• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Copyright
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Main
 Index
 Back Cover














Group Title: key to Florida birds
Title: A key to Florida birds
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001498/00001
 Material Information
Title: A key to Florida birds
Physical Description: 158 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Stevenson, Henry M ( Henry Miller ), 1914-
Publisher: Peninsular Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: [1960]
 Subjects
Subject: Birds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00001498
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0821
notis - ADT3852
alephbibnum - 000741190
oclc - 01473403
lccn - 60001966

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front page 1
        Front page 2
    Title Page
        Page i
    Copyright
        Page ii
    Preface
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Main
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    Index
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    Back Cover
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Full Text



A KEY TO

FLORIDA BIRDS


By Henry M. Stevenson


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A KEY TO FLORIDA BIRDS


















by


HENRY M.


STEVENSON
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THE PENINSULAR PUBLISHING CO.
P. 0. BOX 541
TALLAHABMME. FLORIDA


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COPYRIGHT, 1960
HENRY M. STEVENSON











PREFACE


It has gradually become apparent that there is a need for a key
dealing exclusively with the birds of Florida. Such a key may not
only benefit students in certain advanced zoology courses at Florida
State University, but many other ornithologists in Florida and sur-
rounding states. The present attempt is in no sense a field key, but is
rather intended as a means of establishing the identity of museum
skins or freshly killed birds. Although there are many excellent keys
of greater geographic scope, the exclusion of numerous species (and
some families) which do not reach Florida has made possible a degree
of simplicity difficult to achieve when the list is much longer. In this
connection it should be emphasized that some of the characters used
herein for orders and families are not fully applicable throughout
their range.
Species included in this key are those for which there are at least
two satisfactory records in Florida, regardless of whether the records
are substantiated by collected specimens. The only exceptions are
those no longer found in the state (e.g., Carolina Parakeet, Whooping
Crane). Most species which have been recorded only once are in-
corporated as footnotes.
The guiding philosophy in the preparation of this key was the
conviction that it should enable the student to determine with cer-
tainty the identity of a bird with the least possible damage to the
specimen. This seemed to necessitate the use of definite measurements
and ratios, rather than such vague terms as "somewhat", longer" vs.
"shorter", and others sometimes encountered in keys. The conserva-
tion of skins may be too idealistic a goal, but it is believed that it can
be aided by the avoidance of axillar color, tail length, and certain
other characters.
In view of the likelihood that some users of this key have lacked
previous experience with keys, a statement of procedure may be in
order. Beginning with the key to orders and families (page 1), the
reader is faced with two opposing statements concerning whether or
not the specimen before him shows adaptations for aquatic life. If it
does he is referred to the next couplet of opposing characters (2). If
not, he proceeds, according to directions, to the section dealing with







.A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


land birds (26). By constantly determining which description applies
to his specimen, he should eventually learn to what order and family
the bird belongs. Turning to the section which deals with that family,
he will find a key which will enable him to determine the species, if
more than one species in that family occurs in Florida. In rare in-
stances there are more than two alternative characters from which to
select the correct one, but never more than four. It will soon be
noticed that all names of orders appear in bold-face capitals and end
in IFORMES; those of the families are in light-face capitals and end
in IDAE.
When the specimen has been keyed to a species, it should then be
checked against the description of that species in another section of
this book (Descriptions and Status of Florida Birds). These descrip-
tions, statements of range, degree of abundance, and season of occur-
rence, are purposely generalized. Furthermore they are intended to
apply, in cases of polytypic species, only to those races which are
known to occur in Florida.
Technical terms may be found in the Glossary at the end of the
text, or in the average dictionary.
Few keys, if any, are entirely original, but none are justifiable
unless partly original. Although I have examined and measured speci-
mens of the great majority of species included, a considerable number
were not available to me. In such cases (as well as many others)
standard reference works were indispensable. Chief among these were:
Manual of North American Birds (Ridgway), Vertebrates of the
United States (bird section by Brodkorb), Handbook of Birds of East-
ern North America (Chapman), Birds of New York (Eaton), Orni-
thology Laboratory Notebook (Allen), Florida Bird Life (Howell,
revised by Sprunt), A Field Guide to the Birds (Peterson), Audubon
Bird Guide (Pough), Field Guide to the Birds of the West Indies
(Bond), and Measurements of Birds (Baldwin, Oberholser, and Wor-
ley). Whenever these sources failed to yield the information needed
it was necessary to obtain it from museums which contained the speci-
mens lacking here. In each case the response was prompt and helpful,
and my gratitude is hereby expressed to Dr. Alexander Wetmore (U. S.
National Museum), Dr. George H. Lowery (Louisiana State Univer-
sity), and Dennis R. Paulson (University of Miami). Graduate students
helped to formulate the keys to the Scolopacidae (Horace Loftin) and








PREFACE


Tyrannidae (Eleanor Mauldin). Suggestions of Dr. Allan R. Phillips
regarding the latter section are deeply appreciated, as are those of
Herbert L. Stoddard, Sr., for advice on the section dealing with the
preparation of museum skins. I also acknowledge my gratitude to
Charlotte Maxwell and Rhodes Holliman for their help in preparing
illustrations.
Reports of errors and weaknesses in this key are earnestly solicited
from all sources in the hope that revisions may be made to strengthen
it.
September, 1959











TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section Page
Key to the Orders and Families of Florida Birds ................ 1
Key to the Family Gaviidae .............................. 8
Key to the Family Podicipedidae ............................ 8
Key to the Family Procellariidae ........................... 8
Key to the Family Hydrobatidae ........................... 9
Family Phaethontidae ......................................... 9
Key to the Family Pelecanidae ............................ 9
Key to the Family Sulidae ................................. 9
Key to the Family Phalacrocoracidae ........................ 9
Family Anhingidae .......................................... 10
Family Fregatidae ................... ................... 10
Key to the Family Ardeidae ............................... 10
Fam ily Ciconiidae ......................................... 11
Key to the Family Threskiornithidae ........................ 11
Family Phoenicopteridae ............... .................... 11
Key to the Family Anatidae ............................... 12
Key to the Family Cathartidae ............................ 15
Key to the Family Accipitridae ............................. 15
Family Pandionidae ........................................ 17
Key to the Family Falconidae .............................. 17
Family Phasianidae ................ ....................... 17
Family Gruidae ................ ......................... 17
Family Aramidae .......................................... 17
Key to the Family Rallidae ................................. 17
Family Jacanidae .......................................... 18
Family Haematopodidae .................................. 18
Key to the Family Charadriidae ............................. 18
Key to the Family Scolopacidae .......................... 19
Key to the Family Recurvirostridae ........................ 21
Key to the Family Phalaropodidae .......................... 21
Key to the Family Stercorariidae .......... ................ 21
Key to the Family Laridae ...............................22
Family Rynchopidae .................. .................... 24
Family Alcidae ........................................ 24
Key to the Family Columbidae ............................ 24
vii








TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)

Section Page
Key to the Family Cuculidae ................................. 25
Family Tytonidae ......................................... 26
Key to the Family Strigidae .............................. 26
Key to the Family Caprimulgidae ............................ 26
Family Apodidae .......................................... 26
Key to the Family Trochilidae ............................. 27
Family Alcedinidae .......................................... 27
Key to the Family Picidae ................................ 27
Key to the Family Tyrannidae .............................. 28
Family Alaudidae ....................................... 29
Key to the Family Hirundinidae ............................ 29
Key to the Family Corvidae ............................... 30
Key to the Family Paridae ................................ 30
Key to the Family Sittidae ................................ 30
Family Certhiidae .......................... .. ............. 31
Key to the Family Troglodytidae .......................... 31
Key to the Family Mimidae ............................... 31
Key to the Family Turdidae ............................... 31
Key to the Family Sylviidae .............................. 32
Key to the Family Motacillidae ........................... 32
Family Bombycillidae ..................................... 33
Family Laniidae .......................................... 33
Family Sturnidae .......................................... 33
Key to the Family Vireonidae .............................. 33
Family Coerebidae ......................................... 34
Key to the Family Parulidae ................................ 34
Family Ploceidae .......................................... 38
Key to the Family Icteridae .............................. 38
Key to the Family Thraupidae ............................. 39
Key to the Family Fringillidae ........................... 39
Descriptions and Status of Florida Birds ...................... 43
Collecting and Preserving Birds .......................... 139
Glossary and Measurements ............................... 147
Index ................................................... 152










KEY TO THE ORDERS AND FAMILIES OF
FLORIDA BIRDS

1. Adapted for life in or around water (toes webbed or lobed, or
lower tibia bare for at least 10 mm.) .................... 2
Not adapted for aquatic life (toes neither webbed nor lobed;
lower tibia feathered to within 10 mm. of ankle joint) .... 26

2. Front toes (or all 4 toes) fully webbed .................... 3
No toes completely webbed ........................... 16

3. All 4 toes included in web .......... PELECANIFORMES, 4
Hind toe (when present) not included in web .............. 9

4. Webs incised; tail forked .....................FREGATIDAE
Webs entire; tail rounded or pointed .................... 5

5. Bill with a large gular pouch ................ PELECANIDAE
Gular pouch (when present) small ....................... 6

6. Bill strongly hooked .............. PHALACROCORACIDAE
Bill not hooked ................ ....... ............ 7

7. Head small; neck long and slender (head only twice as wide
as tarsus) .............. ................ ANHINGIDAE
Size and proportions of head and neck normal (head more
than twice as wide as tarsus) .......................... 8

8. Central rectrices elongated .............. PHAETHONTIDAE
Central rectrices not greatly elongate .............. SULIDAE

9. Bill pointed, never wider than deep, never serrate, and without
a nail; tail short and stiff ...... GAVIIFORMES: GAVIIDAE
Bill wider than deep (or narrow and serrate); nail at tip of
upper mandible; tail feathers normal ..... ANSERIFORMES:
ANATIDAE
Bill hooked; nostrils opening through one or 2 tubes ........
PROCELLARIIFORMES, 10
Bill never as above (if hooked, then without nostril tubes);
tail feathers normal or elongate ...... CHARADRIIFORMES
(part), 11








A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


10. Nostril tube partitioned; total length more than 9 inches ....
PROCELLARTIDAE
Nostril tube single; length less than 9 inches .. HYDROBATIDAE

11. Hind toe absent ................ ................ ALCIDAE
Hind toe present ....................... .............. 12

12. Bill hooked central rectrices elongate ..... STERCORARIIDAE
Bill hooked; central rectrices not elongate .... LARIDAE (part)
Bill not hooked; central rectrices not elongate ............ 13

13. Bill more or less compressed .............. ........ .. 14
Bill approximately round in cross section ................ 15

14. Bill moderately compressed, its upper mandible at least as
long as the lower ........................ LARIDAE (part)
Bill extremely compressed, with the lower mandible much
longer than the upper .................... RYNCHOPIDAE

15. Bill extremely long and slender, more or less upcurved ....
RECURVIROSTRIDAE
Bill short, thick, and abruptly downcurved ................
CICONIIFORMES (PHOENICOPTERIDAE only)

16. Toes lobed; claws nail-like; tarsi flattened ................
PODICIPEDIFORMES: PODICIPEDIDAE
Toes rarely lobed; claws not nail-like nor tarsi flattened .... 17

17. Legs long; lores bare .......... CICONIIFORMES (part), 18
Legs of various lengths; lores with feathers or bristles ...... 19

18. Bill long, straight, spearlike; middle claw pectinate; head
mostly feathered ............................ ARDEIDAE
Bill not spearlike; middle claw not pectinate; head bare ....
CICONIIDAE
Bill strongly decurved or spatulate; middle claw not pecti-
nate; only the face bare .......... THRESKIORNITHIDAE

19. Outermost primary at least 10 mm. shorter than next one; all
4 toes almost on same level ............ GRUIFORMES, 20
Outermost primary about as long as second; hind toe absent,
or small and elevated (unless its claw is very long) .......
CHARADRIIFORMES (part), 22








KEY TO ORDERS AND FAMILIES


20. Total length less than 20 inches; bill less than 76 mm. long
RALLIDAE
Total length more than 20 inches; bill more than 76 mm. long 21
21. Tarsal length more than 6 inches; bill straight ...... GRUIDAE
Tarsus less than 6 inches long; bill slightly curved ..........
ARAMIDAE
22. Tarsus more than 90 mm. long; toes incompletely webbed
RECURVIROSTRIDAE
Tarsus less than 90 mm. long; toes lobed .. PHALAROPODIDAE
Tarsus less than 90 mm.; toes not lobate .................. 23
23. Hind toe long, and its claw even longer .......... JACANIDAE
Hind toe reduced or absent ............................ 24
24. Bill greatly compressed, its depth at middle about 2.5 times
its width .......................... HAEMATOPODIDAE
Bill not unusually compressed, especially toward tip ....... 25
25. Bill long and slender; tip of culmen slightly expanded lat-
erally and decurved .................... SCOLOPACIDAE
Bill of moderate length, with a swollen dcrtrum at tip (but
pointed and with culmen flattened near base in one spe-
cies); usually only 3 toes present .......... CHARADRIIDAE
26. Toes arranged 2 in front and 2 behind, or capable of being
so held ................................. ....... 27
Toes 3 in front and one behind .......................... 31
27. Feet and bill raptorial (adapted for tearing flesh) .......... 28
Feet and bill not raptorial ........................... 30
28. Facial disk present; tarsus at least sparsely feathered ......
STRIGIFORMES, 29
No facial disk; tarsus bare ..............................
FALCONIFORMES (PANDIONIDAE only)
29. Middle claw pectinate; total length about 18 inches ......
TYTONIDAE
Middle claw not pectinate; length various ......... STRIGIDAE
30. Bill chisel-like; tail feathers stiffened .PICIFORMES: PICIDAE
Bill not chisel-like, decurved; rectrices soft ................
CUCULIFORMES: CUCULIDAE








A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


31. Bill strong, sharply hooked, and with cere at base ..........
FALCONIFORMES (part), 32
Bill never strongly hooked if cere present ................ 34

32. Nostrils perforate; head naked .............. CATHARTIDAE
Nostrils imperforate; head feathered ..................... 33
33. Scales on front of tarsus rounded and of moderate size ....
FALCONIDAE
Scales on front of tarsus not rounded unless minute ........
ACCIPITRIDAE
34. Bill reduced and gape enlarged (wider than length of cul-
men); total length over 8.0 inches ......................
CAPRIMULGIFORMES: CAPRIMULGIDAE
Bill not as above unless total length under 8.0 inches ...... 35

35. Hallux shorter than other toes; wing coverts not in 3 ranks;
number of rectrices variable .......................... 36
Hallux longer than second or fourth toe; wing coverts in
3 ranks; 12 rectrices present ........ PASSERIFORMES, 41

36. Total length less than 6.0 inches; bill weak, its depth not more
than 3 mm. ........................ APODIFORMES, 37
Total length more than 6.0 inches; greatest depth of bill more
than 3 mm. ...................................... 38

37. Rectrices spine-tipped; bill short and wide ........ APODIDAE
Rectrices normal; bill long and cylindrical .... TROCHILIDAE

38. Feet comparatively small; tarsus not more than 10% of total
length .............................................. 40
Feet large, adapted for scratching; tarsus more than 10% of
total length ......................... GALLIFORMES, 39

39. Head naked; feathers of back truncate .... MELEAGRIDIDAE
Head feathered; contour feathers mostly rounded ........
PHASIANIDAE

40. Feet syndactyl; head large; bill long, without dertrum or cere
CORACIIFORMES: ALCEDINIDAE
Toes not fused at base; head small; bill short, slender, and
with dertrum and cere. COLUMBIFORMES: COLUMBIDAE








KEY TO ORDERS AND FAMILIES


41. KEY TO FAMILIES IN THE ORDER PASSERIFORMES:
1. Exposed portion of outermost obvious primary' at least 80%
as long as second (the measurement of each being taken
from the same point, i.e., the base of the exposed portion
of the outermost primary) ............................ 2
Exposed portion of outermost obvious primary' less than 80%
as long as second .................................. 12

2. Outer primary definitely the longest; bill depressed at base ..
HIRUNDINIDAE
Outermost primary not longer than second, or bill not de-
pressed at base ...................................... 3

3. Hind claw longer than its toe ............................ 4
Hind claw not longer than hallux ........................ 5
4. Total length more than 7.0 inches; nostrils with bristly tufts;
inner secondaries not greatly elongate ........ ALAUDIDAE
Total length not more than 7.0 inches; nostrils without bris-
tles; secondaries about as long as primaries ..............
MOTACILLIDAE
5. Hind aspect of tarsus rounded; width of bill at nostrils
greater than its depth ..................... TYRANNIDAE
Back of tarsus compressed; width of bill not exceeding its
d ep th ............................... .... .. ..... 6
6. Nostrils located in shallow grooves; bill slightly hooked at tip
.. VIREONIDAE
Nostrils not in grooves; bill not noticeably hooked ......... 7
7. Bill noticeably decurved and with a sharp tip; total length
less than 5.0 inches ........................ COEREBIDAE
Lower mandible never decurved; total length usually more
than 5.0 inches .................................... 8
8. Nostrils operculate; bill usually long and slender .......... 9
Nostrils not operculate; depth of bill at base more than 40%
length of culm en ......................... ......... 10

IThe outermost "obvious" primary is here considered the one which lies medial
to the others when the wing is folded. Thus it is not necessarily the rudimentary
primary. The term "obvious" is perhaps inappropriate in the waxwings.








A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


9. Total length usually less than 7.0 inches; bill long and
slender; feathers under lower mandible not extending an-
terior to nostrils ........................... PARULIDAE
Total length usually more than 7.0 inches; bill, if long and
slender, with feathers below lower mandible extending
anterior to nostrils .......................... ICTERIDAE
10. One or more minute notches near base and/or tip of upper
mandible ......................... ............. 11
Upper mandible not notched ................ FRINGILLIDAE

11. Total length over 7.0 inches; with red or yellowish in
plumage .............................. THRAUPIDAE
Total length less than 7.0 inches; plumage devoid of bright
colors .............. ...... ............. PLOCEIDAE

12. Exposed portion of outermost obvious primary less than 10%
length of second ............... ..... ............ 13
Outermost primary between 10% and 35% length of next .... 14
Outermost primary more than 35% length of next .......... 16

13. Bill near base wider than high ............ BOMBYC1LLIDAE
Width and depth of bill near base about equal .... STURNIDAE

14. Upperparts mostly gray or blue-gray; bill long, straight, and
slender, never hooked at tip; total length less than 7.0
inches; tarsus scutellate ........................ SITTIDAE
Upperparts mostly greenish; bill of moderate dimensions, but
slightly hooked at tip; total length less than 7.0 inches;
tarsus scutellate .......................... VIREONIDAE
Upperparts never gray unless total length more than 7.0
inches; bill moderate, not hooked at tip; tarsus booted ....
TURDIDAE
15. Total length more than 7.0 inches ........................ 16
Total length less than 7.0 inches ......................... 18

16. Nostrils more or less covered by bristles .................. 17
Nostrils fully exposed; bill neither hooked nor notched ....
MIMIDAE
17. Total length less than 10 inches; bill hooked ........ LANIIDAE
Total length more than 10 inches; bill never hooked. CORVIDAE









KEY TO ORDERS AND FAMILIES 7

18. Plumage chiefly greenish or gray ...................... 19
Plumage chiefly brownish ............................ 20
19. Depth of bill about 40% its length, with no notch in upper
mandible; plumage chiefly gray .................. PARIDAE
Bill more slender, its depth only 25% to 35% its length, and
with a subterminal notch on upper mandible; plumage
mostly gray or greenish ...................... SYLVIIDAE
20. Bill markedly decurved, long, and slender; rectrices long and
stiffened .............................. CERTHIIDAE
Bill and tail unmodified ................ TROGLODYTIDAE










KEYS TO THE SPECIES OF FLORIDA BIRDS
ORDER GAVIIFORMES: FAMILY GAVIIDAE, Loons.
KEY TO SPECIES
1. Total length more than 28 inches; culmen convex and more
than 64 mm. long .......................... Common Loon
Total length less than 28 inches; culmen concave and less
than 64 mm. long ...................... Red-throated Loon
ORDER PODICIPEDIFORMES: FAMILY PODICIPEDIDAE,
Grebes.
KEY TO SPECIES
1. Total length more than 16 inches ........................ 2
Total length less than 16 inches .......................... 3
2. Total length more than 22 inches; culmen more than 64 mm.
long .................. .................. W western Grebe
Total length less than 22 inches; culmen less than 64 mm.
long ................. ............. Red-necked Grebe
3. Bill blunt at tip, its depth about half its length.. Pied-billed Grebe
Bill sharp at tip, its depth much less than half its length .... 4
4. Depth of bill at base as great as its width ........ Horned Grebe
Depth of bill at base less than its width .......... Eared Grebe
ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES: FAMILY PROCELLARIIDAE,
Shearwaters, etc.
KEY TO SPECIES1
1. Total length less than 15 inches .......... Audubon's Shearwater
Total length more than 15 inches ........................ 2
2. Total length usually over 18 inches; underparts mostly white
.. Greater Shearwater
Total length usually less than 18 inches; underparts sooty
gray ................................ Sooty Shearwater
FAMILY HYDROBATIDAE, Storm Petrels.

