Contribution to the study of the Miocene of the Florida Panhandle (FGS: Bulletin 36)

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Material Information

Title:
Contribution to the study of the Miocene of the Florida Panhandle (FGS: Bulletin 36)
Physical Description:
345 p. : illus., 47 pl., fold. map. ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Puri, Harbans Singh
Publisher:
s.n.
Published for the Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee
Tallahassee
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Paleontology -- Miocene   ( lcsh )
Paleontology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographies.
General Note:
Geological bulletin - Florida Geological Survey ; 36
Statement of Responsibility:
by Harbans S. Puri.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:

The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
ltqf - AAA0822
notis - AKM6058
alephbibnum - 002038271
oclc - 01723465
lccn - a 54009751
System ID:
UF00001499:00001


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Abstract
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Preface
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Table of Contents
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Part I: Stratigraphy
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 16a
        Page 16b
        Page 16c
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        Page 18a
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    Part II: Foraminifera
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
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        Section 87
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    Part III: Ostracoda
        Page 215
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    Back Matter
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    Back Cover
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    Spine
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Full Text
















UNIVERSITY

OF FLORIDA

LIBRARIES


THIS VOLUME HAS BEEN
MICROFILMED BY THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES


I I I I III II I I













STATE OF FLORIDA


STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Charlie Bevis, Supervisor


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Herman Gunter, Director







GEOLOGICAL BULLETIN NO. 36






CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE
MIOCENE OF THE FLORIDA PANHANDLE





HARBANS S. PURI







Published for
THE FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Tallahassee, 1953











FLORIDA STATE BOARD

OF

CONSERVATION


ciAg LBY JOHNS
Acting Governor


R. A. GRAY
Secretary of State



J. EDWIN LARSON
Treasurer


NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture



THOMAS D. BAILEY
Superintendent Public Instructi ,


CLARENCE M. GAY
Comptroller


RICHARD ERVIN
Attorney General


CHARLIE BEVIS
Supervisor of Conservation








LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


glorila ecologicall Survey

Callabassee
October 10, 1953

MR. CHARLIE BEVIS, Supervisor
FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIIA'
SIR:
The sediments of Miocene age exposed in the State of Florida
are the type marine section for all of the Miocene rocks of the south-
eastern United States. These rocks are economically important
throughout much of the Gulf Coast in that they contain oil in the
State of Louisiana, and possibly Mississippi, and considerable quan-
tities of phosphate in Florida. A better understanding of the
Miocene stratigraphy is of tremendous importance in the discovery
of additional reserves of both oil and phosphate.
This report, entitled, "Contribution To The Study Of The
Miocene Of The Florida Panhandle," was prepared bf Dr. Harbans
S. Puri, Micropaleontologist of this department. It is a compre-
hensive report that contributes much new data to the stratigraphy
of the Miocene section. In part, the report is also a partial reprint
of Bulletins 4 and 9, issued by this department in former years,
the editions having been exhausted. We have had numerous requests
for reprinting these bulletins and we are delighted to bring the
nomenclature and taxonomy up to date and to make these papers
available once again.
Dr. Puri has also contributed to the knowledge of the microfauna
of these beds, through the description of a number of species of
ostracods.
Respectfully yours,

HERMAN GUNTER, Director









ABSTRACT


In the standard section of the Miocene of western Florida, there
has been considerable doubt as to the sequence of the various for-
mations. This doubt may be attributed to the scattered nature of
outcrops, the homogeneity of the sediments, and lack of data on
the strike, dip, thickness and structure of these beds. Stratigraphy
was based entirely on supposed faunal evolutions, disregarding bio-
facies, lithotopes and biotopes.

The present study embraces Okaloosa, Walton, Holmes, Wash-
ington, Bay, Jackson, Calhoun, Gulf, Liberty, Franklin, Gadsden,
Leon, and Wakulla counties. Samples from 58 outcrops, 20 auger
holes and two water wells were studied. Stratigraphic sections and
faunas of the Miocene of the Florida panhandle indicate the pres-
ence of a number of lithofacies and biofacies, which are a measure
Of recurrence of similar conditions and are reflected in both the
ithology and fauna. Similar depositional types of equivalent age
;ire considered as stages while the dissimilar components within
he stages are designated as faces. Three stages are recognized,
Tampa, Alum Bluff and Choctawhatchee.

The Tampa Stage includes in part the "lower" Miocene sedi-
:lents in the Florida panhandle and its equivalents in the central
.,nd western Gulf States. The type area is near Tampa Bay and in-
(ludes the famous Ballast Point locality which is now largely cov-
*ered and the Sixmile Creek locality at Orient, Hillsborough County,
Florida. The Stage includes all sediments deposited between post-
Vicksburg and pre-Alum Bluff Ages. In the Florida panhandle,
vo lithofacies are recognized: a calcareous St. Marks facies and
; silty Chattahoochee facies.

The Alum Bluff Stage embraces all sediments of post-Tampa
and pre-Choctawhatchee Age ("middle Miocene") in the Florida
panhandle and their equivalents in the central and western Gulf
States. The type locality consists of exposures at Alum Bluff, Lib-
erty County, Florida. In the Florida panhandle, four lithofacies,
Chipola, Oak Grove, Shoal River and Hawthorn are recognized
within the Alum Bluff Stage.

The Choctawhatchee Stage includes all Miocene sediments of
post-Alum Bluff Age in the Florida panhandle and their equivalents









in the central and western Gulf States. The type locality is
in the vicinity of Red Bay, Walton County, Florida. In the
Florida panhandle, four faunal facies, Yoldia, Area, Ecphora and
Cancellaria are recognized within the Stage.

The lithofacies recognized here have previously been considered
to be formations while the faunal facies have been considered to be
zones. In both instances, however, faunas basically determine the
age equivalents of the sediments.









PREFACE


The Miocene rocks of the Florida Panhandle are the type marine
section of the Gulf and southeastern United States and the present
study of these sediments was logically sponsored by the Florida
Geological Survey. The major portion of the work was done at
the School of Geology, Louisiana State University, under the
supervision of Doctor Henry V. Howe, Director, School of Geology,
Louisiana State University. A portion of Part I was submitted
to the graduate faculty of L.S.U. in partial fulfillment of the re-
quirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in June, 1953.

This study was initiated toward the end of 1949, when the
writer took the task of a detailed study of the ostracode fauna of
the Miocene of the Florida Panhandle. Several taxonomic and
nomenclatural problems were encountered during this study and
the writer tried to unravel some of them (Puri, 1952a, 1952b, 1953a,
1953b, 1953c). When the ostracode faunal studies were finally
completed in the middle of 1950, it was realized that the faunas
did not agree with the standard stratigraphic section set up by
Gardner (1926), Mansfield and Ponton (1932), Cushman and Pon-
ton (1932), and Smith (1941). A different, but more logical in-
terpretation, was offered by Vernon (1942), who, after a detailed
study of the sections in Washington and Holmes counties, came to
the conclusion that the Shoal River formation was possibly the
updip facies of the Chipola formation, and that the Ecphora and
Cancellaria facies were definitely the updip facies of the Area and
Yoldia faces. This radically different interpretation was based
on the fact that nowhere in Washington and Holmes counties was
the Shoal River formation known to overlie the Chipola formation
nor were the Ecphora and Cancellaria facies known to overlie the
Arca facies (Vernon, 1942). Vernon (1942, p. 75), thus sum-
marized the situation:

"Whether the Alum Bluff sediments constitute a single mappable forma-
tion in the area considered in this report (Washington and Holmes counties)
and a group consisting of three formations elsewhere must await detailed
mapping in Walton and Okaloosa counties."

The whole problem was discussed with Dr. Robert 0. Vernon,
in the fall of 1950, and it was suggested that the study be expanded
and the problem be approached on a regional basis and attacked
not only faunistically but also ecologically and structurally. Such









a study included the examination of foraminiferal assemblages
to strengthen the evidence furnished by Ostracoda in the interpreta-
tion of ecologic history. Several auger holes were drilled in Wash-
ington County to prove definitely the stratigraphic relationship of
the various formations of the standard Miocene section. Further
evidence was obtained from two water well sections in the area.
The present report, which is bio-stratigraphic, is the result of such
an expansion.

The writer is grateful to Drs. Henry V. Howe, Robert 0. Vernon,
Herman Gunter and Grover E. Murray for their help and criti-
cism. Most of the work was completed at the Louisiana State
University and the final manuscript was assembled at the Florida
Geological Survey office. Mr. Andrew R. Janson and Miss Dogryand
P. Janson assisted in the preparation of illustrations that accom-
pany this report. Mrs. Mary Blount's and Miss Martha A. Walker's
assistance in assembling the final manuscript is greatly appre-
ciated.

All types are catalogued in the Henry V. Howe Collection,
Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana; slide numbers
referred to in this report are as catalogued in the Henry V. Howe
Collection. A duplicate set of types is deposited in the Florida
Geological Survey Museum.






























TABLE OF CONTENTS

Letter of Transmittal .. ... .----------.......- ..-......... ...---------. 3

Abstract ----.. ---. ------ -------- 5

Preface .-----..-..... . .....------------------------------------- 7


Contribution to the Study of the Miocene of the Florida Panhandle

Part I Stratigraphy 11

Part II Foraminifera --_.....---------------- 69

Part III Ostracoda ---------------- -------- 215























Part I


CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE
MIOCENE OF THE FLORIDA PANHANDLE



STRATIGRAPHY













PART I



TABLE OF CONTENTS



Introduction ._............-.-..----------------------..--.--- 15
Miocene Series -. -------------- --- 1... .17
Tampa Stage -----.--------------- ..-----.. ------ 17
Chattahoochee Facies ...-- ------ ------ ---------- 17
St. Marks Facies --------------------- ------ -..-------- 20
Alum Bluff Stage .----.--.-..-..---------------------- 21
Chipola Facies .--------_ ------------- 22
Shoal River Facies --24
Oak Grove Facies ----- .-----.....-------- --- ------- 26
Choctawhatchee Stage ....... ---------27
Yoldia Facies ----. ---..--------..-.. 29
Arca Facies ----- -----------. ----30
Ecphora Facies ---------------- 33
Cancellaria Facies ..--..-- ---.......------------------------------- 35
History of Disposition -.. -----....--- ....--..------------------------ 36
Facies ----........... ------------------ 37
Tampa Stage --------------_----------- ----------38
Alum Bluff Stage ----.-.---------38
Hawthorn Facies ---............ .....--------------------- 39
Chipola Facies ........ .......---------- -----------.........--------- 39
Shoal River Facies ------ ._ ---.---- 40
Oak Grove Facies ---------------- --- -------------- 40
Choctawhatchee Stage --.. ---------- ----- --40
Yoldia Facies ------------- 40
Arca Facies .....----------------------------- 40
Ecphora Facies .... ------- ------. ---- 40
Cancellaria Facies .--..---- -------- ---------- 40
Ecology --...-.......... ...-..... ...... .. ........-------.-. ....----------------- 41
Environmental Factors ----------- ----.-...----------- 41
The Paleoecology of the Florida Miocene --..------------------45
Tampa Stage .-_------ .-- --- -------..-- -.. ... 45
Alum Bluff Stage .......--------- ---------------------------.- -.-------- .45
Hawthorn Facies -------- ------- -..-------- ------------45
Chipola Facies ------- ------------ 45
Shoal River Facies --- --.. ---....-....-..---.-- --- -------47
Oak Grove Facies ...--------- ------. 48
Choctawhatchee Stage ....----------------------- -------- 48
Yoldia Facies ..............------ ...-------- ------ 48
Arca Facies .-- --- -----------...... 49
Ecphora Facies --- .. ---------------------- 49
Cancellaria Facies ---- .......-..- 52
Correlation with the Central and Western Gulf States -- 52
Tampa Stage ---....-.......-....-.....----------.-------. 52
Chickasawhay limestone and Paynes Hammock Sand --------- 52
Catahoula Sand .-...-----.... -----------------.......... 53
Anahauc formation ............___ ------------------ 53
The Discorbis, Heterostegina and Marginulina faunizones 54

13









Marginulina faunizone species ...-
Heterostegina faunizone species ---
Discorbis faunizone species ......------ --
Alum Bluff Stage. --..---......-......
Marine faunizones ----------
Uvigerina lirettensis faunizone .....----.
The Harang fauna .-.. .--..... --------- -......-...-..--
Brackish faunizones-- ----- ----------
Potamides matsoni faunizone .......-...-----.. --- ......
Foraminifera ----
Ostracoda ...-- ...--...- -- .....-.. .......- ----
Choctawhatchee Stage -- --- ..... ---------
Rangia johnsoni-Miorangia microjohnsoni faunizone -......--
Foraminifera ....--.....------------
Ostracoda .......... ------... ----- ---


Localities ----- -----...-
Outcrop Samples _..... ... .........-
Alum Bluff Stage .-...-.... ....-
Choctawhatchee Stage ........
Auger Hole Sections -------.-..-....
Well Sections ...---- ....--

Bibliography ._....-- ..-- ......-- ....- ... ..-- .


58
.--- ------..-- ----- 58
..-. .......-- .......................5--------- 58
----...------ 58
.....--.------- ... 59
---....---....... ------ 60
---.....--....--- 61

.-..-- --- ....... 62


ILLUSTRATIONS


Figures P
1 Locality map of portion of the Florida Panhandle together
with lines of section -- --------......-..... -----
2 Diagrammatic Stratigraphic Section along A A' showing
suggested Facies Terminology ..--- --.... ------......-.
3 Stratigraphic Sections AA', BB', and CC' _------ -
4 Classification of Marine Environments -----.-.-_ ...----..
5 Dominant and diagnostic assemblages of the Tampa Stage -..-
6 Dominant and diagnostic assemblages of the Alum Bluff Stage
7 Dominant and diagnostic assemblages of the Choctawhatchee
Stage ....---------....------------ ..- ..........-....-....


Tables
1 Correlation of Miocene Section of the Florida Panhandle with
the Section used in this Article ..................... --- ..-..-..-- --
2 Faunizones in the Subsurface Equivalents of the Catahoula
(Frio and Anahuac) -------------------

3 Correlation of Miocene Section of the Florida Panhandle with
the Western and Central Gulf States ------- ------.........


54
54
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
57
57
57
57
57
57


age

16

18
18
42
44
46

50





16

53


56









Part I


STRATIGRAPHY


INTRODUCTION

The Miocene rocks of Florida have been studied by several
noted geologists. Earlier work of most pioneer geologists was ex-
ploratory; some of them considered these rocks to be of upper
Eocene (Conrad, 1846a, pp. 36-48; 1846b, pp. 399-400; Tuomey,
1851, pp. 390-4) or Oligocene age (Heilprin, 1884, pp. 115-154;
1887). Their age determinations were based on erroneously iden-
tified fossils. Very little was known in regard to stratigraphy
which was almost entirely based on paleontology. This was due
in part to the rarity and scattered nature of outcrops of
the Miocene and in part to the homogeneous nature of the
sediments which made it difficult to identify them without the use
of fossils. Very little was known about the thickness of these beds,
their structure, strike and dip. Little effort was made to differen-
tiate the various lithofacies, biofacies, lithotopes, and biotopes. That
the stratigraphy was based entirely on faunal evolution is ably
summarized by Gardner (1926, p. 1) in her studies of the mol-
luscan fauna of the Alum Bluff group:

"The detailed study of the stratigraphy will follow the systematic treat-
ment of the fauna, for the stratigraphy is in large measure deduced from
the fauna."

No effort was then made to differentiate between rock, time
and time-rock units. Most of the famous Miocene localities were
described by Julia Gardner (1926), W. C. Mansfield (1937) and
J. A. Cushman and G. M. Ponton (1932) and a "standard" section
was set up by them for the middle Miocene of North America. Later
work has been based mostly on this assumed section.
The writer makes no pretense of presenting a complete survey
of the Miocene stratigraphic nomenclature. Notes on stratigraphic
terminology are added wherever pertinent and the type localities
of the stratigraphic units are given. Table 1 shows the correlation
of the "standard" section used by Cushman and Ponton (1932),
Smith (1941), Vernon (1942) and Cooke (1945) with the section
used in this article.















CUSHMAN AND PONTON, 1932 SMITH, 1941 VERNON, 1942 COOKE, 1945 PRESENT INTERPRETATION
SECTION USED IN THIS ARTICLE

Liltho- and Founal Factel
SERIES STAGE GROUP FOR- FAUNIZONES STAGE GROUP MF ON FAUNIZONES GROUP FAUNIZONES GROUP MO FAUNIZONES GROUP FOR- (Lut coincide ath ormaonol and to
MATRON MOTION MATON TON MOTION S n/one]
UPDIP DOWNOIP
oa CGne/lorno ao Cancel/oro Arco r z Concesorto

W aW r Ephor,.
a. J W
Ecphoro X Ecphoro a nd Ephor, CHC T AW HATCH EE "
zone zone od one

SYold
Ar Permenteres x Arc o


S0 Arco 0
0 0 zone 0o fc,..
SYold x Yod old, Ecphoro
0 --------- Q -- IK / w lftonensis
Mone od oo zYone o



Sm ofa Sp ences -
d form -J
T> Crdansitin


Sed Z BUFFh._ad
Type Shoo one
o zn Mad/t an Riner t _rozkn
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'0 Focie d 0




0o n Oak Grove Td TMPA STAGE









n-tenetone Limestone Tampa T emestone Chottaboochee S Mork
S0 Oak Grove

al CGhanpolta re Cholo ".Plo0.fir
AJ A


0 Tampa 0 TampaTampa
.."tmoe .. Lames/nan Tampa unmeslon Ghottohoochee St Marki

Table I
Correlation of Miocene Section of the Florida Panhandle with the
Section used in this Article




-m


Bulletin 36, Figure 1


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CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


A list of localities from which the samples were collected is
given beginning on page 58, and their locations together with lines
of sections appear on figure 1.


MIOCENE SERIES

TAMPA STAGE

The Tampa Stage includes all Miocene sediments lying between
the Oligocene Series and the Alum Bluff Stage as defined in this
paper. This definition includes such sediments exposed in the
Florida panhandle and their equivalents in the Central and West-
ern Gulf States. The type area is near Tampa Bay, the famous
Ballast Point locality which is now largely covered, and on Sixmile
Creek at Orient, Hillsborough County, Florida. The Stage in-
cludes all sediments deposited between post-Vicksburg (Nodosaria
blanpiedi zone of the Chickasawhay limestone) and pre-Alum Bluff
Ages. In the Florida panhandle, two lithofacies are recognized: a
calcareous St. Marks facies downdip and a silty Chattahoochee
facies updip, see figure 2.
The name Tampa was first used by Johnson (1888). Dall (1892)
used the term Tampa limestone and also Tampa beds. Matson and
Clapp (1909) used the name Tampa formation and also recognized
that it was contemporaneous with the Chattahoochee formation.
Cooke and Mossom (1929, pp. 78-79) changed it to Tampa limestone
because the formation is chiefly limestone and redefined it to include
in it the Chattahoochee formation. Vernon (1942) revived the
original term, Tampa formation, to include "all sediments lying
above the Suwannee limestone and below the Alum Bluff group."
Lithologically, the Tampa consists of sands, silts, marls, subordinate
limestone, and fullers earth downdip. The limestones are restricted
to the lower part only.
The fossils described from the Tampa are principally Mollusca
(Dall, 1890, 1915; Mansfield, 1937). The Foraminifera and Ostra-
coda fauna of the Tampa is meager and is largely undescribed.
Archaias floridanus is the commonest species reported from the
surface exposure.

Chattahoochee Facies

The name Chattahoochee (type locality, Chattahoochee Landing
on the Apalachicola River, Gadsden County, Florida) was first in-











I E


Figure 2
Dlagrallmatic btratigrapiic SecLion along A-A' showing suggested
Facies Terminology.


..w.









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t
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Alum Bluff Locality 45


F a c i e s


'227 Pr1 pleiStoc ene Ag e
227 PlO- Pleistc e ne Age Jackson Bluff Localities 41-44
1 AIIIA -I2

C-n.9qe r FaCieS F- c cpor a Fa c ie sw, Cancellaria Focies
Sh i p o a F a cies Hawthorn Facies


Stratigraphic Section AA'

SCALE
4 0 4 8 12 16 20 MI


I '
0
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eF c
Fo cies


Stratigraphic Section BB'
scale IMILE
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ochee412'


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75'
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INDEX MAP


Jf483'
). 524'


AS-233


AS-232


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CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


produced by Langdon (1889, pp. 322-324) as a group. Langdon
(1891a, pp. 90-97; 1891b, pp. 605-606) later changed it to "Chat-
tahoochee series" and "Chattahoochee limestone." Foerste (1894,
pp. 41-58) used the term, "Chattahoochee bed proper." Matson and
Clapp (1909, pp. 74-84) referred to it as a formation. Cooke and
Mossom (1929) abandoned the term Chattahoochee formation be-
cause it seemed to be the same age as the Tampa. The fossiliferous
portions of the Chattahoochee limestone equal the Tampa accord-
ing to Mansfield (1937) and Cooke (1945). The limestone is very
clayey and silty and on many exposures the formation will not
effervesce and appears to be 1' 'gely white silt, but it is fossiliferous
and contains several mollust casts. Farther west this facies is
predominately silty although I the vicinity of type locality several
limestor" beds are quite comn on. The section at Chattahoochee is
describe I as lower Miocene i the Third Field Trip of the South-
eastern Geological Society 1945). The term Chattahoochee is
revived in this report to include the updip silty and clayey facies
of the Tampa Stage.
The following section, located in the Southwest quarter of
Section 29, Township 4 No th, Range 6 West, on access road to
(like of the Jim Woodruff Dai directly below U. S. Engineers Office,
on east side of Apalachicola River, was measured on February 27,
1953, by Vernon, Hendry, r ,ri, Winters and Yon. (Bed measured
:'n west and north side of re ut).

Bed Feet
Alum Bluff Stage-Hawthorn fa.ies (?)
21 Quartz sand; red, yellow an white, fine to coarse-grained, graded
bedding. Contains more quartz gravel at the base than at the top.
Top 1 by about five feet cf deep-red soil profile which contains
lim .tic polished sandy nodules .. ... . . ...... --------. 16
20 Quartz sand; mottled, light-I ay, purple and yellow, fine to medium
graihed, very argillaceous .-- --..---------- 6.5
19 Cove- id -. ---------- --..---------------....~.-........---- 29
Alum B Stage-Hawthorn : ;cies
18 M.au1, variegated, cream a 1 light-gray, contains fine-grained
qua' .. sand, abundant Pect i and oyster shells within the bed .----- 1 +
11 Qua.?;z sand; tan to light bi ownish-gray, medium to fine-grained
arg -iceous and becomes more argillaceous towards the top - 8.1
16 Cla' dark greenish-gray, blocky, silty, and contains fine-grained
(qua- z sand ----........---------------.... ..--..------------ 3
15 Silihtone; light greenish-gray, which contains bright, waxy,
clay nodules and hard, brown, crystalline, dolomitic limestone.
Oyster reef development within the bed ------------------..--------- 4 5
Section discontinuous-Beds 14 to 1 measured about forty yards
to the west.










