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Group Title: Bulletin of the Florida State Museum
Title: A Pleistocene avifauna from Haile, Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001541/00001
 Material Information
Title: A Pleistocene avifauna from Haile, Florida
Series Title: Bulletin of the Florida State Museum
Physical Description: 128-158 p. : ill., map ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ligon, J. David
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1965
 Subjects
Subject: Birds, Fossil   ( lcsh )
Paleontology -- Florida -- Alachua County   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: "Literature cited:" p. 155-158.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Based on thesis--University of Florida.
Statement of Responsibility: J. David Ligon.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00001541
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0850
notis - ACK4302
alephbibnum - 000443511
oclc - 05067883
lccn - a 66007412

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Front page 1
    Front Cover
        Front page 2
        Front page 3
    Main
        Page 127
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        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
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        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
    Bibliography
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
    Back Cover
        Page 159
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BULLET

OF THE


FLORIDA


STATE MUSEUM


BIOLOGICAL


SCIENCES


Volume 10


Number 4


A PLEISTOCENE AVIFAUNA FROM HAILE, FLORIDA


J. David Ligon


UNIVERSITY OF
Gainesvil
1965


FLORIDA
Ie


IN










Numbers of the BULLETIN OF THE FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM are pub-
lished at irregular intervals. Volumes contain about 300 pages and are not nec-
essarily completed in any one calendar year.


WALTER AUFFENBERG, Managing Editor
OLrvER L. AusTIN, JR., Editor


Consultants for this issue:
H. Howard
A. Wetmore

















Communications concerning purchase or exchange of the publication and all
manuscripts should be addressed to the Managing Editor of the Bulletin, Florida
State Museum, Seagle Building, Gainesville, Florida. 32601


Published January 3, 1966


Price for this issue $.50






A PLEISTOCENE AVIFAUNA FROM HAILE, FLORIDA


J. DAvD LIGON 1

SYNOPSIS: A newly discovered fossil fauna near Haile, Alachua County, Florida,
represents the Rancholabrean stage of the Pleistocene. The great concentration
of small vertebrate remains, especially birds and mammals, is probably due to
predatory birds. The avifauna of 72 species represents 12 orders and 26 families;
12 species are extinct. Five living species, Tympanuchus cupido, Actitis macu-
laria, Coccyzus americanus, Cistothorus platensis, and Vireo griseus are new to
the fossil record, and four others, Clangula hyemalis, Numenius americanus, Re-
curvirostra americana, and Asio flammeus, are new to the Pleistocene of Florida.
The avifauna shows northern, western or southwestern, and Neotropical affinities;
its composition indicates the close proximity of a lake or pond with accompanying
marsh and wet meadow during the time of deposition, and that open prairie and
scrub were also close at hand.


INTRODUCTION
Several fossil-bearing deposits of Pliocene and Pleistocene age
have been found near Haile, in the western part of Alachua County,
Florida, (Fig. 1), but relatively little has been published on their fau-
nas. Amphibians from Pleistocene deposits have been reported by
Tihen (1952) and by Coin and Auffenberg (1955). Pliocene amphib-
ians have been recorded by Goin and Auffenberg (1955) and Auffen-
berg (1957). Reptiles from both epochs have been reported by Auffen-
berg (1954, 1955, 1956, 1963). Brodkorb (1953) listed a Pleistocene
avifauna of seven species from one Haile locality and described an
extinct rail of the genus Porzana from the same site (Brodkorb, 1954);
he later (1963) described several new species of Pliocene birds from
Haile localities. Though the Haile mammal fauna has not been re-
ported in detail, several species listed in some of the above papers
serve as chronological indicators.
Each of the Haile quarries is designated by a Roman numeral
and areas of fossil concentration within a quarry are subdivided and


SThis paper is based on a thesis presented to the Department of Biology of
the University of Florida in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree
of Master of Science. The study was supported by National Science Foundation
grant G-19595 to Dr. Pierce Brodkorb. The author's present address is Museum
of Zoology University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Manuscript received
21 September 1964.-ED.

Ligon, J. David. 1965. A Pleistocen Avifauna from Haile, Florida. Bull. Flor-
ida State Mus., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 127-i58.





128 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM Vol. 10

separated by letter (Fig. 1). The avifauna of Haile XI B forms the
subject of this paper. The non-avian vertebrates have been studied
by J. Howard Hutchison.
Haile is about 4 miles northeast of the town of Newberry, Alachua
County, Florida. The fossil site is in a limestone quarry just east of
Highway 235 and 3.4 miles north of the junction of Highways 235
and 26. It is in the SWV2 of Sec. 13, T 9 S, R 17 E.
The 83.5 foot altitude of the nearby Newberry railroad station cor-
responds to that of the Wicomico terrace (70-100 feet), which has gen-
erally been considered to represent the Sangamon interglacial stage
of the Pleistocene (Cooke, 1945: 248). However, the Haile XI B de-
posit is here assigned to the Rancholabrean period, following Hib-
bard et al. (1965). This term encompasses the Illinoian, Sangamon,
and Wisconsin ages of the Pleistocene and is used for faunas not
clearly correlated with the glacial and interglacial stages. The diffi-
culties of dating Florida late Pleistocene localities are discussed com-
prehensively by Bader (1957) and Auffenberg (1963). Both these au-
thors point out the problems involved in using the supposed marine
terraces as indicators of interglacial periods. Recently Weigel (1962)
has published radio-carbon dating that indicate the marine terraces
may be one cycle older than previously thought. Thus the Wicomico
terrace represents, under his scheme, the Yarmouthian interglacial
period. This is unlikely and further illustrates the problems involved
in assuming that these terraces are marine and that they do repre-
sent interglacial periods.
The bones reported on here were deposited in a cavity in the Ocala
limestone which underlies almost all of Florida. The free circulation
of water through this limestone has resulted in solution of the rock
(Cooke, 1945: 54). Subterranean caves formed by solution occasion-
ally collapse under the weight of overlying sediments. Limestone
rubble, abundant in the matrix at Haile XI B, may indicate the col-
lapse of a cave roof, as at Reddick I (Brodkorb, 1957).
The bones were deposited in what was apparently a drainage out-
let or tunnel at the lowermost (southeast) corner of the collapsed cave
(Fig. 2). This was completely filled with clay and sand until quarry-
ing operations unplugged the outer end of the tunnel. As subsequent
erosion has only partly emptied the solution cavity of soil, the exact
size of the chamber is still indeterminable.
The bone-bearing matrix, consisting of sands and clays, occurred
principally along the walls near the end of the tunnel opposite the col-
lapsed cave. Stratified layers of soil indicate that the matrix was
deposited by water, probably the runoff of heavy rains. The cross-





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LIGON: FLORIDA PLEISTOCENE AVIFAUNA


of the avian material. Much of the unidentified material consists of
shafts of limb bones, vertebrae, phalanges, and small passerine ele-
ments. Most of the identified specimens are fragmentary, consisting
of one end of a limb element. Table 1 lists the number of elements
for each species, and the least number of individuals these represent,
determined by the greatest number of a single element from one side.
Extinct taxa are indicated by daggers. All measurements given are
in millimeters. Terminology follows that of Howard (1929). The
Florida State Museum is the repository of the material.

