THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
VOL. 7 No. 4
BIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
RAYMOND F. BELLAMY
Florida State College for Women
It is my desire in this paper to champion the line of thought
which holds that a biological background is at least of great value,
if not indeed a sine qua non, for any considerable degree of un-
derstanding of social or even individual behavior. It will be seen
that for the purposes of this paper, psychology will be included
among the social sciences.
There has always been some argument against the theory here
defended, and at present this negative attitude seems to be grow-
ing in favor. Alexander A. Chamberlain once snorted that one
might as well study cats for the 'purpose of understanding camels
as to study animals for human psychology. If this statement is
to be considered as a challenge, it may be readily accepted. The
obvious answer is that it is quite sensible to study cats to learn
about camels. Cats are much cheaper than camels, they are small-
er, and they are easier to obtain and to handle, especially on the
dissecting table, and.what is more important at present, they are
not so good to eat.
There are many thousands of things about circulation, assimi-
lation, respiration, reproduction, and other processes, as well as
about bone construction, nerve stimulation and transmission,
muscle functioning, etc., which are common to. cats and camels.
Moreover, there are many phases of behavior, many elements of
fear, anger and sex, which certainly seem to be similar in cats
and in camels. Without attempting to be scientifically accurate,.
I would estimate that a student of camels should study about ten
thousand cats and finish up with some eight or ten camels.
Just as it is cheaper, easier, and better to substitute cats for
camels, so it is preferable to dissect, mutilate, incarcerate, stimu-
late, annoy, and otherwise experiment on animals rather than on
204 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
If the experimentation on animals is limited to the search for
physiological or purely biological facts, there will be little or no
objection. It is universally understood that our first line of
attack is over the bodies of animals. This practice dates back to
the very beginning of our knowledge about our own bodies. Aris-
totle lived in an age when such experimenting was forbidden, but
his writings show rather plainly that he had surreptitiously pried
into the vital organs of living creatures. From Aristotle's time
on, it may be said that those alone who carried out such experi-
ments contributed to our knowledge. This does not mean, of
course, that the work of others was not important. An Emmanuel
Kant might give stimulation and inspiration which would last for
all ages. He might pose questions and advance suggestions which
would be of immeasurable value in aiding our attempts to learn
about, interpret, and understand our store of knowledge. But
such things add nothing to our store of knowledge itself.
In recent decades experimentation on animals has contributed
much information which is basic to our very culture. Among
other things, we have learned much about the nature of 'disease,
and the ways of vaccines, transfusions and serums. Just now
from experiments with blood circulation, especially in Russian
laboratories, we are learning about life itself. When our inquisi-
tive experimenters succeeded in producing pure white rabbits
from a black mother by the expedient of transplanting ovaries,3 our
knowledge of the laws of heredity was carried far ahead.
Perhaps one of the most interesting results of experiments in
injections was the modern technique of blood tests, which has
shown us among other things that we are rather startlingly close
akin to the apes-closer to the apes than are the South American
What might be called another whole universe of information
is the vast field of the vitamins and all their ramifications. This,
of course, from the observation of broken blood vessels in young
chicks to our latest studies in feeding white rats, has been secured
almost exclusively by experimenting on animals. The same is
true of our knowledge of the various forms of dynamite stored
in the ductless glands, dating back to the early days and to such
experiments as the work done on pancreatic glands of dogs which
resulted in our discovery of insulin.
These earlier and somewhat spectacular studies in heredity,
glandular secretions, etc., gave us the foundation on which our
BIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF SOCIAL SCIENCES 205
multitudinous present day investigations are building ever more
significant structures. Almost every day we are presented with
new and significant facts which help us in the understanding of
From physiological and anatomical fields, it is a short step
indeed to the investigation of questions which have psychic, or
mental and even social implications. In this field also the con-
tribution of the biological experiments has been great.
An important chapter was added to our store of knowledge
when J'acques Loeb brought out his studies of the tropisms.18,25
Like so many other new suggestions, these tropisms became aca-
demic best sellers and were ridden hard for a few years, and then
were gradually forgotten, so that now the term is rarely heard.
But even if the name itself has become extinct, the addition which
Loeb gave to our knowledge of human behavior remains.
The Russian, Pavlov, made another great contribution when he
connected tubes with the salivary ducts of dogs and brought out
the new term-conditioned reflex.31 It is interesting to note that
Pavlov was not a psychologist at all and knew nothing about psy-
chology. He was merely performing a biological experiment. It
was not long before Krosnogorski adopted his methods and ex-
perimented on Polish children, giving them a spoonful of honey
as a stimulus.23 (We may say parenthetically that this would
have been quite a heavy stimulus for our average American child.)
At any rate when Mateer improved on Krosnogorski's method and
worked with American children, she found it preferable to substi-
tute a bit of chocolate as her stimulus or stimulus-reward.29 Since
then the conditioned reflex has become as intimate as part of our
stock in trade as astigmatism or the dark brown taste in the mouth
after painting the town red.
What little we know about memory, learning, etc. stems pretty
largely from experiments with amoebae and rotifers-which we
found really do possess memories and have the capacity to learn-
and with such higher animals as earthworms, crayfish, rats, rac-
coons, and apes.40 A difficulty was encountered when the attempt
was made to experiment with gorillas, since they are stubborn and
uncooperative, and refuse almost completely to play the game.
This perhaps, shows their close resemblance to man and also shows
why, after all, we must so often go to the lower animals for our
experimentation rather than to man himself.
Up to this point the evidence is rather clear that our biological
methods and our experiments on lower animals have been fruitful
206 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
in enlarging our knowledge and understanding of ourselves. But
from here on, we encounter skepticism and objection, and it must
be acknowledged that demonstration becomes more difficult and
less convincing. To summarize the argument of our worthy op-
ponents, they would say that it is all very well to measure the
amount of heat produced when a frog's muscle contracts to further
our knowledge of human muscular action, but it is ridiculous to
record the chirps of a cricket in the hope that it will help us
understand the behavior of a love-sick adolescent youth. Perhaps
we must grant that there is much truth in this, especially as there
is no hope of understanding a love-sick youngster anyway. Yet
it is our contention that we can profit much from a good biological
background in our struggle to comprehend human competition,
conflict, cooperation, adjustments, interactions in general and such
phenomena as angers and fears, curiosity, submission, leadership,
'patriotism, religion and love, and the typical practices of war,
sports, strikes, political activities, and all the other things to which
human flesh is heir.
Historically, much of our approach has been biological in na-
ture. Unfortunately during the recent past, this type of study has
centered almost exclusively around a discussion of instincts. This
preoccupation was so pronounced that there is still a general im-
pression that all biological approaches to the study of human be-
havior consist exclusively in studying instincts. The extremes to
which McDougall and his contemporaries went turned the mass
of modern scholars against the whole procedure. It is no wonder
that these moderns went to opposite extremes, quite as excessive
as the position from which they fled. Unfortunately, they also
manifested a tendency to lump the whole biological field together
with the instincts, and throw it all out the window.
It is well for us to remember that we are all animals, and that
all animals have much in common. Not only are our assimilation,
respiration, locomotion, reproduction and all such processes sub-
ject to the same laws and in many ways practically identical with
those of related animals, but fear is fear and anger is anger
whether experienced by a bear, a frog, a gorilla, or a bishop. There
is much deep truth in the young girl's song-
Oh in the moonlight, when we are holding hands,
Oh in the moonlight, I think I understands
Why all the birdses, all the bearses,
Never go in thirdses, always go in pairses
Oh in the moonlight, I think I understands.
BIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF SOCIAL SCIENCES 207
One -or two examples may be given to illustrate specific values
in a biological background. About 30 years ago there was a great
mass of literature which had for its theme the destruction of war
by substituting class loyalty for loyalty to country. It was pointed
out that the laboring classes in England, Germany, America,
France, etc. had much more in common with each other than with
the capitalists of their own countries. Resounding and eloquent
speeches were made about how stupid it would be for them to
fight each other for. the benefit of their economic overlords. Many
thousands pledged themselves never to go to war against each
other. This type of activity was not limited to the workers, but
was engaged in by many preachers, scholars and reformers of all
types. The logic was perfect, and these people confidently ex-
pected to see a great organized revolt should any war ever be'
But, as G. Stanley Hall remarked, man is not logical, he is
psychological. When World War I broke upon an unsuspecting
world, these leaders and logicians were astonished and dismayed by
the spectacle of their hordes rushing to the support of their native
lands, shouting and singing with patriotic ardor. Much of their
dismay and astonishment was due to the fact that they also found
themselves behaving exactly like the rank and file of their fol-
lowers. There were few exceptions. Even such extreme socialistic
and radical writers as Upton Sinclair immediately climbed on the
band wagon, offering, of course, some convenient reason why they
did so. Most surprising of all was the fact that down-trodden
and ill-used minority groups in all countries rallied to the na-
tional defense. The Jews of Russia, with the fear of pogroms
chilling their souls, offered ceremonial bread and water to the
czar and pledged their full and unqualified support. Fugitives
from Russian oppression in other lands endeavored to return and
fight for Mother Russia. In this country the not-too-well treated
Negroes manifested as deep a patriotism as any group that could
be found. And our Indians, from whom the land had been stolen
and who were just then being treated as badly as any group any-
where on earth, came forward to fight the battles of America. On
the other hand, long suppressed national aspirations of such peoples
-as the Poles, Finns and Irish flared up with hopeful intensity.
All this was surprising to our logical planners, but if they had
possessed a biological background it would not have been. Dar-
win, with his gift for noticing obscure but highly important facts,
would have understood it. He observed that the wild horses on
208 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
the Falklands had never left one end of the island, though there
was no reason why they could not go freely to the other.5 He ex-
plained it by what he called their natural attachment to a definite
locality. He also noticed that the herds of' cattle on these islands
had remained in their own localities so closely that definite spe-
cific colors and types of cattle had become characteristic of the
different places. Many other writers, both scientific and what
we may call naturalistic, have observed the same type of thing.
The attachment of seals and sea lions to their breeding grounds
is well known, and Lucas states that this feeling is so strong that
they will stubbornly return even when there are only two or three
left. Birds persistently stick to one locality and migratory birds
return to the same spot, frequently to the same nest. One pair of
wild geese is said to have nested in the same clump of elders in
Canada for more than fifty years. Salmon return faithfully to
their spawning grounds, and individuals of other species of fish
become recognized as residents of certain pools. Wolves, bears,
and in fact a great variety of animals are known to stick closely
to a limited region unless driven out by enemies or food shortage.
This attachment to what we may call a homeland is not limited
to mammals, birds and fish, but is widespread in the animal king-
dom-apparently well-nigh universal in all but the lowest forms.
It seems to be true of a great many insects. Butterflies have com-
munal sleeping places to which they return. Elaborate studies of
the prominent role played by the hive or nest in the lives of bees
and ants have been made by Lord Avebury,2 McCook,30 Wheel-
er,37,38,39 Espinas, and dozens of others,13,14 and strangely enough
old Huber o0 more than a century ago seems to have seen their
behavior more clearly than anybody else, notwithstanding the
fact that he was completely blind and had to depend on the eyes
of his servant. In addition to these scientific studies, the rare
power of understanding which is occasionally vouchsafed to the
artistic individual enabled Fabre9 and Maurice Maeterlinck26,27 to
give us more detailed descriptions of these home-loving creatures
than their more scientific brothers.
We may say with confidence, then, that animals in general
stick closely to definite places. Game technicians know this well.
This fact was utilized in stamping out the foot and mouth disease
which developed among the wild deer of the St. Stanislaus Moun-
tain Range in California. In another example, the mule deer of
the Kaibab National Forest almost became extinct because, strange-
ly enough, the wolves in the forest were all killed out and wolves
BIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF SOCIAL SCIENCES 209
from other regions failed to move in and help preserve the well
known balance of nature.
It is also apparent that this common attachment to a locality
is accompanied by a strong emotional response. It is widely
known to hunters that a wild animal which is being chased by
dogs will ordinarily not go near its own home; but if it becomes
evident that escape is impossible, it will put forth every effort
to return to its home to die. Parenthetically, we may note the
remarkable similarity between this and the behavior of Samuel
Gompers, the long time leader of organized labor, who had a spe-
cial train chartered to carry him out of Mexico so that he might
die on United States soil. The effort was successful; he lived
until he crossed the border and thus died in peace. And Samuel
Gompers was one of that group which believed class loyalty could
be substituted for place loyalty!
It was not until a relatively short time ago that we succeeded
in bringing a live gorilla to America. Even yet, there are very
few in the country. Many have died on the way or while waiting
in ports of embarkation. The cause of their death is obscure, but
it is thought to be due to homesickness. The evidence points
strongly that way.
Wild animals seem to manifest the same type of emotion, and
among domestic animals it is even more easily recognized. Dogs,
cattle, horses, cats and even ducks have shown unmistakable af-
fection for their homes. Many horses become homesick when
away for even a day or two, and refuse to eat. When headed to-
ward home they must be held in or they will wear themselves out
in their hurry. In our Western Plains region there are many
accounts of the 'extreme hardships through which horses have gone
to return to their own localities. Some of these have become parts
of local history.
If our advocates of class over territory had studied their
biology they would certainly have wondered if man does not
possess this same characteristic. Very probably they would have
carried their studies further in the light of what they had learned,
and would have observed human reactions. They would have found
the same emotional reaction toward definite geographical regions
among all peoples, a feeling so pronounced that African natives
and others when taken from their countries have been known to
commit suicide in the belief that their souls would return home.
They would have found that in all of pre-Columbian South and
North America the territory was definitely fixed for each tribe,
210 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
and the feeling held for these blocks of territory was in all es-
sentials that which we call patriotism today. They would have
learned that no people on earth has ever been truly nomadic, and
that peoples who apparently wander aimlessly always "wander"
within definite limits and according to a fixed schedule, dependant
on such things as when fruit gets ripe or fish are to be found in
a given place, when pasture is readyi:for grazing on the moun-
tain slopes, and the like. Here again Darwin's powers of ob-
servation enabled him to see that the so-called "nomadic" Fuegians
were not nomadic at all. Others have discovered the same-thing
about natives of the Malay Peninsula, about the Eskimos and Si-
berians, and in fact all the so-called "wandering" peoples. Fur-
thermore, if our friends had pursued their study, they would have
been impressed with the prominent place given to some locality in
all youth groups, such as gangs, clubs, societies, etc.1,12,22,32 We
could spend some hours enumerating what our fictitious investi-
gators would have found. When it had all been piled on top of
that vast background of animal reaction toward a definite terri-
tory, it should have persuaded them that the attempt to substi-
tute class loyalty for territorial loyalty would be doomed to fail-
ure-as they found out the hard way.
Parenthetically we may say at this point that no attempt has
been made in this paper to explain or analyse this apparent at,
tachment to a locality. In all probability it is not a primary or
unitary reaction, but is the result of simpler factors. For our
purpose, the fact that animals and men do manifest this deep af-
fection for their home localities is the important point, regardless
of why it is so. It must be taken into consideration regardless of
the fact that we have not analyzed its causes.
Another illustration may be treated more briefly. In the clos-
ing decade of the 19th century, no candidate could be elected to
any office whatever unless he promised vociferously to "Bust the
Trusts." This was followed by some years of propaganda to
"trade at home" and "put the mail order houses out of business."
The present version of all this is to devise new forms of taxes to
destroy the chain stores.
Any student with a biological background could have told all
these people that their efforts were doomed to failure. They
might "Bust the Trusts," but after they were all "busted," some-
thing else of essentially the same nature would have been found
on the doorstep. Some especially inventive genius may formulate
a law that will put the chain store out of business. If he does,
BIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF SOCIAL SCIENCES 211
it will be interesting to see what will take its place. Such stores
have been defeated. The Danish Cooperative Societies put the
big butter-and-eggs companies out of business in England,4,10,11,
15,17,1 and the chain stores have never been able to exist in certain
localities in Louisiana where strong inter-family ties exist."6 It
will be noted, however, that when the trusts and chain stores were
destroyed, it was by something which possessed the same funda-
This is but an extension of the principle existing throughout
the animal kingdom that the most successful weapon in the strug-
gle for existence'is not speed or strength, sharp claws and slash-
ing teeth, protective armor of bone plates or sharp spines, but a
capacity to live and work in groups. Darwin saw this clearly,
and explained man's ascent by his ability to work in groups.6
It is significant that Darwin arrived at this conclusion, not by
observing man alone, but primarily by the study of his simian
relatives. Sir Henry Sumner Maine,28 McLennon, Galton, Wester-
narck,36, Tylor,35 and all that group of investigators looked to
the lower animals for suggestions. Kropotkin was the most ex-
treme of them all, and allowed his enthusiasm to overstress the
role of Mutual Aid.24 But the most exhaustive and probably most
scholarly treatment along this line is the two volume work by the
Australian, Sutherland."4 It is inconceivable how anybody who
had read even Sutherland's book alone could ever believe that he
could really "Bust the Trusts." He would certainly be ready to
accept Ross's statement that we must accept "monopoly," i.e.,
group activity, as against individual effort. The only choice, says
Ross, -is between private and public monopoly.83
There is much political and economic agitation today along lines
which lie in this field. We hear continuous discussion and wrangl-
ing over labor organizations, Leagues of Nations, socialized medi-
cine, consumers' cooperatives, and "the good old American way
of individual initiative"-which Herbert Hoover called "Rugged
Individualism"-and which his contemporaries parodied by sub-
stituting an "a" for the "u."
If our agitators honestly want to understand these issues, we
would recommend that they devote a few years -to the study of
It should be emphasized that one cannot become an authority
on any field of psychology or sociology by merely studying bi-
ology and watching the antics of lower animals. Always, to be
a psychologist, one must study psychology, and to understand
212 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
human behavior he must study human beings. Biology alone can-
not make a social scientist, but it furnishes a foundation and
background. It suggests multitudinous lines for investigation and
calls attention to many human traits which would otherwise be
Moreover, there is an elusive but nevertheless very real value
which is derived from the patient study of physical structure, sys-
tematic grouping of genus and species, adaptation to surround-
ings, and characteristic forms of behavior. The student of social
sciences may be ever so brilliant, but he inevitably shows it if he
lacks this biological training. Putting it crudely, he may have
an enormous mass of information, but he doesn't know what it all
Just now there is a flood tide of political, economic, and social
discussion which is characterized by this lack of insight. We can
at least be thankful that a respectable number of social scientists
are expressing amazement at the blind assumption made by so
many of our countrymen that the United States will sail into the
European field with dignity and grandeur and show all those
people just how to live-and that they will all meekly accept.
These are the same citizens who were surprised and hurt when
Britain did not enthusiastically accept the matter-of-fact sugges-
tion that she dissolve the Empire. They were also surprised at
the chain of events by which the United States drifted into this
war (for we were heading steadily in that direction, regardless of
A somewhat sinister fact is that these foundationless conclu-
sions are being presented to our public dressed out in all the habili-
ments of authority. The distinction between the scholar and the
layman is rapidly disappearing. On the one hand, academic
scholars are tempted to express opinions in fields which are foreign
to their specialties. On the other, columnists, editorial writers,
popular lecturers and many others have quite good educational
backgrounds and they study up on some of these questions, some-
times for months, sometimes for several days and occasionally for
a few minutes.
Every paper is full of editorials by such persons, and all maga-
zines and journals carry articles by them. If their conclusions
were all wrong, little harm would be done, but their danger lies
in that they contain so much that is really valuable. This blinds
us to the fact that they are so often fundamental. misinterpreta-
tions. To illustrate, the magazine Life recently carried a rather
BIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF SOCIAL SCIENCES 213
scholarly article about the future economic policy of this country.21
The author had done a great amount of studying of economic,
political and historic questions, and he did a good job in integrat-
ing his findings. But it was evident that he had not studied
biology. He listed Darwin as an individualist, along with Spencer
and Sumner, and described the Darwinian doctrine as antagonistic
to cooperative activity. This was fundamental to his line of rea-
soning, and was as fallacious as it was fundamental. He may, of
course, have been quite correct in his final conclusions, but he
certainly was all wrong on his premises. With such a foundation,
it would not be the part of wisdom to accept his findings too
A somewhat similar editorial, but not so scholarly, was carried
by the Saturday Evening Post a few months earlier.7 This article
was so highly pleasing to certain groups of industrialists that one
company had reprints made, apparently by the tens of thousands.
