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Group Title: Bulletin of the Florida State Museum
Title: The Pleistocene Felidae of Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001545/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Pleistocene Felidae of Florida
Alternate Title: Bulletin of the Florida State Museum ; volume 9, number 6
Physical Description: 216-273 p. : illus., map. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kurtén, Björn
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1965
 Subjects
Subject: Felidae, Fossil   ( lcsh )
Paleontology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Paleontology -- Pleistocene   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: "Literature cited:" p. 271-273.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00001545
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA2649
notis - ACK0913
alephbibnum - 000440447
oclc - 05067692
lccn - a 65007994

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BULLETIN


OF THE

FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES


Volume 9


Number 6


THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA

Bjorn Kurten


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Gainesville
1965









Numbers of the BULLETIN OF THE FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM are pub-
lished at irregular intervals. Volumes contain about 800 pages and are not nec-
essarily completed in any one calendar year.

















ALTERR AUFFENBElG, Managing Editor
OLIVER L. AUSTIN, Ja., Editor


Consultants for this issue:

C. S. Churcher

Donald E. Savage
David S. Webb
















Communications concerning purchase or exchange of the publication and all man-
uscripts should be addressed to the Managing Editor of the Bulletin, Florida State
Misenm, Seagle Building, Gainesville, Florida.


Price for this issue $.95


Published June 8, 19615










THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


BJORN KURTEN 1




SYNOPSIS: The Pleistocene deposits that have yielded fossil remains of Felidae
in Florida may be separated roughly into two age groups, an early fauna prob-
ably dating from the Illinoian or early Sangamon or both, and a late fauna mainly
of Wisconsin date. Seven species of Felidae have been identified in these
faunas:
Felis atrox, the extinct giant jaguar, has been found at only two sites in north-
ern Florida, probably of Wisconsin date.
Felis onca, the jaguar, is plentiful in both faunas and has been identified at a
number of sites. The fossil form (Felis onca augusta) is larger than the living
jaguar. Its various distinctive characters in relative proportions are simply func-
tional or allometric byproducts of larger size. By the Late Pleistocene it became
somewhat smaller and relatively less plentiful.
Felis concolor, the puma, occurs in both faunas but is known from only three
sites. The Pleistocene puma appears to be identical with the living form.
Felis rufus, the bobcat, is relatively scarce in the early fauna but is the dom-
inant species numerically in the late fauna, The earliest (Illinoian?) form is dis-
tinguished by its large size, and is described as Felis rufus koakudsi, new sub-
species. This subspecies was later replaced by the modern subspecies, Felis
rufus floridanus.
Felis pardalis, the ocelot, is recorded at two sites, both of early date.
Felis yagouaroundi, the jaguarundi, has been found at three sites, all prob-
ably dating from the Wisconsin.
Smilodon fatalis, the sabertooth, has been found in several sites, and is more
common in the early than in the late faunas. The Florida form is less advanced
than the late Wisconsin sabertooth of Rancho La Brea, and Smilodon floridanus
is relegated to the synonymy of Smilodon fatalis. The size of Smilodon gradually
increased during the Middle and Late Pleistocene. A very small specimen in the
highly heterochronic fossil assemblage of the Santa Fe River may represent an
early stage in this sequence, possibly the species Smilodon gracilis.







1 The author is Lecturer of Paleontology at the University of Helsingfors, Fin-
land. He completed this study while on an NSF Visiting Foreign Scientist Fel-
lowship at the Florida State Museum. Manuscript received 30 June 1964.-ED.



Kurtin, Bj6rn. 1965. The Pleistocene Felidae of Florida. Bull. Florida State
Mus., vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 215-273.






216 BULLETIN
216 BULLETIN


FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


CONTENTS


Introduction
Localities
Illinoian and/or
Sangamon Age --
Wisconsin Age
Systematic Descriptions
Felis atrox ---
Felis onca -------
Felis concolor ----
Felis rufus----


Felis rufus koakudsi
(n. ssp.) -
Felis rufus floridanus _
Felis pardalis ---
Felis yaguarundi -
Smilodon fatalis -
Discussion and Conclusions
Distribution
Evolution in size ---
Tables 1-31 -..------------
Literature Cited _--


INTRODUCTION

New fossils of Felidae from the Pleistocene of Florida, most of
them collected recently and not previously reported, form the basis
of the present contribution. The amount of material available for
study is considerable, so that quantitative studies and comparisons are
now possible for the first time.
The majority of the specimens examined are in the collections
of the Florida State Museum, University of Florida (UF). Addi-
tional material was examined in the private collections of Mr. James
H. Gut (JHG), Sanford, Florida, and Florida Diving Tours (FDT),
Ocala, Florida. Numerous specimens were borrowed for study from
the Florida Geological Survey (FGS), Tallahassee, the U. S. National
Museum (USNM), Washington, D. C., the American Museum of Nat-
ural History (AMNH), New York, N. Y., the Academy of Natural Sci-
ences (ANSP), Philadelphia, Pa.; the Illinois State Museum (ISM),
Springfield, Illinois; the Texas Memorial Museum and Bureau of Eco-
nomic Geology (UTBEG), Austin, Texas; Los Angeles County Mu-
seum (LACM), Los Angeles; and the University of California Museum
of Paleontology (UCB), Berkeley.
Almost all the measurements were taken in the manner defined
by Merriam and Stock (1932). Abbreviations used in tables of meas-
urements are as follows:


Vol. 9








THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


a, approximate
B, breadth
Ba, anterior breadth
Bbl, width of blade (of upper carnassial)
D, depth
e, estimated
L, length
Lm, length of metastyle (in upper carnassial)
Lp, length of paracone (in upper carnassial) or protoconid (in P4)
N, number of specimens in sample
S.D., standard deviation

LOCALITIES
The following is an annotated list of Florida localities that have
yielded fossil felid material mentioned in this paper. Reference is
made to other publications in which the stratigraphy, correlative age,
or paleoecology of each of these deposits is described in detail. Fig. 1
shows the geographic distribution of the sites.

ILLINOIAN AND/OR SANGAMON AGE
For discussions regarding various views on the correlation of these
deposits see Bader (1957), Brodkorb (1957) and Auffenberg (1958,
1963).

ARREDONDO, ALACHUA COUNTY. Several different fissures in the Ocala
Limestone of this area have fossiliferous fillings (Bader, 1957; Brod-
korb, 1959). Bader (1957) expresses grave doubts as to the practic-
ability of correlations on any basis but faunal analysis. Brodkorb
suggests that the fissure fillings may be dated as Illinoian because
they underlie the Wicomico Terrace. Auffenberg (1958) suggests
that some of the deposits may extend well into the early Sangamon.
The present paper describes material from two distinct localities at
Arredondo: Pit II (see Bader, op. cit.), and Pit I, which yielded a
skeleton of Smilodon.

HAILE I A, ALACHUA COUNTY. The stratigraphy and avifauna have
been described by Brodkorb (1953); Auffenberg (1963) lists the snakes
and discusses the paleoecology. The locality is regarded as an an-
cient spring head. Recent evidence (Auffenberg, pers. comm.) sug-
gests that this deposit is probably older than he originally presumed
(1963).


1965






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Fells atrox
F. onca
F. concolor
F. rufus
F. pardalis
F.yagouaroundi
Smilodon fotalis


Fig. 1. Distribution of felid species in Pleistocene fossil localities of Florida.


Vol. 9







THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


HAILE II B, ALACHUA COUNTY. Mainly on the basis of its numerous
bat fossils Auffenberg (1963) suggests that this deposit represents a
Pleistocene cave, probably near a scrub area.

HAILE VII A, ALACHUA COUNTY. Auffenberg (1963) lists the snakes
from this deposit, and suggests that it represents a sinkhole pond.

HAILE VIII A, ALACHUA COUNTY. A rich fossil deposit in the Haile
complex which has not yet been reported upon in the literature.

WILLISTON III, LEVY COUNTY. See Holman (1959) for a list of the
reptiles and amphibians of this site.

REDDICK I, MARION COUNTY. The stratigraphic relations of the local
deposits in this limestone quarry are dealt with in some detail by
Brodkorb (1957) and by Auffenberg (1963). The very rich fauna of
this locality is still incompletely studied, but Gut and Ray (1963)
list by name all the species of vertebrates so far been identified from
here. The birds have been described by Brodkorb (1957) and the
snakes by Auffenberg (1963). See also Ray, Olsen and Gut (1963).

KENDRICK I, CUMMER LUMBER CO., Quarry, Marion County. Pre-
sumably the same considerations apply to the Pleistocene fissure fill-
ings of this area as to nearby Reddick. The exact locality of the
single specimen of Felis onca found here is unknown, except that
it came from one of the numerous limestone quarries in the immedi-
ate area.

OCALA, MARION COUNTY. The type specimen of Leidy's Smilodon
floridanus came from a fissure filling in this general region. It is
probably of about the same date as the material from Reddick and
Kendrick.

SABERTOOTH CAVE OR LECANTO CAVE, CITRUS COUNTY. The rich
fauna of this locality was described by Simpson (1928), who corre-
lated it with the Late Pleistocene faunas of Seminole Field, Mel-
bourne, and Vero. Auffenberg (1958) regards a Sangamon age as
more probable.

BONE CAVE NEAR FLORAL CITY, CITRUS COUNTY. This locality is dis-
cussed in Auffenberg (1958). It contains an admixture of Holocene
material, but the Smilodon specimen discussed in the present paper
came out of the Pleistocene fauna, correlated by Auffenberg with
Reddick I B (early Sangamon?).


1965







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


WISCONSIN AGE

For a discussion of the complexity of deposits of this age and
their admixture with material of Holocene Age see Weigel (1962)
and Auffenberg (1963).
DEVIL'S DEN, LEVY COUNTY. The large and important fauna of this
sinkhole (see Arata, 1961) has not yet been described. It appears to
date from the Late Pleistocene and probably also from part of the
Holocene.
ICHETUCKNEE RIVER BEDS, SUWANNEE AND COLUMBIA COUNTIES. Ma-
terial from these beds is somewhat heterochronic and probably in-
cludes most or all of the Wisconsin as well as the recent. Simpson
(1929a, 1930) lists the mammalian fauna; Auffenberg (1963) lists the
snakes and discusses various fossil sites along the river.

MELBOURNE, BREVARD COUNTY. Several localities in the Melbourne
Bone Bed have yielded a large and well-known fauna, most recently
revised by Gazin (1950) and Ray (1958). The material is Late Pleisto-
cene (Wisconsin) and recent.

MERRITT ISLAND, BREVARD COUNTY. Extension of the Melbourne
formation.

NOCATEE, DE SOTO COUNTY. Fossiliferous clays probably of Late
Pleistocene date.

ROCK SPRINGS, ORANGE COUNTY. The age of this fauna is apparently
late Pleistocene, but Miocene and Recent beds also occur here (see
Auffenberg, 1963; Ray, Olsen and Gut, 1963).

SANFORD, SEMINOLE COUNTY. This is material removed from Lake
Monroe by hydraulic dredges (Gut, 1938). The age is presumably
Late Pleistocene.

SANTA FE RIVER, LOCALITY I, GILCHRIST AND COLUMBIA COUNTIES.
A series of localities upstream from the junction between the Iche-
tucknee and Santa Fe Rivers. Brodkorb (1963), reported on the avi-
fauna from these deposits, but most of the rich mammalian fauna
still awaits study. Preliminary investigation by Clayton E. Ray and
S. David Webb indicate that the fauna is heterochronic. Many fos-
sils are undoubtedly Late Pleistocene, others may be as old as the
Blancan. The "old" group evidently includes the giant flightless
bird Titanis walleri described by Brodkorb (op. cit.), as well as a
mastodon and borophagine dog. None of the felids described here


Vol. 9






THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


is likely to be that early, although some of the material might be
middle Pleistocene in age.
SEMINOLE FIELD, PINELLAS COUNTY. A large fauna, described by
Simpson (1929b). Although some of the material collected here may
be Holocene, it seems clear that the main part of this fauna is of Wis-
consin age and to be correlated with the assemblages from Melbourne
and Vero.
STICKNEY POINT, SARASOTA COUNTY. Material dredged out of chan-
nel, of indeterminate age, presumably Pleistocene.
VERO, INDIAN RIVER COUNTY. The recent revision by Weigel (1962)
lists the voluminous literature on this site. The stratigraphic se-
quence is the same as at Melbourne and the age of the bone bed is
Late Pleistocene (Wisconsin) and recent.

SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTIONS
Felis atrox Leidy
Giant Jaguar
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
SANTA FE RIVER, LOCALITY I, FDT 124, right M1.
ICHETUCKNEE RIVER. UF 9076, skull (fig. 2) and lower jaws of a sin-
gle individual.
The two rami and the complete skull from the Ichetucknee River
had been disarticulated and were collected by Messrs. Kent and Kirk
Ainslie on Dec. 31, 1963, and Jan. 11, 1964, respectively. The skull
lacks I1, 12, P2 and M1 on both sides and the left P4, while all the
lower incisors have been lost, and the right C1 and P4 are broken.
Otherwise the dentition is excellently preserved. The skull and man-
dibles are also in good condition, barring some breakage of the pos-
terior nasal opening and the loss of the right coronoid process.
The measurements of this specimen are shown in table 1 together
with the range of variation recorded in the Rancho La Brea sample
published by Merriam and Stock (1932). The Ichetucknee speci-
men, apparently a large male, exceeds most of the Rancho La Brea
skulls in size, and the values fall close to the upper limit of the re-
corded range. The dentition is but slightly worn.
True jaguar has not been found in the Ichetucknee beds.
The M1 from Santa Fe I is of about average size for the Rancho
La Brea material (see Table 1). Its presence in the Santa Fe River









' A. '-


fW












tKs
4..


'.I k




Fig. 2. UF 9076, skull of Felis atrox, Ichetucknee
eral, and ventral views.


River beds, dorsal, lat-






THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


Beds is of interest, for this is the only locality where both Felis atrox
and Felis onca have been found. Though the ranges of the two spe-
cies in the Pleistocene may have overlapped, they are not associ-
ated at any of the localities enumerated by Simpson (1941). As
the Santa Fe River Beds are highly heterochronic, it is quite likely
that the association here is entirely spurious, and the two species
actually inhabited this area at different times.
The tooth is only slightly worn. Most of the outer and hind part
of the protoconid is damaged, and the posterior root is broken.
REMAIKS. Felis atrox, which has not previously been recorded from
Florida, does not appear to have been a member of the typical late
Pleistocene fauna in the main part of the state. Possibly this species
did not range into the'peninsula proper. The seeming incompati-
bility between it and the true jaguar may have something to do with
this, but whether it was due to interspecific competition or to eco-
logical differentiation is not altogether clear. The latter explana-
tion is suggested by the fact that the jaguar is mainly a forest animal,
while Felis atrox appears in association with plains animals at Rancho
La Brea. Although Felis atrox may be related to the jaguar as Simp-
son (1941) suggests, it must have looked very different in the flesh.
With its slim build, long legs, and relatively small head it was ob-
viously highly cursorial.

Felis onca Linnaeus
Jaguar
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
SANTA FE RIVER, LocALITY I. FDT 176, right C'; FDT 483, right C1;
FDT 484, left C1; FDT 487, left P4; FDT 490, part of left mandible
with Ps-M1.
REDDICK I. FGS V-5690, fragment of right maxilla with P4 and debris
of canine; right P4; distal roll of left humerus; complete right and left
radii; fragments of right and left ulnae; left scapho-lunar; left unci-
form; left pisiform; left series MC I-IV (fig. 3); right MC IV (patho-
logical); right navicular; left ectocuneiform; left MT II and IV; prox-
imal ends of left MT II and V. UF 2446, proximal ends of right MT
IV-V; UF 2565, juvenile right ramus fragment with Dg-D4; UF 2858,
right C' and left maxillary fragment with broken C', alveolus for Pt;
and roots of P8; UF 3003, right ramus with P3-M1 and root of C1
(fig. 4); UF 8875, right C'; UF 8876, left C'; UF 8877, right maxillary
fragment with Ps and alveolus for P2; UF 8878, right P4; UF 8879,
right mandible fragment with P4-M1; UF 8886, distal end of left tibia;


1965







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


UF 8888, right navicular; UF 8889 two left astragali; UF 8890, right
astragalus; UF 8893, left scapholunar; UF 8897, left navicular; UF
8899, left MC III.
ARUUEDONDO II. UF 1717, left MC V (female?).
KENDRmc. UF 8891, right calcaneum (female?).
HAILE II B. UF 3004, left maxilla with P8-P4 and the alveoli of C'-P2.
HAHLE VII A. UF 3463, left humerus, radius and ulna (fig. 5); UF
8455, juvenile right mandible with milk teeth (fig. 4); UF 8956-8957,
distal ends of left and right tibiae; UF 8958, right astragalus; UF 8981,
left radius; UF 9122, right radius; UF 9123, distal end of left tibia;


'04
.s "~




.97
k. *4
a,....
..........


Fig. 3. Left metacarpals I-IV in Felis onca. Left, ISM 1068, recent; right,
FGS V-5690, Pleistocene, Reddick.


Vol. 9


:r P+ PR
~s ~hJS~. ....;~
~C~p~j~ .~'b.'~


i.5a~j: ~s~ ~i;~~~j~C~~F 3E:1j






THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


UF 9124, left astragalus; UF 9125, left ectocuneiform; UF 9126,
right MC IV.
DEVI'S DEN. UF 8980, right humerus (fig. 5).
STICKNEY POINT. FGS V-5696, posterior part of a skull (fig. 6).
MELBOURNE. USNM 11470, right mandible; USNM, no number, right
anid left P4, right Ps fragment, right P4 germ, left M1. Simpson (1941)
ascribed the mandible and a P4 to Felis onca augusta.
VERo. USNM 11411, left P4. Hay (1919) made this specimen the
type of Felis veronis, which Simpson (1941) showed to be a synonym
of Felis augusta. Dimensions in table 2.
SEMINOLE FIELD. AMNH 23536, left D4; AMNH 23537, left Ds;
AMNH 23539, left PS; AMNH 23540, fragment of right P4.
Simpson (1929b) briefly noted these isolated teeth as Felis veronis,
but later (1941) he referred them to Felis onca augusta. The milk
teeth represent animals about the same size as the juvenile jaws from
Reddick I and Haile VII (table 4), while the permanent premolars
are somewhat smaller than the average for the fossil jaguar.


Fig. 4. Upper, UF 8455, juvenile right mandible of Felts onca, Haile VII A.
Lower, UF 3003, right mandible of Felis onca, Reddick I B.


1965







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


REMARKS. The jaguar specimens from Reddick I are remarkable for
their great size and the robust, heavy build of the limb bones, which
may be evaluated from the accompanying tables. The morphology
and relative proportions of the limb bones in many ways approxi-
mate those of Felis atrox, as illustrated by Merriam and Stock, more
closely than the small modem jaguar skeleton with which they have
been compared. However, the size of the Reddick bones falls far
short of that in Felis atrox, and the limb bones show no distal elonga-
tion as in the extinct species.


Fig. 5. Arm bones of Felis onca. Left, UF 8463, left ulna, radius, and
humerus of one individual, from Haile VII A. Right, UF 8980, right humerus
from Devil's Den.


Vol. 9







THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


Fig. 6. FGS V-5696, rear part of skull of Felis onca, channel at Stickney
Point, ventral view.

The size of the limb bones and especially of the teeth suggests a
division into a larger and a smaller group, probably representing the
two sexes (see Simpson, 1941). Both groups seem to reach very large
dimensions in the Reddick I material. The upper carnassial of FGS
V-5695 is especially noteworthy; its length equals that of the small-
est Felis atrox specimen recorded by Merriam and Stock.
The juvenile specimen, UF 2565, consists only of that part of the
ramus carrying the two cheek teeth. The metaconid part of the
milk carnassial has been broken off. What remains of the talonid
suggests that it was weakly developed; it does not form a distinct
cusp as in Smilodon. The milk teeth are unworn and well preserved.


1965







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Ds has a large anterior cusp. The broken ramus shows fragments
of the germ of P4, which was still deeply embedded in the jaw.
The limb bones from Haile VII A (tables 7, 9, 11, 13; fig. 5) rep-
resent animals of the same size as the Reddick material. The juvenile
mandible (fig. 4) is noteworthy because of its excellent state of preser-
vation. The milk dentition is represented by the canine and the two
cheek teeth. In front the permanent Ii and canine are pushing up;
their tips reach the level of the gum. Behind the milk carnassial an
opening is developing into the cavity containing the germ of M1.
For a jaguar of this age the specimen is large; nevertheless the
teeth appear to be definitely smaller than those of the juvenile Felis
atrox figured by Merriam and Stock in their Plate 32, fig. 5, for which
these authors unfortunately give no measurements. The cheek teeth
are slightly larger than those from Reddick (table 4). The carnassial
has a well-developed metaconid oriented vertically, not tilted back-
ward as in Smilodon. The talonid is a weak basal swelling, while in
Smilodon it forms a second cusp. The accessory cusps of Da are
weaker than in the Reddick jaw, and the anterior cusp is reminiscent
of some Smilodon specimens figured by Merriam and Stock. The
other characters of the jaw and teeth, however, are not smilodontine.
The deciduous canine is larger, and the diastema between it and Ds
is shorter than in juvenile Smilodon; the germ of the permanent canine
shows it to be a much larger tooth than in Smilodon and to lack the
sharp posterior ridge of the latter; and finally the coronoid process,
though most of it has been broken off, clearly was much larger than
in the sabertooth.
The specimen from Stickney Point is also remarkable for its great
size (table 5). All the measurements are in excess of the recorded
range for the recent jaguar tabulated by Merriam and Stock, and all
of the width measurements fall within the range of Felis atrox. How-
ever, simple graphic bivariate analysis (fig. 7) demonstrates that the
specimen is certainly a large true jaguar, and not a small Felis atrox.
The length of the skull, as expressed by the postglenoid length, falls
far short of the minimum in Felis atrox, while the great width is simply
what would be expected in a Felis onca of this length. The morpho-
logical characters of this specimen are in general those of a powerful
Felis onca, except for the shape of the jugular process where it
borders the condylar foramen; this is more like that in Felis atrox
as figured by Merriam and Stock (p. 197).
The Santa Fe I material (see tables 2-3) represents large jaguars
of about the same size as specimens referred to Felis onca augusta
Leidy by Simpson (1941) and others. There is nothing to differentiate


Vol. 9






THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


the Santa Fe specimens from late Pleistocene material of Felis onca
in Florida, although the possibility that some of them belong to the
older faunal stratum cannot be ruled out See also the general
discussion below.
Simpson (1941) referred the Florida fossil jaguars to the sub-
species Felis onca augusta Leidy, distinguished from the recent jaguar
by its larger average size.
Some illuminating comparisons may be made by using the recent
jaguar skeleton as a standard and expressing the excess size of the
fossil specimens as percentages of the dimensions in the recent (es-
sentially the same method as the ratio diagram of Simpson, 1941).
It must be remembered that the recent skeleton used is a single indi-


180 -0
0

160- o 0
0



+ 000



4 ./ ' /
0 0
C 120
go
() */
**+


"50 60 70 80 90 100 110
POSTGLENOID LENGTH
Fig. 7. Allometric relationships between mastoid width ordinatee) and post-
glenoid length abscissaa) in Felis onca (solid circles) and Felis atrox (hollow cir-
cles). The specimen from Stickney Point (fig. 8) is represented by the cross.