'Additionally, there are single sight records of 2 species of albatrosses (FAMILY
DIOMEDEIDAE) in Florida and specimens of Cory's Shearwater (Puffinus dio-
medea) and Black-capped Petrel (Pterodroma hasitata).
8








KEYS TO SPECIES


KEY TO SPECIES2

1. Tail at least 90 mm. long, forked for about 12 mm. of depth;
some of the longer upper tail coverts with dark markings
Leach's Petrel
Tail less than 90 mm. long, not forked; longer upper tail
coverts white ......................... . W ilson's Petrel

ORDER PELECANIFORMES: FAMILY PHAETHONTIDAE,
Tropic-birds. One species in Florida .... White-tailed Tropic-bird

FAMILY PELECANIDAE, Pelicans.
KEY TO SPECIES

1. Length usually more than 55 inches; plumage essentially
white, with black primaries .................. White Pelican
Length usually less than 55 inches; plumage essentially gray,
but with white on head and neck ............ Brown Pelican
FAMILY SULIDAE, Boobies and Gannets.

KEY TO SPECIES

1. Length usually over 32 inches; narrow strip of bare skin run-
ning from lower mandible along center of chin ...... Gannet
Length usually under 32 inches; chin entirely feathered .... 2

2. Wing about 60% of total length; bare skin of face dark (blue
in life) ............. ... .............. Blue-faced Booby
Wing about 50% of total length; bare skin of face light (yel-
lowish in life) ........................... Brown Booby

FAMILY PHALACROCORACIDAE, Cormorants.
KEY TO SPECIES

1. Total length 34 inches or more; rectrices 14 in number ....
Great Cormorant
Total length less than 34 inches; rectrices 12 ..............
Double-crested Cormorant

2Single records of the Black-bellied Petrel (Fregetta tropica) and Harcourt's Pet-
rel (Oceanodroma castro) are supported by specimens.









A KiY To FLORIDA BIRDS


FAMILY ANHINGIDAE, Darters. One species in Florida
Anhinga
FAMILY FREGATIDAE, Frigate-birds. One species in
Florida .......................... Magnificent Frigate-bird
ORDER CICONIIFORMES: FAMILY ARDEIDAE, Herons,
Egrets, and Bitterns.

KEY TO SPECIES
1. Plumage essentially white .............................. 2
Plumage various, white constituting less than 50% of surface 6
2. Total length over 45 inches ................ Great White Heron
Total length 35 to 42 inches .................. Common Egret
Total length less than 35 inches .......................... 3
3. Wing length more than 11 inches; basal half of bill usually
lighter than distal half .................. ... Reddish Egret
Wing less than 11 inches long; bill not two-toned .......... 4
4. Middle toe (including claw) longer than bill; bill usually yel-
low in life ................................. Cattle Egret
Middle toe with claw shorter than bill; bill never yellow
(except in juveniles) ................................. 5
5. Plumage entirely white; bill black; lores and feet yellow;
legs black or dark green ................. .... Snowy Egret
Primaries edged with pale slate-gray; irregular dark slate
blotches sometimes present in plumage; legs and bill gray-
green .............................. Little Blue Heron
6. Length 42-52 inches; head white with dark plumes ........
Great Blue Heron
Length 36-42 inches; head entirely dark ........ Reddish Egret
Total length less than 36 inches .............. ......... 7

7. Length of tarsus more than 58 mm. ..................... 8
Tarsal length less than 58 mm. ........................ 12

8. Greatest depth of bill (anterior to feathering) more than 25%
of its length .......... ... ...... ............... 9
Greatest depth of bill beyond feathering less than 25% its
length .......................................... 11









KEYS to SPECIES 11

9. lectrices 10; fourth toe at least 10% longer than second ....
American Bittern
Rectrices 12; second and fourth toes about same length .... 10
10. Unfeathered portion of lower tibia at least 38 mm. long ...
Yellow-crowned Night Heron
Unfeathered lower tibia less than 38 mm. long ...........
Black-crowned Night Heron

11. Plumage entirely dark, or with scattered patches of white
Little Blue Heron
Plumage chiefly dark above and light underneath ..........
Louisiana Heron

12. Total length more than 15 inches ................ Green Heron
Total length less than 15 inches ................. Least Bittern

FAMILY CICONIIDAE, Storks. One species in Florida ..
Wood Ibis

FAMILY TIIRESKIORNITHIDAE, Ibises and Spoonbills.
KEY TO SPECIES

1. Bill cylindrical and decurved ............................ 2
Bill spatulate at tip, not decurved ........... Roseate Spoonbill

2. Belly white or scarlet; claws noticeably curved ............ 3
Belly not white or scarlet: claws almost straight ............ 4
3. Total length 28 inches or more; plumage of adults scarlet
with black wing tips (accidental in Florida) ...... Scarlet Ibis1
Total length less than 28 inches; plumage of adults mostly
white with black wing tips .................... White Ibis'
4. Feathers in front of eye white; lores (bare) reddish (acciden-
tal in Florida) ....................... .. White-faced Ibis'
Feathers in front of eye dark; lores (bare) black or greenish
Glossy Ibis'

FAMILY PHOENICOPTERIDAE, Flamingoes. One species
in Florida ............................ American Flamingo

1Young of the Scarlet and White Ibises, and those of the White-faced and Glossy
Ibises, may be indistinguishable.








A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


KEY TO SPECIES2
ORDER ANSERIFORMES: FAMILY ANATIDAE, Swans,
Geese, and Ducks.
1. Total length more than 45 inches; length of tarsus 100 mm. or
more; plumage white or ashy .............. Whistling Swan
Total length less than 45 inches; tarsal length less than 100
mm.; plumage various ............................ .2
2. Greatest depth of bill at least half length of clmnen, and
never less than 23 mm. .............................. 3
Greatest depth of bill less than half length of culmen, or less
than 23 mm. ..................................... 11
3. Total length usually 23 inches or more; tarsus longer than
middle toe without claw ............................. 4
Total length 23 inches or less; tarsus shorter than middle toe
without claw ...................................... 8
4. Head and neck largely black, but with some white laterally.. 5
Head and neck white (sometimes stained with rust) ........ 6
Head and neck brownish gray .......................... 7
5. Large white cheek patch present; wings and back brownish
.. Canada Goose
White patch smaller and on side of neck; wings and back
fuscous ............................................ Brant
6. Body white or ashy gray ................... .... Snow Goose
Body dark .............................. Blue Goose (ad.)
7. Tomia of upper and lower mandibles separated at middle of
bill by a space of about 5 mm.; legs pink in life ..........
Blue Goose (im.)
Tomia of the 2 mandibles almost flush; legs yellow or orange
in life .......................... . White-fronted Goose
8. A white patch (speculum) on wing ...................... 9
No white patch on wing .............................. 10
9. Plumage chiefly dark ................... White-winged Scoter
Considerable white in plumage, at least ventrally ..........
Common Goldeneye

2Thcre is also a specimen of the Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) from
Florida.








KEYS TO SPECIES


10. Rectrices 14; 2 white or light patches on head ...... Surf Scoter
Rcctrices 16; no light patches on head of male, but one on
head of female ............................ Common Scoter
11. Tarsus more than 50 mm. long ............ Fulvous Tree Duck
Tarsus less than 50 mm. in length ........................ 12
12. Edges of mandibles serrate ............................ 13
Edges of mandibles lamellate .......................... 15
13. Total length less than 20 inches; serrations on bill vertical
.. ooded Merganser
Total length usually 20 inches or more; serrations on bill
projecting backward ................................. 14
14. Feathering on culmen extending anterior to that on sides of
upper mandible ...................... Common Merganser
Feathering on culmen not extending beyond that on sides of
upper mandible ................... Red-breasted Merganser
15. Rectrices graduated, stiff, and the central ones more than
half the length of the wing .......................... 16
Rectrices soft, scarcely half the length of the wing ........ 17
16. Nail of bill reduced and curving under the upper mandible;
outer toe at least as long as middle toe. ........ Ruddy Duck
Nail well developed; outer toe shorter than middle toe ....
Masked Duck
17. Hind toe with a well developed lobe, making its greatest
width more than 6.0 mm. ............................ 18
Lobe on hind toe poorly developed; greatest width of hind
toe not more than 6.0 mm. .......................... 25
18. Culmen definitely longer than tarsus .................... 19
Culmen about same length as tarsus or shorter than ...... 23
19. Culmen more than 50 mm. long .................. Canvasback
Culmen not more than 50 mm. long .................... 20
20. A white or light band across the upper mandible near its tip,
sometimes indistinct ................................ 21
No light band across tip of upper mandible ............... 22
21. Wing over 8.0 inches long; band across upper mandible
indistinct ..................................... Redhead
Wing not more than 8.0 inches long; band across upper man-
dible distinct ........................... Ring-necked Duck








A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


22. Least width of upper mandible not less than 21 mm.; width
of nail not less than 7.0 mm ................... Greater Scaup
Least width of upper mandible not more than 20 mm.; width
of nail not more than 6.5 mm. ................ Lesser Scaup

23. Central rectrices elongate and pointed (at least 7.0 mm.
longer than any others); under tail coverts white .... Oldsquaw
Central rectrices scarcely longer than adjacent ones and not
pointed; under tail coverts not pure white. .............. 24

24. Wing more than 7.0 inches long; some brown in plumage ..
Harlequin Duck
Wing less than 7.0 inches long; no true brown in plumage ..
Bufflehead

25. Length of culmen at least 46 mm. ....................... 26
Length of culmen less than 46 mm ....................... 32

26. Greatest width of bill more than 25 mm. ............ Shoveler
Greatest width of bill less than 25 mm..................... 27

27. Secondaries with considerable white ..................... 28
Secondaries narrowly tipped with white or not at all ...... 31

28. Lamellae numerous (about 25 per inch on upper mandible) ..
Gadwall
Lamellac less numerous (about 20 per inch on upper
mandible ............................. .......... 29

29. Head metallic green; central rectrices recurved .... Mallard ( )
Head rich brown; central rectrices very long and straight ..
Pintail ( & )t
Head light brownish, with or without streaks; rectrices
unmodified ........................... ............ 30

30. Belly white .................. .............. Pintail (s)'
Belly mottled .................. .............. Mallard ( )

31. Secondaries narrowly tipped with white; chin streaked with
dusky ...................................... Black Duck
No white on secondaries: chin evenly buffy ...... Mottled Duck

'There is also one Florida specimen of tie Bahama Duck (Anas bahamensis).








KEYS TO SPECIES


32. Total length 17 inches or over; wing more than 8.0 inches
long ................................. ............ 33
Total length 17 inches or under; wing length less than 8.0
inches ............. ................. ............ 37
33. Greatest width of bill less than 45% length of culmen ... Gadwall
Greatest width of bill at least 45% length of culmen ........ 34
34. Rectrices rounded .......................... . Wood Duck
Rectrices pointed ...................................... 35
35. Top of head white .................... American Widgeon ( )
Top of head buffy .................... European Widgeon ( )
Top of head streaked or mottled ......................... 36
36. Head and neck whitish, with fuscous streaks ..............
American Widgeon ( )
Head and neck tinged with cinnamon ... European Widgeon (2)
37. With green but no blue in wing .......... Green-winged Teal1
With a large chalky blue patch on wing .................. 38

38. Greatest width of bill near its tip; male with rich maroon on
head and body (very rare in Florida) ...... Cinnamon Teal2
Base of bill at least as wide as any portion; male without
maroon, but with a white crescent in front of eye ........
Blue-winged Teal2
ORDER FALCONIFORMES: FAMILY CATHARTIDAE, Vultures.:

KEY TO SPECIES
1. Wing length 18 inches or more; nostrils large and broad
(about 6 mm. wide) ........................ Turkey Vulture
Wing length less than 18 inches; nostrils narrow (about 3 mm.
wide) .................................... Black Vulture

FAMILY ACCIPITRIDAE, Kites, Hawks, and Eagles.

KEY TO SPECIES

1There is a recent sight record of the similar Common Teal (Anas crecca).
2Females of these species are very difficult to distinguish without comparing with
one another.
:The King Vulture (Sarcoramphus papa) evidently occurred in Florida at the
time of John Bartram's visit here,








A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


1. W ing more than 18 inches long .......................... 2
Wing not more than 18 inches long ..................... 3
2. Entire tarsus feathered ........................ Golden Eagle
Lower tarsus unfeathered ........................ Bald Eagle
3. Tarsus less than 44 mm. long and not more than 30% longer
than middle toe without claw ....................... 4
Tarsus more than 44 mm. long and more than 30% longer
than middle toe without claw ......................... 6
4. Tail very long and deeply forked .......... Swallow-tailed Kite
Tail moderately long and not deeply forked ............... 5
5. Underparts white (very rare) ................ White-tailed Kite
Underparts dark or streaked .................. Mississippi Kite
6. Wing length at least 70% of total length .................. 7
Wing length less than 70% of total length .................. 11
7. Culmen greatly decurved, its length (from cere) at least one
inch, and more than 50% length of tarsus ...... Everglade Kite
Culmen less than 40% length of tarsus .................... 8
8. Tarsus feathered to toes ................ Rough-legged Hawk
Tarsus partly unfeathered ............................ 9
9. Length of tarsus less than 20% of wing length ... Swainson's Hawk
Length of tarsus more than 20% of wing length ............ 10
10. Wing length more than 12 inches ............ Red-tailed Hawk
Wing length less than 12 inches .......... Broad-winged Hawk
11. Length of tarsus not more than 20% of wing length ........
Short-tailed Hawk
Length of tarsus more than 20% of wing length ............ 12
12. Tip of folded wing extending more than half-way down tail.. 13
Tip of folded wing not reaching to mid-point of tail ........ 14
13. Upper tail coverts entirely white ............... Marsh Hawk
Upper tail coverts barred ............... Red-shouldered Hawk
14. Tail rounded, the central rectrices at least 20 mm. longer
than the outer ones .................. ............. 15
Tail square (all rectrices about same length) .............
Sharp-shinned Hawk








KEYS TO SPECIES


15. Wing length at least 12 inches (accidental in Florida) .. Goshawk
Wing length less than 12 inches ............... Cooper's Hawk

FAMILY PANDIONIDAE, Ospreys. One species in Florida
.. Osprey
FAMILY FALCONIDAE, Falcons and Caracaras.

KEY TO SPECIES
1. Nostrils linear, slanted upward and backward; upper
mandible not distinctly toothed .................. Caracara
Nostrils circular; upper mandible with a distinct tooth near
its tip ........ .. ................ ........ ......... 2
2. Total length more than 14 inches; wing length more than 10
inches ................................ Peregrine Falcon
Total length less than 14 inches; wing length less than 10
inches ............ ... ................... ......... 3

3. Sides of head longitudinally streaked; back dark .. Pigeon Hawk
Sides of head with vertical black bars; back reddish ........
Sparrow Hawk
ORDER GALLIFORMES: FAMILY MELEAGRIDIDAE, Tur-
keys. One species in Florida ...................... Turkey
FAMILY PHASIANIDAE, Pheasants and Quail. One species
in Florida' .................................... Bobwhite
ORDER GRUIFORMES: FAMILY GRUIDAE, Cranes. One
species in Florida .......................... Sandhill Crane

FAMILY ARAMIDAE, Limpkins. One species in Florida ..
Limpkin

FAMILY RALLIDAE, Rails, Gallinules, and Coots

KEY TO SPECIES
1. A frontal shield present; bill shorter than tarsus ............ 2
Frontal shield lacking; bill longer than tarsus, or total length
less than 10 inches ................................ 4

'Attempts to introduce other members of this family in Florida-e.g., Ring-necked
Pheasant-have met with little or no success.








A KEY TO FLORIDA BIRDS


2. Toes lobed; back blackish .................... American Coot
Toes not lobed; hack brownish or greenish ................ 3
3. Back brownish; white present on flanks .... Common Gallinule
Back greenish; no white on flanks ............ Purple Gallinule
4. Culmen at least as long as tarsus ........................ 5
Culmen much shorter than tarsus ........................ 7
5. Total length more than 11 inches; culmen more than 45 mm.
long ........................................... 6
Total length less than 11 inches; culmen less than 45 mm.
long ....................................... Virginia Rail
6. More gray than brown on sides of head .......... Clapper Rail
Brown predominating on sides of head .............. King Rail

7. Wing more than 4.0 inches long ...................... Sora
W ing less than 4.0 inches long .......................... 8

8. With a patch of white in the secondaries; underparts buffy
brown ....................................... Yellow Rail
No white in secondaries; underparts smoky gray ..... Black Rail

ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES: FAMILY JACANIDAE, Ja-
canas. One species in Florida (accidentally) .......... Jacana

FAMILY HAEMATOPODIDAE, Oystercatchers. One
species in Florida ................. American Oystercatcher

FAMILY CHARADRIIDAE, Plovers.

KEY TO SPECIES

1. Culmen slightly depressed at middle of bill, with a swollen
dertrum beyond; scales on front of tarsus rounded ...... 2
Bill pointed; dertrum not apparent; scales on front of tarsus
square ................................. Ruddy Turnstone

2. Wing more than 5.5 inches long; total length at least 8 inches 3
Wing less than 5.5 inches long; total length less than 8 inches 6

3. Wing tip reaching nearly or quite to tip of tail ............ 4
Top of folded wing at least 12 mm. short of tip of longest
rectrices .......................... .................. 5








KEYS TO SPECIES


4. Middle toe without claw more than 20 mm. long ..........
American Golden Plover
Middle toe without claw not more than 20 mm. long ......
Mountain Plover
5. With 2 black bands across throat and upper breast; hallux
wanting ........................................ Killdeer
No bands on throat or breast; a minute hallux present ....
Black-bellied Plover
6. Culmen about as long as middle toe without claw .......... 7
Culmen much shorter than middle toe without claw ........ 8
7. Back whitish; breast without complete band ...... Snowy Plover
Back gray-brown; breast band complete ........ Wilson's Plover
8. Back medium to dark brown ............. Semipalmated Plover
Back light brownish gray ..................... Piping Plover
FAMILY SCOLOPACIDAE, Sandpipers.
KEY TO SPECIES'
1. Culmen at least 50 mm. long ..... ... ... ......... . 2
Culmcn less than 50 mm. long ........................... 11
2. Bill strongly decurved ............................... 3
Bill not markedly decurved .................. ..... .... 4
3. Culmen more than 100 mm. long; underparts partly whitish
Whimbrel
Culmen less than 100 mm. long; underparts entirely cinna-
mon or buffy .......................... Long-billed Curlew
4. Culmen more than 80 mm. long ........................ 5
Culmen less than 80 mm. long ........................... 6
5. Tarsal length less than 65 mm.; tail black, with white base
and tip ............................... Hudsonian Godwit
Tarsus more than 65 mm. long; tail barred ..... Marbled Godwit
6. Length of wing 175 mm. or longer ....................... 7
Wing length less than 175 mm. .......................... 8
7. Rectrices barred with black; wings spotted or barred with
white .............................. Greater Yellowlegs
Rcctrices not barred; wings with large white patch ...... Willet

'There is a Florida sight record of the Surfbird (Aphriza cirgata).








A KEY To FLOHIDA BIRDS


8. Three outermost primaries less than 50% as wide as other
primaries ............. ..... .. .... American Woodcock
All primaries about same width ......................... 9
9. Upper rump black with narrow white hands .... Common Snipe
Upper rump white ................................ 10
10. Tarsal length usually less than 27% of wing length; total
length usually over 11 inches; culmen often more than 65
mm. long ..................... .. Long-billed Dowitcher'
Tarsus usually more than 27% length of wing; total length
usually less than 11 inches; culmen often less than 65 mm.
long ...................... . Short-billed Dowitcher'
11. W ing length 6 inches or greater ................... ..... 12
W ing length less than 6 inches ........................ 14
12. Tarsus shorter than 44 mm. ......................... Knot
Tarsus 44 mm. or longer ............ ................. 13
13. Outer primaries barred black and white ........ Upland Plover
Outer primaries black ...................... Lesser Yellowlegs

14. Length of culmen 36 mm. or greater ..................... 15
Culmen less than 36 mm. in length ....................... 16
15. Tarsus at least 30 mm. long ................... Stilt Sandpiper
Tarsus shorter than 30 mm .......................... Dunlin'
16. Tarsus at least 40% longer than culmen .. Buff-breasted Sandpiper
Tarsus not markedly longer than culmen .................. 17

17. Hind toe absent ................................. Sanderling
Hind toe present ...................................... 18
18. Tail barred black and white ................ Solitary Sandpiper
Tail barred brown and white, or not barred .............. 19
19. Third and fourth toes webbed at base .................. 20
Third and fourth toes not webbed ...................... 21

'Dowitchers with culmen length between 56 and 69 mm. cannot safely be identi-
fied to species without expert assistance, though presumably there is little overlap
between male Short-billed and female Long-billed.
2There is a single sight record of the similar Curlew Sandpiper (Erolia ferruginea)
in Florida.








KEYS TO SPECIES


20. Culmen equal to or shorter than middle toe with claw ......
Semipalmated Sandpiper
Culmen longer than middle toe with claw .... Western Sandpiper

21. W ing less than 110 mm. long ........................... 22
W ing more than 110 mm. long .......................... 23

22. Back marked with rounded dark spots ........ Least Sandpiper
Dark markings on back in form of streaks or cross-bars ...
Spotted Sandpiper
23. Upper tail coverts chiefly white, forming a conspicuous white
patch .......................... White-rumped Sandpiper
Upper tail coverts mostly dark .......................... 24

24. Culmen longer than tarsus .................. Purple Sandpiper
Culmen about equal to tarsus in length .................. 25
25. Tarsus at least 24 mm. long; bill drooped at tip ...........
Pectoral Sandpiper
Tarsus 20 to 23 mm. long; bill straight ........ Baird's Sandpiper

FAMILY RECURVIROSTRIDAE, Avocets and Stilts.

KEY TO SPECIES

1. Culmen more than 75 mm. long and markedly upcurved;
small hallux present ................... .. American Avocet
Culmen less than 75 mm. long and not more than slightly
upcurved; hallux lacking ................ Black-necked Stilt

FAMILY PHALAROPODIDAE, Phalaropes.

