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Group Title: Birds and mammals from the Pleistocene of Williston, Florida (FLMNH Bulletin v.5, no.1)
Title: Birds and mammals from the Pleistocene of Williston, Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001557/00001
 Material Information
Title: Birds and mammals from the Pleistocene of Williston, Florida
Alternate Title: Bulletin of the Florida State Museum ; volume 5, number 1
Physical Description: 24 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Holman, J. Alan, 1931-
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1959
 Subjects
Subject: Paleontology -- Florida -- Williston   ( lcsh )
Vertebrates, Fossil   ( lcsh )
Paleontology -- Pleistocene   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Part of thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 24.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00001557
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0865
notis - ACK0906
alephbibnum - 000440440
oclc - 05066519
lccn - a 59010033

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front page 1
        Front page 2
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Back Cover
        Page 25
Full Text




BULLET


IN


OF THE

FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


BIOLOGICAL

Volume 5



BIRD' AND MAMMALS FR(


SCIENCES

Number I



)M THE PLEISTOCENE OF


WILLISTON, FLORIDA

J. Alan Holman


UNIVERSITY
Gai


OF FLORIDA
sville









The numurs ok THE BULLETIN OF THE FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM,
BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, are published at irregular intervals. Volumes contain
about 300 pages and arc not necessarily completed in any one calendar year.























OLIVER L. AUSTIN, JR., Editor




















All communications concerning purchase or exchange of the publication should
be addressed to the Curator of Biological Sciences, Florida State Museum, Seagle
Building, Gainesville, Florida. Manuscripts should be sent to the Editor of the
BULLETIN, Flint Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.


Published 3 September 1959


Price for this issue $.45











BIRDS AND MAMMALS FROM THE PLEISTOCENE OF
WILLISTON, FLORIDA

J. ALAN HOLMAN 1

SYNOPSIS: A Pleistocene vertebrate locality at Williston, Levy County, Flor-
ida, contained the remains of 6 species of birds and 20 of mammals. The bones
were in Arredondo clay, of Illinoian age, in a solution pipe in the Eocene Ocala
limestone.
Two birds are extinct, a large quail (Colinus suilium), and a large jay
(Henocitta brodkorbi) which is described as new. Six mammals are extinct: a
mustelid of uncertain identity, a pine vole (Pitymys hibbardi) which is described
as new, an armadillo (Dasypus bellss, a tapir (Tapirus veroensis), a peccary
(Mylohyus sp.), and a horse (Equus sp.). Rabbits of the genus Sylvilagus are
represented by 561 fossil elements; in many cases the two species, S. palustris
and S. floridanw, can be distinguished on cranial and post-cranial bones.
The Pleistocene habitat of the Williston area was probably marshy pineland
grading into well drained pineland with open sinks, surrounded by mesophytic
vegetation.
Six species, 23 percent of the fossil fauna, are larger than their Recent Florida
representatives. Five of these six species have larger modern forms to the north.
Applying Bergmann's rule, this supports the thesis that Florida had a somewhat
cooler climate in the Illinoian glacial staoe.
The Williston fauna differs from other Pleistocene localities in Florida in its
low percentage of extinct mammals. This is because a large number of the
Williston mammals are small. If the percentage of extinction is calculated sep-
arately for large and small size classes, the Williston fauna resembles that of
other Florida Pleistocene localities more closely.

INTRODUCTION

Interest in the Pleistocene birds and mammals of Florida has
recently revived. Between 1896 and 1930 the many works of Leidy,
Scllards, Hay, Simpson, and Wetmore laid the initial groundwork,
mainly with the larger animals, but very little attention was paid to
the subject from 1930 to 1950. Since 1950 the works of Brodkorb
(1957 and 1959) on the Florida Pleistocene birds, and of Bader (1957),
Olsen (1958), and Ray (1958) on the mammals, have added new im-
petus to this study. Recently developed techniques have enabled
paleontologists to study the smaller vertebrates, largely neglected

'The author is a Graduate Assistant in the Department of Biology of the
University of Florida. He is particularly interested in the paleontology of the
smaller vertebrates. This paper represents, in part, a thesis prepared in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in the De-
partment of Biology of the University of Florida.




' ') ( r
/ ( \ i- !' .


2 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM / Vol. 5

in the past, which should prove valuable in establishing a more nat-
ural correlation of the Florida Pleistocene.
Vertebrate fossils from the Williston, Florida, area have been
known since the work of Leidy, but early lists were of a heterochronic
nature (Simpson, 1929b). In 1956 Dr. Pierce Brodkorb of the Uni-
versity of Florida and Dr. Robert Bader of the University of Illinois
discovered a new Pleistocene locality at Williston in the Connell
and Shultz Limerock Company mine. The site is in Levy County,
Florida just inside the north city limits of Williston, 0.9 miles north
of the Williston Seaboard Airline Railroad. It has an elevation of
approximately 82 feet and lies east of State Road 331 and Florida
Geodetic Survey marker H 79 (Gunter, 1948), in area 4-2 of the
Williston Quadrangle (U. S. Geological Survey, 1950). The Williston
area today is a typical karst region, with many depressions and sinks
and a mesophytic vegetation.
The fossils were found in a pipe in the Eocene Ocala limestone.
Pipes of this nature in Florida, formed by the solution of limestone,
apparently have been receiving freshwater sediments periodically
since the lower Miocene (Bader, 1957). Similar pipes, solution chan-
nels, and sinkholes are a main source of fossil vertebrates in north-
central Florida.
The Williston pipe was about 15 feet in diameter in a north-south
direction. Its east face was covered by partially weathered original
material. Excavating this matrix exposed two small caverns con-
nected by a small crevice about 6 inches high. One cavern was 1
foot high, 3 feet wide, and extended horizontally about 112 feet into
the limestone. The other cavern was about 3 feet high, 6 feet wide,
and extended about 3 feet horizontally before turning downward as
part of the apex of the solution funnel. The sediments in the sink
consisted of yellow-brown clays, bluish sandy clays, and some strati-
fled layers of sand, which suggests they were deposited over a period
of several years at least. Brodkorb (1959) has designated these clays
as the Arredondo member of the Wicomico formation. Most of the
bones occurred in the yellow-brown clays.
Overlying the clay-filled pipe is the Wicomico terrace sandy clay
which has a characteristic dull orange color. This terrace was de-
posited during the Sangamon interglacial stage by an encroaching
sea (Cooke, 1945). Brodkorb (1957 and 1959) has indicated that the
Reddick and Arredondo, Florida, vertebrate localities represent the
Illinoian stage because of their location in respect to the Wicomico








HOLMAN: PLEISTOCENE BIRDS AND MAMMALS


terrace. The Williston site is likewise referred to the Illinoian glacial
stage of the Pleistocene.
Excavations were carried out from May through September of
1956. Both the small caverns were excavated, and the pipe had
been dug to a depth of 8 feet when mining operations destroyed
the site. The avian and mammalian faunas of this locality form the
subject of the present paper. The amphibians and reptiles were dis-
cussed by Holman (1959). While previous work in the Williston
area treated only a few large mammals, the present paper includes
many of the smaller mammals and birds. The work was supported
by the Florida Geological Survey, where the mammalian remains
are deposited. The birds are in the collection of Pierce Brodkorb
at the University of Florida.

