The series available shows relatively few variations.
The rostra in some of the specimens have more nearly broad lanceo-
late outlines; the maximum number of tubercles along the inner mar-


182


Vol. 4






1959 HOBBS AND HART: FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS


gin of the palm is 11, and the areola ranges from 37.9 to 41.7 percent
of the entire length of the carapace (it appears to be proportionally
longer in the larger specimens). The largest specimen in the collec-
tion is a female with a carapace length of 35.5 mm.
RELATIONSHIPS.-As indicated above, this subspecies probably has
more in common with campestris than with either of the other two
subspecies. The antennal scale is more similar to that of typical
rogersi; the cephalic process of the first pleopod of ochlocknensis is
more similar, but the caudal knob is more like that of campestris,
as is the annulus ventralis. The combination of the rounded antennal
scale, a well developed cephalic process, and the caudal knob directed
at about a 20 degree angle to the main shaft of the pleopod serves to
distinguish this crayfish from any of its near relatives.
CRAYFISH ASSOCIATES.-None.

Cambarellus schmitti Hobbs
(Map 4)
Cambarellus schmitti Hobbs 1942, Univ. Fla. Publ., Biol. Sci. Ser., 3
(2): 149, 15 figs.
This pigmy crayfish occurs in the lower Coastal Plain from Mobile
County, Alabama eastward to the Santa Fe River in Columbia and
Gilchrist counties, Florida.
DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERs.-The adults of this species never attain
a total length greater than 1 inch. The females may be recognized
by the acute angular sternite between the bases of the fifth walking
legs, and the males by the presence of bituberculate hooks on the
ischiopodites of the second and third walking legs.
COLOR NOTES.-A dimorphic color pattern exists in this species
as it does in Cambarellus shufeldtii (see Penn 1942, Hobbs and Mar-
chand 1943, Penn 1950, and Volpe and Penn 1957). The ground
color in both patterns varies from light tan to bluish gray, and the
darker colors of brick red or steel blue are arranged either in spots
or in stripes, the spots generally following the stripe pattern. Two
pairs of stripes are present: the more median pair, starting just below
the postorbital ridges, extends caudally just lateral to the areola to
the base of the telson, and the lateral pair extends the same distance
on a level with the bases of the epimera of the abdominal segments.
In C. shufeldtii, Volpe and Penn demonstrated that the striped pat-
tern is dominant to the spotted one.


183






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


ECOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS.-This species appears to be confined
to streams in this area. Most of our specimens were collected in
clear, moderately flowing streams or spring runs, but in at least two
instances specimens were taken among vegetation and debris in slug-
gish streams.
KNOWN LOCALTIES.-Florida, Jackson County: Blue Springs,
northeast of Marianna; 2.4 miles north of Cambellton on U. S. High-
way 231. Wakulla County: St. Marks River, 6.3 miles east of Wood-
ville; Wakulla River on U. S. Highway 319 west of Wakulla. Walton
County: 2.1 miles west of Washington Co. line on State Highway 20.
Several other localities are known both to the east and west of this
area.
LIFE HISTORY NOTES.-First form males were collected in May,
August, and November, and females with eggs were found in August
and November.
CRAYFISH ASSOCIATES.-P. young, P. paeninsulanus, P. pycnogo-
nopodus, and P. spiculifer.

Orconectes (Faxonella) clypeatus (Hay)
(Figure 25; Map 8)
Cambarus clypeatus Hay 1899, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus, 22 (1187): 122,
fig. 2.
Faxonius (Faxonella) clypeatus Creaser 1933, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool.,
Univ. Mich., (275): 19, 4 figs.
Orconectes (Faxonella) clypeatus Hobbs 1942, Amer. Midl. Nat., 28
(2): 352 (by implication); Smith 1953, Tulane Studies in Zool., 1
(7): 79-96.
This crayfish is an inhabitant of the Coastal Plain from Oklahoma
to South Carolina, exclusive of the peninsula portion of Florida.
DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS.-No lateral spines present on rostrum or
lateral surfaces of carapace; no spine on mesial surface of carpus of
cheliped except on distal margin; first pleopod of male with one long
ramus and one short one; and palm of chela in male longer than mov-
able finger.
COLOR NOTES.-None available.
ECOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONs.-This species occurs in a wide variety
of habitats: roadside ditches, borrow pits, cypress ponds, sluggish
silty streams, and submerged vegetation in clear, sand-bottomed