1965







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


vidual and not a standard or a norm for the living jaguar; actually
it is a relatively small individual.
The long bones and metapodials from Reddick I and Haile VII
are 37 to 47 per cent longer than those of the modern skeleton, with
a mean of 42 per cent. The greatest diameters of the carpal and tar-
sal bones from Reddick are 40 to 69 per cent larger than in the mod-
ern skeleton, with a mean of 55 per cent. The greater increase in
carpal and tarsal diameters over long bone lengths reflects the com-
parative stockiness of the limbs.
The dimensions of the long bones and metapodials reflect the
greater weight of the middle Pleistocene form. The increase by 42
per cent in linear dimensions indicates an increase in volume of
nearly 190 per cent, so that the great Reddick jaguar probably
weighed almost three times as much as the modern female speci-
men used for comparison. As the cross section of the long bones
should also increase in proportion, with a weight increase of 190 per
cent the transverse diameter should increase by some 69 per cent.
Actually the shaft width of the Haile and Reddick long bones and
metapodials varies between 52 and 75 per cent greater than in the
modern skeleton, and the mean of about 66 per cent is very close to
the anticipated figure.
Simpson (1941) records the fossil jaguars of North America as
subspecies of the modern species. McCrady et al. (1951) consider
Felis augustus a good species on the basis of the great differences in
its relative proportions and of its intermediate size between living
jaguars and Felis atrox. This proposal loses much of its force when
it is considered that the changes in relative proportions appear to be
functions of size. The stoutness of the limb bones is directly propor-
tional to the increase in weight. In all the metric characters I have
investigated, the fossil jaguars represent a direct continuation of the
allometric trends of the living population. The example shown in
fig. 7 indicates that the great relative width of the skull, which is one
of the differential characters McCrady et al., used, results from simple
allometry. Figure 8, an example of dental allometry, also indicates
Felis augustus is nothing but a large Felis onca. These comparisons
could easily be multiplied. For instance, limb bone proportions show
the same relationships; the relatively short limbs of the large fossil
form are like those of the jaguar and completely different from those
of Felis atrox.
Thus size is the basic character differentiating this group of fossil
jaguars from the recent forms. In living jaguars, as Simpson (1941)
points out, size is directly related to climate; the smallest forms are


Vol. 9






THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


16 /


Qo /


00
14 00- 0




I +
co

*
0-

,10



/*


20 25 30 35
LENGTH P4
Fig. 8. Allometric relationships between breadth ordinatee) and length (ab-
scissa) of fourth lower premolar. Dots represent recent Felis onca, crosses fossil
Felis onca augusta, and circles Felis atrox.
found in the equatorial area, from which lines of increasing size
extend north and south. The large size of the fossil form may thus
be related to the climate, at least to some extent. Further, the large
Pleistocene form probably was in direct genetic continuity with the
recent jaguars in the areas where they survive.
The situation in this species is evidently analogous in many re-
spects to that in the Old World Crocuta crocuta, in which similar
systems of lines climb north and south from an equatorial low (Kur-
ten, 1958); the extinct northernmost form in Europe exceeded all the
others in size, but was connected with the smaller forms by a series


1965







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


of transitional populations. The amount of differentiation seen in
the jaguar, however, is definitely inferior to that in the spotted
hyenas.
The Felis onca material from the older fauna (Reddick, Kendrick,
Haile, Arredondo) seems, on an average, slightly larger in dimen-
sions than that in the younger fauna (Devil's Den, Melbourne, Vero,
Seminole Field). The humerus from Devil's Den is only 27 per cent
larger than that of the recent specimen, while the long bones from
Reddick and Haile are 39-47 per cent larger. The cheek teeth of
the jaguars in the early fauna are between 11 and 47 per cent larger
than in recent ISM 1068, with a mean increase of 27 per cent; the
corresponding figures for the late fauna are -1 and 36 per cent,
mean 21 per cent. Statistically these differences are of doubtful sig-
nificance, but the indication that the jaguar tended to decrease in
size during the late Pleistocene is well worth keeping in mind. This
trend has been observed in several other animals (Hooijer, 1950;
Kurten, 1958).
Felis concolor Linnaeus
Puma, Cougar
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
REDDICK I. UF 8895, left astragalus.
SEMINOLE FIELD. AMNH 23540, fragmentary right P4 (specimen of
Felis onca under same number); AMNH 23541, right P4; no number,
fragmentary left P4.
Simpson (1929b, 1941) described the upper carnassial and referred
it to Felis inexpectata (Cope). All of the material (table 14) is well
within the size range of modem puma.
REMARKS. The astragalus of the puma differs from that of the jaguar
in a number of characters, several of which may be noted in ventral
view, as shown in fig. 9. The fauna ectal (astragalocalcaneal) facet
is much constricted posteriorly and tapers almost to a point; in the
jaguar it is much broader. The sustentacular facet also tapers back-
ward to a greater extent than in the jaguar. In front the ectal facet
is rather deeply notched just behind the head; the notch is weak or
absent in the jaguar. The medial crest of the tibial trochlea is drawn
out backwards almost to a point in ventral view; in the jaguar this
process is broad and blunt. The neck of the puma astragalus is rela-
tively longer than that of the jaguar. The medial side of the bone
carries a shallow, broad, vertical groove in the puma but has an
almost flat surface in the jaguar. In all these respects UF 8895
corresponds to the puma and differs from the jaguar.


Vol. 9







THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


A B C D
Fig. 9. Left astragali of Felis concolor and Felis onca, ventral view. A
UF 8895, Felis concolor, Reddick; B USNM 172688 Felis concolor, recent; C
UF8889, Felis onca augusta, Reddick; D ISM 684295, Felis onca, recent.

The size of the fossil astragalus from Reddick I is the same as
in the recent puma (table 9), slightly larger than in the recent jaguar
skeleton, but much smaller than in the fossil jaguars from Reddick I.
The puma is a relatively large-footed cat, and its foot bones are pro-
portionately larger than those of a jaguar of similar size. I have
seen no other bones from Reddick that I could ascribe to puma.
The slender metapodials of the puma are quite different from the
heavy bones of the Reddick jaguar.
Ray (1958) ascribes a radius and foot bones from Melbourne to
puma (as Felis inexpectata), but notes they are indistinguishable
from comparable elements of recent Felis concolor. Unlike the
jaguar, the fossil puma does not differ appreciably in size from
its living descendant. This is also true for most fossil pumas from
other parts of North America, as Simpson's (1941) fig. 4 shows.
Most fossil pumas of North America have been referred in re-
cent years to the species Felis inexpectata, which simpson (1941)
noted is insufficiently distinguishable from Felis concolor. Actually
the fossil puma resembles the living puma even more closely than
the fossil Felis onca augusta resembles the living jaguar. Thus re-
taining Felis inexpectata as a species distinct from Felis concolor
serves no useful purpose. As a subspecies inexpectata would be valid
primarily for the Middle Pleistocene pumas, as the type comes from
Port Kennedy Cave. The puma material from Conard Fissure and
Cumberland Cave is relatively large, and this may be a distinctive
character for the Middle Pleistocene form. The earliest available
name for a Late Pleistocene subspecies of puma appears to be either
Felis hawveri Stock or Felis daggetti Merriam, both from California.
However, the Late Pleistocene form may turn out to be identical
with living subspecies of puma.


1965







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Felis rufus Schreber
Bobcat
Felis rufus koakudsi,1 new subspecies
TYPE: UF 8246, skull fragment with right P-P4 and left P4 (fig. 10).
TYPE LOCALIrY AND HomzoN: Reddick, Marion County, Florida;
Pleistocene, probably early Sangamon or late Illinoian.


..4


Fig. 10. UF 3246, skull fragment of Felis rufus koakudsi, new subspecies.
type. Left, lateral view; right, ventral view of dentition.

DIAGNOSIS: Size, especially of carnassial, larger than in other known
Felis rufus (dimensions of type in table 15).
REMARKS: Small cats are comparatively rare at Reddick I. The only
specimen of bobcat is a fragmentary skull consisting of the main
part of the right side of the face with the orbit and postorbital proc-
ess and fragments of the left side. p3-p4 are present on the right side
(as usual in lynxes there is no trace of P2) as well as the alveoli for the
canine and M1. Only the carnassial and the M1 alveolus are pre-
served on the left side.
The skull and teeth resemble those of the recent bobcat except in
size. Like so many other Pleistocene forms, the Reddick bobcat is
definitely larger than -its present-day ally, so that it even compares
1 Derivation: "Wildcat" in Muskogee, one of the languages of the Seminole
Indians; also the name of a noted Seminole chief, usually spelled Coacoochee.


Vol. 9







THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


with the Canada lynx in size. The data are summarized in table 15;
figures 11-12 give scatter diagram comparisons between Felis rufus,
Felis canadensis, and the Reddick lynx.


I' 5.5
a

I
i-


iL 5.0

m


* 0


0 00


8 9 10 II 12
LENGTH P3
Fig. 11. Allometric relationships between breadth ordinatee) and length
abscissaa) of third upper premolar in lynxes of North America. Dots, Felis rufus
floridanus and Felis rufus bailey, recent; triangles, Felis rufus floridanus, late
Pleistocene; cross, Felis rufus koakudsi, type, Reddick; circles, Felis canadensis.


The size of the carnassial greatly exceeds that in the living bobcat
(table 16). In fact, the Reddick P4 is as large as some of the largest
specimens of Felis canadensis recorded by Merriam and Stock (1932).
The fossil specimen is not Felis canadensis because its paracone is
too large in relation to the total length of the P4 crown (fig. 12). The
third premolar in the bobcat tends to be relatively broader than in
the Canada lynx, and in this respect the Reddick specimen also con-
forms to the Felis rufus pattern (fig. 11).
In addition the average relationship between the length of P3
and P4 (index 100 LP3/LP4) differs slightly in Felis rufus and Felis
canadensis. Table 16 shows the Reddick specimen is within the ob-


1965







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


served range of variation of the bobcat and not of the lynx. How-
ever, it must be noted that Merriam and Stock's lynx sample shows
anomalously low variation and is probably not truly representative
of the range in that species. In any case the dentition of the Reddick
skull appears to be of bobcat type and morphologically distinct from
the Canada lynx, although in size this animal must have been approx-
imately equal to Felis canadensis.


Tol


6.5 -


6.0 -


0~ S


o 0


5.51


15 16

LENGTH P4


17 18


Fig. 12. Allometric relationships between length of paracone ordinatee) and
total crown length of upper carnassial in lynxes. Symbols as in fig. 11.


In keeping with its large size, the specimen is broad-faced for a
bobcat (see table 16, interorbital width), but this character is posi-
tively allometric (Kurten and Rausch, 1959) and a high value is to
be expected. The narrowness of the postorbital constriction is evi-
dently due to the fact that this dimension is negatively correlated
with skull size in lynxes (ibid.). Unfortunately the postorbital proc-





Vol. 9






THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


ess is broken at the tip, but it seems to have been more weakly de-
veloped than in the average bobcat, and perhaps more like the Can-
ada lynx. However, this character is highly variable within both
species.
Fossil bobcats of Middle Pleistocene age have been described
under the names Lynx calcaratus by Cope (1899) and Lynx com-
pressus by Brown (1908) from Port Kennedy Cave and Conard Fis-
sure, respectively. Statistics for these (samples) are given in tables
15-17. The upper carnassial of these forms, although slightly larger
than in the modern bobcat, is still much smaller than that of the Red-
dick specimen. The Conard Fissure form may have been approxi-
mately contemporaneous with the Reddick subspecies.
REFERRED SPECIMENS: Haile VIII. UF 3103, right mandible (fig. 13).
Arredondo II. UF 1716, right humerus, lacking the proximal end.
The Haile VIII specimen is referred to Felis rufus koakudsi on
the following grounds: (1) Its unusually large size, especially the
carnassial which exceeds all other fossil bobcats from Florida (table
17); (2) The age of the fissure at Haile is pre-Sangamon maximum,
and may be approximately the same age as Reddick 1.
The mandible belonged to a young individual with unworn teeth,
which accounts for the shallowness of the ramus. The large car-
nassial carries small but clearly identifiable metaconid and talonid
elements, not too commonly seen in bobcat.
The apparently pre-Sangamon age of the Arredondo II fauna
suggests that the bobcat from this locality belonged to the same pop-
ulation as the Reddick 1 form. The humerus, indeed, is slightly larger
than the largest recent specimen available to me for comparison
(table 19). Morphologically the only significant character of this
specimen seems to be the unusually great width of the bar enclosing
the entepicondylar foramen.
Holman (1959) mentioned Felis rufus from Williston III, Alachua
County, but did not describe the material. If the age of this fissure
filling is the same as that of Reddick, the material would presumably
be Felis rufus koakudsi.