TABLE 1. LIST OF AVIAN SPECIES IN THE IIAILE XIB FAUNA

Number of Least Number
Species Elements of Individuals

Podilymbus podiceps 54 9
Butorides virescens 1 1
Leucophoyx thula 5 1
Botaurus lentiginosus 11 2
Branta canadensis 1 1
Anas platyrhynchos 14 3
Anas acuta 9 2
Anas carolinensis 11 2
Anas discos 31 2
Spatula clypeata 5 2
Aix sponsa 14 3
Aythya collaris 9 3
Aythya affinis 3 1
Bucephala albeola 1 1
Clangula hyemalis 1 1
Lophodytes cucullatus 20 4
Coragyps foccidentalis 1 1
Accipiter cooperii 4 2
Buteo platypterus 1 1
Polyborus fprelutosus 8 2
Falco peregrines 3 2
Falco sparverius 33 4
Tympanuchus cupido 26 4
fNeortyx peninsularis 3 2
Colinus isuilium 157 12
Rallus elegans 57 5
Rallus linicola 14 3
Porzana fauffenhergi 6 2
Porzana carolina 34 4
Colurnicops noveboracensis 16 4
Laterallus fguti 7 3


1965






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM Vol. 10

TABLE 1 (Continued)


Number of Least Number
Species Elements of Individuals

Porphyrula martinica 1 1
Gallinula chloropus 8 2
Fulica americana 9 2
fDorypaltus prosphatus 6 2
Charadrius vociferus 5 1
Philohela minor 13 3
Capella gallinago 15 3
Numenius americanus 5 1
Actitis macularia 1 1
Totanus melanoleucus 5 1
Limnodromus sp. 3 1
Recurvirostra americana 1 1
Ectopistes migratorius 6 2
Zenaidura macroura 13 4
Coccyzus americanus 2 1
Tyto alba 2 1
Otus asio 4 1
Speotylo cunicularia 77 10
Asio flammeus 5 1
Colaptes auratus 36 6
Melanerpes erythrocephalus 2 1
Tachycineta fspeleodytes 16 6
Aphelocoma coerulescens 2 2
fProtocitta dixi 3 1
Corvus brachyrhynchos 1 1
Corvus ossifragus 1 1
Troglodytes aedon 1 1
Cistothorus platenris 2 2
Mimus polyglottos 3 2
Toxostoma rufum 6 2
Vireo griseus 1 1
Ceothlypis trichas 5 3
Sturnella magna 29 6
Quiscalus quiscula 2 1
Molothrus ater 1 1
fCremaster tytthus 1 1
fPandanaris floridana 50 8
Richmondena cardinalis 4 2
Pipilo erythrophthalmus 26 9
Ammodramus savannarum 2 1
Passerherbulus henslowii 1 1


Totals









LIGON: FLORIDA PLEISTOCENE AVIFAUNA


SYSTEMATIC LIST

Family PODICIPDIDAE
Podilymbus podiceps (Linnaeus) Pied-billed Grebe
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include maxilla, coracoid, hu-
merus, ulna, carpometacarpus, femur, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus.
REMARKS.-As the Haile XI B specimens are not larger than Re-
cent P. podiceps, they are assigned here rather than to the large extinct
P. magnus (Shufeldt, 1913).

Family ARDEIDAE
Butorides virescens (Linnaeus) Green Heron
MATERIAL.-Distal portion of a right tarsometatarsus.

Leucophoyx thula (Molina) Snowy Egret
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include coracoid, tibiotarsus, and
tarsometatarsus.
REMAAKS.-The Snowy Egret is so similar to the Little Blue Heron
(Florida caerulea) osteologically that I was able to distinguish between
the two only on the basis of the distal end of the tibiotarsus. The
area proximal to the anterior termination of the external condyle is
swollen in Florida, a thin ridge in Leucophoyx.

Botaurus lentiginosus (Rackett) American Bittern
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include coracoid, humerus, ster-
num, carpometacarpus, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus.
REMARKs.-Size separates Botaurus from all other local herons ex-
cept Nyctanassa and Nycticorax, from which it differs in the follow-
ing characters:
Coracoid: (1) the bicipital attachment is slender and tapering in
Botaurus, thick and rounded in the others; (2) the posterior sternal
facet is situated more anteriorly on the shaft in Botaurus.
Sternum: (1) the ventral lip of the left coracoidal sulcus turns
downward in Botaurus, while it extends antero-dorsally in the others;
(2) the coracoidal sulcus is deepest in Botaurus.

Family ANATIDAE
Osteological characters described by Woolfenden (1961) were use-
ful in identifying the subfamilies and often the genera of this group.







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Size groupings such as occur in the Anatinae lessen the problems of
specific identification of the fossils.

Subfamily ANSERINAE
Branta canadensis (Linnaeus) Canada Goose
MATEIAL.-Proximal portion of a right femur.
REMARKS.-Measurements of the specimen proximall width, 14.3;
proximal depth, 12.0) agree with those of the subspecies hutchinsii,
previously listed from the Florida Pleistocene by Wetmore (1931) and
McCoy (1963).
Subfamily ANATINAE
In this subfamily four size-groups were considered: the large
Anas platyrhynchos-rubripes-fulvigula complex, the medium-sized
Anas acuta and A. strepera, the smaller Spatula clypeata and Aix
sponsa, and the smallest A. carolinensis. Osteological characters sepa-
rating members of each size group are given where pertinent below.

Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus Mallard complex
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include coracoid, humerus, ulna,
sternum, femur, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus.
REMARKs.-I was unable to separate elements of Anas platyrhyn-
chos, rubripes, and fulvigula, and am therefore following Phillips'
(1959) and Johnsgard's (1961) conclusions that these three types are
conspecific and should be considered subspecies of A. platyrhynchos.

Anas acuta Linnaeus Pintail
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include coracoid, humerus, ulna,
carpometacarpus, and femur.
REMARKS.-A. acuta is closest in size and characters to A. strepera
but differs from it as described below.
Carpometacarpus: A. acuta has a deep, well-marked notch on the
posterior side of the external carpal trochlea, which is less distinct in
A. strepera.
Ulna: (1) the ligamental attachment is pointed in A. acuta and is
relatively blunt in A. strepera; (2) a groove is present on the lateral
distal side of the ulna between the internal condyle and the ligamental
attachment in A. acuta, but it is weak or absent in A. strepera.
Humerus: (1) the olecranon fossa is deep in A. acuta and is shal-
low in A. strepera; (2) the attachment of the pronator brevis is more
proximal to the attachment of the anterior articular ligament in A.


Vol. 10








LIGON: FLORIDA PLEISTOCENE AVIFAUNA


strepera than in A. acuta; (3) the proximal side of the internal condyle
is flattened in A. acuta and is less so in A. strepera.
Coracoid: the neck is longer in A. strepera and the anterior por-
tion of the furcular facet is at a greater angle to the neck.
The proximal portions of the femora could not be separated but
were assigned to this species on the basis of the above specimens.

Anas carolinensis Gmelin Green-winged Teal
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include coracoid, humerus, ulna,
carpometacarpus, femur, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus.
REMARKS.-In addition to qualitative differences such as those
found in the anterior carpal fossa of the carpometacarpus (Wetmore,
1944; Brodkorb, 1958), A. carolinensis can usually be separated from
A. discors on size. The measurements of the humeri of 4 Recent A.
discors (2 of each sex) and 7 Recent A. carolinensis (5 males, 2 females)
show no overlap in lengths or distal widths. One A. discors (an imma-
ture male) fell within the range of the proximal widths of A. caro-
linensis.
Anas discors Linnaeus Blue-winged Teal
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include coracoid, humerus, ulna,
carpometacarpus, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus.
REMARKS.-I could not separate this species from A. cyanoptera
and base the specific identification on geographical grounds.