ANNOTATED LIST

Class AVES
Anas discors Linnaeus
MATERIAL.-Right carpometacarpus (PB 2320).
The carpometacarpus of A. discors is similar to that of A. carolin-
ensis, but size as well as several qualitative characters separate the
two species (Brodkorb, 1959). The height of metacarpal I ranges
from 8.8 to 9.4 mm. in 7 Recent A. discors, and from 8.4 to 9.0 mm.
in 6 Recent A. carolinensis. The 9.3 mm. height of metacarpal I in
the fossil falls within the range of A. discors.

Colinus suilium Brodkorb
MATERIAL.-Rostrum (PB 2318), 2 vertebrae (PB 2308-2309), left
coracoid (PB 2319), 2 left (PB 2301-2302) and 3 right (PB 2310-2312)
humeri, left ulna (PB 2304), 2 left carpometacarpi (PB 2305-2306), 1
left (PB 2303) and 3 right (PB 2315-2317) femora, left tarsometatar-
sus (PB 2307).
The most abundant avian fossils collected at Williston are those
of a large quail, recently described by Brodkorb (1959) from the
Pleistocene of Arredondo, Florida. Measurements of Recent and
fossil quail were supplied by Dr. Brodkorb. Table 1 shows the Pleisto-
cene quail of Williston to be larger in all elements than Recent C.
virginianus, and very close to C. suilium. The Williston fossils also
agree with C. suilium in the qualitative characters pointed out by
Brodkorb (1959).


1959









BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


TABLE 1

MEASUREMENTS (IN MM.) or WNG AND LE LEG EVENTS OF ColinIS


Williston
Pleistccene Arredondo
C. suilium C. suilium
Range No. Range No.


Recent
C. virginianus
Range No.


Humerus:
length
prox. width
shaft width
distal width
depth of head
length prox. end
brachialis to distal end
of internal condyle

Ulna:
length
prox. width

Carpometacarpus:
length
height prox. end

Femur:
length head
through internal condyle
least shaft
distal shaft

Tibiotarsus:
length
distal width
depth of external
condyle
depth of internal
condyle

Tarsometatarsus:
width of trochlea 3
depth of trochlea 3


34.5-37.2
9.5-10.3
3.6- 3.8
7.0- 7.9
3.7- 4.0
5.6-- 6.3


37.6-37.9
9.6-10.4
3.4- 3.8
7.5- 7.9
3.7 4.1
6.3


31.7-35.8
9.3-10.8
2.6- 3.3
6.3- 6.8
3.1- 3.5
5.3- 6.1


34.0 1 32.7-33.1 2 28.5-32.2 19
4.8 1 4.1- 4.6 2 3.4- 4.3 19


20.4 1
6.0 1


17.0-19.5 14
4.9- 5.7 14


36.4-39.6 15

2.8- 3.2 15
6.4- 7.1 15


42.9


3.3 1
7.5- 7.6 2


54.8 1
5.1- 5.9 3
5.3- 5.9 3


49,8-53.5
4.6- 5.2
4.6- 5.1


5.5- 6.2 3 5.2 5.7 2 4.8- 5.5 19




2.5 1 2.5 1 1.9- 2.3 19
3.5 1 3.4 1 2.6- 3.2 19


Elenmer I


Vol. 5








HOLMAN: PLEISTOCENE BIRDS AND MAMMALS


Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus
MATERIAL.-Left femur (PR 2321).

Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm
MATERIAL.-Right carpometacarpus (PB 2322).
The carpometacarpi of C. brachyrhynchos and C. ossifragus may
be separated on size. The length of the carpometacarpus in 5 Recent
C. brachyrhynchos ranges from 46.8 to 50.5 mm., the proximal height
from 10.0 to 11.2 mm. In 9 Recent C. ossifragus the length ranges
from 39.6 to 44.2 mm. and the proximal height from 8.7 to 10.3 mm.
The length of the fossil is 48.6 mm., the proximal height 10.7 mm.,
falling within the range of C. brachyrhynchos.

Henocitta new genus
TYPE OF GENUS.-Henocitta brodkorbi new species.
DIAGNOSIS.-Closest to Psilorhinus Ruppell of Mexico and Central
America, in distal length of entepicondyle; extent and depth of
brachial depression; shape of internal condyle.
Differs from Psilorhinus in having entcpicondylar prominence ro-
bust; entepicondyle wider in palmar view, narrower in distal view;
area between internal condyle and entepicondyle depressed; fossa
above internal condyle shallow; ectepicondyle wide and at right angle
with shaft (in Psilorhinus ectepicondyle much narrower and directed
inward).
Less closely related to Protocitta Brodkorb of the Pleistocene of
,eddick, Florida, and Calocitta Gray of Recent Mexico and Central
America.
Differs from Protocitta in having entcpicondyle rotated anconally;
brachial depression deeper and less extensive; internal condyle de-
pressed distally, rounded in palmar view; ectepicondyle wide and
at right angle to shaft (in Protocitta cctepicondyle much narrower
and directed inward).
Differs from Calocitta in having entepicondylar prominence less
robust, entepicondyle longer distally, area between internal condyle
and entepicondyle produced, brachial depression less shallow and
more extensive, internal condyle rounded in palmar view, fossa above
internal condyle shallow, ectepicondyle wide and at right angle with
shaft (in Calocitta ectepicondyle much narrower and directed inward).
ETYYMOLOGY.-From Greek henos (old, former) and kitta (chatter-
ing bird).