KEY TO SPECIES
1. Depth of bill at nostril more than 20% length of culmen .
Red Phalarope
Depth of bill at nostril less than 20% length of culmen ...... 2
2. Total length more than 8.0 inches; culmen more than 25 mm.
long ................................ Wilson's Phalarope
Total length not more than 8.0 inches; culmen less than 25
mm. long ............................. Northern Phalarope
FAMILY STERCORARIIDAE, Jaegers and Skuas.







A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


KEY TO SPECIES
1. Elongate central rectrices rounded at tips; culmen more than
36 mm. long ............... .............. Pomarine Jaeger
Elongate central rectrices pointed at tips; culmen not more
than 36 mm. long .................................. 2

2. Shafts of all primaries white; tarsus entirely black. ........
Parasitic Jaeger
Only the 2 or 3 outermost primaries with white shafts; tarsus
not entirely black (blue in life) .......... Long-tailed Jaeger

FAMILY LARIDAE, Gulls and Terns.

KEY TO SPECIES

1. Upper mandible hooked at tip; central rectrices about as long
as any others; never blackish underneath (Larinae) ...... 2
Bill spear-shaped, without a noticeable hook at tip of upper
mandible; outer tail feathers longest (unless underparts
blackish) (Sterninae) ............................... 10

2. Hallux rudimentary or absent; outer rectrices slightly longer
than middle ones .................. Black-legged Kittiwake
IIallux without claw about 20% length of second toe without
claw; outer rectrices never the longest' ................ 3

3. Total length 18 inches or over; wing length more than 13
inches ................................... .... 4
Total length less than 18 inches; wing length not more than
13 inches .......... ....... ....................... 7

4. Primaries light or white .............................. 5
Primaries mostly dark .............. ................... 6

5. Length of culhnen more than 50 mm.; tarsus 63 mir. or more
in length ............................... Glaucous Gull
Culmen less than 50 mm. long, and tarsus less than 63 mm.
long .................................... .. Iceland Gull

1The latter statement will not hold for Sabine's Gull (Xema sabinii), once recorded
in Florida.








KEYS TO SPECIES


6. Total length 27 inches or more; wing length more than 17.5
inches .......................... Great Black-backed Gull'
Total length 22 to 26 inches; wing length 16 to 17.5 inches
Herring Gull
Total length not more than 20 inches; wing length less than
16 inches ................................ Ring-billed Gull

7. Total length 15 inches or more; wing length more than 12
inches .................................... Laughing Gull
Total length 15 inches or less; wing length less than 12 inches 8

8. Wing length usually less than 10.5 inches;' tarsus not more
than 38 mm. long; inner edge of outermost primary white,
except near tip .......................... Bonaparte's Gull
Wing length more than 10.5 inches; tarsus more than 38 mm.
long; inner edge of outermost primary dark ............ 9

9. Outer primaries chiefly white; secondaries not broadly tipped
with white; mantle light gray (brownish in immature);
upper tail coverts and basal portion of rectrices white
(accidental in Florida) .................. Black-headed Gull
Outer primaries mostly dark, but with black band contrasting
with white in adults; secondaries broadly tipped with
white in contrast to the dark gray mantle; upper tail
coverts white, contrasting with pearl gray of rectrices
basally (rare in Florida) .................... Franklin's Gull

10. Total length 18 inches or more; wing length more than 13
inches ............................ ................. 11
Total length 13 to 17 inches; wing length 9.0 to 12.5 inches.. 12
Total length less than 13 inches, and wing length less than 9.0
inches .............. ................................ 19

11. Bill red or orange-red, its greatest depth usually more than
19 mm.; wing tips reaching beyond tip of tail ..Caspian Tern
Bill orange or yellow, its depth never exceeding 19 mm.; wing
tips not extending to tip of tail ................ Royal Tern

iThere is also a sight record of the Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus foscus) in
Florida.
'The Little Gull (Larus minutes), once collected in Florida, is even smaller with
a maximum wing length of 9.0 inches, as compared with a minimum of 10.0 for
Bonaparte's.








A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


12. Plumage dark ventrally and white on crown; tail not forked
..Noddy Tern
Plumage never dark ventrally if crown white; tail forked .. 13
13. Fork in tail less than 50 mm. deep; greatest depth of bill at
least 30% its length ........................ Gull-billed Tern
Fork in tail more than 50 mm. deep; greatest depth of bill
less than 30% its length ................. ........... 14
14. Bill black with yellow tip; culmen more than 50 mm. in
length ............................... Sandwich Tern
Bill not lighter toward tip than toward base; culmen less
than 50 mm. long .............................. 15
15. Mantle very dark ................................... 16
Mantle pearl gray ................ .................. 17
16. Total length 15 inches or more; wing length about 12 inches;
nape dark .................................... Sooty Tern
Total length 15 inches or less; wing length about 10.5 inches;
white collar around nape of adult ............ Bridled Tern
17. Outermost tail feather entirely white ............ Roseate Tern
Only one side of outermost tail feather entirely white ...... 18
18. Inner web of outermost tail feather entirely white, outer web
gray ...................... .......... Common Tern
Outer web of outermost tail feather entirely white, inner web
dark toward tip ............................ Forster's Tern
19. Mantle blackish; wing length 7.5 inches or more .... Black Tern
Mantle pearl gray; wing less than 7.5 inches long .... Least Tern
FAMILY RYNCHOPIDAE, Skimmers. One species in
Florida ................ ................ Black Skimmer
FAMILY ALCIDAE, Auks, Murres, and Puffins. One species
in Florida ...................................... Dovekie
ORDER COLUMBIFORMES: FAMILY COLUMBIDAE, Pigeons
and Doves.
KEY TO SPECIES
1. Tarsus partly feathered .............................. 2
Tarsus entirely naked .................................. 4
2. Crown entirely white to smoky .......... White-crowned Pigeon
Crown usually dark, but sometimes brown and white ...... 3








KEYS TO SPECIES


3. Nape purplish with scale-like, reddish brown edgings on each
feather (accidental in Florida) .......... Scaly-naped Pigeon
Feathers of nape unicolored, though sometimes with metallic
reflections (semi-domestic) ..................... Rock Dove

4. W ing length over 5.0 inches ............................ 5
Wing less than 5.0 inches long .................. Ground Dove

5. Tail dark with whitish tips ............................. 6
Tail not tipped with whitish ............................ 8

6. Tail strongly graduated, the central rectrices extending at
least 25 mm. beyond the lateral rectrices .... Mourning Dove
Tail square or rounded, but not graduated ................ 7

7. Coloration light, with dark collar on nape .. Ringed Turtle Dove
Coloration reddish brown, with white on wings confined to
flight feathers (accidental in Florida) ........ Zenaida Dove
Coloration olive-brown (lighter underneath), with a white
stripe extending from bend of wing onto the secondaries
.. White-winged Dove
8. Back highly iridescent; underparts light (accidental in Flor-
ida) ............................ Key W est Quail-Dove
Back only slightly iridescent; underparts dark (accidental in
Florida) ...................... . . Ruddy Quail-Dove

ORDER CUCULIFORMES: FAMILY CUCULIDAE, Cuckoos
and Anis.
KEY TO SPECIES
1. Plumage black; bill at least 13 mm. deep at base .......... 2
Plumage brownish above, white or cinnamon underneath;
bill less than 13 mm. deep at base ...................... 3
2. Bill less than 20 mm. deep at base and usually with grooves
on upper mandible ...................... Groove-billed Ani
Greatest depth of bill at least 20 mm.; upper mandible with-
out grooves ............................ Smooth-billed Ani
3. Underparts cinnamon or buffy; dark stripe through eye ....
Mangrove Cuckoo
Underparts whitish; no dark stripe through eye ............ 4








26 A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS

4. Lower mandible yellow toward base; cinnamon present in
wings ............................. Yellow-billed Cuckoo
Lower mandible entirely dark; no cinnamon in wings ......
Black-billed Cuckoo
ORDER STRIGIFORMES: FAMILY TYTONIDAE, Barn Owls.
One species in Florida ........................... Barn Owl
FAMILY STRIGIDAE, Typical Owls.
KEY TO SPECIES
1. Total length more than 18 inches; wing at least 13 inches long 2
Total length between 12 and 17 inches; wing length 11 to 13
inches ................... ......... ..... ....... 3
Total length less than 12 inches; wing length less than 10
inches .......................... .............. 4
2. Ear tufts present; dark cross-bars on abdomen ..........
Great Horned Owl
Ear tufts absent; longitudinal streaks on abdomen .. Barred Owl
3. Ear tufts long; tarsus less than 38 mm. long .... Long-eared Owl
Ear tufts rudimentary; tarsus more than 38 mm. long ......
Short-eared Owl

4. Ear tufts present; tarsus less than 38 mm. long .... Screech Owl
Ear tufts absent; tarsus more than 38 mm. long .. Burrowing Owl
ORDER CAPRIMULGIFORMES: FAMILY CAPRIMULGIDAE,
Goatsuckers.
KEY TO SPECIES
1. Rictal bristles inconspicuous; white patch present on
primaries ............................ Common Nighthawk
Rictal bristles long (more than 20 mm.); no white on wings.. 2
2. Rictal bristles pinnate toward base; wing length more than
7.0 inches ............................ Chuck-will's-widow
No lateral extensions on rictal bristles; wing length less than
7.0 inches ............................ Whip-poor-will

ORDER APODIFORMES: FAMILY APODIDAE, Swifts. One
species in Florida .......................... Chimney Swift
FAMILY TROCHILIDAE, Hummingbirds.








KEYS TO SPECIES


KEY TO SPECIES'
1. Tail noticeably forked (accidental in Florida) ............
Emerald Hummingbird
Tail not noticeably forked .............................. 2
2. Outer rectrices shorter than middle ones; some bronze in tail
.. Rufous Hummingbird
Outer rectrices as long as central tail feathers; no bronze in
tail ....................... .. Ruby-throated Hummingbird
ORDER CORACIIFORMES: FAMILY ALCEDINIDAE, King-
fishers. One species in Florida ............ Belted Kingfisher
ORDER PICIFORMES: FAMILY PICIDAE, Woodpeckers.
KEY TO SPECIES
1. Total length 15 inches or more ................... ....... 2
Total length between 11 and 13 inches ... Yellow-shafted Flicker
Total length less than 11 inches .......................... 3
2. Folded wing largely white (very rare) .. Ivory-billed Woodpecker
With little white visible on folded wing ... Pileated Woodpecker
3. W ith cross-barring on back ................... ......... 4
Without cross-bars on back .................. .......... 5
4. Total length 9.0 inches or more; culmen 25 mm. or more;
with considerable red on crown .... Red-bellied Woodpecker
Total length less than 9.0 inches; culmen less than 25 mm.;
with little or no red on crown .... Red-cockaded Woodpecker

5. Total length not more than 7.0 inches; wing length less than
4.5 inches ........................... Downy W oodpecker
Total length more than 7.0 inches; wing length more than
4.5 inches ....................................... 6
6. Wing with large white patch on secondaries, but without
rounded spots .................... Bed-headed Woodpecker
White on remiges in form of rounded spots ................ 7
7. Black patch present on upper breast .. Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
Underparts entirely light gray ............ Hairy Woodpecker

tThere is also a sight record of the Broad-billed Hummingbird (Cynanthuw
latirostris) at Pensacola.








A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


ORDER PASSERIFORMES: FAMILY TYRANNIDAE, Tyrant
Flycatchers.
KEY TO SPECIES
1. Culmen at least 10% longer than tarsus .................... 2
Tarsus about as long as culmen, or longer than ............ 3
2. Upperparts and sides of breast dark gray: wing tip reaching
to within 30 mm. of tail tip .......... Olive-sided Flycatcher
Upperparts light gray, underparts almost white; tip of folded
wing about 60 mm. short of tail tip .......... Gray Kingbird
3. Total length 8.0 inches or more .......................... 4
Total length 7.0 inches or less ........................... 8
4. Belly decidedly yellowish ............................. 5
W ith no yellow on underparts .......................... 7
5. Tail blackish with white edgings ............ Western Kingbird
Tail blackish without white edgings (very rare) ..........
Tropical Kingbird
Tail chiefly brownish underneath, without white edgings ... 6
6. Throat and breast medium gray; belly sulphur yellow; back
olive-brown; width of bill at base more than 50% length of
culmen ......................... Great Crested Flycatcher'
Throat and breast pale gray; belly pale yellow; back grayish;
width of bill at base less than 50% length of culmen
(accidental) ...................... Ash-throated Flycatcher'
7. Tail very long and deeply forked ...... Scissor-tailed Flycatcher
Tail moderately long (less than 5 inches), with no fork at tip
.. Eastern Kingbird
8. Underparts reddish or streaked .......... Vermilion Flycatcher
Underparts never streaked or reddish .................... 9
9. W without wing bars .......................... Eastern Phoebe
W ith 2 distinct wing bars ................. ........ . 10
10. Length of wing about 6 times that of tarsus ..............
Eastern Wood Pewee
Wing length not more than 5 times tarsal length .......... 11

1The similar Wied's Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus tyrannulus) has been col-
lected on Big Pine Key.








KEYS TO SPECIES


11. Distance from tip of longest secondary to that of longest
primary ("wing tip") greater than length of tarsus; crown
greenish (but feathers with lighter edgings in immature)..
Acadian Flycatcher1
Length of wing tip less than tarsal length; crown usually not
greenish .......... .................... ......... 12
12. Upperparts chiefly greenish; underparts almost entirely
yellow ......................... Yellow-bellied Flycatcher'
Upperparts chiefly brownish; underparts white (not more
than slightly yellowish) .............................. 13
13. Total length usually more than 5.5 inches; length of culmen
usually 10 mm. or more; width of bill at base usually more
than 6.0 mm.; all rectrices about equal in length ........
Traill's Flycatcher1
Total length usually less than 5.5 inches; length of culmen
usually less than 10 mm.; width of bill at base usually less
than 6.0 mm.; tail usually notched ........ Least Flycatcher1
FAMILY ALAUDIDAE, Larks. One species in Florida ..
Horned Lark (rare)
FAMILY HIRUNDINIDAE, Swallows.
KEY TO SPECIES
1. Wing length more than 5.0 inches ........................ 2
W ing length less than 5.0 inches ................. ...... 3
2. With concealed white on abdomen (male) or with creamy
white contrasting sharply with color of breast (female)
(accidental in Florida) ...................... Cuban Martin
Underparts entirely glossy black (male), or dull white on the
abdomen, gradually merging with drab-gray breast (fe-
male) ............. .... .................. Purple Martin
3. Tail forked for at least 14 mm. ......................... 4
Tail forked for less than 14 mm., if at all ................. 5
4. Underparts and forehead chiefly pale pinkish buff or cinna-
mon brown ............................. Barn Swallow
Underparts chiefly, or entirely, white; forehead violet-blue
or dull brown (accidental) ................ Bahama Swallow

'Distinguishing these small flycatchers without extensive comparisons is not always
possible.








A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


5. Back with some bluish iridescence ...................... 6
Back dull, without metallic reflections .................... 8
6. Underparts pure white ........ ................ Tree Swallow
Underparts at least partly dark ......................... 7
7. Forehead and rump light colored ................ Cliff Swallow
Forehead and rump dark brown (accidental) .... Cave Swallow
8. Underparts pure white ........................ Tree Swallow
W ith some dusky on breast ............................ 9

9. Throat and upper breast dingy; minute hooks present on
outermost primary ................. Rough-winged Swallow
With a distinct, dark band on breast, contrasting with the
white throat; edge of outermost primary smooth........
Bank Swallow
FAMILY CORVIDAE, Crows, Jays, etc.1

KEY TO SPECIES
1. Plumage blackish; total length more than 14 inches ........ 2
Plumage chiefly gray and blue; total length less than 14
inches ..................... ... ................ 3
2. Tarsus more than 50 mm. long; wing tip about 50 mm. short
of tip of tail ................ ............ Common Crow
Tarsus not more than 50 mm. long; wing extending to within
about 25 mm. of end of tail ...................... Fish Crow
3. Back partly lavender; crest present .................. Blue Jay
Back gray; crest lacking .......................... Scrub Jay
FAMILY PARIDAE, Titmice.

KEY TO SPECIES
1. Crest present; throat light gray .............. Tufted Titmouse
Crest wanting; throat black .............. Carolina Chickadee
FAMILY SITTIDAE, Nuthatches.
KEY TO SPECIES

'Records of the Black-billed Magpie (Pica pica) may be only of birds escaped
from captivity.








KEYS TO SPECIES


1. Underparts extensively reddish; with a white line over the
eye .............................. Red-breasted Nuthatch
Underparts mostly light gray; no white line over eye ...... 2
2. Total length over 5.0 inches; cap black. .White-breasted Nuthatch
Total length less than 5.0 inches; cap brown ............
Brown-headed Nuthatch
FAMILY CERTHIIDAE, Creepers. One species in Florida
.. Brown Creeper
FAMILY TROGLODYTIDAE, Wrens.
KEY TO SPECIES
1. With a distinct white line over the eye .................... 2
White line over the eye indistinct or lacking .............. 4
2. With white streaks on upper back .... Long-billed Marsh Wren
W without white streaks on back .......................... 3
3. Outer tail feathers partly whitish .............. Bewick's Wren
No white in tail ......................... . Carolina Wren
4. Feathers of belly with black markings .......... Winter Wren
No black on underparts ................. ............... 5
5. Crown uniformly brown ........................ House Wren
Crown streaked with black .......... Short-billed Marsh Wren
FAMILY MIMIDAE, Mimic Thrushes.
KEY TO SPECIES'
1. Upperparts brown; underparts white with rows of dark
markings ............................. Brown Thrasher
Dark gray above, lighter below .......................... 2
2. With white in wings and tail .................... Mockingbird
Wings -nd tail entirely dark gray .................... Catbird
FAMILY TURDIDAE, Thrushes.
KEY TO SPECIES
1. Total length 9.0 inches or more; wing length more than 4.5
inches ........................................ Robin
Total length less than 9.0 inches; wing length not more than
4.5 inches ........................................ 2

1The western Curve-billed Thrasher (Toxostoma curvirostre) has been collected
in Florida.







A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


2. Upperparts chiefly blue ..................... Eastern Bluebird
No blue in upperparts .................................. 3

3. With large white patches on rectrices (accidental) .... Wheatear
No white in rectrices ................................... 4

4. Underparts white, with large, dark spots extending back on
flanks to a point near the legs ................ Wood Thrush
Underparts not immaculately white in background, nor with
dark spots extending to legs .......................... 5

5. With reddish brown in upperparts ...................... 6
Upperparts entirely dull olive-brown .................. .. 7
6. Tail less reddish than remainder of upperparts .......... Veery
Tail and rump more reddish than remaining upperparts ..
Hermit Thrush
7. With extensive buffy coloring on anterior parts of under side,
including chin and eye ring .............. Swainson's Thrush
Buffy coloring reduced or lacking, never including chin or
eye ring .......................... Gray-cheeked Thrush
FAMILY SYLVIIDAE, Gnatcatchers and Kinglets.

KEY TO SPECIES
1. Upperparts chiefly gray; outer rectrices white ...........
Blue-gray Gnatcatcher
Upperparts greenish; all rectrices dark .................. 2
2. With yellow in crown ................ Golden-crowned Kinglet
Crown same color as upper back, or with concealed red spot
.. Ruby-crowned Kinglet
FAMILY MOTACILLIDAE, Pipits and Wagtails.

KEY TO SPECIES

1. Upperparts essentially unicolored; underparts extensively
buffy; hind toe plus claw not more than 21 mm. long....
Water Pipit
Feathers of upperparts dark with light edgings; buffy under-
parts anteriad only; hind toe plus claw at least 23 mm. long
Sprague's Pipit








KEYS TO SPECIES


FAMILY BOMBYCILLIDAE, Waxwings. One species in
Florida ................................. Cedar Waxwing

FAMILY LANIIDAE, Shrikes. One species in Florida ....
Loggerhead Shrike

FAMILY STURNIDAE, Starlings. One species in Florida ..
Starling

FAMILY VIREONIDAE, Vireos.

KEY TO SPECIES

1. White or light wing bars and eye ring present ............ 2
W ing bars and eye ring lacking ......................... 5

2. Eye ring yellow .................................. 3
Eye ring white ........... .......................... 4
3. Lower back greenish; head and upper back chiefly gray ....
White-eyed Vireo
Lower back gray; head and upper back greenish ..........
Yellow-throated Vireo

4. Outermost primary almost 25 mm. long (at least as long as
tarsus); wing less than 64 mm. long (very rare in Florida)
.. Bell's Vireo
Outermost primary about 12 mm. long and much shorter than
tarsus; wing more than 64 mm. long .......... Solitary Vireo

5. Outermost primary minute (not more than half length of the
second) ............................. W arbling Vireo
Outermost primary almost as long as second .............. 6
6. Center of breast yellow; culmen not more than 11 mm. long
Philadelphia Virco
Center of breast white; culmen about 13 mm. long ........ 7
7. With a dark malar stripe .............. Black-whiskered Vireo
No dark streak below eye ............................ 8
8. Under tail coverts decidedly yellow; wing length less than
50% of total length (accidental) .......... Yellow-green Vireo
Under tail coverts white or merely tinged with yellow; wing
length more than 50% of total length ........ Red-eyed Vireo







34 A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS

FAMILY COEREBIDAE, Honeycreepers. One species in
Florida ................. Bahama Honeycreeper (accidental)

FAMILY PARULIDAE, Warblers.