20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

Tampa Stage-Chattahoochee facies
14 Limestone; tan, dolomitic, hard, cryptocrystalline, thinly-bedded,
pasty ...--..-. .._----- .._. ....-....-... .--- _._..- ....------.....-..------......
13 Limestone; thinly-bedded and interbedded with green, calcareous,
silty clay -.-..- . ....._-....... - ---------...... ..............-------- .5
12 Limestone; light brownish-gray to cream, dolomitic, soft, tough,
blocky, and contains quartz sand __________.------------........- 1.5
11 Limestone; rubble of white, dolomitic, hard, pasty, irregular
lenses of fossils within the bed. Top of bed has irregular surface
along which light-green, crystalline calcite has been developed'1 ---- 2.3
10 Limestone; light brownish-gray to cream, dolomitic, soft, tough,
blocky, and contains quartz sand ....--..-..--------------------.-..-- 4.5
9 Limestone; rubble of white, hard, pasty, irregular lenses of
fossils within the bed. Top of bed has irregular surface along
which light-green crystalline calcite has been developed. Bed lies
irregularly upon Bed 8 ---...--....---------------- ------------- 2.5
8 Limestone; light-cream to white, soft, tough, pasty, and contains
quartz sands; within the bed are irregular tunnels filled with cal-
careous, harder, green sand and clay. Contains irregular lenses
and nodules of the above sand and clay. Lenses and nodules of
crystalline calcite are present. Occurring at the top of the bed
is a layer of medium-gray crystalline calcite about eight inches
thick. The gastropod Ampulella is found within the bed ---... --- 4.2
7 Limestone; rubble of white, dolomitic, hard, pasty, slightly fos-
siliferous, somewhat nodular, intermixed with sand and nodules of
limestone --..... ____ .------ .....__.....---------------_.. .................... 2.
6 Limestone; white, pasty, silty, blocky, weathers spherical. Top
four inches harder _....---------------------------- --...... 2
5 Clay; light greenish-gray, contains thin seams and partings of
sand and silt. Also contains limestone nodules appearing to be
fossiliferous .--..- -__.... .. .---.... -------------- __........-... ... .-
4 Limestone; very light brownish-gray, dolomitic, hard and tough
where exposed. Contains numerous mollusk molds. Last two and
one-half feet contain greenish-gray silt and light-green clay
nodules which are fossiliferous. Weathers slightly harder than
Bed 3. ............------------------- ... ..---------- ..-.. -.--.......__---_________.. ....-- 8.
3 Limestone; cream to white, soft, pasty, contains quartz sand.
Numerous molds of Turritella spp., and other mollusks, Sorites
sp., and Archaias sp., are present in the bed. Blebs of green
clay are disseminated throughout --------------.-....----- .......--- 2
2 Limestone; white to cream, dolomitic, pasty --..........-------- ......-
1 Clay; light brownish-gray, silty, calcareous. Blebs of green clay
disseminated throughout. Gradually becomes more calcareous and
approaches a hard white marl near the top ---.............------------------ 13.
Total Thickness --------.------ ---- -- -- 9....... 119.
St. Marks facies

The name St. Marks limestone (type locality, Wakulla Count>,
Florida) was originally used by Finch (1823, pp. 31-43) in de-
scribing the occurrence of large oysters. Wakulla County is the
best area to study the Mollusca of the St. Marks limestone. Mans-
field (1937) considered the molluscan fauna to be that of the latest
fauna of the Tampa formation. The name St. Marks is here re-
vived to include the calcareous downdip facies of the Tampa.

'NOTE: This rubble bed may represent a continental phase of
the Alum Bluff Stage (Chipola faces)









CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


The St. Marks faces near Tampa consists of a basal light-gray
to yellow limestone, of which "Silex bed" is a part. The upper
portion consists of greenish clay with calcareous nodules. Matson
and Clapp (1909, p. 89) estimate its thickness in the subsurface to
be 65 feet.

ALUM BLUFF STAGE

The Alum Bluff Stage embraces all sediments of post-Tampa
and pre-Choctawhatchee Age, the "middle" Miocene of most au-
thors, in the Florida panhandle and their equivalents in the Central
and Western Gulf States. The type locality is the section exposed
below the Ecphora zone of the Choctawhatchee Stage at Alum Bluff,
Liberty County, Florida. In the Florida panhandle, four lithofacies,
Chipola, Oak Grove, Shoal River and Hawthorn are recognized, see
figure 2.
The name Alum Bluff group was used by Dall (1892, p. 112)
tor the unfossiliferous sand and clay strata intervening between
the Chipola and the upper fossiliferous beds (Ecphora faunizone)
at Alum Bluff on the east bank of the Apalachicola River, about
four miles north of Bristol, Liberty County, Florida. Matson and
Clapp (1909, pp. 91, 92) used the term Alum Bluff as a formation
:ind extended it downwards to include as members the Chipola
marl, the Oak Grove sand and the Shoal River marl. They also
included in the Alum Bluff, tentatively as members, the Sopchoppy
limestone of Dall, "limestone and marl on the Manatee River, near
Ellenton," and the fullers earth and related deposits of northern
Florida. Vaughan and Cooke (1914, pp. 250-253) pointed out that
these deposits were equivalents of Dall's (1892, p. 107) Hawthorn
beds and proposed to abandon the term Hawthorn formation as
used by Matson and Clapp. Gardner (1926, p. 1) reinstated the
group when she raised the Alum Bluff formation to group rank
on the assumption that the faunal differences between the three
members of the Alum Bluff (Chipola, Oak Grove, and Shoal River)
were too great to justify their inclusion in a single formation.
Cooke and Mossom (1929, pp. 98, 115, 116) revived the name Haw-
thorn formation for beds equivalent in age to the Alum Bluff group
but represented by a different facies east of the Apalachicola River
and in peninsular Florida. Cooke (1945, pp. 35, 137) divided the
Alum Bluff group into two formations: a lower one, the Chipola or
Hawthorn formation, and an upper one, the Shoal River formation,
and dropped the term Oak Grove formation of Gardner (1926, p.









22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

1). The Shoal River formation, as extended by Cooke, included four
faunizones: Cardium taphrium faunizone (Oak Grove formation
of Gardner), Glycymeris zoaltonensis faunizone (Shoal River for-
mation of Gardner), Yoldia waltonensis faunizone (basal Choctaw-
hatchee or Yoldia faunizone of Mansfield) and Area rubisiniana
faunizone (typical Choctawhatchee 'or Area faunizone of Matson
and Clapp). Based on work by Mansfield (1932), Cooke (1945,
p. 168) implied that the Yoldia and Area faunizones of the Choctaw-
hatchee formation were grouped in the Shoal River formation be-
cause of the similarity of fauna. Although the Area faunizone
does show some apparent resemblance to the Shoal River fauna
from which its species were evolved, the present study indicates
that this similarity is not strong enough to justify the inclusion of
the Area zone in the Shoal River formation. The species of the
Arca faunizone show a closer similarity to the species of the Ec-
phora and Cancellaria faunizones. Out of a total of 142 species
of Ostracoda occurring in the Miocene of the Florida panhandle,
there are thirteen species that are confined to the Area faunizone:
twenty-two species that are confined to the Ecphora and Cancel-
laria faunizones. There are only twelve species that occur in the
Area faunizone and the underlying beds, including the Chipola.
On the other hand there are twenty-three species that are confined
to the Yoldia-Arca faunizones and the Ecphora-Cancellaria fauni-
zones. In other words, there are almost twice as many species con-
fined to the Yoldia-Arca faunizones and the. Ecphora-Cancellaria
faunizones as those confined to the Yoldia-Arca faunizones and
the rest of the Alum Bluff stage. It is clear from the fauna that
the Yoldia-Arca faunizones are more closely allied with the Ecphora-
Cancellaria faunizones than they are with the Alum Bluff. This
is further amplified by the fact that Yoldia, Area, Ecphora and
Cancellaria faunizones really are faunal facies within the Choctaw-
hatchee Stage (figs. 2 and 3). Their supposed superposition occurs
only between the Ecphora and the Cancellaria and such a relation-
ship is known to exist only at Jackson Bluff. Therefore, the in-
clusion of the Yoldia and the Area faunizones in the Shoal River
formation is no longer justified. Furthermore, a perfectly valid
term, the Choctawhatchee formation (Matson and Clapp, 1909,
p. 114) typified by the Area faunizone, is available for their re-
ception.
Chipola facies

The name Chipola formation was suggested by Burns (Dall,









CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


1892, p. 122) for a shell bed exposed on the Chipola River below
Bailey's Ferry and at Alum Bluff on the Apalachicola River. Dall
and Stanley-Brown (1894, pp. 140-170) called these sediments the
Chipola marl. Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 91) included these beds
in their Alum Bluff formation as a member which was later raised
to a formation by Gardner (1926, p. 1).
The Chipola facies at its type locality is blue-gray to yellowish-
brown, highly fossiliferous marl studded with molluscan shells.
About 28 feet of the Chipola is exposed at Tenmile Creek (locality
12). This marly facies is restricted to the vicinity of the Chipola
and the Apalachicola rivers. Farther west, Cooke (1945, p. 161)
recognized two facies: a sandy limestone which for the most part
is buried; and a light-colored, coarse, sandy facies that includes
lenses of clay.
As observed by Cooke (1945, p. 164), the Chipola facies at
Alum Bluff consists of a lower four feet of yellowish calcareous
clay with some fine quartz and an upper sixteen feet of cream
to gray, tough, calcareous sand with some Mollusca. These thick-
nesses check with the measured section of this report; but the upper
sixteen feet of these sediments are here included in the Hawthorn
facies. The Chipola sediments at Alum Bluff are less calcareous
than those at its type locality, where they are at least ten feet thick.
The following foraminiferal species have been found in the
Chipola facies:

Clavulina tricarinata d'Orbigny
Quinqueloculina candeiana d'Orbigny
Q. chipolensis Cushman and Ponton
Q. crassa d'Orbigny var.
Massilina inaequalis Cushman
M. bosciana (d'Orbigny)
M. quadrans Cushman and Ponton
M. incisa Cushman and Ponton
M. spinata Cushman and Ponton
M. spinata chipolensis Cushman and Ponton
M. spinata glabrata Cushman and Ponton
Spiroloculina grateloupi d'Orbigny
Hauerina mniocenica Cushman
Articulina sagra miocenica Cushman and Ponton
A. mayor Cushman
Triloculina trigonula (Lamarck)
T. oblonga (Montagu)
T. gracilis d'Orbigny
7'. quadrilateralis d'Orbigny
T. quadrilateralis longicostata Cushman and Ponton
T. brongniartii d'Orbigny
Pyrgo denticulata (Brady)
Articulina advena (Cushman)
A. multilocularis (Brady, Parker and Jones)
Denticulina sp.
Sigmomorphina undulosa (Terquem)










24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

Elphidium chipolensis (Cushman)
Puteolina proteus (d'Orbigny)
Peneroplis bradyi Cushman
Sorites sp.
Discorbis candeiana bullata Cushman and Ponton
D. n. sp. 1
Eponides repandus (Fichtel and Moll)
Asterigerina carinata d'Orbigny
Amphistegina chipolensis Cushman and Ponton
Cassidulina chipolensis Cushman and Ponton
Cibicides lobatulus (Walker and Jacob)
C. refulgens (Montfort)
Cibicidella variabilis (d'Orbigny)
Annulocibicides projects Cushman and Ponton
Acervulina chipolensis Cushman and Ponton
Gypsina vesicularis Parker and Jones
Archaias sp.
Baggina n. sp. 1
Bigenerina sp.
Bolivina n. sp. 2
Buliminella n. sp. 1
Nonion advenum (Cushman)
Globulina rotundata (Bornemann)
Guttulina caudata d'Orbigny
Guttulina irregularis (d'Orbigny)
G. lactea (Walker and Jacob)
Virgulina n. sp. 1

The following species of Ostracoda are known to date only
from the Chipola formation :2

Bythocypris minute Puri, n.sp.
Caudites chipolensis Puri
Cytherella chipolensis Puri, n.sp.
Cytheretta calhounensis Smith
Haplocytheridea chipolensis (Stephenson)
H. gardnerae (Stephenson)
H. mariannensis (Stephenson)
Anomocytheridea floridana (Howe and Hough)
Cytherelloidea vernoni Sexton
C. umbonata Edwards
Hermania reticulata Puri, n.sp.
Kangarina chipolensis Puri, n.sp.
Krithe cf. K. reniformis (Brady)
Loxoconcha anderseni Puri, n.sp.
L. chipolensis Puri, n.sp.
Microcythere johnsoni Mincher
M. striata Puri, n.sp.
Paracypris chipolensis Puri, n.sp.
Paracytheridea chipolensis Stephenson
Procythereis calhounensis (Smith)

Shoal River facies

The name Shoal River marl was proposed by Matson and
Clapp (1909, p. 104) for beds overlying Oak Grove sand and form-
ing the upper member of their Alum Bluff formation. This interval
2The ostracode fauna of the Miocene of West Florida has been described
by the writer and appears as Part III of this bulletin.









CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


was later raised to formation rank by Gardner (1926, p. 1). Cooke
(1945, p. 168) extended the term Shoal River formation to include
four members: Oak Grove formation of Gardner (Cooke's Cardium
taphrium faunizone), Shoal River formation of Gardner (Cooke's
Glycymeris waltonensis faunizone), Yoldia faunizone (basal Choc-
tawhatchee of Mansfield), Area faunizone (typical Choctawhatchee
of Matson and Clapp). The term Shoal River is used here in its
originally implied sense, as used by Matson and Clapp and Gardner,
except that it is considered to be a facies within the Alum Bluff
Stage.
The Shoal River facies consist predominantly of micaceous
sand and clay. The following section is exposed at Spence farm,
locality No. 22:
Choctawhatchee Stage, Yoldia faces
Gray, micaceous, sandy clay with abundant Yoldia (junction
apparently conformable) _- .-------- 8 feet
Alum Bluff Stage, Shoal River facies
Gray, micaceous, sandy clay and sand with abundant
Mollusca but no Yoldia .. .-. _--------_ 4 feet

The type locality of the Shoal River facies is the shell bed ex-
posed on the right bank of the Shoal River, five miles north of
Mossy Head, Walton County. About ten feet of greenish-gray,
very argillaceous shell marl is exposed. The lower portion of the
section is covered by debris and could not be seen. An auger hole
(AS-232) was drilled on Shell Bluff to ascertain the exact thickness
of the Shoal River facies at the type locality. The auger penetrated
the Shoal River at fourteen feet and was still in the Shoal River
facies when it was completed at 100 feet. The following is the
detailed log:

Plio-Pleistocene Feet
Coarse brown sand 0-5
Coarse orange to reddish sand with pea size
gravel pebbles 5-10
Coarse orange sand with pebble conglomerate 10-14
Alum Bluff Stage-Shoal River facies
Yellowish-brown plastic clay 14-20
Same as above 20-25
Yellowish green plastic clay 25-30
Same 30-35
Same 35-40
Same 40-45
Same 45-50
Same 50-55
Same 55-60
Greenish-gray very argillaceous shell marl 60-65
Greenish-gray shell marl and sand 65-70
Greenish-gray argillaceous shell marl 70-100









26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

A minimum of 86 feet of the Shoal River faces is present in
the vicinity of the type locality. Further well studies may establish
its exact thickness.
The microfauna of the Shoal River facies is distinct and shows
definite relationship with both the Oak Grove and the Chipola facies.
Most of the species that are common in the Shoal River facies, the
Chipola facies and the Yoldia faunizone of the Choctawhatchee
formation are long-range forms. Some of them also occur in the
Arca faunizone or even range throughout the Miocene.
The following foraminiferal species have been found only in
the Shoal River:

Textularia warren Cushman and Ellisor
Marginulina glabra d'Orbigny
Bulimina elongata d'Orbigny
Bolivina robusta Brady
Lamarckina atlantica Cushman
Siphonina jacksonensis limbosa Cushman
Nodosaria longiscata d'Orbigny

The following ostracode species has been found only in the Shoal
River formation:
"Cythereis" sp.

Oak Grove facies
The name Oak Grove sand was first used by Dall and Stanley-
Brown (1894, p. 166) for beds at Oak Grove on the Yellow River,
Okaloosa County, Florida. Later Gardner (1926, p. 1) raised this
unit to a formation. Cooke (1945, p. 167) reduced the rank of Oak
Grove again by including it in the Shoal River formation as its
lower member on the assumption that there are greater faunal
similarities between the Oak Grove and the Shoal River than has
hitherto been realized, and because the known area of the Oak
Grove sand is limited to the vicinity of its type locality. Since Oak
Grove sand represents only a localized basal portion of the Shoal
River facies, the writer has followed Cooke's usage of the term Oak
Grove as a basal portion of the Shoal River facies.
The type locality of the Oak Grove facies is the abandoned site
of an old saw mill near Oak Grove on the right bank of the Yellow
River about 100 yards below the bridge on the Laurel Hill-Oak
Grove road. Most of this locality is covered with saw dust and is
now nowhere accessible. An auger hole (AS-233) was drilled on
this site to obtain some type material and also to ascertain the
exact thickness of the Oak Grove facies. The deposits referred to









CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


this facies by earlier workers have only been a few feet. It is
therefore, interesting to note that the auger hole penetrated the
Oak Grove facies at ten feet and the bit was still in the Oak Grove
facies when the auger hole was completed at seventy-five feet. This
would give the Oak Grove facies a minimum thickness of sixty-five
feet. The following is the detailed log of AS-233:

Plio-Pleistocene Feet
Brown sand (1 foot) ; greenish-gray clay (3 feet);
white sand (1 foot) 0-5
Coarse white sand 5-10
Alum Bluff Stage-Oak Grove facies
Medium-grained, greenish-gray, argillaceous sand 10-15
Same 15-75

The following foraminiferal species are known to occur only
in the Oak Grove facies:

Asterigerina miocenica Cushman and Ponton

The following ostracode species have been found only in the
Oak Grove facies:

Haplocytheridea okaloosensis (Stephenson)
Cytheretta gardneri Smith

The following species are common in the Chipola facies and
the Oak Grove facies:

Quinqueloculina crassa d'Orbigny var.
Sigmomorphina pearceyi Cushman and Ozawa
Bolivina plicatella mera Cushman and Ponton
Amphistegina floridana Cushman and Ponton
Cycloloculina miocenica Cushman and Ponton

The following species are common to the Oak Grove facies and
the Shoal River facies:

Bigenerina floridana Cushman and Ponton
Cytheromorpha dalli (Howe and Brown)
Paracytheridea shoalriverensis Puri, n.sp.


CHOCTAWHATCHEE STAGE

The Choctawhatchee Stage includes all Miocene sediments of
post-Alum Bluff Age in the Florida panhandle and their equivalents
in the Central and Western Gulf States. In the Florida panhandle,
four biofacies, Yoldia, Arca, Ecphora and Cancellaria are recog-









28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

nized, see figures 2 and 3. These biofacies are considered to be
faunizones within the Choctawhatchee formation. Type exposures
of the Choctawhatchee formation are here designated as the type
of the Stage.
The name Choctawhatchee marl was first used by Matson and
Clapp (1909, p. 114) for the Miocene beds at John Anderson's
farm, three-quarters of a mile east of Red Bay, Walton County,
Florida, the upper shell bed at Alum Bluff and for similar deposits
elsewhere. Choctawhatchee marl, as defined by Matson and Clapp,
included the "Ecphora bed" and aluminouss clay" of Dall (Dall
and Stanley-Brown, 1894, pp. 168-169). Mansfield (1916, pp. 599-
607) described the outcrop at Red Bay and listed and described its
molluscan fauna. Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 138) referred to
the unit as a formation rather than a "marl" because the marl
beds constitute only a part of the formation and are less predomi-
nant than clay beds. Mansfield (in Cooke and Mossom, 1929, p. 140)
recognized three faunizones: Area, Ecphora and Cancellaria in
the Choctawhatchee formation and designated the type faunizone
at Red Bay as Area faunizone, from Area rubisiniana Mansfield-
a common pelecypod occurring at that locality. A fourth, the Yoldia
faunizone, was added to the original three faunizones by Mansfield
and Ponton (1932, pp. 84-88). They gave the following generalized
section of the Choctawhatchee:

Feet
5. Cancellaria faunizone. Fine to coarse, clayey,
fossiliferous sand --------.... ............. .. 25-30
4. "Aluminous clay." Grayish, unfossiliferous clay ..... 25
3. Ecphora faunizone. Sandy, fossiliferous clay ----- 15-25
2. Arca faunizone. Gray, sandy, fossiliferous marl ..- 55
1. Yoldia faunizone. Dark-gray to bluish, micaceous
and carbonaceous, clayey, fossiliferous sand ..---...... 15

Vernon (1942) after studying the sections in Washington and
Holmes counties came to the conclusion that Ecphora and Cancel-
laria faunizones were the updip facies of the Area and Yoldia
faunizones. Cooke (1945), however, discarded the term Chocta-
whatchee and included the lower two faunizones, Yoldia and Area
in the Shoal River "formation" and the upper two faunizones,
Ecphora and Cancellaria in the Duplin marl. In this report, Yoldia,
Area, Ecphora and Cancellaria faunizones are included in the
Choctawhatchee Stage. Each of these faunizones represents a
distinct biofacies.









CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


Yoldia faces

The name Yoldia faunizone (from Yoldia waltonensis Mans-
field) was first used by Mansfield and Ponton (1932, p. 86) for
about fifteen feet of dark-gray to bluish, micaceous, sandy sediments
exposed at Albert H. Cosson's farm (formerly Frazier's farm),
located in the southeast-quarter of Section 18, Township 2 North,
Range 19 West, Walton County, Florida. Mansfield and Ponton
thought the faunizone represented the basal bed of the Chocta-
whatchee formation, supposedly overlying the Shoal River, but
nowhere has its lower or upper contact been recognized with cer-
tainty. They thus justified the recognition of the Yoldia faunizone:

"The zone is separated from the overlying Area zone because of
its abundant content of large Yoldia shells, a genus which usually
indicates that the temperature of the water in which it lived was
rather cold."

An auger hole (AS-231) was drilled at the type locality to
ascertain the exact thickness of the Yoldia facies. The bit pene-
trated the Yoldia facies at ten feet and it was still in the Yoldia
facies when the hole was completed at eighty-five feet. This would
extend the thickness of the facies from about fifteen feet to at least
seventy-five feet. The following is the log:

Plio-Pleistocene Feet
Coarse brown sandy clay 0-5
Same 5-10
Choctawhatchee Stage-Yoldia facies
Greenish-gray plastic clay 10-15
Same 15-35
Greenish-gray clay interbedded with sand 35-40
Same 40-50
Greenish-gray clay 50-85

The microfauna of the Yoldia facies in general consists of widely
ranging forms and possibly represents a comparatively shallow
water fauna. Its ostracode fauna is comprised of the following
species:
Actinocythereis exanthemata (Ulrich and Bassler)
Puriana rugipunctata (Ulrich and Bassler)
Haplocytheridea bassleri Stephenson
Cytherideis fabula Howe and Dohm

The following foraminiferal species have been found only in
the Yoldia facies:


Amphimorphina sp.
Nodogenerina advena Cushman and Laiming









30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

Arca faces

The name Arca faunizone (from Arca rubisiniana Mansfield)
was named for nineteen feet of gray, sandy and clayey, shell marl
in the vicinity of Red Bay, Walton County, Florida, by Mansfield
(Cooke and Mossom, 1929, pp. 140-142) and was designated the
type zone for the Choctawhatchee formation. At the type locality,
neither the top nor the bottom of the faunizone is exposed. Later,
Mansfield and Ponton (1932, pp. 84-88) assigned twenty-one feet
of sediments to this faunizone at the type locality. They estimated
its total thickness to be about fifty-five feet. The upper limit of
the faunizone at the type locality was provisionally placed by
them at the contact of the gray marl with the overlying plastic
clay bed, which they referred to the Ecphora faunizone. They also
postulated an unconformity between the two beds because of the
absence of fossils from the clay bed and the lithologic differences
between the underlying marl and the overlying clay. Mansfield
(1932) after a critical examination of the molluscan fauna, came
to the conclusion that the molluscan fauna was closely related to
that of the Shoal River facies from which its species were evolved.
Such a relationship is also shown by the microfaunal evidence in
a general way, but this apparent similarity is not very striking.
The fauna of the Arca facies is definitely more allied with its con-
temporaneous Ecphora and Cancellaria facies than with the older
Alum Bluff fauna.
An auger hole (AS-230) was drilled in the vicinity of Red Bay
Fire Tower, in the northeast quarter, southwest quarter, north-
west quarter, Section 15, Township 2 North, Range 17 West,
Walton County, Florida. The auger penetrated the Arca facies at
forty-four feet and the bit was still in the Arca facies when the
hole was completed at eighty-five feet. At least forty feet of the
Arca facies is exposed in a ravine nearby. The following is the
detailed log of the bore hole:

Pleistocene Feet
Coarse red sand 0-5
Same 5-10
Same 10-15
Yellowish-brown coarse sand with some pebbles 15-20
Yellowish-brown coarse sand with some pea
size gravel 20-25
Same 25-30
Quartz sand with a yellowish clay matrix 30-35
Same 35-40
Same 40-44









CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


Choctawhatchee Stage-Area facies
Light gray to greenish plastic clay 44-50
Dark green clay and shell marl 50-55
Plastic greenish clay and shell marl 55-60
Same 60-85

Smith (1941, p. 269) proposed the name Permenter's Farm
beds for the sediments that overlie the Arca facies in Walton Coun-
ty. The type locality is locality No. 23, which is an old road-cut on
the east bank of Alaqua Creek, on Permenter's farm, Section 17,
Township 1 North,Range 19 West, Walton County, Florida. These
beds, which consist of about twenty-five feet of fossiliferous, gray
marl, were assigned to the Ecphora faunizone by Mansfield (1932,
p. 22), and Mansfield and Ponton (1932, p. 87). Cushman and
Ponton (1936, p. 15) followed Mansfield and assigned those beds
to the Ecphora faunizone. In doing so Cushman and Ponton were
guided by the presence of Virgulina (Virgulinella) gunteri var.
cirtata Cushman and Ponton, a form that they thought was re-
stricted to the Ecphora faunizone but which is now known to occur
in the Arca facies as well. These beds, according to Smith (1941,
pp. 272-273) are definitely younger than the Area facies and con-
tain six species "that have not been found elsewhere in Florida
aliove the middle Miocene." These species are:
Saracenaria acutauricularis (Fichtel and Moll)
Dentalina consorbina var. emaciata Reuss
Buliminella curta Cushman
Valvulineria floridana Cushman
Anomocytheridea floridana (Howe and Hough)
Cytheretta burns (Ulrich and Bassler)

Smith (1941, p. 281) assigned these beds to a stratigraphic unit
equal in rank with the Area faunizone. The lower limit of this
unit was thought by him to coincide with the first appearance of
Plectofrondicularia floridana Cushman and Siphogenerina lamellata
Cushman, and the upper limit to coincide with the first occurrence
of Bolivina marginata var. multicostata Cushman and Vulvulineria
floridana Cushman. Smith believed that the contained fauna rep-
resents a transition between the "middle" and "upper" Miocene.
The validity of Permenter's Farm bed, which is strictly paleonto-
logic in nature, is questioned because five of the six supposedly
restricted species also occur in beds of undoubted Arca age and
the sixth [Saracenaria acutauricularis (Fichtel and Moll) is also
known to occur in the Chipola formation. These beds are therefore
included in the Area facies and it is recommended that the term
Permenter's Farm beds be dropped.