Felis rufus floridanus Rafinesque
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
SABERTOOTH CAVE. AMNH 23405, right maxilla and left mandible.
The upper and lower jaws of a bobcat from this locality were
described by Simpson (1929a). For measurements, see tables 15,
17. The size of the teeth is somewhat below the average for recent


1965









BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Felis rufus floridanus but well within the observed range for that sub-
species. As this form cannot be Felis rufus koakudsi, it suggests
that the Sabertooth Cave fauna postdates that of Reddick I, as Auff-
enberg (1958) believes.
ICHETUCKNEE RIVEE. UF 9257, left mandible.
A specimen of the same appearance as the modern form (table
17).


Fig. 13. Mandibles of Felis rufus, external view. Above, left jaw of Felis
rufus floridanus, Ichetucknee River beds. Below, right jaw of Felis rufus
koakudsi, UF 3103, Haile VI.


Vol. 9







THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


NOCATEE. UF 9121, cast of left mandible.
Some measurements of this specimen are below the observed
range in the modern sample (table 17), but as they are not significantly
different, it is best regarded as a variant of the modern subspecies.
SANFORD. Gut (1938) listed bobcat among the material dredged from
Lake Monroe.
MELBOURNE. MCZ 17781, right P4; USNM 11205, left Mi; USNM
11479, right P4; USNM 12948, left mandible; USNM, no number, right
mandible, left M1.
This material (tables 15, 17) closely resembles the modern form
(Gazin, 1950; Ray, 1958).
VERO. Hay (1917) mentions a mandible and a tibia; Weigel (1962)
lists bobcat on the basis of a radius and a premolar, and notes the
small size of the radius.
SEMINOLE FIELD. AMNH 23534, left mandible; AMNH 23535, right
mandible; AMNH, no number, four mandibles, left P3, left P4, distal
humerus fragment, proximal fragments of two left and one right
radius, proximal fragment of right ulna, left MC II, left MC IV.
Some of this material, notably the two P4 and the single P3, is
slightly larger than the observed range for recent Felis rufus flor-
idanus, but the difference is very slight in each case (tables 15-18).
The humerus has a distal width of 28.0 mm., which is slightly larger
than the largest recent humerus in my sample (see table 19). Other-
wise the material is within the range of the modern subspecies (Simp-
son, 1929b).
REMARKS. The data in table 18 illustrate trends of size evolution.
This table also includes the statistics for a sample of Late Pleisto-
cene bobcat from New Mexico and California. The material comes
from Burnet Cave, New Mexico (ANSP), a cave near Folsom, New
Mexico (AMNH), Potter Creek Cave, California (UCB) and Rancho
La Brea (LACM).
The figures show a slight decrease in size since the Yarmouth
and Illinoian. The dimensions of the Port Kennedy Cave and Conard
Fissure bobcats average slightly greater than those of the recent,
while the Late Pleistocene forms tend to be intermediate. The
change is not comparable to the dwarfing seen in the jaguar. Inci-
dentally, it may be noted that the western form in the Late Pleisto-
cene averaged slightly larger than the Floridian.
The large Reddick subspecies appears to represent an aberrant,






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


short-lived offshoot. Whether the Haile mandible should be referred
to this form is not quite certain, but it may be noted that it also has a
relatively large M1, as indicated by the value of the index 100 M1/P3
(table 18). This may perhaps be correlated with the large size of
P4 in the Reddick form. Felis rufus koakudsi seems to have vanished
well before the Sangamon maximum, perhaps at the end of the
Illinoian.
Felis pardalis Linnaeus
Ocelot
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
REDDICK I. UF 3858, left mandible (described and figured by Ray,
Olsen and Gut, 1963).
HAILE IA. UF 8960, proximal end of right femur.
The Haile IA specimen is tentatively referred to ocelot. It seems
much too heavy for bobcat (table 20). It is also rather heavier than
the single ocelot specimen available to me, but otherwise resembles
this specimen rather closely. As in the ocelot the greater trochanter
rises to a somewhat higher level, relative to the head, than in the
bobcat; it also has a more pointed profile. The lesser trochanter is
somewhat inflected to the medial side instead of protruding vertically
backward as in the bobcat. The external margin of the femur ex-
tending downward from the greater trochanter tends to be slightly
convex instead of concave as in the bobcat. On the other hand UF
8960 differs from the recent ocelot specimen in the length of the
neck, the weak development of the tuberosity internal to the digital
fossa, and the more elongate cross section of the shaft. Some recent
evidence suggests this deposit may be older than Reddick I and its
chronologic equivalents (Auffenberg, pers. comm.).

Felis yagouaroundi Geoffroy
Jaguarundi
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
ROCK SPRINGS. UF 4522, right mandible (described by Ray, 1964).
MELBOURNE. USNM 22913 (mentioned by Gazin, 1950, and de-
scribed by Ray, 1964).
MERRITT ISLAND. UF 9254, right mandible.
REMARKS: The taxonomy of the jaguarundi-margay group is in an
unsatisfactory state. Until the recent forms are revised, little can be
done with the fossils.


Vol. 9






THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


Smilodon fatalis Leidy
Sabertooth
MATERIAL EXAMINED:
BONE CAVE. UF 6540, left maxillary fragment of juvenile individual
with D3.
SANTA FE RIVER LOCALITY I. FDT 488, right P4 (fig. 14).
REDDICK I. FGS V-5690, left ectocuneiform, left MT IV, right MT
II; UF 2537, right pisiform, right MC V, left MC III-IV, left MT
II-III. These foot bones may well represent a single individual, for
no bones are duplicated, the ones that can be articulated have a per-
fect fit, and all are of the same size class.


















Fig. 14. Above, FDT 488, right P, of Smilodon sp., possibly Smilodon fatalis
or Smilodon gracilis, probably Middle Pleistocene, Santa Fe River beds. Below,
UF 4115, right mandible of young Smilodon fatalis, Ichetucknee River beds.
Note presence of root of Pa in front of the partially emerged Pa.

ICHETUCKNEE RIVER. UF 3470, part of right maxilla with P4; UF
4114, left mandibular ramus with I,, C1, and P4-Mi; UF 4115, right
mandibular ramus with roots of C1 and P3, and crowns of P4-M1
(fig. 14); UF 8979, hind part of skull (fig. 15); UF 9247, fragment
of left maxilla with P4, mirrow image of UF 3470, probably same
individual.
ARREDONDO I. UF 2562, a partial skeleton with 10 thoracic and 6
lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, 22 ribs, right innominate, fragmentary
right and left scapulae, humerus, radius, ulna, femur, patella, and


1965







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


tibia of both sides, left fibula, left astragalus and calcaneus, left MT
II-V and one phalanx. This skeleton, collected by W. Auffenberg,
belongs to a subadult individual. The epiphyses of the long bones
and vertebrae are not yet completely fused, and some have been
lost, for instance the distal epiphyses of all the forearm bones.


Fig. 15. UF 8979, rear part of skull of Smilodon fatalis, lacking occipitals,
Ichetucknee River beds, left side view.

SABERTOOTH CAVE. USNM 11235, (cast). Various additional ma-
terial described by Simpson (1929a).

MELBOURNE. USNM, no number, left P4, described by Gazin (1950).

VERO. P4 and a fragmentary saber, described and figured by Sell-
ards (1916), and referred to Trucifelis (= Smilodon) floridanus by
Hay (1919).


Vol. 9







THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


SEMINOLE FIELD. AMNH 23588, a fragmentary left M1, described
by Simpson (1929b).

OCALA. The type of Smilodon floridanus, a skull, was described
by Leidy in 1889 from a limestone mine in this area and compared
with Rancho La Brea material by Merriam and Stock (1932).

REMARKS: The left and right upper jaw fragments from the Iche-
tucknee River have perfectly preserved P4s that show very little
wear. They have no protocone, but the corresponding root is present
and runs into the crown and forms a distinct medial style extending
to the tip of the paracone. The prostyle is prominent. The size
(table 21) is near the average for Rancho La Brea. The damaged
walls for the alveoli of P3 and the upper canine may also be seen,
as well as the alveoli for the two roots of M1. The lower rim of the
orbit and the lower part of the large, oval infraorbital fossa are pre-
served and resemble the corresponding structures in the Rancho La
Brea material. The preserved part of the palate shows a deep longi-
tudinal corrugation.
UF 4114, a left mandible, has greatly worn cheek teeth. The
third incisor is also much worn. The canine is broken near the base
of the enamel. There is no trace of P3. In shape this specimen is
quite similar to the mandible from Rancho La Brea Merriam and
Stock (1932) figured in their plate 4, figure 10. For measurements
see table 22.
UF 4115 (fig. 14) is the right mandible of a young individual in
which the fourth premolar is still in the process of emerging. It
differs from most Rancho La Brea specimens by the presence of
P3; only the single root is preserved. Only fragments of the canine
are preserved, but both P4 and M1 are in good shape, and unworn.
As in UF 4114, there is no trace of the accessory anterior cuspule
found in most Rancho La Brea M1. The sizes of both lower jaws and
their teeth are mostly within the Rancho La Brea range. Some man-
dibular measurements of UF 4115 are below those recorded for
adult Smilodon, but this is presumably due to the youth of this in-
dividual.
The posterior part of a skull, UF 8979, may also be referred to
Smilodon. This specimen is rather small in comparison with the
Rancho La Brea form. In part this is evidently due to immaturity,
for the sutures are still perfectly visible and all the occipital series
of bones have been lost, the breakage following the suture lines.
In front the skull is broken off behind the orbits, so that essentially
only the braincase with the posterior roots of the zygomatic arches







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


is preserved. The characters of this portion, including the position
and size of the foramina, the development of the mastoid processes,
the orientation of the glenoid fossa, and the shape of the postorbital
processes, are of the smilodont type. The specimen is neither a
Felis nor a Dinobastis.
A comparison between the measurements of UF 8979 and the
series of juvenile skulls of Smilodon described by Merriam and Stock
(table 23) shows that the width across the mastoid processes is well
below the range for the California sample. A bivariate analysis of
this variate together with the width across the postorbital constric-
tion (fig. 16) suggests a real difference existed in this relationship
between the Californian and Floridian forms.
The specimen from Bone Cave is similar to milk carnassials of
Smilodon from Rancho La Brea figured and described by Merriam
and Stock. There is a small prostyle; this is present in some Califor-
nian specimens, absent in others. The inner root does not carry a
distinct cusp, and the morphology of this part of the tooth is diag-
nostic of Smilodon. The carnassial length of 21.6 mm is apparently
much the same as in the Rancho La Brea teeth, though no data
were given by Merriam and Stock. The tooth is quite unworn and
appears to be of a very young individual. Part of the alveolus of
the milk canine is visible in front; the diastema between it and
D3 is 7.0 mm. long. Behind the carnassial is a trace of the alve-
olus for one of the roots of D', and also part of the cavity that held
the germ of P4, still showing the impressions of the parastyle and
paracone. The point of the latter had already pierced the palate.
The small size of the Arredondo I specimen (see tables 24-28)
is presumably due in part to its age. Most measurements fall near
the lower limits of the ranges recorded by Merriam and Stock from
Rancho La Brea, and some measurements of the scapula, pelvis, and
humerus are smaller than the smallest in the tar pit sample. When
the Florida material is compared with the Rancho La Brea sample,
a number of differences are apparent, which may be summarized
as follows:
(1) Size. The Florida material varies in size from specimens dis-
tinctly smaller than anything recorded from Rancho La Brea (Santa
Fe River Beds, Sabertooth Cave) to specimens at or slightly over
the midpoint of the Rancho La Brea range (Reddick; Ichetucknee
maxillaries and one of the Ichetucknee jaws). The majority fall in
the lower half of the Rancho La Brea size range (Ocala, Ichetucknee
skull and adult mandible, Arredondo, Melbourne, Seminole Field).
Altogether this is good evidence that the Florida sabertooth averaged


Vol. 9






THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


z 6
I65-



0


o *
60- *
_J + A 0
H ICHETUCKNEE A *



r *
Ag
I I I I I
110 120 130 140 150
MASTOID WIDTH
Fig. 16. Covariation between width across postorbital constriction ordinatee)
and mastoid width abscissaa) in Smilodon. Dots, adult and triangles, juvenile
individuals from Rancho La Brea, with major axis; cross, Ichetucknee specimen
(fig. 15).