Vol. 4


184






1959 HOBBS AND HART: FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS


streams. It also constructs simple burrows with well formed chim-
neys that range from a few inches to a foot in height. Whether or
not its being found more frequently in roadside ditches, pools, small
ponds and borrow pits indicates a preference for this type of habitat
is doubtful, for they are easier to collect in such places.
KNOWN LOCALITIES.-Florida, Gadsden County: 12.8 miles east
of Chattahoochee on U. S. Highway 90. Jackson County: 2.4 miles
southeast of Alabama Line on U. S. Highway 231; 4.5 miles west of
Sneads on U. S. Highway 90; 2.6 miles south of Graceville on State
Highway 77. Liberty County: Estiffanulga. Georgia, Baker County:
6 miles west of Emory Field Station, Camilla; 3.5 miles southeast of
bridge over Ichauwayoochaway Creek on State Highway 91. Dough-
erty County: Chehaw State Park, about 2 miles northeast of Albany.
Early County: Cypress Creek at State Highway 200. Seminole
County: Dry Creek, 3.1 miles north of Iron City; 0.9 mile west of
Iron City on U. S. Highway 84.
LIFE HISTORY NOTES.-First form males have been collected in
the area from February through April and from June through Septem-
ber. No females with eggs have been found.
CRAYFISH ASSOCIATES.-P. hubbelli, P. paeninsulanus, P. leonensis,
P. rogersi ochlocknensis, P. spiculifer, and C. fodiens.

Cambarus latimanus (LeConte)
(Map 8)

Astacus latimanus LeConte 1856, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philad., 7: 402.
Cambarus latimanus Hagen 1870, Illus. Cat. Mus. Comp. Zool., Har-
vard Coll., (3): 75, 83.
The range of this species lies within the Piedmont and upper
Coastal Plain from North Carolina to Alabama; only in North Caro-
lina and the region under consideration is it known to invade the lower
Coastal Plain.
DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS.-In this region the areola of C. latimanus
ranges from 5 to 7 times longer than broad and constitutes 32 to 31
percent of the entire length of the carapace; the movable finger ol
the chela does not have a distinct excision on its opposable margin
COLOR NOTES.-A full color description of this species is not avail-
able; however, the ground color varies from straw brown to a palk
greenish gray.


185







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


ECOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONs.-Cambarus latimanus appears to be
confined to the small sand-bottomed tributaries of the Flint-Chatta-
hoochee-Apalachicola system flowing in deep shaded ravines. Here
they are found in the debris littering the stream beds and in burrows
excavated in the banks of the stream. Many of the complex, highly
branching burrows have openings above the water level in addition
to those in the stream.
KNOWN LOCALITIES.-Alabama, Dale County: 2 miles west of
Ozark on State Highway 27. Houston County: On side road west
of State Highway 52, one mile west of Columbia. Florida, Liberty
County: Torreya Ravine, west of Rock Bluff; Torreya State Park,
north of Indian Ridge. Jackson County: Near Bascom at Alabama-
Florida line. Georgia, Clay County: 0.75 mile east of Ft. Gaines on
State Highway 37.
LIFE HISTORY NOTES.-In this region first form males have been
collected only in April, and no females with eggs or young have been
observed.
CRAYFISH ASSOCIATES.-Cambarus floridanus, C. diogenes, and P.
spiculifer.
Cambarus floridanus Hobbs
(Figure 24; Map 8)