Spatula clypeata (Linnaeus) Shoveler
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include coracoid, humerus, and
ulna.
REMARKS.-Many of the elements of Spatula are similar in size to
those of Aix sponsa. Differences between the two are:
Coracoid: (1) Aix has the head rounded and thickened (Woolfen-
den, 1961: 52) which Spatula lacks; (2) Aix often has a pneumatic fossa
underneath the brachial tuberosity, lacking in Spatula.
Humerus: (1) the ectepicondyle of Aix extends distad of the en-
tepicondyle while in Spatula the epicondyles are at the same level;
(2) the attachment of the anterior articular ligament is more proximal
in Aix; (3) the attachment for the pronator brevis is shallow in Spatula
and deep in Aix.
Ulna: (1) the lip of the external cotyla extends farther proximal
on the shaft in Aix; (2) Spatula has a groove on the internal side of
the olecranon process, absent in Aix.






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Aix sponsa (Linnaeus) Wood Duck
MATERIAL.-Elements identified are coracoid, humerus, ulna, and
tarsometatarsus.
REMARKS.-The proximal part of the humerus is closest to that of
Spatula but differs from it in the following features: (1) in Aix the
scar of the pectoral attachment is elongate and swept back to a point
towards the deltoid crest, but it is shorter in Spatula and not swept
back; (2) in Aix the head extends farther into the capital groove, and
the capital groove is narrower than in Spatula.
Tarsometatarsus: (1) the element is shorter and more robust in
Aix than in Spatula; (2) in Aix the ridges of the middle trochlea form
a point at the postero-lateral termination of the ridges, in Spatula the
two ridges meet medially.

Subfamily AYTWrIAE
Aythya collaris (Donovan) Ring-necked Duck
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include coracoid, carpometacar-
pus, femur, and tarsometatarsus.
REMARKS.-A. collaris is very similar to A. affinis but differs in the
following characters:
Coracoid: (1) the glenoid facet of A. collaris is more concave and
its external edge is more strongly recurved than that of A. affinis; (2)
the triosseal canal is nearly flat in A. collaris, deep in A. affnis (Brod-
korb, MS.).
Carpometacarpus: (1) the origin of M. extensor pollicis brevis near
the outer edge of the pollical facet is shallow in A. collaris and deep in
A. affnis; (2) metacarpal one is square at the tip in A. collaris and
rounded in A. afinis.
Femur: Compared with A. affinis (1) the neck is less constricted
anteriorly; (2) viewed from the posterior side the neck is shorter and
more thickened; (3) the shaft just distal to the base of the neck is shal-
lower; (4) the popliteal area tends to be shallower; (5) the ridge of the
external condyle does not extend so far posteriorly.

Aythya affinis (Eyton) Lesser Scaup
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include coracoid, carpometacar-
pus, and femur.

Bucephala albeola (Linnaeus) Bufflehead
MATERIAL.-The proximal part of a left humerus.


Vol. 10








LIGON: FLORIDA PLEISTOCENE AVIFAUNA


Clangula hyemalis (Linnaeus) Oldsquaw
MATERAL.-Proximal part of a right carpometacarpus.
REMARKS.-This is the first record of the Oldsquaw for the Pleisto-
cene of Florida.
Subfamily MERGINAE
Lophodytes cucullatus (Linnaeus) Hooded Merganser
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include coracoid, humerus, ulna,
carpometacarpus, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus.

Family CATHARTIDAE
Coragyps foccidentalis (L. Miller) Extinct Vulture
MATrnuAL.-Distal portion of a right tibiotarsus (Fig. 3a).
REvMARK.-Measurements are: distal width, 13.5; depth of internal
condyle, 18.8; depth of external condyle, 13.0. Both condyles are
somewhat abraded.
Family ACCIprrmIDAE
Accipiter cooperii (Bonaparte) Cooper's Hawk
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include coracoid, ulna, and tar-
sometatarsus.
REMARKS.-These elements may be distinguished on several char-
acters from those of the Broad-winged Hawk, Buteo platypterus,
which are similar in size.
Coracoid: (1) procoracoidal foramen absent in A. cooperii, pres-
ent in B. platypterus; (2) pneumatic foramina deeper and relatively
larger in A. cooperii, a greater amount of variation in B. platypterus;
(3) the procoracoid terminates in a point in B. platypterus, but is some-
what square-shaped in A. cooperii.
Ulna: (1) ligamental attachment rounded in A. cooperii, pointed
in B. platypterus; (2) external condyle more strongly defined and more
rounded in A. cooperii.
Tarsometatarsus: (1) shaft relatively more slender in A. cooperii;
(2) inner trochlea more proximal than middle one in B. platypterus,
at the same level or slightly lower in A. cooperii; (3) wing of the
inner trochlea more pointed in B. platypterus.
Buteo platypterus (Viellot) Broad-winged Hawk
MATERIAL.-Upper part of a right coracoid.

Family FALCONIDAE
Polyborus fprelutosus Howard Extinct Caracara
SMATERIAL.-Elements identified are ulna, femur, tibiotarsus, and
tarsometatarsus.


1965






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


REMARKs.-Measurements of the above specimens were compared
with those of four species of Polyborus given by Howard (1938).
Except for the proximal portion of one tarsometatarsus, all of the
Haile XI B specimens fall into Howard's range of measurements for
P. prelutosus. She states that of 14 specimens from Florida available
to her, at least 6 were definitely similar to P. prelutosus.

Falco peregrinus Tunstall Peregrine Falcon
MATERIAL.-Three tarsometatarsi represent at least two individ-
uals, probably a male and a female from their sizes.

Falco sparverius Linnaeus Sparrow Hawk
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include coracoid, humerus, ulna,
carpometacarpus, femur, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus.

TABLE 2. MEASUREMENTS OF RECENT AND FOSSIL Falco sparverius
FROM AILE XI B.

Recent Fossil

Mean
Element Range Mean Range Number

Humerus:
Distal width 7.0- 8.0 ( 7.36) 8.0- 8.2 ( 8.10, n 2)
Depth of head 2.4- 2.9 ( 2.55) 2.5- 2.9 (2.63, n 3)
Ulna:
Proximal width 4.7- 5.4 (4.95) 5.1- 5.4 ( 5.33, n 3)
Carpometacarpus:
Length 25.8-29.7 (27.30) 27.7-28.9 (28.25, n 2)
Length of first
metacarpal 4.1- 5.7 ( 4.63) 4.4- 5.3 ( 4.78, n 6)
Height through
metacarpal I 6.5- 7.8 ( 7.04) 7.2- 8.0 ( 7.63, n 6)
Femur:
Length 34.5-38.0 (35.80) 39.1 (39.10, n 1)
Proximal width 5.5- 6.6 ( 5.92) 6.0- 6.7 (6.35, n 2)
Distal width 5.7- 6.8 ( 6.11) 6.2- 6.5 (6.37, n 3)
Tibiotarsus:
Distal width 4.8- 5.8 ( 5.16) 5.6 (5.60, n 1)
Depth of external
condyle 3.8- 4.5 ( 4.02) 4.2 (4.20, n 1)
Tarsometatarsus:
Distal width 5.2- 6.2 (5.57) 5.7- 6.1 (5.90, n 2)

SMeasurements based on 2 male and 8 female F. s. sparverius.


Vol. 10






LIGON: FLORIDA PLEISTOCENE AVIFAUNA


REMARKS.-Table 2 shows the fossil Sparrow Hawks to be large
compared to the Recent F. s. sparverius, which is larger than the sub-
species that breeds in Florida today, F. s. paulus.


Family TETRAONIDAE

Tympanuchus cupido (Linnaeus) Greater Prairie Chicken

MATERIAL.-Elements identified include maxilla, coracoid, humer-
us, ulna, carpometacarpus, and tarsometatarsus.
REMARKS.-This is the first fossil record of the Prairie Chicken,
T. cupido.
Comparative measurements were taken of the Haile XI B speci-
mens, two male and one complete and one partial female T. c. pin-
natus, and two unsexed T. c. cupido (Table 3). The Haile XI B speci-
mens are smaller than Recent ones in most measurements, and larger

TABLE 3. MEASUREMENT OF RECENT AND FOSSIL Tympanuchus cupido
FROM HAILE XI B.