KEY TO SPECIES

1. With white, yellow, or red markings on wing .............. 2
No light or red markings on wing ........................ 24
2. Markings on wing yellow or red ........................ 3
Markings on wing white or whitish ..................... 5

3. With yellow or red patches on sides of breast, on wing, and
on each side of tail .................... American Redstart
With 2 yellow wing bars, but no distinct large patches of
contrasting yellow or red on sides of breast or tail ........ 4
4. With (lark gray or black on head ...... Golden-winged Warbler
Without dark gray or black on head .......... Yellow Warbler
5. Head chiefly yellow, with black line through eye ........
Blue-winged Warbler
Head pattern various, but not as above .................. 6
6. Back blue with a greenish patch .............. Parula Warbler
Back never blue with a greenish patch .................. 7
7. Rump yellow or greenish yellow, in conjunction with dark
upper back ................ ...................... 8
Rump not yellow or greenish unless upper back also predom-
inantly greenish ............. .. ................... 10
8. With a yellowish spot (faint in female) on side of neck ....
Cape May Warbler
Sides of neck gray or black ............................. 9
9. Underparts mostly yellow, with black streaking .........
Magnolia Warbler
Yellow of underparts confined to patches on sides of upper
breast ................................ Myrtle Warbler
10. Color pattern essentially gray, black, and white, with vir-
tually no green, yellow, or blue ........................ 11
Color pattern not entirely of gray, black, and white ........ 13








KEYS TO SPECIES


11. Throat mostly black, sometimes suffused (but never streaked)
with white ................... Black-throated Gray Warbler
Throat white or black-and-white streaked ................ 12

12. Top of head entirely black .............. Blackpoll Warbler ( 8 )
Top of head with white central stripe .. Black-and-white Warbler

13. Under tail coverts bright yellow; some reddish feathers on
crown .................................. Palm Warbler
Under tail coverts not more than faintly yellowish; no reddish
on crown ........................................... 14

14. With a single white wing bar (on the primaries), its greatest
width about 7 mm. ............. Black-throated Blue Warbler
Wing bars usually 2 in number and their greatest width less
than 5 m m ..................... ................ 15
15. Back dark gray, unstreaked; throat yellow, bordered by black
Yellow-throated Warbler
Never with combination of dark gray back and a yellow
throat bordered by black ........................... 16

16. Underparts extensively deep yellow or orange ............ 17
Underparts not more than faintly yellow .................. 20

17. Side of head with 2 dark streaks .............. Prairie Warbler
Side of head without clearly defined dark streaks .......... 18

18. Back greenish to olive-brown .................. Pine Warbler
Back blackish ...................................... 19

19. With a yellow or orange stripe over the eye ..............
Blackburnian Warbler
With an incomplete white eye ring, but no stripe over the
eye ........................... .. .Kirtland's Warbler

20. Side of head bright yellow, in contrast to dark green crown
.. Black-throated Green Warbler
Side of head not bright yellow .......................... 21
21. Crown green or yellowish; underparts chiefly whitish, with
brown on sides of adults ............ Chestnut-sided Warbler
Crown not greenish unless underparts also greenish ........ 22







A KEY TO FLORIDA BIRDS


22. Total length 5.0 inches or less; wing length not more than
69 mm. .............................. Cerulean Warbler
Total length 5.0 inches or more; wing length more than
69 mm. ........... ... ........... .... ........ 23a

23a. Devoid of streaks above and below ............ Pine Warbler
Back or breast at least faintly streaked ................... 23b

23b. Under tail coverts buffy; legs dark ..... Bay-breasted Warbler
Under tail coverts white; legs pinkish in life (not dark in
museum skins) ..................... Blackpoll W arbler ( )

24. Back slate-gray; underparts yellow with longitudinal dark
streaks ............................... Canada Warbler
Back brownish; underparts never deep yellow, but sometimes
streaked ......................................... 25
Back greenish; underparts unstreaked, usually yellowish .... 28

25. Underparts not streaked .................. Swainson's Warbler
Underparts streaked ............................... 26

26. Crown golden brown, bordered by black ............ Ovenbird
Crown entirely dark brown .......................... 27

27. Chin unstreaked for distance of more than 10 mm.; flanks
with buffy ground color; superciliary line usually white ..
Louisiana Waterthrush
Chin unstreaked for distance of less than 10 mm. (if at all);
ground color of flanks whitish; superciliary line usually
buffy or yellowish .................. Northern Waterthrush

28. Under tail coverts yellow or greenish yellow .............. 29
Under tail coverts not yellowish, usually white ............ 37

29. With a black mask, complete or incomplete, running across
the eye, contrasting with head color above and below eye 30
No black mask across eye .............................. 31

30. Abdomen yellow; mask interrupted by yellow around eye
Kentucky Warbler
Abdomen not entirely yellow; mask not interrupted at eye..
Yellowthroat ( )







KEYS TO SPECIES


31. With a complete white ring around the eye .............. 32
White eye ring incomplete or lacking .................... 33
32. Throat yellowish; top of head grayish, often with a chestnut
patch on crown; wing length less than 64 mm. .........
Nashville Warbler
Throat gray or huffy; top of head greenish; wing length more
than 64 mm. ........................ Connecticut Warbler
33. Throat and upper breast dingy white or greenish yellow,
with faint dusky streaks .......... Orange-crowned Warbler
Throat and breast usually gray, black, or deep yellow, and
never streaked ...................................... 34
34. Top of head entirely greenish, devoid of any gray or black
feathers ............................. Yellowthroat ( )
Top of head with some gray or black feathers ............. 35
35. Entire head and neck gray to black, except when an incom-
plete white eye ring is present .......... Mourning Warbler
With clear yellow on side of head or throat; eye ring, if pres-
ent, never white ............. .... .................. 36
36. Outer rectrices largely white ................ Hooded Warbler
No white,in outer rectrices .................. Wilson's Warbler
37. Total length more than 6.5 inches; wings comparatively short
and tail long (tips of wings falling 50 mm. or more short
of tail tip) .................. ....... Yellow-breasted Chat
Total length less than 6.5 inches; distance from tip of wing to
tip of tail much less than 50 mm. ................... ... 38
38. Throat and breast orange-yellow; under tail coverts very
long, reaching to within 13 mm. of tail tip. ..............
Prothonotary Warbler
No trace of orange on throat or breast; distance from tip of
under tail coverts to tip of tail more than 13 mm. ........ 39
39. Crown buffy, bordered by black stripes on each side ......
Worm-eating Warbler
No stripes of buff and black on top of head ................ 40
40. Forehead yellow, contrasting with black or gray on top of
head; yellow patch on bend of wing ..... Bachman's Warbler
Forehead and crown unicolored; no yellow on bend of wing
Tennessee Warbler







A KEY To FLORIDA BmoIR


FAMILY PLOCEIDAE, Weaver Finches. One species in
Florida . .............................. House Sparrow

FAMILY ICTERIDAE, Blackbirds, Orioles, etc.

KEY TO SPECIES

1. Rectrices pointed .. .............................. Bobolink
Rectrices square or rounded ............................ 2

2. Throat yellow, contrasting with the dark belly ............
Yellow-headed Blackbird
Throat not yellow unless belly also yellow or light ........ 3

3. With true yellow or orange on under side of body .......... 4
Under side of body sometimes buffy, but never deep yellow
or orange ........... ...... .................... 9

4. Top of head with huffy and blackish stripes; yellow of under-
parts interrupted on breast by a black V-shaped marking.. 5
Top of head not distinctly striped; no definite black V on
breast .......................................... 6

5. Cheek grayish; feathers of back tipped with medium brown
Eastern Meadowlark
Cheek buffy; feathers of back tipped (and edged) with whit-
ish (rare except in northwest Florida) .. Western Meadowlark

6. Crown orange or yellowish orange; wing length usually more
than 100 mm. (southeast Florida only).. Spotted-breasted Oriole
Crown black to olive; wing length usually less than 100 mm. 7

7. Underparts mostly dark orange-brown or yellow; wing length
less than 85 mm. ....................... Orchard Oriole
Underparts with some true orange, or with the belly whitish;
wing length more than 85 mm. ....... ................ 8

8. With a contrasting black streak through the eye ( & ), or with
a whitish belly ( 9 ) (rare) .................. Bullock's Oriole
Top and sides of head entirely dark; belly more or less orange
Baltimore Oriole







KEYS TO SPECIES


9. Tail feathers strongly graduated, the distance from the tip of
the shortest to that of the longest being 18 mm. or more.. 10
Tail feathers of nearly equal length, the greatest difference
being 13 mm. or less ................................ 11
10. Total length more than 14 inches ( 6 ), or throat and breast
light brown ( 9 ), but grayish in immature.. Boat-tailed Crackle
Total length less than 14 inches; plumage glossy, iridescent
black .................................. Common Grackle

11. Depth of bill at nostrils at least 60% of culmen ............
Brown-headed Cowbird
Depth of bill at nostrils not more than 50% length of culmen.. 12

12. Plumage black, with red and buff on bend of wings ( ), or
with dark streaks ventrally ( ) ...... Red-winged Blackbird1
Plumage never streaked; no red or buff on bend of wing .... 13
13. Wing at least 4.5 inches long, its tip reaching to within 43
mm. of tail tip ............. ........ Brewer's Blackbird
Wing usually less than 4.5 inches long, its tip falling almost
50 mm. short of tail tip .................... Rusty Blackbird
FAMILY THRAUPIDAE, Tanagers.

KEY TO SPECIES
1. With 2 white wing bars .................... Western Tanager
W ing bars lacking .................................... 2

2. Wing relatively long, extending halfway down the tail; upper
mandible toothed near base ................ Scarlet Tanager
Wing tip falling almost 2 inches short of tail tip; upper man-
dible not distinctly toothed ................ Summer Tanager
FAMILY FRINGILLIDAE, Grosbeaks, Finches, and Sparrows.

KEY TO SPECIES2

1A record of the Tawny-shouldered Blackbird (Agelaius humeralis) in Florida
is supported by specimens.
^Members of this family which have been recorded in Florida only once are the
White-winged Crossbill (Loxia leucoptera), Ipswich Sparrow (Passerculus prin-
ceps), Tree Sparrow (Spizella arborea), and Snow Bunting (Plectrophenax ni-
calis). No specimens support these observations.







A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


1. Head crested .. .................................. Cardinal
No crest on head .................................... 2

2. Mandibles crossed near tip (accidental) .......... Red Crossbill
Mandibles not crossed ................................ 3

3. Plumage mostly slate-gray, with white abdomen and lateral
rectrices ............. .............. Slate-colored Junco
Never slate-gray with white outer tail feathers ............. 4

4. Hind toe with its claw at least 90% as long as tarsus (acciden-
tal in Florida) ......................... Lapland Longspur
Hind toe with its claw never 90% length of tarsus .......... 5

5. Total length 4.5 inches or less; face black or brown with a yel-
low ruff behind (accidental in Florida) . Melodious Grassquit
Total length usually more than 4.5 inches; face and neck not
as described above ................................ 6

6. Hind toe (upper side) longer than its claw ................ 7
Hind toe not longer than its claw ........................ 18

7. Depth of bill at base more than 60% length of exposed culmen 8
Depth of bill at base less than 60% length of exposed culmen 15

8. With contrasting clear yellow or red on bend of wing, often
ventrally ....................................... 9
Without contrasting red or clear yellow on bend of wing ... 11

9. Wing length less than 80 mm. ............ Grasshopper Sparrow
Wing length more than 80 mm. .......................... 10

10. Breast rose-colored or decidedly streaked ................
Rose-breasted Grosbeak
Breast brownish, virtually without streaks (very rare in Flor-
ida) ........................... Black-headed Grosbeak

11. Most rectrices broadly tipped with white ........ Lark Sparrow
Little or no white on rectrices ........................... 12

12. Plumage rose-red anteriad ( ) or broadly streaked with
brown (9) ................................. Purple Finch
Plumage never rose-red nor heavily streaked ............. 13







KEYS TO SPECIEv


13. Total length over 6 inches; wing length more than 80 mm...
Blue Grosbeak
Total length less than 6 inches; wing length less than 80 mm. 14
14. Underparts red ( ) or greenish yellow ( ) .... Painted Bunting
Underparts partly blue ( ) or light brown ( ) .. Indigo Bunting
15. Breast buffy, with narrow streaks ........ Sharp-tailed Sparrow
Breast dark or broadly streaked with black ................ 16
16. Upperparts essentially black .......... Dusky Seaside Sparrow
Upperparts not entirely blackish ........................ 17
17. Upperparts blackish mixed with brown ........ Seaside Sparrow
Upperparts with a greenish cast .......... Cape Sable Sparrow
18. With large (3 mm. in diameter) white areas in rectriccs .... 19
With no white in rectrices (unless as narrow edgings on
lateral feathers) .................... ............ 20
19. Total length at least 7 inches; back black or brown, without
streaks ............................. Rufous-sided Towhee
Total length 5.5 to 6.7 inches; back conspicuously streaked
.. Vesper Sparrow
Total length less than 5.5 inches; back yellow or greenish,
without streaks ........................ American Goldfinch
20. Distance from tip of longest primary to that of longest tail
feather less than 25 mm. ........................ Pine Siskin
Distance from wing tip to tail tip more than 25 mm ........ 21

21. Wing length less than 57 mm.; tail feathers narrow (not more
than 6 mm. wide) and pointed ....................... 22
Wing length more than 57 mm.; rectrices never narrowed
(not less than 7 mm. wide) or pointed .................. 23

22. Nape buffy, with reddish streaks .......... Le Conte's Sparrow
Nape olive-green, with dark streaks ........ Henslow's Sparrow

23. With some yellow on underparts .................. Dickcissel
No yellow present on underparts ........................ 24

24. Tail graduated, the outermost tail feathers being at least 4
mm. shorter than the longest one ...................... 25
Outermost tail feathers about as long as any .............. 27







A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


25. With yellow on bend of wing and reddish streaks on nape
.. Bachman's Sparrow
No yellow on wing nor reddish streaks on nape ............ 26

26. Breast smoky gray, with little or no streaking .. Swamp Sparrow
Breast white, heavily streaked or spotted with brown......
Song Sparrow
Breast with a buffy transverse band, finely streaked with
blackish ............................ Lincoln's Sparrow

27. Total length more than 6.0 inches; length of tarsus 23 mm. or
more.1 ............. ............................. 28
Total length not more than 6.0 inches; length of tarsus 22
m m or less ......................................... 31
28. Tail and streaks of underparts bright reddish brown ......
Fox Sparrow
Tail dull brown; underparts streaked (if at all) with dark
brown .......................... .............. 29

29. With yellow in front of eye; bill not flesh-colored ........
White-throated Sparrow
No yellow in front of eye; bill flesh-colored .............. 30
30. Underparts streaked (accidental) .............. Harris' Sparrow
Underparts unstreaked (rare) .......... White-crowned Sparrow
31. Length of hind toe and its claw 13 mm. or more; boldly
streaked underneath .................... Savannah Sparrow
Length of hind toe and its claw not more than 12 mm.; lightly
streaked underneath, or not at all .................... 32
32. Crown streaked and with a broad, median light stripe (rare
in Florida) .......................... Clay-colored Sparrow
Crown, if streaked, without a median light stripe .......... 33
33. With rusty brown on top of head, sides of breast, and back;
bill entirely orange-pink .............. ... Field Sparrow
Crown chestnut-red or finely streaked; no rusty brown on
sides of head or on back; upper mandible brown ........
Chipping Sparrow

'A western race of the White-crowned Sparrow (Z. 1. gambeli), which may be
expected in Florida, is somewhat smaller.









DESCRIPTIONS AND STATUS OF FLORIDA BIRDS
ORDER GAVIIFORMES: FAMILY GAVIIDAE, Loons.
Common Loon (Gavia immer). Description.-Total length 30 to 36
inches. Breeding plumage: iridescent black dorsally, with squarish
white patches on wings and upper back, more rounded spots on sides,
and streaks on neck and side of breast; mostly white ventrally, except
for the black throat. Winter plumage (about 99% of Florida individuals
are seen in this plumage): almost uniformly medium gray above and
white below.

Status. Winter resident, chiefly from October to late April.
Occasional birds (usually in winter plumage) are found in summer
on northwestern Gulf Coast. Common in northern parts, becoming
less numerous southward. Prefers salt water in winter, but occasional
on larger lakes, especially in migration.

Red-throated Loon (Gavia stellata). Description. Total length
24 to 27 inches. Breeding plumage: gray above with white edgings
to feathers, except for the neck, which is streaked with black and
white; side of head and neck gray; throat reddish brown; remainder
of underparts mostly white. (Probably unknown in Florida in this
plumage.) Winter plumage: similar to breeding plumage, but neck
medium gray and throat light gray. In this plumage it is easily mis-
taken for the Common Loon, but may be distinguished by the shape
and proportions of the bill, and (in comparison) by its smaller size.
Status. Rare winter resident in salt water and the mouths of
rivers in all parts of state, November to April.

ORDER PODICIPEDIFORMES: FAMILY PODICTPEDIDAE,
Grebes.

Red-necked Grebe (Podiceps grisegena). Description. Total
length 18 to 22 inches. Breeding plumage: upperparts brownish gray,
except darker on crown and nape; lower throat rufous; upper throat
and sides of head light gray; remainder of underparts white, shading
to rufous on sides. Winter plumage: adults as described above, except
paler above and without rufous on throat. Immature: dark gray above,
whitish below, including patch on side of head. In all plumages the
bill is yellowish toward the base and dark toward the tip.








A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


Status. Rare winter resident on salt water, November to March.

Horned Grebe (Podiceps auritus). Description. Total length
about 14 inches. Breeding plumage: crest blackish, except for broad
stripe of cream-buff running through eye; throat and side of body
rufous; back dark brown; remainder of underparts white. Winter
plumage: dorsum gray; underparts, including patch on side of head,
white. Commonly seen in changing plumage in spring.

Status. Common winter resident from October to May, preferring
salt water, but not rare on larger lakes.

Eared Grebe (Podiceps caspicus). Description. Total length
about 13 inches. Similar to the Horned Grebe, but differs in breeding
plumage in its pointed crest and black neck. Even more similar in
winter, but throat and sides grayer, bill more slender and upturned,
and usually with a light patch behind the eye.

Status Accidental in winter; 2 records near Pensacola.

Western Grebe (Aechmophorus occidentalis). Description. Total
length 22 to 29 inches. Dark gray above; underparts and cheek patch
white (duller in, winter); bill slender and entirely yellowish.

Status. Accidental in fall and winter at scattered localities from
Tampa Bay and Cocoa to Pensacola.

Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps). Description. Total
length about 14 inches. Dark brown above, lighter underneath; bill
whitish; adults in breeding season have a black throat patch and a
black band on the bill; juveniles are streaked on the head.

Status. Permanent resident throughout most of state on fresh
water; not unusual on salt water during migration. Common in winter;
irregular in summer. Nests chiefly on smaller ponds and most com-
monly during rainy years.

ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES: FAMILY PROCELLARIIDAE,
Shearwaters, etc.

Greater Shearwater (Puffinus gravis). Description. Total length
18 to 20 inches. Chiefly fuscous above and white below; upper tail
coverts whitish; bill dark gray.








DESCRIPTION AND STATUS


Status. Accidental in Florida, chiefly offshore.
Sooty Shearwater (Puffinus griseus). Description. Total length
16 to 18 inches. Coloration similar to the Greater Shearwater's, except
darker underneath.
Status. Accidental at any time of year, chiefly offshore; more
frequent than preceding species.
Audubon's Shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri). Description. Total
length 11 to 12 inches. Dorsum grayish black, underparts white.
Status.-Accidental off East Coast in summer. (All shearwaters and
petrels are most likely to be seen during and following tropical storms.)
FAMILY HYDROBATIDAE, Storm Petrels.
Leach's Petrel (Oceanodrorna leucorrhoa). Description. Total
length about 8 inches. Mostly sooty brown, but with a white rump
patch; bill and feet black.
Status. Accidental in May and June; most likely offshore.
Wilson's Petrel (Oceanites oceanicus). Description. Total length
about 7 inches. Coloration similar to that of Leach's Petrel, except for
white on wing coverts and yellow webs between toes.
Status. Occasional offshore in summer.
ORDER PELECANIFORMES: FAMILY PHAETHONTIDAE,
Tropic-birds.
White-tailed Tropic-bird (Phaithon lepturus). Description.-Total
length 25 to 32 inches, the long central rectrices making up three-
fourths of this in adults. Mostly white, but with black edgings on
feathers of back and upper side of wing; bill orange to red. Imma-
tures have a much shorter tail, more black spotting and barring above,
and a yellow bill.
Status. Very rare off the East Coast, most frequently seen in the
summer months and during tropical disturbances.
FAMILY PELECANIDAE, Pelicans.
White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos). Description. Total
length 50 to 65 inches. Adults: white with black primaries; bill, pouch,
tarsus, and toes yellow. Young brownish gray on top of head, but
otherwise like the adults.