Cambarus floridanus Hobbs 1941, Amer. Midl. Nat. 26 (1): 114, 11 figs.
While the northern limits of its range have not been determined
accurately, Cambarus floridanus is known from several localities in
the drainage systems of the Chipola, Apalachicola, and Ochlockonee
rivers.
DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS.-In this species the areola is narrow, 13
to 23 times as long as broad, and its length ranges from 37 to 41 per-
cent of the entire length of the carapace. The movable finger of the
chela does not have a distinct excision on its opposable margin.
COLOR NOTEs.-All specimens except those collected at Torreya
State Park, Liberty County, Florida, are purplish red dorsally fading
to pinkish lavender along the lower lateral margins of the carapace.
The chelipeds are also purplish red with dark tubercles. Specimens
from Torreya State Park are concolorous, approximating the color of
a boiled lobster.
ECOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS.-This species appears to be a primary
burrower, constructing complex, branching burrows in seepage areas
along streams and in river swamps. The burrows are essentially


Vol. 4


186







1959 HOBBS AND HART: FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS


like those of P. rogersi rogersi, but they have not been observed
deeper than Vl/ feet. Because of the matted tree roots in all areas
where they have been found, C. floridanus specimens are far more
difficult to obtain than those of P. rogersi.
KNOWN LOCALITIES.-Florida, Gadsden County: Deep Ravine
northwest of Quincy; 2.5 miles north of Quincy off State Highway
267; 3.6 miles north of Quincy on State Highway 267. Jackson County:
Along Blue Springs Creek, east of Marianna on U. S. Highway 90.
Leon County: 12 miles west of Tallahassee on State Highway 20 in
deep ravine, stream tributary to Ochlockonee River. Liberty County:
Torreya State Park in ravine north of Indian Ridge. Georgia-De-
catur County: Ravine adjacent to east end of Jim Woodruff Dam.
LIFE HISTORY NOTES.-First form males have been collected in
November and December; no female with eggs or young has been
observed.
CRAYFISH ASSOCIATES.-C. diogenes, C. latimanus, and P. spiculifer.

Cambarus fodiens (Cottle)
(Figure 11; Map 6)
Astacus fodiens Cottle 1863, Can. Jour. Industry, Sci., and Arts, 45: 217.
Cambarus argillicola Faxon 1884, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci., 20:
116, 144 (in part).
Cambarus fodiens Creaser 1931, Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci., Arts and Let-
ters, 13: 260, 269 (in part).
The range of this species extends from Ontario to Georgia. It
is known from Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Tennessee, Alabama,
and the present single record extends the range into southwest
Georgia.
DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS.-This crayfish may readily be recognized
in this region by the combination of an obliterated areola and a dis-
tinct excision on the opposable margin of the movable finger of the
chela.
COLOR NOTES.-None available.
ECOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS.-The single locality in this region
where C. fodiens was collected lies 3.1 miles north of Iron City, Sem-
inole County, Georgia at Dry Creek. Two specimens, a first form
male and a female, were dug from complex burrows in a mucky soil
in the creek bed under the bridge. The surrounding countryside is
almost flat, most of it under cultivation, and the creek flows through


187







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


a narrow swampy area. Both the seine and dipnet were used in
the creek and its backwaters and the only other burrows located were
opened in an effort to secure additional specimens, but none was
found. If its habits here are as they are elsewhere, this crayfish
should be abundant in small ponds, roadside ditches, and other shal-
low fluctuating bodies of water.
LIFE HISTORY NoTEs.-The single collection made on 9 September
1955 contains a first form male.
CRAYFISH ASSOCIATES.-P. paeninsulanus and 0. clypeatus.

Cambarus diogenes diogenes Girard
(Figure 10; Map 6)