somewhat smaller than the Rancho La Brea form, although the
ranges of the two overlapped. As the Smilodontini seems to have
tended to increase in size with time, the Florida sabertooth material
may illustrate the retention of a more primitive trait.
(2) The relationship between mastoid width and interorbital
width is somewhat different from that in the tar pit sample. The
narrowness of the mastoid region in the Florida sabertooth is pre-
sumably also a primitive character.
(3) No accessory cuspule on M1 is apparent, whereas at Rancho
La Brea it is present in "nearly all cases" (Merriam and Stock, 1932).
This cusp, which effects an elongation of the carnassial shear, is a
late evolutionary innovation in Smilodon, so that its absence, too,
is a primitive trait.
In all these respects, then, the Floridian form appears to be less
advanced than the Californian. The differences may well be due
to the greater average age of the Florida material, of which a fair
proportion may be pre-Wisconsin, whereas the tar pit material ap-
pears to be Late Wisconsin.
The most recent revision of the North American Smilodon by
Slaughter (1963) divides the genus into three successive species, as
follows:


1965







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Smilodon gracilis (Cope). Yarmouth.
Smilodon fatalis (Leidy). Illinoian, Sangamon, and Early Wis-
consin. This form includes as synonyms or subspecies a number of
proposed species: S. troglodytes (Brown), S. conardi (Brown), S.
nebrascensis (Matthew), and S. trinitiensis Slaughter.
Smilodon floridanus (Leidy). Late Wisconsin, approximately
from the glacial maximum of some 18,000 B.P. This species may
include S. californicus Bovard.
I regard Slaughter's scheme as valid in its main framework, and
only subject to slight changes suggested by the present study of the
Florida material. Slaughter's conclusions on the Florida sabertooth
were based mainly on the Ichetucknee mandibles, which are likely
to be Late Wisconsin in age. Much of the Florida material, includ-
ing the type skull from Ocala and the specimens from Reddick I,
Bone Cave, Arredondo I and II, and Sabertooth Cave, is apparently
of pre-Wisconsin age and falls in the chronological range of Smilodon
fatalis as defined by Slaughter. Furthermore, this material resem-
bles Smilodon fatalis rather than Smilodon californicus in the char-
acters discussed above. It seems necessary to conclude, therefore,
that Smilodon floridanus is a synonym of Smilodon fatalis.
This procedure leaves only the Wisconsin forms of Ichetucknee,
Melbourne, Vero, and Seminole Field for possible inclusion in Smilo-
don californicus, if that species is regarded as validly distinguishable
from Smilodon fatalis. However in spite of their relatively recent
age, these specimens are still less advanced than the Rancho La Brea
form in all the four characters discussed above. They seem in fact
to take an intermediate position between typical Smilodon fatalis
and the progressive Smilodon californicus.
This is brought out rather clearly if average size indices are
computed (table 29). Only dental material was used, to avoid the
bias introduced by the juvenile skeletons in the Florida collection.
The mean index for the Late Pleistocene Florida sabertooth is 98.1,
intermediate between that for Rancho La Brea (100%) and that for
Slaughter's material of Smilodon fatalis from Texas, Nebraska, and
the Irvingtonian of California (95.7%). Unfortunately no index for
the earlier Floridian form could be computed, as no appropriate
dental material is available.
Table 29 shows the gradual size increase in the Smilodontini.
Taken separately, the earliest representative of Smilodon fatalis,
from Conard Fissure, has a mean index of 92.3, while the still earlier
Smilodon gracilis from Port Kennedy Cave has a mean of 79.9 per
cent. In comparison, the index for the P4 from Santa Fe is 85 per


Vol. 9






THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


cent, intermediate between Smilodon gracilis and early Smilodon
fatalis. It is impossible at present to decide between these alterna-
tives.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

DISTRIBUTION
The distribution of the seven species of felids known from the
Florida Pleistocene is indicated in figure 1. Table 30 shows the
approximate number of individuals probably represented at each
locality by the material reviewed in the present paper. In two in-
stances, the available information was insufficient, and only presence
has been recorded.
The material may be divided roughly into two successive faunas:
an early fauna probably dating from the Illinoian and early Sanga-
mon, and a late fauna mainly of Wisconsin date. The former group
includes the material from Arredondo, Haile, Williston, Reddick,
Kendrick, Ocala, Sabertooth Cave, Bone Cave, and probably part
of the Santa Fe (the Smilodon specimen). The late fauna is repre-
sented by the fossils from Ichetucknee, Devil's Den, Sanford, Rock
Springs, Seminole Field, Stickney Point, Melbourne, Merritt Island,
Vero, Nocatee, and probably also the Felis atrox and Felis onca ma-
terial from Santa Fe.
Table 31 lists the relative representation of the various species
in the two successive faunas and in the total material by percentages
based on absolute totals of 30 individuals in the early fauna and 49
in the late. Naturally, no direct conclusions on the relative abun-
dance of two species are possible on the basis that Reddick I has
yielded eight jaguars but only one ocelot. On the other hand,
changes through time in the percentages present of any single species,
or even of two ecologically closely similar species, may be valid in-
dications of real population trends (Kurten, 1965).
All the large members of the genus Felis known from the later
Pleistocene of North America ranged into Florida: Felis atrox, Felis
onca, and Felis concolor. But atrox has so far been found only in
the northern part of the state, and is conspicuously absent from the
rich faunal assemblages of Reddick, Melbourne, and Seminole Field.
Although negative evidence of this kind is unreliable, and future dis-
coveries may reveal that the species did at some time range through-
out the peninsula, I think it may be safely concluded that it was
decidedly less common than the true jaguar; and it is unlikely that
Felis atrox penetrated south of the present Suwannee and Santa Fe
River basins.


1965






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


The jaguar is the most common felid species, the total number
of individuals is about 30 and represents 38 per cent of the grand
total. It is also found at a greater number of sites (11) than any
other felid except the bobcat. Jaguars reach their greatest abun-
dance in broad-leafed forests. The absence of Felis atrox in the
Peninsula may reflect ecological incompatibility with the true jaguar,
or else indicate that this animal shunned the densely wooded areas
Felis onca prefers.
The earlier fauna seems to represent the heyday in Florida of the
jaguar, which here makes up one-half of the total in the fossil as-
semblage. A shrinking to one-third in the later fauna may indicate
a gradual thinning out of the population that ultimately led to local
extinction.
In contrast to the jaguar, the puma is rare in both faunas, but
of course this does not necessarily indicate that it was actually less
plentiful in life. Presumably the habits of the puma are less con-
ducive to its fossilization than those of the jaguar, which seeks its
prey along the streams and is a powerful swimmer. The puma per-
centage is low but constant, and the species survives today in Florida.
Next to the jaguar in abundance, the bobcat makes up one-third
of the grand total. This species, which shows a marked increase in
the late fauna, is still common in Florida.
Other small Felini are very rare as fossils, presumably because
their habits do not readily predispose them for fossilization. That
the ocelot has only been recorded from the early fauna and the
jaguarundi only from the late does not necessarily imply that the
two species alternated in this manner, although, of course, this is
quite possible.
Finally, the sabertooth comes next to the jaguar in individual
numbers in the early fauna; in the late fauna its percentage has
shrunk to about one-half the previous value. This quite likely re-
flects a real population decline prior to the extinction of the species,
as in the case of the jaguar. It is interesting to note that the popu-
lation trend is consistent with the outcome in all the three cases
where the data are sufficient for analysis. Both Felis onca and Smilo-
don fatalis show decreasing percentages in the late fauna, and are
now extinct in Florida, whereas Felis rufus increased and survives.
The same phenomenon was noted in a study of the Late Pleistocene
and postglacial carnivora of Palestine (Kurten, 1965) where long-
term population changes could be traced in numerous instances.
It seems that many of the "sudden" extinctions at the end of the


Vol. 9






THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


Ice Age are in fact the result of population declines dating back
well into the last glaciation or possibly even the last interglacial.
The geographic distribution of fossil felids in Florida (fig. 1) does
not show any meaningful pattern except for Felis atrox.
Only two felid species reported from other parts of North Ameri-
ca have not yet been found in Florida. The absence of Felis cana-
densis is explained as easily as the absence of the woolly mammoth,
on climatic grounds. Dinobastis serus Cope, the scimitar-toothed cat
of Texas is very rare as a fossil and in this case negative evidence is
even less meaningful than in the case of Felis atrox.

EVOLUTION IN SIZE
The evolutionary record of the felids in Florida presents a num-
ber of interesting trends. Size decrease has been found in two in-
stances, jaguar and bobcat. In one instance, that of the puma, the
evidence indicates approximate stability in size. Finally, there is
one case of size increase, the sabertooth. The trend in Smilodon has
been suggested previously by other fossil sequences (see Kurten,
1963), but sequential evidence of size reduction during the Pleisto-

130-




120 -
X
LJLI \

z
110

Sb- F. RUFUS nonFlorida
_)
100




ILLINOIAN SANGAMON WISCONSIN RECENT


Fig. 17. Size changes in three species of Felidae, as labeled, during the
Middle and Late Pleistocene.






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


cene in jaguar and bobcat has not been presented previously, al-
though a postglacial dwarfing of Felis onca in North America has
long been recognized (Simpson, 1941).
The size changes in Felis onca, Felis rufus, and Smilodon fatalis,
not only in Florida but also in other areas, are summarized in figure
17. The size indices are based on comparison with recent or terminal
forms of each species, which are given the value 100; only dental
measurements have been used.
The jaguar data are based on the fossil material from Florida;
for the bobcat two different curves have been constructed, one for
Florida and the other for material from Conard Fissure (Illinoian)
and the West (see table 18). Reddick and Haile are assumed to be
Illinoian, and Sabertooth Cave Sangamon. Whether this correlation
is exact or not does not influence the main contention, which is that
changes in size were more extreme in Florida than on the mainland,
and that at one time (Reddick-Haile) the Florida population was
rather strongly differentiated from contemporary continental bobcat.
Presumably this was due to geographic isolation.
The Smilodon sequence has been taken over directly from Table
29, beginning with the presumably Illinoian Conard Fissure. The
typical Smilodon fatalis sample is given a "mean age" of approximate-
ly Sangamon, while the late Florida form and Rancho La Brea are
dated as Wisconsin. The Floridian form is apparently less advanced
than that of Rancho La Brea and has accordingly been given a some-
what earlier mean date; this is, frankly, morphological dating, and
it is just as possible that a size dine existed between contemporan-
eous Californian and Floridian populations.
The factors responsible for size changes of this type are a diffi-
cult problem, and any discussion of them is necessarily rather tenta-
tive and speculative. For a more detailed study of an analogous
case, see Kurten (1965), where two important factors in short-term
oscillation are noted: (1) Adjustment to climatic change, for instance
in accordance with Bergmann's rule; and (2) compensation for im-
poverished environment by size reduction to keep up the density
of the population, with a release-spring reversal if conditions again
improve. This latter factor gains in probability when other data
suggest an actual decrease in numbers, as in the case of the jaguar.
The bobcat, on the other hand, seems rather to have expanded
in numbers as its size diminished, so that factor (2) does not seem to
apply in its case. Another possibility might be put forward tenta-
tively. If the aberrant Reddick type evolved in geographic isolation,
it could simply have been swamped by the influx of the continental


Vol. 9






1965 THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA 251

form when population contact was again established. The data sug-
gest that this occurred in the early Sangamon before the complete
flooding of the Suwannee Straits. Just why and how the Florida
population was protected from foreign gene flow up until then is,
of course, the next question to crop up, and here we can only plead
ignorance.
For the sabertooth, finally, an entirely different solution is sug-
gested: this seems to be but the last lap of a long-range adaptive
change that had been going on since the earliest Pleistocene. The
smilodont cats gradually evolved larger forms, beginning with the
small Villafranchian Megantereon and culminating in monsters such
as the Rancho La Brea sabertooth and the even larger Pampean
species Smilodon neogaeus.