A KEY To FLORIDA BDms


Status. Common winter resident on Florida coasts; occasional
inland, and irregular in summer.
Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis). Description.-Total length
45 to 55 inches. Adults in breeding plumage: chiefly gray, with silver
above, but head mostly white and neck seal-brown, interrupted by a
white streak. Winter adults have the neck mostly white; immatures
have a gray head and neck and a white belly.
Status. Resident and breeding (locally) along both coasts of the
Peninsula; also resident, but non-breeding, in northwestern Florida.
Accidental inland.
FAMILY SULIDAE, Boobies and Gannets.
Blue-faced Booby (Sula dactylatra). Description. Total length
25 to 29 inches. Adults: white except for the dark tips of the wing and
tail feathers; dark blue around base of bill. Immature: dark gray-
brown above (with lighter areas) and white underneath. In this
plumage this species is similar to the adult Brown Booby.
Status. Of regular occurrence at the Dry Tortugas, but acci-
dental elsewhere.
Brown Booby (Sula leucogaster). Description. Total length
about 30 inches. Adults: with white underparts of the body sharply
contrasting with dark brown of head, neck, and upperparts. Immature:
dark ventrally and with a blackish, rather than a yellow, bill. At all
ages the area around base of bill is yellowish.
Status. Regular at the Dry Tortugas, accidental elsewhere.
Gannet (Morus bassanus). Description. Total length 30 to 40
inches. Adults: white with black primaries; head and neck tinged with
straw color. Immature: dark gray with white spots above, whitish
below.
Status. Regular in winter offshore in varying degrees of abun-
dance, a few stragglers remaining into summer.
FAMILY PHALACROCOROCIDAE, Cormorants.
Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo). Description. Total
length 34 to 40 inches. Adults: mostly iridescent black, but with white
patches on flanks and under side of head; gular pouch orange. Imma-
ture: essentially brown, but with mostly white underparts.







DESCRIPTION AND STATUS


Status. A northern species which is accidental in the north-
eastern corner of the state in winter.
Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus). Description.-
Total length 29 to 33 inches. Adults: chiefly iridescent black, with an
orange gular pouch. Immature: dark gray-brown above, whitish un-
derneath; gular pouch more yellowish.
Status. Common permanent resident, breeding over most of the
state, but not in the northwestern parts (where seldom seen in sum-
mer); less common inland.
FAMILY ANHINGIDAE, Darters.
Anhinga (Anhinga anhinga). Description. Total length 33 to 36
inches (with a disproportionately long tail). Adult male: iridescent
black, with white streaks on back and a large white patch on wing.
Adult female: with less white dorsally, and with the head, neck, and
breast vinaceous-brown. Immature: similar to female, but more
brownish on body.
Status. Permanent resident over most of state, but retiring from
northwestern corner in winter; generally absent along coast.
FAMILY FREGATIDAE, Frigate-birds.
Magnificent Frigate-bird (Fregata magnificens). Description. -
Total length 38 to 41 inches, the deeply forked tail making up about
40% of this. Adult male: black, with iridescence above; gular pouch
reddish. Adult female: upperparts duller; breast and sides of abdo-
men white; otherwise underparts blackish; gular pouch dark. Imma-
ture: similar to adult female, but with entire head and neck white.
Status. Non-breeding resident in southern parts; summer visitor,
especially during storms, northward; accidental inland.
ORDER CICONTIFORMES: FAMILY ARDEIDAE, Herons, Egrets,
and Bitterns.
Great White Heron (Ardea occidentalis).1 Description. Total
length 45 to 54 inches. Plumage entirely white; bill, tarsus, and toes
greenish yellow.

'Great Blue Herons and Great White Herons regularly hybridize, the result being
a bird called Wiirdemann's Heron, which resembles a pale Great Blue except for
its largely white head and neck.








A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


Status. Permanent resident in extreme south Florida, especially
on the Keys; accidental northward.
Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias).' Description. Total length
42 to 52 inches. Adults: head white with black plumes; otherwise
chiefly gray above and streaked underneath. Immature: darker on the
head, especially the crown.
Status. Common permanent resident throughout state, often nest-
ing in mid-winter.
Green Heron (Butorides virescens). Description. Total length
15 to 22 inches. Adults: crown and back dark green; neck chiefly
maroon, streaked underneath; underparts mostly ashy gray; tarsus and
toes orange. Immature: more strongly streaked on neck and under-
parts and with more greenish tarsus and toes.
Status. Common resident throughout most of state, but largely
absent from the northern parts in winter.
Little Blue Heron (Florida caerulea). Description. Total length
20 to 29 inches. Adults: dark slaty blue, except for the maroon head
and neck. Immature: almost wholly white, but with scattered patches
of slaty blue when maturing; tarsus and toes grayish green.

Status. Permanent resident throughout state, but numbers re-
duced northwestward in winter.

Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis). Description. Total length about
20 to 25 inches. Plumage entirely white, except for buffy plumes
anteriad in breeding adults; tarsus and toes yellow, bill usually so.

Status. Became established around Lake Okeechobec about
1950; distributed throughout most of the Peninsula by 1958 and
spreading rapidly.

Reddish Egret (Dichromanassa rufescens). Description. Total
length 27 to 32 inches. Dark phase: dark slate-colored, except for the
rufous head and neck. White phase: plumage entirely white; in all
adults the basal half of the bill is light (pinkish in life), and the
distal half dark. Immature: bill not two-toned; birds in the dark phase
are uniformly dark slate, with flecks of rust.


'See footnote on page 47.







DESCRIPTION AND STATUS


Status. Largely restricted to south Florida, where a rare to un-
common permanent resident.
Common Egret (Casmerodius albus). Description. Total length
36 to 42 inches. Plumage entirely white; bill yellow; tarsus and toes
black.

Status. Common permanent resident throughout state (locally
abundant), except less numerous northwestward-especially in winter.
Snowy Egret (Leucophoyx thula). Description. Total length 20
to 27 inches. Plumage entirely white; bill and tarsus black (tarsus
green in immature); lores and toes yellow.
Status. Generally a common to abundant permanent resident in
all parts of state, but largely absent from northwestern parts in winter.
Louisiana Heron (Hydranassa tricolor). Description. Total
length 23 to 28 inches. Adults: mostly dark slate above (except for
buff on lower back) and white on under side of body, wings, and tail.
Immature: similar, but with considerable rust on head and neck.
Status. Common resident throughout most of state, but reduced
in interior of northern parts, and rare northwestward in winter.

Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax). Description.
-Total length 23 to 26 inches. Adults: glossy greenish black on crown
and back; wings light gray; underparts (including forehead and side
of head) white. Immature: brownish gray, with white flecks dor-
sally; whitish with dark streaks ventrally.

Status. Irregularly distributed throughout state at all seasons.
Yellow-crowned Night Heron (Nyctanassa violacea). Description.-
Total length 22 to 28 inches. Adults: dark slate-colored (varied with
white above), except for creamy white crown and black surrounding
a patch of white on side of head. Immature: similar to that of the
Black-crowned Night Heron, but dark markings in plumage are more
gray than brown, and the legs are longer.

Status. Common breeding summer resident in most parts of the
state, but most common southward; rare to absent in north Florida
in winter, but locally common at that season southward.
Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis). Description. Total length 11








A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


to 14 inches. Male: essentially glossy greenish black above, rufous
brown on sides, and whitish or light buffy underneath. Adult female:
similar to male, except dark brown above. Immature female: rufous
with buffy markings on back. A darker phase may be seen occa-
sionally.
Status. Common summer resident in marshes over entire state,
but rare or absent in winter in most parts (or more secretive?).
American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus). Description. Total
length 24 to 34 inches. Mostly variegated brown and buffy dorsally,
but underparts light buff, the throat streaked with brown; a black
(or dull gray) patch on side of head and neck; chin white.
Status. Winter resident in marshes throughout state, a few re-
maining to breed locally in the Peninsula.

FAMILY CICONIIDAE, Storks.
Wood This (Mycteria americana). Description. Total length 35
to 47 inches. Adults: head and neck blackish (bare); plumage white,
except for the black remiges and rectrices. Immature: similar, but
head and neck sparsely covered with grayish feathers.
Status. Common resident in southern half of Peninsula; non-
breeding summer visitor in northern parts, April to December, occa-
sionally remaining there into winter.
FAMILY TIIRESKIORNITHIDAE, Ibises and Spoonbills.
Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus). Description. Total length 22
to 25 inches. Adults: head, neck, back, and underparts maroon;
plumage otherwise dark, with greenish reflections: hill, tarsus, and
toes dull. Immature: plumage duller, with white streaks on head and
neck.
Status. Permanent resident in south Florida, where locally com-
mon; rare elsewhere in state.
White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi). Description. Total length
19 to 25 inches. Plumage as in the Glossy Ibis, except for white feath-
ers around eye; bill, tarsus, and toes reddish. Immatures are not
separable in the 2 species.
Status. Accidental in Florida, but most likely in extreme north-
western corner.








DESCRIPTION AND STATUS


White Ibis (Eudocimus albus). Description. Total length 22 to
27 inches. Adults: white with black wing tips. Immature: brownish
with white underparts. Many are seen in intermediate plumage in
summer. At all ages the bill, lores, tarsus, and toes tend to be pink.
Status. Common breeding summer resident through most of
state, most individuals migrating out of the northern parts for the
winter; less common on Keys.
Scarlet Ibis (Eudocimus rriber). Description. Total length 28
to 30 inches. Plumage of adults scarlet, with black wing tips. Imma-
tures are probably inseparable from those of the White Ibis.
Status. Accidental in the Peninsula.
Roseate Spoonbill (Ajaia ajaja). Description. Total length 28 to
:35 inches. Adults: bill and head (bare) greenish; neck and back
white, sometimes tinged with pinkish; tail and side of breast buffv;
otherwise mostly pink; tarsus and toes pinkish. Immature: similar, but
paler (sometimes entirely white), with the head and neck feathered,
and the tarsus and toes yellowish.
Status. Permanent resident in the southern half of the Peninsula
and the Keys; occasional in northeastern parts, and accidental else-
where.

FAMILY PHOENICOPTERIDAE, Flamingoes.
American Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber). Description. Total
length 42 to 48 inches. Bill heavy and abruptly downcurved. Adults:
primaries and secondaries black, otherwise pink to varying degrees.
Immature: differ from adults in being paler underneath and brownish
gray above.
Status. Apparently an established permanent resident in Florida
Bay, though not known to breed there up to 1959; accidental else-
where.

ORDER ANSERIFORMES: FAMILY ANATIDAE, Swans, Geese,
and Ducks.
Whistling Swan (Olor columbianus). Description. Total length
47 to 58 inches. Adults: entirely white in plumage; bill, tarsus, and
toes black. Immature: plumage ashy gray, with brownish cast on head
and neck; bill pinkish.








A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


Status. Very rare winter resident in northwestern parts, Novem-
ber to February.
Canada Goose (Branta canadensis). Description. Total length
25 to 40 inches (varying with the subspecies). Chin, upper throat,
and side of head white; remainder of head and neck black; upper-
parts otherwise brownish gray; underparts somewhat lighter.

Status. Common winter resident in northwestern parts, October
to April (occasionally into summer); rare in Peninsula.
Brant (Branta bernicla). Description. Total length 22 to 28
inches. Resembles a small Canada Goose, but with black extending
onto breast, and the white patch (streaked with black) on side of
upper neck.

Status.-Accidental winter visitor, October or November to March.
White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons). Description. Total
length 26 to 30 inches. Adults: plumage brownish gray, except for
white area around bill and black splotches on underside; bill pink;
tarsus and toes fellow. Immature: similar, but without the white fore-
head or black markings ventrally; bill, tarsus, and toes yellowish.

Status. Accidental (3 records near St. Marks).
Snow Goose (Chien hyperborea). Description. Total length 24 to
30 inches. Adults: plumage entirely white, but for black primaries;
bill, tarsus, and toes pink. Immature: similar, but washed with pale
gray, especially dorsally.
Status. Irregular (sometimes common) fall transient in north-
western parts, rarely wintering; rare at any season in Peninsula; Octo-
ber or November to March.
Blue Goose (Chen caerulescens). Description. Total length 25
to 30 inches. Adults: body bluish gray, with white feather edgings
on upperparts; abdomen, head, and neck white (sometimes stained
with rust); bill, tarsus, and toes pink. Immature: plumage mostly
dark.

Status. Almost identical to that of the Snow Goose, but found in
larger numbers in northwestern parts.
Fulvous Tree Duck (Dendrocygna bicolor). Description. Total







DESCRIPTION AND STATUS


length 18 to 21 inches. Upperparts mostly brownish black, but with a
white bar across the base of the dark tail; head, neck, and underparts
rich buffy or reddish brown (paler in immature); a white stripe on
side of body; bill, tarsus, and toes blue-gray.
Status.-Accidental in Peninsula (possibly escapes from captivity).
Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Description. Total length 20 to
26 inches. Adult male: head and neck dark glossy green, separated
from color of body by a conspicuous white ring; breast chestnut; re-
mainder of body, wings, and tail chiefly gray to brown; speculum
purplish blue, bordered with white; bill yellow; tarsus and toes
orange. Female and immature male in fall: chiefly dark brown above
and lighter brown below (feathers dark with light edgings); bill
orange and dark brown in female, yellow in male; speculum, tarsus,
and toes as in adult male.
Status. Common winter resident in northern parts, decreasing
southward, mainly from October to March, but rarely into summer.
Black Duck (Anas rubripes). Description. Total length 21 to 25
inches. Dark brown fuscouss) above, with lighter edgings on feathers
of body and wings; side of head and throat lighter, but with dark
streaks; bill yellow to greenish; tarsus and toes red or greenish; specu-
him purple, bordered with black.
Status. Regular and sometimes common in northern Florida, de-
creasing to rare in south Florida (where it is separated from the fol-
lowing species only with great difficulty). October to March, lingering
into summer rarely and locally.
Mottled Duck (Anus fulvigula). Description. Total length 20 to
22 inches. Almost indistinguishable from the Black Duck, but head
and neck more buffy, chin unstreaked, and secondaries not tipped with
white.
Status. Resident and breeding on the mainland from about
Gainesville southward; outlying records are unsatisfactory.
Gadwall (Anas strepera). Description. Total length 18 to 23
inches. Adult male: mostly grayish brown, with a white belly and
black lower back and tail coverts; speculum white, partly surrounded
by black: chestnut on bend of wing; bill dark; tarsus and toes yellow-
ish. Female and immature male: similar but browner, lacking the
black around tail; bill greenish yellow.







A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


Status. Common winter resident in north Florida, decreasing
southward and rare in extreme southern parts; October to May, occa-
sionally remaining into summer.
Pintail (Anas acuta). Description. Total length 21 to 30 inches,
the long, central rectrices of the male making up much of this total.
Male: head and neck brown, except for an extension of the white
from the underparts up each side of neck; body and wings otherwise
chiefly vermiculated gray, but with white edgings to long wing cov-
erts; tail mostly black. Female: chiefly brown, streaked with dark on
head and neck, and mottled on wings and body; underparts whitish,
streaked in immature. Bill, tarsus, and toes bluish gray in both sexes.

Status. Common winter resident in north Florida and well repre-
sented to southern tip of the Peninsula, September to March, rarely
remaining into summer.
Green-winged Teal (Anas carolinensis). Description. Total
length 13 to 15 inches. Male: head chestnut with a lateral green
stripe, terminating in black at nape; body vermiculated gray to
brownish, lighter underneath; speculum green. Female: browner and
without rich head color of male.

Status. Common in winter in northern parts, decreasing south-
ward and rare near southern tip; October to April (rarely later).
Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors). Description. Total length 14
to 16 inches. Male in breeding plumage: head dark gray to black,
with a white crescent in front of eye; back blackish with white feather
edgings; underparts brown with spots and bars of black; a large chalky
blue patch and smaller green patch on wing; bill dark; tarsus and toes
yellowish. Female and fall male: similar, but chiefly gray-brown on
body; less blue on wing than in male; underparts light.
Status. Common winter resident in south Florida, decreasing
northward; sometimes rare in winter (but always common transient)
in north Florida; August to May, rarely summering.
Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera). Description. Total length
15 to 17 inches. Male: head, neck, and most of body dark cinnamon;
color of wings, tail (including coverts), bill, tarsus, and toes as in Blue-
winged Teal. Female: probably not distinguishable by plumage from
the female Blue-winged Teal.







DESCRIPTION AND STATUS


Status. Accidental in Florida in winter.
European Widgeon (Mareca penelope). Description.-Total length
17 to 20 inches. Adult male: crown creamy buff, rest of head and neck
cinnamon red, shading to chestnut on breast; upperparts chiefly
vermiculated gray; remainder of underparts white; large white patches
on wings; tail and under coverts black; bill blue, with black tip. Fe-
male and immature male in fall: head and neck gray, tinged with
cinnamon and streaked with dusky; upperparts brown, with lighter
feather edgings and a large green patch (but little white) on wing;
sides of body reddish brown; remainder of underparts white. Dis-
tinguished only with difficulty from female of the much more common
American Widgeon.
Status. Rare to accidental winter visitant, November to April
or May.
American Widgeon (MAareca americana). Description. Total
length 18 to 22 inches. Adult male: similar to male European Widg-
eon, except for white crown, green on side of head, and gray-streaked
face and neck. Female and immature male in fall: very similar to fe-
male European Widgeon, but head and neck without a trace of cinna-
mon.
Status. Common winter resident throughout, October to April,
rarely remaining into summer.
Shoveler (Spatula clypeata). Description. Total length 17 to 21
inches. Adult male: head and upper neck metallic green; lower neck,
breast, and part of wing white; rest of wing dusky distally, and blue
(anteriad) or green (posteriad) near body; remainder of upperparts
chiefly dark, with white feather edgings; remainder of underparts
chestnut-brown; bill dark; tarsus and toes red. Female and immature
male: mostly brownish, with streaks of dusky on head and neck and
lighter feather edgings on body; wing pattern similar to that of male,
but with less white; bill more greenish. (Adult males in fall are usually
in eclipse plumage similar to that of the female, but darker and
with more reddish below.)
Status. Winter resident throughout most of state, but probably
more common in the Peninsula than in the northern portions; October
to April.
Wood Duck (Air sponsa). Description. Total length 17 to 20






A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


inches. Adult male in breeding plumage: an incredibly gaudy duck,
with green, violet, buff, black, and white in a jumbled arrangement
(but similar to the female during the eclipse plumage of late summer).
Female and immature male in fall: head crested (as in adult male)
and lead gray, with a white eye ring, chin, and throat; upperparts
(including breast and sides) chiefly brown; underparts white.
Status. Resident and breeding over most of state, where it in-
habits wooded swamps and river bottoms for the most part; rare or
absent southward.
Redhead (Aythya americana). Description. Total length 17 to
22 inches. Adult male: head and neck chestnut red; lower neck and
breast black; remainder of body mostly gray, but lighter ventrally.
Female and immature male (fall): plain brownish above and white
underneath, the area around the bill lighter. In both sexes the bill is
gray-blue, this color separated from the black tip by an indistinct
light ring.
Status. Common to abundant winter resident in north Florida,
decreasing to rarity southward; prefers salt water; October to April,
rarely remaining into summer.
Ring-necked Duck (Aythya collaris). Description.-Total length 15
to 18 inches. Male: head (slightly crested) and neck purplish, the
latter with a maroon ring at its base; breast and upperparts black;
sides and underparts whitish. Female: brownish gray above, including
breast; underparts and eve ring whitish. Both sixes have a bluish
bill, with a narrow white ring near its tip and white at its base.
Status. Abundant winter resident on fresh water in northern
parts, decreasing southward; November to April, occasionally sum-
mering.
Canvasback (Aythya valisineria). Description. Total length
20 to 24 inches. Male: head and neck reddish brown; breast blackish;
body white, except posterior end and tail black. Female: similar,
but with the head and neck duller brown and the body less white.

Status. Winter resident, locally common in northern parts to
rare at southern tip of Peninsula; November to March (rarely to May).
Greater Scaup (Aythya marila). Description. Total length 16 to
20 inches. Male: head, neck, and breast black, the head showing







DESCRIPTION AND STATUS


entirely greenish reflections in strong light; body light gray above,
blackish at posterior end, and white underneath. Female: upperparts
brownish except for a prominent white area around base of bill. In
both sexes the white wing stripe extends onto the innermost primaries.
Status. Winter resident, sometimes common in north Florida, but
its true status obscured by its strong resemblance to the following
species; November to May, occasionally remaining into summer.
Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis). Description. Total length 15 to 18
inches. Male: identical to color pattern of Greater Scaup, except that
the head reflects some purple (as well as green) in strong light, and
(as in female) the white wing stripe changes to gray on the primaries.
Female: indistinguishable from female Greater Scaup except by the
wing stripe and measurements.
Status. Doubtless the most abundant of wintering ducks, espe-
cially on salt water, October to May. Some individuals remain well
into summer (if not throughout) each year. (At this time of year.
males may be seen in eclipse plumage, resembling females except for
the lack of white at base of bill.)

Common Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula). Description. Total
length 17 to 21 inches. Adult male: head dark metallic green, with
a rounded white spot in front of eye; back, tail, and posterior end of
body blackish; neck, breast, and underparts white, and much white
also on wings. Female and immature male: head chocolate brown;
upperparts grayish brown; breast and sides gray; remainder of under-
parts white.
Status. Winter resident, common on salt water in northern parts
to rare in south Florida, November to March.
Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola). Description. Total length 13 to
15 inches. Adult male: head black with iridescent reflections, except
for a large white patch from crown to eye; back black; sides and un-
derparts white. Female and immature male: dark gray above and
whitish underneath, with a small white spot below and behind eye.
Status. Common winter resident in north Florida, decreasing to
rarity in south Florida, November to April.
Oldsquaw (Clangula hyemalis). Description. Total length 15 to
23 inches, the long tail making up a good portion of this in the male.