Element T. c. cupido T. c. pinnatus Fossil


T. ceres'


Coracoid:
Head through
scapular facet
Depth through
glenoid facet
Humerus:
Length
Proximal width
Distal width
Ulna:
Proximal width
Distal width


18.0-18.0

5.5- 5.7

66.6-66.8
19.1-19.7
13.2-13.6


16.9-18.8 16.5-17.0 (n 4)

5.3- 6.0 5.0- 5.4 (n 6)


68.0-72.3
18.7-20.6
13.3-18.7


8.2- 8.3 7.9- 9.2
8.5- 8.7 8.5- 9.6


67.2 (n 1)
17.3-18.7 (n 2)
12.3-12.9 (n 4)

7.7- 8.7 (n 2)
8.4- 8.5 (n 2)


59.7-60.5


Carpometacarpus:
Length 37.0-38.5
Height through
metacarpal one 10.5-11.4
Height of
metacarpal one 6.4- 6.6


Tarsometatarsus:
Length
Proximal width
Distal width


47.3-48.0
9.5- 9.5
10.3-10.4


38.2-42.3 37.2 (n 1) 33.1-34.7

11.0 10.5-11.1 (n 2)

6.7- 7.0 6.6 (n 1)


50.7-53.0
9.2-10.3
10.6-11.9


48.6 (n 1)
9.0- 9.3 (n 2)
10.2-10.7 (n 2)


44.9-45.4


SMeasurements from Wetmore (1959).






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


than those of Tympanuchus fceres (Shufeldt) from the Pleistocene of
Arkansas. No specimens of T. c. attwateri were compared.

Family PHASIANIDAE

fNeortyx peninsularis Holman Extinct Quail
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include a complete left coracoid,
and proximal portions of two left ulnae.

Colinus fsuilium Brodkorb Extinct Quail
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include coracoid, humerus, ulna,
carpometacarpus, femur, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus.
REMARKs.-Measurements of the Haile XI B specimens agree with
those of other Pleistocene localities given by Holman (1961).

Family RALLDAE
The three large rallids from this fossil site, Rallus elegans, Gallinula
chloropus, and Fulica americana, are fairly similar in osteological char-
acters. The Coot (Fulica) is considerably larger than the Gallinule
(Gallinula), and the measurements do not overlap; Fulica is also larger
than the King Rail (Rallus), but measurements occasionally overlap,
as do those of Rallus and Gallinula. Characters separating the ele-
ments at hand are:
Coracoid: (1) furcular facet curves medially from the shaft in
Gallinula and Fulica, but forms a straight extension of the shaft in
Rallus; (2) procoracoid process points dorsally in Rallus, at almost
right angles to shaft in others.
Humerus: (1) Rallus has the pectoral attachment of the external
tuberosity at right angles to the shaft in anconal view, but in the
others it blends in gradually to the shaft and deltoid crest; (2) bicipital
crest short and round in Rallus, longer and joining shaft in a gradual
slope in the others; (8) external and internal condyles more slender
in Rallus than in the others; (4) external condyle an S-shaped curve in
Rallus, less so in Gallinula, short and stubby in Fulica; (5) ectepicon-
dyle extends distad to internal condyle in Gallinula, at about same
level in others.
Ulna: (1) a groove between the olecranon and external cotyla in
Rallus, absent in others; (2) internal cotyla deepest in Rallus; (3) in-
ternal condyle with strong palmar projection in Rallus, none in Fulica,
less pronounced in Gallinula; (4) palmar ridge of external condyle
joins shaft sharply and at right angles in Rallus, joins shaft gradually
and forms a semi-circle in others.


Vol. 10





LIGON: FLORIDA PLEISTOCENE AVIFAUNA


Carpometacarpus: Fulica has an indentation on the posterior ridge
of the external carpal trochlea, lacking in Rallus.
Femur: (1) neck in Rallus much constricted just proximal to head,
others have thick, non-constricted necks; (2) Rallus has head smaller
than others; (3) a deep depression in the posterior medial side of the
external condyle in Fulica, less pronounced or absent in others; (4) a
slender ridge continuing from the postero-lateral side of the internal
condyle onto shaft in Rallus, much thickened or absent in others; (5)
scar of M. flexor cruris lateralis distinct in Gallinula and Fulica, less
so in Rallus, comparatively widely separated from the external con-
dyle in Fulica, close to or touching external condyle in others.
Tibiotarsus: (1) ridge of inner cnemial crest rises from internal
articular surface at a sharp angle in Fulica and Gallinula, at a gentler
slope in Rallus; (2) cnemial crest rises to a proportionately greater
height in Fulica than in Rallus or Gallinula; (3) intercondylar area
proportionately larger in Fulica; (4) internal ligamental prominence
larger and more prominent in Fulica, also large and protruding in
Gallinula, small and flattened in Rallus; (5) condyles more compressed
in Rallus than in Gallinula.
Tarsometatarsus: (1) intercotylar prominence elongate and pointed
laterally in Rallus and Gallinula, short and thick in Fulica; (2) dorsal
surface completely flattened in Gallinula, but not in Rallus; (3) outer
trochlea more proximal and medial in Rallus than in others; (4) shaft
relatively narrower and trochlea less bulky in Rallus.
The medium sized rails, the Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola), and the
Sora (Porzana carolina), are also close both in size and osteological
characters. The Pleistocene Porzana auffenbergi is larger than either
of the other two. Differences between R. limicola and P. carolina
are given below.
Coracoid: (1) furcular facet two-lobed in Porzana in dorsal view;
(2) in R. limicola the furcular facet rises to head symmetrically; (3)
shaft relatively wider in Porzana and scapular facet generally larger
and deeper.
Humerus: (1) head and external tuberosity more clearly outlined
in Porzana; (2) bicipital crest relatively larger in Porzana; (3) entepi-
condyle more distally produced in Porzana; (4) brachial depression
shallow in Porzana; (5) attachment of M. pronator brevis more proxi-
mal in Porzana.
Ulna: (1) strongly bowed in R. limicola, more nearly straight in
Porzana; (2) ligamental attachment and internal condyle almost per-
pendicular in Porzana, forming a semicircle in R. limicola.


1965





BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Carpometacarpus: (1) external carpal trochlea more flattened and
more sharply pointed in R. Ulmicola; (2) metacarpals two and three
proximally fused a greater distance in Porzana; (3) R. limicola shorter
than the shortest Porzana examined.
Femur: (1) shaft more slender in R. limicola; (2) insertion for M.
flexor ischiofemoralis more pronounced in Porzana; (3) intercondylar
area deeper in Porzana; (4) a ridge perpendicular to shaft on postero-
proximal internal condyle extends to external condyle in Porzana,
separated by a groove in R. limicola.
Tibiotarsus: (1) intercondylar area greater in Porzana; (2) internal
ligamental prominence more prominent in Porzana than in R. limicola;
(3) external condyle extends more proximally on shaft in R. limicola
to about the level of the mid-supratendinal bridge.
Tarsometatarsus: (1) outer trochlea of R. lUmicola extends almost
to middle trochlea, more nearly equal to the inner trochlea in Porzana;
(2) distal foramen nearer outer intertrochlear notch in R. limicola than
in Porzana.
Ralus elegans Audubon King Rail

MATERIAL.-Elements identified include maxilla, coracoid, humer-
us, ulna, carpometacarpus, sternum, femur, tibiotarsus, and tarsometa-
tarsus.





'1,. 1 2 i -


It
r






..A -lta .. -'. .

FIGUEE 8. a. Coragyps occidentalis, UF 7012. right tibiotarsus, anterior view.
b. Porzana auffenbergi, UF 7144B, left tarsometatarsus, posterior view. c. Dory-
paltus prosphatus, UF 7174, left coracoid, posterior view. d. Dorypaltus pros-
phatus, UF 7174, left coracoid, anterior view. e. Dorypaltus prosphatus, UF
7177A, right tibiotarsus, anterior view.


Vol. 10






LIGON: FLORIDA PLEISTOCENE AVIFAUNA


Rallus limicola Vieillot Virginia Rail
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include coracoid, humerus, femur,
tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus.

Porzana fauffenbergi Brodkorb Extinct Rail
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include the proximal parts of a
left and a right ulna and distal portions of two left and two right
tarsometatarsi (Fig. 3b).
REMARKs.-The distal portion of the tarsometatarsus of P. auffen-
bergi differs from that of R. limicola and P. carolina in the following
features: (1) it is larger and more robust; (2) inner trochlea less medial
to the shaft; (3) distal foramen closer to the outer intertrochlear notch
than in P. carolina. Table 4 gives comparative measurements of the
distal tarsometatarsus.

TABLE 4. MEASUREMENTS OF TARSOMETATARSUS IN SOME
PLEISTOCENE AND RECENT RAILS

Distal Width
Species Mean Range No.

P. auffenbergi 5.32 5.1-5.7 4
P. carolina 4.39 3.8-4.6 8'
R. limicola 4.50 4.4-4.6 32

'4 fossil and 4 Recent (2 of each sex).
2 1 fossil and 2 Recent (1 of each sex).

Porzana carolina (Linnaeus) Sora
MATERIL.-Elements identified include coracoid, humerus, ulna,
carpometacarpus, femur, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus.

Coturnicops noveboracensis (Gmelin) Yellow Rail
MATERIAL.-Elements identified are coracoid, humerus, carpometa-
carpus, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus.

Laterallus fguti Brodkorb Extinct Black Rail
MATERIAL.-Seven pieces of humeri.
REMARxs.-These specimens were compared with the type humer-
us (Brodkorb, 1952) and are even more robust. The proximal widths






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


of these specimens range from 4.8 to 5.2, and distal widths are 3.4
and 3.5.

Porphyrula martinica (Linnaeus) Purple Gallinule
MATERIAL.-The proximal part of a right femur.

Gallinula chloropus (Linnaeus) Common Gallinule
MATERIAL.-Elements include humerus, ulna, femur, tibiotarsus,
and tarsometatarsus.

Fulica americana Gmelin American Coot
MATERAL.-Elements identified include coracoid, humerus, ulna,
femur, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus.
REMARxs.-According to Howard (1946) though Fulica minor Shu-
feldt tends to have smaller wings and possibly longer legs than F.
americana, it is only subspecifically distinct. The limb elements of
the Haile XI B material are within the size range of the living F.
americana.
Family CHARADRIIDAE
fDorypaltus prosphatus Brodkorb Extinct Lapwing
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include the upper portion of a
left coracoid (Figs. 3c, 3d), the proximal portion of a right humerus,
the left and right proximal portions of two femora, and the distal por-
tions of two right tibiotarsi (Fig. 3e).
REMARKS.-This is the second record of this extinct genus. Brod-
korb (1959) described the proximal and distal portions of the humerus.
The Haile XI B humerus compares favorably with the humerus col-
lected with the holotype. Descriptions of the additional elements are
as follows:
Coracoid: the upper portion is smaller than in either Belonopterus
or Vanellus, with the anterior portion of the furcular facet less well
developed and the termination of the procoracoidal process blunt and
thick; it is more slender and recurved in Belonopterus and Vanellus.
Width of furcular facet, 5.1; width through glenoid facet, 6.2.
Femur: the proximal portion is smaller than in Belonopterus and
slightly smaller than in Vanellus, and the trochanteric ridge is less
well developed than in Vanellus. Proximal widths of the two speci-
mens are 6.8 and 7.2.
Tibiotarsus: the distal portion is slightly smaller than in Belanop-
terus and larger than in Vanellus. The outer edge of the external con-


Vol. 10





LIGON: FLORIDA PLEISTOCENE AVIFAUNA


dyle extends proximally to the inner edge in Dorypaltus, in contrast
to the others. The ridge extending from the external condyle to the
supratendinal bridge is more strongly defined than in Belonoptetus.
Distal widths of the two specimens are 5.8 and 6.0.

Charadrius vociferus Linnaeus Killdeer
MATErAL.-Elements identified include humerus, carpometacar-
pus, and tarsometatarsus.
REMARKS.-In C. vociferus a long groove extends from under the
head of the humerus, the external tuberosity of the humerus is set well
out, and the deltoid crest is more strongly developed than in the sco-
lopacids.
Family SCOLOPACIDAE
The osteological characters used to separate genera of similar size
found in the Haile XIB fauna are:
Coracoid: (1) Philohela is very distinctive with the brachial tube-
rosity short, thick, and rounded; the coraco-humeral surface is deep-
ly concave; the procoracoid process is strongly hooked, almost reach-
ing the brachial tuberosity; the shaft is thick, thus making the ante-
rior part of the coracoid appear relatively smaller; (2) Capella has a
depression on the proximal procoracoid process just medial to the
scapular facet; Limnodromus lacks this and is heavier and more rug-
ged on the brachial tuberosity, especially the anterior portion; (3)
Totanus is much like Limnodromus, but has the anteriormost brachial
tuberosity pointing up instead of down.
Humerus: (1) in Philohela the head is pointed and the capital
groove is long; there is no hint of a second depression, and the external
tuberosity is not very distinct; (2) Limnodromus is larger than Capella
and has the bicipital crest joining the shaft at a right angle, while in
Capella it enters the shaft smoothly without curves along its outer
edge; (3) a projecting point on the distal portion of the head just
above the capital groove in Limnodromus is absent in Capella; (4) the
ectepicondylar process is weak in Capella and is practically gone in
Philohela; (5) Limnodromus has the brachial depression deeply exca-
vated all the way to the internal condyle; it is relatively shallow and
flat in Capella, in Totanus it is deep but is filled in between the ex-
ternal condyle and the attachment of the anterior articular ligament.
Ulna: (1) the olecranon process is well developed, with the internal
cotyla extending upon it in Philohela; it is short and stubby in Lim-
nodromus and Capella; the olecranon process is relatively flattened
with a well-marked depression on the external side in Capella, while





BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


this is absent in Limnodromus; (2) Philohela has the external condyle
intersecting the shaft proximally at a sharp angle, but it slopes into the
shaft more gently in Limnodromus; (3) the ligamental attachment
points slightly proximally in Limnodromus but not in Philohela; (4)
the ulna of Limnodromus is larger than that of Capella.
Carpometacarpus: Philohela differs from the other scolopacids in
that (1) the internal carpal trochlea is flattened on the proximal end
with a thickened ridge alongside this flattened area; (2) the internal
trochlea is rather square, rounded in the others; (3) the external car-
pal trochlea is distinctly pointed at the proximal extremity, less so
in Limnodromus and Capella; (4) the pisiform process is more proximal
than in the others. Limnodromus differs from Capella in the follow-
ing ways: (1) the process of metacarpal I is much rounded, with no
sharp angles at the terminal end; (2) the proximal end is larger than
in Capella, with relatively larger condyles and a smaller process of
metacarpal I.
Tarsometatarsus: (1) Philohela has a deep furrow on the anterior
side of the tarsometatarsus, and the internal and external cotyla are at
very differing heights; (2) in Totanus there is a depression at the prox-
imal end posterior to the intercondylar process; (3) the shaft is thick
in Capella relative to the proximal end, and there is no depression
posterior to the intercotylar prominence.

Philohela minor (Gmelin) Woodcock
MATERAL.-Elements identified include coracoid, humerus, ulna,
carpometacarpus, and tarsometatarsus.

Capella gallinago (Linnaeus) Common Snipe
MATERAL.-Elements identified include coracoid, humerus, ulna,
and tarsometatarsus.

Numenius americanus Bechstein Long-billed Curlew
MATERIAL.-Upper portions of a left and right coracoid, the dis-
tal portions of a left and right humerus, and the proximal portion of
a left femur were identified.
REMARKS.-The Long-billed Curlew is new to the Pleistocene of
Florida.
Actitis macularia (Linnaeus) Spotted Sandpiper
MATERIAL.-Distal portion of a right humerus.
REMARKS.-This is the first fossil record of the Spotted Sandpiper.
Actitis differs from species of Erolia of similar size in that the ectepi-


Vol. 10





LIGON: FLORIDA PLEISTOCENE AVIFAUNA


condyle process slopes out gradually, instead of jutting at a sharp
angle to the shaft.

Tetanus melanoleucus (Linnaeus) Greater Yellowlegs
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include coracoid, humerus, and
tarsometatarsus.
Limnodromus sp. Dowitcher
MATEAL.-Specimens identified include humerus, ulna, and car-
pometacarpus.
REMARKs.-The measurements of these fossils are within the size
range of both L. scolopaceus and L. griseus.

Family RECURvmosTRIAE
Recurvirostra americana Gmelin American Avocet
MATERIAL.-Proximal portion of a right tibiotarsus.
REMARKs.-The Avocet is new to the Pleistocene of Florida.

Family COLUMBIDAE
fEctopistes migratorius (Linnaeus) Passenger Pigeon
MATERmAL.-Specimens identified include the upper portions of
two left coracoids, the proximal portions of two left ulnae, the prox-
imal portion of a right carpometacarpus, the distal portion of a left
tarsometatarsus.

Zenaidura macroura (Linnaeus) Mourning Dove
MATmEIAL.-Elements identified include coracoid, humerus, ulna,
tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus.

Family CUCULIDAE
Coccyzus americanus (Linnaeus) Yellow-billed Cuckoo
MATERIAL.-The anterior portion of a left coracoid and the distal
part of a right tarsometatarsus.
REMARKS.-This is the first fossil record of the Yellow-billed
Cuckoo.
Family TYTOrNDAE
Tyto alba (Scopoli) Barn Owl
MATERIAL.-The proximal portion of a left ulna and the distal
portion of a right femur.


1965






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Family STROIIDAE

Otus asio (Linnaeus) Screech Owl
MATERAL.-Elements identified include ulna, tibiotarsus, and tar-
sometatarsus.
REMARKS.-The elements listed above may be distinguished from
those of Speotyto cunicularia in the following ways:
Ulna: 0. asio is distinctly smaller than S. cunicularia.
Tibiotarsus: Distally the region just proximal to the condyles is
more completely hollowed out in S. cunicularia; in 0. asio this area
is deeply excavated only along the medial side.
Tarsometatarsus: (1) relatively much thicker in the shaft; (2) prox-
imal end compressed in 0. asio and is thickened at the base in S.
cunicularia; (8) the ridge along the distal portion of the outer trochlea
is much thickened in S. cunicularia, but is not in 0. asio.

Speotyto cunicularia (Molina) Burrowing Owl
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include maxilla, coracoid, humer-
us, ulna, carpometacarpus, femur, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus.

Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan) Short-eared Owl
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include coracoid, ulna, and. tar-
sometatarsus.
REMARKS.-The Short-eared Owl is new to the Pleistocene of
Florida.
The distal end of the ulna of A. flammeus has the groove between
the external and internal condyles more pronounced than in A. otus.
A. flammeus has a short thickened ridge on the outer edge of the
middle trochlea of the tarsometatarsus; the ridge is longer and more
slender in A. otus.
Family PICIDAE
Colaptes auratus (Linnaeus) Flicker
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include coracoid, humerus, ulna,
carpometatarsus, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus.
REMARKS.-Short (1965) has shown that the North American flick-
ers are conspecific and should be united under the name C. auratus.
In the absence of constant osteological differences among members
of this group, these elements are referred to C. auratus in this broad
sense.


Vol. 10






1965 LIGON: FLORIDA PLEISTOCENE AVIFAUNA 149

Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Linnaeus) Red-headed Woodpecker
MATERIAL.-Ulna and tarsometatarsus identified.
REMARKS.-The tarsometatarsus of M. erythrocephalus is most sim-
ilar to that of Centurus carolinus but differs from it in the following
ways: (1) inner proximal foramen is more proximal to the point at
which the ridge below the internal cotyla juts out; (2) the ridge juts
out less sharply; (8) the distal foramen is larger.

Order PASSERIFORMES
Osteological characters listed by Hamon (1964) have been fol-
lowed where pertinent to the identification of the Haile specimens.

Family HIRUNM NDAE

Tachycineta fspeleodytes Brodkorb Extinct Swallow
MAERIAL.-Elements identified include coracoid, humerus, and
ulna.
REARKts.-Brodkorb (1957) states that some of the bones of this
swallow found at Reddick I were of birds too young to fly, but all the
Haile material represents adult birds.

Famliy CORVIDAE

Aphelocoma coerulescens (Bosc) Scrub Jay
MATERIAL.-The distal portions of two left tibiotarsi.

fProtocitta dixi Brodkorb Extinct Jay
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include the distal portion of a
right tibiotarsus and proximal and distal portions of a left tarsometa-
tarsus.
REMARKS.-This is the only additional locality record for this ex-
tinct jay described from Reddick (Brodkorb, 1957).

Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm Common Crow
MATERIAL.-Distal portion of a right ulna.

Corvus ossifragus Wilson Fish Crow
MATERIAL.-Distal portion of a left tarsometatarsus.


____~~ ___






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Family TROGLODYTmDAE
Troglodytes aedon Vieillot House Wren
MATERIAL.-Proximal part of a right humerus.

Cistothorus platensis (Latham) Short-billed Marsh Wren
MATERIAL.-Proximal portion of a right humerus, and a complete
right humerus.
REMsARKS.-These humeri are assigned to this extant species rather
than to the extinct C. brevis (Brodkorb, 1957) on the basis of their well
developed internal tuberosity and the length of the complete humerus
as shown in Table 5.

TABLE 5. MEASUREMENTS OF THE HUMERUS OF Cistothorus.

Species Length No.

C. brevis (from Brodkorb, 1957) 12.2-12.3 2
C. platensis 12.3-12.8 5
Haile XIB specimen 12.6 1


C. platensis is previously unrecorded as a fossil.

Family MIMIDAE
Mimus polyglottos (Linnaeus) Mockingbird
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include the upper portions of
two right coracoids and the distal portion of a right humerus.
REMARKS.-Previously recorded as a fossil only from Reddick (Ha-
mon, 1961).

Toxostoma rufum (Linnaeus) Brown Thrasher
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include coracoid and humerus.
REMARKs.-Previously recorded as a fossil from Reddick I (Ha-
mon, 1964), and Augusta County, Virginia (Wetmore, 1962).

Family VIREONIDAE
Vireo griseus (Boddaert) White-eyed Vireo
MATERIAL.-Complete right humerus.
REMARKS.-This is the first North American fossil record for this
family and the first fossil record of this species.


Vol. 10






LIGON: FLORIDA PLEISTOCENE AVIFAUNA


Family PARULmAE
Geothlypis trichas (Linnaeus) Yellowthroat
MATERuAL.-Elements identified include coracoid and humerus.
REMARKS.-Previously recorded as a fossil only from Reddick I
(Brodkorb, 1957; Hamon, 1964).

Family ICrERIDAE
Sturnella magna (Linnaeus) Eastern Meadowlark
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include coracoid, humerus, carpo-
metacarpus, and tibiotarsus.
REMARKS.-The humeri of S. magna tend to be smaller than those
of S. neglecta, although measurements show some overlap in the 12
specimens of each examined. Because of the small size of the fossils,
the associated fauna, and the present geographical distribution of
the two species, these Sturnella elements are assigned to the species
magna.
Quiscalus quiscula (Linnaeus) Common Grackle
MATERIAL.-Coracoid and humerus.

Molothrus ater (Boddaert) Brown-headed Cowbird
MATEmRAL.-Proximal portion of a right humerus.

fCremaster tytthus Brodkorb Extinct Hangnest
MATERIAL.-Proximal portion of a left humerus.
REMARKs.-This specimen compares favorably with the humerus
from Arredondo described by Brodkorb (1959). This is the second
occurrence of Cremaster.

fPandanaris floridana Brodkorb Extinct Icterid
MATERIAL.-Elements identified include coracoid, humerus, carpo-
metacarpus, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus.
REMARKS.-This extinct species, previously known only from Red-
dick I (Brodkorb, 1957; Hamon, 1964), was abundant there and is
one of the more common species represented in the Haile XI B avi-
fauna.
Family FBINGILLIDAE
Richmondena cardinalis (Linnaeus) Cardinal
MATERIAL.-Elements include the coracoid and humerus.






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Linnaeus) Rufous-sided Towhee
MATERAL.-Elements identified include coracoid, humerus, car-
pometacarpus, femur, and tarsometatarsus.

Ammodramus savannarum (Gmelin) Grasshopper Sparrow
MATERAL.-Two complete humeri.
REMARKS.-The Grasshopper Sparrow has been recorded previ-
ously as a fossil only from Haile I (Brodkorb, 1953).

Passerherbulus henslowii (Audubon) Henslow's Sparrow
MATERIAL.-Complete right humerus.

DISCUSSION
MODE OF FOSSIL DEPOSITION
Apparently owls were largely responsible for the great accumula-
tions of small vertebrates found at several Florida Pleistocene locali-
ties. Both the extremely rich Reddick I locality and Haile XI B have,
along with plentiful remains of other small vertebrates, remains of
several species of hawks and owls, including Barn Owl and Peregrine
Falcon, the latter species also found at Arredondo (Pit 2).
It is highly probable that Barn Owls and possibly peregrine Fal-
cons nested on the sides of the limestone sink or cave. The great con-
centrations of small vertebrates cannot be explained in any other
way. The abundance of small mammals is strong evidence that owls
were responsible for the accumulation of much of the fauna.
While Barn Owls prey primarily on small mammals, they also
feed on birds to some extent. Recent birds known to have been
preyed upon by Barn Owls include various sparrows, blackbirds,
grackles, starlings, cowbird, Abert's Towhee, Bobolink, swallows,
warblers, wrens, Red-shafted Flicker, Sora and Clapper Rails, mead-
owlark, Green Heron, Blue Jay, House Sparrow, Eastern Goldfinch,
pigeon, Catbird, caprimulgids, Bob-white, Wilson's Snipe, Grasshop-
per Sparrow, Boat-tailed Grackle, and Red-winged Blackbird (Bent,
1938; Phillips, 1951; Parmalee, 1954; Trost and Hutchison, 1963). Al-
though the percentage of birds remains from pellets of these owls is
small, it can be seen that, given a long enough periods of time, Barn
Owls are quite capable of gathering a large amount of bird material.
The Peregrine Falcon has been reported to have taken every type
of bird present in the fauna (Bent, 1938). Those species that are less


Vol. 10






LIGON: FLORIDA PLEISTOCENE AVIFAUNA


likely to have been taken by the Barn Owl (grebes, ducks, grouse)
may have been deposited by Peregrines.
The sinkhole may have served as a natural trap for certain ani-
mals, such as the giant tortoise, thus attracting large avion scaven-
gers. The small deer elements could have been regurgitated by
either the extinct vulture or caracara.
It is unlikely that the solution pipe became clogged and formed
a pond that attracted waterfowl, which occasionally died and sank
to the bottom. The duck remains and the remains of the land birds
were evidently deposited at the same time, for duck elements are
found intermixed with terrestrial forms throughout the matrix.
That the material has not been greatly reworked is indicated by
the fact that several snake vertebrae were found still articulated in
a clod of matrix. The bones probably were not moved more than a
few feet from where they were originally dropped by the predatory
birds. Water running through the cave during heavy rains may have
washed the bones a short distance before depositing them as the
slope and force of the underground streamlet lessened.

ZOOGEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATIC INDICATORS
All the extant species in the fauna except the Prairie Chicken have
been recorded from Florida in modern times. Many of these occur
only as transients or winter visitants.
The Prairie Chicken suggests a more temperate climate than that
found in Florida today. The Holarctic grouse family, Tetraonidae,
is generally found in the temperate zone and northward. Most spe-
cies are non-migratory. Attwater's Prairie Chicken (T. c. attwateri)
of the coastal prairies of Texas and Louisiana is the southernmost
living representative of the family and almost certainly represents a
relict population. This form, the fossil Florida Prairie Chicken, and
the Ruffed Grouse from Arredondo I (Brodkorb, 1959) possibly ex-
tended their ranges southward during one or more glacial periods,
with only Attwater's Prairie Chicken surviving to the present.
The fact that the Prairie Chicken and Geochelone were found to-
gether indicates that the annual temperature extremes were less
marked in the late Pleistocene than now. Hibbard et al., (1965: 514)
surmise that during the Rancholabrean period a maritime climate
existed which was characterized by cooler summers and milder win-
ters than those of today. Though the mean annual temperature
might have changed little or not at all from that time to the present,
Geochelone could not exist under the winter conditions found in Flor-


1965






BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


ida today (Hibbard, 1960), and possibly the grouse was unable to
survive the higher temperatures of more recent summers.
The giant tortoise, the armadillo, Dasypus bellus, and certain trop-
ical elements of the avifauna (Protocitta dixi, Cremaster tytthus) in-
dicate that the fossils were deposited during an interglacial period.
All the boreal elements of the avifauna except the Prairie Chicken
are migratory and might be expected as winter visitants to the Florida
peninsula.
Several species, both living and fossil (Coragyps occidentalis, Poly-
borus prelutosus, Pandanaris floridana, Speotyto cunicularia, Aphelo-
coma coerulescens), show affinities to the southwestern portion of
North America. Neill (1957) summarizes several other lines of evi-
dence (fossil mammals, distributions of several recent animals and
plants, pollen profiles) that indicate invasions by western organisms
during the Pleistocene. The affinities of Florida with the west are
apparently of an even earlier origin (Auffenberg, 1957). Long periods
of decreased rainfall supposedly caused eastern extensions of more
xeric plant and animal communities, and several such invasions may
have occurred.

PALEOECOLOGY AS INDICATED BY THE AVIFAUNA
The countryside surrounding Haile XI B today is much modified
by man. Where somewhat natural conditions still prevail, the pre-
dominant habitat is xeric hammock. The fossil avifauna suggests that
several distinct habitat types existed during the Rancholabrean period
that are not present today in the immediate vicinity.
Most of the Recent species suggest the proximity of a lake or pond
with an accompanying marsh and wet meadow. Several others show
that open, fairly dry prairie was also within the range of the preda-
ceous birds that brought their prey to the sink. The Scrub Jay is
restricted to scrub characterized by sand pine (Pinus clausa) and
evergreen shrubs (Laessle, 1942: 27). The remaining species occupy
various types of woodland or mixed habitats.

EVOLUTIONARY ASPECTS
The fossil remains of living species found in the Haile XI B fauna
are, in most cases, identical to recent specimens, indicating either
that the fossils were deposited relatively recently or that bird evolu-
tion has been slow in the late Cenozoic, as stated by Miller (1939).
Three extinct species (Coragyps occidentalis, Colinus suilium, and
Laterallus guti) are here considered directly ancestral to the living


Vol. 10






LIGON: FLORIDA PLEISTOCENE AVIFAUNA


C. atratus, C. virginianus, and L. jamaicensis, respectively. These last
are all somewhat smaller than their Pleistocene predecessors. The
fossil Sparrow Hawks also show some indication of having been slight-
ly larger than Recent F. s. sparverius, but the fossil sample is too
small to determine this with certainty.
Although the percentage of extinction of this avifauna is lower
(16.7%) than those of other Florida late Pleistocene localities, this does
not necessarily mean a more recent date of deposition. The fact that
it has 5 extinct species in common with Arredondo I and II and 10
with Reddick suggests the Haile XI B fauna was deposited at about
the same time.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The interest and guidance shown me throughout the course of
this study by Prof. Pierce Brodkorb of the Department of Zoology
of the University of Florida is greatly appreciated. For technical
advice or comments I also wish to thank H. K. Brooks, C. W. Hib-
bard, and C. E. Ray. For the loan of comparative material I am in-
debted to: Pierce Brodkorb of the University of Florida, Oliver L.
Austin, Jr. of the Florida State Museum, George M. Sutton of the Uni-
versity of Oklahoma Museum of Zoology, Phillip S. Humphrey and
George E. Watson of the United States National Museum.

LITERATURE CITED
Auffenberg, Walter
1954. Additional specimens of Gavialosuchus americanus (Sellards) from a new
locality in Florida. Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 17, no. 4, pp.
185-209.
1955. Glass lizards (Ophisaurus) in the Pleistocene and Pliocene of Florida.
Herpetologica, vol. 11, pp. 133-136.
1956. Additional records of Pleistocene lizards from Florida. Quart. Jour.
Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 19, pp. 157-167.
1956. Remarks on some Miocene anurans from Florida, with a description of a
new species of Hyla. Breviora, No. 52, pp. 1-11.
1957. A new species of Bufo from the Pliocene of Florida. Quart. Jour. Flor-
ida Acad. Sci., vol. 20, pp. 14-20.
1963. The Fossil Snakes of Florida. Tulane Stud. Zool., vol. 10, no. 3, pp.
131-216.
Bader, Robert S.
1957. Two Pleistocene mammalian faunas from Alachua County, Florida.
Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 53-75.
Bent, Arthur C.
1938. Life Histories of North American birds of prey. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus.,
no. 170, pp. i-viii, 1-482.







BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM


Brodkorb, Pierce
1952. A new rail from the Pleistocene of Florida. Wilson Bull., vol. 64, no. 2,
pp. 80-82.
1953. Pleistocene birds from Haile, Florida. Wilson Bull., vol. 65, no. 1,
pp. 49-50.
1954. Another new rail from the Pleistocene of Florida. Condor, vol. 56, no.
2, pp. 103-104.
1957. New passerine birds from the Pleistocene of Reddick, Florida. Jour.
Paleont., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 128-138.
1958. Birds from the middle Pliocene of McKay, Oregon. Condor, vol. 60, no.
4, pp. 252-255.
1959. The Pleistocene avifauna of Arredondo, Florida. Bull. Florida State
Mus., vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 269-291.
1963. Fossil birds from the Alachua clay of Florida. Spec. Publ. Florida Geol.
Surv., no. 2, paper 4, pp. i-ii, 1-17.
Cooke, C. Wythe
1945. Geology of Florida. Florida Geol. Surv., Geol. Bull., vol. 29, pp. i-ix,
1-399.
Goin, Coleman J., and Walter Auffenberg
1955. The fossil salamanders of the family Sirenidae. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.,
vol. 113, no. 7, pp. 497-514.
Gut, H. James
1939. Additions to the recorded Pleistocene mammals from Ocala, Florida.
Proc. Florida Acad. Sci., vol. 3, pp. 54-55.
Hamon, J. Hill
1964. Osteology and paleontology of the passerine birds of the Reddick, Flor-
ida, Pleistocene. Fla. Geol. Surv., Geol. Bull. no. 44, pp. i-vii, 1-210.
Hibbard, Claude W.
1960. An interpretation of Pliocene and Pleistocene climates of North Amer-
ica. 62nd Annual Report of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and
Letters. pp. 5-30.
Hibbard, C. W., D. (sic) E. Ray, D. E. Savage, D. W. Taylor, and J. E. Guilday
1965. Quaternary mammals of North America in The Quaternary of the United
States. pp. 509-525.
Holman, J. Alan
1959. Birds and mammals from the Pleistocene of Williston, Florida. Bull.
Florida State Mus., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-24.
1961. Osteology of living and fossil New World quails. (Aves, Galliformes).
Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 131-233.
Howard, Hildegarde
1929. The avifauna of Emeryville Shellmound. Univ. Cal. Publ. Zool., vol.
32, no. 2, pp. 301-394.


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LIGON: FLORIDA PLEISTOCENE AVIFAUNA


1938. The Rancho La Brea caracara: a new species. Publ. Carnegie Inst.
Washington, no. 487, pp. 217-240.
1946. A review of Pleistocene birds of Fossil Lake, Oregon. Publ. Carnegie
Inst. Washington, no. 551, pp. 141-195.

Johnsgard, Paul A.
1961. Evolutionary relationships among the North American mallards. Auk,
vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 8-43.

Laessle, Albert M.
1942. The plant communities of the Welaka area with special reference to
correlations between soils and vegetational succession. Univ. Florida
Publ., Biol. Sci. Ser., vol. 4, pp. 1-148.

McCoy, John J.
1963. The fossil avifauna of Itchtucknee River, Florida. Auk, vol. 80, no. 3,
pp. 335-351.

Miller, Alden H.
1939. Climatic conditions of the Pleistocene reflected by the ecologic require-
ments of fossil birds. Proc. Sixth Pac. Sci. Cong., 1939, pp. 807-810.

Neill, Wilfred T.
1957. Historical biogeography of present-day Florida. Bull. Florida State
Mus., vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 175-220.

Parmalee, Paul W.
1954. Food of the great horned owl and barn owl in east Texas. Auk, vol. 71,
no. 4, pp. 469-470.

Phillips, Allan R.
1959. The nature of avian species. Jour. Ariz. Acad. Sci., vol. 1, no. 1,
pp. 22-30.

Phillips, Richard S.
1951. Food of the barn owl, Tyto alba pratincola, in Hancock County, Ohio.
Auk, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 239-241.

Short, Lester L.
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Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 129, art. 4, pp. 309-428.

Shufcldt, Robert W.
1913. Review of the fossil fauna of the desert region of Oregon with a descrip-
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vol. 32, pp. 123-178.

Tihcn, J. A.
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158 BULLETIN FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM Vol. 10

Trost, Charles H., and J. Howard Hutchison
1963. Food of the barn owl in Florida. Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., vol.
26, no. 4, pp. 382-384.
Weigel, Robert O.
1962. Fossil vertebrates of Vero, Florida. Spec. Publ. Florida Geol. Surv., no.
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Wetmore, Alexander
1944. Remains of birds from the Rexroad fauna of the upper Pliocene of Kan-
sas. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., vol. 30, pt. 1, no. 9, pp. 88-105.
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1962. Notes on fossil and subfossil birds. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 145,
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Woolfenden, Glen E.
1961. Postcranial osteology of the waterfowl. Bull. Florida State Mus., vol. 6,
no. 1, pp. 1-129.





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