252 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM Vol. 9

TABLE 1. MEASUREMENTS OF SKULL, DENTITION AND MANDIBLE OF Felis atrox

Rancho
Santa Fe Ichetucknee La Brea
FDT 124 UF 9076 Range"

Skull
Prosthion to basion length 50 269 -404.7
Condylobasal length 370 290 -424.3
Prosthion to inion length -404 310.3-467.5
Length of palate in midline 180 143 -212
Postglenoid length (to condyles) 100 80 -112.5
Length of nasals -94 79.2-114
Width of nasal opening 61.3 a47 73
Rostral width at canines 117 98 -141.4
Interorbital width 86.5 68.8-106.6
Width across postorbital processes 126 99 -132
Width at postorbital constriction -73 71 89
Bizygomatic width -251 a203 -304.3
Width across upper carnassials 144 110 -147.8
Width of bulla 32.8 21.1- 35.9
Mastoid width 146 122.8-173.6
Width across condyles 74.4 58.4- 78.6
Dentition
IP, breadth -11.3 9.4- 12.8
C', length 33.9 25.2- 36.8
C', width 25.0 18.0- 25.7
P', length of alveolus -9.2 7.3- 11.4
P8, length 30.4 23.9- 30.6
PF, breadth -16.4 12.0- 16.2
P', length -43.7 a35 45.0
P', breadth -21.7 18.3- 22.9
P', length of paracone -17.3 12.4- 17.0
P', length of metastyle -17.7 13.9- 16.5
C"-P', inclusive -131 101.2-139.4
Ci, length 32 21.8- 30.4
C1, breadth 21.5 15.1-a22.0
Ps, length -20.6 17.0- 21.6
Pa, breadth 11.3 8.9- 13.2
P, length 30.8 25.8- 32.3
PI, breadth 15.6 12.0- 16.9
P4, length of protoconid 14.9 11.9- 15.0
M1, length 30 33.4 26.9- 33.9
M1, breadth 16.0 17.2 13.0- 17.5
PrMi, inclusive 82.8 68.3- 89.0
CI-M1, inclusive 149 116.4-156.7


(continued)








THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


TABLE 1 (continued)


Rancho
Santa Fe Ichetucknee La Brea
FDT 124 UF 9076 Rangen"

Mandible
Length, symphysis to condyle 276 206 -318
Symphysis, anterior length 90 67.2- 99.3
Ramus depth at diastema 56.4 38.9- 60.7
Depth behind MI 63.8 46.0- 67.1
Thickness below Mi 26.0 20.0- 36.9
Height, angle to condyle 56.0 42.0- 66.4
Height, angle to coronoid process 133.5 96.3-150
Condyle, transverse breadth 65.5 a44.5- 74.9
Condyle, greatest depth -25.8 18.4- 27.2

SIn 18 skulls and 16 mandibles, after Merriam and Stock (1932).


TABLE 2. MEASUREMENTS OF UPPER DENTITION IN Feis onca

C' P8 P4
L B L B L Ba Bbl Lp Lm

Recent, ISM 1068 15.6 12.7 14.6 7.7 24.5 12.8 9.5 9.1 10.1
Santa Fe, FDT 487 30.5 16.2 11.5 12.5 12.4
Haile II B, UF 3004 19.5 10.4 28.6 15.5 11.0 11.4 12.4
Reddick, GSF V-5695 35 17.3 12.6 12.9 -
Reddick, UF 2858 22.0 19.2 21.5 -
Reddick, UF 2858 20.2 16.7 -
Reddick, UF 8875 23.0 20.3 -
Reddick, UF 8876 16.5 -
Reddick, UF 8877 20.5 12.0 -
Vero, USNM 11411 33.4 18.7 12.5 12.5 13.1
Melbourne, USNM 12.2 33.0 11.8 12.8 -
Melbourne, USNM 29.6 11.9 11.8 11.8
Seminole Field,
AMNH 23539 19.3 9.2 -
Niobrara River,
USNM 125** 10.5 33.2 16.7 11.6 12.9 13.3
Core Hole Cave,
UTBEG 40673-48 22 18.3 21.8 11.3 29.5 16.5 12.5 12.0 -
Craighead Caverns,
AMNH 32635 19.5 16.3 19.6 10.0 -


Type of Felis veronis.
** Type of Felis augustus.


1965








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


TABLE 3. MEASUREMENTS OF LOWER DENTITION IN Felis onca

Ci Pa P, M1
L B L B L B Lp L B

Recent, ISM 1068 16.3 11.7 13.4 7.2 19.2 9.8 8.2 18.0 9.5
Santa Fe, FDT 483 21.8 16.9 -
Santa Fe, FDT 484 20.6 15.4 -
Santa Fe, FDT 490 14.3 7.8 21.8 10.5 10.7 22.6 -
Reddick, FGS V-5695 23.2 11.8 11.2 -
Reddick, UF 3003 16.8 9.0 21.8 11.3 22.5 11.6
Reddick, UF 8879 21.3 10.6 10.9 22.3 11.4
Reddick, UF 8878 23.0 12.0 11.1 -
Melbourne,
USNM 11470 18.7 14.4 16.1 8.3 21.0 11 10.1 20.7 11.1
Melbourne,
USNM 19 10.2 21.8 11.0
Seminole Field,
AMNH 23540- o10.8 10.5 -


TABLE 4. MEASUREMENTS OF MILK TEETH AND MANDIBLE IN
JUVENILE Felis onca

Seminole Field
Reddick Haile VII AMNH AMNH
UF 2565 UF 8455 23536 23537

D', length 19.7
D8, length of paracone 6.3
D', length of metastyle 8.3
DCi, length 10.8 -
DCi, breadth 4.5 -
Ds, length 12.7 13.3 -
Do, breadth 5.3 5.5 -
Ds, length of protoconid 5.7 6.1 -
D,, length 16.1 17.0 18.4 -
D., breadth 6.4 6.5 6.2 -
D4, length of trigonid 13.3 13.9 15.2 -
Da-D,, inclusive 27.4 30 -
DCI-D4, inclusive 56 -
Ramus length, DC to condyle 118 -
Diastema, length 9.5 -
Depth at diastema 30.1 -
Depth behind D, 27.4 -
Height, angle to condyle 26.1 -
Condyle, transverse breadth 30.6 -
Condyle, greatest depth 12.2 -


Vol. 9









THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


TABLE 5. MEASUREMENTS OF HIND PART OF SKULL IN Felis onca AND Felis atrox

Felis onca
Fossil
FGS Recent Felis atrox
V-5696 ISM 1068 Range* Range"*

Mastoid width 130 90 85.2-116.6 122.8-173.6
Condylar width 60.8 43.1 42.6- 50.7 58.4- 78.6
Bulla, width 29 23.6 21.8- 27.8 21.1- 35.9
Postglenoid length 70 53 52 66.6 80 -112.5
Braincase width a108 73 -
Occipital height 90 68.5 -


In 12 specimens, after Merriam and Stock.
In 18 specimens, after Merriam and Stock.





TABLE 6. MEASUREMENTS OF MANDIBLE IN Felis onca

Craig-
Recent Santa Fe Reddick Melbourne head *
ISM FDT UF USNM AMNH
1068 490 3003 11470 32633

Pa-Mx, inclusive 48.9 58 59 56.5 66
C1-M1, inclusive 80.0 108 95.0 106
Length, symphysis
to condyle 147 e200 a173 203
Symphysis,
anterior length 45.9 64.0 -
Depth at diastema 29.7 38.2 43.6 35.0 44.5
Depth behind MI 31.1 38.5 44.4 37.2 43.5
Thickness below M1 11.8 16.6 21.3 16.0 17.5


See Simpson, 1941.








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


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THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


TABLE 8. MEASUREMENTS OF CARPAL BONES IN Felis onca AND Felis atrox

Felis onca Felis atrox
Recent Reddick
ISM FGS UF
1068 V-5690 8593 Range

Scapho-lunar
Anteroposterior diameter 22.4 32.2 32.4 37.2-50.7
Transverse diameter 25.0 38.6 40.3 50.7-61.7
Radial facet, anteroposterior 14.9 23.9 23.5
Unciform
Anteroposterior diameter 15.4 24.1 29.4-38.3
Transverse diameter 11.8 19.8 22.8-28.8
Dorsoplantar diameter 16.5 25.8 26.2-33.3
Pisiform
Length 23.6 33.2 40.7-52.4
Proximal long diameter 13.7 19.0 25.1-31.4
Distal boss, long diameter 13.0 19.7 21.0-26.1
Distal boss, short diameter 7.2 11.9 17.5-20.2

In 3 specimens of the scapho-lunar and 6 each of uniform and pisiform,
after Merriam and Stock.


TABLE 9. MEASUREMENTS OF ASTRAGALUS IN Felis concolor, FelUs ona AND
Felis atrox

Neck Head
Length Breadth breadth breadth

Felis concolor
Recent, USNM 172688 36.0 34.6 16.8 22.3
Reddick, UF 8895 36.3 35.1 18.3 22.5
Felis onca
Recent, ISM 1068 32.1 31.8 15.0 17.3
Reddick, UF 8889 44.8 44.6 22.8 27.6
Reddick, UF 8889 49.0 47.7 23.1 28.6
Reddick, UF 8890 50.0 23.5 -
Haile VII, UF 8958 50.3 50.0 22.6 29.8
Haile VII, UF 9124 48.7 24.2 28.0
Felis atrox *
Minimum 58.7 51.8 26.3 35.1
Maximum 74.1 66.0 35.4 43.0

Range in 10 specimens, after Merriam and Stock.


1965








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


TABLE 10. MEASUREMENTS OF CALCANEUS IN Felis onca AND Felis atrox

Breadth of
Length Breadth cuboid facet

Felis onca
Recent, ISM 1068 60.0 26.3 16.2
Kendrick, UF 8891 89.5 34.6 24.2
Felis atrox*
Minimum 109.0 41.5 26.0
Maximum 142.0 56.0 37.8


Range in 10 specimens, after Merriam and Stock.



TABLE 11. MEASUREMENTS OF ECTOCUNEIFORM IN Felis onca AND Felis atrox

MT-facet
Length Depth breadth

Felis onca
Recent, ISM 1068 23.5 11.7 13.0
Reddick, FGS V-5690 36.2 16.7 19.8
Haile VII, UF 9125 17.6 20.6
Felis atrox *
Minimum 43.8 23.0 25.0
Maximum 55.2 28.2 33.8


Range in 4 specimens, after Merriam and Stock.



TABLE 12. MEASUREMENTS OF NAVICULAR IN Felis onca AND Felis atrox

Length Breadth

Felis onca
Recent, ISM 1068 23.9 17.6
Reddick, FGS V-5690 38.3 31
Reddick, UF 8888 40.3 35.7
Reddick, UF 8897 38.0 32.7
Felis atrox*
Minimum 43.0 32.6
Maximum 52.7 39.7


* Range in 10 specimens, after Merriam and Stock.


Vol. 9








THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


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BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


TABLE 14. MEASUREMENTS OF TEETH IN Felis concolor
Seminole Field
AMNH AMNH Recent
23541 AMNH 23540 Range *

P', length 21.4 21.0-25.3
P', breadth 11.1 10.7-13.2
P', blade width 8.2 -
P', length of paracone 9.2 8.4- 9.8
P', length of metastyle 8.3 8.4-10.3
P,, length 14.6-17.5
P,, breadth 8.0 8.6 8.1- 9.0
P,, length of protoconid 8.0 7.4 7.3- 8.7


SIn 12 specimens, after Merriam and Stock.


TABLE 15. MEASUREMENTS OF UPPER DENTITION IN Felis rufus

C' P3 P'
L B L B L Ba Bbl Lp Lm

Reddick, UF 3246* (8.9) (7.3) 10.0 5.3 16.8 8.0 5.3 7.0 6.3
Sabertooth Cave,
AMNH 23405 (6.3) 8.9 4.5 13.2 6.7 5.0 5.6 5.6
Seminole Field,
AMNH 10.4 6.0 13.0 6.1 4.9 5.7 5.3
Melbourne,
USNM 11479 15.0 6.8 5.0 6.3 6.0
Melbourne,
MCZ 17781 14.0 a5.2 -
Port Kennedy Cave,
ANSP 54 a7.9 8.3 a4.0 13.8 6.3 4.7 5.8 5.6
Port Kennedy Cave,
ANSP 54 8.2 4.3 -
Port Kennedy Cave,
ANSP 54 7.3 5.3 8.7 3.8 14.3 -
Port Kennedy Cave,
ANSP 54 8.7 3.8 14.3 -
Conard Fissure,
AMNH 11801 a7.1 a5.4 9.1 4.6 -
Conard Fissure,
AMNH 11802** 8.5 4.7 14.1 6.1 5.7 5.5


SType, Fells rufus koakudsi, new subspecies.
** Type, Lynx compressus Brown.