A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


Adult male: chiefly white, but with patches of chocolate brown on
side of neck, breast, wings, and back; much more brown in plumage
in late spring and summer, but this plumage possibly does not occur
in Florida waters. Female and immature male: mostly brown above,
on side of neck, and at base of throat; otherwise white.
Status. Uncommon to rare in winter in northern parts, November
to March (rarely later).
Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus). Description. Total
length 15 to 18 inches. Adult male: upperparts bluish gray, with
prominent white markings bordered by black; also a reddish brown
stripe over and behind the eye, and a large patch of the same color on
each side of body; underparts grayish brown. Female and immature
male: upperparts dull brown, with 2 or 3 white patches on side of
head; underparts whitish.
Status. Accidental in winter near Pensacola and Daytona Beach.
White-winger Scoter (Melanitta deglandi). Description. Total
length 19 to 23 inches. Adult male: black above, with a white patch
around eye; dark brown ventrally. Female and immature male: dark
brown, with 2 light spots on each side of head. Both sexes have a
white wing patch.
Status. Rare winter resident, chiefly in the northern portions,
November to April (rarely later).
Surf Scoter (Melanitta perspicillata). Description. Total length
17 to 22 inches. Adult male: entirely black except for white spots on
the forehead and nape. Female and immature male: similar to the
female White-winged Scoter, but for the absence of white in the wings.
Status. Occasionally recorded at almost any time of year, but
most frequently in winter and in northern parts.
Common Scoter (Oidemia nigra). Description. Total length 17
to 22 inches. Adult male: an entirely black duck, but with a gibbous
yellow to orange cere above a black bill. Female and immature male:
uniformly dark brown, except for a large light gray patch on each side
of head. In neither sex is the bill as thick at the base as in the other 2
species of scoters.
Status. Rare winter resident from November to March (rarely
June).







DESCRIPTION AND STATUS


Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis). Description. Total length 14
to 16 inches. A small grayish duck with a black crown and a light gray
(white in male) cheek patch. In breeding plumage the male has a
blue bill and a bright reddish brown back.
Status. Locally common winter resident on fresh water from
October to April, occasionally summering.
Masked Duck (Oxyura dominica). Description. Total length 12
to 14 inches. Similar to the larger Ruddy Duck, but with a white
speculum. Male: cinnamon brown, with fore part of head black, and
back and sides spotted with black. Female: duller colored, and with
2 black stripes on side of head.
Status. Accidental in south Florida.
Hooded Merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus). Description. Total
length 16 to 19 inches. Adult male: upperparts black, except for the
prominent crest on the head, which is chiefly white; sides brown;
underparts white. Female and immature male: dark gray above,
whitish underneath, with a grayish brown crest.
Status. Winter resident throughout, sometimes common, Novem-
ber to April; 2 breeding records.
Common Merganser (Mergus merganser). Description. Total
length 21 to 27 inches. Adult male: head and most of upperparts
black, abruptly contrasting with the white underparts (including the
breast and lower neck); bill dull red; tarsus and toes bright red in
both sexes. Female and immature male: head and crest reddish brown;
upperparts gray; underparts whitish.
Status. Winter resident, chiefly in northern parts; probably rare
but often confused with the Red-breasted Merganser; November to
April, on fresh water to a large extent.
Red-breasted Merganser (Mergus serrator). Description. Total
length 19 to 26 inches. Adult male: head (crested) dark metallic
green, which color is separated by an incomplete white ring from the
brownish lower neck and breast; upperparts chiefly black, but with
considerable white on wings; underparts whitish. Female and imma-
ture male: similar to female of the Common Merganser, but with the
gray-brown throat gradually merging into the whitish underparts
without the abrupt change of color in that species.







A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


Status. Common winter resident on salt water throughout state,
October to May (a few regularly remaining into or throughout sum-
mer).
ORDER FALCONIFORMES: FAMILY CATHARTIDAE, Vultures
and Condors.
Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura). Description. Total length 26
to 32 inches. Plumage fuscous brown, lighter on primaries and sec-
ondaries; head naked and red (gray in immature).
Status. Common permanent resident over entire state.
Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus). Description. Total length 23
to 27 inches. Plumage entirely black, but for a white area in the
primaries; head naked and dark gray.
Status. Common permanent resident throughout the mainland,
but rare on the Keys.

FAMILY ACCIPITRIDAE, Kites, Eagles, and Hawks.
White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus). Description. Total length
15 to 17 inches. Head and tail mostly white; upperparts otherwise
pearl gray, except darker toward anterior edge of wing near body;
underparts chiefly white, but with dark wing tips. Immature is more
brownish above.

Status. Rare permanent resident in south-central portions.
Swallow-tailed Kite (Elanoides forficatus). Description. Total
length 20 to 25 inches, more than half of which is the deeply forked
tail. Upperparts mostly glossy black (less glossy in the immature);
underparts and head white, except for black remiges and rectrices.

Status. Summer resident throughout most of state, but rather
rare northwestward; February to September.
Mississippi Kite (Ictinia misisippiensis). Description.-Total length
13 to 15 inches. Dark gray above, lighter gray on head and under-
parts; tail and wing tips almost black. Immatures are more brownish
and faintly streaked.

Status. Uncommon summer resident in northwestern parts, April
to September; rare as a migrant or winter resident in the Peninsula.







DESCRIPTION AND STATUS


Everglade Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis). Description.-Total length
16 to 18 inches. Adult male: dark slate, except for the white tail
coverts, basal portions of outer tail feathers, and narrow tip of tail;
cere, tarsus, and toes red. Adult female: chiefly fuscous above and
heavily streaked with same below; white areas approximately as in
adult male; cere, tarsus, and toes dull orange. Immature: similar to
adult female, but with more bright brown above.

Status. Rare permanent resident, virtually restricted to Lake
Okeechobee by 1957.
Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis). Description. Total length 20 to
26 inches. Adults: upperparts light blue-gray, the flight feathers of the
wing darker; underparts and superciliary stripe white, with fine dark
streakings. Immature: upperparts grayish brown, except the head and
neck light, with blackish streaks; tail distinctly barred; underparts
white, with longitudinal rows of dark spots. At all ages the cere, tarsus,
and toes are yellow.

Status. Very rare winter visitant (3 records).
Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus). Description. Total
length 10 to 14 inches. Adults: upperparts dark blue-gray; under-
parts white, with light reddish brown cross-bars; tail barred. Imma-
ture: dark brown fuscouss) above; underparts white, with longi-
tudinal dark streaks; tail more heavily barred. Cere, tarsus, and toes
yellowish at all ages.

Status. Uncommon winter resident throughout, August to April;
rare in summer in northern parts.
Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii). Description. Total length
14 to 20 inches. Color pattern as in corresponding ages of Sharp-
shinned Hawk, but tip of tail more rounded than in that species.

Status. Uncommon winter resident throughout, August to April;
breeding summer resident (rare) in northern and central parts.
Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). Description. Total length
19 to 25 inches. Adults: mottled dark brownish gray above; under-
parts mostly white, except for dark ends of remiges; tail reddish brown
above, paler below. Immature: similar, but with more dark markings
on belly and flanks and the tail not red (alternating bands of light and







A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


dark gray.) Considerable variation of color occurs in Florida birds.
perhaps indicating more than 2 subspecies. Cere, tarsus, and toes
yellow.

Status. Permanent resident throughout mainland, but less fre-
quently encountered southward, especially in summer.
Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus). Description. Total
length 17 to 20 inches. Adults: upperparts varying from brown to
gray, but with white flecks scattered throughout; bend of wing red-
dish brown; underparts light, with cross-bars of reddish brown; tail
black, broken by 4 narrow white cross-bars. Immature: upperparts
similar to those of adults, but with little or no reddish on bend of wing;
underparts white with dark spots in longitudinal rows; tail with many
narrow light and dark bars. At all ages the cere, tarsus, and toes are
yellow.

Status. Fairly common permanent resident throughout state.
Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus). Description. Total
length 13 to 18 inches. Adults: upperparts dark gray-brown; under-
parts white, with reddish brown cross-bars, chiefly on breast; tail with
broad, alternating black and white bands (3 each). Immature: upper-
parts more flecked with whitish; underparts light, with dark spots in
longitudinal rows; bars on tail more numerous and less contrasting.
Cere, tarsus, and toes yellow at all ages.

Status. Uncommon winter resident in Peninsula, September to
April; fairly common or uncommon summer resident in northern parts,
the southern limits of its breeding range not accurately determined.
Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni). Description. Total length
19 to 22 inches. Adults, light phase: dark gray-brown above; under-
parts chiefly buffy, with a brown band across upper breast (gray in
female); tail with numerous alternating light and dark bands; throat
white. Immature: with more white or light markings dorsally, and
underparts streaked and spotted with dark (brown breast band lack-
ing). Dark phase: uniformly dark gray-brown, except for lighter areas
in wings and faint barring on tail. Intermediate color phases also
occur. Cere, tarsus, and toes yellow.

Status. Regular winter resident in south Florida, the numbers
fluctuating from year to year; October to April.







DESCRIPTION AND STATUS


Short-tailed Hawk (Buteo brachyurus). Description.-Total length
17 to 18 inches. Light phase: dark brownish gray above and almost
immaculately white below. Dark phase: entire plumage dark brownish
gray. In both phases the tail is finely barred, and the cere, tarsus, and
toes are yellow. (Intermediate plumages are said to occur.)
Status. Rather rare permanent resident in Peninsula and Keys;
occasional in northwestern Florida.
Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus). Description. Total length
19 to 24 inches. Light phase: upperparts light, with dark longitudinal
streaks or blotches; underparts mostly light, but with dark tips to
primaries, dark spots on bend of wing, and a dark band across belly;
basal part of tail white, tip dark. Dark phase: chiefly blackish above
and below, except for light areas.in wings and white at base of tail.
Many intermediate plumages occur. Cere and toes yellow; tarsus
feathered.

Status. Very rare winter visitant.
Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). Description. Total length
30 to 41 inches. Adults: chiefly sooty brown, but with golden brown
head and neck, and light spots on under side of wings. Immature:
uniformly dark except for white patches on each wing and the white
basal half of the tail. At all ages the tarsus is feathered, and the cere
and toes are yellow.
Status. Very rare winter visitant, especially in northern parts.
Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Description.-Total length
30 to 43 inches. Adults: head and tail entirely white; body and wings
dark brown; bill, cere, tarsus, and toes yellow. Immature: mostly dark,
but with light areas in wings and tail (not so distinct as those of im-
mature Golden Eagle); bill dark.

Status. Uncommon (breeding) winter resident, but generally
rare in midsummer.
Marsh Hawk (Circus cyaneus). Description. Total length 18 to
24 inches. Adult male: upperparts, head, and neck pearl-gray; under-
parts otherwise essentially white; tail barred light and dark. Adult
female and immature: dark brown above; underparts reddish brown
(streaked in adult female). Regardless of age or sex, the rump is
white, and the cere, tarsus, and toes yellow.







A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


Status. Fairly common winter resident, August to May, casually
remaining into summer and nesting in the Peninsula.
FAMILY PANDIONIDAE, Ospreys.
Osprey (Pandion haliaetus). Description. Total length 20 to 25
inches. Dark grayish brown above, except for considerable white in
crown; underparts chiefly white; tail finely barred; cere, tarsus, and
toes gray.

Status. Permanent resident throughout most of state, but rare in
winter in northernmost parts; numbers generally reduced inland.

FAMILY FALCONIDAE, Caracaras and Falcons.
Caracara (Caracara cheriway). Description. Total length 20 to
25 inches. Crown (with crest) black; remainder of upperparts and
belly blackish; throat and upper breast white, transversely barred on
lower breast; tail and coverts chiefly white, but former with a dark
tip; cere and bare face red; bill white; tarsus and toes yellowish. Im-
matures are browner and have longitudinal streaks on breast.

Status. Uncommon permanent resident in south Florida, chiefly
near Lake Okeechobee.
Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus). Description. Total length
15 to 20 inches. Adults: dark blue-gray with darker bars above; un-
derparts light with dark cross-bars; a black vertical bar below each
eye. Immature: browner above, and with longitudinal streaks beneath.
At all ages the cere, tarsus, and (large) toes are yellow.

Status. Rare winter resident, locally more frequent in fall migra-
tion; September to May.
Pigeon Hawk (Falco columbianus). Description. Total length
10 to 13 inches. Adult male: dark grayish blue above; light under-
neath, with dark markings arranged longitudinally; tail blackish, with
narrow white cross-bars. Adult female and immature: more brownish
above. In all, the cere, tarsus, and toes are yellow.

Status. Rare transient and winter resident, but somewhat more
frequently seen during migration; September to May.
Sparrow Hawk (Falco sparverius). Description. Total length
9 to 12 inches. Male: upperparts mainly reddish brown, but with







DESCRIPTION AND STATUS


grayish blue on top of head and on wings, and black spots or bars
on wings, head, and back; underparts lighter, with rounded black
spots; tip of tail with a broad black band and a narrow white one.
Female: color of upperparts duller (blue almost lacking) and with
more dark bars; several dark cross-bars also on tail; underparts similar
to male's in ground color, but with medium brown markings arranged
in longitudinal rows. Black markings on face are diagnostic in both
sexes. Bill gray-blue; cere, tarsus, and toes yellow.
Status. Common winter resident throughout state, August to
May; uncommon or rare in summer south to about Lake Okeechobee.
ORDER GALLIFORMES: FAMILY PHASIANIDAE, Pheasants,
Quail, etc.
Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). Description. Total length 9 to
10 inches. Male: upperparts and breast chiefly brown or reddish
brown, with lighter and darker markings; a broad white stripe over
each eye, bordered by black above; sides of neck with longitudinal
rows of white spots; chin white, bordered by black below; flanks with
alternating stripes of white and reddish brown; remainder of under-
parts white, with wavy, narrow black bars running transversely. Fe-
male: similar, but without black on face, and with white on head and
chin replaced by buffy.
Status. Common permanent resident throughout mainland.
FAMILY MELEAGRIDIDAE, Turkeys.
Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Description. Total length 35 to
50 inches. Upperparts with metallic coppery and bronze reflections,
the feathers tipped with black; primaries and secondaries barred gray
and white; tail brown, with a subterminal dark band and a terminal
one of rust color; underparts more coppery; head and neck bare, their
skin red to blue. Males have a beard of coarse, black bristles hanging
from center of breast, and spurs on the tarsi.
Status. Permanent resident throughout mainland, the degree of
abundance varying greatly with local conditions.
ORDER GRUIFORMES: FAMILY GRUIDAE, Cranes.
Sandhill Crane (Crus canadensis). Description. Total length 40
to 48 inches. Adults: plumage evenly medium gray, except chin and
throat lighter and primaries darker; a patch of bare, red skin toward







A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


front of head. Immature: plumage more brownish; head entirely
feathered.
Status. Permanent resident in the Peninsula; rare visitant else-
where.

FAMILY ARAMIDAE, Limpkins.
Limpkin (Aramus guarauna). Description. Total length 25 to
28 inches. Olive-brownish, with white flecks arranged in longitudinal
rows on head, neck, underparts, upper back, and wing coverts; chin
mostly white; bill reddish at base.
Status. Locally common permanent resident throughout the
Peninsula; rare west of Wakulla Springs; occasional visitant on the
Keys.
FAMILY RALLIDAE, Rails, Gallinules, and Coots.
King Rail (Rallus elegans). Description. Total length 17 to 19
inches. Top of head and stripe through eye dark brown; remainder of
upperparts reddish brown, with longitudinal streaks or rows of darker
brown spots; wing much more reddish; chin and line over eye white;
throat and breast bright reddish brown; abdomen barred with dark
gray and white; bill reddish at base. Downy young are entirely black.
Status. Permanent resident throughout mainland, chiefly in
fresh-water marshes. Probably fairly common in suitable habitat, but
infrequently seen because of secretive habits.
Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris). Description. Total length 12
to 15 inches. Color pattern similar to that of the King Rail, except
much more grayish throughout; also much darker in some sub-species
than in others. Downy young are entirely black.
Status. Common to abundant permanent resident in salt marshes
on both coasts, also frequenting mangroves in south Florida.
Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola). Description. Total length 8 to
10% inches. Coloration practically identical to that of King Rail, except
that side of head is gray. Tarsus, toes, and base of bill reddish.
Status. Uncommon winter resident in both salt and fresh-water
marshes throughout mainland, September to April.
Sora (Porzana carolina). Description. Total length 8 to 10







DESCRIPTION AND STATUS


inches (size of Virginia Rail, but bill much shorter). Adults: upper-
parts medium brown, with dark markings on head and neck, and white
spots and streaks on wings and back; face and throat black; breast
and sides of neck light blue-gray; abdomen barred with dark brown
and white; bill yellowish green; tarsus and toes greenish. Immature:
differs from adults chiefly in absence of black in plumage; chin white;
breast and sides of head and neck buffy brown.
Status. Fairly common winter resident in salt and fresh-water
marshes, probably more numerous in the latter type; August to May.
Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis). Description. Total
length 6 to 8 inches. Upperparts reddish brown, with white crescentic
markings on wings and back, and blackish markings on wings; sec-
ondaries also white; chin and line over eye light tan; breast huffy
brown; flanks barred brown and white; belly whitish; bill short and
greenish; tarsus and toes reddish.
Status. Very rare and secretive winter resident in all parts of
state, October to May.
Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis). Description. Total length
5 to 6 inches. Adults: nape, back, and wings brownish black, the back
and wings with rounded white spots; head and most of underparts
dark slate, but belly with white markings; bill short and dark gray;
tarsus and toes pinkish. Immature: similar, but chin, throat, and breast
lighter and top of head browner.
Status. Very rare (secretive) and local at any time of the year
in northern half of Peninsula, northwest to St. Marks; recorded in
other parts of state in spring migration, and in southern portions of
mainland in winter.
Purple Gallinule (Porphyrula martinica). Description. Total
length 12 to 14 inches. Adults: head, neck, and underparts brilliant
purplish blue; back, wings, and tail greenish; under side of tail and its
coverts white; bill red, tipped with yellowish; frontal shield chalky
blue; tarsus and toes greenish yellow. Immature: head, neck, and un-
derparts light grayish brown (almost white on chin and belly); back
and wings darker and tinged with greenish; bill and frontal shield
greenish yellow. Downy young are coal-black.
Status. Summer resident, April to October, in northern parts, at
least northwestward to Leon County; permanent resident in central






A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


and southern Florida; locally common; occurs chiefly or entirely as a
transient on the Keys and in northwestern Florida.
Common Gallinule (Gallinula chloropus). Description. Total
length 12 to 15 inches. Adults: head, neck, and most of underparts
slate-gray; wings and back grayish brown; flanks with longitudinal
white bars; under side of tail mostly white; frontal shield, base of bill,
and lower tibia red; tip of bill yellow; tarsus and toes gray-green. Im-
mature: like adults except for dull-colored bill and frontal shield,
white above eye and on throat, browner upperparts, and pale under-
parts. Downy young are mostly black.
Status. Permanent resident throughout most of mainland.
American Coot (Fulica americana). Description. Total length 13
to 16 inches. Plumage dark gray, almost black on head and neck;
frontal shield and mark near tip of bill red, remainder of bill white;
tarsus and toes gray-green, the latter provided with lobes. Downy
young differ from those of gallinules in having orange bristles on up-
perparts.
Status. Abundant winter resident on fresh water over most of
state, some remaining throughout summer; breeds occasionally in
Peninsula.
ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES: FAMILY JACANIDAE, Jacanas.

Jacana (Jacana spinosa). Description. Total length about 832
inches. Adults: head, neck, breast, and upper back blackish; remiges
mostly yellowish; remainder of plumage deep chestnut; base of upper
mandible red; remainder of bill and frontal lobe yellowish; tarsus and
toes greenish, the claws very long; spur on bend of wing. Immature:
browner above, whitish below (including side of head), and with
smaller frontal lobe.
Status. Accidental around Lake Okeechobee.
FAMILY IIAEMATOPODIDAE, Oystercatchers.
American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus). Description-Total
length 17 to 21 inches. Adults: head, neck, and breast sooty black;
remainder of upperparts grayish brown, but with large white patch in
each wing; underparts otherwise white; bill greatly compressed and
red; tarsus and toes light pinkish. Immature: head and neck paler;
feathers of upperparts with buffy edgings; bill brown.






DESCRIPTION AND STATUS


Status. Uncommon permanent resident on coasts of north Flor-
ida, south to Tampa Bay; apparently only a transient or winter resident
farther south and on most of East Coast.

FAMILY CHARADRIIDAE, Plovers and Turnstones.
Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius semipalmatus). Description. -
Total length 6,2 to 7, inches. Adults in breeding plumage: upperparts
chiefly dark brown; forehead white, bordered by black, which extends
behind eye; white ring around neck, a black ring immediately below it;
remainder of underparts white; tarsus, toes, and base of bill orange;
tip of bill dark. Immature, adults in winter plumage: black replaced
by dark brown; bill entirely dark.

Status. Common winter resident, August to May, along both
coasts, except numbers reduced in winter northwestward; some in
winter plumage remain throughout summer. Occurs inland chiefly as
a transient.
Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus). Description. Total length
6 to 7T2 inches. Upperparts mostly pale brownish gray; mark above
eye and the usually incomplete ring around lower neck black (brown-
ish in winter); forehead, nape, and underparts white; tarsus, toes, and
base of bill orange; tip of bill dark.

Status. Common winter resident on both coasts, July to May.
Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus). Description. Total
length 6 to 7 inches. Plumage almost identical to that of Piping
Plover, but differs in having the black band vestigial and in having a
dark spot behind the eye; bill longer, black; tarsus and toes bluish gray.

Status. Uncommon permanent resident on Gulf Coast south to
Marco Island, casually straying farther. Records for the Atlantic Coast
not satisfactory.