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Henocitta brodkorbi new species
Plate I, Figs. 1-2
HOLOTYPE.-Distal half of left numerous, PB 2323. From Pleisto-
cene (Arredondo member, Illinoian stage) at Connell and Shultz
Limerock Company quarry, Williston, Levy County, Florida. Col-
lected by J. Alan IIolman, summer, 1956.
DESCRIPTION OF HoLOTYPE.-Entepicondyle robust, long, and ro-
tated anconally, entcpicondylar process robust, brachial depression
narrow and deep, area between cntepicondyle and internal condyle
depressed, internal condyle round and produced in lateral view,
fossa above internal condyle shallow, entepicondyle at right angle
to shaft and widest of any corvid studied.
Width through epicondyles, 11.1 mm., width of shaft above ectepi-
condyle 7.1 mm., length of entepicondyle 5.0 mm., width of entepi-
condyle 3.8 mm., length of brachial depression 5.0 mm., length of
internal condyle 3.0 mm., width of ectepicondyle 2.7 mm.
DIAGNOSIs.-Humerus smaller than Calocitla colliei, Psilorhinus
morio, and Psilorhinus mexicanus; about the same size as Protocitta
dixi and Calocitta formosa; larger than that of any other jays studied.
DIscussioN.-This is the second fossil jay described. The first
(Protocitta dixi Brodkorb) is from the Illinoian stage of the Pleisto-
cene of Reddick, Florida, and also has its closest affinities with the
large Recent jays of Mexico and Central America (Brodkorb, 1957).
While Protocitta is more closely related to Calocitta from the west
coast of Mexico and Central America, Henocitta is closest to Psilor-
hinos from the east coast of Mexico and Central America.
ETYMOLOGY.-The new jay is named for Dr. Pierce Brodkorb of
the University of Florida who has pioneered the study of small fossil
vertebrates in Florida.
Family FRINGILLIDAE
(Genus and species indeterminte)
MATERIAL.-Two right carpometacarpi (PB 2324-2325), left cora-
coid (PB 2326).
These bones are those of a small sparrow; otherwise they are
not distinctive.
Class MAMMALIA
Scalopus aquaticus Linnacus
MATERIAL.-Right ulna (FGS V-5846).
The fossil fits within the variation found in Recent Florida moles.


Vol. 5








HOLMAN: PLEISTOCENE BIRDS AND MAMMALS


4.











3 4







5 6
Plate I. Figs. 1-2, Henocitta brodkorbi, palmar and anconal view of holotype
humerus, x 1.7. Figs. 3-5, Pitymys hibbardi, lingua], labial, and occlusial view
of holotype dentary, x 3.4, x 2, x 3.2. Fig. 6, Pitymys hibbardi, molar pattern
drawn from holotype.

Cryptotis parva (Merriam)

MATERIAL.-Three left dcntaries (FGS V-5847).
The dentaries referred to Cryptotis parva differ from those of
Sorex longirostris in that the angle of the coronid with the dentary
teeth in S. longirostris is V-shaped and almost 90 degrees, whereas








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


in Cryptotis parva the angle is U-shaped and much less than 90
degrees.
Several of the osteological characters used to separate Cryptotis
and Blarina overlap in some cases. In Cryptotis the angle between
the coronoid and condyloid process is usually less than in Blarina.
In Cryptotis the notch on the dorsal part of the coronoid process in
external aspect is often small and shallow, whereas in Blarina it is
usually wide and deep. The tubercles of the dentary teeth in Crypto-
tis are usually more pointed in dorsal aspect, those of Blarina more
rounded. Cryptotis tends to have deeper notches in the dental in-
cisor than Blarina.
Size is a more reliable criterion for separating the two genera.
In 10 Recent Blarina brevicauda from north-central Florida the height
of the dentary ranges from 5.3 to 6.1 mm. In 10 Recent Florida
Cryptotis parva the height of the dentary ranges from 4.0 to 4.8 mm.
As the height of the dentary of the two fossils ranges from 4.3 to
4.7 mm., they are assigned to C. parva.

Blarina brevicauda (Say)
MATEIAL.-Left dentary (FGS V-5848).
Differences between Blarina and Cryptotis have been elaborated
above. Blarina differs from Sorex in that the angle from the coro-
noid to the dentary teeth is U-shaped and much more than 90 de-
grees, whereas in Sorex it is V-shaped and almost 90 degrees. The
5.4 mm. height of the dentary in the fossil falls with the range of
Recent Blarina brevicauda from north-central Florida.

Family URSIDAE
(Genus and species indeterminate)
MATERIAL.-Left C1 (FCS V-5849), right P4 (FGS V-5851), right
M1 (FGS V-5852), 2 left M2 (FGS V-5853-5854).
The overlap in characters between the teeth of Ursus (Euarctos)
and Arctodus (Olsen, personal communication) prevents positive di-
agnosis of these fossil bear teeth from Williston.

Family MUSTELIDAE
(Genus and species indeterminate)
MATElIAL.-Left P4, right P., 1 left and 1 right M, (FGS V-5855).
The right M, is much larger than those of Recent skunks in the
University of Florida collections. The specimens were sent to Stan-


Vol. 5








1959 HOLMAN: PLEISTOCENE BIRDS AND MAMMALS 9

ley J. Olsen, who found they agree with none of the Mephitis group
in the Florida Geological Survey collections. Regarding the molars
he states "There is a double cusp on the protocone not found in
Mephitis-this could be an aberrant individual though-and the
other MI is from a smaller individual. This tooth has a constriction
or pinched area in the trigonid that is not present in the skunks that
I have seen here." As the teeth of the Recent Conepatus group have
not been examined it seems best to refer the material to family only.

Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin
MATERIAL.-Left M2 (FGS V-5858).
This fossil seems to be from a young animal, as it shows less wear
than adult Recent gray squirrels studied.

Geomys pinetis (Barton)
MATERIAL.-Three right and 1 left dentary (FGS V-5859).