This article started with a false assumption about the life of
primitive man, and succeeded in making about every possible
mistake before the end was reached. To be sure, there was little
direct reference to biology in it, but it was based throughout on
mistaken biological interpretations.
The Saturday Evening Post and Life are standard provender
for millions. It may safely be said that their contents and view-
points reach nearly all our citizens directly or indirectly. Their
writers have academic standing, and their words carry conviction
and authority. Such being the case, it is serious when they build
their systems on such completely mistaken biological concepts.
The examples selected are but two of dozens and hundreds. In
addition to printed matter, the radio gives out an almost continu-
ous stream of vocal argument of the same type. Sometimes it
becomes amusing, as was the case in a recent forum program. Two
nationally known authorities, like the two Kilkinney cats, began
to quarrel and then to fight. Their words waxed bitter and sharp,
but it was either tragic or else good comedy, since they had
drifted into biological fields and it was evident that neither had
had any biological preparation.
The general neglect of biology is but one phase of the modern
trend. Everywhere we find that the prevailing style is to take
short cuts and arrive at practical ends and final conclusions with
a minimum of background. Engineers' aides by hundreds are
214 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
being made out of young people who have had no calculus and
very little of anything else. Practical electricians are being pro-
duced over-night. Technical experts of all kinds are being as-
sembled in much the same way that Henry Kaiser builds ships.
A rather startling discovery is that these scantily prepared
people often do quite as good work as those who have devoted half
a life-time to preparation. The case is like that of one who may be
a super-efficient automobile driver without knowing anything
whatever about an internal combustion engine. These technicians
function well in their limited fields, but should the old guard of
thoroughly trained mathematicians, physicists and engineers die
off, leaving these ersatz scholars to shift for themselves, great
would be the catastrophe.
As in the physical sciences, so in the field of social phenomena;
we are training social workers, recreational directors, probation
officers and a great variety of such persons with little or no'back-
ground. In fact, it is often openly preached that it is a waste
of time for them to study any such abstract phenomena. Even
general sociology as such is striking out along the road .of com-
munity surveys, compiling a bewildering mass of charts and
tables, and finding expression in what we have learned to call.
regionalism. Now all this is vastly important, but more and more
this structure is being built up without going to the trouble of lay-
ing a foundation. It may be highly satisfactory as long as a few
"old timers" are still around, but when they are gone it is likely
to be a different story. Engineer's aides without an engineer look
It should be remembered that a biologist is not necessarily an
authority on social questions. In fact, if he is a thoroughly trained
biologist he almost certainly will not be. He has had no time to
study social phenomena. Moreover, he has probably specialized in
some phase of biology which has little if any direct bearing on
social and psychological questions. But there are certain aspects
of the biological field, knowledge of which is essential for a psy-
chologist or sociologist. Without this background, he is lost. He
may speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and like Solo-
mon put forth a thousand proverbs, but he will lack an insight,
an appreciation, a comprehension, absolutely necessary if he is to
understand, interpret and coordinate all the vast amount of in-
formation which in his field he may possess.
BIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
Current books and journal articles on the various fields discussed
in this paper are so numerous and so well known that it has not seemed
advisable to try to list them or any portion of them. Thus even in the
Proceedings of this Academy there have appeared at least eight or ten
papers which might be cited in connection with the topics treated. The
bibliography has therefore been restricted to the older or more obscure
references. Because of the exigencies of the text, references have been
cited by number instead of by author and year in the form usually followed
in this journal.
(1) The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets. New York, Macmillan
LUBBOOK, JOHN (Lord Avebury).
(2) Ants, Bees and Wasps. London, Paul, 1915.
CASTLE, W. E.
(3) Genetics, Heredity and Eugenics. Cambridge, Harvard Univ.
Press, 1916. (3rd ed. 1924).
CHILDS, M. W.
(4) Sweden, the Middle Way. New Haven, Yale Univ. Press, 1936.
DARWIN, CHARLES R.
(5) Journal of Researches. London, Dent, 1908.
(6) Descent of Man. Lond, Murray, 1903.
(7) Neo-Liberal Illusion: that Collectivism is Liberty. Saturday
Evening Post, Oct. 10, 1942.
(8) Des' Socitds Animates. Libr. Germer Bailliere et Cia., Paris, 1878.
FABRE, JEAN H.
(9) The Life and Love of the Insect. London, S. C. Black, 1911.
FOGHT, H. W.
(10) Danish folk High schools. U.S. Bur. Educ., Bull. 22, 1914.
(11) Educational system of rural Denmark. U.S. Bur. Educ., Bull.
(12) The scientific playworld of a child. Ped. Sem., 22: 161-182, 1915.
(13) Ants and some Other Insects. Chicago, Open Court Pub. Co.,
1904 (p. 49).
(14) Les Fourmis de la Suisse. Ouvrage Couronne Soc. Helv. Sci.
Nat., 1874. (2nd ed. 1920).
FRIEND, L. L.
(15) Folk high schools of Denmark. U.S. Bur. Educ., Bull. 5, 1914.
GILMORE, HARLAN W.
(16) Family-capitalism in a community of rural Louisiana. Social
Forces, 15: 71-75, 1936.
HAGGARD, H. RIDER.
(17) Rural Denmark and its Lessons. London, Longmans-Green, 1912.
HOLMES, S. J.
(18) Studies in Animal Behavior. Boston, R. G. Badger, 1916.
HOWE, FREDERICK C.
(19) Denmark: a Cooperative Community. New York, Harcourt-Brace,
216 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
HUBER, M. P.
(20) The Natural History of Ants. London, 1920.
JESSUP, JOHN K.
(21) America and its future. Life, 15: Sept. 13, 1943, 104-6; Sept. 20,
JOHNSON, JOHN H.
(22) Rudimentary Society among Boys. In: Formative Influences of
Legal Development. Boston, Little Brown & Co., 1918. (Vol.
3, pp. 316-351).
(23) tber die Bedingungsreflexe im Kindesalter. Jahrb. f. Kinderheil,
Kunde, u. Phys. Erz., (3)19: 1-24. 1919.
KROPOTKIN, P. A.
(24) Mutual Aid, a Factor of Evolution. London, Heinemann, 1902.
(25) Forced Movements, Tropisms, and Animal Conduct. Philadel-
phia, Lippincott, 1918.
(26) The Life of the Bee. New York, Dodd-Mead & Co., 1901.
(27) The Life of the Ant. New York, John Day Co., 1930.
MAINE, SIR HENRY SUMNER.
(28) Ancient Law. London, Carswell Co., 1930.
(29) Child Behavior. Boston, Richard G. Badger, 1918.
McCOOK, HENRY C.
(30) Ant Communities and how they are governed. New York, Harper
& Bros., 1909.
PAVLOV, IVAN P.
(31) The scientific investigation of the psychical faculties or pro-
cesses in the higher animals. Science, 24: 613-619. 1906.
PUFFER, JOSEPH A.
,(32) The Boy and his Gang. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1912.
Ross, EDWARD A.
(33) Principles of Sociology. New York, Century Co., 1930.
(34) The Origin and Growth of the Moral Instinct. London, Long-
mans Green & Co., 2 vols. 1898.
TYLOR, EDWARD B.
(35) Primitive Culture. London, McMurray, 1913.
WESTERMARCK, EDVARD A.
(36) Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas. New York, Mac-
millan, 2 vols. 1908.
WHEELER, WILLIAM M.
(37) Compound and miled nests of American ants. Amer. Nat., 35:
Nos. 414-7. 1901.
(38) Social Life among the Insects. New York, Harcourt, Brace & Co.,
(39) The Social Insects. New York, Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1928.
YERKES, ROBERT M.
(40) The Mental Life of Monkeys and Apes. Behavior Monogr., 3(1):
Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci., Vol. 7, No. 4, 1944 (1945)
SURVEY OF FLORIDA NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS:
A PROJECT OF THE UNION CATALOG OF FLORIDIANA
Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida
When a carpenter decides to build a cabinet, he does not begin
until he has in hand his blueprint, his material, and his tools.
Why? Because these are the essential and fundamental objects
that he must have before he can begin construction.
In the realms of social science, a similar procedure must be
followed each time a new contribution is made to our general
knowledge. The essential elements for construction in the sciences
are facts. Some of us are possessed of an unsteady hand, and we
feel compelled by our own lack of skill to refrain from working
on the end product. We choose rather to assume the position of
"tool handler" for the master builder. Ours is the task of gather-
ing the facts and placing them at the disposal of those who can
best use them in their scientific presentation of knowledge.
A. J. Hanna, Chairman of the Advisory Council of Union
Catalog of Floridiana, has defined the purpose of the catalog as:
"(1) to answer the question, 'what is there on Florida?', by list-
ing materials relating to that subject and thus providing a com-
prehensive index; and (2) to answer the question, 'Where can it
be located?', by indicating on cards where information can be
found. The geographic division involved is that territory recog-
nized at any time as Florida. Beginning with the reports of Ponce
de Leon's discovery of the peninsula in 1513, these records cover
more than four centuries and are well along in the fifth. Studies
of prehistoric cultures extend the period considerably prior to
Among the sources most frequently used by the social scien-
tists are the newspapers and periodicals. The frequency with
which newspapers and periodicals are published makes it possible
for the investigator to get a vital and moving account of events.
This is highly desirable to the social scientist, for such an account
makes it possible for him to interpret motives and underlying
SHanna, A. J., "The Union Catalog of Floridiana." Reprinted from:
Special Libraries, (New York), 32: 160-162, 179 (May-June, 1941).
218 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
causes, trace influences and movements, and analyze results. The
sociologist, the psychologist, and the historian are all concerned
with motivation in the story of human drama, for streams of ac-
tion are directly dependent upon the motivating currents in
Newspapers and periodicals are not only valuable because they
reflect public opinion, but the variety of subjects which they in-
clude provides a wide range of interest. Alongside the authen-
ticated news items, almost every publication has its unsophisti-
cated columns of local chatter and gossip. Politicians have long
used the printed page to flaunt their policies, while editors have
long used their columns to make their cries for justice and social
reform. Newspapers and periodicals currently contain everything
from the homey advertisement of the latest insect spray to the
erudite account of the most recent trends in science.
Since we are convinced of the importance of newspapers and
periodicals, we consider it essential to include such Florida pub-
lications, both current and discontinued, in the Union Catalog of
Floridiana. We believe that James Owen Knauss, formerly pro-
fessor of European History at the Florida State College for
Women, shares our belief in the importance of Florida publica-
tions, for in 1926 he published his "Territorial Florida Journal-
ism," a monograph locating the newspapers of Florida that were
published between July 1821 and June 1845. Dr. Knauss has
devoted a great deal of the space in this work to biographical
sketches of the men who were pioneers in the Florida newspaper
Our procedure has been to build upon the firm foundations
already laid by other men where possible, and to do research
work when necessary. Dr. Knauss's study of Florida journalism
during the territorial period, the Ayers Newspaper Directory, and
the records of the Florida Press Association have been the chief
sources from which we have proceeded in the gathering of material
for our catalog of publications. We have supplemented these
sources with numerous other miscellaneous documents and papers.
Colleges, libraries, clubs, and business and fraternal organizations
all have been contacted as possible sources. Our catalog shows
that there are now in circulation over two hundred weekly, semi-
weekly, and daily newspapers in the state of Florida. We have
found that there are more than fifty different periodicals being
published each month by the professional, business, and social
organizations in Florida.
SURVEY OF FLORIDA NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS 219
Since our file is a catalog, we have limited our records prin-
cipally to the official name, location, date of establishment, fre-
quency of publication, and date of discontinuation, if any, for
each Florida publication. We are also recording the names of
editors and publishers with their dates where we have been able
to gather such information. Such a record includes the names of
C. E. Bartlett, W. H. Hunt, B. D. Wright, Joshua Knowles, and
Joseph Clisby-men who not only distinguished themselves in the
newspaper world but through their political and civic action did
much to make Florida the great state it is today. Where it has
been possible, we have included the political and religious affilia-
tions of the publications.
Although work on this project will never be completed, the
staff of the Union Catalog of Floridiana now places this file of
Florida publications at the disposal of the social scientist in the
hope that it may prove to be an efficient tool in the construction
of many worthwhile contributions to Florida history.
Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci., Vol. 7, No. 4, 1944 (1945).
THE CIRCULATION AND RESPIRATORY TOLERANCE OF
SOME FLORIDA FRESH-WATER FISHES1
J. S. HART
University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
The morphology and physiology of living things are intimately
related to the environments in which they live. The structural
adaptation of animals to the conditions under which they live is
frequently striking, and hence the study of morphological varia-
tion in relation to environment has been intensively pursued. The
enormous differences in the vertebrate skeleton as adapted to aquat-
ic, terrestrial and aerial habits illustrates the extent to which struc-
tural modification can proceed in relation to the requirements of
different types of environment.
Physiological variations, being less apparent and often ob-
scure, have not been so thoroughly studied. The most apparent
physiological differences result from morphological differences
between organisms which are not closely related. Such differences
are qualitative. In 'closely related groups of similar structure,
however, differences of behavior often occur which are attributed
to physiological differences of a quantitative rather than of a
qualitative nature. In reviewing the investigations dealing with
physiological variations among fishes Redfield (1933) stressed
their quantitative aspect.
Studies of quantitative physiological differences among Teleost
fishes have dealt chiefly with respiration:
(1) Krogh and Leitch (1919) showed differences in the chemical
affinity of the blood for oxygen; Willmer (1934) and Black (1940)
demonstrated this more completely.
(2) Krogh and Leitch (1919) first discovered specific differences
in the effect of carbon dioxide on the combining of oxygen with fish
blood; such differences were more strikingly demonstrated by Root
(1931), Willmer (1934), and Black (1940).
(3) Hall (1929) showed specific differences in the amount of
hemoglobin per unit volume of blood, and Redfield (1933) reviewed
the differences in oxygen capacity and red cell volume.
(4) Differences in the buffering capacity of the blood among
marine and fresh-water species were shown by Redfield (1933).
1 Contribution from the Department of Zoology, University of Toronto,
and the Department of Biology, University of Florida.
222 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
(5) The tolerance of fishes to varying concentrations of carbon
dioxide was studied by Powers (1922, 1932), Pruthi (1927), Fry and
Black (1938), and Irving, Black, and Safford (1939) for fresh-water
species; and by Safford (1940) for marine species. The fishes were
placed in bottles with oxygen at atmospheric pressure and carbon
dioxide at tensions varying from zero to over 300 mm of mercury. The
effect of these varying amounts of carbon dioxide on the lethal oxygen
level was evaluated by measuring the oxygen remaining in the water
after asphyxiation. The ability of a species to remove oxygen in the
presence of carbon dioxide was called its respiratory tolerance (Irving
et al., 1939). This was found to vary greatly in different species.
(6) The literature dealing with the blood pressure of fishes indi-
cates that there are large specific differences; pressures range from
13 mm in the skate (MacKay, 1931) to 100 mm in the Chinook salmon
(7) The stroke output of the heart of the bowfin, catfish, carp,
and sucker has been found to differ greatly, indicating further differ-
ences in the circulation (Hart, MS).
The present paper deals with a more detailed examination of
some of these physiological phenomena, namely the respiratory
tolerance, the stroke output of the heart, and the effect of beat
rate and blood pressure on stroke output, all of which reveal graded
differences between species. The possible significance of these
quantitative differences in relation to the biology of the fishes
studied is discussed.
Acknowledgements. The investigation upon which this paper
is based was carried out at the University of Florida Conservation
Reserve, Welaka, Florida, where most of the necessary equipment
was supplied by the Department of Biology of the University of
Florida. Dr. O. Lloyd Meehean, Assistant Aquatic Biologist of
the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service; was most generous in provid-
ing the use of a laboratory building on the shore of the St. Johns
River at Welaka, and in making available the facilities of the
Fisheries Experimental Station of which he is in charge.
During the school year Prof. J. Speed Rogers, head of the De-
partment of Biology of the University of Florida, was on exchange
with Prof. W. J. K. Harkness of the University of Toronto, and
Prof. T. H. Hubbell was acting head of the department. I wish
to acknowledge my indebtedness to Professors Harkness and Hub-
bell for their direction and assistance. Thanks are also gratefully
expressed to Dr. F. E. J. Fry of the University of Toronto, who
gave valuable advice during the investigation and in the prepara-
tion of this paper.
FLORIDA FRESH WATER FISH
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The fishes used in this study were obtained alive from fisher-
men at Welaka, Florida. They were taken in the St. Johns River
from October, 1940, to June, 1941, and represented the following
Dorosoma cepedianum (LeSueur)-Northern gizzard shad
Erimyzon sucetta sucetta (Lacepede)-Eastern lake chub-sucker
Notemigonus crysoleucas bosci (Valenciennes)-Florida golden shiner
Ictalurus lacustris punctatus (Rafinesque)-Southern channel catfish
lotalurus catus (Linnaeus)-White catfish
Ameiurus nebulosus marmoratus (Holbrook)-Marbled brown bullhead
Anguilla bostoniensis (LeSueur)-American eel
Pomoxis nigro-maculatus (LeSueur)-Black crappie
Leponmi macrochirus purpurescens (Cope)-Eastern bluegill
Huro sAlmoides (Lac6epde)-Large-mouth bass
The tests made on these species were as follows. Tolerance to
carbon dioxide was determined by placing individuals in bottles
with ample oxygen and varying amounts of carbon dioxide, ac-
cording to the methods of the authors cited under (5) on p. 222.
The oxygen and carbon dioxide contents of the water were de-
termined before and after the fish was asphyxiated. Oxygen con-
tent was determined by the permanganate modification of the
Winkler method, using 100 cc samples (Standard Methods for the
Examination of Water and Sewage, 1936); carbon dioxide content
by titration with N/44 and N/22 sodium hydroxide with phenolph-
thalein indicator. The gas concentrations were converted to tensions
by tables given in the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (1935),
and the titration figures were checked by Krogh's method (Krogh,
1908) for gas micro-analysis. Water samples of known carbon
dioxide concentration were analyzed by the Krogh apparatus and
the corresponding tensions obtained were such as to justify use
of the conversion tables in the Handbook.
The stroke output was recorded with the fish out of water,
ventral side up, on a fish board. Two methods were used. The
first consisted in lighting the ventricle around the atrio-ventricular
passage and around the passage from the ventricle to the bulbus
arteriosus. The ligature threads were placed flush with the ven-
tricle after the heart was exposed and ligated simultaneously either
when the heart was fully distended or when fully contracted. The
ventricle with occluded blood was then removed and weighed on
a chemical balance. When the ventricle weights were plotted
against the body weights of the fish, the stroke output could be
224 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
determined in those species where there was a large enough dif-
ference between diastolic and systolic weights to overcome the
variation between individual readings (where stroke output
weights were 40-70% of the diastolic weights). Certain species,
the gizzard shad and golden shiner, (where stroke output weights
were 10-20% of the diastolic weights) did not lend themselves to
this procedure, but in the rest the method was a good approxima-
tion and showed the stroke output under the experimental
The second method measured directly the volume of blood
pumped at each beat, and was also used to determine the output
at different pressures. This was done by means of an air mano-
meter with a 10 ml bulb welded to a 1 ml pipette. The instrument
was drawn out into a sharp glass tip for insertion into the bulbus
arteriosus. It was graduated in 0.10 ml and in cm of water
pressure units. The stroke output was determined by inserting
the instrument into the bulbus arteriosus, closing the exit of the
latter to the ventral aorta to deflect all the blood into the mano-
meter, and recording the amount pumped (stroke output) and
pressure at each beat, together with the beat rate. At each beat
of the heart the blood rose in the manometer in smaller and smaller
increments. Finally, at a volume and pressure which varied con-
siderably in different fishes, the blood stopped rising and the
ventricle did not move any more blood, although it still continued
to beat, usually at the same rate. There was a definite pause
between each beat, and the cardiac valves usually prevented back-
slipping of the blood. No attempt was made to control any of
the factors which might affect the beat rate or stroke output of
the heart, and a large variation was found in different individuals
of the same species. The beat rate for example, varied from 5 to
50 beats per minute. The tests were made in the interest of check-
ing the ligation method, and determining how these variations in
beat rate might affect the stroke output (the ligation method does
not give this information).
Determinations of blood pressure were made by the use of
mercury and air manometers, the latter consisting of a bulb of
approximately 1 ml capacity fused to 1 mm capillary tubing. Both
manometers were calibrated against a column of water and all
measurements were given in cm of water pressure. The pressure
was read at the average maximum (systolic) and the average mini-
mum diastolicc) height to which the blood rose in the manometer
during the period of testing, correction being made for the weight
of the column of blood in the tube. Stainless steel hypodermic
FLORIDA FRESH WATER FISH
needles were welded to the glass capillary for insertion into the
bulbus arteriosus. All pressures were recorded from the bulbus
arteriosus with the fish placed -ventral side up on a fish board,
in all cases out of water. The fish were usually stunned before
the operation. Pressures readings obtained in this way are ob-
viously not to be regarded as representing normal pressures, but
were made in an attempt to determine the effect of variations in
beat rate on blood pressure in different species. The beat rate
was not controlled, and varied from 5 to 50 beats per minute in
different individuals of single species. All individuals which
showed abnormal or disorderly beating of the heart were excluded
from consideration. The technique could not be used for con-
tinuous recording of blood pressure, for the blood soon clotted in
the narrow capillary tubing; hence readings for a few beats only
were taken. Hardy species such as the catfish, however, could
survive for several readings on different occasions. The beat
rate taken was the average of two timings, one before and one
after the pressure readings. The rate did not usually change
during the interval.
When a fish is placed in a bottle with an oxygen partial pres-
sure of about 150 mm of mercury, it will usually consume nearly
all of the oxygen if no carbon dioxide is present. If sufficient
carbon dioxide is added, however, the fish will be asphyxiated
before all the oxygen is used. The ability of different species to
remove oxygen in the presence of carbon dioxide (respiratory
tolerance-Irving et al., 1939) can be conveniently compared by
determining the carbon dioxide tension necessary to cause the fish,
to leave after asphyxiation an arbitrarily fixed oxygen tension of
80 mm of mercury in the water, i.e., the carbon dioxide tension
at which the lethal oxygen tension is 80 mm of mercury. This
value varies greatly from species to species, as is shown in Table
1 (in this table the 80 mm values are taken from the data graphed
in fig. 1).
In fig. 1 the lethal level of oxygen for each fish is related to
the carbon dioxide tension found after asphyxiation. These
figures reveal the following information. At carbon dioxide ten-
sions from zero to 30 mm of mercury all species were able to re-
move most of the oxygen initially present in the water bottles. At
carbon dioxide tensions in the 30 to 60 mm of mercury range three
species are unable to consume much more than half the available
oxygen; the gizzard shad has the least respiratory tolerance and
226 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
TABLE 1-RESPIRATORY TOLERANCE
Environmental CO2 tension at 80 mm
O1 tension, expressed as partial pres-
SPECIES sure in mm of mercury.
Gizzard shad 35
Black crappie 50
Eastern bluegill 60
Chub sucker 67
Large-mouth bass 70
Golden shiner 91
Southern channel catfish 125
White catfish 156
Bullhead catfish 156
reaches this test point at a carbon dioxide tension of 35 mm of
mercury, followed by the black crappie at 50 and the eastern
bluegill at 60 mm. At these carbon dioxide tensions the lethal
oxygen levels of the catfishes and the eel are still very low. At
carbon dioxide tensions in the 60 to 100 mm range the chub sucker,
large-mouth bass, golden shiner, and southern channel catfish
are the next to be affected, in the order named. The lethal oxygen
levels of the other catfishes and the eel are not markedly raised
until the carbon dioxide tension is well over 100 mm of mercury.
These latter species have therefore a large respiratory tolerance.
The great variation in respiratory tolerance found among the
ten species studied at Welaka is by no means peculiar to Florida
fishes. The same sort of variation was demonstrated by Fry and
Black (1938) among Algonquin Park fishes, by Irving, Black, and
'Safford (1939) among Pennsylvania species, and by Safford
(1940) among marine forms. In Algonquin Park the specific
variation in respiratory tolerance was noted to be correlated with
differences in habitat and temperature, whenever there was some
isolation of the different species. In the instance of the St. Johns
River we are dealing with a homothermous environment, of almost
uniform chemical characteristics throughout any given cross-sec-
tion. In this quite uniform environment live fishes that differ
widely in their respiratory tolerance; and it will be interesting to
learn whether or how far the observed differences are correlated
with differences in their habits and habitats. A correlation of
respiratory tolerance and habitat is not considered inevitable. It
may, however, be pointed out that the gizzard shad, with the lowest
tolerance, is a species of the open water, while the much more
highly tolerant catfish, bullhead and eel are bottom-dwellers, and
FLORIDA FRESH WATER FISH 227
the last even buries itself in mud for considerable periods (Hubbs
and Alien, 1944).
0 O MO /5o0 200
50 M/ /50 ?OO
Fig. 1.-Specific differences in the oxygen tension remaining
in the water after asphyxiation with different CO, tensions.
In the first five panels are shown the data for the ten species,
with two in each panel. In the lower right panel, the mean
curves for the respiratory tolerance of the ten species are
combined for comparison.
Stroke Output by the Ligation Method.-The rate of circula-
tion of blood depends on the volume output of the heart per
beat and on the frequency of the heart beat. Neither one of
these factors has been measured on fish functioning normally.
However, under experimental conditions the stroke output was
measured to determine its magnitude and the extent- to which
228 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA'ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
it shows specific differences. The ligation method already de-
scribed gives indirect information concerning stroke output un-
der the conditions of the experiment, and is probably a fairly
close approximation to the mean normal stroke output of the
fishes tested. Individual variations in heart beat rate were not
I I I I I I li ll I I I I I IIII
C LARCLE-OUTM :
0-7 ZL BASS *
'_ 4 006 0-
0 I: C WA/v 1 wi.. I I...
07 CATF/S/ CAMTS / ~
K 00-40 ,
6t7 BLUZLCAD I cIIUB SUCKER:
I I I I 1 I I III I I I I I I 1 11 -
Q V/00 Z00 400 /00 /00 '0O 460 7OOO
WE/C/T OF F/S n gms.
*D/ASrOLEl SYS TOL
OCTOBER TO DECLMBER /94, 0-2Y5"
Fig. 2.-The weight of the ventricle plus occluded blood at
diastole and systole as related to the body weight of the
fish in six different species, double logarithmic grid. Tested
October to December 1940, river temperature 20-25C.
FLORIDA FRESH WATER FISH
considered in these determinations. So far as is known there
have been no previous determinations of stroke output in fishes
except those previously made by the writer (Hart, MS).
By lighting and weighing the exposed ventricles of the species
studied, and plotting the ventricle weights against the body
weights on double logarithmic grid, two approximately parallel
curves were found for each species (fig. 2). The stroke output
was determined by subtracting the mean systolic weights (lower
curve) from the mean diastolic weight (upper curve) for each
species. The relation is linear on double logarithmic grid, indi-
cating that the output is a function of body size (Huxley, 1932).
The output at each size for each species is shown in Table 2.
TABLE 2-STROKE OUTPUT, LIGATION METHOD
SPECIES Weight of Fish, grams.
200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
Stroke Output of the Heart, grams.
Large-mouth bass .055 .075 .095 .115 .135 .155 .175 .190
Chub sucker .060 .085 .120
Channel catfish .115 .160 .190 .230 .265
White catfish .135 .170 .200 .240 .270
Eel .120 .170 .230 .270
Bullhead catfish .175 .230 .270 .320 .375
Here again large differences occur between species (fig. 3).
The catfishes and the eel have the greatest stroke output and
large-mouth bass has the least; the former pump about 2.5 times
as much blood per beat as the latter. The magnitude of the
stroke output and the specific differences found in this series
of fishes are quite similar to those of a series studied in Toronto,
Ontario (Hart, MS). The Floriaa and Toronto bullheads, for
example, both had an output of 0.27 gm of blood per beat at 500
gm body weight.
Blood Pressure.-The ligation method gives at best only an
over all average for the stroke output of a given species of fish.'
The blood pressure was studied at different beat rates to obtain
a better understanding of the influence of this factor (beat rate)
on stroke output, and to determine whether or not blood pressure
varies among the species examined.
Previous literature on the blood pressure of fishes has been
concerned mostly with elasmobranchs. Schloenlein (1895) found
a branchial systolic pressure of 16-18 mm of mercury for Torpedo
230 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORID'A ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Oc/ /o Dec. /940, M0-2.5f
S WI/e Ca/f/:
"1d Soulhern Chonne/ Co/
S&O Chub Sucher
/00 20X 400 600 O
WE/GIHT Or r/S/H 9ms.
Fig. 3.-Specific differences in the stroke output at different
body weights, double logarithmic grid.
and 30-33 mm for Scyllium. Hyde (1908) tested the effects of
different salt solutions in water on the blood pressure of the skate,
and found an average ventral aortic pressure of about 20 mm of
mercury, while MacKay (1931) measured this pressure as only
13 mm Hg; the latter explained that differences in the experiment-
al conditions in the two cases could account for the difference in
results. Wyman and Lutz (1932) found in the dogfish an average
ventral aortic pressure of 28.2 mm Hg, an average dorsal aortic
pressure of 15.4 mm Hg. Lyon (1926), working with sand sharks,
found an average ventral aortic pressure of 32 mm Hg, an average
dorsal aortic pressure of 23 mm Hg. In a teleost, the Chinook
salmon, Greene (1904) found enormously high pressures, from
30 to over 100 mm Hg, with beat rates varying from 20 to 90 per
FLORIDA FRESH WATER FISH
minute. He obtained some pressure readings as high as 172 mm
Hg, and found that the heart during maximal work could double
the normal blood pressure. It is evident from these results, even
if the differences in methods employed make them not strictly
comparable, that blood pressure is another highly variable factor
In the present study the effect of beat rate on the blood pres-
sure of four species was investigated in order to obtain some idea
of the extent to which it is subject to specific variations. All
/0 20 30 40 O0 60
BEAT PQER M/NU/TE
Fig. 4.-Blood pressures in the bulbus arterlosus at different
beat rates in the large-mouth bass and bullhead. Solid marks
are systolic pressures, open marks are diastolic pressures.
Temperatures given are those of river at the time of
232 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
recordings were taken from the bulbus arteriosus so as to obtain
pressures corresponding as nearly as possible to those in the ven-
tricle without actually canulating the latter. As previously de-
scribed (p. 225), a hypodermic needle fused to a capillary air
0 0 0
* ft 00 0
C/IZZA RD SHA
MARCH 30,/9 '
MAR CH 2/3, /8j
I I ,, I I
/0 0 30J 40 5O 60
BATS PCR I/NUTC
Fig. 5.-Blood pressure at different beat rates in the gizzard
shad and channel catfish. Solid marks are systolic pressures,
open marks are diastolic pressures. Temperatures given are
those of the river at the time of measurement.
manometer of small volume was inserted through the wall of the
bulbus arteriosus without otherwise interfering with the blood
flow, which proceeded through the normal channels. The pres-
sures recorded were the extreme ranges of the movement of blood
in the manometer during systole and diastole, the differences be-
tween systolic and diastolic pressures being the pulse pressures.
FLORIDA FRESH WATER FISH
In these fishes the beat rates were found to vary between 5 and
50 beats per minute from one individual to another, but the pres-
sures proved to be closely correlated with rate of beat (Table 3;
figs. 4, 5). At low beat rates (5 per minute) the pulse pressure
is highest and systolic pressure lowest. As the beat rate increases
the pulse pressure decreases while the systolic pressure increases.
At high beat rates (40 to 50 per minute) the pulse pressure is
lowest and the systolic pressure highest. So far as is known this
is the first instance in which blood pressure has been correlated
with heart beat rate in fishes. Greene (1904) gave data on blood
pressure and beat rate in the Chinook salmon, but no consistent
relation was found.
It has been established reasonably well for normally innervated
hearts of dogs under conditions assuring effective venous pres-
sure, that progressive acceleration abbve basal heart beat rates
increases the mean arterial pressure and the output of blood per
minute. The beat rate of maximal pressure is high (180-200 per
minute), above which further increase in rate is accompanied by
a fall of blood pressure and of output per minute. An increase
in beat rate up to optimal rates is accompanied by an increase in
TABLE 3-BLOOD PRESSURE IN RELATION TO HEART BEAT RATE
SPECIEs Gizzard Shad Large-mouth Bass Channel Catfish Bullhead
DATB March 30 March 26-27 March 26-27 March 27-28
Temperature 19*C. 19C. 18*C. 19*C.
Beat rate Blood Pressure in Centimeters of Water
D*S*P* D S P D S P D S P
5 35 55 20 16 42 26 7 28 21
10 41 5918 21 44 23 1129 18
15 48 63 15 26 47 21 14 30 16
20 52 65 13 54 68 14 315019 18 30 12
25 59 70 11 60 72 12 36 52 16 21 31 10
30 65 75 10 66 76 10 41 54 13 25 32 7
35 71 80 9 70 80 10 46 56 10 28 33 5
40 77 84 7 74 82 8 49 57 8
45 81 86 5 53 58 5
50 8488 4
*D = average diastolic pressure, S = average systolic pressure,
P = average pulse pressure
Sdiastolic pressure and decrease in pulse pressure (Shannon and
Wiggers, 1939). In frog and turtle hearts the maximum pressure
is reached at between 30 and 40 beats per minute. At higher beat
234 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
rates the blood pressure falls, and the output per minute would
presumably also fall (Shannon and Wiggers, 1939). These results
are very similar to those obtained in the present investigation with
fishes, in which the blood pressure rises as the heart beat rate in-
creases up to about 45 per minute; above this rate there would ap-
pear to be no prospect of any further great increase of pressure
with increase in beat rate. The increase in pressure up to 45 or
50 beats per minute is presumably accompanied by an increase in
output of blood per minute from the heart; beyond this point the
output per minute may level off or fall with further increase in
beat rate. This question is discussed later (p. 235).
The specific differences in blood pressure found by other work-
ers have been mentioned above. It will be noted in Table 3 and
figs. 4 and 5 that there are very large differences in the bulbus
arteriosus blood pressure among the four species studied in this
connection. Thus, at a heart beat rate of 20 per minute, the sys-
tolic blood pressure is 30 cm of water in the bullhead, and 50, 65,
and 68 cm of water in the channel cat, gizzard shad, and large-
mouth bass, respectively. The diastolic pressures vary in a similar
but not identical way, since there is a considerable variation in
the pulse pressure.
Stroke Output by the Manometer Method.-The manometer
described above was used as an alternative means of determining
stroke output to check the results of the ligation method, and to
obtain some information about the variations in stroke output
caused by differences in beat rate and blood pressure. This method
gives many stroke output readings for each fish tested, and as
stated 'above these get progressively smaller as the blood rises in
the manometer tube. This was at first attributed entirely to the
increase in pressure caused by the rising of the blood towards
the manometer bulb; and in fact, when the stroke output is plotted
against the corresponding manometer pressure a practically linear
relationship is found to exist in all instances (fig. 6), indicating
that the decrease in stroke output is caused by the increase in
pressure (fig. 6). However, other factors than pressure appear
to play some part here. The data presented in fig. 6 are merely
representative, each curve recording the figures for one indi-
vidual fish; actually 11 large-mouth bass, 12 gizzard shad, 23
channel catfish, and 7 bullheads were tested.
FLORIDA FRESH WATER FISH
/0 Large-Mou/h Gizard Shod Bullhead
I Boss 3/09 3009 309.
0/ 0 0*3 04 0
SrToirO OUTPUTr CMS
Fig. 6.-The relation between the stroke output and mano-
meter pressure in a large-mouth bass, gizzard shad, bullhead,
and southern channel catfish, determined by deflecting the
blood from the bulbus into a manometer, and recording the
volume of blood pumped and the pressure at each beat of the
In order to compare the stroke output obtained by the mano-
meter method with that obtained by the ligature method, the blood
pressure and beat rate must be considered. The channel catfish
is the only species in which enough data were obtained for this
purpose; in it the average beat rate, before ligation of the hearts
weighed to determine stroke output, was 18 beats per minute. This
corresponds to a diastolic pressure of 29 cm of water (see fig. 5).
Now if the stroke output at 29 cm pressure, determined for each
channel catfish by the manometric method, is plotted against the
body weight of the fish, the output is again seen to be proportional
to body size (fig. *7). It will be noted that most of the higher
beat rates are found where the output is small, and most of the
low beat rates where the output is large. Two lines have been
drawn, one through the points averaging 20 beats per minute, and
another through the points averaging 43 beats per minute. It is
evident that in the channel catfish the stroke output is lower at
236 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
43 beats per minute than at 20 even though the same pressure was
used for plotting all the points (29 cm of water). In the follow-
ing table the stroke output at 20 beats per minute (derived from
fig. 7) is compared with that obtained by the ligation method
where the beat rate averaged 18 per minute. The values obtained
for the stroke output by these two methods agree remarkably well.
0-- CHANNZE CATFISH
.04- April IV-25; 194/
.o 1 .20
0 40 00 000
WH OF FS /N GS.
Fig. 7.-The relation between stroke output, beat rate and
body weight of the southern channel catfish, determined by
the manometer method at a diastolic pressure of 29 cm of
water. The numbers above the points refer to the heart beat
rates, and show that the faster the hearts beat the.smaller
is the stroke.output. Double logarithmic grid.
TABLE 4--STROKE OUTPUT OF THE CHANNEL CATFISH
Weight of Fish (grams)
200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Aver. beat Stroke Output at 29 cm Water Pressure
Ligation rate per min.
Method (gm) 18 .115 .160.190 .230 .265
20 .11 .15 .18 .22 .25 .28 .30 33 .36
FLORIDA FRESH WATER FISH
It his been shown here, (page 234) that certain species (giz-
zard shad, large-mouth bass) have consistently higher blood pres-
sures than others (channel catfish and bullhead). The question
~i | Larg-Hwf/i Bau
3 0 C8 0
(DIO Losp-Are/4 Boss
50 100 150 200 250
STROKE OUTPUT AT EACH PRESSURE
STROKE OUTPUT AT 30 CMS-
Fig. 8.-The stroke output determined at different pressures
(by deflecting the blood from the bulbus into a manometer) is
divided by the output at an arbitrary pressure of 30 cm of
water to compare the relative ability of large-mouth bass and'
bullhead hearts to pump blood at different pressures.
arises as to whether or not the quantities of blood pumped at
various pressures always bear the same ratio in these species. To
answer this question the stroke output-pressure curves for all the
individuals of each species have been combined and the species
compared on a common basis. To do this the output at 30 cm
pressure in each species was arbitrarily taken as 100, and the
other readings changed proportionally. In this way all the read-
ings for a species can be plotted about a single line. These plots
are shown in figs. 8 and 9, and it will be seen that there are spe-
cific differences in the degree to which the stroke output decreases
as the pressure increases in the manometer. In the large-mouth
bass (fig. 8) zero output is not reached until the pressure is 85
cm of water, whereas zero output is reached at 57 cm in the bull-
head. However, at low pressures the bullhead possesses the ability
to pump relatively much greater quantities of blood per beat than
the large-mouth bass. Thus the large-mouth bass, with a low
stroke output and a high bulbus pressure, has the ability to pump
238 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
small amounts of blood at relatively high pressures; whereas the
bullhead has the ability to pump large amounts at low pressures
only, and cannot pump even small amounts of blood at pressures
above 60 cm of water. The gizzard shad and channel catfish do
not differ greatly in their ability to pump blood at different pres-
sures (fig. 9) although the gizzard shad has a much higher pres-
sure system than the channel cat (fig. 5).
If it is assumed that the decrease in stroke output as the blood
rises in the manometer tube is entirely a result of the increase in
pressure, then one has to explain a paradox, because the "relative"
/arc 30, 1.9 'c
U) 40 O
20 CHANNEL CATFISH
MI 0crh P3./8j
50 100 150 200 250
STROKE OUTPUT AT EACH PRESSURE
STROKE OUTPUT AT 3 CMS.
Fig. 9.-The stroke output determined at different pressures
(by deflecting the blood from the bulbus into a manometer) is
divided by the output at an arbitrary pressure of 30 cm of
water to compare the relative ability of channel catfish and
gizzard shad hearts to pump blood at different pressures.
output per minute, when calculated from manometer readings, ac-
tually decreases in the two species above 20 beats per minute (fig.
10, gizzard shad and large-mouth bass). That this is impossible
is evident when the blood pressure curves for these species are
considered, since the latter increases at rates above 20 beats per
minute (figs. 4 and 5), and hence the output per minute would
also have to increase to account for this increase in blood pressure.
The obvious answer is that the stroke output does not decrease
nearly as much as manometer readings would lead one to believe.
Some other factor may also cause the stroke output to decrease as
FLORIDA FRESH WATER FISH
the blood mounts in the tube. Although an increase in beat rate
and blood pressure undoubtedly reduces the stroke output (fig. 7),
the actual extent of this reduction is as yet uncertain. However,
it is perhaps significant that the relative outputs per minute of
these four species, calculated from manometer readings (fig. 10)
bear the same ratio to one another as do the stroke outputs of
these species determined by the ligation method. That is, the
bullhead still has the largest output of all, and is followed in turn
by channel catfish, large-mouth bass, and gizzard shad.
S /O o0 y0 40 SO 60
BEATS PER M/NUTC
Fig. 10.-The relative output per minute at different beat
rates in the bullhead, southern channel catfish, large-mouth
bass, and gizzard shad. The relative outputs at each beat
rate are obtained by calculating the diastolic bulbus pressures
at those rates, and from the pressures thus obtained, the
stroke output -is estimated from Figs. 8 and 9. The stroke
output units in figs. 8 and 9 are arbitrary, and when multi-
plied by 60 give values for the relative outputs per minute
which also are in arbitrary units.
March 27-28, /91
- Channel Ca/f/sh
March 3, /8Yc
'L are-oa/h Bass
Morch 24, /9
MHrch 3.0, /1_9
240 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
The species tested in this study were found to show graded
differences in four physiological respects: (1) tolerance to carbon
dioxide, (2) stroke output of the heart, (3) blood pressure, and
(4) effect of beat rate on stroke output and blood pressure. In
the light of what has been demonstrated by other workers the
large differences among the species studied are not surprising.
Fishes as a group live under numerous types of environmental
.conditions and species have been shown to differ in almost every
So far, only a few of these properties have been measured in
the same series of fish under the same conditions of time and place.
It had been the object of this investigation to conform to this
ideal, but in practice it was impossible to carry out. The stroke
output was measured from October to December, 1940, the respira-
tory tolerance was measured in February and March, 1941, while
the blood pressure and its effect on stroke output were measured
still later in the season. Even under these conditions, however,
there is an indication of the way in which one physiological factor
differing greatly in two kinds of fish may compensate for another
factor, the combined effect being to tend to equalize the physio-
logical performance of the two species. Thus the oxygen transport
capacity of the blood of species A may greatly exceed that of
species B by virtue of its greater carbon dioxide effect, but on
the other hand species B may circulate its blood at a faster rate
than species A, the net result being that the oxygen transport in
A and B is nearly equalized.
It has been shown by Black (1940) that fish possessing blood
sensitive to CO0 may unload more oxygen to the tissues for equal
venous C02 tensions and equal volumes of blood than fish pos-
sessing blood tolerant to CO2. The increased CO2 sensitivity of
the blood of certain species was thought to enhance its use in
transporting oxygen by making available a higher pressure of
oxygen at unloading; but this sensitivity would also hinder oxy-
genation at the gills. Fry and Black (1938) found that the com-
mon sucker with its CO2-sensitive blood was unable to remove
oxygen from water containing CO0 tensions which did not hinder
the respiration of bullheads; the latter possessed blood with a very
low sensitivity to C02. However respiratory tolerance is not al-
ways related to the C02-sensitivity of the blood; species with a
high tolerance have been found which possess a moderately high
sensitivity to C02.
FLORIDA FRESH WATER FISH
It appears from the results of the present investigation that
the amount of blood circulated in a given time is greatest in species
with a high respiratory tolerance and least in species with a low
respiratory tolerance (Table 5). The relation between stroke
output and tolerance is shown in fig. 11. A similar relation be-
0 /O ,. eO0
ENV/RONMHENTAL PCOe /IV MN. H9. CA USNC
ASPHYX/AT/OVN AT POr OF 080 Af H;.
Fig. 11.-The relation between the environmental tension of
CO, at asphyxiation with 80 mm 02 in the water, to the stroke
output in the bullhead, channel catfish, large-mouth bass, and
gizzard shad, obtained by ligation.
tween stroke output and C02-sensitivity of the blood has been de-
scribed previously (Hart, MS) for the bullhead catfish, carp, bow-
fin, and sucker. It is thus possible that the increased rate of cir-
culation possessed by the catfishes, carp, bowfin, and eel, may
tend to offset the disadvantages to oxygen transport imposed by
blood with high tolerance to CO2 in certain of these species aid
by high respiratory tolerance in others. Further work will be
needed to settle this question.
/ l are-Mou/h Bass
r i f t i l l
242 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
TABLE 5--SUMMARY OF DATA
0ot CIO t
Gizzard ShdSh 35 52
Large-mouth Bass 70 .095 54
Chub Sucker 66 .100
Florida Golden Shiner ,92
Southern Channel Catfish 126 .195 31
White Catfish 158 .210
Bullhead 156 .225 18
Further light is thrown on the circulation question when the
blood pressure studies of the gizzard shad, large-mouth bass, chan-
nel catfish and bullhead are considered. Here again there is a
correlation between the stroke outpt and blood pressure (Table
5). The situation is as follows: The CO2-sensitive fishes (gizzard
shad and large-mouth bass) have the highest bulbus blood pressure
and the smallest stroke output, whereas the fish most tolerant to
CO2 (the bullhead) has the lowest bulbus blood pressure and the
largest stroke output. The channel catfish was less tolerant to CO2
than the bullhead, but more e tolerant than the large-mouth bass.
It was also intermediate with respect to blood pressure and stroke
output. In these cases the C02-sensitive species (gizzard shad
and large-mouth bass) possess a high pressure system with a
small stroke output, and the CO u-tolerant species possess low
pressure systems with a large stroke output.
It was pointed out above that in the bullhead the ventricle was
unable to pump blood at pressures which often occurred normally
in gizzard shad and bass hearts, and that if the rate of circulation
(relative output per minute) of the four species was calculated
from blood pressure studies, the order was the same as that indi-
cated from the stroke output measurements by the ligation method.
The relation of these physiological differences to the environment
of the fish will now be considered.
At Lake Opeongo in Algonquin Park, Ontario, sufficient data
have been gathered to indicate that both the tolerance to CO2 and
stroke output are correlated with the vertical distribution of the
species studied in the summer months. The deep water species
FLORIDA FRESH WATER FISH
inhabit cold water, possess a low tolerance to CO2, and have a
small stroke output. In shallow water are found fishes hardy with
respect to C02 and ones which have a large stroke output. All
At Welaka, Florida, no correlation could be found with vertical
distribution or temperature, since the St. Johns River is shallow
and homothermous. The fishes appear to live under equal tem-
perature conditions, yet they display all the degrees of interspe-
cific variation with respect to tolerance to CO2, stroke output and
blood pressure, that are found in Lake Opeongo. The reason is
unknown. It is felt that the problem can be solved only by a
thorough investigation of the distribution of fishes in the St.
Johns River, and that measurement of both environmental factors
and physiological factors of the fish must be carried out
(1) The respiratory tolerance of 10 species of Florida fresh-
water fishes was measured. The species used were the gizzard
shad, black crappie, eastern bluegill, large-mouth bass, chub suck-
er, Florida golden shiner, white catfish, southern channel catfish,
marbled brown bullhead catfish, and American eel. Significant
specific differences were found.
(2) The stroke output of the heart was determined in the
case of the large-mouth bass, chub sucker, white catfish, southern
channel catfish, marbled brown bullhead catfish and American
eel. The output was determined by lighting and weighing the
exposed ventricles of the fish. The stroke output thus obtained
is the difference between the mean systolic weights and the mean
diastolic weights for each species. Significant differences between
species were found.
(3) The stroke output of the channel catfish was also de-
termined by measuring the volume of blood pumped at each.beat
with an air manometer. At 20 beats per minute the values are
similar to those obtained by the ligation method, where the beat
rate averaged 18 per minute. In this species the stroke output
is lowest at the higher beat rates.
(4) The systolic, diastolic and pulse pressures in the bulbus
arteriosus of the gizzard shad, large-mouth bass, southern channel
catfish, and bull head were measured by mercury and air mano-
meters. Significant specific differences were again found. The
244 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
blood pressure in each species is correlated with the beat rate of
the heart; as the beat rate increases the blood pressure increases
and pulse pressure decreases.
(5) The stroke output is greatest in the species with low blood
pressure and least in the species with high blood pressure.
(6) Significant specific differences were found in the ability
to pump blood against varying pressures. When the pressure
reaches 57 ci of water the bullhead is unable to pass any blood
through its heart, whereas the large-mouth bass is able to pass
blood up to a pressure of 85 cm of water.
(7) The species with a high respiratory tolerance possess a
large stroke output and a low blood pressure system (southern
channel catfish and bullhead). The species with a low respiratory
tolerance possess a small stroke output and a high pressure system
(gizzard shad and large-mouth bass).
(8) A possible relation between the mechanical and chemical
transport of oxygen and the environment of the species is
AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION.
1936. Standard Methods of Water Analysis. (8th ed. New York).
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1940. The transport of oxygen by the blood of freshwater fish. Biol.
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BLACK, E. C., F. E. J. FBY, AND W. J. SCOTT.
1939. Maximum rates of oxygen transport for certain freshwater fish.
Anat. Rec., 75 (Supplement, 1939): 80.
FaY, F. E. J., AND E. C. BLACK.
1938. The influence of carbon dioxide on the utilization of oxygen by
-certain species of fish in Algonquin Park, Ontario. Anat. Reo.,
72 (Supplement, 1938) : 47.
GREENE, C. W.
1904. Physiological studies of the Chinook salmon. Bull. U. S. Bur.
Fish., 24: 429-456.
HALL, F. G.
1929. The influence of varying oxygen tensions on the rate of oxygen
consumption in marine fishes. Amer. Jour. Physiol., 88: 212-218.
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HUBBS, CARL L., AND E. Ross ALLEN.
1944. Fishes of Silver Springs, Florida. Proo. Florida Acad. Sci.,
6(3/4) (1943): 110-130.
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1932. Problems of Relative Growth. (New York; Dial Press).
HYDE, IDA H.
1908. The effect of salt solutions on the respiration, heart beat and
blood pressure in the skate. Amer. Jour. Physiol., 23: 201-213.
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1908. On micro-analysis of gases. Skan. Arch. f. Physiol., 20: 279-
KROGH, A., AND I. LEITCH.
1919. The respiratory function of the blood in fishes. Jour. Physiol.,
LYON, S. P.
1926. A study of the circulation, blood pressure and respiration of
sharks. Jour. Gen. Physiol., 8: 279-290.
MACKAY, MARGARET E.
1931. The action of some hormones and hormone-like substances on
the circulation in the skate. Contr. Can. Biol. & Fish. N. 8., 74(5):
POWERs, EDWIN B.
1922. The physiology of the respiration of fishes in relation to the
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REDFIELD, A. C.
1933. The evolution of the respiratory function of the blood. Quart.
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ROOT, R. W.
1931. The respiratory function of the blood of marine fishes. Biol.
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1940. The asphyxiation of marine fish with and without CO. and
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SHANNON, E. W., AND CARL WIGGERS.
1939. The dynamics of frog and turtle hearts: the non-rcfractory
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246 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
WILLMER, E. N.
1934. Some observations on the respiration of certain tropical fresh-
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LIFE HISTORY NOTES ON THE FLORIDA WEASEL
JOSEPH C. MOORE
Lt. (jg), USNR
This paper grew out of an accumulation of notes made on a
captive Florida weasel, to which have been added other available
data on the natural history of the species from a variety of sources.
In form it follows largely the pattern used by Seton in his "Lives
of Game Animals."
I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to Professor H. B.
Sherman of the Department of Biology, University of Florida,
for much constructive criticism of the manuscript, for extensive
use of his personal library, and for photographs of the weasel
(figs. 1, 2). I wish also to thank Mr. J. C. Dickinson for the
generous gift of the live weasel with which much of this paper
is concerned. Major Allan Brooks of Okanagan Landing, B. C.,
Mr. E. Ross Allen of Ocala, Florida, several citizens of Welaka,
Florida, and others supplied helpful information which is here
gratefully acknowledged. The observations here recorded were
made while I was holder of a graduate scholarship in the Univer-
sity of Florida.
Synonymy.-The Florida weasel was originally described by
Rhoads (1894: 152-55) as Putorius peninsula. The.generic name
Putorius has since been replaced by Mustela. The Alabama weasel
was described by Howell (1913) as Mustela peninsula olivacea.
Some time later Hall (1936: 105) synonymized peninsula under
the species frenata, so that the Alabama and Florida weasels now
bear the names Mustela frenata olivacea and M. f. peninsula re-
Range.-According to Hall (1.c.) the range of the Florida
race peninsula is "Austral and probably Tropical zones of Florida
south of 290N. latitude." Weasels collected by Harper in the
Okefinokee Swamp were referred to race olivacea with some hesi-
tation by Howell, "who remarks on the difficulty of determining
specimens owing to the lack of material representing typical
peninsulae" (Harper, 1927: 305). Since the ranges of these two
subspecies and the extent of intergradation between them are
still uncertain, information concerning weasels from Florida and
the Okefinokee Swamp of Georgia is pertinent to the present
248 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
In the literature through the year 1942, weasels are recorded
from the following localities in Florida: "Hudsons,'.' Pasco Co.
(Rhoads, 1894: 152); Tarpon Springs, Pinellas Co. (Merriam,
1896: 19); Osceola, Seminole Co. (Chapman, 1894: 345); Enter-
prise, Volusia Co. (Elliot, 1901: 55) ; Hicoria, Highlands Co. (Rand
and H6st, 1942: 5); and Gainesville, Alachua Co. (Bangs, 1896:
232; Sherman, 1929: 258). Evidence of the occurrence of weasels
in four other counties in Florida is as follows:
Brevard County: Major Allan Brooks (letter, May 11, 1942)
writes: "The only weasel I ever saw in Florida was three miles
north of Melbourne on the main road to Eau Gallie, 31 Dec. 1920;
it was a large well-colored male and crossed the road 15 yards
ahead of me quite slowly ... "1
Putnam County: I have seen the skin of a weasel at Inter-
lachen, the property of Mr. Roy Martin, who stated that it was
caught in that vicinity. Mr. S. L. Shepherd of Pomona saw a
weasel cross the road in front of his car at night between Crescent
City and Huntington about 1932. Mr. L. A. Morris, octogenarian
resident of Welaka, whose memory is of excellent reputation, tells
me of a weasel which the late Jim Fowler of Welaka took in a
trapline set out for raccoons and opossums along Mud Spring Run
about 1925, on land which is now a part of the University of
Florida Conservation Reserve. Myron Warr of Welaka tells me
that he killed a weasel with a stick in his mother's chicken house
in Welaka about 1928 or 1929.
Gadsden County: Mr. Shepherd also tells me of weasels which
appeared occasionally about the buildings on his father's farm
near Quincy, and which worked* havoc among the rats which ac-
cumulated in the buildings between visits of the weasels.
Marion County: Ross Allen, the naturalist of Silver Springs
(in letter, Sept. 11, 1942), writes, "I have personally collected
only 12 weasels, all in Marion County. All but three were taken
in the Ocala National Forest [between 1934 and 1942] while
trapping for other animals." Mrs. L. A. Morris of Welaka, Put-
nam County, says that some 40 years ago weasels were occasionally
seen on her father's (John McRae's) farm near Salt Springs,
Marion County, which is now in the Ocala National Forest.
Haunts or Habitat Preferences.-According to the records
available the Floria weasel displays no distinct preference for
'This is mentioned in Dr. Thomas Barbour's book, "That Vanishing
Eden," (1944), on p. 135; he also records a male M. peninsula from
Gilchrist Co., Florida.-Editor.
THE FLORIDA WEASEL
any one type of vegetational habitat. Its habitat preference is
probably best expressed as the sum of the habitat preferences of
the small mammals upon which it preys.
Sherman (1929: 258-9) caught a weasel at Gainesville in a
pocket-gopher trap, "set at an opening of a pocket-gopher burrow
which had been exposed by digging about a foot below the surface
in a scrub oak habitat." The captive weasel to be discussed in
the present paper was also taken in a pocket-gopher burrow, and
Florine (1942: 213) trapped a specimen of another race of
Mustela frenata in a pocket-gopher tunnel in Minnesota. Rand
and HI6st (1942: 5) mention a Florida weasel seen in the "sand
scrub country," Highland County, Florida. Harper (1927: 301),
in discussing the mammals of the Okefinokee Swamp, writes, "This
weasel seems to live principally in the cypress bays, branch
swamps, pine barrens, and cypress ponds." The individual which
Major Brooks saw in Brevard County came out of the
palmetto scrub." Ross Allen (in letter) mentions two which ap-
parently came from the cypress swamp near his Silver Springs
Numbers.-The scarcity of sight records by men who spend
much of their time afield forces one to conclude that the weasel
is either strictly nocturnal or somewhat rare. The fact that ex-
perienced trappers seldom catch them is dubious evidence of their
scarcity, because fur trappers confine their operations largely to
swamps, where raccoon, opossum, and otter are most numerous.
And, as Edward Palmer of Welaka remarked to me, "A weasel is
most too light to throw our 'coon and 'possum sets."
A. H. Howell (1921: 36)- states, "Weasels are apparently
scarce everywhere in the southern states Harper (1927:
301) considers the weasel "rather uncommon" in the Okefinokee
region. Henry Waller, a trapper of some experience in the swamps
of the St. Johns and Oklawaha rivers, tells me that he has never
seen a weasel and cannot recollect a specific instance of anyone
else encountering one. Rand and Hist (I.c.) report that in nine
and one-half years of "vermin control" at hicoria, Highlands
County, there were trapped 106 opossums, 53 skunks, 52 foxes,
and 42 house-cats, but only 2 weasels, perhaps indicating that
,weasels are rare in that locality. Bangs (1898: 232) on the other
hand remarks: "The Florida weasel is by no means rare through-
out peninsular Florida. It is one of the most difficult animals
to trap; indeed no one has ever been able to trap it successfully.
S. I wasted more time in a vain endeavor to trap it there [at
Gainesville] than I ever did over any other animal."
250 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Breeding.-Harper (1927: 303) quotes one of the men of the
Okefinokee region who had found a weasel family. "It was in
the early part of the winter of 1917 when I found them. Their
den was in the trunk of a hollow cypress tree ... In the den were
the mother and three young ones ... I found one of the little ones
before I saw the old one but kept on cutting until I found
the old one and killed her. I succeeded in finding two more
young ones as I was searching the bed. They were about the size
of mice. I gave them milk for a few days, and then fresh meat.
They grew up very fast Another of these men, according
to Harper (p. 304) found ta den of weasels about November. There
were three young about half grown in the den.
The weasel which I obtained at Gainesville appeared to have
attained full growth, about the last of February. Since Seton
(1926) shows that long-tailed weasels of the north are born in
late April or May, and assumes that they attain full size in late
August or September, we may estimate the age at which these
animals reach full size at four months. Applied to my weasel this
would place its birth date in the last part of October or early
November. This, with the data on the two families recorded by
Harper, seems fairly clear evidence that the young of the Florida
weasel are born in late fall or early winter.
':,, *' '' '
.-.'i I i .
A Captive Weasel.-The weasel upon which my observations
were based was a male, captured January 5, 1940, in the drug
garden of the University of Florida; this garden is situated on low
ground, bordered by a moist and in places swampy hammock. The
manner in which it was taken alive is probably unique. The
colored caretaker, Ferguson, observed the animal thrusting its head
,curiously out of a pocket-gopher hole. According to his story,
he lashed a large fish-hook to the end of a fishing pole and slid
THE FLORIDA WEASEL
it gently down into the hole. When, after a time, the weasel
crept up past the hook to peer out, the man snagged it, dragged
it forth, and imprisoned it in a bread can. The weasel was then
given to Mr. J. C. Dickinson, a fellow student, who in turn gener-
ously gave it to me. This captive is the weasel referred to in the
remainder of this paper, unless otherwise specified.
Size and Growth.-When first caught the weasel had a defi-
nitely juvenile appearance. Toward the last days of its cap-
tivity it seemed much more fully developed in both physique and
behavior, though its testes did not become prominent at any time.
During 65 of its 71 days of captivity it grew 43 mm in total length.
The following measurements were taken in the usual manner
(Anthony, 1931: 21-25.)
TABLE 1-GROWTH OF A CAPTIVE WEASEL
Date Total length Tail length Hind foot Ear Weight
(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (gm)
Jan. 11 377 120 47 13 not taken
Feb. 17 415 145 48 13 324.b
Mar. 16 420 148 48 13 319.7
Merriam (1896: 19) records an adult female from Tarpon
Springs with the following measurements: total length, 374 mm;
tail, 127 mm; hind foot, 44.5 mm.
Denning.-At first the weasel was kept in a mouse cage which
measured 13 x 9 x 9 in. This was constructed of hardware cloth
with tin trays for top and bottom, and contained a wooden nest
box 4 x 5 x 6 in. which had a door to keep the animal in or out
while the cage or nest was being cleaned. Eventually the weasel
was transferred to a larger cage measuring 20 x 14 x 12 in. This
had no nest box, but the weasel appeared content to sleep curled
up in the excelsior, oak leaves, or Spanish moss furnished for
bedding. It frequently slept with the fore part of its body turned
ventral side up, showing its creamy underparts. Often, when lying
partly upon its back in this way, it held one of its front paws
cocked up in the air and drooping at the wrist.
Toward the end of its captivity the weasel was permitted to
run freely about the floor of the room. After it had tired of
scampering, it went to the nest box of an unoccupied mouse cage
(like the one it had lived in at first), and there curled up to sleep,
allowing itself to' be shut up for the rest of the night. After it
had done this once, the same nest box was prepared with a bed of
excelsior and was used by the weasel on other such occasions.
252 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
In the Okefinokee Swamp the weasel, according to Harper
(1.c.), nests in hollow trees and logs in the swamp, cypress bays,
and pine barrens.
Food.-Bang's statement (1898: 232) that the Florida weasel
apparently lives on cotton rats (Sigmodon) is partly supported
by Harper's informant (1927: 304), who found in a weasel's
brood-nest"' 'pretty near a peck er Wood Rats,' whole and in pieces,
remains of 'all kinds er birds-Robins, Quail an' maybe others;
an' a piece er Joint Snake about 4 inches long.' ["Wood
rats" meant Sigmodon in this instance]. Another nest (p. 303)
contained three Neotoma, two Sigmodon, and "a bushel or more of
rabbit hair, rat hair, and squirrel hair." The comparative num-
bers of Sigmodon in the two nests may be partly accounted for by
the fact that the first was located in flatwoods, the second in the
swamp; for cotton rats do not inhabit heavy swamp forests in
any numbers but are abundant in the flatwoods near ponds and
Live cotton rats were commonly provided for the captive weasel;
it killed them as quickly and as mercifully as I could have. A
list of the kinds of animals that the weasel ate follows:
Pocket-gopher Geomys tuza austrinus
Harvest mouse Reithrodontomys humulis humulis
CottoIn mouse Peromyscus gossypinus gossypinus
Golden mouse Peromyscus nuttalli aureolus
Rice rat Oryzonzys palustris natator
Cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus hispidus
Roof rat Rattus rattus alexandrinus
Loggerhead shrike Lanius ludovicianus ludovicianus
White-eyed vireo Vireo griseus griseus
The weasel also ate sparingly of ground beefsteak and still
more sparingly of fish. A salamander (Pseudobranchus) which
was provided -for food was ignored, and a common chicken snake
(Elaphe q. quadrivittata) seemed most repugnant to it. During
the weasel's first 18 days of captivity it ate an average of about
63 grams of flesh and blood daily. The food animals were weighed
just before they were given to the weasel, and there was seldom
anything left over from the meal. Sometimes a rat's foot or tail
was found when the nest box was cleaned; the weights of these
remnants were not recorded. The detailed list of the food of the
weasel during this period is as follows:
THE FLORIDA WEASEL
TABLE 2-AMOUNT OF FOOD CONSUMED DURING EIGHTEEN DAYS
Date Animal Weight (gm) Date Animal Weight (gm)
Jan. 5 Young rice rat............ 32 Jan. 15 Cotton mouse.............. 30
6 Young rice rat............ 29 16 Cotton mouse.............. 24
7 Vireo; cotton mouse 17 Ground beefsteak
8 Pocket-gopher ............198 18 Cotton rat.................. 61
10 Cotton mouse.............. 33 19 Cotton rat........... 63
11 Cotton rat..................116 20 Cotton rat............. 62
12 Rice rat ........................ 90 21 Cotton rat.................... 53
14 Cotton rat......... 105 22 Cotton rat.................... 45
For the remainder of its period of captivity the weasel lived
apparently well on a rather consistent ration of one.cotton rat per
day; the average weight of these was probably about 70 grams.
Feeding Behavior.-At first the weasel carried its prey into
the nest box and ate it there, but after a few days it ate outside
of the nest box where it could be watched. It invariably began
at the base of the skull and ate the brain; then it usually pro-
gressed to the neck, shoulders, and on toward the tail, but this
.part of the procedure sometimes varied. Of the shrike it ate
only the brain and part of the shoulders. The skull and most
other bones of the prey were eaten, and in the droppings pieces
of femora and other large bones, 15-20 mm long, were observed.
Feet and tails were sometimes left uneaten, as well as an occasional
patch of skin, and in the case of rice rats much of the fur was left.
Before mealtime the weasel was often permitted to romp and
frolic about on the table and floor. Because it was habitually
fed in its cage the animal could easily be attracted back in by the
food, and was kept in the cage until its play-time the following
day. Toward the last, when the weasel was allowed more freedom
since I found that it permitted itself to be locked up at night
anyhow, rats were sometimes still put in the cage in order to
watch the weasel's actions in getting them out. It could barely
jump up the 12 inches to the top of the cage with a large cotton rat
in its mouth. This was necessarily a good clean jump, for a
sheet-metal rim projecting in several inches at the top had to be
cleared. The weasel seemed to want to eat its prey in the relative
freedom of the open floor, although it was never allowed to do so.
It drank freely and frequently, lapping daintily in the manner
of a cat.
Sanitation.-When the weasel dragged its prey into the nest
box, it "messed up" its bedding material with the body fluids
and fur or feathers to such an extent that, for the sake of cleanli-
254 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
ness, I provided new material every day. It had a habit of urinat-
ing and defecating on the top of its nest box during the first few
weeks of its captivity. This may be considered a form of sanita-
tion if one considers that the animal was placing the excreta where
they would be least in the way in this small cage. When the
weasel was moved to the larger cage, the finger-bowl water dish
became the favorite receptacle for excreta. This, Seton (1925)
points out, is also a sanitary habit, for in nature the stream or
pond into which the excreta might be dropped (and for which
the water dish was a substitute) provides sufficient dilution to
amount to disinfection. And in the cage-was this not in fact
the most efficient way of disposing of this material? The dish
was actually removed and cleaned eyery day.
As time went on, however, the weasel became progressively less
tidy in its habits, and dropped its seats promiscuously about in
the bedding which covered the whole floor of its larger cage.
Sometimes they were even found in the corner which the weasel
had come to use regularly as a bed. They were usually soon stiff
and dry externally, and I removed them daily with forceps.
Can it be that the weasel's carelessness was increased by the fact
that its droppings were disappearing and did not remain to cause
annoyance, no matter where they were left ? The bedding in the
cage was replaced about once a week, and its floor was washed
and scrubbed every two or three weeks. In a large pen the be-
havior of the animal relative to sanitation would very likely have
THE FLORIDA WEASEL
Harper's informant (1927: 303) describes a weasel brood-nest
which contained 'a bushel or more of rabbit hair, rat hair, and
squirrel hair. It looked like it must have been used as a den for
several years, although there was no stink that I could detect ex-
cept the musk from the old weasel.' Seton (1926: 591) states
that his captive weasels "were careful always to keep a special
corner of the cage for the dung .. "
Odor.-In his "Lives of Game Animals" (p. 622) Seton refers
to Audubon and Bachman, and to Merriam and Stejneger, for
comments on the musk of long-tailed weasels. In each instance
cited the animal was hurt, and emitted "an offensive odor" or a
"powerful stench." Whenever my captive Florida weasel was
frightened it gave vent to a strong, musky odor which fits the
above descriptions, and which was often characterized even more
forcefully by the people who shared the study room with the weasel
and me. The animal seemed to emit musk during the night, or
had musky urine or a strong body odor, for when the room had
been closed over-night the atmosphere by morning fairly reeked
with the smell.
Various Powers.-The ability of the weasel to jump over a
12 inch cage side with a large cotton rat in its jaws has been men-
tioned. It was seen to jump, unimpeded by prey, to the top of
a box 20 inches high, and from the ease which the animal displayed
in doing this, it seemed likely that it could have jumped several
inches higher. The table on which were kept some caged mice
was 30 inches high, and the weasel jumped to the top of a box
and then to the table top in ardent efforts to get at them. When,
to protect the mice, the box was removed, the weasel showed great
eagerness to reach the table top but never essayed the 30 inch
jump. Nor did it ever voluntarily jump down from the table, once
up there. This fact, divined early, enabled both the weasel and
me to enjoy his romping and cavorting on the table, without worry
on my part as to whether I should be able to recapture and cage
The running speed of the weasel appeared to be very good for
so short-legged a creature. Certainly it could run down a cotton
rat with ease. It could also carry a large cotton rat in its jaws
and run along at a good pace; but to do this, it had to hold its
head very high to keep the rat from dragging under its feet, and
progressed by a series of hops which were rather higher and shorter
256 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
The weasel was never given an opportunity to swim, but on
one occasion it was seen at its drinking dish thrusting its head
under water and making swimming motions with its fore paws.
As this was on a hot day, the weasel may simply have been trying
to cool himself. As shown in the accompanying figure, its paws
are partly webbed in a manner which would be helpful in
Two observations were made on the weasel's power of following
scent. Outside its cage a rat was released on the floor, and after
it had hidden in a corner the weasel was freed. He seemed com-
pletely at a loss to trail the rat; but presently hearing it move,
and then seeing it in motion, the weasel literally hurled himself
upon it. On another occasion the weasel failed to find a cotton
rat which it had just killed when I dragged the rat across the floor
out of sight; the weasel was able to follow the scent rather hesi-
tantly for only three or four feet. The floor was dry, dusty
Forefoot of Florida weasel, ventral aspect
The weasels of other parts of the country are well-known for
their abilities as hunters and warriors. Audubon and Bachman
(1851: 59) tell of using them with marked success to chase rabbits
out of holes. Seton (1926: 630) quotes Charles Tatham, Jr., who
wrote of a weasel attacking a rather large dog repeatedly until
it lost its life in the dog's jaws, although it might have escaped
easily. In the same work Seton (l.c., p. 631) quotes. J. Dewey Soper
who credits a weasel with attacking a hawk, and despite being
borne aloft, persisting in its effort. to kill until it brought the
hawk tumbling to the ground. Then it fled at the approach of the
My Florida weasel did not perform such feats of courage as
Seton relates, but it certainly lived up to the weasel tradition of
fearlessness and fight. It killed a cotton mouse, cotton rat, or
rice rat so quickly and easily that death by shooting could have
been no more merciful for them. The weasel's behavior in ac-
complishing the killing, however, provided striking exhibits of
skill and ferocity. While it was new to captivity, it watched for
THE FLORIDA WEASEL
its chance to kill and then struck like an arrow. Its first grip
was usually the death grip, and its paws rarely came into play.
After the first few weeks, however, the weasel began to rush upon
the prey with complete abandon the moment it was seen, and ap-
peared to derive considerable joy from the ensuing struggle, mo-
mentary though it usually was. Seizing any part of the panic-
stricken animal in its jaws, the weasel tackled it, hugging it up
close in its arms like a football player recovering a fumbled ball.
This enabled the weasel to shift its hold swiftly to the base of
the victim's skull, whereupon the battle was immediately over, and
the victor stood up holding its prey clear of the floor for a mo-
ment until it ceased to kick. As the weasel stood thus triumphant,
the hair on the back of its neck stood erect, and its eyes seemed
fairly to sparkle with ferocity.
On one occasion I expected to try the weasel's mettle by plac-
ing a large male pocket-gopher in the cage for it to eat. The pocket-
gopher weighed about two-thirds as much as the weasel and was
armed with formidably-protruding incisors and large digging
claws. When the nest box door was raised, the weasel looked out
at the hulking rodent and drew back. Presently the weasel's head
shot out of the box. It seized the gopher's near hind leg, and
jerked it to the door of the nest box. The gopher struggled be-
wilderedly for a minute while the weasel merely held its advantage.
Then it began pulling, twisting and jerking, several times actually
revolving on its own long axis as if to wrench the limb off. Sud-
denly it shifted its grip to the rather loose skin of the struggling
gopher's side, and then in a moment more it had the rodent by
the base of the skull. That was the end. The gopher had made
no apparent effort to use its teeth or claws on the weasel, and
its struggles to escape were awkward and ineffectual. That the
weasel used the confining walls of its nest box to expert advantage
in this encounter suggested that killing a pocket-gopher in the con-
fines of its subterranean tunnels was an art not unknown to this
particular animal (taken, one may recall, in a pocket-gopher bur-
row), nor to its kind in general. Long-tailed weasels have been
trapped in pocket-gopher tunnels by Shernian (1929: 258-9) in
Florida, and by Florine (1942: 213) in Minnesota.
Once a 36-inch chicken snake (Elaphe q. quadrivittata) was
placed in the cage. Fear now showed in the weasel's behavior.
Both animals appeared to feel cornered, and for some minutes
one did about as much attacking as the other. However, the
weasel rallied and flew at the serpent with repeated swift lunges
which very nearly matched the reptile's own strike. It was ap-
258 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
parent that the weasel was trying for the back of the snake's head,
but the reptile's quickness and the smooth armor were a good de-
fense. The snake struck repeatedly at the weasel's head and soon
the latter's nose was bleeding slightly. Gradually the weasel be-
gan to prevail, however, and its sharp teeth scarified the scaly
creature's neck. Shortly thereafter it was leaping upon the weak-
ening snake and biting it repeatedly. The weasel never closed and
wrestled with its antagonist, however, and even after the snake
was dead it seemed still to inspire horror and revulsion in the
Ross Allen (in letter) tells of what was perhaps a more natural
weasel-snake encounter. In January, 1940, someone suddenly called
him out in front of his log cabin. There he found "a sick-looking
weasel running around as though in distress." On picking the
animal up he found that it had a large swelling in its side. It
died after a few hours, and upon being skinned showed a blood
clot which "indicated that the cause of death was snakebite. Ap-
parently the weasel had attacked a moccasin. I say moccasin be-
cause that is about the only snake it would find in the swamp
Voice.-During the first week of captivity the weasel fre-
quently gave voice to an odd little bark which might be described
as, "Erp, erp, erp, erp!" The significance of this was not ap-
parent. The sound was uttered as the weasel looped back and
forth within the confines of the cage. Later, on several occasions
when the weasel was being punished or threatened with punish-
ment while confined in the cage, it made a warning sound which
may be imitated by shaping the mouth as if to say, "haaaaaa,"
(the "a's" sounded as in hand), and then simply expelling the
breath sharply for two or three seconds. The resulting sound is
similar to, but less explosive and more prolonged than one which
I have heard a laborer make when striking blows with an ax or a
Toilet and Health.-Although the weasel was somewhat
"messy" about its nest box and cage, as has been mentioned, it
always kept its coat and tail clean. It was sometimes seen licking
its fur in the manner of a cat.
When captured, the weasel was hooked somewhere on the under
side of the body. It was handled roughly with gloves in being
transferred from the bread can to the cage, and when it was in
the cage, the gentleman who gave it to me shook the creature up,
trying to get it to come out of the nest box to be seen. Because
THE FLORIDA WEASEL
of this rough treatment and the wetting that the weasel gave
itself by jumping in and out of its water dish, I had some fear
for its health. It appeared sick in the morning, and spent the
day curled up in the dry excelsior shivering miserably. During
the night, however, it had eaten a half-grown rice rat, and the
next morning it seemed well except for a little stiffness. From
then on it gave every evidence of abundant health.
Reactions to Other Animals.-One night a large 'coon dog was
brought in to see the weasel, which had been enjoying its evening
romp on the table. Catching sight of the great hound, the weasel
took a position from which it could reach the protection of its
cage in one jump. "Freezing" there, it watched with an attitude
of mixed awe and curiosity the big beast which, encouraged by its
owner, presently broke into a loud bay. Upon this the weasel scram-
bled hastily into the cage and moved nervously back and forth
peering at the bellowing giant. When on a different occasion a fresh-
ly-stretched racoon pelt was held up to its cage so that the weasel
could see and smell it, he fairly squalled defiance at the pelt, and
his face was a picture of hate and ferocity as he acted as though
trying to get at the pelt through the side of the cage.
When the weasel appeared annoyed or seemed to feel imposed
upon, it stamped its hind feet. Seton (1926: 329) considers this
same act by the common skunk to be one of warning. In this
Florida weasel it appeared to be an act of warning or defiance.
Bold and courageous in behavior, the weasel never showed fear
of man unless the circumstances seemed fully to warrant it. On
the other hand, it rarely showed any disposition to trust people.
Although it frequently touched me and occasionally climbed into
my hand, never in the seventy-one days of our acquaintance did
the weasel let me touch it. Hands were laid forcibly upon the
weasel only at the dictation of necessity, and bites were expected
On one occasion, when I was removing droppings from the
cage with small forceps, the weasel "tackled" my hand, hugging
it and wrestling with it in a most playful manner. My respond-
ing as one plays with a kitten or a puppy, however, only led
to the little killer's biting harder and harder until it was accord-
ingly punished. At other times it used my proffered hand as a
step in getting out of the cage, jumping first to my hand and
then from it to the cage top. On such occasions it sometimes
stopped in my hand to nip at it or to examine the cuff, but at
the slightest move of my other hand to pet it, the weasel was gone.
260 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Several things served, at least to some extent, to heighten the
weasel's fear and distrust. When the weasel was etherized to be
measured, its return to consciousness was followed by a period
of suspicion. Attempts to teach it not to bite so hard-by scolding
it or rapping it with the forceps-brought mostly resentment and
further shyness. On a few occasions, when it was necessary to cut
short the weasel's play period on the floor, a curious strategem
was employed which doubtless increased the weasel's distrust. This
involved setting several live traps at strategic points on the floor
and rushing after the little beast with loud shouts, stampings, and
pounding, frightening it so that it rushed headlong into the near-
est of the traps-which until then it had disdained to enter. The
influence of these things seemed to be only. temporary, however,
or at most added but little fuel to a great natural fire of distrust.
Curiosity.-The weasel's endowment of curiosity seemed im-
mense. Before it had ever been let out of its cage, and while it
was shut in the nest box during the cleaning of the cage, it tried
repeatedly to claw the door of the box open. This made it neces-
sary to hold the nest box door shut to prevent the weasel's escape.
Exasperated by its persistence on one occasion, I finally let the
animal have its way. Cautiously but determinedly it crept out,
its eyes bright with excitement and its nose keenly testing the air.
Always keeping me within the field of its vision, it proceeded to
explore the whole top of the study table upon which it found itself,
and to sniff at and examine every article on it with unflagging
curiosity. Talking to the weasel in a low conversational tone, I
finished cleaning the cage. It paid me little attention, except to'
use any sudden movement or noise that I made for an excuse to
scamper. After a while I gently placed a clean mouse cage on
the table with the outer door of the nest box open. The weasel
walked in curiously to inspect this, and I quietly shut the door.
For some time thereafter the weasel was allowed the run of
the study table for a while each night. Its curiosity led it to do
many things, but, as already stated, never to essay the jump to
the floor. Once, while the cage was being cleaned, a gallon jar
of leaves which had just been gathered was placed upon the table.
The weasel slyly climbed into it for a cautious but thorough in-
spection, literally getting to the bottom of the matter. Only the
night before the weasel had stood on its head in a pint jar trying
to get into it. Its first adventures on the floor were affairs in
which its curiosity was given full scope. Table legs, chairs, traps,
jars-everything was new and fascinating. Even when the weasel
THE FLORIDA WEASEL
had been let out on the floor of the room every night for several
weeks, it seemed to find many things of interest.
Playfulness.--Hand in hand with curiosity went playfulness.
This was first noticed on the third day of the weasel's captivity
when it was observed sprawled on its back in the doorway of its
nest box toying with the door. For minutess at a time the weasel
scratched at it, bit it, and-tugged it up and down with its teeth.
After it had become accustomed to its environment, the animal
invariably played with its food, leaping upon it from every angle,
biting it, rolling over and over, wrestling with it, tossing it about,
and "killing" it again and again. Whenever fresh bedding of ex-
celsior or oak leaves was provided in the cage, the weasel rolled
and romped in it and wormed its way through and through it.
When its playground widened to include my table top, many
more playthings became available. It pushed ink bottles about,
rolled vials back and forth, wrestled with an electric extension
cord, essayed to climb the goose-necked table lamp, jumped in and
out of its cage, and wrestled with the large feet indecorously
propped on the table. From one thing to another it dashed, paus-
ing and posing charmingly at the end of each short rush, a superb
picture of grace and alertness. Attracted by my hand on the
table the weasel crept up to it and sniffed it. If the hand stayed
there, the weasel nipped it gently and ran away, and then presently
returned "to sniff and nip and run again. This continued with the
nip growing harder each time, eventually provoking a shout and
a vigorous cuff which always missed the quick rascal. Lurking
furtively behind objects at the far side of the table until the
scolding tone went out of the voicewhich addressed it, the weasel
then came forth once more to start another game of some kind.
A canvas laundry bag which lay on the table had a wonderful
appeal for the weasel. When the mouth of it was propped open,
the creature would cautiously creep into it and around inside of
it exploring. Playfully I sometimes clapped my hand over the
weasel inside the bag, and mauled it gently. This usually caused
him to rush precipitantly out of the bag, but within a few minutes
he often crept back in again. On some occasions I closed the
mouth of the bag, trapping the weasel inside, and mauled it gently
or gloated over it in a loud and threatening voice and even took
the bag up and shook it. Then I laid the bag down on the table
again and feigned innocence while the weasel crept slowly out,
mussed and ruffled-looking, and eyeing me suspiciously. The
air on these occasions became heavily laden with the strong,.musky
odor previously mentioned. After a still moment or so the weasel
262 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
gave a carefree, little hop as if to show that it had really not been
scared at all, and proceeded to find interest in something else.
When enjoying the greater freedom of the wide, smooth con-
crete floor, the weasel appeared to have a good time running and
making abrupt, sliding turns and stops, like a boy playing on ice.
It also climbed among my stacks of live traps, doubtless to enjoy
the crash and clatter which it frequently managed to create by
knocking over a stack. And if repetition indicates enjoyment the
weasel took much pleasure in clambering about among the rungs
of the chair under me and nipping at my absent-mindedly prof-
ANTHONY, H. E.
1931. The capture and preservation of small mammals for study.
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Guide Leaflet No. 61.
AUDUBON, J. J., AND J. BACHMAN.
1851. The viviparous quadrupeds of North America, vol. 2.
1896. A review of the weasels of eastern North America. Proc. Biol.
Soc. Washington, 10: 1-24.
1898. The land mammals of peninsular Florida and the coast region
of Georgia. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 28: 157-235.
CHAPMAN, FRANK M.
1894. Remarks on certain land mammals from Florida, with a list of
the species known to occur in the state. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat.
Hist., 6: 333-346.
THE FLORIDA WEASEL 263
ELLIOT, D. G.
1901. A list of mammals obtained by Thaddeus Surber in North and
South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. Field Columbian Mus., Publ.
No. 58, Zool. Ser., 3(4).
1942. Weasel in pocket gopher burrow. Jour. Mammalogy, 23(2) : 213.
HALL, E. RAYMOND.
1936. Contributions to paleontology, IV. Mustelid mammals from the
Pleistocene of North America, with systematic notes on some recent
members of the genera Mustela, Taxidea, and Mephitis. Carnegie
Inst. Washington, Publ. No. 473: 41-119.
1927.. The mammals of the Okefinokee Swamp region of Georgia.
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 38(7): 191-396, pls. 4-7.
HOWELL, ARTHUB H.
1913. Description of a new weasel from Alabama. Proc. Biol. Soc.
Washington, 26: 139-140.
1921. A biological survey of Alabama. N. Amer. Fauna, No. 45 (U.S.
MERRIAM, C. HART.
1896. Synopsis of the weasels of North America. N. Amer. Fauna,
No. 11 (U.S. Dept. Agr.).
RAND, A. L., AND PER HOST.
1942. Results of the Archbold expeditions, No. 45. Mammal notes
from Highlands County, Florida. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.,
RHOADs, SAMUEL N.
1894. Contributions to the mammalogy of Florida. Proc. Acad. Nat.
Sci. Philadelphia, 1894: 152-161.
SETON, ERNEST THOMPSON.
1925. On the study of scatology. Jour. Mammalogy, 6(1): 47-49.
1926. Lives of Game Animals. (Doubleday, Page and Co., N. Y.),
SHERMAN, H. B.
1929. Notes on some Florida mammals. Jour. Mammalogy, 10(3):
Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci., Vol. 7, No. 4, 1944 (1945)
EDITORIAL POLICIES OF THE PROCEEDINGS
During the nine years of its existence the Florida Academy of
Sciences has undergone a notable growth and development, in which
the Proceedings has shared. It is now time to bring to the atten-
tion of tfe membership of the Academy, and of others who may
wish to publish in our journal, a statement concerning the edi-
torial policies which have been adopted as a result of these nine
years of experience.
When the Academy was founded in 1936, provision was made
for the publication of an annual volume, to include not only scien-
tific papers presented at the annual meetings, but also such records
of the Academy as the Council should direct. As our membership
grew and an increasing number of papers was submitted for pub-
lication, the size of the. annual volume rose from the 170 pages
of volume 1 (1936) to 370 pages in volume 5 (1940), with a cor-
responding increase in the labor of editing as well as in cost. Dur-
ing this period the Proceedings was edited almost solely for the
benefit of Academy members. Papers by non-members were not
eligible for publication, and almost all papers presented at the
annual meetings were printed in full or as abstracts. Little con-
sideration was given to the content of papers so long as they were
(or could be made) .acceptable in form. This was in accord with
the announced policy of the Academy to encourage non-profes-
sional and serious amateur work in the sciences by every means-
a policy which has been and will continue to be maintained.
Partly as a result of the cost of publishing the Proceedings, the
Academy found itself in financial difficulties by 1940. This crisis
was met and gradually overcome by a variety of measures, and
we are greatly indebted to the officers and other members who
devoted their time and efforts to solving the problem. Especial
mention should be made of the help given by Dr. L. Y. Dyrenforth
and Mr. Sidney L. Stubbs (respectively Editor and Associate
Editor for some years), not only for their valuable suggestions
but also for generous financial assistance.
Among the steps taken by the Council to insure continued
publication of our journal while reducing its net cost to the
Academy, was the decision to make it a quarterly periodical, of
such quality that it might rank among nationally recognized scien-
tific publications. By this medns it was hoped gradually to in-
crease subscriptions by libraries and non-members, and thus to
bring in additional outside revenue to aid in supporting the journal.
This policy has already begun to bear fruit; but it has entailed
266 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
a change in the status of the Proceedings relative to our members
which needs to be clearly understood.
The most important departures from previous practice are
those of accepting papers from non-members as well as from mem-
bers of the Academy, and of selecting all papers solely on the
basis of merit and interest. Papers may be submitted by anyone
at any time, and need not have been presented at a meeting of
the Academy. It seemed necessary to thus broaden the sources
from which we might draw, since our own membership is too
limited to furnish a continuous and sufficiently varied supply of
papers of high quality. All papers will have to be scrutinized more
closely than before, with regard both to content and to standards
of presentation, since if our journal'is to attain wide recognition
and demand it must compare favorably with national periodicals
of recognized merit. We hope that the bulk of the papers pub-
lished will continue to be those of our own members, and feel
confident that they will meet the challenge conveyed by the revised
editorial policies. This can be done if papers submitted by mem-
bers are prepared as carefully and as conscientiously as they would
be for any professional journal of national scope.
Selection of papers for publication is the responsibility of the
editor; but in this important, often difficult, and always delicate
task he will be aided and advised by many persons, both within
and outside of the Academy membership, who have been chosen
for their scholarship, judgment, willingness to serve, and knowl-
edge of their subjects. In all doubtful instances, and especially
in the many fields unfamiliar to the editor, the advice of these
associates will be sought. On account of space limitations, some
(or perhaps many) papers which would merit publication in full
may have to be printed in the form of abstracts, if they are to
appear in our journal. The cooperation of authors in preparing
suitable abstracts is therefore solicited. Two further points relative
to the selection of papers should be mentioned. One criterion
is the "durability" of a contribution; papers that are likely to
retain value for some time will be given preference over those of
ephemeral interest. A second consideration is regional. Because
this is the Florida Academy, papers relating to Florida or to the
southeastern states will be given priority over those of the same
class and merit which relate principally to other regions. Natural-
ly this criterion is not applicable to papers in such fields as mathe-
matics, physics, chemistry, etc., nor to comprehensive studies in
general; and where it does apply it is secondary to considerations
of quality and interest.,
We shall try to balance the contributions from the various
fields of science, but how well this balance can be maintained will
depend largely on what is available for publication at a given
time. Inspection of past volumes of the Proceedings will show
that we have printed many more papers in the pure and
applied phases of biology than in the physical and social sciences.
This may be because there are more biologists (in the wide sense)
than there are physical and social scientists-or perhaps only
that there are more of the former who submit papers. Whatever
the explanation, if this disproportion continues it will be reflected
in the pages of our publication.
In deciding to adopt the quarterly form, the Council at the
same time voted to change the name of our journal from "Proceed-
ings" to "Quarterly Journal,' as being more descriptive, and
tending to set it apart from the annual publications of most of
the state academies. This change has not as yet been made; but
beginning with volume 8 the official title will be "Quarterly
Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences." For the sake of
continuity, volume 8 will also bear the name "Proceedings" in
parentheses, but this will be omitted from subsequent volumes.
Every editor of the Proceedings has found the difficulty of
his task increased by the great variation in methods of citation,
use of footnotes, spelling, punctuation, etc., encountered in the
manuscripts sent him, and several unsuccessful attempts were
made to set up and enforce regulations governing such points.
It is now contemplated that we make use of a brief style manual1
which the University of Florida Press expects to issue, and which
will be available to members of the Academy and to others who
care to obtain it. By following its suggestions authors may con-
siderably reduce the labor of editing their manuscripts, and thus
hasten their publication. In a journal such as ours, covering a
wide variety of fields, complete consistency in such matters should
neither be expected' nor required, since not all presentations are
adapted to any single mode of treatment. Nevertheless, the great-
est uniformity consistent with these varying requirements will
add both to the appearance and the usability of our publication,
and manuscripts that depart too far from these rather flexible
standards will have to be returned to the authors for alteration.
The cost of all cuts, and of tabular material if it is large in
amount or has to be set by hand, must be paid by the author.
The editor of the Proceedings has been invited to cooperate with the
editor of the University of Florida Press in the preparation of this manual.
268 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Galley proof, and when necessary page proof, will be sent to the
author for correction. The prices charged for reprints, some-
times excessive in the past, are now in line with those of other
scientific journals published in the United States (see table below).
Reprints should be ordered at the time proof is returned, and
payment for cuts, tables, and reprints should be made to the
Prices of Reprints
Additional charge for covers-First 50.....................................................$3.00
Additional ................................ 2c each
Additional charge for plates printed on one side-
F irst 50 ......................................................$2.50
A additional .......................................... 2c each
Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci., Vol. 7, No. 4; 1944 (1945).
MEMBERSHIP LIST OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY
AS OF JANUARY 1, 1945
Adams, Miller K.-University of Tampa, Tampa. (Physical Education)
Addington, Conley R.-1605 W. College Ave., Midland, Texas. (Accounting)
Albertson, Mary Susan--421 51st St., West Palm Beach. (Biology)
Albee, Frederick H.-Florida Medical Center, Venice. (Surgery)
Alexander, Taylor A.-University of Miami, Coral Gables. (Botany)
Allen, E. Ross-Florida Reptile Institute, Silver Springs. (Herpetology)
Allen, R. I.-Stetson University, DeLand. (Physics)
Allison, R. V.-University of Florida, Everglades Experiment Station,
Belle Glade. (Agriculture)
Anderson, R. J.-2359 Oak St., Jacksonville. (Mathematics)
Applin, Mrs. E. R.-University of Texas, Austin, Texas. (Geology)
Arnold, Lillian E.-University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station,
Gainesville. (Taxonomic botany)
Bacon, Milton E., Jr.-U.S.N.R., Hotel Marion, St. Augustine. (Archaeol-
Barbour, R. B.-Box 431, Route 5, Ranch E. Condido, Tucson, Arizona.
Barbour, Thomas-Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College,
Cambridge 38, Massachusetts. (Zoology)
Barrington, B. A., Jr.-Medical Detachment, Station Hospital, Mosquito
Control, Ft. Jackson, South Carolina. (Mammalogy)
Beard, Walter C., Jr.-Beard, Pye and Yett, Consulting Chemists, 5442
S. Harper Ave., Chicago 15, Illinois. (Chemistry)
Beck, Dow G.-2618 Algonquin Ave., Jacksonville. (Physics)
Becker, H. F.-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee. (Geography)
Becker, Raymond B.-University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment
Station, Gainesville. (Agriculture)
Becknell, Elizabeth A.-6900 Dixon Ave., Tampa. (Psychology)
Becknell, G. G.-University of Tampa, Tampa. (Physics)
Bell, Charles E.-University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station,
Bellamy, R. E.-In care of .R. F. Bellamy, Florida State College for
Women, Tallahassee. (Entomology)
Bellamy, Raymond F.-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
Bentley, George R.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (History)
Bernstein, Clarence-740 N. Magnolia Ave., Orlando. (Internal Medicine)
Barry, M. H.-Florida Southern College, Lakeland. (Botany)
Best, Albert H.-Glidden-Naval Stores Division, Box 389, Jacksonville.
Bird, L. 0.-915 S. Cory St., Richmond, Virginia. (Business)
Bistline, John, Jr.-University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. (Physics)
Blackmon, G. H.-University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station,
270 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Blair, Frank W.-University of Michigan, Laboratory of Vertebrate
Genetics, Ann Arbor, Michigan. (Zoology)
Blake, Robert G.-Box 25, Route 2, Gainesville. (Mathematics)
Blanchard, William G.-Box 593, Coral Gables.
Bless, Arthur A.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Physics)
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Bode, Donald D.-University of Tampa, Tampa. (Chemistry)
Boleik, Irene-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee. (Zoology)
Boyd, Mark F.-Rockefeller Foundation, Tallahassee. (Epidemiology)
Boynton, John 0.-Havana, Florida. (Sociology)
Braddock, James C.-2260 S.W. 19th Terrace, Miami. (Zoology)
Brannon, Melvin A.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Algology)
Breder, C. M., Jr.-American Museum of Natural History, New York 24,
New York. (Ichthyology)
Bristol, L. M.-234 Roux St., Gainesville. (Sociology)
Bristol, Mrs. Margaret-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
Britt, Otis M.-Lake Bradford Road, Tallahassee. (Radiology)
Brown, Mrs. Robert-State Chemical Department, Tallahassee. (Pedology)
Bryan, 0. C.-Soil Science, Florida Southern College, Lakeland.
Buckland, Charlotte B.-2623 Herschel St., Jacksonville. (Biology)
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Bullard, N. H.-Board of Public Instruction, Ft. Pierce. (Mathematics)
Burke, the reverend Cyril W.-Barry College, Miami. (Political Science)
Byers, C. Francis-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Zoology)
Buswell, Walter M.-University of Miami, Coral Gables. (Botany)
Campbell, Doak S.-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
Campbell, Robert B.-Hammock Hotel, Gulf Hammock. (Geology)
Cantrall, Irving J.-431 4th St., Ann Arbor, Michigan. (Zoology)
Carlin, Kathryn L.-Miami Senior High School, 2450 S.W. 1st St., Miamt
Carothers, M. W.-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
Carr, A. F., Jr.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Zoology)
Carr, Mrs. A. F., Jr.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Zoology)
Carr, Ralph H.-2835 Fairbanks Ave., Orlando. (Chemistry)
Carraway, Jean, 809 Bronough St., Tallahassee. (Botany)
Carson, Ruby L.-Box 2674, University Station, Gainesville. (History)
Carter, Mrs. Frank-Seed Laboratory, State Department of Agriculture,
Carter, P. W.-University of Miami, Coral Gables. (Physics)
Carter, W. A.-University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station,
Gainesville. (Cotton Breeding)
Cash, W. T.-State Librarian, Tallahassee. (Archaeology)
Cassell, Robert T., Sgt.-Medical Section Hdq., USAFIME, APO 787,
c/o Postmaster, New York, New York.
Chase, James E., Jr.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Labor and
Clark, Mrs. Lottie M.-3859 Herschel St., Jacksonville. (Social Sciences)
Cleveland, Vela H.-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
Clouse, J.'H.-6913 Dartmouth Ave., College Park, Maryland. (Physlcse
Conn, John F.-Stetson University, DeLand. (Chemistry)
Conner, Ruth-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee. (Home
.Cooper, H. H., Jr.-U. S. Geological Survey, Tallahassee. (Hydrology)
Cooper, William C.-U. S. Department of Agriculture, Box 1058, Orlando.
Corse, Carita-1801 Goodwin St., Jacksonville. (History)
Crevasse, Joseph N.-Chelsea St., Tampa 3. (Botany)
Dabney, Charles W.-Orlando Sanitarium, Orlando. (Chemistry)
Dauer, Manning J.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (History and
Davis, John H., Jr.-Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee. (Botany)
Davis, U. P.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Mathematics)
DeMelt, W. E.-Florida Southern College, Lakeland. (Psychology)
DeVall, W. B.-U. S. Forest Service, Box 1431, Lakeland. (Forest Ecology)
Deviney, Ezda-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee. (Zoology)
Diettrich, Sigismond deR.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Geography)
Disher, Dorothy-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
Dodd, Dorothy-State Library, Tallahassee. (History-Archives)
Dolbeare, H. B.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Economics)
Dostal, B. F.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Mathematics)
Drosdoff, Matthew-U. S. Department of Agriculture, 146 Florida Court,
Gainesville. (Soil Science-Horticulture)
Durham, Clarence-Box 739, Gainesville. (Physical Science and Mathe-
Dyrenforth, L. Y.-St. Lukes Hospital, Jacksonville. (Medicine and
Dyrenforth, Mrs. L. Y.-3885 St. Johns Ave., Jacksonville 5. (Medicine)
Edwards, Herman M.-Memorial Chapel, Rollins College, Winter Park.
Edwards, Richard A.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Geology)
Edwards, W. T.-State Department of Education, Tallahassee. (Education)
Elliott, John E.-3404 Yoakum Bldg., Houston, Texas. (Economics-Pe-
Engel, Olive-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee. (Chemistry)
English, J. Colin-State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Tallahas-
Erch, G. H.-Wiersdale. (Agriculture and Horticulture)
Evans, Elwyn-157 E. New England Ave., Winter Park. (Medicine)
Fairchild, David-4013 Douglas Road, Miami. (Botany)
Fargo, William G.-506 Union St., Jackson, Michigan. (Ornithology-
Faust, Burton K.-U. S. Patent Office, Division 34, Richmond, Virginia.
(Physics and Mathematics)
Fawley, Gladys-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
Fernald, H. T.-1128 Oxford Road, Winter Park. (Zoology)
272 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Field, Howard M.-Box 161, Rollins College, Winter Park. (Last known
Fifield, W. M.-University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station,
Finner, P. F.-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee. (Psychology)
Firestone, Richard-Rollins College, Winter Park. (Modern Languages)
Fischer, Alfred G.-Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee. (Geology)
Floyd, B. F.-Davenport. (Horticulture)
Foote, P. A.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Pharmacy)
French, Robert M,-Shark Industries, Hialeah. (Biology-Nutrition)
Fuller, Dorothy L.-Stetson University, DeLand. (Biology)
Gager, William A.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Mathematics)
Gager, Mrs. William A.-3421 19th Ave., S., St. Petersburg. (Biology)
Galbraith James-Tharp St., Tallahassee. (Geology)
Getting, Robert E.-Box 2642, University Station, Gainesville. (Physics)
Gifford. John C.-University of Miami, Coral Gables. (Forestry)
Goette, W. L.-P. K. Yonge Laboratory School, Gainesville. (Physical
Goin, Coleman J.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Herpetology)
Goin, Mrs. Olive B.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Zoology)
Goulding, R. L.-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
Graham, Viola-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
Gratz, L. O.-University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station,
Gainesville. (Plant Pathology)
Gray, Clarence A.-R.F.D., Homestead. (Physical Science)
Gray, Susan W.-George Peabody College, Nashville, Tennessee.
Grout, A. J.-Manatee. (Bryology)
Gunter, Herman-Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee. (Geology)
Gut, H. J.-Box 700, Sanford. (Vertebrate Paleontology)
Hamilton, H. G.-University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station,
Gainesville. (Agricultural Economics)
Hanna, A. J.-Rollins College, Winter Park. (History)
Hanna, Mrs. Kathryn Abbey-235 Sterling Ave., Winter Park. (History)
Harkness, William J. K.-Ontario Fisheries Research Laboratory, Uni-
versity of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. (Limnology)
Harper, Roland H.-Geological Survey, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa,
Alabama. (Plant Geography)
Harrison R. W.-1235 Alhambra Circle, Coral Gables.
Hart, J. Sanford-172 Eglinton Ave. W., Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Hart, Sister Mary Jane, 0. P.-Barry College, Miami. (Chemistry)
Hasbrouck, Alfred-422 Holt Ave., Winter Park. (Hispanic American
Hawkins, J. E.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Chemistry)
Hayward, Wyndham-Lakemont Gardens, Winter Park. (Horticulture)
Heakh, Frederick H.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Chemistry)
Heinlein, C. P.-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
Henry, Mildred V.-Seed Laboratory, State Department of Agriculture,
Hjort, E. V.-University of Miami, Coral Gables. (Chemistry)
Hoagland, Elizabeth-1231 LeBaron St., Jacksonville. (History)
Hobbs, H. H., Jr.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Zoology)
Hodsdon, L. A.-418-20 Security Bldg., 117 NE. 1st Ave., Miami.
Holt, Mrs. J. R.-Box 627, West Palm Beach. (Economics)
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Hopkins, R. H.-Box 409, Hawthorn. (Mining Engineering)
Hosic, James F.-1521 Highland Road, Winter Park. (Education)
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Howard, John N.-1551 E. Blvd., Cleveland 6, Ohio. (Chemistry)
Hubbell, Rosemary L.-Alpha Chi Omega House, Tallahassee. (Social
Hubbell, T. H.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Zoology)
Hull, F. H.-University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station,
Hume, H. H.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Botany)
Ilsley, Lucretia L.-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
Imeson, Charles V.-Chattahoochee. (Maya Archeology)
Jackson, Miss E. S.-Florida Southern College, Lakeland. (Sociology)
Jacobs, William F.-State Forestry Office, Tallahassee. (Forestry)
Jelks, Ruth-2106 St. Johns Ave., Jacksonville. (History)
Jones, Hastings W.-U. S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation
Section, District Office, Tallahassee. (Agriculture)
Josefsberg, Icio Eric-Florida State Hospital, Chattahoochee. (Psychiatry)
Joubert, William-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Economics)
Keenan, Edward T.-Keenan Soil Laboratory, Frostproof. (Soil Science)
Kelley, Jerry B.-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
Kent, Olga M.-3850 Ponciana Ave., Coral Gables. (Home Demonstration)
Kinser, B. M.-Eustis. (Geology)
Knipp, Charles T.-Rollins College, Winter Park. (Physics)
Komarek, E. V.-Sherwood Plantation, Route 1, Tallahassee. (Biology)
Kurz, Herman-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee. (Botany)
Laessle, Albert M.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Botany)
LaFuze, G. Leighton-University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia.
Laub, C. Herbert-Puritan Hotel, Tampa. (History)
Larson, Olga-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee. (Mathe-
Lashley, Karl S.--4607 Ortega Blvd., Jacksonville. (Psychology)
Lautz, Amalia-University of Tampa, Tampa. (Nutrition)
Law, Eleanor-Alpha Chi Omega House, Tallahassee. (Modern Language).
Leake, James Miller-University of Florida, Gainesville. (History)
Leigh, Townes R.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Chemistry)
274 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Lewis, L. J.-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee. (Chemistry)
Long, Winifred 0.-3020 43rd St., St. Petersburg. (Botany)
Longstreet, R. J.-610 Braddock Ave., Daytona Beach. (Psychology)
Loucks, Kenneth W.-Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred. (Plant
Lutz, Nancy E.-San Jose Blvd., Jacksonville. (Botany)
Lyerly, J. G.-516 Greenleaf Bldg., Jacksonville. (Neurological Surgery)
Lynch, S. J.-c/o Subtropical Experiment Station, Homestead. (Subtrop-
Lynn, Edith E-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee. (Physics)
MacDowell, Charles H.-1300 College Point, Winter Park.
MacGowan, Leroy W.-3213 Park St., Jacksonville. (Biology)
Madsen, Grace C.-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee. (Botany)
Manchester, James G.-Shinnerock fRoad, Hampton Bays, New, York.
Mandis, Margaret E.-602 Pleasant St., Avon Park. (General Science)
Marquis, Sister Patricia Anne-Rosarian Academy, West Palm Beach.
(Botany and Zoology)
Marsh, Dorothea-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee. (Physics)
Martin, James L.-230 Crest St., Tallahassee. (Geology)
Martin, Joel M.-T/4-17th General Hospital, ASN 34243024, APO 4660,
c/o Postmaster, New York, New York.
Matherly, Walter J.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Business Admin.)
Mattice, Royal-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee. (Eco-
May, W. D.-c/o P. H. Senn, University of Florida, Gainesville. (En-
Maynard, Sister Mary Thoma-Barry College, Miami. (Biology)
McBride-Arthur-Marine Studios, St. Augustine. (Biology)
McCracken, Ernest M.-University of Miami, Coral Gables. (Government)
McDonald, Anne-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
McEuen, Courtney-1721 Challen Ave., Jacksonville. (Medicine)
McEuen, Mrs. H. B.-1721 Challen Ave., Jacksonville.
McFarland, James B.-217 Magnolia Ave., Sebring. (Horticulture)
McKinnell, Isabel-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
McKinney, Robert S.-Tung Oil Laboratory, W. Main St., Gainesville.
Mead, A. R.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Education)
Mead, L. Vincent-805 Florida Court, Gainesville. (Mathematics and
Melcher, William-Rollins College, Winter Park. (Economics)
Mendenhall, H. D.-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
Merritt, Webster-2033 Riverside Drive, Jacksonville 4. (Medicine)
Meyer, Herman-3053 SW. 21st St., Miami 35. (Mathematics)
Meyer, Max F.-3939 Loquat Ave., Miami. (Acoustics)
Miller, Mrs. Dorothy B.-University of Miami, Coral Gables. (Zoology)
Miller, E. M.-University of Miami, Coral Gables. (Zoology)
Mills, H. R.-911 Citizens Bldg., Tampa 2. (Conservation)
Moffet, Ruth, University of Tampa, Tampa. (Physical Education)
Moore, Coyle E.-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
Moore, Joseph C.-c/o John F. Lannert, Buechel, Kentucky. (Mammals)
Moore, Virginia-Florida State College for. Women, Tallahassee. (Housing
and Social Conditions)
Morgan, Thomas N.-State Department of Education, Tallahassee.
Morse, Marian-Palm Beach Junior College, West Palm Beach. (History
Mowry, Harold-University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station,
Munroe, D. J.-600 Midyette-Moor Bldg., Tallahassee. (Geology)
Murray, Mary Ruth-1326 SW. 1st St., Miami 35. (General Science)
Murrill, W. A.-314 Clark Lane, Gainesville. (Botany)
Netting, Graham H.-Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh 13. (Herpetology-
Newins, Harold S.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Forestry)
Nissen, Henry W.-Yale Laboratories of Primate Biology, Orange Park.
Osborn, Herbert-1952 Concord Road, Columbus, Ohio. (Biology)
Otto, Nan-673 W. Jefferson St., Tallahassee. (Social Sciences)
Owens, J. Harold-Knox College, Galesburg, Illinois. (Physics)
Parker, A. W.-1826 N. Orange Ave., Orlando. (Dentistry)
Parker, Daisy-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee. (Political
Parker, Garald G.-U. S. Geological Survey, Box 2529, Miami. (Geology)
Parker, Horatio N.-2777 Park St., Jacksonville. (Public Health)
Patrick, R. W.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Social Science)
Pearson, Hazel-University of Miami, Coral Gables. (Entomology)
Pearson, Jay F. W.-University of Miami, Coral Gables. (Biology)
Penningroth, Paul W.-St. Petersburg Junior College, St. Petersburg.
Perry, Louise M.-Box 827, Asheville, North Carolina. (Marine Biology-
Perry, W. S.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Physics)
Phelps, Isaac K.-Rollins College, Winter Park. (Chemistry)
Phipps, Cecil G.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Mathematics and
Ponton, G. M.-2 Ballard Ave., St. Augustine. (Geology)
Popper, Annie-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee. (History)
Powers, Hiram-133 E. Morse Blvd., Winter Park. (Modern Language)
Pressler, Edward D.-Humble Oil and Refining Company, Box 3292,
Raa, Ida-Route 3, Tallahassee. (Chemistry)
Rainwater, Edward H.-1305 Mitchell Ave., Tallahassee. (Geology)
Rand, William W.-Shell Oil Company, Box 525, Tallahassee. (Oil Geology)
Reed, Robert B.-St. Petersburg Junior College, St. Petersburg. (History)
Reinsch, B. P.-Florida Southern College, Lakeland. (Mathematics and
Rhodes, M. C.-115 South Newport Ave., Tampa. (Mathematics)
Richards, Harold F.-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
Riesen, Lt. Austin H., Air Corps, Altitude Training Unit, Drew Field,
276 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Roberts, Albert H.-1204 Thomasville Road, Tallahassee. (History)
Robinson, T. Ralph-Bayacre, Terra Ceia, Florida. (Horticulture)
Robinson, Winifred J.-818 Antoinette Ave., Winter Park. (Botany)
Rogers, J. Speed-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Animal Biology)
Rolfs, Clarissa-2317, N.E. 2nd Ave., Miami 37. (Citrus)
Russell, Jack C.-Celery Investigation Laboratory, Sanford. (Entomology)
Sadler, Glendy--c/o Malaria Research Laboratory, Tallahassee. (Zoology)
Saute, George A.-Rollins College, Winter Park. (Mathematics)
Scarborough, Mrs. Christina B.-Florida State College for Women, Talla-
Schornherst, Ruth-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
Scoggins, Lewis-426 Hillcrest Drive, Tallahassee. (State Parks and
Scott, Edward W.-North Monroe St., Tallahassee. (Geology)
Scott, G. G.-Rollins College, Winter Park. (Biology)
Senn, P. H.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Genetics-Plant Breeding)
Shankweiler, Paul W.-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
Shaw, Fannie B.-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee. (Health
Shealey, A. L.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Animal Husbandry)
Sherman, H. B.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Biology-Mammals)
Sherman, John H.-Weber College, Babson Park. (Economics and Law)
Shippy, W. B.-Box 12, Ft. Meade. (Plant Pathology)
Shores, V. L.-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee. (History)
Shuleman, Conrad T. B.-Florida Southern College, Lakeland. (Physics)
Simpson, J. Clarence-Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee.
Smith, Frederick B.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Soils-
Smith, F. G. Walton-University of Miami, Coral Gables. (Marine
Smith, Richard M.-Box 212, Tallahassee. (Chemistry)
Snodgrass, Dena-Florida Chamber of Commerce, Jacksonville. (History)
Snyder, I. W.-Box 149, Tallahassee. (Government)
Spivey, Ludd M.-Florida Southern College, Lakeland. (Sociology)
Springer, Stewart-Box 983, Homestead. (Ecology-Conservation)
Spurr, J. E.-3324 Hankel Circle, Winter Park. (Geology)
Spurr, Stephen H.-Harvard Forest, Petersham, Massachusetts. (Forestry)
Stark, William E.-1773 Alabama Ave., Winter Park. (Education)
Stevens, H. E.-224 Annie St., Orlando. (Horticulture)
Stifler, Mrs. James M.-315 16th St., Bradenton. (Botany)
Stimson, Louis A.-1835 Oppeechee Drive, Miami 33.
St. John, Edward P.-Floral City. (Pteridophyta)
St. John, Robert P.-Floral City. (Cryptogamic Botany)
Stokes, Charles A.-c/a Godfrey L. Cabot, Inc., 77 Franklin St., Boston 10,
Stokes, W. E.-University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station,
Stone, Wendell C.-Rollins College, Winter Park. (Philosophy)
Stoye, Frederick H.-Mill Pond Road, Sayville, Long Island, New York.
Stubbs, Alice C.-Whittier Hall, 1230 Amsterdam Ave., New York 27,
Stubbs, Sidney A.-508 3rd Ave., Manatee. (Geology)
Swesnik, R. W.-2620 N. Broadway, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. (Oil
Swingle, Walter T.-4753 Reservoir Road, N.W., Washington, D. C.
Tanner, W. Lee-Box 17, Panasoffkee. (Chemistry)
Taylor, H. Marshall-11 N. Adams St., Jacksonville. (Oto-rhino-laryn-
Thacher; Mabel Y.-129 N. Copeland Ave., Tallahassee. (Bacteriology)
Therrill, J. H.-Superintendent, State Hospital, Chattahoochee. (Hospital
Tilden, Josephine E.-"Ia ora na," Hesperides, Lake Wales. (Phycology)
Tisdale, W. B.-University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station,
Tissot, A. N.-University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station,
Totten, Henry R., Major-Camp Hdqrs., Camp Blanding, Florida.
Tracy, Annie M.-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
Unkelsbay, Athel G.-U. S. Geological Survey, Tallahassee. (Geology)
Van Brunt, W. E.-Telephone Bldg., Tallahassee. (Dentistry)
Van Stan, Ina-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
Vance, Clarence B.-Evansville College, Evansville, Indiana. (Geology)
Vance, Earl L.-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
Vermillion, Gertrude-Apt. 2-1, 119 Livingston Ave., New Brunswick, New
Vestal, Paul-Rollins College, Winter Park. (Botany)
Vinten, C. R.-23 Water St., St. Augustine. (Park Planning)
Waddington, Guy-U. S. Bureau of Mines, Bartlesville, Oklahoma.
Wade, Thomas L.-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
Waite, Alexander-Rollins College, Winter Park. (Psychology)
Wakefield, Marian L.-512 W. Pensacola St., Tallahassee. (Botany)
Wallace, H. K.-c/o Department of Biology, University of Florida,
Wallace, Madge-2725 Lydia St., Jacksonville. (Botany)
Waskom, Hugh T.-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
Watson, J. R.-University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station,
Wayman, Catherine-Tallahassee. (History)
Weber, George F.-University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion, Gainesville. (Biology)
West, Erdman-University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station,
Gainesville. (Botany of Florida)
278 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
West, Frances L.-St. Petersburg Junior College St. Petersburg. (Biology)
White, Sarah P.-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
Williams, George A.-220 Hyde Park Ave., Tampa. (Chemistry)
Williams, H. Franklin-University of Miami, Coral Gables 34. (History)
Williams, H. S.-Umatilla. (Herpetology)
Williams, R. H.-University of Miami, Coral Gables. (Botany)
Williamson, B. F.-Box 17, Gainesville. (Tung Oil Industry)
Williamson, R. C.-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Physics)
Wilson, W. Harold-University of Florida, Gainesville. (Mathematics)
Wimberly, Stan E.-University of Michigan, Department of Psychology,
Ann Arbor, Michigan. (Psychology)
Witmer, Louise R.-1815 17th St. N.W., Washington, D. C. (Psychology)
Woods, E. Bryant-1110 Citizens Bldg., Tampa. (Medicine)
Work, Arthur L.-Box 1259, Tallahassee. (Mathematics)
Others, W. W.-457 Bonne St., Orlando. (Entomology)
Young, Frank N.-c/o Department of Biology, University of Florida,
Young, John W.-720 Glenridge Drive, West Palm Beach. (Mathematics)
Young, Sadie G.-Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee.
Zielonka, Rabbi D. L.-University of Tampa, Tampa. (Sociology)
INDEX TO VOLUME 7
AUTHORS AND TITLES
ANDERSON, RICHARD J.
Quantitative criteria for the application of normal grading sys-
BECKER, R. B.
An early Indian clam bake, 23-27
BELLAMY, RAYMOND F.
Biological background of social sciences, 203-216
BOYNTON, JOHN O.
The place of central distillation in the naval stores industry,
BYERS, C. FRANCIS
The fresh-water jellyfish in Florida, 173-179
DE VALL, WILBUR B.
A bark character for the identification of certain Florida pines,
DICKINSON, J. C., JR.
Addenda to the list of birds of Alachua County, Florida, II,
Report on projected archives division of the state library, 4-9
Survey of Florida newspapers and periodicals: a project of the
Union Catalog of Floridiana, 217-219
DROSDOFF, MATTHEW, AND FELIX S. LAGASSE
Mineral nutrition problems in Florida tung orchards, 139-145
Relational emergents, 19-22
HART, J. S.
The circulation and respiratory tolerance of some Florida fresh-
water fishes, 221-245
HAWKINS J. ERSKINE
Some properties of rosin, 50-58
JOUBERT, WILLIAM H.
The current freight rate dispute in the South, 34-43
Secondary forest succession in the Tallahassee Red Hills, 60-100
LAESSLE, ALBERT MIDDLETON
A study of quail food habits in peninsular Florida, 155-171
LAGASSE, FELIX S.
The present status of the domestic tung industry, 133-137
280 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
LONGSTREET, R. J.
The movements of the Florida East Coast brown pelicans,
MOORE, JOSEPH C.
Life history notes on the Florida weasel, 247-263
MURRILL, WILLIAM A.
New Florida fungi, 107-127
NETTING, M. GRAHAM, AND COLEMAN J. GOING
The occurrence of Fowler's toad, Bufo woodhousii fowleri Hinck-
ley, in Florida, 181-184
RUSOFF, L. L.
Health and nutrition studies in Florida, 1-3
SHERMAN, H. B.
The Florida yellow bat, Dasypterus floridanus, 193-197
Recent literature and some new distribution records concerning
Florida mammals, 199-202
SMITH, F. B.
The occurrence and distribution of algae in soils, 44-49
TOTTEN, HENRY R.
A station for Rhododendron Chapmanii in eastern Florida, 105
WATSON, J. R.
Mulches to control root-knot, 151-153
WEBER, GEORGE F.
The blight disease of Cycas revoluta, 129-132
WILLIAMS, H. FRANKLIN
The state of the daily press of London between 1858 and 1861
with special reference to the Italian question, 10-18
AGRICULTURE CLASSIFIED SUBJECT INDEX
Food habits of Florida quail, 158
Mulches to control root-knot, 151
Soils, algae in, 44
Tung industry, present status of domestic, 133
Tung orchards, mineral nutrition problems in Florida, 139
An early Indian clam bake, 23
Food habits of Florida quail, 155
Algae, occurrence and distribution in soils, 44
Cycas revoluta, blight disease of, 129
Fungi, new Florida, 107
Pines, bark character for identifying Florida, 101
Rhododendron Chapmanii in eastern Florida, 105
Secondary forest succession in the Tallahassee Red Hills, 60
BUSINESS OF THE ACADEMY
Editorial policies, 263
List of members, 267
Reprint prices, 266
Some properties of rosin, 50
Food habits of Florida quail, 158
Secondary forest succession in the Tallahassee Red Hills, 60
Current freight rate dispute in the South, 34
Naval stores industry, place of central distillation in, 147
Normal grading systems, quantitative criteria for application
Insects eaten by Florida quail, 160
Archives division of state library, projected, 4
Floridiana, Union Catalog of, 217
Freight rate dispute in South, 34
Health and nutrition studies in, 1
Mammals, literature and records concerning, 199
Newspapers and periodicals, survey of, 217
Pines, key to Florida, 103
Tallahassee Red Hills, secondary forest succession in, 60
See also: Agriculture, Archaeology, Botany, Economics, Zoology
282 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
FORESTRY AND FOREST INDUSTRIES
Central distillation, place of in naval stores industry, 147
Rosin, some properties of, 50
London daily press, 1858-61, with reference to the Italian ques-
Newspapers as historical sources, 10
Newspapers and periodicals, Florida, 217
Union Catalog of Floridiana, 217
Quantitative criteria for the application of normal grading sys-
Health and nutrition studies in Florida, 1
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE
Relational emergents, 19
Circulation and respiratory tolerance of Florida fresh-water
Blight disease of Cycas revoluta, 129
Relational emergents, 19
Health and nutrition studies in Florida, 1
Biological background of social sciences, 203
Algae, occurrence and distribution in soils, 44
Mineral nutrition problems in Florida tung orchards, 139
Bat, the Florida yellow, 193
Birds, addenda to the Alachua County, Florida, list, 191
Fishes, circulation and respiratory tolerance of some Florida
Fowler's toad in Florida, 181
Jellyfish, fresh-water, in Florida, 173
Mammals, recent literature and new distribution records con-
cerning Florida, 199
Pelicans, movements of the Florida East Coast brown, 185
Quail, food habits in peninsular Florida, 155
Weasel, life history notes on the Florida, 247
INDEX TO SCIENTIFIC NAMES OF PLANTS
New species indicated by bold-faced type
Acalypha gracilens, 86
spp., 164, 166
Aesculus Pavia, 94
Agalinus fasciculata, 67, 89
Agrimonia microcarpa, 90
Aleurites cordata, 133
Amanita Atkinsoniana, 115
Amanitopsis volvata, 114
Amaranthus hybridus, 86
Amarolea americana, 93, 105
Ambrina ambrosioides, 86
Ambrosia elatior, 67, 87
spp., 157, 160, 164, 165
Andropogon Cabanissii, 64, 67, 87
virginicus, 64, 67, 87
virginicus hirsutior, 87
Aneilema nudiflora, 165
Angelica dentata, 93
Anisostichus crucigera, 91
Annona glabra, 157
Anychiastrum Baldwinii, 88, 165
Arachis hypogaea, 163, 165, 167
Aralia spinosa, 91
Arisaema triphyllum, 83, 94
Aristida lanosa, 92
purpurascens, 67, 88
Aristolochia Serpentaria, 91
Arundinaria tecta, 95
Asclepias sp., 166
Ascochyta cycadina, 130
Ascyrum hypericoides, 67, 88
Asemeia grandiflora, 88
Asimina parviflora, 89
Asplenium platyneuron, 75, 90
Aster gracilipes, 92
Atylospora alachuana, 125. 127
Aureolaria flava reticulata, 92
Axonopus affinis, 88
Baptisia psammophila, 92
Batodendron arboreum, 89
Bidens bipinnata, 67, 86
Bignonia radicans, 87
Biventraria variegata, 93
Bivonea stimulosa, 87, 160, 165
Bolbitius bambusicola, 127
Botrychium alabamense, 75, 95
Bradburya virginiana, 93, 165
Callicarpa americana, 90
Carex filiformis, 75
floridana, 75, 91
Carpinus caroliniana, 95
Castanea pumila, 89
Ceanothus americanus, 93
Celtis georgiana, 92
Cenchrus echinatus, 67, 86
Cercis canadensis, 95
Cerothamnus spp., 161, 162,
Chaetochloa lutescens, 165
Chaetophoma cycadis, 130
Chamaecrista Deeringiana, 157
robusta, 67, 87
spp., 158, 160, 161, 165,
Chamaesyce hyssopifolia, 86
Chapmannia floridana, 166
Chiococca pinetorum, 157
Chionanthus virginica, 94
Chlorella sp. 46, 47, 48
Chlorococcum humicola, 46, 47, 48
Chrysopsis floridana, 92
Citharexylum fruticosum, 157
Clitocybe alachuana, 107
Coccothrinax argentea, 157
284 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Collinsonia canadensis, 94
Collybia amara, 127
Commelina longicaulis, 86
sp., 162, 164, 165
Conoclinium coelestinum, 94
Conopholis americana, 96
Corallorrhiza Wisteriana, 89
Corchorus acutangulus, 87
Cortinarius, 121, 124
Cracca chrysophila, 89
spp., 158, 165
Crataegus uniflora, 95
Crocanthemum spp., 166
Crotalaria rotundifolia, 87
Croton glandulosus septentrio-
linearis, 157, 164
Crotonopsis sp., 166
Cyanococcus Myrsinites, 105,
Cycas circinalis, 129
Cynodon Dactylon, 89
Cynoxylon floridum, 90, 157
Cyperus compressus, 96
esculentus, 163, 165
retrorsus, 67, 68
Cyrilla racemiflora, 105
Decachaena spp., 161
tomentosa, 162, 166
Dendrophoma clypeata, 130
Digitaria villosa, 86
Diodella teres, 67, 87, 166
Diospyros virginiana, 88
Dyschoriste oblongifolia, 93
Eccilia floridana, 115
Elaphrium Simaruba, 157
Elephantopus carolinianus, 94
Emelista Tora, 67, 87, 167
Entoloma albidiforme, 116
Eragrostis hirsuta, 87
spectabilis, 67, 87
Erianthus alopecuroides, 92
Erigeron ramosus, 87
Eriogonum tomentosum, 165
Eryngium synchaetum, 89
Erythrina herbacea, 89
Euonymus americanus, 91
Eupatorium album, 92
capillifolium, 64, 86
compositifolium, 64, 67, 87
Euthamia minor, 88
Fagus grandifolia, 67, 91
Falcata comosa, 166
Fraxinus americana, 79, 95
Galactia floridana, 92
pinetorum, 157, 164
spp., 158, 160, 161, 165,
Galera melleiceps, 127
Galerula melleiceps, 119, 127
parvuliformis, 119, 127
Galium bermudense, 90
pilosum laevicaule, 95
Galypola incarnata, 88
Geobalanus oblongifolius, 160, 165
Geopetalum alachuanum, 109, 127
Geranium carolinianum, 166
Glottidium vesicarium, 167
Gnaphalium obtusifolium, 67, 87
fulviconius, 120, 127
Gymnopogon ambiguus, 67, 88
Gymnopus amarus, 109, 127
praemultifolius, 109, 127
subluxurians, 110, 127
Habenaria quinqueseta, 89
Halesia diptera, 81, 91
Helianthus montanus, 89
Hendersonia Togniniana, 130
Heteropogon melanocarpus, 86
Hexalectris spicata, 83, 94
Hicoria alba, 67, 90
glabra, 72, 79, 91
glabra megacarpa, 95
microcarpa, 79, 95
Hieracium Gronovii, 92
Houstonia procumbens, 90
Hypoxis spp., 162, 164, 165
Ilex ambigua, 94
glabra, 105, 157, 165
opaca, 72, 79, 91, 105
subdecurrens, 122, 123
Isopappus divaricatus, 64, 65,
Jacquemontia spp., 157, 164. 166
Kentrosphaera sp., 46, 47, 48
Kuhnia Mosieri, 92
Kuhnistera pinnata, 160, 165
Kyllinga odorata, 96
Laciniaria spicata, 92
Lantana depressa, 157, 164, 165
Laurocerasus caroliniana, 93
Lechea villosa, 88
Lepidium virginicum, 86
Leptamnium virginianum, 85, 92
Leptilon canadense, 67, 86
Leptoglottis floridana, 92
Leptonia alachuana, 127
Leptoniella abnormis, 118
alachuana, 117, 127
floridana, 117, 127
Leptosphaeria irrepta, 130
Lespedeza frutescens, 88
Linaria canadensis, 67, 86
Liquidambar Styraciflua, 72, 79,
90, 157, 165
Lobelia puberula, 92
Lupinus spp., 165
Macrosporium commune, 130
Magnolia grandiflora, 67, 72,
Malus angustifolia, 94
Manfreda virginica, 93
Marasmius Westii, 110
Mariscus Jamaicensis, 157
Martuisia mariana, 93
Meibomia arenicola, 93
Melanoleuca subargillacea, 111
subterreiformis, 110, 127
Watsonii, 111, 127
Melanthera hastata, 93
spp., 157, 164, 166
Mesotaenium sp., 46, 48
Metopium toxiferum, 157, 164, 165
Mitchella repens, 83, 90
Monadelphus illudens, 111
Watsonii, 111, 127
Monarda punctata, 93
Montropa uniflora, 90
Morus rubra, 79, 91
Muhlenbergia Schreberi, 96
Muricauda Dracontium, 83, 94
286 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Muscadinia rotundifolia, 90, 105
Mycena bambusicola, 124, 127
Naucoria citrinipes, 124
Navicula sp., 46, 48
Nemexia Hugeri, 89
Nintooa japonica, 89
Nyssa sylvatica, 89
Oenothera biennis, 67, 86
Omphalia australis, 127
Omphalina australis, 111, 127
brunnescens, 112, 127
fumosa, 112, 127
mellea, 112, 127
subchrysophylla, 112, 127
Omphalopsis pernivea, 113, 127
Oplismenus setarius, 91
Osmundopteris virginiana, 75, 95
Ostrya americana, 157
Padus virginiana, 90, 116
Panicum aciculare, 67, 97, 99
angustifolium, 97, 99
arenicoloides, 97, 99
Boscii, 97, 99
Boscii molle, 97
Joorii, 75, 97, 98, 99
lanuginosum, 67, 97, 99
spp., 157, 158, 160, 161, 162,
164, 165, 166
villosissimum, 97, 98, 99
xalapense, 97, 99
Parthenium integrifolium, 95
Paspalum spp., 157, 164, 165
Passiflora incarnata, 86
Persea Borbonia [see Tamala], 105
Persicaria longistyla, 88
Petalostemon spp., 165
Phaethusa virginica, 89
Phenianthus sempervirens, 94
Phlox pilosa, 93
Phoebanthus grandiflora, 94
Phoradendron sp., 166
Phormidium autumnale, 46, 48
Inundatum, 46, 48
Phryma leptostachya, 94
Phyllosticta cycadina, 130
Physalis spp., 164, 166
Phytolacca americana, 96
Pinus australis, 101-3, 156
caribaea, 101-3, 157, 164
clausa, 101-3, 105
echinata, 67, 70, 81, 98, 101-3,
(see errata, back cover)
glabra, 79, 91, 101-3
palustris, 101-3, 156, 162
serotina, 101-3, 156
spp., 161, 165
Taeda, 81, 90, 101-3, 123
Piriqueta spp., 157, 164, 166
Pityopsis graminifolia, 89
Plantago virginica, 86
Pleurotus alachuanus, 127
Pluteus admirabilis, 119
Poinsettia heterophylla, 86
Polygonatum biflorum, 83, 95
Polypremum procumbens, 67, 87
Polystichum acrostichoides, 75, 91
Protococcus sp., 46, 47, 48
Prunulus alachuanus, 113, 127
subrubridiscus, 113 127
Psathyra alachuana, 127
Psilocybe floridana, 126
Pteris latiuscula, 94
Pterophyton aristatum, 93
Quamoclit Quamoclit, 86
Quercus alba, 95
geminata, 105, 115
laevis, 156, 167
laurifolia, 67, 79, 90, 157
nigra, 67, 72, 90
Prinus, 79, 95
rubra, 67, 157
rubra triloba, 84, 90
spp., 165, 167
virginiana, 90, 157
virginiana var. geminata, 105
Raimannia laciniata, 67, 86
Rhabdospora cycadis, 130
Rhacoma ilicifolia, 157
Rhododendron Chapmanii, 105
Rhus Copallinum, 89, 165
Rhynchosia spp., 160, 164, 165
Rhynchospora spp., 164, 166
Richardia scabra, 67, 87
Rosa serrulata, 94
Rubus cuneifolius, 87
Rudbeckia hirta, 93
Ruellia hybrida, 94
Rufacer rubrum, 95
spp., 163, 166
Rumex hastatulus, 86
Sagotia triflora, 165
Salvia azurea, 94
Sambucus canadensis, 96
Sanguinaria canadensis, 83, 85, 94
Sanicula canadensis, 83, 90
Sarothra gentianoides, 67, 87
Sassafras Sassafras, 87
Scleria ciliata, 89
spp., 157, 160, 162, 164,
Scutellaria Altamaha, 91
Secale cereale, 163
Secula viscidula, 166
Septoria Montemartinii, 130
Serenoa repens, 105, 157
Sericocarpus bifoliatus, 90
Setaria geniculata, 86
Silene antirrhina, 86
Silphium Asteriscus, 90
Sitilids caroliniana, 86
Smallanthus Uvedalia, 95
Smilax auriculata, 94, 105
pumila, 91, 105
Solanum spp., 164, 166
Solidago Bootii, 90
Sorghastrum nutans, 88
Sorghum vulgare, 164, 165
Specularia perfoliata, 86
Spermolepis divaricata, 86, 166
Spigelia marylandica, 83
Sporobolus gracilis, 93
Stenophyllus barbatus, 96
Stichococcus subtilis, 46, 47, 48
Stillingia angustifolia, 157
Strophostyles umbellata, 91
Stylosanthes sp., 162, 166
Symplocos tinctoria, 95
Syntherisma spp., 160, 165
Tamala Borbonia, 72, 96, 157,
(Persea B.), 105
spp., 163, 165
Tetraedon sp., 46, 48
Tilia carolina, 79
georgiana, 79, 96
heterophylla, 79, 96
Tipularia unifolia, 83, 85, 95
Tithymalopsis apocynifolia, 89
Curtissii, 157, 164, 166
Toxicodendron radicans, 91
Tragia sp., 157, 162, 164, 165, 167
Trema floridana, 157, 164, 166
Tricholaena rose, 166
Tricholoma subterreiforme, 127
Trichostema dichotomum, 93
spp., 164, 165
Trillium Underwoodii, 83, 85, 92
Triodia flava, 88
Triticum aestivum, 166
Tubaria fuscifolia, 124
288 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Uniola sessiliflora, 95
Uvularia perfoliata, 83, 95
parvus, 114, 127
pseudovernus, 114, 127
vernus, 114, 115
Westii, 115, 127
Vernonia altissima, 90
INDEX TO SCIENTIFIC
Acanthocephala confraterna, 168
Amblycorypha sp., 162
Amblytropidia occidentalis, 168
Ameiurus nebulosus marmoratus,
223 et passim
Anaxipha sp., J68
Anguilla bostoniensis, 223
Aptenopedes aptera borealis,
sphenarioides apalachee, 168
Argiope sp., 167
Atomacera ruficollis, 169
Basilarchia sp. cf. floridensis,
Belocephalus subapterus subap-
Brochymena sp., 168
Bufo americanus, 182
lentiginosus americanus, 182
woodhousii fowleri, 181-184
Camponotus castaneus, 170
sp., 162, 170
sp.f. c aryae, 162, 170
Canis niger niger, 200
rufus floridensis, 200
Ceroplastes sp., 169
Ceuthophilus latibuli, 168
Chariesterus antennator, 168
Chauliognathus sp., 169
Chelisoma guttatum, 168
Chlidonias nigra surinamensis, 191
Chortophaga australior, 168
Chrysobothris sp., 162, 169
Cicadella trifida, 169
Viburnum rufidulum, 89
Viola spp., 162, 165
triloba altissima, 90
Walteri, 83, 85, 96
Vitis rufotomentosa, 90
Xanthium americanum, 86
Xanthoxalis Brittoniae, 67, 87
sp., 158, 164, 165
Xolisma ferruginea, 105
NAMES OF ANIMALS
Colinus v. floridanus, 170
v. virginianus, 170
Corimelaena sp., 162
Coriscus pilosulus, 168
Corynorhinus macrotis, 201
Craspedacusta ryderi, 173
Cryptocephalus sp., 162, 169
Dasypterus floridanus, 193-197,
intermedius, 193, 197
Datana sp., 169
Dichromorpha viridis, 168
Diplotaxis sp., 162
Disonycha sp., 162, 169
Dorosoma cepedianus, 223
Draeculacephala 7-guttata, 162,
Elaphe q. quadrivittata, 252, 257
Eptesicus fuscus osceola, 201
Erimyzon s. sucetta, 223 et passim
Euschistus ictericus, 162, 168
Falco s. sparverius, 191
Geocoris uliginosus, 169
tuza austrinus, 201, 252
tuza floridanus, 201
tuza goffi, 201
tuza mobilensis, 201
tuza tuza, 201
Gnathoncus sp., 162, 169
Grus canadensis pratensis, 191
Gryllulus assimilis, 168
Gymnoscirtetes pusillus, 162, 168
Gypona sp. cf. citrina, 162, 169
Heraeus plebejus, -169
Hermatria sp., 170
Huro salmoides, 223 et passim
Hydra, 175, 178, 179
Hyla femoralis, 162, 170
Ictalurus catus, 223 et passim
lacustris punctatus, 223
Jassus sp., 162, 169
Lanius ludovicianus ludovicianus,
Lasiurus seminolus, 199
Lepomis macrochirus purpur-
escens, 223 et passim
Leptocorisa tipuloides, 168
Leptoglossus phyllopus, 168
Limnocodium victoria, 173
Lygaeus facetus, 169
Lygus sp., 169
Macneillia obscura, 168
Manomera tenuescens, 167
Melanoplus femur-rubrum pro-
keeleri keeleri, 162, 168
puer seminole, 168
rotundipennis, 162, 168
Melanotus sp., 162, 169
Mephitis mephitis elongata, 199
Mermiria picta, 168
Microhyla ryderi, 173
Miogryllus verticalis, 168
Monecphora bicincta, 169
Mormidea lugens, 162, 168
Mustela frenata olivacea, 199, 247
frenata peninsula, 199, 247
peninsula olivacea, 199, 247
peninsula peninsula, 199
Myndus slossoni, 169
Nabis capsiformis, 169
Neoconocephalus sp., 168
Neodiprion lecontei, 169
Neofiber alleni, 201
Neotettix bolteri, 167
Neotoma floridana floridana, 201
Notemigonus crysoleucas bosci,
223 et passim
Nyroca affinis, 191
Odocoileus virginianus osceola,
virginianus virginianus, 201
Odontomachus haematodes, 170
Oedionychus spp., 162, 169
Oncometopia lateralis, 162, 168
Oporornis formosus, 192
Orchelimum sp., 168
Orphulella pelidna, 162, 168
Orthaea bilobata, 169
Oryzomys palustris natator, 252
Pachnaeus opalus, 162, 169
Pangaeus bilineatus, 168
Paratettix rugosus, 167
Pardalophora phoenicoptera, 168
Paroxya atlantica atlantica, 168
Peromyscus floridanus, 200
gossypinus gossypinus, 252
gossypinus restrictus, 199
nutalli aureolus, 252
polionotus decoloratus, 199
polonotus peninsularis, 199
Phylloscelis atra albovenosa,
atra atra, 169
Pipistrellus subflavus subflavus,
Pisobia melanota, 192
Planorbis sp., 162, 167
Polygyra sp., 162, 167
Pomoxis, nigro-maculatus, 223
Pselliopus cinctus, 169
Putorius peninsula, 247
Querquedula discors, 191
Rattus rattus alexandrinus, 252
Reithrodontomys h. humulis,
Repita taurus, 169
Scalopus aquaticus bassi, 199, 200
Schistocerca a. americana, 168
damnifica calidior, 168
sp. cf. obscura, 168
Scirtetica marmorata picta, 168
Scudderia sp., 162, 168
Seirus n. noveboracensis, 192
Sigmodon hispidus hispidus, 252
Spangbergiella sp., 169
290 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Sterna hirundo hirundo, 191 Thyreocoris sp., 168
Sylvilagus floridanus ammophilus, Tymnes sp., 162, 169
199 (see errata, back cover)
Venus mercenaria, 24
Tadarida cynocephala, 199 Vireo griseus griseus, 252
Thyanta calceata, 168
castra, 168 Zelus cervicalis, 169