32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

The following foraminiferal species have only been found in
the Arca faces:

Massilina quadrans Cushman and Ponton var.
Flintina floridana Cushman and Ponton
Robulus floridanus (Cushman)
R. catenulatus (Cushman)
Plectofrondicularia floridana Cushman
Bulimina ovata d'Orbigny
Belivina advena Cushman
Loxostomum gunteri Cushman
Siphogenerina lamellata Cushman
Chilostomella oolina Schwager
Discopulvinulina bertheloti (d'Orbigny)
Guttulina roemeri (Reuss)
Lagena clavata (d'Orbigny)
Nonionella cf. N. turgida (Williamson)
?Coskinolina sp.
Pullenia sp.
Eponides sp.
Bolivina n.sp. 1
Orthoplecta sp.

The following ostracode species are known to date only from
the Arca facies:

Bairdia laericula Edwards
Caudites sellardsi (Howe and Neill)
Cythere n.sp
Anomocytheridea floridana (Howe and Hough)
Cytheromorpha choctawhatcheensis Puri, n.sp.
Cytheretta burnsi (Ulrich and Bassler)
Eucytherura wcingeisti Puri, n.sp.
Loxoconcha hendryi Puri, n.sp.
Paracytheridea vandenboldi Puri

The following ostracode species are common to the Arca facies ( f
the Choctawhatchee Stage, and to the Alum Bluff Stage:

Basslerites tenmilecreekensis Puri, n.sp.
Actinocythereis exanthemata (Ulrich and Bassler)
Murrayina howei Puri, n. name
Cytherideis anderseni Puri
C. ulrichi Howe and Johnson
Loxoconcha alumblufensis Puri, n.sp.
Cytheretta choctawhatcheensis Howe and Taylor

The following ostracode species are common between the Ar a
and the Ecphora and Cancellaria faunizones:

Basslerites miocenica Howe
B. cf. B. giganticus Edwards
Bythocypris howei Puri, n.sp.
Actinocythereis exanthemata marylandica (Howe and Hough)
Echinocythereis garretti (Howe and McGuirt)
Murrayina martini (Ulrich and Bassler)
Haplocytheridea choctawhatcheensis (Howe and Stephenson)
Cytheromorpha redbayensis Howe and Brown










CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE .


Cytheropteron leonensis Puri, n.sp.
Cytherura wardensis Howe and Brown
Cytherelloidea moccasinensis Sexton
Eucythere triangulata Puri, n.sp.
Hemicythere conradi Howe and McGuirt
H. howei Puri
Kangarina quellita Coryell and Fields
Luvula palmerae Coryell and Fields
Pterygocythereis cornuta americana (Ulrich and Bassler)

Ecphora faces

The Ecphora "bed" named by Dall (1892) was later changed to
Ecphora "zone" by Mansfield (1929). The type locality of the
Ecphora faunizone is the upper shell bed at Alum Bluff on the east
side of the Apalachicola River, about four miles north of Bristol,
Liberty County, Florida, where the following section, measured
just downstream from the classic exposure by Robert O. Vernon
and Charles W. Hendry, Jr., on March 28, 1952 is exposed :

b d Description Thickness
(feet)
Pieistocene Series-Coharie formation
1: Sand, tan, medium quartz, brown-colored mottling with
a carbonaceous soil zone at the top. 10.0
11 Clay, red, gray, yellow and orange variegated, sandy and
blocky. The top gradually merges into bed 12. Makes a
vertical wall. 2.5
1o Sand, medium to fine, poorly sorted quartz, brown to tan
with brown mottled streaks, grades into beds 9 and 11 1.5
Sand, very coarse, loose quartz with pebbles of quartz at
the base. Extremely cross-bedded near the top, changing
upward into finer sand 18.0
1 Sand, yellow, brown and white mottled, coarse quartz con-
taining pebbles of quartz and being irregularly cross-bedded. 9.0
7 Sand, as above but with scattered quartz and kaolinite pebbles. 6.25

Unconformity
Miocene Series-Choctawhatchee Stage-Ecphora facies

C Sand, very argillaceous, red, yellow and gray variegated. 15.0
5 Clay, sandy, greenish-gray, micaceous with crystals and
crusts of gypsum. Weathered surfaces are brown and con-
tain sandy, limonitic nodules. 27.0
4 Sand, slightly argillaceous, carbonaceous, dark greenish-gray.
Contains crystals of gypsum and rare, scattered molds of
mollusks similar to those in bed 3. Gradational contact. Note
the recent development of larva-chambers of a woods bee,
along the steps cut into the bluff. 3.0
3 Shell marl, very sandy, blue and bluish-gray, practically a
coquina. The upper six inches is very indurated and quite
glauconitic. The bottom foot contains pebbles of gray, phos-

'Mansfield (1930, 1932) lists 107 species of mollusks from the Choctawhat-
chee at Alum Bluff and Gardner (1926-1950) lists 131 species from the Chipola.
Cushman (1930) lists 29 species of foraminifers from the Choctawhatchee
and Cushman and Ponton (1932) record 45 species of foraminifers from
bed 3 and 19 species from bed 1.










34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

Bed Description Thickness
phoritic, sandy limestone; gray sandstone; and blue clay.
The marl has penetrated bed 2 along animal borings. This is
the type locality of the Ecphora zone and mollusk shells are
abundant. 13.5
Unconformity
Alum Bluff Stage-Hawthorn facies
2 Sand, argillaceous, calcareous, yellow, gray and white varie-
gated, cross-bedded and thinly laminated in places. The top is
very irregular, with many buried hills. The top foot
is weathered and is cut by animal borings filled with shell
marl above. The upper five feet is extremely cross-bedded,
with brown and blue clay lenses. The base contains rela-
tively unconsolidated masses of sand held between sand beds
containing more clay in the matrix. (Basal four feet with
abundant fossil leaves.) 16.0
Alum Bluff Stage-Chipola facies
1 Sand, yellow to medium tannish-gray, calcareous marl con-
taining numerous mollusk shells and an excellent microfauna. 4.0
Total thickness 125.75
The section described above is located downstream from that described
in literature, but the succession of beds is the same.

The following foraminiferal fauna is known to date to occur
only in the Ecphora facies:

Quinqueloculina contorta d'Orbigny
Spiroloculina depressa d'Orbigny
Marginulina dubia Neugeboren
Virgulina (Virgulinella) gunteri curtata Cushman and Pontor.
Uvigerina parkeri Karrer
Massilina sp.

The following ostracode species have been found only in th(
Ecphora facies:

Echinocythereis evax (Ulrich and Bassler)
E. evax var. oblongata (Ulrich and Bassler)
Hemicythere confragosa Edwards
Kangarina jacksonbluffensis Puri, n.sp.
K. howei Puri, n.sp.
Loxoconcha caudata Puri, n.sp.
Paracytheridea washingtonensis Puri, n.sp.
Pellucistoma jacksonbluffensis Puri, n.sp.

The following foraminiferal species occur in Ecphora and Arca
facies but not elsewhere in the Florida Miocene:

Spiroloculina dentata Cushman and Todd
Parafissurina bidens (Cushman)
Planispirillina orbicularis (Bagg)
Cassidulinoides bradyi (Norman)
Bulimina inflata Seguenza
Dentalina pyrula (d'Orbigny)










CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


Robidus americanus spinosus (Cushman)
Nodosaria catesbyi d'Orbigny
Uvigerina auberiana d'Orbigny
Giinbelina sp.

Cancellaria facies

The Cancellaria faunizone (named after Cancellaria propeve-
nusta Mansfield) is typically developed in the highest fossiliferous
beds along Harveys Creek in the southwest quarter of Section 9,
Township 1 South, Range 3 West, Leon County, Florida. The fauni-
zone is composed of fine to coarse-grained, argillaceous sand and
sandy shell marl and has an estimated thickness of 25 to 30 feet.
The following foraminiferal species have been found only in
the Cancellaria faces:

Textularia floridana Cushman
T. foliacea occidentalis Cushman
Massilina gunteri Cushman and Ponton
Triloculina asperula Cushman
Nodosaria calomorpha Reuss
Lagena quadrata (Williamson)
Pyrulina albatrossi Cushman and Ponton
Elphidium incertum (Williamson)
Pavonina miocenica Cushman and Ponton
Robertina subteres (Brady)
Patellina corrugata Williamson
Rectocibicides miocenica Cushman and Ponton
Acervulina inhaerens Schultze

The following ostracode species have been found only in the
Cancellaria facies:

Luvula moccasinensis Puri, n.sp.
Pellucistozma tumida Puri, n.sp.
Platella gatunensis Coryell and Fields

The following foraminiferal species occur in the Ecphora and
Cancellaria facies and not elsewhere in Florida:

Amphistegina lessonii d'Orbigny
Textularia mayor Cushman
Oolina hexagona scalariformis (Williamson)
Lagena striato-punctata Parker and Jones
L. costata amphora Reuss
Guttulina costatula Galloway and Wissler
Pseudopolymorphina rutila (Cushman)
Virgulina fusiformis Cushman
Bolivina pulchella primitii a Cushman
B. plicatella Cushman
Milliammina cf. M. fusca (Brady)
Fissurina orbignyana lacunata (Burrows and Holland)
Parafissurina marginata (Walker and Jacob)
Marginulina dubia Neugeboren









36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

The following ostracode species are known to occur only in the
Ecphora and Cancellaria facies:

Bairdoppilata triangulata Edwards
Cativella navis Coryell and Fields
Cythere apalachicolensis Puri, n.sp.
Cytheromorpha warneri Howe and Spurgeon
Cytheropteron wardensis Puri, n.sp.
C. talquinensis Puri, n.sp.
C. choctawhatcheensis Puri, n.sp.
C. coryelli Puri, n.sp.
Cytherura bananaformis Coryell and Fields
Cytherura wardensis var.
Cytherelloidea leonensis Howe
Cytheretta sahnii Puri
Loxoconcha wilberti Puri, n.sp.
L. doryandae Puri, n.sp.
L. reticularis Edwards
L. purisubrhomboidea Edwards
Paracypris choctawhatcheensis Puri, n.sp.
Paracytheridea altila Edwards
Paradoxostoma (?) delicate Puri, n.sp.
Rectotrachyleberis cf. R. macerata (Stephenson).


HISTORY OF DEPOSITION

The greatest part, about 400 feet, of the type Miocene beds
of Panhandle Florida are made up of sediments deposited in shal-
low marine (neritic) waters. The shallow-water origin of these
deposits coupled with the seaward thickening of about 1000 feet
indicates the occurrence of subsidence during deposition. The rat(
of sedimentation was not uniform because there were a series ol
transgressions and regressions of the sea which produced cycli<
sedimentary units. The transgressions seem to have been rapic
as is shown by several overlaps and disconformities. The regres-
sions were slow. The slowness of such regressions resulted in th,
deposition of a greater proportion of the sediments during this
phase of the cycle. The cyclic changes produced in the sediment:
by such transgressions and regressions are of horizontal as well as
of vertical distribution. This has resulted in the grouping of sedi-
ments of similar lithology in belts that generally parallel the "bay
line."
The sediments deposited during the Miocene in Panhandle
Florida show that the shore line occupied different positions border-
ing the land mass at various times. Such positions resulted from
the advance or retreat of the sea in its fluctuations. The retreat
of sea coupled with uplift has resulted in the occurrence of suc-
cessively younger marine formations in a seaward direction. That









CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


more continental areas are presently exposed than during late
Tertiary time, is shown by the progressive seaward shift of the
shore line as preserved on progressively younger marine Pleisto-
cene terraces occurring in a direction toward the present strand
line.
Marine transgression is the advance of marine water accom-
panied by a landward migration of the strand. A transgressive
sea will embody in its overlap time various facies that will be re-
flected in its sediments and fossil fauna. As the sea invades land,
its shore line will slowly encroach upon the land and this shifting
of the shoreline will in turn result in the "time-stratigraphic climb-
ing" of both sediments and faunal species updip. The resultant
stratigraphic wedge with its pointed end landward will result in
facies fauna that varies in time.
Marine regression is the retreat of marine water accompanied
by a seaward migration of the strand. During regression the sea
"laps off" older sediments, depositing younger sediments as it
retreats, each succeeding sediment being younger than the under-
I-ing rocks; such a succession of sediments will naturally result in
the exposure of progressively older beds in a landward direction.
The terms "marine off lap" (Malkin and Echols, 1948) or "marine
regressive overlap" (Grabau, 1924) have been used to embrace
sediments deposited during the period of regression of sea.
Since regression is a later phase of transgression itself, both
are interrelated and form a complete stratigraphic cycle. Marine
overlap is transgressive in nature; younger sediments extend pro-
gressively farther landward. Marine offlap is regressive in nature;
the sediments thus deposited are younger farther seaward. Both
transgressive and regressive phases will eventually result in facies
changes, the magnitude of which will depend on the time lapsed.

FACES

Since changes in environment are clearly expressed by verti-
cal and horizontal changes in both lithology and fauna, the
term facies is here used as a subdivision within the three stages
of the Miocene Epoch as proposed in this paper. Geographic patterns
are less easily observed except in areas of continuous lines of bore-
hole sections, see figure 3. Both lithofacies and biofacies can be
easily recognized throughout the Miocene section. The number of
facies that are recognized in this sense is a measure of the re-
currence of similar conditions throughout geologic time; these are









38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

reflected in lithology as well as in fauna. Lithologically or faunally
dissimilar components within the three stages recognized here are
designated as facies since they occupy approximately the same time-
stratigraphic position in the section and also interfinger with one
another.
The detailed examination of the Miocene section shows that the
lithologic and biologic patterns, resulting from shifts in time and
space distribution of environments, coincide with the formational
and faunizonal boundaries. It is apparent from stratigraphic sec-
tions of the Miocene of the Florida panhandle, (figures 2
and 3) that there are three well-developed stages, each bounded
by an unconformity at both top and bottom: Tampa Stage, Alum
Bluff Stage, and Choctawhatchee Stage.

TAMPA STAGE

Tampa seas were transgressive over the eroded surface of the
Oligocene or older limestones. Early in this transgressive period
a limyy" lithofacies (St. Marks) was deposited downdip, and late
during this transgression and the regression that followed a more
plastic (Chattahoochee) lithofacies was deposited updip. Both of
these facies are gradational and this gradation is distinct. That
Tampa seas were moderately shallow-warm is shown by fossil re-
mains of genera like Archaias, Peneroplis, Elphidium, Krithe and
Clithrocytheridea. The Chattahoochee facies was deposited nearer
shore than the St. Marks facies. There is a slight time break between
Tampa and Alum Bluff Stages. It is noticed in the vicinity of Willi,
on the Chipola River and in the vicinity of Carr on Tenmile Creek.
An unconformity is apparent between the St. Marks and the Chipola
sediments wherever exposed in this area. Tampa waters received
more terrigenous material which was in places rapidly deposited
without much sorting (Chattahoochee facies). The St. Marks facie.
was deposited under deeper water where precipitation of lime was
in progress and only minor quantities of plastics, largely quartz
sand, were being deposited. Some of the lime was later replaced
by silica, thus giving rise to "Tampa silex beds."

ALUM BLUFF STAGE

"Middle Miocene" sediments of the Alum Bluff Stage were de-
posited unconformably on the Tampa. Alum Bluff Stage is divided
into four lithofacies: Hawthorn, Chipola, Oak Grove and Shoal
River.









CONTRIBUTION TO TH3 STUDY OF THE MIOC3NE


Hawthorn facies

In the vicinity of Bailey's Ferry on the Chipola River, the
Chipola facies lies unconformably on the top of the Chattahoochee.
Also on Tenmile Creek, in the vicinity of Carr, the junction is un-
conformable, even though the top of the Chattahoochee does not
appear to be eroded. Eastwards at Alum Bluff, on the Apalachicola
River, sixteen feet of the Hawthorn lies unconformably on the
Chipola and unconformably under 58.5 feet of the Ecphora zone of
the Choctawhatchee. The Chattahoochee is not exposed here;
hence its junction with the Chipola cannot be observed. At
Rock Bluff, on the Apalachicola River, about seven and one-half
miles north of Alum Bluff, ninety-two feet of Hawthorn sediments
overlie the Chattahoochee unconformably.
It is apparent from the section at Rock Bluff and Alum Bluff:
that the Chipola sea did not reach Rock Bluff since no definite ma-
rine Chipola sediments occur here between the Chattahoochee and
the Hawthorn; that the Hawthorn thickens northwards from six-
teen feet at Alum Bluff to ninety-two feet at Rock Bluff; that at
least ten feet of marine sediments of Chipola age were deposited
in the vicinity of Alum Bluff in a stratigraphic interval that is
represented by eighty-six feet of deltaic and pro-deltaic Hawthorn
deposits at Rock Bluff; that the locus of Hawthorn beds lies north
of Rock Bluff; that the Hawthorn is contemporaneous with the
Chipola and Shoal River facies; that at both top and bottom, the
Hawthorn is marked by a distinct disconformity, erosional, at
least in places.
The irregularity of the thickness of the Hawthorn is attributed
to the deltaic and pro-deltaic nature of the sediments that fan out
from the center of the Hawthorn delta (see Vernon, 1951, p. 184)
and also due to erosional unconformities at its base and top (Vernon,
1951, pp. 180, 183)

Chipola facies

The transgressing Alum Bluff sea moving over the sediments
of the Tampa Stage deposited a warm-water inner neritic Chipola
fauna downdip. The Chipola fauna is a rather distinctive shallow-
water fauna, that was laid down in inner neritic waters under
stable conditions. Both the organic tests and the precipitation of
calcium carbonate contributed to the calcareous nature of the
sediments.









40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

Shoal River facies
Updip the Alum Bluff sea deposited Shoal River facies under
brackish-water conditions. The Shoal River sediments are pre-
dominantly sandy with some intervening shell marl beds. The
fauna is typically brackish as is shown by the predominance of
Streblus beccarii, Elphidium gunteri, Anomocytheridea sp., and
Perissocytheridea matsoni among other brackish-water species.
Oak Grove facies
Oak Grove facies is a localized shallow marine to brackish-
water, transgressive-regressive phase of the Alum Bluff sea. The
Oak Grove sediments are mostly sandy and sparsely fossiliferous.

CHOCTAWHATCHEE STAGE

Choctawhatchee sediments were deposited unconformably on
the rocks of Alum Bluff Age. These sediments are subdivided into
four biofacies: Yoldia, Arca, Ecphora and Cancellaria.
Yoldia facies
Yoldia facies represents the westernmost shallow-water marine
sediments of the Choctawhatchee Stage deposited in the vicinity of
the type locality. It is represented by green argillaceous sands with
abundant Yoldia and a sparse microfauna.
Arca facies
Sediments referred to Area facies were deposited off shore
under outer neritic conditions. These sediments are mostly gray,
sandy shell marls. Area facies in its lower portion is contempo-
raneous with the Yoldia facies but the upper portion is contempora-
neous with the Cancellaria facies.

Ecphora facies
Ecphora facies was deposited under conditions similar to those
of the Area facies but the fauna is from deeper water. The sedi-
ments consist of shell marls deposited during the regression of the
Choctawhatchee sea. The succeeding advance of the Choctawhat-
chee sea deposited the Cancellaria facies.

Cancellaria facies
Cancellaria facies is in part contemporaneous with the Arca
and Ecphora facies and in part younger. The only known occur-









CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


rence where the Cancellaria facies is known to overlie the Ecphora
faces is in the vicinity of Jackson Bluff. The close of the Miocene
time is marked by regression of the sea and subsequent subaerial
erosion. Sands of Pliocene and Pleistocene age overlie the Miocene
everywhere in the Florida Panhandle unconformably.

ECOLOGY

Interpretation of depositional environments of the Miocene of
the Florida Panhandle is based on the comparisons of fossil as-
semblages with the Recent assemblages found in the sea bottom
sediments. Since more than seventy per cent of the Miocene fora-
miniferal species are still living in the modern seas such a com-
parison is easier than it would be for assemblages that are almost
totally extinct. Further evidence is drawn from various genera and
species of the associated ostracode fauna and the lithology of these
sediments.

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

The basic concept of microfossils as environment indicators in
sediments is a combination of several factors which control their
habitat. Of the physical factors, perhaps the most important is
the temperature of the water. Depth of the water runs a close
second. Comparatively very little is known about the temperature
at which the various assemblages would thrive or survive since
more stress has been laid on the bathymetric control. Light con-
ditions are usually closely related with the depth of water. The
character of the bottom sediments plays an important role in sup-
porting different benthonic assemblages. Movement of water by
waves, currents and turbidity currents may result in transportation
and the later deposition of a microfauna away from its natural
habitat. Such a fauna will normally be of a very small percentage
and will scarcely affect the dominant assemblages. Ellison (1951,
p. 218) gives an excellent discussion of distribution of micro-
6rganisms and their remains.
Of the chemical factors that control the environments of micro-
fossils salinity of water is perhaps the most significant. Thus cer-
tain forms will be truly marine; some of these could tolerate a
slightly brackish water condition; and some brackish-water forms
will even survive in fresh-water or vice versa. Little is known of
the effect of chemical colloids, hydrogen ion concentrations, carbon















CLASSIFICATION OF MARINE ENVIRONMENTS


H 4igh tide Low tide .50 Meters


2O00 Meters
'7 CFA IUIv i


42000 Meters


SUPRA- -......* E-- ---- ---- --- ---------
LITSUPTORAL I / -
LITTO LITTORAL N ON
INNER ':C I
NERITIC I"I I
OUTER NERITIC BTHYPELAIC



:NTHONIC (Bottom) '
SUPRALITTORAL
LITTORAL ::
INNER NERITIC ;.
OUTER NERITIC
BATHYAL
ABYSSAL



:KTOPLANKTONIC (Swimmers a Floaters) '-.
NERITIC- PELAGIC
OCEANIC-PELAGIC
BATHYPELAGIC BATHYAL ABYSSOPELAGIC


qo-ABYStS :
I
I


Depth in
Meters


Figure 4
Classification of Marine Environments


BE







NE


_ I 1EA


rU









CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


dioxide, dissolved oxygen and nitrogen contents on the micro-fauna.
Of the biological factors, food is the chief element that affects
the microfaunal population. An abundance of food, such as is
available off the mouths of various rivers and is plentiful on the
continental shelf, gives rise to a dense population. The degree of
concentration of the life also plays an important role.
Classification of marine environments:
Figure 4, copied from National Research Council Committee
on Marine Ecology and Paleoecology (Harry S. Ladd, Chairman),
gives the present day standard terminology of the classification
of marine environments as adopted by Ellison (1951, p. 216).
Two generalizations regarding the Foraminifera as environment
indicators are:

1. Benthonic microfossils are the chief indicators of depth,
temperature and composition of water, because of their lack of
mobility.
2. Pelagic planktonicc and nektonic) microfossils indicate only
broad latitudinal boundaries of temperature and salinity because
of their greater mobility which accounts for their greater dis-
tribution into a variety of sedimentary environments.