Peromyscus gossypinus (LeConte)
MATERIAL.-Two left and 4 right dentaries (FGS V-5860).
Six dentaries referable to the genus Peromyscus were obtained at
the Williston locality. To determine the identity of the fossils, den-
taries of Recent P. gossypinus, P. floridanus, P. polionotus, and P.
nuttali were studied. Reithrodontomys humulis was also compared
because of the similarity of its dentary to that of Peromyscus.
No qualitative characters were found to separate the Recent spe-
cies satisfactorily. The tooth row, however, showed some differences
in length: P. gossypinus 3.6 to 4.3 mm. (10), P. floridanus 4.4 to 5.0
mm. (10), P. polionotus 2.4 to 3.7 mm. (10), P. nuttalli 3.7 mm. (1),
Reithrodontomys humulis 2.7 to 3.0 mm. (3).
The 3.8 to 4.4 length of the tooth row in the six fossils agrees
best with that of P. gossypinus.

Oryzomys palustris (Harlan)
MATERIAL.-Right maxilla (FGS V-5861).

Sigmodon hispidus Say and Ord
MATERIAL.-Left maxilla, 1 left and 1 right dentary (FGS V-5862).

Neotoma floridanus (Ord)
MATERIAL.-Left M2 (FCS V-5863).








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Pitymys hibbardi new species
Plate 1, Figs. 3-6

HOLOTYPE.-Left dentary, complete except for tips of coronoid,
condyle, and angle, FGS V-5929. From Pleistocene (Arredondo mem-
ber, Illinoian stage) at Connell and Shultz Limerock Company quar-
ry, Williston, Levy County, Florida. Collected by J. Alan Holman,
summer 1956. Length of tooth row, 7.2 mm.; height of dentary at
first molar tooth, 6.0 mm.; length of diastema, 4.4 mm.
PAEATYnEs.-Two left (FGS V-5930-5931), and two right (FGS
V-5932-5933) dentarics.
One of the left dentaries (FGS V-5930) contains an M1, but the
others are without teeth.
DIAcNOSIS.-Agrees with Pedomys and Pitymys and differs from
Microtus in having MI with a posterior loop, 5 alternating triangles,
and an anterior loop; first, second, and third alternating triangles
closed; confluent fourth and fifth triangles open into anterior loop.
Differs from Pedomys in having diastema short and incisor narrow.
Closest to P. dideltus (Cope) from Pleistocene of Port Kennedy
Cave, Pennsylvania, but larger (Table 2); second alternating triangle
of M3 two-thirds as wide as first triangle (in P. dideltus only one-
third as wide); capsular process broadly convex dorsally, sloping
downward toward incisor anteriorly, and downward toward mental
foramen posteriorly (in P. dideltus capsular process concave dorsally,
sloping upward toward the incisor anteriorly, and upward toward the
molar teeth posteriorly (cf. Hibbard, 1955).

TABLE 2
MEASUTREMNTS (IN lt.) OF DENTARY BONES OF Pilymys

Length of Height at
Species tooth row first molar No.

P. hibbardi 6.6-7.2 (2) 5.0-6.0 (5) 5
P. dideltus 6.2-6.5 2
P. mcnowni 7.0 1
P. involutus 4.9-5.6 ....-..-- 2
P. pinetorum 5.4-6.4 4.4-5.4 11
P. parvulus 5.2-6.0 4.1-5.3 22
P. quasiater 5.3-6.4 4.7-5.5 5


Close in size to P. mcnowni Hibbard (1937) from the Pleistocene
of Brown County, Kansas; differs in having salient angles of Mi


Vol. 5








1959 HOLMAN: PLEISTOCENE BIRDS AND MAMMALS 11

narrow with apices angular (in P. mcnowni salient angles of M1
broad and apices rounded).
Differs from P. meadensis Hibbard (1944) of the Pleistocene of
Kansas in that the confluent fourth and fifth triangles of M1 open into
the anterior loop (in P. meadensis confluent fourth and fifth triangles
closed, separate from anterior loop).
Larger than P. involutus (Cope) from Pleistocene of Cumberland
Cave, Maryland; anterior loop of M1 with re-entrant angles (in P.
involutus re-entrant angles of anterior loop of M1 weak or absent;
cf. Gidley and Gazin, 1938).
Differs from Recent species of Pitymys in larger size; second
triangle two-thirds width of first triangle; capsular process poorly
developed, exposing incisor laterally and medially. A poorly de-
veloped capsular process is characteristic of the earlier voles (Hib-
bard, 1959). Differs further from Recent Pitymys (as well as Pedomys,
and Microtus) in having anterior ridge of ascending ramus strongly
curved along tooth row, but dropping abruptly at level of second
triangle of M1. In Recent forms the ridge is much straighter and
extends to the anterior third of the M1.
DiscussIoN.-The similarity of P. hibbardi to P. dideltus is inter-
esting in the light of recent interpretations of Florida Pleistocene
stratigraphy. Hibbard (1955) considered the Port Kennedy assem-
blage where P. dideltus is found to be no earlier than late Kansan
and no younger than early Illinoian. The Williston locality is con-
sidered to be of Illinoian age.
A noteworthy parallel seems to occur between the bog lemmings
and pine voles of the Pleistocene of Florida. The extinct Synaptomys
australis is 35 percent larger than the Recent Synaptomys cooper
(Olsen, 1958). The length of the tooth row of the holotype of Pitymys
hibbardi is 20 percent longer than the largest Recent Florida P. par-
vulus measured (Table 2).
ETYMOLOGY.-The fossil is named for Dr. Claude W. Hibbard
of the University of Michigan who has contributed so much to the
knowledge of fossil microtines.

Sylvilagus Gray
MATERIAL.-7 left and 9 right maxillae (FGS V-5864), 15 left and
10 right dentaries (FGS V-5865), 110 vertebrae (FGS V-5867), 25 left
and 30 right humeri (FGS V-5868), 11 left and 9 right ulnae (FGS
V-5869), 3 sacra (FCS V-5870), 18 right and 18 left innominates (FGS