Vol. 9









THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


TABLE 16. COMPARATIVE STATISTICS FOR UPPER DENTITION AND SKULL IN
SAMPLES OF Felis rufus AND Felis canadensis

N Range Mean S.D.

P3, length
Felis canadensis, recent* 13 10.0-11.5 10.680.11 0.40
Felis rufus, recent, Florida 16 7.7- 9.8 8.990.15 0.61
Late Pleistocene, Florida 2 8.9-10.4 9.65 -
Port Kennedy & Conard 6 8.2- 9.1 8.580.13 0.33
Reddick 1 10.0 -
P", width
Felis canadensis, recent 13 4.8- 5.4 5.050.05 0.17
Felis rufus, recent, Florida 16 4.3- 5.4 4.850.08 0.32
Late Pleistocene, Florida 2 4.5- 6.0 5.25 -
Port Kennedy & Conard 6 3.8- 4.7 4.200.16 0.39
Reddick 1 5.3 -
P', length
Felis canadensis, recent 13 15.4-17.1 16.210.13 0.46
Felis rufus, recent, Florida 16 13.1-15.2 13.960.18 0.72
Late Pleistocene, Florida 4 13.0-15.0 13.8 -0.6 1.2
Port Kennedy & Conard 4 13.8-14.3 14.120.12 0.24
Reddick 1 16.8 -
P', width
Fells canadensis, recent 13 7.2- 8.0 7.620.07 0.26
Felis rufus, recent, Florida 16 5.7- 7.2 6.510.11 0.43
Late Pleistocene, Florida 3 6.1- 6.8 6.530.22 -
Port Kennedy & Conard 2 6.1- 6.3 6.2 -
Reddick 1 8.0 -
P', paracone length
Felis canadensis, recent 13 5.9- 6.8 6.240.07 0.25
Felis rufus, recent, Florida 16 5.5- 6.6 6.010.07 0.27
Late Pleistocene, Florida 3 5.6- 6.3 5.870.22 -
Port Kennedy & Conard 2 5.7- 5.8 5.75 -
Reddick 1 7.0 -
Index 100 LP'/LP'
Felis canadensis, recent 13 63 -68 65.8 0.4 1.5
Felis rufus, recent, Florida 16 57 -73 64.6 1.0 3.8
Late Pleistocene, Florida 1 67 -
Port Kennedy & Conard 2 60 -60 60
Reddick 1 60 -
Interorbital width
Felis canadensis, recent 13 26.8-31.6 28.4 0.3 1.2
Felis rufus, recent, Florida 16 17.5-25.0 22.0 --0.5 1.9
Reddick 1 a27 -


(continued)


1965








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


TABLE 16 (continued)

N Range Mean S.D.

Width of postorbital constriction
Felis canadensis, recent 13 37.7-42.0 39.6 0.4 1.5
Felis rufus, recent, Florida 16 24.7-42 37.9 0.5 1.9
Reddick 1 a38 -
Depth of zygoma below orbit
Felis rufus, recent, Florida 14 11.5-14.6 12.710.25 0.93
Reddick 1 15.2 -

Data on Felis canadensis from Merriam and Stock (1932).


TABLE 18. COMPARATIVE STATISTICS FOR LOWER DENTITION IN
SAMPLES OF Felis rufus

N Range Mean S.D.

P., length
Recent, Florida 11 5.9- 7.8 6.980.16 0.53
Late Pleistocene, Florida 7 6.7- 8.4 7.590.25 0.67
Late Pleistocene, N.M., Calif. 8 6.9- 8.7 7.500.22 0.62
Port Kennedy & Conard 5 7.2- 8.4 8.000.21 0.47
P,, length
Recent, Florida 11 7.6-10.3 9.110.25 0.82
Late Pleistocene, Florida 10 8.1-10.4 9.200.26 0.83
Late Pleistocene, N.M., Calif. 8 8.8-11.4 9.680.30 0.86
Port Kennedy & Conard 6 8.6-11.1 9.920.39 0.95
M1, length
Recent, Florida 11 9.7-12.1 10.680.20 0.66
Late Pleistocene, Florida 8 9.2-11.0 10.380.23 0.66
Late Pleistocene, N.M., Calif. 10 10.2-12.7 11.690.25 0.78
Port Kennedy & Conard 7 9.6-12.5 11.500.46 1.22
Pa-Mi inclusive, length
Recent, Florida 11 23.9-28.1 26.3 0.3 1.2
Late Pleistocene, Florida 4 24.7-28.2 26.5 0.8 1.6
Late Pleistocene, N.M., Calif. 6 26.3-31.3 28.6 0.8 1.9
Port Kennedy & Conard 4 26.5-31.6 29.5 -1.1 2.1
Index, 100 LMx/LP8
Recent, Florida 11 136-178 153.6 3.5 11.8
Late Pleistocene, Florida 3 125- 152 140 8 -
Late Pleistocene, N.M., Calif. 8 146 -174 154.5 3.6 10.2
Port Kennedy & Conard 5 146- 155 151.8 1.6 3.6
Sabertooth Cave 1 139
Haile VIII 1 166


Vol. 9









THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


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1965








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


TABLE 19. MEASUREMENTS OF HUMERUS IN Felis rufus

Arredondo
UF Recent, UF Nos.
1716 4543 6422 7645 6379 1757 6655 5831

Length 149 148 146 140 136 130 129
Shaft, transverse
at middle 10.3* 10.7 10.0 9.8 9.0 9.6 8.7 8.6
Distal transverse 28.8 27.8 26.9 27.8 26.7 26.0 24.2 23.5
Bar over entepicon-
dylar foramen, width 7.5 5.7 6.1 5.5 5.6 4.7 5.2 5.1


SSomewhat compressed; original width probably slightly greater.


TABLE 20. MEASUREMENTS OF FEMUR IN Felis pardalis AND Felis rufus

F. par-
Haile dalis F. rufus
8960 4644 4543 6379 1757 6655 5831

Length 167 173 170 166 154 151 148
Proximal transverse 40.8 34.0 30.8 32.1 28.1 28.5 26.9 25.3
Head diameter 18.1 14.9 14.6 14.4 12.4 13.2 12.9 11.9
Neck, depth 16.5 16.2 11.9 12.7 10.0 11.0 10.2 11.0
Shaft, long diameter* 17.5 14.9 14.5 14.3 13.3 13.0 11.7 11.7
Shaft, short diameter* 12.0 12.2 10.1 9.8 8.9 10.2 9.5 8.3


Measured about one-third from the proximal end of the femur.


TABLE 21. MEASUREMENTS OF UPPER DENTITION IN Smilodon

C" P4
L B H L B Lp Lm

Ichetucknee, UF 3470 41.1 16.0 13.2 16.3
Melbourne, USNM- 35.7 11.5 15.2
Sabertooth Cace, USNM 11235 cast 32.5 17.5 121 -
Hardin Co., AMNH 10395* 33.2 15.9 11.3 13.3
Medio Creek, USNM 20750 a19.5 a37.0 15.2 12.1 15
Rancho La Brea, maximum0" 46.0 19.9 14.2 16.9
Rancho La Brea, minimum 33.4 14.2 11.1 11.5


SType, Trucifelis fatalis Leidy.
*o Range for 28 specimens from Rancho La Brea, after Merriam and Stock.


Vol. 9








THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


TABLE 22. MEASUREMENTS OF LOWER DENTITION AND MANDIBLE IN Smilodon

Seminole
Santa Fe Ichetucknee Rancho La Brea
FDT UF UF AMNH
488 4114 4115 23538 Range *

C1, length at enamel base 14.4 13.0- 16.6
C1, breadth at enamel base 9.8 9.7- 12.2
Ps, length 22.2 25.0 27 22.5- 27.7
P,, breadth 9.5 10.8 12.8 10.5- 14.6
Ps, protoconid length 11.7 12.5 9.0- 12.1
M1, length 27.5 30.0 25.0- 32.1
M1, breadth 12.9 14.5 13.0 12.4- 17.6
MX, protoconid length 15.7 12.8- 18.0
P1-Mi, inclusive 51 56 48.3- 60.9
Ci-Mx, inclusive 128 114 113.5-147.8
Diastema Ci-Pi, length 60 41 46.3- 72.6
Length, symphysis to condyle 197 171 178.3-230
Least depth at diastema 30.4 29.6 27.3- 40.4
Depth behind M1 38.4 34.2 36.0- 45.6
Thickness below M1 21.1 19.0 18.7- 25.0
Height, angle to condyle 30.4 31 30.7- 40.0
Height, angle to coronoid 67.3 55.5 58.0- 76.3
Condyle, transverse breadth 44.6 38.7- 55.9
Condyle, greatest depth 17.7 15.8- 20.7


In 25 specimens, after Merriam and Stock.



TABLE 23. MEASUREMENTS OF HIND PART OF SKULL IN SUBADULT Smilodon

Postorbital Mastoid Braincase
Constriction Width Width

Ichetucknee, UF 8979 59.1 105 86.7
Rancho La Brea, 2001-3* 54.5 121.5
Rancho La Brea, 2001-6 54.8 122.9
Rancho La Brea, 2001-7 58.6 123.7
Rancho La Brea, 2001-8 63.2 124
Rancho La Brea, 2001-9 59.5 116.7
Rancho La Brea, 2001-10 53 120 -


All Rancho La Brea measurements after Merriam and Stock.


1965









BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


TABLE 24. MEASUREMENTS OF VERTEBRAE AND SACRUM OF Smilodon

Arredondo Rancho La Brea
UF 2562 Range 0

T 4, length"* a35
T 5, length 33
T 6, length a35
T 7, length a32
T 8, length 32
T 9, length a33
T 10, length a32
T 11, length a34 31.8- 41.4
T 11, depth of centrum 23.7 25.6- 32.2
T 11, greatest width 68.5 58.4- 85.6
T 11, spine length from anterior notch 65.6 41.0- 87.7
T 12, length a36 33.3- 42.6
T 13, length a38 38.3- 47.5
L 1, length 40.0
1 2, length 41.2
L 3, length 45.2
L 4, length 47.7
L 6, length 47.3
L 7, length a44 86.7- 54.3
Sacrum, length of centra 100
Sacrum, greatest length 126 110.9-145.9
Sacrum, greatest anterior width 93 77.0-111.5
Sacrum, depth of anterior centrum 24.0 23.0- 33.9

SAfter Merriam and Stock.
O Central length throughout.


TABLE 25. MEASUREMENTS OF SCAPULA AND PELVIS OF Smilodon

Arredondo Rancho La Brea
UF 2562 Range 0

Scapula
Length along axis of spine 255 266 -358
Distal depth 73.0 67.0- 87.1
Distal transverse 43.5 40.8- 57.9
Medial glenoid border to spine top 78 70.1- 96.6
Depth of neck 58.1 55.1- 76.4
Pelvis
Length a300 a283 -368
Depth of ilium 70 73.8- 94
Acetabulum diameter 45.5 44.3- 54.8
Depth of obturator foramen 44.3 45.0- 57.4

In 10 specimens, after Merriam and Stock.