Wilson's Plover (Charadrius wilsonia). Description. Total length
7 to 8 inches. Plumage differs from that of the Semipalmated Plover in
its paler upperparts, less black on top of head and upper back, and in
having a white superciliary line (with some buffy brown posteriad
in adult male); also bill longer, thicker, and black; tarsus and toes
pinkish.
Status. Common permanent resident in Peninsula and on Keys;






A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


chiefly a summer resident in north Florida, March to October; confined
to the coast.
Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus). Description. Total length 9 to
11 inches. Upperparts mostly grayish brown, but rump bright cinna-
mon; white ring around neck, and a black ring immediately below it;
a black band across breast, with a white band above it; forehead
and area around eye white, bordered by black below; also a black bar
above forehead; remainder of underparts white; bill black; tarsus and
toes pinkish.
Status. Common winter resident throughout state, October to
March; uncommon to fairly common in summer, except in southern tip
and along coasts.
Mountain Plover (Eupoda montana). Description. Total length
8 to 9 inches. Upperparts mostly grayish brown, but with fore parts
of crown black in summer; upper breast with brownish markings;
forehead, superciliary line, throat, and remainder of underparts white,
tinged with buff in winter; bill black; tarsus and toes light gray-brown.
Status. Accidental in Florida; no recent records.
American Golden Plover (Pluvialis dominica). Description.-Total
length 9a to 11 inches. Adults in breeding plumage: upperparts black-
ish, with yellow rounded spots; white line from forehead, over eye, to
side of breast; underparts black; bill, tarsus, and toes black. Adults in
winter and immature: upperparts somewhat duller; underparts (in-
cluding sides of head and neck) dusky, the belly lighter. Axillars not
black in any plumage.
Status. Rare transient and winter resident, September to April.
Black-bellied Plover (Squatarola squatarola). Description. Total
length 10, to 13 inches. Adults in breeding plumage: wings and back
black, with crescentic white markings; top of head and nape white,
with fine black markings in longitudinal rows; a broad white stripe
from forehead, over eye, to side of breast; face, throat, bill, tarsus, and
toes black. Adults in winter plumage and immature: less contrast in
colors of upperparts; underparts mostly whitish, but with dark mark-
ings on throat and sides. Differs from preceding species in having a
hallux and black axillars.
Status. Common winter resident on both coasts; a few in winter
plumage may remain all summer; rare inland.







DESCRIPTION AND STATUS


Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres). Description. Total length
9 to 10 inches. Adults in breeding plumage: upper back and folded
wings mostly reddish brown, but with black markings; remainder of
head and neck white, with black lines; throat and breast black; abdo-
men white; bill black; tarsus and toes orange. Adults in winter: some-
what duller. Immature: much duller, with little reddish or black in
plumage.
Status. Common winter resident on both coasts, except chiefly
a transient in northwestern parts; individuals in winter plumage may
remain all summer.

FAMILY SCOLOPACIDAE, Snipes, Sandpipers, etc.
American Woodcock (Philohela minor). Description.-Total length
10 to 12 inches. Front of crown gray; back of head with 3 broad black
bands, alternating with 3 narrow rusty ones; upperparts rusty brown,
with numerous black and gray markings; underparts and side of head
rusty brown; bill long, pinkish toward base; tarsus and toes pinkish.
Status. Uncommon winter resident in northern parts, rarely
reaching southernmost parts; very rare in summer, when confined to
northern and central portions.
Common Snipe (Capella gallinago). Description. Total length
10 to 12 inches. Crown, neck, and back blackish, with longitudinal
stripes of buff; a reddish brown band and more narrow black one near
end of tail; remainder of upperparts brownish gray, with buffy mark-
ings; breast buffy with dark markings in longitudinal rows; remainder
of underparts whitish, marked with dark gray vertical bars on flanks;
bill long, pinkish toward base; tarsus and toes greenish.
Status. Common to abundant winter resident, September to April
(rarely May and August), preferring fresh-water marshes.
Long-billed Curlew (Numenius americanus). Description. Total
length 20 to 26 inches. Upperparts cinnamon-buff, with blackish mark-
ings, the latter forming longitudinal rows on neck; sides of neck, throat,
and flanks similarly marked; chin whitish; remainder of underparts
cinnamon-buff, unmarked; hill very long (6 to 8 inches in adults),
decurved, and pinkish toward base; tarsus and toes bluish gray.

Status. Rather rare visitant on both coasts, especially in winter,
some individuals remaining for many months.







A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


Whimbrel (Nurnenius phaeopus). Description. Total length 16
to 18 inches. Crown with 2 broad blackish stripes, separated by a nar-
row buffy gray one; a light stripe over eye; neck streaked with light
gray and blackish; remainder of upperparts blackish brown, with buffy
feather edgings; underparts light buffy, with darker flecks on breast
and bars on sides; bill long (3 to 4 inches), decurved, and devoid of
pinkish; tarsus and toes grayish.

Status. Fairly common transient coastwise, July to October and
March to May; rather rare winter resident in Peninsula; a few prob-
ably remain all summer.

Upland Plover (Bartramia longicauda). Description.-Total length
11 to 13 inches. Crown blackish, the 2 sides separated by a narrow
strip of buffy; neck and back with alternating longitudinal dark and
light buffy streaks; folded wings with blackish, brown, buffy, and
white markings; chin white; side of head ochraceous; line over eye
light; remainder of underparts buffy to white, with blackish markings
on throat and sides; bill short, greenish toward base; tarsus and toes
greenish.

Status. Rare transient, March to May and August to October.
Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularia). Description. Total length
7 to 8 inches. Adults in breeding plumage: upperparts grayish brown;
superciliary line and underparts white, the latter with rounded black
spots; neck streaked with dusky. Adults in winter plumage and imma-
ture: similar, but without spots underneath or streaks on neck.

Statis. Fairly common winter resident in Peninsula, July to May
(rarely June); chiefly a transient in northwestern parts.

Solitary Sandpiper (Tringa solitaria). Description. Total length
72 to 8'' inches. Upperparts dark gray, with rounded white spots;
superciliary line whitish; throat and upper breast with dark streaks;
chin and remainder of underparts white; bill, tarsus, and toes dark.

Status.-Fairly common transient throughout state, July to October
and March to May; rare in winter; uncommon on coast.

Willet (Catoptrophorus semipalnuitus). Description. Total length
14 to 17 inches. Adults in breeding plumage: upperparts chiefly ashy
gray, with dark, wavy cross-barring on back, and blackish longitudinal







DESCRIPTION AND STATUS


streaks on head and neck; white patch in each wing, visible even
when wing is folded; throat marked like head and neck; chin and
remainder of underparts white, the breast and sides with dark, wavy
cross-bars. Adults in winter plumage: light gray above and on sides
of breast; remainder of underparts, chin, and forehead whitish. Im-
mature: similar to adults in winter, but more brownish, with buffy
markings above. In all plumages the tarsus and toes are light blue-
gray.
Status. Common permanent resident coastwise, but rarely re-
corded inland.
Greater Yellowlegs (Totanus melanoleucus). Description. Total
length 12 to 15 inches. Head and neck white, longitudinally streaked
with blackish; remainder of upperparts blackish, with rounded white
spots; underparts white, with crescentic black markings, those on the
throat arranged in longitudinal rows; belly almost pure white; bill
dark; tarsus and toes yellow. Plumage less contrasting in winter.
Status. Winter resident throughout most of state, July to May,
varying from uncommon to abundant locally; a few remain all summer
along the coast.
Lesser Yellowlegs (Totanus flavipes). Description. Total length
9 to 11 inches. Plumage identical to that of Greater Yellowlegs, as are
the bill and leg colors.
Status. Winter resident throughout most of state, July to May,
varying from uncommon to abundant; probably more common inland
than the Greater Yellowlegs; casual in June.
Knot (Calidris canutus). Description. Total length 10 to 11
inches. Adults in breeding plumage: upperparts light to medium gray,
with blackish and reddish brown spots and light feather edgings;
crown streaked with blackish; superciliary line and underparts largely
reddish brown. Adults in winter plumage and immature: upperparts
light gray, without black or brown markings, except for streaking on
crown; underparts whitish, with darker markings on breast and flanks.
Status. Locally common winter resident, August to June; abun-
dant transient in Peninsula, less common in northwestern parts; a few
may remain all summer. Confined to the coast.
Purple Sandpiper (Erolia nmritima). Description. Total length
8 to 9, inches. Upperparts dark gray, with some purplish on back;






A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


throat and breast smoky gray; superciliary line, chin, and remainder
of underparts white, the sides with blackish spots; bill yellowish near
base; tarsus and toes orange.

Status. Very rare winter resident chiefly on Atlantic Coast; acci-
dental on Gulf Coast; November to May (rarely into summer).

Pectoral Sandpiper (Erolia melanotos). Description--Total length
8 to 9% inches. Top of head, neck, and upper back buffy, heavily
streaked with dusky; feathers of back and wings (except remiges)
blackish, with rusty or whitish edgings; primaries dusky; central
rectrices dark, outer ones white; breast buffy, heavily streaked with
dusky; remainder of underparts white; tarsus, toes, and base of bill
greenish.

Status. Uncommon to common transient around fresh water,
July to November and March to May; much less numerous on coast;
very rare in winter.

White-rumped Sandpiper (Erolia fuscicollis). Description. Total
length 7 to 8 inches. Adults in breeding plumage: similar to the
Pectoral Sandpiper, differing in its smaller size, broader black streaks
on back, and entirely white upper tail coverts. Adults in winter
plumage: upperparts light gray, intermixed with feathers (chiefly on
wings) which are blackish and edged with rusty and white; sides of
neck and breast whitish and only faintly streaked with dusky. Imma-
ture: similar to adults in breeding plumage, but feathers of upper-
parts edged with rusty and white, and breast less distinctly streaked.
Tarsus, toes, and base of bill greenish.

Status. Generally rare transient, but possibly overlooked among
other small sandpipers, August to October and April to June (July);
most frequently seen in Florida in May and early June; doubtfully
recorded in winter.

Baird's Sandpiper (Erolia hairdii). Description. Total length 7
to 7% inches. Top of head, neck, and back-luffy, with dusky streaks;
feathers of wings (except remiges) dark, with light grayish buff edg-
ings, the latter giving the effect of lighter dorsal coloring than in
Pectoral or White-rumped Sandpipers; upper tail coverts with a dark
center; breast light buffy, less heavily streaked than in Pectoral or
White-rumped Sandpipers; tarsus, toes, and base of bill greenish.







DESCRIPTION AND STATUS


Status. Very rare transient, July to September and April to May.
Least Sandpiper (Erolia minutilla). Description. Total length 5
to 6M inches. Breeding plumage: very similar to the Pectoral Sand-
piper, but much smaller; also streaking on breast less extensive. Win-
ter plumage: upperparts more grayish; breast only indistinctly
streaked. At all seasons the tarsus and toes are yellowish green.
Status. Common winter resident over most of state, July to May;
less common northwestward in winter; occasional throughout summer.
Dunlin (Erolia alpina). Description. Total length 7' to 9 inches.
Breeding plumage: crown and back rusty red, longitudinally streaked
with blackish; remainder of upperparts whitish to light gray, the nape
streaked with blackish; side of head, throat, and breast white, with
fine dark streaks; large black patch on anterior part of abdomen;
remainder of underparts white. Winter plumage: upperparts and
breast medium gray; superciliary line, chin, and remainder of under-
parts whitish. At all seasons the bill is black, long, and drooped at
the tip; tarsus and toes blackish.
Status. Abundant winter resident coastwise in northern and cen-
tral parts, less common southward, September to May; a few may
remain all summer; rare inland.
Short-billed Dowitcher (Limntodromus griseus). Description. -
Total length 91 to 11 inches. Breeding plumage: upperparts
huffy, with longitudinal blackish streaks on top of head, neck, and
upper back, and large black markings on wings; underparts cinnamon,
with blackish rounded spo\ on breast and belly, and bars on flanks.
Winter plumage: medium gray above and on breast; superciliary line,
chin, and remainder of underparts white, with dark markings on upper
breast and sides. At all seasons the long, straight bill is greenish to-
ward the base, and the tarsus and toes are greenish.
Status. Winter resident coastwise, common to abundant in south
Florida, diminishing to uncommon (but more common in migration)
in northwestern parts; July to May; a few may remain all summer;
rarely recorded inland.
Long-billed Dowitcher (Limnodronmus scolopaceus). Description.
-Total length 11 to 12 inches. Not safely distinguishable from the
Short-billed Dowitcher except by call notes. Extremes may be sepa-
rated by bill length.







A KEY To FLORIDA BIrDS


Status. Apparently an uncommon winter resident with a prefer-
ence for bodies of fresh water, July to May.
Stilt Sandpiper (Micropalama himantopus). Description. Total
length 7,2 to 9 inches. Breeding plumage: top of head, neck, and upper
back with alternating light and dark longitudinal streaks; superciliary
line whitish, bordered above and below with lighter feather edgings;
chin and throat longitudinally streaked with white and dark; remain-
der of underparts cross-barred with blackish and white. Winter plum-
age and immature: less black in upperparts; underparts mostly white,
but with some dark markings on the throat, breast, and sides. In all
plumages the rump and upper tail coverts are essentially white, and
the long legs and the toes are greenish.
Status. Uncommon transient throughout, July to October and
March to May; locally distributed in the Peninsula in winter.
Semipalnated Sandpiper (Ereunetes pusillus). Description.-Total
length 5% to 6% inches. Breeding plumage: upperparts chiefly gray,
with some buffy and with light feather edgings; nape and upper back
streaked; underparts chiefly white, but with blackish streaks on throat
and upper breast. Winter plumage: no buff in upperparts; streaks
on throat faint. Bill, tarsus, and toes blackish at all seasons.
Status. Abundant winter resident on both coasts in Peninsula,
less common northwestward, July to June (with some possibly remain-
ing throughout summer); rare in winter inland, but more common in
migration.
Western Sandpiper (Ereunetes mauri). Description. Total length
5% to 6'2 inches. Very similar to the Semipalmated Sandpiper, but
with more rufous on the back and wings in breeding plumage; also bill
somewhat longer and thicker at the base.
Status. Common winter resident coastwise, except reduced in
winter in northwestern parts; rare inland except during migration;
July to June (a few possibly remaining throughout summer).
Buff-breasted Sandpiper (Tryngites subruficollis). Description. -
Total length 7% to 8% inches. Breeding plumage: head, neck, and up-
per back alternately streaked with buffy and blackish; feathers of back
and wing coverts blackish with buffy edgings; remiges dark gray, mar-
bled with white; side of head and underparts generally cinnamon-buff.
with darker speckling on throat and side of breast. Winter plumage:







DESCRIPTION AND STATUS


underparts largely whitish, extensively washed with buff. Bill short
and slender; tarsus and toes yellowish green.
Status. Rare transient, August to September (one record in
April), all records coming from the northwestern parts.
Marbled Codwit (Limosa fedoa). Description. Total length 16
to 21 inches. Head and neck buffy, longitudinally streaked with black-
ish; feathers of back and wing coverts blackish with buffy edgings;
underparts generally buffy, with wavy cross-bars of dusky (longi-
tudinal streaks on throat); chin and superciliary stripe whitish; bill
very long, upcurved, and reddish toward base. In winter plumage the
buffy ground color of the underparts is virtually unmarked.
Status. Irregular along both coasts at all times of the year;
sometimes common in south Florida in winter.
Hudsonian Godwit (Limosa haenustica). Description. Total
length 14 to 17 inches. Breeding plumage: similar to the Marbled
Godwit, but much darker above and more reddish underneath. Winter
plumage; upperparts, line through eye, and breast brownish gray;
superciliary line, chin, and abdomen whitish. In all plumages the tail
is white at the base and tip, unlike that of the Marbled Godwit. Bill
very long, slightly upcurved, and reddish toward base.
Status. Very rare transient (and winter resident?) on both coasts,
3 of the 5 records falling in April and May.
Sanderling (Crocethia alba). Description. Total length 7 to 9
inches. Breeding plumage: upperparts and sides of breast largely
rusty, with black markings (in longitudinal rows on head and neck)
and white feather edgings on wings and back; remainder of underparts
white. Winter plumage; upperparts mottled gray and white; under-
parts mostly white. At all seasons the short bill, tarsus, and toes are
black.
Status. Abundant winter resident on both coasts, July to May,
a few apparently remaining all summer; rare inland during migration.
FAMILY IECURVIROSTRIDAE, Avocets and Stilts.
American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana). Description. Total
length 15 to 20 inches. Breeding plumage: head, neck, and breast light
cinnamon, except for white eye ring; remainder of upperparts black
contrasted with white; abdomen and flanks white; bill long and re-







A KEY To FLORIDA BIDS


curved; lower legs and toes gray-blue. Winter plumage: head, neck,
and breast white, tinged dorsally with light gray. Immature: similar
to adults in winter, but with a rufous tinge on neck and with buffy
feather edgings dorsally.
Status. Common winter resident in Cape Sable region, uncom-
mon to rare in other parts of Peninsula and on Keys; transient only in
northwestern parts; September to May (occasional in summer).
Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus). Description. Total
length 13 to 15 inches. Adults: upperparts more or less black (darker
and glossier in male); forehead, incomplete eye ring, and entire un-
derparts white; bill long and straight, or only slightly upcurved; legs
very long and pinkish. Immature: similar, but with rusty feather
edgings on crown, wings, and back.
Status. Common summer resident through most of Peninsula
(where rare in winter), March to September; transient only in north-
western parts and on Keys.

FAMILY PHALAROPODIDAE, Phalaropes.
Red Phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius). Description. Total length
72 to 9 inches. Female in breeding plumage: top of head and back
of neck mostly blackish; remainder of upperparts blackish with buffy
feather edgings; remigcs dark gray, with white patch; side of head
white; underparts brick red; bill comparatively short, yellow toward
base; tarsus and (lobed) toes yellowish. Male in breeding plumage:
similar to female, but differs in having top of head and back of neck
streaked with blackish and buffy, and the underparts paler. Winter
plumage and immature: upperparts chiefly dark gray to medium gray;
a dusky patch on side of head; forehead, side of neck, and entire
underparts white (immatures have some buffy in plumage); bill, tar-
sus, and toes duller than in breeding adults.

Status. Winter resident offshore, presently known from only a
few localities, October to May (rarely into summer).
Wilson's Phalarope (Steganopus tricolor). Description. Total
length 8 to 10 inches. Female in breeding plumage: top of head,
lower neck, and back light gray; occiput, nape, superciliary line, and
chin white; sides of head and neck blackish, this stripe becoming red-
dish as it continues down neck and onto back; stripe across wing also







DESCRIPTION AND STATUS


reddish, the remainder of wing pearl gray; throat and breast buffy;
upper tail coverts and abdomen white; bill, tarsus and toes dull-
colored. Male in breeding plumage: similar, but duller, completely
lacking the chestnut and gray stripes on wings and back; top of head
brown. Winter plumage: upperparts mainly light gray; face and un-
derparts white.

Status. Very rare transient, August to September and April to
June, the majority of records from the northern parts.
Northern Phalarope (Lobipes lobatus). Description. Total length
7 to 8 inches. Female in breeding plumage: upperparts mostly dark
gray, striped with buffy on back; throat and (incomplete) eye ring
white; lower part of throat and side of neck reddish brown; remainder
of underparts chiefly white, with dark markings on sides. Male in
breeding plumage: similar to female, but with less contrasting color
above; face mostly white. Winter plumage: upperparts mostly dark
gray, with white feather edgings (buffy in immature); auriculars
blackish, surrounding an incomplete white eye ring; usually some buff
on side of neck; underparts white, with grayish flecks along sides. In
all plumages the tarsus, toes, and long slender bill are dull-colored.
Status. Very rare migrant and winter resident, most winter
records coming from offshore; August to May.

FAMILY STERCORARIIDAE, Jaegers, etc.

Pomarine Jaeger (Stercorarius pomarinus). Description. Total
length 20 to 23 inches. Adults: head blackish; nape white; remainder
of upperparts dusky; central rectrices short (only one to 2 inches
longer than others) and blunt; auriculars tinged with yellow; under-
parts varying from white (light phase) to dusky (dark phase). All
degrees of intermediacy between the 2 extremes are known to occur.
Immature: similar to adults, but underparts more or less barred with
buffy.

Status. Uncommon to rare winter resident offshore, September
to April; casual in summer.
Parasitic Jaeger (Stercorarius parasiticus). Description. Total
length 16 to 21 inches. Adults: coloration similar to corresponding
phases of Pomarine Jaeger, but central rectrices pointed, longer in
adults (3 to 4 inches longer than others). Immature: considerably






A K:Y To FLORIDA BIRDS


more buffy on head, neck, and back than young of the Pomarine
Jaeger; central rectrices short, but pointed.

Status. Uncommon winter resident offshore, September to May;
also likely in summer.
Long-tailed Jaeger (Stercorarius longicaudus). Description.-Total
length 17 to 23 inches (the central rectrices making up about half the
length in adults). Adults: similar to light-phase adults of the other 2
jaegers, but entire neck and side of head white (except where tinged
with yellow), back lighter gray, and central rectrices pointed and
projecting 8 to 10 inches beyond other tail feathers; tarsus light blue-
gray in life (dusky in other jaegers). (Dark phase unknown.) Imna-
ture: upperparts chiefly brownish gray, streaked with whitish on head,
neck, and throat, and with light feather edgings on back; breast
mostly brownish gray; abdomen light, with cross-bars of dusky; cen-
tral rectrices scarcely longer than other tail feathers, but pointed.
Status. Very rare offshore, the known records falling in February,
April, and June.

FAMILY LARIDAE, Gulls and Terns.
Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus). Description. Total length
26 to 32 inches. Adults: entire plumage apparently white (the mantle
being very light gray; bill yellow after second year, flesh-colored with
dusky tip earlier; tarsus and toes flesh-colored. Immature: ground
color whitish, everywhere marked densely with flecks of light brown
or dusky; bill, tarsus, and toes as in 2-year-old birds.

Status. Very rare winter resident on East Coast (but on Gulf
Coast recorded only at Pensacola), December to May.

Iceland Gull (Larus glaucoides). Description. Total length 20
to 26 inches. Coloration almost identical to corresponding ages of the
Glaucous Gull, but shafts of primaries in iminatures more whitish
(than yellow).

Status. Very rare winter resident (once remaining throughout
summer), December to February.
Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus). Description. Total
length 28 to 31 inches. Adults: mantle very dark gray; remainder of
plumage entirely white; bill yellow; tarsus and toes light flesh-colored.






DESCRIPTION AND STATUS


Immature: upperparts whitish with brown mottling; remiges dark
brown; underparts whiter, but also with faint flecks of brownish; bill
light at base, dark toward tip.

Status. Uncommon to rare winter resident on East Coast, De-
cember to April; casual on West Coast in winter and at Cape Canav-
eral in summer.
Herring Cull (Larus argentatus). Description. Total length 23
to 26 inches. Adults: mantle pearl-gray, the wing tips black with
white spots; remainder of plumage white; bill yellow; tarsus and toes
flesh-colored. Immature: similar to corresponding plumage of Great
Black-backed Cull, but darker, especially on underparts; bill flesh-
colored at base, dusky at tip. Second- and third-year birds are inter-
mediate in color.
Status. Abundant winter resident on both coasts, but generally
uncommon inland, October to May; a few remain all summer.
Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis). Description. Total length
18 to 20 inches. Adults: plumage almost identical to that of adult
Herring Gull, but the yellowish bill has a black ring near its tip;
tarsus and toes greenish. Immature: upperparts white, mottled with
brownish gray on wings, back, neck, and head; primaries mostly dark;
tail chiefly white toward base, but with a blackish subterminal band;
bill light toward base, dusky at tip; tarsus and toes greenish.

Status. Similar to that of the Herring Gull, except generally more
abundant, and especially so inland.
Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus). Description.-Total length
14 to 15 inches. Adults in breeding plumage: head blackish brown;
mantle light gray, except for white outer primaries; bill, tarsus, and
toes reddish. Adults in winter: similar, but head chiefly white (dark
spots only on occiput and auriculars). Immature: mantle brown; dark
subterminal tail band present; bill yellowish toward base, dark at tip;
tarsus and toes yellowish or flesh-colored.'
Status. Accidental; 2 records.
Laughing Gull (Larus atricilla). Description. Total length 15
to 17 inches. Adults in breeding plumage: head black, but for incom-
plete, white eye ring; mantle dark gray, except wing tips black; re-
mainder of plumage white; bill, tarsus, and toes reddish. Adults in






A KEY To FLORA BIRDS


winter: head white with dusky markings on side and occiput. Imma-
ture: upperparts chiefly dark gray, shading to blackish on primaries
and near tips of secondaries; tail whitish with a subterminal blackish
band; underparts largely white, but grayish on breast; bill, tarsus, and
toes dark.
Status. Common permanent resident coastwise, breeding locally;
generally reduced in winter in northwestern parts; occasional on Lake
Okeechobee.
Franklin's Gull (Larus pipixcan). Description. Total length 14
to 15 inches. Adults in breeding plumage: similar to corresponding
plumage of the Laughing Gull, but with a black band across the dark
primaries, which are tipped with white; secondaries more extensively
tipped with white; rectrices pearl-gray toward base. Adults in winter:
similar. but front of head white and hind part dusky. Immature: up-
perparts chiefly grayish brown; upper tail coverts, forehead, and un-
derparts white.
Status. Very rare, chiefly in fall and winter (one summer record).
Bonaparte's Gull (Larus philadelphia). Description. Total length
12 to 14 inches. Adults in breeding plumage: head black; mantle pale
gray, but primaries white with black tips; remainder of plumage white;
bill black; tarsus and toes reddish. Adults in winter: similar, but head
white with a dark spot behind eye; tarsus and toes flesh-colored. Im-
mature: similar to winter adults, but mantle darker, and a subterminal
blackish tail band present.
Status. Uncommon to common winter resident coastwise, Oc-
tober or November to May (June); uncommon transient inland.
Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla). Description. Total
length 16 to 18 inches. Adults in breeding plumage: similar to cor-
responding plumage of the larger Ring-billed Gull, but with less black
on wing tips, no black band on bill, and tarsus and the 3 toes (rarely
4) black. Adults in winter: similar, but with dusky coloration on back
of head and neck. Immature: similar to winter adult, but darker on
back of head and neck, wing tips more extensively black, and a black
terminal tail band present.
Status. Accidental in winter.
Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica). Description. Total
length 13 to 15 inches. Adults in breeding plumage: top of head and






DESCRIPTION AND STATUS


nape black; remainder of upperparts pearl-gray; underparts white;
bill, tarsus, and toes black. Adults in winter: similar, but without
black on head and neck: dark spots in front of and behind eye. Imma-
ture: similar to adults in winter, but upperparts washed with buff and
bill lighter.
Status. Locally common summer resident in Peninsula, uncom-
mon on coast of northwestern parts; rare or uncommon in Peninsula
in winter.
Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Description. Total length 14 to
15 inches, the tail constituting as much as half of this. Adults in breed-
ing plumage: similar to corresponding plumage of the Gull-billed
Tern, but mantle somewhat darker, and tail longer and more deeply
forked; bill orange toward base, dusky near tip; tarsus and toes red-
dish. Adults in winter: similar, but top of head white, nape dusky,
and stripe across eye black. Immature: washed with brownish on
back; remiges dusky. In all plumages the inner web of the outermost
tail feather is dark.
Status. Common to abundant winter resident, July to May, a
few remaining all summer; more numerous along coast than inland.
Common Tern (Sterna hirundo). Description. Total length 13
to 15 inches. Similar to corresponding plumages of Forster's Tern,
but differs in having outer web of the outermost tail feather darker
than its inner web; primaries never pure white; immatures have the
leading edge of wing dark near body; in winter the dark streak on
side of head begins at the eye and continues around nape.
Status. Somewhat uncertain, due to confusion with Forster's
Tern; probably most numerous as a transient, but recorded in all
months of the year; generally much less numerous than Forster's Tern,
but occurring both inland and along the coast; said to have nested
formerly on Dry Tortugas.
Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii). Description. Total length 14 to
17 inches. Similar to corresponding plumages of Forster's Tern, but
upperparts paler, tail usually longer and entirely white, and under-
parts tinged with pale pinkish in breeding plumage. Immature said
to be streaked on top of head and spotted underneath.
Status. A rare and irregular visitant on the Gulf Coast; breeds
regularly on the Dry Tortugas.






84 A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS

Sooty Tern (Sterna fuscata). Description. Total length 15 to 17
inches. Adults: upperparts sooty black (darker on top of head), ex-
cept for white on forehead and outer tail feathers; underparts entirely
white; bill, tarsus, and toes black. Immature: mostly sooty brown, but
somewhat grayer underneath, and with white under wing coverts.

Status. Extremely abundant summer resident on the Dry Tor-
tugas (mostly Bush Key); rare visitant elsewhere on the Florida coast,
especially likely after storms, March to September.

Bridled Tern (Sterna anaethetus). Description. Total length 14
to 15 inches. Adults: similar to adult Sooty Terns, but upperparts
not so dark and interrupted by white on nape, and the white of fore-
head extending to a point behind the eye. Immature: upperparts most-
ly blackish, with brown feather edgings, but top of head white with
black streaks; underparts and nape white.

Status. Very rare visitant following storms, April to October
(December).

Least Tern (Sterna albifrons). Description. Total length 8%, to
10 inches. Adults in breeding plumage: crown, nape, and line through
eye black; upperparts pale pearl-gray; forehead (extending to a point
above eye) and entire underparts white; tarsus, toes, and base of bill
yellow; tip of bill dark. Adults in winter: black of head largely re-
placed by gray; bill, tarsus, and toes duller. Immature: similar to
adults in winter, but with dark markings on wings, back, and upper
side of tail.

Status. Common summer resident coastwise, April to September;
rare in winter; local summer resident in interior of Peninsula.

Royal Tern (Thalasseus maximus). Description. Total length 18
to 21 inches, at least one-third of which is the tail. Adults in breeding
plumage: top of head black and crested; upperparts pale gray (ap-
pearing white at a distance; underparts white; bill orange; tarsus and
toes black. Adults in winter: forehead white, and crown streaked
with same. Immature: similar to adults in winter, but with dark
markings on wings.

Status. Common permanent resident coastwise, but only one
breeding site currently known, involving only a few pairs.






DESCRIPTION AND STATUS


Sandwich Tern (Thalasseus sandvicensis). Description. Total
length 14 to 16 inches. Similar to corresponding plumages of the
Royal Tern, but bill black with yellow tip (the latter indistinct in
immature).

Status. Common summer resident on Gulf Coast, but with no
recent nesting records, April to November; rare in winter in north-
western parts to fairly common southward; also rare in winter on
Atlantic Coast.
Caspian Tern (Hydroprogne caspia). Description. Total length
19 to 23 inches. Similar to corresponding plumages of Royal Tern,
but differs in the following respects: bill thicker and red; tail less
deeply forked, usually not extending to tip of folded wing; crest less
apparent; primaries darker, especially on under side.

Status. Winter resident, uncommon to common locally; a few
non-breeding birds also summer; occasional inland.
Black Tern (Chlidonias niger). Description. Total length 9 to
10 inches. Adults in breeding plumage: upperparts chiefly dark gray;
head, neck, and underparts black, except under tail coverts white.
Adults in winter: upperparts as in summer; head, neck, and under-
parts white (many are in mottled intermediate plumage in late sum-
mer). Immature: similar to winter adults, but with brownish feather
edgings above and gray on sides.

Status. Transient, rare in spring (April to June), but common
on Gulf Coast in fall (July to October); occasional in November; less
common inland and in southeastern parts.
Noddy Tern (Anoiis stolidus). Description. Total length 14 to
16 inches. Crown white, shading through gray on nape and sides of
head to black over remainder of body, wings, and the unforked tail;
immatures are darker on top of head.

Status. A common breeding bird on the Dry Tortugas; acci-
dental following storms elsewhere in state; April to September.

FAMILY RYNCHOPIDAE, Skimmers.
Black Skimmer (Rynchops nigra). Description. Total length 17
to 20 inches. Adults in breeding plumage: upperparts chiefly black,
but with white tips on secondaries, white outer rectrices, and white






A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


forehead; underparts entirely white; bill red toward base, dark dis-
tally, the lower mandible much longer than the upper. Adults in win-
ter: similar, but more brownish above and the nape white. Immature:
similar, but with buff in upperparts and on side of head.
Status. Common permanent resident along most of coast, but
less numerous in northwestern parts in winter; breeding colonies occur
south to Tampa Bay; regular inland at Orlando and on Lake Okcc-
chobee, but accidental elsewhere.
FAMILY ALC1DAE, Auks, Murres, and Puffins.
Dovekie (Plautus alle). Description. Total length 7 to 9 inches,
the tail being extremely short. Adults in winter and immature: up-
perparts blackish; underparts and sides of neck white.
Status. Very rare and irregular winter visitant on Atlantic Coast
to the Keys, usually following northeasterly gales, November and
December; accidental near Panama City.
ORDER COLUMBIFORMES: FAMILY COLUMBIDAE, Pigeons
and Doves.
White-crowned Pigeon (Columba leucocephala). Description. -
Total length 12 to 14 inches. Top of head white (light grayish buff
in female); remainder of plumage slaty gray, with iridescent bronze-
green on lower neck and upper back; bill yellowish; tarsus and toes
orange.
Status. Common summer resident on the Keys and (less so) in
the Cape Sable area, rarely ranging as far north as Punta Rassa and
Jupiter Island; March to October; a few winter around Cape Sable
and the Upper Keys.
Scaly-naped Pigeon (Columba squamosa). Description. Total
length 13 to 16 inches. Plumage mostly slate-gray, but head, throat,
and breast reddish, and back of neck purplish, with brownish feather
edgings.
Status. Accidental at Key West.
Rock Dove (Columba liia). Description. Total length 12 to 14
inches. Chiefly slate-gray, but darker on fore-parts; neck and breast
with iridescence: 2 black bands on wing and one near end of tail.
(Various other colors are seen due to previous interbreeding of do-
mestic stock.)






DESCRIPTION AND STATUS


Status. Found in cities and towns throughout state in simi-
domestication, perhaps not entirely feral anywhere.
Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita). Description. Total length 10 to
12 inches. Chiefly gray-brown above and -cinnamon-brown below,
with lavender reflections on breast and abdomen; wing coverts spotted
with black; remiges mostly blackish, but secondaries broadly tipped
with white; rectrices mostly dark, with lighter tips; purplish reflections
on neck and side of head.
Status. Accidental in extreme southern Florida.
White-winged Dove (Zenaida asiatica). Description.-Total length
11 to 12 inches. Upperparts grayish brown, tending to gray on head
and neck; underparts lighter, almost white posteriad; reflections on
neck greenish; most rectrices gray, with broad white tips; outermost
wing coverts and tips of secondaries white.
Status. Rare visitant, most frequently encountered in fall and
early winter; no records for August or September.
Mourning Dove (Zenaidura macroura). Description.-Total length
11 to 13 inches, the tail constituting about half of this. Upperparts
mostly grayish brown, the underparts lighter; top of head in male
light blue-gray, and neck with considerable iridescence; rectrices
graduated, broadly tipped with white; tarsus and toes pinkish.
Status. Common permanent resident, especially abundant in fall
and winter, occurring throughout the state in winter, but absent from
the Lower Keys in summer.
Ringed Turtle Dove (Streptopelia risoria). Description. Total
length about 12 inches. A very light-colored dove with black bands
on the forehead and lower neck.
Status. Introduced at St. Petersburg and possibly Miami.
Ground Dove (Columbigallina passerina). Description. Total
length 6 to 7 inches. Upperparts grayish brown; underparts lighter
gray vinaceouss in male), with dark spots on breast; remiges reddish
brown; tail dark, rounded; bill reddish toward base, darker toward
tip; tarsus and toes yellowish.
Status. Permanent resident, varying from common in southern
parts to rare northwestward.







A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


Key West Quail-Dove (Geotrygon chrysia). Description. Total
length 11 to 12 inches. Upperparts mostly reddish brown, with green-
ish or purplish reflections on top of head, nape, and upper back;
underparts largely white, but breast pale vinaceous; malar stripe
white, bordered by chestnut below. Females somewhat duller.
Status. Accidental at Key West.
Ruddy Quail-Dove (Geotrygon montana). Description. Total
length 92 to 11 inches. Male: upperparts mostly chestnut-red, with
purplish reflections anteriad; underparts cinnamon to white, with a
vinaceous tinge on breast; malar stripe buffy. Female: upperparts
dark, with greenish reflections; front of head and underparts brown-
ish.
Status. Accidental on the Keys.
ORDER CUCULIFORMES: FAMILY CUCULIDAE, Cuckoos, Anis,
etc.
Mangrove Cuckoo (Coccyzus minor). Description. Total length
11 to 13 inches. Similar to the Yellow-billed Cuckoo (q.v.), but with
a dark stripe through eye, no reddish brown on wings, and the under-
parts more or less buffy.
Status. Uncommon summer resident on Keys and West Coast,
north to about Tampa Bay, March to September; rare in winter.
Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus). Description.-Total
length 11 to 13 inches. Upperparts brownish; underparts white; pri-
maries bright reddish brown; rectrices graduated, with large white
spots at tips on ventral surface; lower mandible mostly yellow.
Status. Fairly common summer resident throughout state, March
or April to October or November; sometimes more common in migra-
tion, especially coastwise; very rare in winter.
Black-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus erythropthalmus). Description. -
Similar to the Yellow-billed Cuckoo, but with the lower mandible
blackish, no reddish in primaries, and white spots on under side of
tail much smaller.
Status. Rare transient, April to May and August to October.
Smooth-billed Ani (Crotophaga ani). Description. Total length
12 to 15 inches. Plumage entirely black; bill with a high dorsal ridge;
upper mandible without longitudinal grooves; rectrices graduated.







DESCRIPTION AND STATUS


Status. Established as a permanent resident in south Florida at
Clewiston, Miami, and doubtless elsewhere; increasing. Accidental
northward.
Groove-billed Ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris). Description. Total
length 12 to 15 inches. Similar to the Smooth-billed Ani, but usually
with longitudinal grooves on the upper mandible. Distinguishing the
2 species in the field is most difficult.
Status. Accidental in Florida.
ORDER STRIGIFORMES: FAMILY TYTONIDAE, Barn Owls.
Barn Owl (Tyto alba). Description. Total length 15 to 21 inches.
Upperparts golden brown, mottled with gray and white; underparts
white or buffy, with sparse darker spots; facial disk white.
Status. Permanent resident on mainland, varying from rare north-
westward to fairly common southward; perhaps more numerous in
fall and winter; unrecorded on the Keys in summer.
FAMILY STRIGIDAE, Typical Owls.
Screech Owl (Otus asio). Description. Total length 8 to 9
inches. Red phase: upperparts bright rufous, marked with longitudinal
blackish streaks; underparts chiefly white, but marked with rufous on
facial disk and breast and, sparsely, with black on body. Gray phase:
ground color of upperparts grayish brown rather than rufous, which
color does not appear anywhere. Ear tufts present in both phases.
Toes only sparsely feathered.
Status. Fairly common permanent resident throughout most or
all of state.
Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus). Description.-Total length
18 to 25 inches. Upperparts mottled with blackish, brown, gray, buff,
and white; ear tufts long; facial disk reddish; throat white; under-
parts whitish or buffy, with dark cross-bars; tarsus and toes feathered.
Status. Fairly common permanent resident throughout most of
mainland.
Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia). Description.-Total length
9 to 10 inches. Upperparts grayish brown interrupted by white, often
rounded, spots; throat and breast similar to upperparts; chin and belly
white; no ear tufts; tarsus long and only sparsely feathered.






A KEY To FLORIDA BIRDS


Status. Permanent resident in central and southeastern parts;
accidental visitant, chiefly in fall, in other parts of state.
Barred Owl (Strix varia). Description. Total length 17 to 24
inches. Upperparts brown, with white cross-bars; breast similar, but
with white predominating; abdomen whitish, with longitudinal streaks
of brown; no ear tufts; tarsus thickly feathered, but toes only sparsely
so,
Status. Common permanent resident throughout mainland.
Long-cared Owl (Asio otus). Description. Total length 13 to 16
inches. Upperparts mottled with brownish, buffy, and light gray, with
a tendency toward cross-barring; facial disk mostly rufous; underparts
whitish to rufous, with dark markings arranged in longitudinal rows
(little evidence of cross-bars); ear tufts long; tarsus and toes feathered.
Status. Formerly a very rare winter visitant; no recent records.
Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus). Description. Total length 13
to 17 inches. Ground color buffy to whitish, longitudinally streaked
with brown (streaks almost wanting on abdomen); ear tufts short;
facial disk blackish, bordered by white; tarsus and toes feathered.
Status. Winter resident, apparently rare in most areas, but some-
times fairly common locally; October or November to March or April.
ORDER CAPRIMULGIFORMES: FAMILY CAPRIMULGIDAE,
Goatsuckers.
Chuck-will's widow (Caprimulgus carolinensis). Description. -
Total length 11 to 12 inches. Upperparts mottled with dark brown,
golden brown, and black, the latter forming longitudinal stripes on
the head and wide bars on the primaries; underparts similar, but
lighter; large white patches in lateral rectrices of male; rictal bristles
long, pinnate near base.
Status. Common summer resident throughout mainland; uncom-
mon to rare winter resident in the Peninsula, especially the southern
part; mostly transient on Keys; March to October.
Whip-poor-will (Caprimulgus vociferus). Description. Total
length 9 to 10 inches. Similar to the larger Chuck-will's-widow, but
with more blackish in plumage, a white band across throat, and more
white in the tail; last 2 areas buffy rather than white in female.







DESCRIPTION AND STATUS


Status. Winter resident, fairly common southward to rare north-
westward, September to May.
Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor). Description. Total
length 8 to 10 inches. Upperparts blackish, with buffy or light gray
feather edgings; underparts mostly cross-barred with white and dark
gray; primaries dusky, with a large patch of white; throat with a white
band (buffy in female).
Status. Rather common summer resident throughout state;1 April
to October or November; often more common in migration; accidental
in winter.

ORDER APODIFORMES: FAMILY APODIDAE, Swifts.
Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica). Description. Total length
about 5 inches. Entire plumage dusky, becoming darker on crown and
wings; wings long and pointed; rectrices spiny-tipped; bill and feet
reduced, but gape large.
Status. Common summer resident in northern and central parts
(possibly farther south), March to November; transient only in ex-
treme south Florida and on Keys; abundant in northern parts in fall
migration.
FAMILY TROCIIILIDAE, Hummingbirds.
Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Description.
- Total length slightly over 3 inches. Adult male: upperparts brilliant
metallic green, shading to blackish on wings and tail; throat metallic
red; remainder of underparts whitish, tinged laterally with green; bill
long and slender; feet weak and reduced. Adult female: similar, but
throat whitish. Immature: upperparts duller (less metallic); under-
parts buffy white, the throat of males spotted with dusky.
Status. Uncommon summer resident throughout most of main-
land, February or March to November; fairly common winter resident
in southern Florida, decreasing to scarcity in northern parts of Penin-
sula; locally more common during migration.
Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus). Description. Total
length 32 to 4 inches. Adult male: upperparts mostly rufous, but with

1Nighthawks breeding on the Keys (C. n. vicious) have an entirely different call
note from those on the mainland and may eventually prove a distinct species.




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