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


V-5871), 35 left and 48 right femora (FGS V-5872), 32 left and 42
right tibiae (FGS V-5873).
Rabbit elements were the most abundant fossils in the Williston
material. The bones were not localized at any one depth, but were
distributed uniformly throughout the matrix. In addition to the 424
specimens listed above, 137 additional elements were identified to
the specific level.
Two species of Sylvilagus occur in northern Florida at present,
S. palustris and S. floridanus, each represented by two subspecies
(Miller and Kellogg, 1955). S. palustris palustris (Bachman) ranges
from Virginia to northern Florida, and S. palustris paludicola (Miller
and Bangs) occupies peninsular Florida. S. floridanus mallurus
(Thomas) ranges from New York to northern Florida, and S. floridanus
floridanus (Allen) is confined to peninsular Florida. Simpson (1929b)
refers rabbit elements from the Williston Pleistocene to Sylvilagus sp.
Heretofore characters have not been found to separate the post-
cranial elements of the two local species of rabbits. Study of modern
skeletons shows that in many cases individual bones may be identi-
fied. Most of the Recent material used in this study was from the
area of intergradation in northern Florida, but some specimens from
North Carolina were also available. The characters used to sep-
arate the species are given below.
The angle from the ramus of the mandible at the last molar tooth
to the coronoid process is much less in S. palustris than in S. floridanus.
This character is not usable in the Williston material, for all the
fossils lack the posterior part of the dentary. Some of them can be
separated by the angle between the anterior border of the angular
process and the mandibular ramus (Plate II, Fig. 1). In S. floridanus
this angle ranges from 115 to 145 degrees; in S. palustris it ranges
from 130 to 160 degrees. Fossils with the angle from 115 to 125
degrees are assigned to S. floridanus, and fossils measuring from 150
to 160 degrees are identified as S. palustris.
In the scapula the medial surface of the base of the coracoid
process is more excavated in S. palustris than in S. floridanus. Thus
the coracoid process in S. palustris tends to describe a curve inflected
toward the glenoid fossa, whereas in S. floridanus the apex of the
notch between the glenoid fossa and the coracoid process is directed
centrally.
The humerus is a distinctive element. In S. floridanus the head
in dorsal view is more rounded on the medial side than in S. palustris,


Vol. 5








HOLMAN: PLEISTOCENE BIRDS AND MAMMALS


which is more flattened. The distal end of the humerus is narrower
in S. floridanus than in S. palustris (Plate II, Fig. 2). Ratios of length
of humerus to distal width show ranges of 12.5 to 14.8 percent in
S. floridanus and 14.8 to 17.1 percent in S. palustris.


A.


Plate II. Fig. 1, Dentary of Sylvilagus floridanus, top, S. palustris, bottom,
x 1.7. Fig. 2, Hurnerus of Sylvilagus floridanus, left, S. palustris, right, x 1.
Fig. 3, Sacrum of Sylvilagus floridanus, top, S. palustris, bottom, x 1. Fig. 4,
Innominate of Sylvilagus floridanus, top, S. palustris, bottom, x 1.


~528~. '"`~
2''


r





s









Vol. 5


BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM



TABLE 3


MEASUREMENTS (IN MM.)


OF Sylvilagus palustris


Fossil


Dentary:
length tooth row

height
tooth row


Humerus:
length

proximal
width

distal
width

Femur:
length

proximal
width


]5.7-16.2 (15.95)
n, 2

13.5-14.0 (13.75)
n, 2


86.4-88.5 (87.45)
n, 2

14.8-17.2 (16.00)
n, 2


Tihia:
length

proximal
width


11.4-12.2 (11.80)
n, 8


Innominate:
length

height of
acetabulum


Sacrum:
width


8.4- 9.0 ( 8.70)
n, 2

22.0-24.0 (23.00)
n, 2


North Carolina


14.9-15.5 (15.30)
n, 3

13.5-14.9 (14.27)
n, 2

61.1-62.3 (61.80)
n, 3

12.5-13.2 (12.73)
n, 3

8.8- 9.1 ( 8.97)
n, 3

82.0-83.3 (82.65)
n, 2

14.5-14.7 (14.60)
n, 3

13.0-13.6 (13.33)
n, 3

92.8-94.2 (93.50)
n, 3

11.0-14.7 (14.47)
n, 3

10.3-11.0 (10.60)
n, 3

72.4-74.0 (73.33)
n, 3

8.4- 8.8 ( 8.57)
n, 3

23.1-25.0 (23.03)
n, 3


North Florida


14.0-16.3 (15.07)
n, 24

12.9-14.9 (14.01)
n, 24

49.0-59.6 (56.34)
n, 9

11.8-12.6 (12.08)
n, 9

8.4- 9.3 ( 8.78)
n, 9

66.0-82.0 (78.42)
n, 9

11.2-15.0 (13.88)
n, 9

11.6-14.0 (13.02)
n, 9

82.9-90.7 (86.21)
n, 9

12.8-15.0 (13.81)
n, 9

10.0-10.7 (10.36)
n, 9

66.5-72.5 (70.15)
n, 9

7.5- 8.5 ( 8.19)
n, 8

23.0-27.1 (24.71)









HOLMAN: PLEISTOCENE BIRDS AND MAMMALS


TABLE 4


MEASUREMENTS (IN MM.)

Fossil


Dentary: 13.0-14.7 (14.26)
length tooth row n, 7

height 12.2-13.7 (13.01)
tooth row n, 7

Humerus: 62.2-66.9 (64.85)
length n, 8


12.2-13.2 (12.80)
n, 8

7.9- 8.6 ( 8.30)
n, 8

83.7-87.8 (85.78)
n, 6

14.8-17.1 (15.97)
n, 11

13.3-14.4 (13.92)
n, 6

101.0-102.0 (101.50)
n, 3

14.3-16.0 (15.20)
n, 3

11.3-12.2 (11.65)
n, 25


7.8 8.6 ( 8.16)
n, 17

22.0-23.5 (22.83)
n, 4


OF Sylvilagus floridanus


North Carolina


13.0-14.0 (13.50)
n, 2

11.7-12.2 (11.95)
n, 2

61.0-63.5 (62.25)
n, 2

12.0-12.4 (12.20)
n, 2

7.7- 8.3 ( 8.00)
n, 2

81.0-82.6 (81.80)
n, 2

15.2-15.3 (15.25)
n, 2

12.8-12.9 (12.85)
n, 2

89.4-93.1 (91.25)
n, 2

13.3-14.1 (13.70)
n, 2

10.3-11.0 (10.65)
n, 2

66.5-70.3 (68.40)
n, 2

7.7- 7.9 ( 7.80)
n, 2

21.7-27.0 (24.35)


North Florida


13.9-14.3 (14.10)
n, 24

12.5-14.0 (13.13)
n, 23

53.0-64.5 (58.65)
n, 8

11.5-13.3 (11.87)
n, 8

7.4- 8.5 ( 7.92)
n, 8

75.0-87.4 (79.48)
n, 9

13.5-16.5 (14.14)
n, 9

10.4-11.3 (10.88)
n, 9

82.7-97.2 (86.90)
n, 4

13.0-14.0 (13.72)
n, 8

10.4-11.3 (10.88)
n, 5

60.5-69.4 (66.61)
n, 8

7.6- 8.6 ( 8.13)
n, 9

19.5-25.0 (22.55)