Vol. 9








THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


TABLE 26. MEASUREMENTS OF LONG BONES OF Smilodon


Arredondo Rancho La Brea
UF 2562 Range *

Humerus
Length 807 809 -885
Proximal transverse 67.8 75.4- 92.4
Proximal anteroposterior '94.6 92.0-118.2
Shaft width at middle 29.0 32.2- 41.7
Distal width 96.9 98.7-128.8
Distal, minimum anteroposterior 29.1 27.5- 86.0
Radius
Length e240 285 -295
Proximal, long diameter 42.8 41.8- 55.5
Proximal, short diameter 33.2 82.2- 44.0
Shaft width at middle 26.5 26.0- 88.8
Shaft thickness at middle 18.5 16.5- 24.6
Ulna
Length e310 *O 287 -372
Olecranon, posterior width 37.0 88.6- 48.8
Greater sigmoid notch, width 46.7 41.5- 60.2
Dorsal margin to coronoid process 68.2 57.8- 78.8
Shaft anteroposterior at tendon scar 32.0 80.0- 47.6
Shaft width at tendon scar 21.4 19.8- 29.9
Femur
Length 334 817 -408
Proximal transverse 86.0 82.7-108.8
Head diameter 40.5 89.1- 50.7
Shaft width at middle 30.5 80.1- 40.4
Shaft anteroposterior at middle 28.0 26.8- 85.4
Distal transverse 71.5 65.2- 90.2
Distal anteroposterior 66.5 68.9- 80.8
Tibia
Length 252 289 -805
Proximal transverse 77.4 72.5- 90.4
Shaft width at middle 24.5 25.1- 88.0
Distal transverse 51.7 45.0- 68.3


In 10 specimens of each bone, after Merriam and Stock.
** The distal epiphyses have been lost in radius and ulna, both sides. With-
out epiphyses, the measurements are: Radius, 215; Ulna, 278.


1965









BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


TABLE 27. MEASUREMENTS OF TARSAL BONES IN Smilodon

Reddick Arredondo Rancho La Brea
FGS V-5690 UF 2562 Range

Astragalus
Length 50.0 44.6- 61.2
Breadth 48.6 46.0- 61.2
Neck, transverse 27.4 23.3- 29.5
Head, transverse 31.7 29.0- 36.2
Calcaneus
Length 94.0 79.4-106.8
Width 42.5 40.4- 50.8
Cuboid facet, transverse
(incl. navicular facet) 34.7 32.7- 44.2
Outer face, depth 37.7 36.3- 48.9
Ectocuneiform
Length 40.1 33.1- 48.9
Depth 15.6 12.8- 19.1
Breadth of MT-facet 23.3 22.0- 29.7


Vol. 9








THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


TABLE 28. MEASUREMENTS OF METAPODIALS IN Smilodon

Proxi- Proxi-
mal mal Shaft Distal
Length width depth width width


Metacarpals
MC III Reddick, UF 2537 100
Rancho La Brea, minimum* 83
Rancho La Brea, maximum 110
MC IV Reddick, UF 2537 93
Rancho La Brea, minimum 79
Rancho La Brea, maximum 107
MC V Reddick, UF 2537 76
Rancho La Brea, minimum 62
Rancho La Brea, maximum 87
Metatarsals
MT II Reddick, FGS V-5690 85
Reddick, UF 2537 85
Arredondo, UF 2562 80
Rancho La Brea, minimum 74
Rancho La Brea, maximum 96
MT III Reddick, UF 2537 99
Arredondo, UF 2562 95
Rancho La Brea, minimum, 86
Rancho La Brea, maximum 113
MT IV Reddick, FGS V-5690 101
Arredondo, UF 2562 96
Rancho La Brea, minimum 84
Rancho La Brea, maximum 114
MT V Arredondo, UF 2562 78
Rancho La Brea, minimum 71
Rancho La Brea, maximum 95


26 24.6 17.4 25.6
24.2 22.8 14.6 22.4
30.7 29.2 20.0 29.4
23.2 23.8 14.0 22.4
18.9 20.6 12.3 19.6
26.6 27.4 16.0 24.6
22.0 25.8 14.8 22.0
20.1 23.3 12.9 19.6
28.8 32.2 17.9 26.6


14.9 26.5 14.0 21.2
16.2 28.7 14.4 21.7
13.7 27.5 12.2 19.3
14.6 26.2 13.1 19.9
17.0 31.7 16.0 23.7
25.0 31.6 17.4 24.6
24.5 31.1 17.0 23.2
24.9 29.7 15.8 22.7
27.4 36.4 18.2 26.7
28.0 15.6 21.5
26.3 14.1 20.2
16.1 25.8 13.0 18.5
19.9 30.9 17.0 25.2
24.5 12.1 17.1
24.4 10.5 17.1
28.6 13.8 21.6


and Stock, representing


Rancho La Brea measurements after Merriam
ranges in about 1400 specimens.


1965








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


TABLE 29. SIZE INDICES FOR SAMPLES OF Smilodon, BASED ON LENGTHS AND
WIDTHS OF P', C1, P4, AND M,. STANDARD OF COMPARISON (100%), MEANS FOR
RANCHO LA BREA. N (EXCEPT FOR STANDARD), NUMBER OF ORIGINAL MEASURE-
MENTS CONVERTED INTO INDICES.

N Range Mean

Rancho La Brea* 83-124 100.0
Florida, Late Pleistocene 14 89-109 98.1
Smilodon fatalis, various"* 36 83-117 95.7
Conard Fissure 9 85-103 92.3
Santa Fe River Beds 2 80-90 85.0
Port Kennedy Cave 20 70-90 79.9

Data from Merriam and Stock.
** Based on measurements recorded under this name by Slaughter (1963,
table 1), except for Conard Fissure specimen.


TABLE 30. DISTRIBUTION OF PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE IN FLORIDA

Felis Smilo-
Felis Felis Felis Felis Felis yagua- don
atrox onca concolor rufus pardalis rundi fatalis

Ichetucknee River 1 1 3
Santa Fe River 1 5 1
Arredondo 1 1 1
Haile I- 1 -
Haile II B 1 -
Haile VII A 4 -
Haile VIII 1 -
Williston X -
Devil's Den 1 -
Reddick 8 1 1 1 1
Kendrick 1 -
Ocala 1
Sabertooth Cave 1 2
Bone Cave 1
Sanford X -
Rock Springs 1 -
Seminole Field 3 2 8 1
Stickney Point 1 -
Melbourne 4 1 5 1 1
Merritt Island 1 -
Vero 1 4 1
Nocatee 1 -

Denotes presence in unknown numbers,- absence. Figures indicate ap-
proximate number of individuals represented by fossils reviewed here.


Vol. 9








THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


TABLE 31. RELATIVE REPRESENTATION (BY PERCENTAGES) OF FELID SPECIES IN
PLEISTOCENE FAUNAS OF FLORIDA

Early fauna Late fauna Total

Felis atrox 0% 4% 2.5 %
Felis onca 50 31 38
Felis concolor 3 6 5
Felis rufus 17 41 32
Felis pardalis 7 0 2.5
Felis yagouaroundi 0 6 4
Smilodon fatalis 23 12 16



LITERATURE CITED
Arata, Andrew A.
1961. Meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) from the Quaternary of Flor-
ida. Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., 24: 117-121.

Auffenberg, W.
1958. Fossil Turtles of the Genus Terrapene in Florida. Bull. Florida State
Mus., 3: 53-92.
1963. The Fossil Snakes of Florida. Tulane Studies Zool., 10: 131-216.

Bader, Robert S.
1957. Two Pleistocene Mammalian Faunas from Alachua County, Florida.
Bull. Florida State Mus., 2: 53-75.

Brodkorb, Pierce
1953. Pleistocene birds from Haile, Florida. Wilson Bull., 65: 49-50.
1957. New Passerine Birds from the Pleistocene of Reddick, Florida. Jour.
Paleont., 31: 129-138.
1959. The Pleistocene Avifauna of Arredondo, Florida. Bull. Florida State
Mus., 4: 269-291.

Brown, B.
1908. The Conard Fissure, a Pleistocene bone deposit in northern Arkansas;
with descriptions of two new genera and twenty new species of mam-
mals. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. Mem., 9: 155-208.

Cope, E. D.
1899. Vertebrate remains from the Port Kennedy bone deposit. Proc. Acad.
Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1896: 378-394.

Gazin, C. L.
1950. Annotated list of fossil Mammalia associated with human remains at
Melbourne, Florida. Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., 40: 397-404.


1965








BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Gut, H. J.
1938. Hitherto unrecorded vertebrate fossil localities in southcentral Florida.
Florida Acad. Sci. Proc. 3: 50-53.

Gut, H. J., and C. E. Ray
1963. The Pleistocene vertebrate fauna of Reddick, Florida. Quart. Jour.
Florida Acad. Sci., 26: 315-328.

Holman, J. Alan
1959. Birds and Mammals from the Pleistocene of Williston, Florida. Bull.
Florida State Mus., 5: 1-24.

Hay, O. P.
1917. Vertebrate mostly from stratum No. 3, at Vero, Florida together with
descriptions of New species. Rep. Fla. Geol. Surv., 9: 43-68.
1919. Descriptions of some mammalian and fish remains from Florida of
probably Pleistocene age. U. S. Nat. Mus. Proc., 56: 103-112.

Hooijer, D. A.
1950. The study of subspecific advance in the Quaternary. Evolution, 4: 360-
361.

Kurten, Bjorn
1958. The bears and hyenas of the interglacials. Quaternaria, 4: 69-81.
1963. Notes on some Pleistocene mammal migrations from the Palaearctic to
the Nearctic. Eiszeitalter und Gegenwart, 14: 96-103.
1965. The carnivora of the Palestine caves. Acta Zool. Fennica, 107: 1-74.

Kurten, Bjorn., and R. Rausch
1959. Biometric comparisons between North American and European mam-
mals. Acta Arctica, 11: 1-44.

Leidy, J.
1889. Description of some mammalian remains from a'rock crevice in Florida.
Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., 2: 13-17.

McCrady, E., H. T. Kirby-Smith, and H. Templeton
1951. New finds of Pleistocene Jaguar skeletons from Tennessee caves. U. S.
Nat. Mus. Proc., 101: 497-511.

Merriam, J. C., and Chester Stock
1932. The Felidae of Rancho La Brea. Pub., Carnegie Inst. Wash., 422: 1-
232.

Ray, E.
1958. Additions to the Pleistocene mammalian fauna of Melbourne, Florida.
Harvard Mus. Comp. Sool. Bull.

Ray, C. E., S. J. Olsen, and H. J. Gut
1963. Thrse mammals new to the Pleistocene fauna of Florida, and a recon-
sideration of five earlier records. Jour. Mamm., 44: 373-395.


Vol. 9







THE PLEISTOCENE FELIDAE OF FLORIDA


Simpson, G. G.
1928. Pleistocene mammals from a cave in Citrus County, Florida. Am. Mus.
Novitates, 422: 1-19.
1929a. The extinct land mammals of Florida. Florida Geol. Surv. 20th Ann.
Rept.: 229-279.
1929b. Pleistocene mammalian fauna of the Seminole Field, Pinellas County,
Florida. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull., 56: 561-599.
1930. Additions to the Pleistocene of Florida. Am. Mus. Novitates, 406:
1-19.
1941. Large Pleistocene Felines of North America. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.
Novitates, 1136: 1-27.
Slaughter, Bob H.
1960. A new species of Smilodon from a Late Pleistocene Alluvial Terrace
Deposit of the Trinity River. Jour. Paleo., 34(3): 486-492.
1963. Some observations concerning the Genus Smilodon, with special ref-
erence to Smilodon fatalis. Texas Jour. Sci., 15(1): 68-81.
Weigel,
1962. Fossil vertebrates of Vero, Florida Special Publication No. 10, Florida
Geological Survey, p. 1-59.







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footnote detailing the title, affiliations, and address of the author (see recent num-
bers of the BULLETIN).
Manuscripts must be accompanied by a synopsis-a brief and factual summary
(not a mere description) of the contents and conclusions, which points out the
presence of any new information and indicates its relevance. In it list all new
organisms described and give their ranges; indicate all taxonomic changes pro-
posed. The synopsis, written in full sentences, should be concise, but completely
intelligible in itself without references to the paper, thereby enabling the busy
reader to decide more surely than he can from the title alone whether the paper
merits his reading. The synopsis will be published with the paper. It does not
replace the usual conclusions or summary sections. It may also serve as copy
for the abstracting services.
Manuscripts and all editorial matters should be addressed to:
Managing Editor of the BULLETIN
Florida State Museum
Seagle Building
Gainesville. Florida




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