Cambarus diogenes Girard 1852, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philad., 6: 88.
Cambarus nebrascensis Girard 1852, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philad.,
6: 91.
Cambarus obesus Hagen 1870, Illus. Cat. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard
Coll., 3: 81.
Cambarus diogenes diogenes Faxon 1884, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and
Sci., 20: 144 (by implication).
While the ranges of its two subspecies have never been clearly
delineated, the range of the species extends from Minnesota to Texas
and New Jersey to the panhandle of Florida, except in the mountains.
C. d. ludovicianus Faxon is apparently restricted to the lower Missis-
sippi Valley region, occupying a V-shaped wedge with the apex reach-
ing into Tennessee and Arkansas. Though relatively few specimens
have been collected, the nominate subspecies is apparently common
along most of the creeks and rivers of the Apalachicola region.
DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS.-In this area C. diogenes diogenes may
be recognized by its obliterated areola and the absence of a distinct
excision on the opposable margin of the movable finger of the chela.
Both fingers of the chela are scarlet red at the tips.
COLOR NoTEs.-The somewhat variable ground color ranges from
a creamy yellow to a bluish green. In nearly all instances the mar-
gins of the rostrum, postorbital ridges, and tubercles on the chelipeds
are red, and there are frequently red markings on the abdomen. The
tips of the fingers of the cheliped are invariably red.
ECOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS.-Although this crayfish is primarily a
burrowing species, it is occasionally taken in open water. In this
region it is found burrowing along the banks of both large and small


188


Vol. 4







1959 HOBBS AND HART: FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS


streams, and occasionally in seepage areas in the headwaters of small
streams. In many instances the burrows have at least two openings,
one below water level and the other above it, and in such situations
seldom have more than two or three passageways. In seepage areas
the burrows may branch in several directions and have several chim-
neys. The chimneys are usually neatly constructed and often attain
a height up to at least 1 foot. Burrows along the banks of the Apa-
lachicola River with openings 10 to 15 feet above the water level are
almost certainly excavated by this species.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We wish to acknowledge, with thanks, the assistance afforded us
by a United States National Park Service contract and a National
Science Foundation grant, issued through the Florida State Museum
and the Department of Biology, University of Florida.
We are especially grateful to Dr. J. C. Dickinson who initiated
the idea of this study, and who has given us valuable assistance and
counsel throughout its duration.
To Mr. Angus Gohlson of Chattahoochee, Florida, Dr. J. D.
Kilby, Dr. L. J. Marchand, and to many others who assisted us in
the field or donated specimens, we also express our thanks. We are
also indebted to Miss Margaret Walton who is responsible for the
drawings of P. rogersi expletus.

LITERATURE CITED
Berner, Lewis
1958. A list of mayflies from the lower Apalachicola River drainage. Quart.
Journ. Fla. Acad. Sci., 21 (1): 25-31.
Clench, W. J., and Ruth D. Turner
1956. Freshwater mollusks of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida from the Es-
cambia to the Suwannee River. Bull. Fla. State Mus., Biol. Sci., 1 (3):
79-239, 9 pls.
Cooke, C. Wythe
1945. Geology of Florida. Fla. Geol. Surv., Geol. Bull., 29: 1-300, 47 text
figs., 1 map in folder.
Cottle, T. J.
1863. On the two species of Astacus found in upper Canada. Can. Journ.
Industry, Sci., and Arts, 45: 216-219.
Creaser, Edwin P.
1931. The Michigan decapod crustaceans. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci., Arts, and
Letters, 13: 257-276, 9 figs., 6 maps.


189







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


1933. Descriptions of some new and poorly known species of North American
crayfishes. Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool., Univ. Mich., (275): 1-25, 14 figs.
Faxon, Walter
1884. Descriptions of new species of Cambarus; to which is added a synonymi-
cal list of the known species of Cambarus and Astacus. Proc. Amer.
Acad. Arts and Sci., 20: 107-158.
1914. Notes on the crayfishes in the United States National Museum and in
the Museum of Comparative Zoology, with descriptions of new species
and subspecies to which is appended a catalogue of the known species
and subspecies. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard Coll., 40 (8): 347-
427, 11 pls.

Gibbes, L. R.
1850. On the carcinological collection of the United States, an enumeration
of the species contained in them, with notes on the most remarkable
and descriptions of new species. Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 3:
167-201.

Girard, Charles
1852. A revision of the North American Astaci, with observations on their
habits and geographical distribution. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philad.,
6: 87-91.