1959


proximal
width

distal
width

Femur:
length

proximal
width


Tibia:


proximal
width


Innominate:
length

height of
acetabuluin

Sacrumni
width








16 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM Vol. 5

In the sacrum of both species some individuals have a thin bony
bridge uniting the three neural spines. It seems unlikely that this
is ontogenetic secondary ossification, for individuals having this con-
dition are about in the middle of the age groups examined in both
species. When this bridge is present sacra of the two species cannot
be differentiated. When the bridge is absent, however, in S. flori-
danus the first two neural spines are narrow in an antero-posterior
direction, with a pronounced constriction in the middle of the spine.
In S. palustris the spines are wide throughout with little or no median
constriction (Plate II, Fig. 3).
The innominate bones are similar in both species but show minor
differences. In young specimens of both forms the acetabulum tends
to be open posteriorly and ventrally with only a cartilaginous bridge.
As the animals mature the acetabular fossa closes completely along
a bony suture. The two species show an ontogenetic difference in
this respect. In S. palustris the acetabular fossa closes only in old
individuals and then laterally only, leaving a V-like opening whose
apex is directed laterally. In S. floridanus a complete fusion of the
acetabular border takes place early in life.
A diagnostic character seemingly not affected by ontogenetic
variation occurs in the tuberosity for attachment of M. rectus femoris
on the ilium just anterior to the acetabulum. In S. floridanus the
tuberosity is well developed and projects laterally with a distinct
valley between it and the acetabular border. In S. palustris the
tuberosity is much more flattened and the valley between it and the
acetabular border is either shallow or absent (Plate II, Fig. 4). The
greater development of the tuberosity in S. floridanus appears to be
associated with its more saltatorial habits.
The femora of the two species also show slight differences. In
S. floridanus the greater trochanter in posterior aspect is strongly
curved along the medial margin and projects proximally in a hook;
the lesser trochanter is nearly at the level of the third trochanter. In
S. palustris the medial margin of the greater trochanter is nearly
straight and the lesser trochanter is elevated markedly above the
level of the third trochanter. The distal end of the femur of S. flori-
danus is more compressed, with the condyles flaring more widely
than in S. palustris. The curve of the greater trochanter, however, is
the most reliable character.
The distal end of the tibia is diagnostic. That of S. floridanus
usually shows two distinct tendinal grooves, one extending one-third








HOLMAN: PLEISTOCENE BIRDS AND MAMMALS


to one-half way up the lateral side of the shaft, the other only a few
millimeters up the medial side of the shaft. In some cases the medial
groove is absent. In S. palustris both grooves are always present
and the medial groove is always well developed about a third of
the way up the shaft.

Sylvilagus palustris (Bachman)
MATERIAL.-3 left and 3 right dentaries (FGS V-5874), 2 left and
1 right scapula (FGS V-5875), right humerus (FGS V-5882), 2 sacra
(FGS V-5876), 3 left and 1 right innominate (FGS V-5877), 4 left and
2 right femora (FGS V-5878), 3 left and 2 right tibiae (FGS V-5879).
The recent North Carolina S. palustris are on the whole larger
than the Recent northern Florida material, especially in humeral and
tibial lengths (Table 3). The fossils carry this trend even farther,
as their limb elements are longer than the Recent North Carolina
material.
Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen)
MATERTAL.-9 left and 6 right dentaries (FGS V-5880), 9 left and
5 right scapulae (FGS V-5881), 5 left and 3 right humeri (FGS V-5883),
5 sacra (FGS V-5884), 12 left and 7 right innominates (FGS V-5886),
14 left and 19 right tibiae (FGS V-5887).
The Recent North Carolina specimens of S. floridanus are larger
than Recent Florida skeletons in all elements except the dentary
(Table 4). As with the marsh rabbit, the fossil cottontails have larger
limbs than Recent material from North Carolina or Florida. The
one qualitative difference noted between the fossil and Recent S.
floridanus material is the greater development of the third trochanter
of the femur in the fossil form. It extends much farther laterally and
also flares more anteriorly than in any of the modern skeletons ex-
amined.
Dasypus hellus (Simpson)
MATERIAL.-25 buckler scutes, 15 movable ring scutes, and 6 leg
scutes (FGS V-5888).
Dasypus bells from the Pleistocene of Williston is characterized
as being twice as large as the Recent Dasypus novemcinctus (Simp-
son, 1929a). The armadillo scutes listed above are smaller than most
Pleistocene material but larger than Recent Dasypus novemcinctus
(Table 5). The Williston fossils may be from a young individual.


1959








18 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM Vol. 5

TABLE 5

MEASUREMENTS (IN MM.) OF Dasypus bellUs

Seminole Field
Williston (After Simpson) Haile Reddick


Width movable Mean 8.13 11.7 11.33 11.47
ring scutes at Range 7.7 8.7 9.6 -13.2 10.0 -18.0 9.5 -13.7
anterior border No. 9 4 3 12
of exposed
portion
Maximum diam- Mean 9.87 14.60 12.8 12.93
eter of buckler Range 7.0 -14.9 10.0 -19.8 12.8 9.6 -15.6
scutes No. 28 14 1 22


Tapirus veroensis Sellards

MATERIAL.-Right P1, right P4, right M2, left M3 (FGS V-5889).
The four tapir teeth from Williston agree in conformation and
measurements with Sellards' type of T. veroensis and with Simpson's
type of T. veroensis sellardsi (Table 6). Stanley J. Olsen of the Flor-
ida Geological Survey kindly examined the P1 and confirmed the
identification.
TABLE 6

MEASUREMENTS (IN MM.) OF TFTH OF Tapirus veroensis

Vero Seminole Field
Williston (after Sellards) (after Simpson)


P' Length 21.3 20.0 20.0
Anterior width 24.2 26.0 24.7
Posterior width 23.7 24.4

P, Length 24.6 -
Anterior width 11.5 -
Posterior width 13.4 -
M3 Length 24.5 24.0 23.5
Anterior width 27.8 28.0 26.2
Posterior width 23.2 23.0

Ms Length 26.4 24.2
Anterior width 19.8 19.8
Posterior width 18.5 19.8








HOLMAN: PLEISTOCENE BIRDS AND MAMMALS


Mylohyus sp.

MATERIAL.-Left dentary including P4, M1, M2, and M3, right M2,
left maxillary including P2 and P3, left M2 and MS (FGS V-5890),
right humerus (FGS V-5891).
The teeth found at Williston are too worn to be identified to the
species level. If the humerus belongs to the same individual as did
the teeth, the fossil peccary had a much larger forearm than the
living Pecari tajacu (Table 7).

TABLE 7
MEASUREMENTS (IN MM.) OF PECCARIES

Mylohyus sp. Williston Pecari tajacu male, Chiapas
Total Anterior Posterior Total Anterior Posterior
Teeth length width width length width width

P" 10.3 8.6 9.9 9.5 6.4 8.8
P" 11.2 12.0 11.6 8.8 10.2 10.3
M3 16.7 14.3 15.4 14.3 13.0 12.3
Pi 11.8 9.2 10.0 11.8 8.2 9.8
M, 13.0 12.8 13.5 11.4 10.2 10.2
M 13.5 13.4 13.8 12.8 11.8 12.4
M, 19.6 14.2 12.8 19.3 11.7 10.8
Total Proximal Distal Total Proximal Distal
length width width length width width
Humerus
155.0 46.0 41.0 119.0 34.0 31.0


Odocoileus virginianus (Boddaert)
MATERIAL.-Right M2 and M3, right dentary including Mi and
M2 (FGS V-5892).
The deer teeth from Williston arc from a rather small individual.

Equus sp.
MATERIAL.--Lower right molar (FGS V-5893).
This horse tooth is not identifiable to species.

DISCUSSION
PALEOECOLOGY.-On the basis of the large Pleistocene herpeto-
fauna of Williston, Holman (1959) concluded that the Pleistocene
habitat of the area consisted of marshy pine land grading into well-


199








20 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM Vol. 5

drained pine land with open sinks, surrounded by mesophytic veg-
etation. The birds and mammals could also have lived in such a
situation (Table 8).
TABLE 8

CIIARACTERISTIC HABITAT OF WTT.ISTON PLEISTOCENE FAUNA
BASED ON THAT OF RECENT REPRESENTATIVES (f EXTINCT FoaMs)

Mesophytic
Species Pinewoods forest Marsh Unknown

Anas discors x
WColinus suilium x
Meleagris gallapavo x x
Corvus brachyrhynchos x x
f Henocitta brodkorbi x
Fringillidae sp. x
Scalopus aquatics x
Cryptotis parva x x
Blarina brevicauda x x
Ursus sp. x
ISkunk or Mustelid x
Lynx rufus x x
Sciurns carolinesis x
Geomys pinetis x
Peromyscus gossypinus x x x
Oryzomys palustris x
Sigmodon hispidus x x x
Neotoma floridana x
fPitymys hibbardi x
Sylvilagus palustris x x
Sylvilagus floridanus x x
flDasypus bells x
STapirus veroensis x
flMylohyus sp. x
Odocoileus virginianus x x
iEquus sp. x
Totals 10 14 6 8



The sea completely inundated the Williston area during the
Yarmouth interglacial stage which preceded the Illinoian (Cooke,
1945). Animals of mesophytic habitat are present in both the poikilo-
thermous and hoinoiothermous elements of the Williston fossil fauna
(Table 8, Holman, 1959). This implies that the sea had receded long
enough and far enough for the vegetation to develop to a mesophytic
state.








HOLMAN: PLEISTOCENE BIRDS AND MAMMALS


Table 9 shows the minimum number of individual birds and
mammals in the Williston Pleistocene material. The minimum num-
ber is determined by counting the most numerous right or left ele-
ment of each species or form. As at least 71 rabbits were present
and only 41 other individual birds and mammals, one might specu-
late that the rabbits represent the refuse of a carnivore that had its
den in the sink.
TABLE 9


MINIMUM NUMBER



Anas discors
Colinus suilium
Meleagris gallopavo
Corvus brachyrhiynchos
lHenocilta brodkorbi
Fringillidac sp.
Sculopus aquatics
Cryptotis parva
Blarina brevicauda
Ursus sp.
fSkunk or Mustelid
Lynx rufus
Sciurus carolinensis
Geomys pinetis


OF INDIVIDUALS OF WILLISTON PLEISTOCENE BIRDS
AND MAMMALS (f EXTINCT FORMS)


Peromyscus gossypinus
Oryzomys palustris
Sigmodon hispidus
Neotoma floridana
fPitymys hibbardi
Sylvilagus sp. indet.
Sylvilagus palustris
Sylvilagus floridanus
lDasypus bellus
f Tapirus veroensis
fMylohyus sp.
Odocoileus virginianus
fEquus sp.


ZOOGEOGRAPHY.-The extant species in the above Pleistocene
fauna still occur in the same area. The eight extinct species have
the following affinities today: Colinus suilium Nearctic, Henocitta
brodkorbi Neotropical, Pitymys hibbardi Nearctic, Dasypus bellus
Neotropical, Tapirus veroensis Neotropical, Mylohyus sp. Neotropical,
Equus sp. Nearetic, Mustelidae sp. Nearetie.
CLIMATIC IMPLICATIONS.-Brodkorb (1957 and 1959) has postu-
lated that Florida fossil animals from the Arredondo clay, which
lies beneath the Wicomico formation, lived in a climate similar to
that of North Carolina or Virginia today. A trend toward large size
is reflected by 23 percent of the species in the Williston fossil fauna.
This could be interpreted as supporting Brodkorb's thesis, or at least
a thesis that the climate was cooler in Florida during the Illinoian
glacial stage. Six animals are larger than their present-day local rep-
resentatives, five of which have larger Recent representatives to the
North.








22 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM Vol. 5

The affinities of the large fossil quail, Colinus suilium, are dis-
cussed by Brodkorb (1959). Dr. Robert Weigel of Howard University
informs me that the quail from the late Pleistocene locality at Vero
Beach, Florida, is the smaller Colinus virginianus that inhabits Florida
today. Thus C. suilium may prove to be a valuable Illinoian indi-
cator.
The extinct skunk is larger than Recent Florida skunks.
Pitymys hibbardi is 20 percent larger than the Recent Florida
Pitymys parvulus.
The fossil forms of both species of rabbits, Sylvilagus palustris and
S. floridanus are larger than the races of these species in north-central
Florida today, and in fact arc larger than specimens from North
Carolina.
The armadillo, Dasypus bellus is much larger than the present
D. novemcinctus which has been successfully introduced into Florida
in Recent times.
Thus these animals may reflect Bergmann's rule (Allee et al.,
1949, Mayr, 1949).
CORRELATION.-Simpson (1929b) recognized four mammalian fau-
nas of the Florida Pleistocene as being of value in correlation studies,
and designated them as test faunas. These faunas were from Vero,
Melbourne, Seminole Field, and Saber-tooth Cave. Bader (1957)
proposed adding the Reddick and Arredondo localities to the list.
Cooke (1945) assigned his four test localities to the Wisconsin
stage of the Pleistocene; Brodkorb (1957 and 1959) assigned Arre-
dondo and Reddiek to the Illinoian stage to which the Williston site
supposedly belongs.
The percentage of extinct mammals is actually greater in the Wis-
consin than in the Illinoian localities (Table 10). This might be

TABLE 10
EXTINCTION PERCENTAGES OF MAMMALS FROM FLORIDA PLEISTOCENE LOCALITIES

Number of Mammals Percentage Percentage
Stage Locality species identified extinct living

Wisconsin Seminole Field 49 66 24
Wisconsin Saber-tooth Cave 24 58 42
Wisconsin Melbourne 56 53 47
Illinoian Arredondo 23 39 61
Illinoian Reddick 48 39 61
Illinoian Williston 20 30 70








HOLMAN: PLEISTOCENE BIRDS AND MAMMALS


construed to cast doubt on the Illinoian designation of Arredondo,
Reddick, and Williston. However, correlating Pleistocene localities
on the basis of percentages of extinct mammals must take the relative
sizes of the mammals into consideration. Many large mammals be-
came extinct at the close of the Pleistocene epoch, and the survival
of the smaller forms into Recent times is much higher.
The comparatively low (30 percent) extinction percentage of its
mammal fauna suggests the Williston site to be of later age than the
Seminole Field site where 66 percent are extinct. If the mammals
of the two sites are arbitrarily grouped into forms the size of a rabbit
or smaller and forms larger than a rabbit, the faunas are quite similar
(Table 11). This supports Bader (1957) who feels that small animal
remains will be much better indicators for correlating the Florida
Pleistocene.
TABLE 11
EXTINCTION OF MAMMALS ACCORDING TO SIZE CLASSES AT SEMINOLE FIET.D
AND WILLISTON, FLORIDA

Mammals the size
of a rabbit or Percentage Mammals larger Percentage
smaller No. Extinct than a rabbit No. Extinct

Williston 12 8 Williston 8 66
Seminole Field 11 9 Seminole Field 38 79


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I wish to thank Dr. Pierce Brodkorb of the Department of Biology
of the University of Florida for his constant help and for his direction
of my work towards the M.S. Degree, of which this paper is a part.
Dr. Claude W. Hibbard, of the University of Michigan, Dr. Robert
S. Bader of the University of Illinois, and Mr. Stanley J. Olsen of the
Florida Geological Survey kindly assisted in the identification of the
mammals. For loan or gift of comparative material I wish to thank
the following people of the Department of Biology of the University
of Florida: Dr. Walter Auffenbcrg, Dr. Pierce Brodkorb, Dr. James
N. Layne, Messrs. F. Wayne King, and Larry H. Ogren; also Drs.
Fred S. Barkalow, Jr., of North Carolina State College and Robert
D. Weigel of Howard College for the loan of rabbit skeletons. The
photographs were taken by Mr. J. Hill Hamon.


1959









BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


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1949. Principles of animal ecology. W. S. Saunders Co., Philadelphia and
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1957. Two Pleistocene Mammalian Faunas from Alachua County, Florida.
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1957. New Passerine birds from the Pleistocene of Reddick. Florida. Jour.
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1945. Geology of Florida. Bull. Florida Geol. Surv., 29: 1-339.
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IIolman, J. A.
1959. Amphibians and reptiles from the Pleistocene (Illinoian) of Williston,
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Mayr, E.
1949. Systematics and the origin of species. Columbia Univ. Press: 1-334.
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1955. A list of North American Recent mammals. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 205:
1-954.
Olsen, S. J.
1958. The bog lemming from the Pleistocene of Florida. Jour. Mammalogy.,
39(4): 537-540.
Ray, C. E.
1958. Additions to the Pleistocene mammalian fauna from Melbourne, Florida.
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1929a. Pleistocene mammalian fauna of the Seminole Field, Pinellas County,
Florida. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 56: 561-599.
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Vol. 5








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for suitability is made by an Editorial Board.
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exchanges only. It is considered the responsibility of the author to distribute his
paper to all interested individuals. To aid in this, fifty copies are furnished the
author without cost.

PREPARATION OF MANUSCRIPT
Highly recommended as a guide is the "Style sheet for the scientific serial publica-
tions of the American Museum of Natural History," second edition, revised, 1953.
Manuscripts should be typewritten with double spacing, with ample margins, and
on only one side of the paper. The author should keep a copy; the copy submitted
must be the original. Tables, legends of figures, and all footnotes should be as-
sembled separate from the text. Several legends or footnotes may be placed
on a single sheet.
Illustrations, including maps and photographs, should be referred to as "figures"
wherever possible. All illustrations are reduced to a maximum of 4/4 by 7%
inches. The scales, wherever it is necessary, should be incorporated into the figure.
All references to literature should conform with the bibliographic style used in
recent numbers of the BULLETIN. Spell out in full the titles of non-English
serials.
Footnote material should be kept to a minimum. However, provide copy for a
footnote detailing the title, affiliations, and address of the author (see recent
numbers of the BULLETIN).
Manuscripts must be accompanied by a synopsis-a brief and factual summary
(not a mere description) of the contents and conclusions, which points out the
presence of any new information and indicates its relevance. In it list all new
organisms described and give their ranges; indicate all taxonomic changes pro-
posed. The synopsis, written in full sentences, should be concise, but completely
intelligible in itself without reference to the paper, thereby enabling the busy
reader to decide more surely than he can from the title alone whether the paper
merits his reading. The synopsis will be published with the paper, hence it does
not replace the usual conclusions or summary sections. It will also serve as copy
for the abstracting services.

Manuscripts and all editorial matters should be addressed to:

Editor of the BULLETIN
Flint Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida




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