Norton (1930, pp. 331-338) examined thirteen samples, ranging
in depth from beach to 2849 fathoms, from the Floridian and West
Indian region. He divided the stations into four bathymetric zones
depending on their depth and temperature.

( Zone A. Beach-5 fathoms
Shallow ( Temperature range less than 21.5-31.4C
water ( Zone B. 5-60 fathoms
( Temperature range 18.9-24.8C
Intermediate ( Zone C. 500-825 fathoms
depth ( Temperature range 4.0-7.61C
Deep ( Zone D. 2000-2850 fathoms
water ( Temperature range 1.83-2.0C
Norton records the various foraminiferal types in these bathy-
metric zones and their relative abundance.
Lowman (1949, pp. 1957-8) made two profiles in the Gulf of
Mexico, off the Pensacola and Choctawhatchee bays. Distribution
of the foraminiferal genera plotted against one hundred per cent
of assemblages is given in the form of a chart. Since Lowman did
not identify the various species in his assemblages, a direct com-
parison with his investigations would be difficult without recal-
culating the percentages of the Miocene genera statistically.

















Chattahoochee Facies
1. Sorles sp.
2 Puteolino proteus
3. Haplocytherideo sp.


Dominant and diagnostic assemblages of the Tampa Stage
Overlap of circles represents species common to both facies


Figure 5


St. Marks Facies
1. Sories sp.
2. Puteolino proseus









CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


PALEOECOLOGY OF THE FLORIDA MIOCENE

TAMPA STAGE
Preponderance of species of Archaias, Sorites, Peneroplis, El-
phidium, Krithe and Clithrocytheridea suggest a warm (200-30
C) inner neritic environment, see figure 5. Sediments of Chatta-
hoochee facies were deposited still nearer shore. The fauna in
general is meager in number of species but rich in individuals.
Sorites and Archaias are very common throughout the Tampa Stage
but they attain their maximum development in size in the cal-
careous St. Marks facies where some of the Sorites are almost an
inch across.

ALUM BLUFF STAGE

The fauna of the Alum Bluff is mostly shallow water (inner
neritic). The four lithofacies (Hawthorn, Chipola, Oak Grove and
Shoal River) also exhibit distinct faunal assemblages which are
reminiscent of their environmental conditions, see figure 6.

Hawthorn facies
Hawthorn facies in the Florida Panhandle was deposited under
continental and deltaic environments. The continental sediments
consist of medium to very coarse, cross-bedded sands which in
places are leaf bearing (see section at Alum Bluff). The deltaic
facies have yielded Streblus beccarii vars., and Elphidium sp.

Chipola facies
The sediments of the Chipola facies are calcareous, very similar
to those being now deposited off the Floridian coasts. The sediments
consist of both calcareous precipitates and organic skeletal aggre-
gates. The Chipola microfauna is rich. The following miliolid
species which form 33 per cent of the Chipola fauna are very
common:

Quinqueloculina candeiana d'Orbigny
Q. crassa subcuneata Cushman
Q. chipolensis Cushman and Ponton
Q. lamarckiana d'Orbigny
Q. seminula (Linn6)
Q. seminula var. Cushman
Q. subpoeyana Cushman
Spiroloculina sp. Cushman
Hauerina miocenica Cushman
H. cf. H. fragilissima (Brady)
Massilina incisa Cushman and Ponton
M. quadrans Cushman and Ponton

















46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX


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CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


M. spinata Cushman and Ponton
M. spinata glabrata Cushman and Ponton
Articulina advena (Cushman)
A. miocenica Cushman and Ponton
A. multilocularis (Brady, Parker and Jones)
Triloculina oblonga (Montagu)
T. quadrilateralis d'Orbigny
T. quadrilateralis longicostata Cushman and Ponton
T. rotunda d'Orbigny
Pyrgo subsphaerica d'Orbigny

The percentage of the species of the Miliolidae, found in the
Chipola, to the total species and varieties in each sample conform
with similar percentage found by Norton (1930, pp. 338-339) up to
a depth of 60 fathoms. He did not find Quinqueloculina candeiana,
Q. lamarckiana, Spiroloculina depressa d'Orbigny, Hauerina cf. H.
fragilissima (Brady), Triloculina rotunda d'Orbigny, T. quadri-
lateralis d'Orbigny, Pyrgo subsphaerica d'Orbigny and Articulina
advena (Cushman) outside his bathymetric zones A and B.
Out of four species of the Peneroplidae, found in the Chipola,
three of these, Puteolina proteus (d'Orbigny), Archaias sp. and
Sorites sp. are confined to shallow waters. Norton (1930, p. 346)
recorded that P. proteus is, "closely restricted to the shallow warm
waters and favors temperatures between 220 and 30 C." Species
of Archaias and Sorites are at the present living in the warm
shallow waters of the Floridian and West Indian region and range
in depth up to 60 fathoms.
Cornuspira involves Reuss, Discorbis candeiana d'Orbigny and
I). orbicularis (Terquem), very abundant in the Chipola, are also
known to be confined to a bathymetric range up to 60 fathoms.
It is evident that almost two-thirds of the foraminiferal species
occurring in the Chipola facies are known to be living in the
shallow warm waters of the present time and are generally restric-
ted to a depth range of 60 fathoms. It is safe to assume that the
bulk of the Chipola sediments were deposited at a depth of about
60 fathoms under warm (200-300 C.) waters.

Shoal River facies

The dominant assemblage of the Shoal River facies is:

Textularia warren Cushman and Ellisor
Marginulina glabra d'Orbigny
Streblus beccarii (Linnd) vars.
Elphidium gunteri Cole
Haplocytheridea bassleri Stephenson

All of the species listed above are still living in the Florida









48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

Panhandle bays. Haplocytheridea bassleri, which is very abundant
in the Shoal River faces, is a brackish-water form (Stephenson,
1938, p. 135) and it dominates the modern bay microfauna. Shoal
River faces are mostly brackish with a slight influx of inner neritic
forms, which though not living in the modern bays, are represented
by empty tests which are washed in the bays from the open sea at
high tides.

Oak Grove facies
The dominant assemblage of the Oak Grove faces is:

Streblus beccarii parkinsoniana (d'Orbigny)
Amphistegina chipolensis Cushman and Ponton
A. floridana Cushman and Ponton
Elphidium advenum (Cushman)
Globulina gibba d'Orbigny
Globulina inaequalis Reuss
Hanzawaia concentrica (Cushman)
Haplocytheridea okaloosensis (Stephenson)

The tests of all the foraminiferal species listed above are com-
mon in the St. Andrews and Apalachicola bays and are associated
with various species of Haplocytheridea. This fauna is indicative
the Florida Panhandle, although some admixture of open marine
of brackish-water conditions that now prevail in the inland bays of
forms does exist.

CHOCTAWHATCHEE STAGE

Yoldia facies
The Yoldia facies fauna is inner neritic and the genus Yoldic
is common in offshore muddy bottoms of modern seas. The domi-
nant species occurring in the Yoldia faces are:

Nodogenerina advena Cushman and Laiming
Uvigerina peregrina Cushman
Epistomella pontoni (Cushman)
Virgulina miocenica Cushman and Ponton
Actinocythereis exanthemata (Ulrich and Bassler)
Puriana rugipunctata (Ulrich and Bassler)
Cytherideis fabula Howe and Dohm
Cytheretta spencerensis Smith

The paucity of miliolids coupled with the above assemblage
would indicate a deeper water than Norton's (1930) zone B (5-
60 fathoms). Yoldia faces is the updip equivalent of the Arca
faces which seem to have been deposited in waters between 30
and 100 meters. Small changes in sea level would have resulted in









CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


the slight admixture of outer neritic species (i.e. Uvigerina pere-
grina Cushman) in the Yoldia facies. The rest of the assemblage
is definitely inner neritic, see figure 7.

Arca facies
The fauna of the Area facies is outer neritic. The following
is the dominant assemblage:

Massilina quadrans Cushman and Ponton var.
Flintina floridana Cushman and Ponton
Plectofrondicularia floridana Cushman
Siphogenerina lamellata Cushman
Cancris sagra (d'Orbigny)
Discopulvinulina bertheloti (d'Orbigny)
Lagena clavulata (d'Orbigny)
Buccella mansfieldi (Cushman)
Virgulina (Virgulinella) gunteri Cushman
Bolivina marginata Cushman
B. marginata multicostata Cushman
B. floridana Cushman
Uvigerina advena Cushman
U. peregrina Cushman
U. auberiana d'Orbigny
Bulimina elongata d'Orbigny
Buliminella elegantissima (d'Orbigny)
Nonion grateloupi (d'Orbigny)
N. pizarrensis Berry
Chilostomella oolina Schwager

This assemblage would indicate a depth of more than 60 fath-
,ms, with miliolid species less than ten per cent. The minimum
ilepth range of Discopulvinulina bertheloti (d'Orbigny) is 30
meters, that of Uvigerina peregrina Cushman is 50 meters, that
of Chilostomella oolina Schwager is 90 and 120 meters, optimum
depth range of Bulimina elegantissima d'Orbigny is 80 meters.
(Phleger, 1951, pp. 40, 46, 49, 57). The occurrence of the above
species would indicate a minimum depth of 30 meters for the
above assemblage. Nonion grateloupi d'Orbigny has a maximum
depth range of 120 to 220 meters but is characteristic of depths
less than 100 meters (Phleger, 1951, p. 47). The Arca faces
would thus appear to have been deposited in outer neritic waters
at a minimum depth range of 30 and a maximum depth range of
less than 100 meters.

Ecphora faces
The fauna of the Ecphora facies is outer neritic. The following
is the dominant assemblage:


Amphistegina lessonii d'Orbigny
Textularia mayor Cushman














50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX


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CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


Quinqueloculina contorta d'Orbigny
Spiroloculina depressa d'Orbigny
Marginulina dubia Neugeboren
Virgulina (Virgulinella) gunteri curtata Cushman and Ponton
Bolivina pulchella primitive Cushman
B. plicatella Cushman
Uvigerina parkeri Karrer
U. auberiana d'Orbigny
Planispirillina orbicularis (Bagg)
Cassidulinoides bradyi (Norman)
Bulimina inflata Seguenza
Dentalina pyrula (d'Orbigny)
Robulus americanus spinosus (Cushman)
Nodosaria catesbyi d'Orbigny

Textularia mayor Cushman and Bolivina pulchella primitive
Cushman are restricted to depths less than 100 meters (Phleger,
1951, p. 49). The presence of these species would indicate a maxi-
mum depth of 100 meters for the Ecphora assemblage.

Cancellaria facies

The fauna of the Cancellaria facies is very similar to that of
the Ecphora facies. There are fifteen foraminiferal species and
twenty-two ostracode species that are common between the Ec-
phora and Cancellaria facies and do not occur elsewhere in the
section. These species include Textularia mayor Cushman, Am-
phistegina lessonii d'Orbigny, Bolivina pulchella primitive Cush-
man, among other forms that have been listed before. Amphiste-
gina lessonii d'Orbigny, abundant in the Cancellaria facies, forms
as much as forty-four per cent of an anomalous "Amphistegina
fauna" found in the present ocean at a depth of 128 meters (Ph-
leger, 1951, p. 76). Norton (1930, p. 352) reports the species from
seven samples ranging in depth from beach to 60 fathoms. Textu-
laria foliacea occidentalis Cushman, common in the Cancellaria
facies, is not known to occur in waters less than 32 meters deep
but is characteristic of many faunas at 200 meters (Phleger,
1951, p. 49). The lower part of the Cancellaria fauna was deposited
at about the same depth as the Ecphora fauna but its upper portion,
which overlies the Ecphora facies at Jackson Bluff, was deposited
under more shallow conditions during a transgressive sea.

Correlation with the Central and Western Gulf States

TAMPA STAGE
CHICKASAWHAY LIMESTONE AND PAYNES HAMMOCK SAND
Chickasawhay ("upper" and "lower") of Wayne County, Mis-









52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

sissippi, have their type localities in Wayne County.4 Originally,
both upper and lower units were referred to the Miocene, but
Mansfield (1937) indicated that the lower Chickasawhay carried
the fauna of the Suwannee limestone, and the upper Chickasawhay
the mollusks of the Tampa. MacNeil (1944) replaced the lower
Chickasawhay with the name Chickasawhay limestone, and called
the upper Chickasawhay the Paynes Hammock sand.
Paynes Hammock sand, type locality Paynes Hammock, Sec-
tion 16, Township 5 North, Range 2 East, Alabama, was first
described by MacNeil (1944). It is definitely correlated with the
St. Marks and the Chattahoochee facies of Florida, and is of Tampa
Age. MacNeil considered it to lie at the base of the Catahoula sand-
stone, and to grade into the Catahoula sandstone and overlap the
older Oligocene sediments in western Mississippi and Louisiana.
Paynes Hammock sand is correlated with the lower part of the
Catahoula by the Mississippi Geological Society (1948) and placed
in the "lower" Miocene.
The Foraminifera and Ostracoda of the Paynes Hammock sand
are given in checklists in the Guidebook of the Eleventh Annual
Field Trip of the Shreveport Geological Society (1934). These
checklists and plates are reproduced in the Guidebook of the Sixth
Field Trip of the Mississippi Geological Society (1948). Many
species are entirely undescribed. Two guide Foraminifera de-
scribed from the "Chickasawhay" by Ellis (1939, pp. 423-424)
are Cibicides hazzardi (Paynes Hammock sand) and Nodosaria
blanpiedi (Chickasawhay limestone). These two species are used
as guide fossils for horizons in the so-called "Marine Frio" which
the Texas geologists consider to be Oligocene. Cibicides hazzardi
probably should be considered Miocene, however, as it occurs in
Tampa equivalents.

CATAHOULA SAND

Catahoula sand (type locality, Catahoula Parish, Louisiana)
was named by Veatch (1906, pp. 42-43). About 1,000 feet of section
is reported on the surface in Catahoula and LaSalle parishes, but
it becomes much thicker to the south in wells. Best reference to
sections of Catahoula from the outcrop southward is given by Fisk
(1940). From this report, and from the Mississippi Geological
Society Sixth Field Trip Guidebook, it may be seen that the
Heterostegina zone of the subsurface appears in wells as much as

4Guidebook, Shreveport Geol. Society, 11th Ann. Field Report (1934).










CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


2,000 feet above the base of the Catahoula. The Catahoula is com-
posed of essentially deltaic sands and clays on the surface in Lou-
isiana, but it becomes entirely marine downdip.

ANAHUAC FORMATION

Anahuac formation (type locality, in the subsurface of the
area of the Anahuac field of Chambers County, Texas) was named
by Ellisor (1940) as a substitute for the older so-called "middle
Oligocene" zones. It is strictly a subsurface formation in Texas
and Louisiana.

Table 2
FAUNIZONES IN THE SUBSURFACE EQUIVALENTS
OF THE
CATAHOULA (FRIO AND ANAHUAC)*


FAUNAL ZONE


DISTINCTIVE FOSSIL


Discorbis zone** Discorbis (large), Discorbis gra-
velli, D. nomada, Eponides and
beaded Robulus
Heterostegina zone Heterostegina israelskyi
Heterostegina texana
Bolivina perca zone Bolivina perca
Marginulina idiomorpha Marginulina idiomorpha, M. mexi-
S vaginata zone cana var. vaginata
) Marginulina howei zone Marginulina howei
S "Camerina" zone "Camerina" sp.
Cibicides hazzardi zone Cibicides hazzardi
U Marginulina texana zone Marginulina texana
Hackberry faunal assemblage Ammobaculites nummus, Gyroidi-
na scalata, Bulimina sculptilis,
Bolivina mexicana, Bolivina
alazaensis
Nonion struma zone Nonion struma
Chicka-
sawhay Nodosaria blanpiedi zone Nodosaria blanpiedi
Oligo-
cene


*Modified after South Louisiana Geological Society, Geological Names and
Correlation Committee, 1944-1945.
**Marginulina ascenionensis Howe and McDonald, described from the
Sorrento Dome, has become a zone fossil and is used in place of the Discorbis
in the area east of the Mississippi River.









54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

The Discorbis, Heterostegina, and Marginulina faunizones
These were originally described from well samples by Applin,
Ellisor and Kniker (1925) and referred to "middle Oligocene" on
the basis of an erroneous determination of the Heterostegina oste-
gina as H. antillea, a middle Oligocene species on the Island of
Antigua, British West Indies. The Heterostegina encountered in
this section have since been described as two species H. texana and
H. israelskyi by Gravell and Hanna (1937). The sediments bearing
these faunas were those named the Anahuac formation by Ellisor.
The Marginulina referred to by Applin, Ellisor and Kniker was
originally called M. philippinensis, a Recent species from the west-
ern Pacific. Garrett and Ellis (1937) studied the specimens of Mar-
ginulina of the lower 1,500 feet to 2,000 feet of this section and
described a number of species, each of which marks a separate
horizon. This makes possible a finer zonation of the section.
The Foraminifera of the Anahuac formation are likewise only
partially described in papers by Applin, Ellisor and Kniker
(1925), Gravell and Hanna (1937), Garrett and Ellis (1937),
Garrett (1939), and Ellisor (1940, 1944). Ellisor (1944) repro-
duced the plates from the above cited papers and listed the fol-
lowing species from the Anahuac:

Marginulina faunizone species
Marginulina vaginata Garrett and Ellis (Characteristic species)
Marginulina howei Garrett and Ellis
Eponides ellisorae Garrett (present with the species of the
Robulus lacerta Garrett Heterostegina and Discorbis
Bolivina perca Garrett zones)
Cibicides moreyi Garrett
Discorbis gravelli Garrett
Heterostegina faunizone species
Hetcrostegina texana Gravell and Hanna
H. israelskyi Gravell and Hanna
Operculinoides ellisorae Gravell and
Hanna
0. howei Gravell and Hanna
Lepidocyclina colei Gravell and Hanna
L. texana Gravell and Hanna
Discorbis gravelli Garrett
Gyroidina vicksburgensis hannai Garrett
Eponides ellisorae Garrett
Textularia mornhinvegi Garrett
Vulvulina ignava Garrett
Marginulina idiomorpha Garrett
Robulus lacerta Garrett
R. chambers Garrett
Bolivina perca Garrett
Uvigerina israelskyi Garrett
Bifarina vicksburgensis monsouri
Garrett










CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


Discorbis faunizone species
Discorbis gravelli Garrett
D. subauracana dissona Cushman and
Ellisor
D. nomada Garrett
Siphonina davisi Cushman and Ellisor
Textularia teasi Cushman and Ellisor
Virgulina exilis Cushman and Ellisor
Robulus chambers Garrett
Uvigerina howei Garrett
Lenticulina jeffersonensis Garrett
Bifarina vicksburgensis monsouri
Garrett
Siphogenerina fredsmithi Garrett
Cibicides moreyi Garrett
C. jeffersonensis Garrett
Gyroidina vicksburgensis hannai Garrett
Uvigerina pilulata Cushman and Ellisor

ALUM BLUFF STAGE

MARINE FAUNIZONES
Uvigerina lirettensis faunizone

Uvigerina lirettensis faunizone was described by Ellisor (1940)
and is characterized by the presence of Uvigerina lirettensis Cush-
man and Ellisor. It contains an abundant fauna, most species of
which have been described from the Arca faunizone or the Shoal
River formation of Florida.

The Harang Fauna
This is an offshore fauna first discovered on the Valentine Dome
of LaFourche Parish, and is now known to be present on many
other domes in coastal Louisiana in the subsurface. It is a very
large fauna and has been described in detail by Pope and Smith
(1949). It is easily recognized by the presence of Planulina haran-
gensis, Bolivina harangensis, Cibicides carstensi, Textularia tatumi,
etc., but carries also species that are characteristic of the Florida
Alum Bluff Stage.
Numerous faunizones have been mentioned in the literature of
of Texas and Louisiana for brackish and marine sediments of
Alum Bluff Age and Choctawhatchee Age. The following are the
latest papers: Stephenson (1935), Howe and McGuirt (1936, 1938),
Ellisor (1940), Mincher (1941) and Pope and Smith (1949).

BRACKISH FAUNIZONES
Potamides matsoni faunizone

This faunizone is described from a hand-dug well some six miles












56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX


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CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


southwest of Alexandria, Louisiana. Dall (1913) described the
Mollusca present in this faunizone and the microfossils were de-
scribed by Stephenson (1935) who listed:
Foraminifera
[Streblus] beccarii (Linn6)
[Streblus] beccarii var. cf. tepida (Cushman)
Elphidium incertum (Williamson)
Eponidella cushmani Stephenson
Ostracoda
Anomocytheridea locketti Stephenson
Perissocytheridea matsoni Stephenson
Microcythere? moresiana Stephenson

Some of the brackish fossils of this faunizone have been found
in the type Shoal River at Shell Bluff, Florida, and it is definite that
they are of Alum Bluff Age.

CHOCTAWHATCHEE STAGE
RANGIA JOHNSONI-MIORANGIA MICROJOHNSONI FAUNIZONE
In the northern portion of the subsurface belt of Miocene sedi-
ments, the youngest sediments bearing a fauna are brackish and
carry Rangia johnsoni; or its subsurface equivalent Miorangia
microjohnsoni, a somewhat similar but somewhat smaller clam;
oysters; and a small microfauna described by Mincher (1941) from
the type Pascagoula formation.
Mincher (1941, p. 341) lists the following from this faunizone:

Foraminifera
Discorbis sp.
[Streblus] beccarii (Linn4)
Elphidium gunteri Cole
Eponidella cushmani Stephenson
Ostracoda
Anomocytheridea ovata Mincher
Perissocytheridea matsoni Stephenson
Microcythere moresiana Stephenson
M. johnsoni Mincher
Cytheromorpha pascagoulensis Mincher

The ostracodes are more distinctive than the foraminifers and
in many samples are more abundant.
Near the coast these sediments become marine, and brackish
water and marine lenses interfinger in the area below New Orleans.
The marine portion carries an Ecphora-Cancellaria faunizone fauna,
although Mincher thought it to be the equivalent at least of the
Arca faunizone.










58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

LOCALITIES

Listed below are the localities from which samples used were
collected. This list is divided into three parts. All locations of out-
crop samples are listed in chronological order; references to loca-
tions contained in the text are indicated by the index number which
precedes each entry. Florida Geological Survey accession numbers
appear in parentheses after each auger and well section. The
locality map (figure 1) shows their exact location.

OUTCROP SAMPLES

Alum Bluff Stage

1. Chipola facies. NE-% NE-%, Sec. 20, T. 1 N., R. 16 W., Washington
County, Florida.
2. Chipola facies. SE-i/ SE-%, Sec. 8, T. 3 N., R. 16 W., Chimney
Quarry, Washington County, Florida.
3. Chipola facies. SE-V4 SE-%1, Sec. 5, T. 1 N., R. 16 W., Washington
County, Florida.
4. Chipola facies. One mile below Scott's Bridge, NE-%, Sec. 27, T. 2 N.,
R. 12 W., Bay County, Florida.
5. Chipola facies. In a ravine 200 yards east of Holmes Creek, NW-%
NE-%, Sec. 28, T. 2 N., R. 16 W., Washington County, Florida.
6. Chipola facies. Two hundred and twenty yards below Walsingham
Bridge, NE-Y%, Sec. 15, T. 1 N., R. 13 W., Washington County, Florida.
7. Chipola facies. One mile above Gainer's Bridge, NW-%, Sec. 34, T. 1
N., R. 13 W., Washington County, Florida.
8. Chipola facies. One and three-quarters miles below Scott's Bridge,
over Econfina Creek, NE-%, NW-%, Sec. 28, T. 2 N., R. 12 W., Bay
County, Florida.
9. Chipola facies. At Red Head Still, NE-%, NW-%, Sec. 20, T. 2 N.,
R. 16 W., Washington County, Florida.
10. Chipola facies. Lassiter Landing on Choctawhatchee River, SE-%
SE-%/, Sec. 13, T. 2 N., R. 17 W., Washington County, Florida.
11. Chipola facies. Tenmile Creek, 2,376 feet of NW/cor., Sec. 12, T. 1
N., R. 10 W., four miles south of Willis, Calhoun County, Florida.
12. Type Chipola facies. Tenmile Creek, from Bridge to one-half mile
below bridge on the Marianna-Clarksville Road, 2,376 feet south of
NW/cor., Sec. 12, T. 1 N., R. 10 W., twenty-two miles south of
Marianna, Calhoun County, Florida.
13. Chipola facies. NE-% SW-l, Sec. 28, T. 2 N., R. 16 W., Washington
County, Florida.
14. Chipola facies. SW-1/l NE-%, Sec. 31, T. 2 N., R. 16 W., Washington
County, Florida.
15. Oak Grove facies. At old saw mill near Oak Grove, on right bank of
Yellow River, 300 feet south of NW/cor. of NE-i/ NE-%4, Sec. 20, T. 5
N., R. 23 W., about 100 yards below bridge on Laurel Hill-Oak Grove
Road, Okaloosa County, Florida.
16. Oak Grove faces. Senterfeit's or Tanner's Mill (abandoned), Sec.
14, T. 5 N., R. 23 W., 4 miles southwest of Laurel Hill, Okaloosa
County, Florida.
17. Shoal River facies. Small gully, 50 feet south of road and 150 feet
east of bridge over White's Creek on Eucheeanna-Knox Hill Road,
NE-/4 SE-%,4 SW-%, Sec. 23, T. 2 N., R. 18 W., one mile west of
Valley Church, Walton County, Florida.
18. Shoal River facies. Small branch, one-fourth mile southeast of resi-
dence of J. T. G. McClellan, SE-%A NW-%!, Sec. 4, T. 3 N., R. 21 W.,










CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE 59

about three-eighths mile west of Shell Bluff on Shoal River, Walton
County, Florida.
19. Shoal River facies. Bottom of old fluorspar prospect shaft at a depth
of 50 to 55 feet, about four and one-half miles south of Argyle,
Walton County, Florida.
20. Shoal River faces. Under bridge over Shoal River, approximately two
and three-quarters miles north of Mossyhead, SE/cor. of Sec. 35, T.
4 N., R. 21 W., Walton County, Florida.

Choctawhatchee Stage

21. Yoldia facies. Albert H. Cosson's farm (formerly Frazier's farm),
SE-%, Sec. 18, T. 2 N., R. 19 W., Walton County, Florida.
22. Yoldia facies. Chester Spence farm, NE-% NE-%1/, Sec. 17, T. 2 N.,
R. 19 W., Walton County, Florida.
23. Area facies. Road cut leading to an abandoned bridge on east bank
of Alaqua Creek on Permenter's farm, Sec. 17, T. 1 N., R. 19 W.,
Walton County, Florida.
24. Area facies. W. E. Collin's farm, SE-%1 NE-1/, Sec. 15, T. 2 N., R.
15 W., Washington County, Florida.
25. Arca facies. SW-1A NE- SW4a, Sec. 16, T. 2 N., R. 15 W., Washing-
ton County, Florida.
26. Arca facies. NW-%. SE-%, Sec. 16, T. 2 N., R. 15 W., spring head,
100 yards east of road, Washington County, Florida.
27. Area facies. SW-1! NW-%a, Sec. 15, T. 2 N., R. 15 W., Washington
County, Florida.
28. Area facies. SE-%4 SW-% NE-14, Sec. 15, T. 2 N., R. 15 W., Wash-
ington County, Florida.
29. Arca facies. NW-a SW-4, Sec. 15, T. 2 N., R. 15 W., Washington
County, Florida.
30. Area facies. NE-% SW-%4, Sec. 16, T. 2 N., R. 15 W., Washington
County, Florida.
31. Area facies. Flournoy's old mill, NE-%a NE-%, Sec. 34, T. 3 N., R.
18 W., Holmes County, Florida; at an elevation of 164 feet.
32. Area faces. In a steep head in SW-A NE-A SW-a, Sec. 16, T. 2
N., R. 15 W., along a small ravine running west into Southside Branch,
Washington County, Florida.
33. Area facies. Jim Kennedy Branch, Sec. 8, T. 2 N., R. 17 W., west of
Red Bay, Walton County, Florida.
34. Area facies. John Anderson's farm, Sec. 10, T. 2 N., R. 17 W., three-
fourths mile east of Red Bay, Walton County, Florida.
35. Area facies. At small spring head in E. Gomillion's field near Red
Bay, 900 feet west of center of Sec. 9, T. 2 N., R. 17 W., Walton
County, Florida.
36. Ecphora facies. Pit of West Florida Power Company, just east of
road at Power Dam, being about 300 feet east of the hydroelectric
power plant near Ward, Liberty County, Florida.
37. Ecphora facies. Three hundred feet above Walsingham Bridge over
Econfina Creek, NE-%, Sec. 15, T. 1 N., R. 13 W., Washington
County, Florida.
38. Ecphora facies. One-fourth mile above Walsingham Bridge, SW-14,
Sec. 11, T. 1 N., R. 13 W., Washington County, Florida.
39. Ecphora facies. One-fourth mile above Walsingham Bridge, SE-a,
Sec. 10, T. 1 N., R. 13 W., Washington County, Florida.
40. Ecphora faces. Two hundred and twenty yards above Walsingham
Bridge, Econfina Creek, NE-IA, Sec. 15, T. 1 N., R. 13 W., Washington
County, Florida.
41. Ecphora facies. Jackson Bluff, near top of section, Ochlockonee River,
Leon County, Florida.
42. Ecphora facies. Jackson Bluff, top shell bed, Ochlockonee River,
Leon County, Florida.
43. Ecphora facies. Pecten bed, Jackson Bluff, Ochlockonee River, Leon
County, Florida.










60 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

44. Ecphora facies. Jackson Bluff, Ochlockonee River, Leon County,
Florida.
45. Ecphora facies. Upper shell bed at Alum Bluff on the east bank of
the Apalachicola River, S-% NE-, Sec. 24, T. 1 N., R. 8 W., about
four miles north of Bristol, Liberty County, Florida.
46. Ecphora facies. Cut in road leading to Watson's Landing, about two
miles north of Alum Bluff and about the same distance from the
Apalachicola River, 2,000 feet N. and 100 feet W. of SE/cor. of Sec.
7, T. 1 N., R. 7 W., Liberty County, Florida.
47. Ecphora facies. Harvey Creek, one-half mile above old well at
"swimming hole," five feet below water, Leon County, Florida.
48. Cancellaria facies. Gully Pond, southeast of Greenhead, on the Sales-
Davis Lumber Company property, in the center of N-%, NW-4 NE-4,
Sec. 14, T. 1 N., R. 14 W., Washington County, Florida; at an ele-
vation of approximately 59 feet.
49. Cancellaria facies. One mile below Walsingham Bridge over Econ-
fina Creek, NW-1/ SWY, Sec. 11, T. 1 N., R. 13 W., Washington
County, Florida.
50. Cancellaria facies. One-quarter mile below Gainer's Bridge, Econ-
fina Creek, SW-%. SE-4, Sec. 33, T. 1 N., R. 13 W., Washington
County, Florida.
51. Cancellaria facies. Borrow pit just east of the power dam at Jackson
Bluff, on Ochlockonee River, 500 feet east of NW/cor., Sec. 21, T. 1 S.,
R. 4 W., Leon County, Florida.
52. Cancellaria facies. NE-V, Sec. 16, T. 1 S., R. 13 W., on Moccasin
Creek, beneath bridge, Bay County, Florida.
53. Cancellaria facies. Blue Sink, corner of NE-h, Sec. 14, T. 1 N., R.
14 W., Washington County, Florida.
54. Cancellaria facies. Three-eighths mile above Gainer's Bridge on Econ-
fina Creek, NE-%, Sec. 33, T. 1 N., R. 13 W., Washington County,
Florida.
55. Cancellaria facies. One-half mile above Gainer's Bridge on Econ-
fina Creek, SE-h NE-4, Sec. 33, T. 1 N., R. 13 W., Washington
County, Florida.
56. Cancellaria facies. In a small stream south of and under Gainer's
Bridge in the SW-% SE-h4, Sec. 33, T. 1 N., R. 13 W., Washington
County, Florida.
57. Cancellaria facies. In a small sink south of a community road in the
NW-h, SW-, Sec. 7, T. 1 N., R. 13 W., Washington County, Florida.
58. Cancellaria faces. Clarke's Pond, NE-h, SE-1, SW-1/, Sec. 12, T.
1 N., R. 12 W., Washington County, Florida.

AUGER HOLE SECTIONS

1. (AS-111) James Rogers Fishing Camp, NE-4 NW-1/ NE-h, Sec.
11, T. 1 N., R. 14 W., Washington County, Florida; at an elevation of
73.17 feet. Total depth reached 69 feet.
2. (AS-112) NW-%1 SE-i SW-1/, Sec. 7, T. 1 N., R. 13 W., at USC&GS
BM TT-20-C 1942, at outcrop in Deadening Lakes, Washington
County, Florida; at an elevation of 63 feet. Total depth reached 44
feet.
3. (AS-113) At Mr. Brock's house in SE-1/ NW- SE-%, Sec. 8,
T. 1 N., R. 14 W., just south of Crystal Lake Post Office, Washington
County, Florida; at an elevation of 140.65 feet. Total depth reached
89 feet.
4. (AS-114) At BM TT-21-C, southeast end of Gully Pond in SE-/4
NE-%i NE-14, Sec. 15, T. 1 N., R. 14 W., Washington County, Florida;
at an elevation of 61 feet. Total depth reached 64 feet.
5. (AS-115) On a dirt road at Joiner's Lake, in NE-14 SW-% NW-h,
Sec. 5, T. 1 N., R. 14 W., one mile west of Greenhead Cemetery;
200 feet south of Crystal Lake Post Office, Washington County,
Florida; at an elevation of 75.93 feet. Total depth reached 93 feet.
6. (AS-116) At site of abandoned saw mill, seven-tenths mile west of











CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


church and three-tenths mile north of red house, in NW-% SW-%
NW-1, Sec. 14, T. 2 N., R. 15 W., Washington County, Florida; at
an elevation of 206.01 feet. Total depth reached 69 feet.
7. (AS-117) Small point between Hicks Pond and Lucas Pond in SE/
cor. of NE-%A, Sec. 26, T. 2 N., R. 15 W., Washington County, Florida;
at an elevation of 77 feet. Total depth reached 62 feet.
8. (AS-160) Seventy-five feet south, 1,100 feet east of NW/cor., Sec. 32,
T. 2 N., R. 14 W., Washington County, Florida; at an elevation of
170 feet. Total depth reached 99.5 feet.
9. (AS-161) Five hundred feet north, fifty feet west of NE/cor., SE-4,
Sec. 30, T. 2 N., R. 14 W., Washington County, Florida; at an ele-
vation of 100 feet. Total depth reached 69.5 feet.
10. (AS-162) N-14 NW-14 NE-Y4, Sec. 24, T. 2 N., R. 15 W., Washington
County, Florida; at an elevation of 165 feet. Total depth reached
84.5 feet.
11. (AS-163) NW-14 SW-%, Sec. 32, T. 2 N., R. 14 W., Washington
County, Florida; at an elevation of 114 feet. Total depth reached
74.5 feet.
12. (AS-164) SE/cor. of SW-4 NW-%, Sec. 5, T. 1 N., R. 14 W., Wash-
ington County, Florida, at an elevation of 140 feet. Total depth
reached 69.5 feet.
13. (AS-165) SW/cor. of SE-% NE-1A SW-%4 NW-1, Sec. 5, T. 1 N.,
R. 14 W., Washington County, Florida; at an elevation of 100 feet.
Total depth reached 24.5 feet.
14. (AS-227) SW-' SE-% SE-%, Sec. 5, T. 1 N., R. 14 W., Washington
County, Florida, at an elevation of 135 feet. Total depth reached
105 feet.
15. (AS-228) NE-% SW-%4 NW-'4, Sec. 5, T. 1 N., R. 14 W., Washington
County, Florida; at an elevation of 80 feet. Total depth reached
80 feet.
16. (AS-229) NW-% SW-1 SW-%, Sec. 32, T. 2 N., R. 14 W., Washington
County, Florida; at an elevation of 140 feet. Total depth reached
105 feet.
17. (AS-230) NE-% SW-% NW-%, Sec. 15, T. 2 N., R. 17 W., Walton
County, Florida; at an elevation of 170 feet. Total depth reached
85 feet.
18. (AS-231) Albert H. Cosson's farm (formerly Frazier's farm) SE-4,
Sec. 18, T. 2 N., R. 19 W., Walton County, Florida; at an elevation
of 150 feet. Total depth reached 85 feet.
19. (AS-232) Toward upper end of the Shell Bluff on the right bank of
Shoal River, 5 miles north of Mossyhead, SW-4 SW-'4 NW-4, Sec.
4, T. 4 N., R. 22 W., Walton County, Florida; at an elevation of 150
feet. Total depth reached 100 feet.
20. (AS-233) At old saw mill near Oak Grove, on right bank of Yellow
River, 300 feet south of NW/cor. of NE-%, NE-%, Sec. 20, T. 5 N.,
R. 23 W., about 100 yards below bridge on Laurel Hill-Oak Grove
Road, Okaloosa County, Florida; at an elevation of 90 feet. Total
depth reached 75 feet.

WELL SECTIONS

1. (W-148) Walton Land Lumber Company No. 1, 10 miles south of
DeFuniak Springs on Freeport Road, Sec. 12, T. 1 N., R. 19 W., Walton
County, Florida; at an elevation of 200.1 feet. Total depth reached
5,375 feet.
2. (W-2157) City of Niceville well, 500 feet east-southeast of Mossy
Creek, 50 feet south of State Road No. 10, behind City Hall, NE-%4
NW-'4, Sec. 7, T. 1 S., R. 22 W., one block northwest of post office at
Niceville, Okaloosa County, Florida; at an elevation of 14.0 feet.
Total depth reached 465 feet.










62 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

BIBLIOGRAPHY


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Jour. Sci., 2nd ser., vol. 1, pp. 38-42.
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Applin, Paul L.
1944 (and Applin, Esther R.) Regional subsurface stratigraphy and
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1939 Outline of the geologic history of peninsular Florida: Florida
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Conrad, T. A.
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of the United States: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull., 676, 100 pp., 31 Pls.
1920 Lower Miocene Foraminifera of Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof.
Paper 128, pp. 67-74, 1 P1.
1930 The Foraminifera of the Choctawhatchee formation of Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 4, pp. 1-89, 12 Pls.
1932 (and Ponton, G. M.) The Foraminifera of the upper, middle, and
part of the lower Miocene of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull.
9, 147 pp., 2 figs., 17 Pls.
1933 (and Cahill, Edgar D.) Miocene Foraminifera of the Coastal
Plain of the eastern United States: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof.
Paper 175, pp. 1-50.










CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE 63

1939 (and Ellisor, A. C.) New species of Foraminifera from the Oligo-
cene and Miocene: Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr., vol.
15, pt. 1, pp. 1-14, 4 Pls.
Dall, W. H.
1890-1903 Contributions to the Tertiary fauna of Florida with especial
reference to the Miocene silex beds of Tampa and the Pliocene of
the Caloosahatchee River: Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans,
vol. 3, pts. 1-6, pp. 1-1654, 60 Pls. Pt. 1, 1890; pt. 2, 1892; pt. 3,
1895; pt. 4, 1898; pt. 5, 1900; pt. 6, 1903.
1892 (and Harris, G. D.) Correlation Papers-Neocene: U. S. Geol.
Survey Bull. 84, 349 pp.
1894 (and Stanley-Brown, J.) Cenozoic geology along the Apalachicola
River: Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol. 5, pp. 147-170.
1898 A table of the North American Tertiary horizons, correlated
with one another and with those of western Europe, with an-
notations: U. S. Geol. Survey 18th Ann. Rept., pt. 2, pp. 323-343.
1913 On a brackish-water Pliocene fauna of the southeastern Coastal
Plain: U. S. Nat. Mus. Proc., vol. 46, pp. 225-237.
1915 A monograph of the molluscan fauna of the Orthaulax pugnax
zone of the Oligocene of Tampa: Smithsonian Inst. Bull. 90, 173
pp., 26 Pls.
Darton, N. H.
1891 Mesozoic and Cenozoic formations of eastern Virginia and Mary-
land: Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol. 2, pp. 431-450, P1. 16.
Echols, Dorothy A. (see Malkin, Doris S.)
Ellis, Albert D., Jr. (Also see Garrett, J. B.)
1939 Significant Foraminifera from the Chickasawhay beds of Waynes
County, Mississippi: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 13, pp. 423-424.
Ellison, Samuel P.
1951 Microfossils as environment indicators in marine shales: Jour.
Sedimentary Petrology, vol. 21, pp. 214-225.
Ellisor, A. C. (Also see Applin, Esther; Cushman, J. A.)
1940 Subsurface Miocene of southern Louisiana: Am. Assoc. Petroleum
Geologists Bull., vol. 24, pp. 435-475.
1944 Anahuac Formation: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull.,
vol. 28, pp. 1355-1375, 7 Pls.
Ericson, David B. (See Rainwater, E. H.)
Finch, John
1823 Geological Essay on the Tertiary formation in America: Am.
Jour. Sci., vol. 7, pp. 31-43.
Fisk, H. N.
1940 Geology of Avoyelles and Rapides parishes: Louisiana Geol. Sur-
vey Bull. 18, 239 pp.
Foerste, August F.
1893 Studies of the Chipola Miocene of Bainbridge, Georgia, and of
Alum Bluff, Florida: Am. Jour. Sci., 3rd ser., vol. 46, pp. 244-254.
1894 The upper Vicksburg Eocene and the Chattahoochee Miocene of
southeast Georgia and adjacent Florida: Am. Jour. Sci., 3rd ser.,
vol. 48, pp. 41-54.
Gardner, Julia A.
1924 Coastal Plain and European Miocene and Pliocene mollusks: Geol.
Soc. America Bull., vol. 35, pp. 857-866.
1926-1944 The molluscan fauna of the Alum Bluff group: U. S. Geol. Survey
Prof. Paper 142, 491 pp., 51 Pls. (Incomplete; pts. A-D, 1926; pt.
E, 1928; pt. F, 1937; pt. G, 1944).
1936 Additions to the fauna of the Alum Bluff group of Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 14, 82 pp., 10 Pls.
Garrett, J. B.
1937 (and Ellis, A. D., Jr.) Distinctive Foraminifera of the genus
Marginulina from middle Tertiary Beds of the Gulf Coast: Jour.
Paleontology, vol. 11, pp. 629-633, P1. 86.
1938 The Hackberry Assemblage-An Interesting Fauna of Post-










64 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

Vicksburg Age from Deep Wells in the Gulf Coast: Jour. Paleon-
tology, vol. 12, pp. 309-317.
1939 Some Middle Tertiary smaller Foraminifera from subsurface beds
of Jefferson County, Texas: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 13, pp. 575-79.
Grabau, A. W.
1924 Principles of stratigraphy: 2nd edition, New York.
Gravell, D. W.
1937 (and Hanna, M. A.) The Lepidocyclina texana horizon in the
Heterostegina zone, upper Oligocene, of Texas and Louisiana:
Jour. Paleontology, vol. 11, pp. 517-529, Pls. 60-65.
1938 (and Hanna, M. A.) Subsurface Tertiary zones of correlation
through Mississippi, Alabama and Florida: Am. Assoc. Pe-
troleum Geologists Bull., vol. 22, pp. 984-1013.
Guidebook
1934 Shreveport Geological Society, Eleventh Ann. Rept.
1945 Southeastern Geological Society, Third Field Trip.
Gunter, Herman (See Sellards, E. H.)
Hamilton, Walter A. (See Phleger, Fred B., Jr.)
Hanna, M. A. (See Gravell, D. W.)
Harris, G. D. (See Dall, W. H.)
Hedberg, Hollis D.
1934 Some Recent and fossil brackish to fresh-water Foraminifera:
Jour. Paleontology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 469-476, 1 fig.
Heilprin, A.
1884 The Tertiary geology of the eastern and southern United States:
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Jour., vol. 9, pp. 115-154, maps, Pls.
1887 Exploration on the west coast of Florida and in the Okeechobee
Wilderness: Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 1, 134 pp.
Herring, D., Jr. (See Rainwater, E. H.)
Hickey, Maude (See Barton, D. C.)
Howe, H. V.
1933 Review of Tertiary stratigraphy of Louisiana: Am. Assoc. Pe-
troleum Geologists Bull., vol. 17, pp. 635-648.
1935 (and graduate students) Ostracode of the Arca zone of the
Choctawhatchee Miocene of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull.
13, pp. 1-37, 4 Pls.
1936 (and McGuirt, J. H.) Salt Domes of Plaquemines and St. Ber-
nard parishes: Louisiana Geol. Survey Bull. 8, pp. 200-276.
1938a (et al.) Report on the geology of Iberville and Ascension par-
ishes: Louisiana Geol. Survey Bull. 13, p. 209, P1. 1.
1938b (and McGuirt, J. H.) Salt Domes of Iberville and Ascension
parishes: Louisiana Geol. Survey Bull. 13, pp. 87-187.
Israelsky, Merle C.
1949 Oscillation chart: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol.
33, no. 1, pp. 92-98, 3 figs., 1 chart.
Johnson, Lawrence C.
1885 Phosphatic rocks of Florida: Science, vol. 5, p. 396.
1888 The structure of Florida: Am. Jour. Sci., 3rd ser., vol. 36, pp.
230-236.
1892 The Chattahoochee Embayment: Geol. Soc. America Bull.,
vol. 3, pp. 128-133.
Jung, Dorothy A. (See Malkin, Doris S.)
Kniker, H. T. (See Applin, Esther R.)
Ladd, H. S.
1951 Brackish-water and Marine Assemblages of the Texas Coast,
with special reference to Mollusks: Inst. Marine Sci., Univ. Texas,
vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 125-164, 2 figs., 2 tables.
Langdon, D. W.
1889 Some Florida Miocene: Am. Jour. Sci., 3rd ser., vol. 38, pp.
322-324.
1891a Geological section along the Chattahoochee River from Columbus
to Alum Bluff: Georgia Geol. Survey 1st Prog. Rept., pp. 90-97.










CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


1891b Variations in the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata of Alabama:
Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol. 2, pp. 587-606, P1. 23.
Lowman, S. W.
1949a Discussion of sedimentary facies in geologic history: Geol. Soc.
America Mem. 39, pp. 125, 130, 4 figs.; pp. 145-151, 3 figs.
1949b Sedimentary facies in Gulf Coast: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geolo-
gists Bull., vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1939-1997, 35 figs.
MacNeil, F. Stearns
1944 Oligocene stratigraphy of southeastern United States: Am. Assoc.
Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 28, pp. 1313-1354.
1950 Pleistocene shore lines in Florida and Georgia: U. S. Geol.
Survey Prof. Paper 221-F, pp. 95-107.
Malkin, Doris S.
1941 (and Jung, Dorothy A.) Marine sedimentation and oil accumu-
lation. I Transgressive marine overlap: Am. Assoc. Petroleum
Geologists Bull., vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 2010-2020.
1948 (and Echols, Dorothy A.) Marine sedimentation and oil accumula-
tion. II Regressive marine offlap and overlap-offlap: Am. Assoc.
Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 252-261.
Mansfield, Wendell C.
1916 Mollusks from the type locality of the Choctawhatchee marl:
U. S. Nat. Mus. Proc., vol. 51, pp. 599-607.
1924 A contribution to the late Tertiary and Quaternary paleon-
tology of northeastern Florida: Florida Geol. Survey 15th Ann.
Rept., pp. 25-51, 2 Pls.
1930 Miocene gastropods and scaphopods of the Choctawhatchee forma-
tion of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 3, 142 pp., 21 Pls.
1932a Miocene pelecypods of the Choctawhatchee formation of Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 8, 240 pp., 3 figs., 34 Pls.
1932b (and Ponton, G. M.) Faunal zones in the Miocene Choctawhat-
chee formation of Florida: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 22,
pp. 84-88.
1935 New Miocene gastropods and scaphopods from Alaqua Creek
Valley, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 12, 64 pp., 5 Pls.
1936a Stratigraphic significance of Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene
Pectinidae in the southeastern United States: Jour. Paleontology,
vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 168-192. 2 Pls.
1936b A new species of "Crassatellites" from the upper Miocene of
Florida: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 26, p. 395.
1937a Mollusks of the Tampa and Suwannee limestones of Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 15, 334 pp.
1937b New Mollusks from the Choctawhatchee formation of Florida:
Jour. Paleontology, vol. 11, pp. 608-612, 1 P1.
Matson, G. C.
1909 (and Clapp, F. G.) A preliminary report on the geology of
Florida with special reference to the stratigraphy: Florida Geol.
Survey 2nd Ann. Rept., 1908-1909, pp. 25-173.
1913 (and Sanford, S.) Geology and ground water of Florida: U. S.
Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 319, 445 pp.
McGuirt, J. H. (See Howe, H. V.)
McLean, James D., Jr.
1950 Later Tertiary foraminiferal zones of the Gulf Coast: Printed
privately by James D. McLean, Jr., Alexandria, Virginia.
Mincher, A. R.
1941 The fauna of the Pascagoula formation: Jour. Paleontology, vol.
15, pp. 337-348, 2 Pls.
Mossom, Stuart (Also see Cooke, C. W.)
1925 A preliminary report on the limestones and marls of Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey 16th Ann. Rept., pp. 28-203.
1926 A review of the structure and stratigraphy of Florida, with
special reference to the petroleum possibilities: Florida Geol.
Survey 17th Ann. Rept., pp. 169-275.










66 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

Moore, Raymond C.
1949 Meaning of facies: Geol. Soc. America Mem. 39, pp. 1-34, 18
figs.
Norton, Richard D.
1930 Ecologic relationship of some Foraminifera: Scripps Instit.
Oceanography, Bull. Tech. ser., vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 331-388.
Parker, Frances L.
1952 Foraminiferal distribution in the Long Island Sound: Harvard
Coll. Mus. Comp. Zoology Bull., vol. 106, no. 10, pp. 427-473,
5 Pls.
Phleger, Fred B., Jr.
1939 Foraminifera of submarine cores from the Continental Slops:
Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol. 50, pp. 1395-1422, 4 figs., 3 Pls.
1942 Foraminifera of submarine cores from the Continental Slope:
Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol. 53, pp. 1073-1098, 6 figs., 3 Pls.
1945 Vertical distribution of Pelagic Foraminifera: Am. Jour. Sci.,
vol. 243, pp. 377-383.
1946 (and Hamilton, Walter A.) Foraminifera of two submarine cores
from the North Atlantic Basin: Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol.
57, pp. 951-966.
1951 Ecology of Foraminifera, Northwest Gulf of Mexico, Pt. 1, Fora-
minifera Distribution: Geol. Soc. America Mem. 46, 88 pp.,
2 Pls., 33 figs., 37 tables.
1952 Foraminifera distribution in some sediment samples from the
Canadian and Greenland Artic: Cushman Found. Foram. Research
Contr., vol. 3, pt. 2, pp. 80-89, Pls. 13, 14.
Ponton, G. M. (See Cushman, J. A.; Mansfield, Wendall C.)
Pope, D. E.
1949 (and Smith, D. J.) The Harang fauna of Louisiana: Louisiana
Geol. Survey Bull. 26, 80 pp., 12 Pls.
Pumpelly, Raphal
1893 An apparent time-break between the Eocene and the Chattahoo-
chee Miocene in southwestern Georgia: Am. Jour. Sci., 3rd ser.,
vol. 46, pp. 445-447.
Puri, Harbans S.
1952a Ostracode genera Cytheretta and Paracytheretta in America:
Jour. Paleontology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 199-212, Pls. 39, 40; 16 text
figs.
1952b Ostracode genus Cytherideis and its allies: Jour. Paleontology,
vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 902-914, Pls. 130, 131, 14 text figs.
1953a The Ostracode genus Trachyleberis and its ally Actinocythereis:
Am. Midland Naturalist, vol. 49, pp. 171-187, 2 Pls.; text figs.
A-G.
1953b Ostracode genus Hemicythere and its allied genera: Jour. Wash-
ington Acad. Sci., vol. 43, pp. 168-179, 2 Pls.
1953c Taxonomic comment on: "Ostracoda from wells in North Carolina.
I. Cenozoic Ostracoda" by F. M. Swain: Jour. Paleontology, vol.
27, pp. 750-752.
Rainwater, E. H.
1945 (with Herring, D., Jr., and Ericson, David B.) Third Field Trip.
Western Florida: Southeastern Geol. Soc., 93 pp., geologic map.
Ritz, C. H. (See Barton, D. C.)
Sanford, S. (See Matson, G. C.)
Scott, Gayle
1940 Paleoecological factor controlling the distribution and mode of
life of Cretaceous Ammonoids in the Texas area: Jour. Paleon-
tology, vol. 14, pp. 299-323, 9 figs.
Sellards, E. H.
1908 Sketch of the geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey 1st Ann.
Rept., pp. 17-25.
1918 (and Gunter, Herman) Geology between the Choctawhatchee and
Apalachicola rivers in Florida: Florida Geol. Survey 10th and
11th Ann. Repts., 1917-1918, pp. 77-102.










CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


1919 Review of the geology of Florida, with special reference to
structural conditions: Florida Geol. Survey 12th Ann. Rept.,
1918-1919, pp. 105-141.
Smith, D. J. (See Pope, D. E.)
Smith, Eugene
1881 On the geology of Florida: Am. Jour. Sci., 3rd ser., vol. 21, pp.
292-309.
1885 Phosphatic rocks of Florida: Science, vol. 5, pp. 395-396.
Smith, Hendee R.
1941 Micropaleontology and stratigraphy of a deep well at Niceville
Okaloosa County, Florida: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull.,
vol. 25, pp. 263-286, 3 figs., 2 Pls.
South Louisiana Geological Society
1944-1945 Progress Report of the geological names and correlation committee,
W. R. Canada, Chairman.
Stanley-Brown, J. (See Dall, W. H.)
Stephenson, M. B.
1935 Some microfossils of the Potamides matsoni zone of Louisiana:
Louisiana Geol. Survey Bull. 6, pp. 187-196.
1938 Miocene and Pliocene Ostracoda of the genus Cytheridea from
Florida: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 12, pp. 127-148, Pls. 23, 24.
Tuomey, M.
1851 Notice on the geology of the Florida Keys, and the southern coast
of Florida: Am. Jour. Sci., 2nd ser., vol. 11, pp. 390-394.
Twenhofel, W. H.
1931 Environment in sedimentation and stratigraphy: Geol. Soc.
America Bull., vol. 42, pp. 407-424.
1942 The rate of deposition of sediments: A major factor connected
with alteration of sediments after deposition: Jour. Sedimentary
Petrology, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 99-110, fig. 1.
Van Voorthuysen, J. H.
1951 The quantitative distribution of the Holocene Foraminifera in the
N. O. Polder: Third International Congress of Sedimentology,
Groningen-Wageningen Proc., pp. 267-272, 1 P1.
V aughan, T. W.
1910 A contribution to the geologic history of the Floridian plateau:
Carnegie Inst. Washington Pub. 133, pp. 99-185.
1914 (and Cooke, C. W.) Correlation of the Hawthorn formation:
Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 250-253.
Veatch, A. C.
1906 Geology and underground water resources of northern Louisiana
and southern Arkansas: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 46, pp.
42-43.
Vernon, Robert 0.
1942 Geology of Holmes and Washington counties, Florida: Florida
Geol. Survey Bull. 21, 161 pp., 20 figs.
1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 33, 256 pp., 2 Pls.
Woodring, W. P.
1925 Miocene mollusks from Bowden, Jamaica: Carnegie Inst., Wash-
ington Pub. 385, pt. 2, p. 90.
























Part II


CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE
MIOCENE OF THE FLORIDA PANHANDLE


FORAMINIFERA










PART II

TABLE OF CONTENTS AND TAXONOMY

The following foraminiferal associations are ascertained in the
Miocene of the Florida Panhandle:
Page
Systematic Treatment --. -----.-. .----------... .......... .... -............ 79

FAMILY Saccamminidae ---. ------ ---. 79
SUBFAMILY Saccammininae ----- 79
GENUS Proteonina Williamson, 1858 -_ 79
SPECIES Proteonina difflugiformis (H. B. Brady) -------- 79
GENUS Leptodermella Rhumbler, 1935 --....- ----- 79
SPECIES Leptodermella arenata (Cushman) .---- 79

FAMILY Textulariidae -.- 79
SUBFAMILY Textulariinae .--- ------------.----... .....- 79
GENUS Textularia Defrance, 1824 ... ... -.-------.....------- 79
SPECIES Textularia agglutinans d'Orbigny --.. .. 79
Textularia articulata d'Orbigny --- 80
Textularia candeiana d'Orbigny .80
Textularia cf. T. dibollensis Cushman and
Applin --------- 80
Textularia floridana Cushman --... ..-- 81
Textularia foliacea occidentalis Cushman .----- 81
Textularia gramen d'Orbigny .---- - 81
Textularia mayor Cushman --.. 82
Textularia warren Cushman and Ellisor .._-- 82
Textularia sp. Cushman and Ponton .- ... 82
GENUS Bigenerina d'Orbigny, 1826 ------ --...-. 82
SPECIES Bigenerina floridana Cushman and Ponton 82
Bigenerina nodosaria textularioidea (Goes) --- 83
Bigenerina sp. ....-..-- ----- 83

FAMILY Valvulinidae . -------- ------- --- 84
SUBFAMILY Valvulininae _------- ------..- 84
GENUS Clavulina d'Orbigny, 1826 -----.---. 84
SPECIES Clavulina tricarinata d'Orbigny --- 84
GENUS Coskinolina Stache, 1875 ----- ---- 84
SPECIES ?Coskinolina sp. -.-- -.---- -- 84

FAMILY Silicinidae -...- ---....- -- ......- - 84
GENUS Miliammina Heron-Allen and Earland, 1930 ...------ 84
SPECIES Miliammina cf. M. fusca (H. B. Brady) ..-------. 84

FAMILY Miliolidae ........ ..-- .......---. ..-----. -- --............ -...-.--- ..- 84
GENUS Quinqueloculina d'Orbigny, 1826 .. --- 84
SPECIES Quinqueloculina candeiana d'Orbigny ----.-----. 84
Quinqueloculina chipolensis Cushman and Pon-
ton .... ...... --- --------- 84
Quinqueloculina contorta d'Orbigny .---- 85
Quinqueloculina costata d'Orbigny -- -- 85
Quinqueloculina crassa d'Orbigny .- -. 86
Quinqueloculina crassa subcuneata Cushman 86
Quinqueloculina lamarckiana d'Orbigny -....... 86
Quinqueloculina seminula (Linn6) -- 86
Quinqueloculina subpoeyana Cushman -..-..... 87
GENUS Flintina Cushman, 1921 ...-........... -........ -- .....-- 87
SPECIES Flintina floridana Cushman and Ponton ---- -. 87
GENUS Massilina Schlumberger, 1893 ..---.....- --------......... 87









SPECIES Massilina bosciana (d'Orbigny) ------....----_ 87
Massilina gunteri Cushman and Ponton .........-- 88
Massilina inaequalis Cushman ..- ------.....-.- 88
Massilina incisa Cushman and Ponton ---------- 88
Massilina quadrans Cushman and Ponton .--.. 88
Massilina spinata Cushman and Ponton .--.....--. 88
Massilina spinata chipolensis Cushman and
Ponton ..........-...... ..... ..- ............ 88
Massilina spinata glabrata Cushman and Ponton 89
Massilina sp. ......~........- .-----......--..........-- 89
GENUS Spiroloculina d'Orbigny, 1826 -------..... ------------- 89
SPECIES Spiroloculina dentata Cushman and Todd .--..-..._ 89
Spiroloculina depressa d'Orbigny -.....--.------- 89
Spiroloculina profunda Cushman and Todd -.... 90
Spiroloculina sp. (?) ------.. 90
GENUS Sigmoilina Schlumberger, 1887 -------- 90
SPECIES Sigmoilina tennis (Czjzek) ----- -.. 90
GENUS Articulina d'Orbigny, 1826 --------------------- 91
SPECIES Articulina advena (Cushman) --- 91
Articulina mayor Cushman .-----.-------------- 91
Articulina miocenica Cushman and Ponton ----- 91
GENUS Hauerina d'Orbigny, 1839 ---- --91
SPECIES Hauerina bradyi Cushman ------91
GENUS Triloculina d'Orbigny, 1826 ---------- 92
SPECIES Triloculina asperula Cushman ----- 92
Triloculina brongniartii d'Orbigny --- 92
Triloculina gracilis d'Orbigny ---- 92
Triloculina oblonga (Montagu) .--..--.-..-.--- 92
Triloculina quadrilateralis d'Orbigny ---..--.. ---93
Triloculina quadrilateralis longicostata Cush-
man and Ponton -_. .......---------------- 93
Triloculina rotunda d'Orbigny _-- ---93
Triloculina schreiberiana d'Orbigny ---- 93
Triloculina trignola (Lamarck) ...--............ 94
GENUS Pyrgo Defrance, 1824 ....---------.-------. 94
SPECIES Pyrgo denticulata (H. B. Brady) ---- -- 94
Pyrgo subsphaerica (d'Orbigny) ---- 95

FAMILY Ophthalmidiidae .--- -----------....--.... 96
SUBFAMILY Cornuspirinae .....- --------- 96
GENUS Cornuspira Schultze, 1854 ----.....-..----------_------ 96
SPECIES Cornuspira involves (Reuss) .----------- 96
SUBFAMILY Nodophthalmidiinae ------ ----------- ---.---- 96
GENUS Vertebralina d'Orbigny, 1826 --- .. 96
SPECIES Vertebralina multilocularis (H. B. Brady,
Parker and Jones) .--.... .------ ------..--- .-- 96

FAMILY Lagenidae --__----- ...- -.--.-.--..----- 96
SUBFAMILY Nodosariinae -...----..-.. .....-- ....... -------- 96
GENUS Robulus Montfort, 1808 -.---....---------------- 96
SPECIES Robulus americanus (Cushman) ..--.........--------- 96
Robulus americanus spinosus (Cushman) ----- 97
Robulus catenulatus (Cushman) ---- 97
Robulus floridanus (Cushman) ---- 97
Robulus iota (Cushman) ................ -----------97
Robulus vaughani (Cushman) --- 98
GENUS Marginulina d'Orbigny, 1826 ----- 98
SPECIES Marginulina dubia Neugeboren -- --------- 98
Marginulina glabra d'Orbigny -------. .------ 98
GENUS Dentalina d'Orbigny, 1826 ---------.------. 99
SPECIES Dentalina communis d'Orbigny --- 99
Dentaliwa consobrina emaciata Reuss .. 99
Dentalina pyrula (d'Orbigny) ----- 100
Dentalina sp. A ..~...---- ----------...-....-...- 100
Dentalina sp. B ....-- ....---.-..---- .------ 100









GENUS Astacolus Montfort, 1808 --..--....----- ----------.. 100
SPECIES Astacolus sp.? (Cushman) ..-------. ----... 100
GENUS Nodosaria Lamarck, 1812 ----------- 100
SPECIES Nodosaria calomorpha Reuss -------- .----... 100
Nodosaria catesbyi d'Orbigny ---------- 101
Nodosaria longiscata d'Orbigny ----- 101
GENUS Saracenaria Defrance, 1824 --------------_ 101
SPECIES Saracenaria acutauricularis (Fitchell and
Moll) ..---...------- --------------------- 101
SUBFAMILY Lageninae ----- ...------....--------....----------- 102
GENUS Lagena Walker and Jacob, 1798 -........-----------------.. 102
SPECIES Lagena clavata (d'Orbigny) .......---------- 102
Lagena costata amphora Reuss ---.-----.-----.- 102
Lagena perlucida (Montagu) ------- .----- 102
Lagena substriata Williamson ------.-.. 103
Lagena sulcata (Walker and Jacob) ---------- 103
GENUS Procerolagena Puri, n. gen. ------- 103
SPECIES Procerolagena gracilis (Williamson) 104

FAMILY Polymorphinidae -_ _------------_ 105
SUBFAMILY Polymorphininae ------- 105
GENUS Polymorphina d'Orbigny, 1826 ---- 105
SPECIES Polymorphina advena Cushman ----- 105
GENUS Pseudopolymorphina Cushman and Ozawa, 1928 ----.- 105
SPECIES Pseudopolymorphina dumblei (Cushman and
Applin) ------------ 105
Pseudopolymorphina rutila (Cushman) -------- 105
GENUS Guttulina d'Orbigny, 1826 --------- 106
SPECIES Guttulina austriaca d'Orbigny --- 106
Guttulina caudata d'Orbigny ----- 106
Guttulina costatula Galloway and Wissler ...-_--- 106
Guttulina irregularis d'Orbigny _-- ---..--.-- 107
Guttulina lactea (Walker and Jacob) -- ----- 107
Guttulina lactea earlandi Cushman and Ozawa 107
Guttulina roemeri (Reuss) ------ 107
GENUS Globulina d'Orbigny, 1826 -----..----------------- 108
SPECIES Globulina gibba d'Orbigny ----- 108
Globulina inaequalis Reuss ----- 108
Globulina inaequalis caribaea d'Orbigny -------- 108
Globulina rotundata (Bornemann) .. -- 109
GENUS Pyrulina d'Orbigny, 1826 -------_.....--- -------.... 109
SPECIES Pyrulina albatrossi Cushman and Ozawa --..----. 109
GENUS Sigmomorphina Cushman and Ozawa, 1928 .------ 109
SPECIES Sigmomorphina pearceyi Cushman and Ozawa 109
Sigmomorphina undulosa (Terquem) 109
Sigmomorphina williamsoni (Terquem) .------- 110

FAMILY Peneroplidae -. -------.....--------------- 110
SUBFAMILY Spirolininae ....---------....-....-.... 110
GENUS Peneroplis Montfort, 1808 _....-----------------------. 110
SPECIES Peneroplis bradyi Cushman ------110
GENUS Puteolina Hofker, 1952 .......--.------- ----------- 111
SPECIES Puteolina proteus (d'Orbigny) .--- 111
GENUS Archaias Montfort, 1808 --- ..- --- 111
SPECIES Archaias sp. .. ------------ 111
GENUS Sorites Ehrenberg, 1840 ---- ----- 111
SPECIES Sorites? sp.? Cushman and Ponton ---- 111

FAMILY Heterohelicidae .-.....- .....---. ~__------- 112
SUBFAMILY Giimbelininae ----.--- 112
GENUS Gilmbelina Egger, 1899 ------- 112
SPECIES ?Giimbelina sp. -112
SUBFAMILY Plectofrondiculariinae .--.--------------....--..-. 112
GENUS Plectofrondicularia Liebus, 1903 ----- 112
SPECIES Plectofrondicularia floridana Cushman --------- 112









Plectofrondicularia mansfieldi Cushman and
Ponton ---............--. .--..-..-.- ----------------- 112
GENUS Amphimorphina Neugeboren, 1850 .--- ---- 112
SPECIES Amphimorphina sp. Cushman and Ponton ------ 112
GENUS Nodogenerina Cushman, 1927 -. .-..--...---...- 113
SPECIES Nodogenerina advena Cushman and Laiming 113

FAMILY Buliminidae ---------....- ----------- --- 113
SUBFAMILY Turrilininae ..-. .._ ........--------------- ---..- 113
GENUS Buliminella Cushman, 1911 ------ 113
SPECIES Buliminella curta Cushman ---- --- 113
Buliminella elegantissima d'Orbigny 113
Buliminella sp. ------------------ 114
SUBFAMILY Bulimininae _--.. .------------------- 114
GENUS Bulimina d'Orbigny, 1826 .. --------- 114
SPECIES Bulimina elongata d'Orbigny .... ---------- 114
Bulimina inflata Seguenza ...---- 114
Bulimina marginata d'Orbigny ---- 114
Bulimina ovata d'Orbigny ----. -------- 115
GENUS Fissurina Reuss, 1850 115
SPECIES Fissurina cf. F. marginato-perforata Seguenza 115
Fissurina orbignyana lacunata (Burrows and
Holland) ------------ -- 115
Fissurina cf. F. striato-punctata (Parker and
Jones) ............--------- 116
GENUS Oolina d'Orbigny, 1839 .-----.... ------ 116
SPECIES Oolina hexagona (Williamson) ..... ...... 116
Oolina hexagona scalariformis (Williamson) .. 117
Oolina quadrata (Williamson) ----- 117
SUBFAMILY Virgulininae .. ---------- -.----- 118
GENUS Virgulina d'Orbigny, 1826 .-- -------118
SPECIES Virgulina fusiformis Cushman -- ---- 118
Virgulina pontoni Cushman ----- 118
Virgulina punctata d'Orbigny ---- --------- 118
Virgulina sp. 119 ... 119
SUBGENUS Virgulinella Cushman, 1932 --- .- 119
SPECIES Virgulina (Virgulinella) gunteri Cushman ---- 119
Virgulina (Virgulinella) gunteri curtata Cush-
man and Ponton -----.------.. .----------. 119
Virgulina (Virgulinella) miocenica Cushman
and Ponton -------------------- 119
GENUS Bolivina d'Orbigny, 1839 ... --------- 120
SPECIES Bolivina advena Cushman -------- 120
Bolivina floridana Cushman .~.... ---- 120
Bolivina marginata Cushman ----- 120
Bolivina marginata multicostata Cushman --.-- 121
Bolivina robusta H. B. Brady --.... -- 121
Bolivina paula Cushman and Cahill ..---- 121
Bolivina plicatella Cushman ------- .. 122
Bolivina plicatella mera Cushman and Ponton 122
Bolivina pulchella primitive Cushman --- 122
Bolivina sp. A ---.--.------- 122
Bolivina sp. B -- ---------..... - 122
GENUS Loxostoma Ehrenberg, 1854 ----....- ---------.-- 123
SPECIES Loxostoma gunteri Cushman ------- 123
SUBFAMILY Reusselinae --------------- 123
GENUS Reussella Galloway, 1933 --..... ------ 123
SPECIES Reussella spinulosa (Reuss) -- -- 123
Reussella cf. R. rectimargo (Cushman) .-..... 123
Reussella sp. -- - 123
GENUS Pavonina d'Orbigny, 1826 -- ----_ 123
SPECIES Pavonina miocenica Cushman and Ponton ----- 123
GENUS Chrysalidinella Schubert, 1907 -..~.------------------- 124
SPECIES Chrysalidinella pulchella (Cushman) -- 124
SUBFAMILY Uvigerininae --- --------- 124
GENUS Uvigerina d'Orbigny, 1826 ---. ----------- 124









SPECIES Uvigerina auberiana d'Orbigny --. ----
Uvigerina parkeri Karrer --- -----
Uvigerina peregrina Cushman ...-----
GENUS Siphogenerinza Schlumberger, 1883 .........----
SPECIES Siphogenerina lamellata Cushman ------
GENUS Angulogenerina Cushman, 1927 --...---...
SPECIES Angulogeneriva occidentalis (Cushman) .........


FAMILY Ellipsoidinidae ------ --
GENUS Parafissurina Parr, 1947 .-_ ....
SPECIES Parafissurina bidens (Cushman)
Parafissurina marginata (Walker


... ----- 127
.--. ---_ 127
--.----. 127
and Jacob) 127


FAMILY Cassidulinidae -.. -- --.....--------- 127
GENUS Cassidulina d'Orbigny, 1826 -- ------- 127
SPECIES Cassidulina crassa d'Orbigny ------ 127
Cassidulina chipolensis Cushman and Ponton 128
Cassidulina laevigata carinata Cushman -------- 128
GENUS Orthoplecta H. B. Brady, 1884 ..------- 128
SPECIES Orthoplecta sp. ...... ..- 128
GENUS Cassidulinoides Cushman, 1927 .. ------- 128
SPECIES Cassidulinoides bradyi (Norman) ----- 128


FAMILY Chilostomellidae
SUBFAMILY Chilostomellinae -.----
GENUS Chilostomella Reuss, 1850 ----
SPECIES Chilostomella oolina Schwager ....
SUBFAMILY Allomorphinellinae ---
GENUS Pullenia Parker and Jones, 1862 ---
SPECIES Pullenia sp. ---...- --


SUPERFAMILY Rotaliidea


-- 129
----------129
..---.------129
------ 129
----130
130
130

-- 130


FAMILY Spirillinidae ... ------- -----130
SUBFAMILY Spirillininae -- --------------- 130
GENUS Planispirillina Bermudez, 1952 130
SPECIES Planispirillina orbicularis (Bagg) ----- 130
SUBFAMILY Patellininae ....-..- -----------. 130
GENUS Patellina Williamson, 1858 ._...- ------------. 130
SPECIES Patellina corrugata Williamson .--- ------- 130

FAMILY Rotaliidae ..-- ....- -....................------------------------ 130
SUBFAMILY Discorbisinae ..- -- ---- 130
GENUS Discorbis Lamarck, 1804 ... ---- 130
SPECIES Discorbis candeiana (d'Orbigny) --. 130
Discorbis candeiana bullata Cushman and
Ponton .------- -- ----- 131
Discorbis consobrina (d'Orbigny) --- 131
Discorbis floridana Cushman --- 131
Discorbis terquemi (Rzchak) ......-- 131
Discorbis valvulata (d'Orbigny) .--.------132
Discorbis sp. -.. ------ 132
GENUS Discopulvinulina Hofker, 1951 --- 132
SPECIES Discopulvinulina berthcloti floridensis (Cush-
man) ------. .- 132
SUBFAMILY Valvulineriinae ------ ------- 133
GENUS Valvulineria Cushman, 1926 --- - 133
SPECIES Valvulineria floridana Cushman --. -- .. 133
GENUS Baggina Cushman, 1926 -------...-- 133
SPECIES Baggina sp. .. ------ --. --- 133
GENUS Eponides Montfort, 1808 -... -.. -... 133
SPECIES Ep'jnides antillarum (d'Orbigny) 133
Eponides repandus (Fichtel and Moll) .....- 133
Eponidles sp. -... .---.-------....- .....-- 134
GENUS Buccella Andersen, 1952 -.. ....--.....--- ..----.-- ...... 134









SPECIES Bucella mansfieldi (Cushman) ------ 134
GENUS Poroeponides Cushman, 1944 _____-------- 134
SPECIES Poroeponides lateralis (Terquem) --- 134
GENUS Epistominella Husezima and Maruhasi, 1944 ...---- 135
SPECIES Epistominella pontoni (Cushman) -- 135
GENUS Cancris Montfort, 1808 .. -------- 135
SPECIES Cancris sagra (d'Orbigny) ------ 135
SUBFAMILY Epistomininae --------- -- 135
GENUS Asterigerina d'Orbigny, 1839 .---- --------... ----- 135
SPECIES Asterigerina carinata d'Orbigny ------ 135
Asterigerina miocenica Cushman and Ponton 135
SUBFAMILY Siphonininae --..--..... ---. ------------ 136
GENUS Siphonina Reuss, 1850 ...------ --.......... ---- 136
SPECIES Siphonina jacksonensis limbosa Cushman -..... 136
SUBFAMILY Rotaliinae .---....--..----... ---------------~ 136
GENUS Rotorbinella Bandy, 1944 --------..--....... ----------. 136
SPECIES Rotorbinella ?rosacea (d'Orbigny) --------136
GENUS Streblus Fischer, 1817 .---.....-------------------...- 136
SPECIES Streblus beccarii parkinsoniana (d'Orbigny) .-- 136
Streblus beccarii tepida Cushman ...----------. 136
Streblus sp. --....-------------.----------- 137

FAMILY Ceratobuliminidae ..----------... -- -------------. 137
GENUS Lamarckina Berthelin, 1881 ..----------- 137
SPECIES Lamarckina atlantica Cushman ----- 137
SUBFAMILY Robertininae -....................---------------- 138
GENUS Robertina d'Orbigny, 1846 -------------- 138
SPECIES Robertina subteres (H. B. Brady) ---- 138

FAMILY Anomalinidae .... ---------------- 138
SUBFAMILY Cibicidinae --..-.----------- 138
GENUS Cibicides Montfort, 1808 ......-- .. --.---- 138
SPECIES Cibicides floridanus (Cushman) .......... ..... 138
Cibicides lobatulus (Walker and Jacob) -...--- 139
Cibicides refulgens (Montfort) ..........-... 139
GENUS Rectocibicides Cushman and Ponton, 1932 .---- -- 140
SPECIES Rectocibicides miocenicus Cushman and Ponton 140
GENUS Hanzawaia Asano, 1944 .----- -- 140
SPECIES Hanzawaia concentrica (Cushman) ----- 140
GENUS Cibicidella Cushman, 1927 ----------.- 140
SPECIES Cibicidella variabilis (d'Orbigny) -. -- 140
GENUS Dyocibicides Cushman and Valentine, 1930 -------141
SPECIES Dyocibicides biserialis Cushman and Valentine 141
GENUS Cycloloculina Heron-Allen and Earland, 1908 -_.--- 141
SPECIES Cycloloculina miocenica Cushman and Ponton 141
GENUS Annulocibicides Cushman and Ponton, 1932 ----- 141
SPECIES Annulocibicides projects Cushman and Ponton 141
SUBFAMILY Planulininae ---. ..---. ... ........----........ 141
GENUS Planulina d'Orbigny, 1826 -. ------...-------. 141
SPECIES Planulina depressa (d'Orbigny) ........... .... 141

FAMILY Amphisteginidae ........ ---------........... 142
GENUS Amphistegina d'Orbigny, 1826 .....-- ----------- 142
SPECIES Amphistegina chipolensis Cushman and Ponton 142
Amphistegina floridana Cushman and Ponton 142
Amphistegina lessonii (d'Orbigny) ------- 142

FAMILY Nonionidae .. --..-... ..- ------ 142
SUBFAMILY Nonioninae ....----...------------- 142
GENUS Nonion Montfort, 1808 .. ------- 142
SPECIES Nonion advenum (Cushman) ... ------- 142
Nonion grateloupi (d'Orbigny) ---...... 144
Nonion pizarrensis Berry .--- -. -- 145
GENUS Astrononion Cushman and Edwards, 1937 .. 145
SPECIES Astrononion glabrellum (Cushman) ..---. 145
GENUS Nonionella Cushman, 1926 --..--...-.....-------............-- . 145









SPECIES Nonionella auris (d'Orbigny) .. --- 145
Nonionella cf. N. turgida (Williamson) -------- 146
SUBFAMILY Elphidiinae ....--------...--..- ----------------- 146
GENUS Elphidium Montfort, 1808 .---.-........------ 146
SPECIES Elphidium advenum (Cushman) ........------.--- 146
Elphidium chipolense (Cushman) .--_--------. 147
Elphidium fimbriatulum (Cushman) .---------- 147
Elphidium incertum (Williamson) ... ......----- 147
Elphidium sagrum (d'Orbigny) ---.---------. 148
Elphidium sp. Cushman ... _---------.......--.. 148
GENUS Elphidiononion Hofker, 1951 _..-------.-...- 148
SPECIES Elphidiononion poeyanum (d'Orbigny) .---..- 148

FAMILY Globigerinidae .....----- -------...----.--... 149
SUBFAMILY Globigerininae ----.....-...------. --------------- 149
GENUS Globigerina d'Orbigny, 1826 ...---.....------ ------- 149
SPECIES Globigerina sp. .. ---. ----...--...-.----.. 149
GENUS Orbulina d'Orbigny, 1839 .........-------------- 149
SPECIES Orbulina universe d'Orbigny .--..-------------- 149

FAMILY Globorotaliidae -- ---------...-..---..... ---.. ----------.---- 150
GENUS Globorotalia Cushman, 1927 ------..- ------------- 150
SPECIES Globorotalia menardii (d'Orbigny) .-.. -- 150

FAMILY Planorbulinidae ...--..---------------------..-.....-- 150
SUBFAMILY Planorbulininae -.- .----------------------------- 150
GENUS Acervulina Schultze, 1854 ...------------ ------- 150
SPECIES Acervulina chipolensis Cushman and Ponton --- 150
Acervulina inhaerens Schultze ..-- .----.---- 150
SUBFAMILY Gypsininae -.....---------- _--.-----. 151
GENUS Gypsina Carter, 1877 __ _----------_ 151
SPECIES Gypsina vesicularis (Parker and Jones) -..----- 151




ILLUSTRATIONS

Plates Page
1-30 .- - -- -........-.---------- 153

Tables
1 Distribution of the Textulariidae in the Miocene of the Florida
Panhandle -..-. .- ..- .. .-.-. --. 83
2 Distribution of the Miliolidae in the Miocene of the Florida
Panhandle _. .----.------- -. ------- ...... 95
3 Distribution of the Lagenidae in the Miocene of the Florida
Panhandle --- ..-- .---- 104
4 Distribution of the Polymorphinidae in the Miocene of the
Florida Panhandle ---.......- --- -.-----....- 110
5 Distribution of the Peneroplidae in the Miocene of the
Florida Panhandle . -- ....-... 112
6 Distribution of the Buliminidae in the Miocene of the Florida
Panhandle .. --.-- -.. 126
7 Distribution of the Cassidulinidae in the Miocene of the Florida
Panhandle -. ------ ---------- ..... 129
8 Distribution of the Rotalidae in the Miocene of the Florida
Panhandle -. .--. -- -.- -- .- 137
9 Distribution of the Anomalinidae in the Miocene of the Florida
Panhandle ... .. - ---- -- 142
10 Distribution of the Amphisteginidae in the Miocene of the
Florida Panhandle -. .-.... ----.-- .. 143
11 Distribution of the Nonionidae in the Miocene of the Florida
Panhandle --...----.... ----...- -....---------------------- 149











Part II


SYSTEMATIC TREATMENT

In the following pages will be found the known species of
various genera of Foraminifera that occur in the Miocene of the
Florida Panhandle. The species are arranged by their geologic
sequence on the plates, but only the dominant and diagnostic species
of the various facies are refigured. Cushman (1930) and Cushman
and Ponton (1932) did a comprehensive job of describing and il-
lustrating the foraminiferal fauna. In part, their original drawings
were rearranged by the geologic sequence of the diagnostic species
and are reproduced in the end of this report. A comprehensive syn-
onomy of the species is included in the systematic part and the
nomenclature followed here is that which is in current use. Notes
on the diagnostic characteristic of species, whenever they seem
pertinent, are added. The reader is referred to Cushman (1930)
and Cushman and Ponton (1932) for more specific details.

Family SACCAMMINIDAE
Subfamily SACCAMMININAE
Genus PROTEONINA Williamson, 1858
Proteonina difflugiformis (H. B. Brady)
Plate 27, figs. 6, 7.
'roteon-mia diflugiformis (H. B. Brady) (?), Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 4, p. 15, pl. 1, figs. la, b.
.-...-- -- Cushman and Ponton, 1932, idem., Bull. 9, p. 39.
Typical specimens of this species occur at the Arca facies locality
no. 26 and Cancellaria facies locality no. 58.

Genus LEPTODERMELLA Rhumbler, 1935
Leptodermella arenata (Cushman)
Plate 27, figs. 4, 5
Pseudarcella arenata Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 4, p. 15, pl.
1, figs. 3a, b.
- .-----.---- Cushman and Ponton, 1932, idem., Bull. 9, p. 39.
Typical specimens of this species occur at the Arca facies locality
no. 24 and Cancellaria faces locality no. 58.

Family TEXTULARIIDAE
Subfamily TEXTULARIINAE
Genus TEXTULARIA Defrance, 1824
Textularia agglutinans d'Orbigny
Plate 14, figs. 9, 10
Textularia agglutinans d'Orbigny, 1839, in De la Sagra, Historia fisca,










80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

political y natural de la isla de Cuba, Foraminiferes, p. 136, pl. 1, figs. 17,
18, 32-34.
------..........-------- ------- H. B. Brady, 1884, Challenger Rept., vol. 9, p. 363, pl.
43, fig. 1.
-.--.--.--- Cushman, 1922, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 104, Pt. 3, p. 7,
pl. 1, figs. 4, 5.
---.-_-----... ......... Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 4, p. 16, pl.
1, figs. 4a, b.
---------------... Cushman and Ponton, 1932, idem., Bull. 9, p. 39.
-......--.. ....------------ Lalicker and Bermudez, 1941, Torreia, Habana, No. 8,
p. 6, pl. 1, fig. 7.
--. -----..---. Bermudez, 1949, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Special
Publ. 25, p. 57, pl. 2, figs. 7, 8.
Typical specimens of this species occur at the Chipola facies
locality no. 10 and the Shoal River facies locality no. 18.

Textularia articulata d'Orbigny
Textularia articulata d'Orbigny, 1846, Foram. Foss. Bass. Tert. Vienne, p.
250, pl. 15, figs. 16-18.
------------- Cushman and Ellisor, 1945, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 19,
p. 547, pl. 71, fig. 11.
Typical specimens of this species occur at the Chipola facies
localities nos. 3, 9; the Arca facies localities nos. 24, 25, 26, 27, 28,
30, 31, 32; and the Ecphora facies locality no. 37.

Textularia candeiana d'Orbigny
Plate 30, figs. 9, 10
Textularia candeiana d'Orbigny, 1839, in De la Sagra, Historia fisca, politic.
y natural de la isla de Cuba, Foraminif6res, p. 143, pl. 1, figs. 25-27.
-.-.---- ----- Cushman, 1922, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 104, Pt. 3, p. 8, p:.
1, figs. 1-3.
---_ ----- Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey Bull.
9, p. 41, pl. 8, figs. 4a, b.
---.-.-....-.----------...--. Lalicker and McCulloch, 1940, Allan Hancock Pacifio
Exped., vol. 6, No. 2, p. 121, pl. 13, fig. 7.
--.-.-.---.-.-.- ---------...... Lalicker and Bermudez, 1941, Torreia, Habana, No. F.
p. 8, pl. 2, fig. 4.
-.-.....--------.----.-....-.. Galloway and Heminway, 1941, New York Acad. Sci,
vol. 3, Pt. 4, p. 329, pl. 8, fig. 5.
P--...----.... -----.....----- Bermudez, 1949, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Special
Publ. 25, p. 60, pl. 2, figs. 28-30.
Typical specimens of this species occur at the Arca facies local-
ity no. 28 and the Cancellaria facies locality no. 49.

Textularia cf. T. dibollensis Cushman and Applin
Textularia dibollensis Dumble, 1924, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists.
vol. 8, p. 443 (nomen nudum).
6-----..... ...------------ 1. Cushman and Applin, 1926, idem., vol. 10, p. 165, pi.
6, figs. 12-14.
--------..---- Ellisor, 1933, idem., vol. 11, pl. 1, fig. 4.
-............----------- -.-- Cushman, 1935, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p.
8, pl. 1, figs. 13-16.
This species is represented by some broken tests at the Cancel-
laria facies locality no. 58.










CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


Textularia floridana Cushman
Plate 18, figs. 1, 2
Textularia transversaria Flint (not H. B. Brady), 1897 (1899), Rept. U. S.
Nat. Mus., p. 283, pl. 28, fig. 4.
Textularia floridana Cushman, 1922, Carnegie Instit. Washington, Publ. 311,
p. 24, pl. 1, fig. 7.
-..--.. --... ------........ Cushman, 1922, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 3, p. 18,
pl. 2, figs. 11, 12.
-..------ -....... .------- Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 4, p. 18,
pl. 1, figs. 9a, b.
---...-......------ -----... Cushman and Ponton, 1932, idem., Bull. 9, p. 41.

This species has its smooth, elongate, (two to three times as
long as broad), much compressed test with the sides nearly paral-
lel in the adult. The chambers are numerous, thickest near the
center; suture nearly at right angles to the periphery. It occurs
commonly at the Cancellaria locality nos. 49 and 51 and so far as
is known, it is confined to the Cancellaria facies.


Textularia folicaea occidentalis Cushman
Plate 18, figs. 3, 4, 5
Textularia concava Flint (part) (not Karrer), 1897 (1899), Rept. U. S. Nat.
Mus., p. 283.
Iextularia foliacea Heron-Allen and Earland, var. occidentalis Cushman, 1922,
U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 104, pt. 3, p. 16, pl. 2, fig. 13.
---...-.--.--. --.---------- Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey Bull.
9, pp. 41-42, pl. 1, figs. 4, 5.

This species is characterized by its coarsely arenaceous, rough,
broadly rhomboid, very compressed test with comparatively few
but large chambers. The sutures are distinct and straight. It oc-
curs commonly at the Cancellaria locality no. 58 and has not been
observed at any other part of the section.


Textularia gramen d'Orbigny
Plate 30, figs. 7, 8
Textularia gramen d'Orbigny, 1846, Foram. Foss. Vienne, p. 248, pl. 15, figs.
4-6.
...........--------- ---..... Cushman, 1918, U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 676, pp. 8, 45,
pl. 9, fig. 5 (not 2 and 3).
-.-.................---------- Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 4, p. 17, pl.
1, figs. 5a, b.
----.-.....-...... ...--------- Cushman and Ponton, 1932, idem., Bull. 9, p. 39.

This species is characterized by its compressed, slightly longer
than broad, subacute test with early chambers strongly overlapping.
It occurs commonly at the Chipola locality no. 12; and Arca locality
no. 24; and Cancellaria locality no. 57, but it is more abundant in
the Cancellaria locality.









82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

Textularia mayor Cushman
Plate 20, figs. 7, 8
Textularia gramen Cushman (in part) (not d'Orbigny), 1918, U. S. Geol.
Survey Bull. 676, pl. 9, figs. 2, 3 (not 5).
Textularia mayor Cushman, 1922, Carnegie Instit. Washington, Publ. 311, p.
23, pl. 2, fig. 3.
S---------- Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 4, p. 17, pl.
1, figs. 6-8.
...------..-- ----- Cushman and Ponton, 1932, idem., Bull. 9, p. 40, pi.
1, figs. 2, 3.
This species is characterized by compressed test, rapidly in-
creasing in breadth, with often indistinct chambers, each with an
elongate, hollow spine; those of the earlier chambers directed back-
ward. It occurs commonly at the Ecphora localities nos. 38, 40 and
Cancellaria localities nos. 48, 50, 52, 53, 54, 55, and 58. Cushman
(1930, p. 40) also recorded this species from the Yoldia and the
Shoal River facies but the present study did not reveal its occurrence
in beds older in age than the Ecphora-Cancellaria facies of the
Choctawhatchee Stage.

Textularia warren Cushman and Ellisor
Plate 10, figs. 1, 2
Textularia warren Cushman and Ellisor, 1931, Contr. Cushman Lab. Foranm.
Res., vol. 7, p. 51, pl. 7, figs. 2a, b.
------.------- ---- Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey Bull.
9, p. 42, pl. 1, figs. 6a, b.
This species is characterized by its rather smooth, much com-
pressed, broad test with subacute periphery with median line some-
what raised. Sutures are distinct and raised. It occurs commonly
at the Shoal River localities nos. 17, 18, 19 and 20 and is an excel-
lent marker for the Shoal River facies.

Textularia sp. Cushman and Ponton
Plate 14, figs. 4, 5
Textularia sp.? Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 9.
p. 42, pl. 1, figs. 7a, b.
This species occurs at the Chipola facies locality no. 3 and the
Shoal River facies locality no. 17.

Genus BIGENERINA d'Orbigny, 1826
Bigenerina floridana Cushman and Ponton
Plate 11, figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Bigenerina floridana Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey Bull.
9, pp. 42, 43, pl. 1, figs. 9-12.
Typical specimens of this species occur at the Oak Grove facies
locality no. 15 and the Shoal River facies localities nos. 17 and 20.










CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


Bigenerina nodosaria textularioidea (Gods)
Plate 22, fig. 13
Textularia sagitttla Defrance, forma bigenerina Goes, 1882, Kingl. Svensk.
Vet. Akad. Handle vol. 19, Pt. 4, p. 78, pl. 5, figs. 159-160.
Clavulina textularioidea Goes, 1894, idem. vol. 25, p. 42, pl. 8, figs. 387-399.
Bigeverina nodosaria Flint, 1897 (1899), U. S. Nat. Mus. Rept., p. 286, pl. 31,
fig. 4.
.... .. .- Cushman, 1922, Carnegie Instit. Washington, Publ. 311,
p. 25, pl. 2, figs. 5, 6.
Bigenerina nodosaria d'Orbigny, var. textularioidea (Goes), Cushman, 1922,
U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 103, p. 25, pl. 5, figs. 8, 9.
.. Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey Bull.
9, p. 42, pl. 1, fig. 8.
Cushman and Cahill, 1933, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof.
Paper 175-A, p. 8, pl. 1, fig. 14.
S Lalicker and Bermudez, 1941, Torreia, Habana, No. 8,
p. 4, pl. 1, fig. 2.
-- Bermudez, 1949, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res. Special
Publ. 25, p. 67, pl. 3, figs. 1, 2.
Typical specimens of this species occur at the Arca facies lo-
cality no. 24; and the Ecphora faces locality no. 37.


Bigenerina sp.
Incomplete specimens of this species occur at the Chipola facies
localities nos. 8, 9, 10, and 12. They may represent broken tests
of Bigenerina nodosaria textularioidea (GoBs).



TABLE 1
DISTRIBUTION OF TEXTULARIIDAE IN THE MIOCENE
OF THE FLORIDA PANHANDLE




Genus and Species o. .0 .
Z; 0 g -U 0C ~ 0 0C0


Textularia agglutinans
Textularia articulata
Textularia candeiana
Textularia cf. T. dibollensis
Textularia floridana
Textularia foliacea occidentalis
Textularia gramen
Textularia mayor
Textularia warren
Textularia sp.
Bigenerina floridana
Bigenerina nodosaria
textularioidea
Bigenerina sp.










84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

Family VALVULINIDAE
Subfamily VALVULININAE
Genus CLAVULINA d'Orbigny, 1826
Clavulina tricarinata d'Orbigny
Plate 1, figs. 1, 2
Clavulina tricarinata d'Orbigny, 1839, in De la Sagra Historia fisca, political
y natural de la isla de Cuba, Foraminif6res, p. 111, pl. 2, figs. 16-18.
Valvulina triangularis d'Orbigny, forma Clavulina angularis Gois, 1882,
K6ngl. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Handl., vol. 19, p. 86, pl. 11, figs. 387-389.
Clavulina tricarinata Cushman, 1922, Carnegie Instit. Washington, Publ. 311,
pp. 29, 30, pl. 3, fig. 3.
--------- --. Cushman, 1922, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 104, Pt. 3, p. 89,
pl. 17, figs. 3, 4.
--.-.---..-- Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey Bull.
9, p. 43, pl. 1, figs. 13a, b.
---- --------- -- Bermudez, 1935, Mem. Soc. Cubana Hist. Nat., vol. 9,
p. 154, pl. 11, figs. 4-6.
-. --------- Galloway and Heminway, 1941, New York Acad. Sci.,
vol. 3, Pt. 4, p. 326, pl. 7, fig. 8.
---------- Bermudez, 1949, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res. Special
Publ. 25, p. 79, pi. 4, figs. 11, 12.
Typical specimens of this species occur at the Chipola facies
localities nos. 3 and 11.

Genus COSKINOLINA Stache, 1875
?Coskinolina sp.
Eroded specimens of this species occur at the Arca facies locality
no. 26.

Family SILICINIDAE
Genus MILIAMMINA Heron-Allen and Earland, 1930
Miliammina cf. M. fusca (H. B. Brady)
Plate 21, figs. 1, 2, 3
Quinqueloculina agglutinans H. B. Brady, 1865, Trans. Nat. Hist. Northum.
and Durham, vol. 1, pp. 87, 95.
Quinqueloculina fusca H. B. Brady, 1870, Ann. and Mag. Nat. History, ser. 4,
vol. 6, p. 286, pl. 11, figs. 2, 3.
Quinqueloculina cf. fusca Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 4, p. 19,
pl. 1, figs. 11, 12.
------------ ....Cushman and Ponton, 1932, idem., Bull. 9, p. 43.
This species occurs at the Ecphora facies locality no. 47 and
the Cancellaria facies localities nos. 53 and 54.

Family MILIOLIDAE
Genus QUINQUELOCULINA d'Orbigny, 1826
Quinqueloculina candeiana d'Orbigny
Plate 1, figs. 3, 4, 5
Quinqueloculina candeiana d'Orbigny, 1839, in De la Sagra, Historia fisca,
political y natural de la isla de Cuba, Foraminiferes, p. 199, pl. 12, figs.
24-26.










CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


--.----........---------..... Cushman, 1922, Carnegie Instit. Washington, Publ.
311, p. 65, pl. 13, fig. 1.
-.-.---.. ......... _.... ------ Cushman, 1926, idem., Publ. 344, p. 81.
..-..-.-....-.-..._---------- Cushman, 1929, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 104, Pt. 6, p. 27,
pl. 3, fig. 1.
---....--.-------.--.-.------- Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey Bull.
9, p. 44, pl. 2, figs. la-c.
Typical specimens of this species occur at the Chipola faces
locality no. 12.

Quinqueloculina chipolensis Cushman and Ponton
Plate 1, figs. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
Quinqueloculina chipolensis Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 9, pp. 45-46, pl. 3, figs. 1-3.
This species is characterized by its subcircular test in side view,
sharp peripheral angle and keeled and regular fine pitting extending
over the entire surface. It occurs commonly at the Chipola facies
locality no. 9 and is a good marker for the Chipola facies.

Quinqueloculina contorta d'Orbigny
Plate 17, figs. 1, 2, 3
Quinqueloculina contorta d'Orbigny, 1846, Foram. Foss. Vienne, p. 298, pl.
20, figs. 4-6.
-.-..-.----- .--c.-- Cushman, 1929, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 104, pt. 6, p. 29,
pi. 3, figs. 6a-c.
S-.-.-~.-.- Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 4, p. 20,
pl. 2, figs. 6a-c.
..-..-..-.-.- .---Cushman and Ponton, 1932, idem., Bull. 9, p. 44.
This species is characterized by its somewhat longer than broad
test, polygonal chambers in cross section, slightly concave or flat-
tened sides and periphery and a smooth surface. It occurs commonly
in the Ecphora facies localities nos. 40, 44 and 47 and is an excellent
marker for the Ecphora facies.

Quinqueloculina costata d'Orbigny
Plate 28, figs. 1, 2, 3
Quinqueloculina costata d'Orbigny, 1826, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, p. 301, No. 3.
-------.----- -------.. Terquem, 1878, Mem. Soc. G6ol. France, s6r. 3, vol. 1,
p. 63, pl. 6 (11), figs. 3a-c.
Miliolina costata Heron-Allen and Earland, 1915, Trans. Zool. Soc. London,
vol. 20, p. 579, pl. 44, figs. 9-12.
Quinqueloculina costata Cushman, 1917, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 71, pt. 6, p. 49,
pl. 15, fig. 1.
------- -------- Cushman, 1922, Carnegie Instit. Washington Publ. 311,
p. 66, pl. 11, fig. 5.
..----................ ------.. Cushman, 1929, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 6, p. 31,
pl. 3, figs. 7a-c.
---.....-- --.-.------.--.-.-. Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey Bull.
9, pp. 44, 45, pl. 2, figs. 2, 3.
This species is characterized by its somewhat longer than broad
test, rounded periphery, distinct and inflated chambers which are
rounded in cross section. The surface ornamentation consists of









86 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

very distinct, longitudinal costae which are oblique to the periphery.
It occurs commonly at the Arca locality no. 28; Cancellaria locality
no. 57, and Chipola locality no. 12.

Quinqueloculina crassa d'Orbigny
Quinquelocliina crassa d'Orbigny, 1825, Ann. Sci. Nat., p. 135 (nomen nudum).
.- ---.--. -- ------. Fornasini, 1905, Accad. Sci. Instit. Bologna, ser. 6, vol.
2, p. 65, pl. 3, fig. 52-b.
Typical specimens of this species are reported from the Chipola
facies localities nos. 1, 2, 6 and 10. This species has not been ob-
served in any other part of the section.

Quinqueloculina crassa subcuneata Cushman
Plate 14, figs. 1, 2, 3
Miliolina crassa Heron-Allen and Earland (part) (not d'Orbigny), 1915,
Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 20, p. 572, pl. 42, fig. 41 (not 37-40).
QuinquelocUlina crassa d'Orbigny, var. subcuneata Cushman, 1921, U. S. Nat.
Mus. Bull. 100, vol. 4, p. 423, pl. 89, figs. 4a-c.
-- - Cushman, 1924, Carnegie Instit. Washington Publ. 342,
p. 62, pl. 23, fig. 7.
.-.-. --------.-. Cushman, 1929, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 104, pt. 6, p. 30,
pl. 5, figs. la-c.
.---.--- ...---. Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey Bull.
9, p. 45, pl. 2, figs. 5a-c.
This species is characterized by its short and broad'test, wedge-
shaped chambers, sharp periphery and obscure costate surface or-
namentation. It occurs commonly at the Chipola facies locality
no. 12, and the Oak Grove facies locality no. 16.

Quinqueloculina lamarckiana d'Orbigny
Quinqueloculina lamarckiana d'Orbigny, 1839, in De la Sagra, Historia fisca,
political y natural de la isla de Cuba, Foraminiferes, p. 189, pl. 11, figs. 14,
15.
Quinqueloculina cuvieriana Cushman, 1919 (not d'Orbigny), Carnegie Instit.
Washington Publ. 291, p. 69.
Quinqueloculina lamarckiana Cushman, 1929, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 104, Pt. 6,
p. 26, pl. 2, fig. 6.
Quinqucloculina cf. Q. lamarckiana Cushman and Stainforth, 1945, Cushman
Lab. Foram. Res. Special Publ. 14, p. 20, pl. 2, fig. 14.
Quinqueloculina lamarckiana Bermudez, 1949, idem., Special Publ. 25, p. 101,
pl. 6, fig. 5.
Typical specimens of this species occur at the Chipola facies
locality no. 4; the Ecphora facies locality no. 37; and the Cancellaria
facies localities nos. 54, and 57.

Quinqueloculina seminula (Linn6)
"Conchula minima arcte in se contorta, etc." Plancus 1739, De Conchis min.
not., p. 19, pl. 11, figs. 1A, B, C.
"Tubulus marinus inregulariter intortus vermicularis" Gualtieri, 1742, Index
Test., pl. 10, fig. S.
Sepula seminulum Linnaeus, 1767, Syst. Nat. ed. 12, p. 1264.









CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


Quinqueloculina seminulum d'Orbigny, 1826, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, p. 303.
Miliolina seminulum Williamson, 1858, Rec. Foram. Gt. Britain, p. 85, pl. 7,
figs. 183-185.
--.-------- -- Brady, 1884, Challenger Rept., p. 157, pl. 5, fig. 6.
Quinqueloculina seminulum Cushman, 1918, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 103, p. 78,
pl. 27, figs. 4a, b; pl. 28, figs. 1-3; pl. 29, figs. la-e.
.-..- --.... --....--.. ..... Cushman, 1918, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 676, pp. 22,
70, pl. 1, fig. 8; pl. 28, figs. 2, 4, 5; pl. 29, fig. 1.
.-....--.....- .... .-----.-- Cushman, 1929, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 104, p. 24, pl. 2,
figs. 1, 2.
Quinqueloculina seminula Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 4, p. 19,
pl. 2, figs. 1, 2.
Quinqueloculina seminulum Galloway and Heminway, 1941, New York Acad.
Sci., vol. 3, Pt. 4, p. 305, pl. 2, fig. 8.
---.. Bermudez, 1949, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res. Special
Publ. 25, p. 102, pl. 6, fig. 6.
Typical specimens of this species occur at the Arca facies
locality no. 27 and at the Cancellaria faces locality no. 58.

Quinquelocuhna subpoeyana Cushman
Plate 13, figs. 7, 8, 9
Quinqueloculina subpoeyana Cushman, 1922, Carnegie Instit. Washington
Publ. 311, p. 66.
--.. ......--- -.-..-.. Cushman, 1929, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 6, p. 31,
pl. 5, figs. 3a-c.
Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 4, p. 21,
pl. 2, figs. 7a, b.
------- Cushman and Ponton, 1932, idem., Bull. 9, p. 44, pl.
2. figs. 4a-c.
This species is characterized by its elongate (two and a half
times as long as wide) test, rounded periphery and distinct cham-
bers. The ornamentation consists of numerous irregularly toothed
costae. It is common at the Chipola facies locality no. 12 and the
Shoal River facies locality no. 20. It is very rare in the Chocta-
whatchee Stage.

Genus FLINTINA Cushman, 1921
Flintina floridana Cushman and Ponton
Plate 16, figs. 1, 2, 3
Flintina floridana Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 9,
p. 55, pl. 7, figs. 3-6.
Typical specimens of this species occur at the Arca facies
localities nos. 25, 26, 28 and 34.

Genus MASSILINA Schlumberger, 1893
Massilina bosciana (d'Orbigny)
Plate 2, figs. 4. 5, 6
Quinqueloculina bosciana d'Orbigny, 1839, in De la Sagra, Historia fis-l,
political y natural de la isla de Cuba, Foraminiferes, p. 191, pl. 11, figs.
22-24.
Massilina bosciana Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey Bull.
9, p. 46, pl. 3, figs. 5a-c.









88 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

Typical specimens of this species occur at the Chipola facies
locality no. 1.

Massilina gunteri Cushman and Ponton
Plate 18, figs 6, 7, 8
Massilina gunteri Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 9,
p. 47, pl. 4, figs. la-c.
Typical specimens of this species occur at the Cancellaria facies
locality no. 51.
Massilina inaequalis Cushman
Plate 2, figs. 1, 2, 3
Massilina inaequalis Cushman, 1921, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 59, p. 72,
pl. 17, figs. 12, 13.
----.------. --. Cushman, 1929, idem., Bull. 104, pt. 6, p. 38, pl. 7,
figs. 6a-c.
--__---._---- -_.. -- -- Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 9,
p. 46, pl. 3, figs. 4a-c.
Typical representatives of this species occur at the Chipola facies
locality no. 12. It has not been found at any other locality through-
out the Miocene.

Massilina incisa Cushman and Ponton
Plate 3, figs. 1, 2, 3
Massilina incisa Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 9, p.
47, pl. 4, figs. 1, 2-6.
Typical specimens of this species occur at the Chipola facies
locality no. 12.

Massilina quadrans Cushman and Ponton
Plate 2, figs. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
Massilina quadrans Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey Bull.
9, p. 47, pl. 3, figs. 6-8.
Typical specimens of this species occur at the Chipola facies
localities nos. 1 and 2.

Massilina spinata Cushman and Ponton
Plate 3, figs. 4, 5, 6
Massilina spinata Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 9,
p. 48, pl. 5, figs. 1-3.
Typical specimens of this species occur at the Chipola facies
locality no. 12.

Massilina spinata chipolensis Cushman and Ponton
Plate 3, figs. 7, 8, 9
Massilina spinata Cushman and Ponton, var. chipolensis Cushman and Ponton,
1932, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 9, pp. 48, 49, pl. 5, figs. 4-6..










CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


Typical specirhens of this species occur at Chipola facies locality
no. 12.

Massilina spinata glabrata Cushman and Ponton
Plate 4, figs. 1, 2, 3
Massilina spinata Cushman and Ponton, var. glabrata Cushman and Ponton,
1932, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 9, p. 49, pl. 5, figs. 7a, b, c.
This variety differs from the typical species in having a smooth
surface and tooth-like projections reduced or even missing. It
occurs at the Chipola facies localities nos. 3 and 12.

Massilina sp.
This species is reported from the Ecphora facies locality no. 44.
Imperfection of the test prevents a specific identification.

Genus SPIROLOCULINA d'Orbigny, 1826
Spiroloculina dentata Cushman and Todd
Plate 20, figs. 3, 4
Spiroloculina planulata Cushman and Valentine, 1930, (not Lamarck), Contr.
Dept. Geol. Stanford Univ., vol. 1, p. 15, pl. 4, fig. 3.
_.----..---....---.-- Cushman and Todd, 1944 (n. name), Cushman Lab.
Foram. Res. Special Publ. 11, pp. 71, 72, pl. 9, figs. 33, 34.
Typical specimens of this species occur at the Arca facies
localities nos. 34, 35 and the Ecphora facies localities nos. 42, 47.

Spiroloculina depressa d'Orbigny
Plate 17, figs. 6, 7
Spiroloculina depressa d'Orbigny, 1826, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, p. 298.
--..-......---. ----.. ..--...--.. d'Orbigny, 1826, Mod. No. 92.
-............. .. .................... GuBrin-Men6ville's Cuvier, 1829-43, Iconographie, Mol-
lusques, p. 10, pl. 3, fig. 7.
Spiroloculina badenensis d'Orbigny, 1846, Foram. Foss. Vienne, p. 270, pl. 16,
figs. 13-15.
Spiroloculina dilatata d'Orbigny, 1846, ibid, p. 271, pl. 16, figs. 16-18.
Spiroloculina sandbergeri Reuss, 1853, Neues Jahrb. fir Min., p. 671, pl. 9, fig. 2.
Spiroloculina depressa Parker, Jones and Brady, 1865, Ann. and Mag. Nat.
Hist., ser. 3, vol. 16, p. 33, pl. 1, fig. 6.
--.....-.... -----..-.-...... -.... Parker, Jones and Brady, 1871, idem., ser. 4, vol. 8,
p. 248, pl. 8, fig. 23.
--.---. ------.-- Terquem, 1875, Essai Class Anim. Dunkerque, Pt. 1,
p. 38, pl. 5, fig. 18.
-...-..----.....~..--..-......... .. Terquem, 1878, M6m. Soc. gaol. France, ser. 3, vol. 1,
p. 54, pl. 5 (10), fig. 11.
.--.......... ----------.. -.. Schlumberger, 1893, M6m. Soc. zool. France, vol. 6,
p. 202, pl. 3, fig. 69, text fig. 2.
..-----...........-............... Fornasini, 1904, Mem. Accad. Sci. Instit., Bologna, ser.
6, vol. 1, p. 3, pl. 1, fig. 1.
Spiroloculina libyca Martinotti, 1920, Atti. Soc. Ital. Nat., vol. 59, p. 271, pl.
2, figs. 9, 10, text figs. 40-42.
Spiroloculina depressa Cushman, 1929, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 104, p. 44, pl. 9,
fig. 9 (not fig. 8).










90 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

------ -..--- Hofker, 1932, Publ. Stat. Zool. Napoli, vol. 12, Pt. 1,
p. 100, text fig. 20.
Colom, 1942, Instit. Espanol Oceanografia, Notas y Re-
sumenes ser. 2, No. 108, p. 27, pl. 6, figs. 114, 115.
.- --.---------- Cushman and Todd, 1944, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res.,
Special Publ. 11, pp. 28-30, pl. 1, figs. 1, 6; pl. 5, figs. 1-9.
Typical specimens of this species occur at the Ecphora faces
locality no. 40.

Spiroloculina profunda Cushman and Todd
Spiroloculina antillarum Cushman, 1918 (not d'Orbigny), U. S. Geol. Survey
Bull. 676, p. 21, pl. 8, fig. 2.
Spiroloculina excavata Cushman, 1918 (not d'Orbigny), ibid, p. 21, pl. 6, fig. 6.
Spiroloculina antillarum d'Orbigny, var. angulata Cole, 1931 (not Cushman),
Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 6, p. 23, pl. 2, fig. 14.
Spiroloculina grateloupi Cushman and Ponton, 1932 (not d'Orbigny), idem,
Bull. 9, p. 49.
Spiroloculina profunda Cushman and Todd, (n. name) 1944, Cushman Lab.
Foram. Res. Special Publ. 11, pp. 38, 39, pl. 6, fig. 14.
Typical specimens of this series occur at the Chipola facies
locality no. 9.

Spiroloculina sp. (?)
Spiroloculina sp.(?) Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 4, p. 22, pl.
3, fig. 3.
This peculiarly ornamented species occurs rarely at the Can-
cellaria facies locality no. 58.


Genus SIGMOILINA Schlumberger, 1887
Sigmoilina tenuis (Czjzek)
Plate 14, figs. 6, 7, 8
Quinqueloculina tennis Czjzek, 1848, Haidinger's Nat. Abhandl., vol. 2, p. 149,
pl. 13, figs. 31-34.
-------------------- Reuss, 1850, Denkschr. k. Akad. Wiss. Wien., vol. 1, p.
385, pl. 1, fig. 8.
---.~..-.. .. -- ...... Reuss, 1850, Zeitschr. deutsche geol. Gesell., vol. 3, p.
87, pl. 7, fig. 60.
Spiroloculina tennis Reuss, 1867, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien., vol. 55, p. 71, pl.
1, fig. 11.
-. ..... ...- -.......... Brady, 1884, Challenger Rept., vol. 9, p. 152, pl. 10, figs.
7-11.
Sigmoilina tenuis Cushman, 1929, Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., vol. 5,
Pt. 4, p. 81, pl. 12, figs. 12-14.
---- -- -- Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 4, p. 22, pl.
2, fig. 8.
---.. .-- -.- Cushman and Stainforth, 1945, Cushman Lab. Foram.
Res., Special Publ. 14, p. 21, pl. 2, fig. 19.
----- .... Cushman and Todd, 1945, idem., Special Publ. 15, p.
10, pl. 2, fig. 4.
i--- .........-- -Bermudez, 1949, idem., Special Publ. 25, p. 108, pl. 6,
fig. 32.
Typical specimens of this species occur at the Chipola facies
locality no. 1 and at the Shoal River locality no. 18.










CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF THE MIOCENE


Genus ARTICULINA d'Orbigny, 1826
Articulina advena (Cushman)
Plate 6, figs. 1, 2
Vertebralina advena Cushman, 1922, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 129-E,
p. 102, pl. 25, figs. 5, 6.
..----..--.--....-----------... Cushman, 1923, idem., Prof. Paper 133, p. 51.
-..--......~~-.. ......--------. Howe, 1928, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 2, p. 175 (list).
--.-.--.... --.-...-... --... Cushman and Hanzawa, 1937, Contr. Cushman Lab.
Foram. Res., vol. 13, p. 44.
.--------.......--...-....-...- Cushman and McGlamery, 1942, U. S. Geol. Survey
Prof. Paper 197-B, p. 66, pl. 4, fig. 5.
Vertebralina cassis Cushman and Ponton (not d'Orbigny), 1932, Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 9, p. 57, pl. 8, fig. 1.
Articulina advena Cushman, 1944, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Special Publ.,
No. 10, p. 8, pl. 1, figs. 20-21.
Articulina advena Cushman and Ellisor, 1945, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 19,
p. 552, pl. 72, fig. 9.
.-----. ....-..--........---..-.... Cushman and Todd, 1946, Contr. Cushman Lab. Foram.
Res., vol. 22, p. 81, pl. 14, figs. 8, 9.
-----. ---.----- Cushman and Todd, 1948, idem., vol. 24, p. 8 (list).
--...--....--..-.._---- --.-..-- Todd, 1952, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 241, p. 9, pl.
1, fig. 27.
Typical specimens of this species occur at the Chipola facies
localities nos. 1 and 2.

Articulina mayor Cushman
Plate 4, figs. 9, 10
Articulina mayor Cushman, 1922, Carnegie Instit. Washington Publ. 311, p.
71, pl. 13, fig. 5.
--------- .-- Cushman, 1929, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, p. 52, pl.
12, fig. 5.
---.-..----...-----.. Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey Bull.
9, p. 51, pl. 6, figs. 5a, b.
Typical specimens of this species are reported from the Chipola
localities nos. 9 and 12. So far as known at present, this species is
restricted to the Chipola facies.

Articulina miocenica Cushman and Ponton
Plate 4, figs. 7, 8
Articulina sagra d'Orbigny, var. miocenica Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida
Geol. Survey Bull. 9, p. 51, pl. 6, figs. 2-4.
This is very characteristic of the Chipola facies and is reported
from the Chipola localities nos. 9 and 12.

Genus HAUERINA d'Orbigny, 1839
Hauerina miocenica Cushman
Plate 4, figs. 4, 5, 6
Hauerina bradyi Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey Bull.
9, p. 50, pl. 6, figs. la-c.
Typical specimens of this species occur at the Chipola facies
locality no. 1.









92 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-SIX

Genus TRILOCULINA d'Orbigny, 1826
Triloculina asperula Cushman
Plate 18, fig. 9
Triloculina asperula Cushman, 1918, U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 676, p. 72, pl.
30, fig. 3.
---.---....---.... .-------- . Cushman, 1930, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 4, p. 23,
pl. 1, fig. 13.
This species is characterized by its subcircular test in side view
and chambers tapering toward either end. The ornamentation con-
sists of an irregularly roughened surface, and the sutures are dis-
tinct. It is reported from Cancellaria facies locality no. 48 and has
not been found in any other part of the section.

Triloculina brongniartii d'Orbigny
Plate 5, figs. 10, 11, 12
Triloculina brongniartii d'Orbigny, 1826, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, p. 300, No. 23.
-----.---- --- -- Parker, Jones and H. B. Brady, 1871, Ann. and Mag.
Nat. History, ser. 4, vol. 8, p. 250, pl. 8, fig. 9.
------.--....-- Cushman, 1929, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 104, pt. 6, p. 63,
pl. 16, fig. 4.
--..----- -- Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey Bull.
9, pp. 54, 55, pl. 6, figs. lla-c.
This species is characterized by its small, elongate (more than
twice as long as broad) test, with rounded periphery, distinct
chambers and sutures. The surface is ornamented with coarse,
longitudinal costae which are oblique to the periphery. It occurs
commonly at the Chipola facies locality no. 12 and so far as is
known, it is confined to the Chipola facies.

Triloculina gracilis d'Orbigny
Plate 5, figs. 1, 2, 3
Triloculina gracilis d'Orbigny, 1839, in De la Sagra, Historia fisca, political
y natural de la isla de Cuba, Foraminiferes, p. 181, pl. 11, figs. 10-12.
--..----. ------- Cushman, 1929, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 104, pt. 6, p. 59,
pl. 14, figs. 4a-c.
.-.-...-....-------... .....--.. Cushman and Ponton, 1932, Florida Geol. Survey Bull.
9, p. 53, pl. 6, figs. 8, 9.
This species is characterized by its slender elongated test with
rounded chambers and very slightly depressed sutures. The surface
is usually smooth or very finely striated. It occurs commonly at the
Chipola facies locality no. 12. This species is confined to the Chipola
facies.

Triloculina oblonga (Montagu)
Plate 4, figs. 14, 15, 16
Vermiculum oblongum Montagu, 1803, Test. Brit., p. 522, pl. 14, fig. 9.
Triloculina oblonga d'Orbigny, 1826, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, p. 300, N. 16, Mod.
95.