Goin, Coleman J.
1958. Comments upon the origin of the herpetofauna of Florida. Quart.
Journ. Fla. Acad. Sci., 21 (1): 61-70.

Hagen, H. A.
1870. Monograph of the North American Astacidae. Illus. Cat. Mus. Comp.
Zool., Harvard Coll., (3): 1-109, 11 pls.

Hay, W. P.
1899. Description of two new species of crayfish. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.,
22 (1187): 121-123, 2 figs.

Hobbs, Horton H., Jr.
1938a. Two new crawfishes from Florida (Abstract). Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci., 2:
90-91.
1938b. A new crawfish from Florida. Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., 28 (2): 61-65,
11 figs.
1940. Seven new crayfishes of the genus Cambarus from Florida, with notes
on other species. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 89 (3097): 387-423, 8 figs.
1941. Three new Florida crayfishes of the subgenus Cambarus (Decapoda,
Astacidae). Amer. Midl. Nat., 26 (1): 110-121, 32 figs.
1942a. A generic revision of the crayfishes of the subfamily Cambarinae (De-
capoda, Astacidae) with the description of a new genus and species.
Amer. Midl. Nat., 28 (2): 334-357, 23 figs.
1942b. The crayfishes of Florida. Univ. Fla. Publ., Biol. Sci. Ser., 3 (2): 1-179,
3 text figs., 11 maps, 24 pls.


Vol. 4


190







1959 HOBBS AND HART: FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS


1943. Two new crayfishes from the panhandle of Florida. Proc. Fla. Acad.
Sci., 6 (1): 49-58, 32 figs.
1945. The subspecies and intergrades of the Florida burrowing crayfish, Pro-
cambarus rogersi (Hobbs). Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., 35 (8): 247-260,
34 figs.
1953. On the ranges of certain crayfishes of the Spiculifer group of the genus
Procambarus, with the description of a new species. Journ. Wash.
Acad. Sci., 43 (12): 412-417, 13 figs.

Hobbs, Horton H., Jr., and Lewis J. Marchard
1943. A contribution toward a knowledge of the crayfishes of the Reelfoot
Lake area. Journ. Tenn. Acad. Sci., 18 (1): 6-35, 3 pls., 1 map.
Holthuis, L. B.
1949. Notes on the species of Palaemonetes (Crustacea Decapoda) found in
the United States of America. Koninklijke Nederlandsche Akademie
van Wetenschappen, 52 (1): 3-11, 2 figs.
Hubbell, T. H., A. M. Laessle, and J. C. Dickinson
1956. The Flint-Chattahoochee-Apalachicola region and its environments. Bull.
Fla. State Mus., Biol. Sci., 1 (1): 1-72, 10 pls., 4 maps, 1 table.
Leconte, John
1856. Descriptions of new species of Astacus from Georgia. Proc. Acad. Nat.
Sci., Philad., 7: 400-402.
Penn, George H., Jr.
1942. Observations on the biology of the dwarf crawfish, Cambarellus shu-
feldtii. Amer. Midi. Nat., 28 (3): 644-647, 1 fig., 1 table.
1943. A study of the life history of the Louisiana red-crawfish, Cambarus
clarkii Girard. Ecology, 24 (1): 1-18, 4 figs., 6 tables.
1950. The genus Cambarellus in Louisiana. Amer. Midi. Nat. 44 (2): 421-
426, 1 fig.
Rathbun, Mary J.
1902. Descriptions of new decapod crustaceans from the west coast of North
America. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 24 (1272): 885-905.
Smith, Elsie Wayne
1953. The life history of the crayfish Orconectes (Faxonella) clypeatus (Hay).
Tulane Studies in Zool., 1 (7): 79-96, 3 figs., 5 tables.
Stimpson, William
1871. Notes on the North American crustacea in the Museum of the Smith-
sonian Institution. Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., N. Y., 10: 92-136.

Volpe. E. Peter, and George Henry Penn
1957. Dimorphism of chromatophore patterns in the dwarf crawfish. Journ.
Hered., 48 (3): 90-96, 2 figs., 3 tables.


191




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs