The Proceedings of
The Florida Academy of Sciences
A Quarterly Journal of Scientific Investigation and Research
THEODORE H. HUBBELL, Editor
THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Dates of Publication:
Number i August 25, 1944
Number 2-3 January 2.2, 1945
Number 4 -June 15, 1945
CONTENTS OF VOLUME 7
Health and Nutrition Studies in Florida. By L. L. Rusoff .......
Report on Projected Archives Division of the State Library. By
Dorothy Dodd ...................................... ....... 4
The State of the Daily 'Press of London between i858 and i861
with Special Reference to the Italian Question. By H. Frank-
lin Williams ........................................... Io
Relational Emergents. By Ellis Freeman ....................... 19
An Early Indian Clam Bake. By R. B. Becker ................. 2.3
Quantative Criteria for the Application of Normal Grading Sys-
tems. By RichardJ. Anderson ............................ 2.8
The Current Freight Rate Dispute in the South. By William H.
Joubert .................................. .... ............ 34
The Occurrence and Distribution of Alga: in Soils. By F. B.
Smith .................................................... 44
Some Properties of Rosin. By J. Erskine Hawkins ............... 50
Secondary Forest Succession in the Tallahassee Red Hills. By
Herman Kur. ............................................. 59
A Bark Character for the Identification of Certain Florida Pines.
By Wilbur B. DeVall: ...................................... 101
A Station for Rhododendron Chapmanii in Eastern Florida. By Henry
R. Totten................................................ o05
New Florida Fungi. By William A. Murrill.................... 107
The Blight Disease of Cycas revoluta. By George F. Weber......... 12.9
The Present Status of the Domestic Tung Industry. By Felix S.
Lagasse...................... ........... .... ............ 133
Mineral Nutrition Problems in Florida Tung Orchards. By Mat-
thew Drosdoff and Felix S. Lagasse. ........................... 139
The Place of Central Distillation in the Naval Stores Industry. By
John 0. Boynton...... .................................... 148
Mulches to Control Root-Knot. By J. R. Watson ................ 15
A Study of Quail Food Habits in Peninsular Florida. By Albert
Middleton Laessle.................... ................ 155
The Fresh-Water Jellyfish in Florida. By C. Francis Byers........ 173
The Occurrence of Fowler's Toad, Bufo woodhousii fouleri Hinckley,
in Florida. By M. Graham Netting and Coleman J. Goin........ 181
The Movements of the Florida East Coast Brown Pelicans. By
R. J. Longstreet .......................................... 185
Addenda to the List of Birds of Alachua County, Florida. II. By
J. C. Dickimson, Jr.... ........................................ 191
The Florida Yellow Bat, Dasypterus floridanus. By H. B. Sherman. 193
SRecent Literature and Some New Distribution Records Concerning
Florida Mammals. By H. B. Sherman ....................... 199
Biological Background of Social Sciences. By Raymond F. Bel-
lamy ..................................... ............. 2.03
Survey of Florida Newspapers and Periodicals: A Project of the
Union Catalog of Floridiana. By Clarence Drake.............. 2.17
The Circulation and Respiratory Tolerance of Some Florida Fresh-
Water Fishes. By J. S. Hart............................... .2.1
Life History of the Florida Weasel. By Joseph C. Moore......... 247
Editorial Policies of the Proceedings. By Theodore H. Hubbell ..... 265
Membership List of the Florida Academy of Sciences, as of Janu-
ary i, 1945 .................. ... ............... 269
Index to Volume 7......................... ..................... 279
Errata and Addenda, Volume 7......................... ....... 291
THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
VOL. 7 No. 1
HEALTH AND NUTRITION STUDIES
L. L. RUSOFF
University of Florida
"America is the best fed nation in the world today." Yet some
40 or 45 million people in the United States are improperly nourished
and are not getting enough food or the right kind of food for health
and strength, according to dietary studies released by governmental
agencies. Many of these people do not show such symptoms of
malnutrition that they must go to bed, but the effects of the "hidden
hunger" from the lack of the most important nutrients of the diet-
vitamins and minerals-are there just the same, and result in a low-
ered efficiency. People do not need to be starving to be improperly
In the studies referred to, malnutrition was found to be more
prevalent in the southeast than in the north and west; more prevalent
among families of the low income classes than in the high and among
the negro as compared to the white. Out of a million young men
given physical examination by the army, "a total of 380,000 have been
found to be unfit for general military service under present standards."
It is estimated that "perhaps one-third of the rejections were due
either directly or indirectly to nutritional deficiencies."
How do the health and the nutrition of the people of Florida com-
pare with those of the nation as a whole?
The State Board of Health received a communication1 from Doctor
R. A. Vonderlehr, Assistant Surgeon General, Division of Venereal
Disease Control, U. S. Public Health Service, stating that "Florida
has the highest syphilis rate of any state in the nation." The data
were obtained from physical examinations of 19,000 selectees and
volunteers in Florida. From the examinations and positive blood tests,
it was estimated that 53.5 per 1000 whites were afflicted with syphilis,
380.4 per 1000 negroes, and 66.0 per 1000 of the general population
of the state.
For the year 1940, the U. S. Bureau of Census ranked Florida,
together with South Carolina, highest in maternal mortality rate in
'Florida Health Notes, vol. 33, July 1941.
2 PROCEEDINGS FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Vol. 7
No. 1, 1944
the nation; fourth highest of the 48 states in malaria and automobile
accidents; seventh in pellagra; ninth in infant mortality; twelfth in
both tuberculosis and typhoid; fifteenth in diarrhea and enteritis;
and twenty-first in pneumonia.
How well fed is Florida? Dr. Ouida D. Abbott and her asso-
ciates2 of the Home Economics Department, Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Station, have for twelve years collected specific data on
dietary deficiencies occurring among the people of Florida. Among
ten thousand subjects, three-fourths of whom were rural school
children, approximately one-third had some degree of vitamin A de-
ficiency, about three-fourths had decayed teeth, and about one-half
had gingivitis inflammationn of the gums).
Iron is one of the most important of the mineral elements of the
human body. It is necessary for the formation of haemoglobin of the
btood, and an insufficient amount of iron in the diet results in anaemia.
Of 4,335 rural children, 53% were definitely anaemic, 23% had border-
line anaemia, and only 23% were normal. More than 10% had
haemoglobin values between 50% and 21%. Of 100 rural white preg-
nant women, 80% were anaemic.
The most prevalent nutritional defects were nutritional anaemia
and conjunctivitis, pellegra, underweight and overweight, dental caries,
gingivitis, and general malnutrition brought on by multiple dietary
When all types of families were considered- high, medium, and
low income classes, including negro, foreign born, and broken families
in Florida- it was estimated that only 4 to 6% had good diets, about
25% had fair diets, while 60 to 70% had diets rated as poor. It is
well known that milk, butter, eggs, fruits, vegetables and meats will
supply the needed vitamins and minerals. In this study it was found
that milk was used in only 28% of the diets,'butter and eggs in 30%,
leafy vegetables in 27%, and fruit in only 29%. Rice, grits, corn
meal, white bacon, syrup and biscuits were found to be the foods
most often used.
The major causes of malnutrition indicated were misfeeding and
underfeeding, inadequate production and distribution of food, low in-
comes, ignorance, and poor food habits. Many families lack the ability
and information to choose a good diet.
What are we going to do about this serious situation? How can
these people obtain the right foods? How can they obtain the money
to buy enough? How can we get them to buy wisely? Education
'0. D. Abbott, "Nutritional Anemia in Florida." Presented before the Milbank
Memorial Conference, New York, April 1, 1940.
HEALTH AND NUTRITION STUDIES IN FLORIDA
of the general public in the basic principles of nutrition is necessary.
Food habits are established firmly and are changed with great diffi-
culty. Therefore, the basic principles of nutrition must be taught in
the grade schools and continued in the schools of higher learning.
Why is it not just as important to teach children about our common
foods and what they do for us, as it is to teach them to calculate
interest on 250 dollars invested at 3%? The school lunch in every
school, consisting of a balanced, adequate meal, is one of the ways
these nutritional deficiencies are being corrected. Adequate lunches
sometimes turn an apparently stupid child into a normal one.
The most prevalent deficiencies in this country today are those
of the vitamin B complex-thiamin (Vitamin B1), riboflavin (vita-
min G), and nicotinic acid (the anti-pellegra factor)-and of iron.
Bread and cereals usually furnish about one fourth of the calories
in an average diet, and for this reason governmental agencies have
supported the plan of the milling and baking industry to "enrich"'
soft white flour with the essential vitamins of the B family, and with
minerals. The enriched flour contains 1.66 milligrams of thiamin,
6.15 milligrams of nicotinic acid, and 6.15 milligrams of iron per pound
(one milligram is equivalent to 1/28,000 of an ounce). Although
these amounts are infinitesimal, they are almost sufficient to take care
of the body's needs for these essential substances when a person eats
at least 6 slices of "enriched" bread daily, or 61/2 ounces of flour.
The benefits derived from eating "enriched" bread should be brought
home to the public for no other reason than to assure Mrs. "Average
Consumer" that enriched flour and bread are for her benefit, and
not to help the industry.
Besides all the federal, state and professional agencies directly
concerned with nutrition, I believe that various lay groups within
the state-the schools and colleges, women's clubs, parent-teacher
associations, religious, fraternal and civic societies-are or should be
vitally interested in nutrition and public health. These groups can do
a real service, through forums, discussion groups, and the intelligent
use of the press and radio, in teaching the people of their community
the fundamental principles of nutrition, and explaining why so many
are suffering from vitamin starvation when we have food in abundance.
Miss Harriet Elliot, chairman of the Advisory Commission in
National Defense, has said, "Battle ships, tanks, and planes-they
are our first line of defense. But the sword is no stronger than the
arm which wields it, nor the plane more useful than the hand and
eye which guides it.... Undernourished people are a liability.... Let's
make America strong by making Americans stronger."
REPORT ON PROJECTED ARCHIVES DIVISION
OF THE STATE LIBRARY
Florida State Library
Although the territory that now comprises the State of Florida
has the longest recorded history of any region in the continental
United States, it is doubtful if there has been in any other state so
great a destruction and dissipation of public archives.' The unsatis-
factory condition of Florida's archives and the desirability of making
proper provision for their care have long been recognized, but the
Legislature has not yet seen fit to adopt effective measures for their
As early as 1870, the Secretary of State (the officer to whom is
entrusted the custody of "the records of official acts of the Legislature
and Executive Departments of the Government")," reported, when
requesting the appointment of a librarian to classify and index his
Constant applications are made for papers relating to matters of the
highest importance to the public welfare, and yet such was the confusion in
which the records and files of the office were found, that it would require
the entire time of one person to search for papers either mislaid or entirely
Another state official, in 1891, referred to
the conglomerate mass of printed and manuscript matter piled in two rooms
of the Capitol, and by courtesy called the library, which is surely, and not
very slowly, going to destruction.'
In 1906, David Y. Thomas, reporting for the Public Archives
Commission on Florida's archives, spoke of "the disorder and confusion
'Fortunately for the historian, large bodies of material bearing on Florida
history, especially that of the colonial and territorial periods, are to be found in
archival repositories elsewhere in the United States and in Europe. Their dis-
tribution has been discussed by James A. Robertson in "The Archival Distribu-
tion of Florida Manuscripts," Florida Historical Quarterly, vol. 10 (1931), pp.
*Since 1941, when this paper was written, the Legislature has authorized the
transfer to the State Library Board of the non-current records of any official
department or agency of the state.
'Constitution of the State of Florida (R. A. Gray, Secretary of State, 1940),
Art. IV, sec. 21.
"'Report of Secretary of State," Florida House of Representatives, Journal,
1870, Appendix, pp. 20-21.
"'Report of the Adjutant-General for the Period Ending December 31, 1890,"
Florida House of Representatives, Journal, 1891, p. 35.
REPORT ON PROJECTED ARCHIVES DIVISION, STATE LIBRARY 5
that has resulted from years of neglect."" Thomas began his investi-
gation of the records of the Secretary of State in the coal bin of the
capitol, and proceeded thence to the garret, where he found the floor
,covered with papers. When Thomas procured the removal of certain
volumes relating to early state censuses to the office where current
census records were kept, the officer in charge refused to allow them
to be brought in, "on the ground that he had no room for them and
that they were worthless." Thomas concluded that, "The confusion
is likely to continue until the legislature provides room and employs
an archivist to classify and index the records.""
This plea of lack of room is one of the principal causes of the
destruction of Florida's records. At some time in the present century,
probably since Thomas' report, for lack of more appropriate housing
facilities two dry wells on the capitol grounds were made archival
repositories. The writer, some eight or ten years ago, saw a mass of
old papers piled at one of the basement entrances of the capitol,
awaiting the trash man. They proved to be unbound records of the
Comptroller's office for the years between 1840 and 1870. When
the colored janitor was asked if any more records were to be discarded,
he replied, "I don't know, Miss; I hasn't rightly decided yet."
Such unorthodox "reduction" of records seems to have ceased of
recent years, and present state officers evidence a desire not only
to care properly for records of current administrative importance, but
to preserve and restore to order the older archives. The limitation
of space still persists, however, and until adequate facilities are pro-
vided for the housing of noncurrent records, the loss and destruction
of such records is bound to continue.
The other chief cause of archival destruction is the lack of cen-
tralized responsibility for the care and administration of public rec-
ords. The president of the Society of American Archivists, writing in
1939, pointed out that Florida is one of fifteen states "which still
rely upon the generally ineffective system of departmental custody
and have not established state archival agencies."'
"'Report on the Public Archives of Florida," Annual Report of the American
Historical Association, 1906 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1908),
vol. 2, p. 151.
'Albert Ray Newsome, "Uniform State Archival Legislation," The American
Archivist, vol. 2 (1939), p. 6.
"The Compiled General Laws of Florida, 1927 (1 vol. ed.; Atlanta: The
Harrison Co., 1928), secs. 5054-5058.
6 PROCEEDINGS FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
No. 1, 1944
Only by courtesy can Florida's laws relating to public records be
termed a "system." They can be summarized in short order. Provision
was first made for the re-establishment of lost papers in 1829, and
has since been extended to cover the records of any public office.8
Since 1832, penalties have been provided for the failure of any officer
to turn over to his successor the official records of his office, and for
the theft, fraudulent alteration, or defacement of public records.'
Since 1909, all state, county, and municipal records have been required
to be open at all times for personal inspection by any citizen of the
state,'" and since 1915 the right of photographic reproduction of
public records has been granted to persons having the right to inspect
In addition to enacting these provisions applicable to all public
records the Legislature has, from time to time, taken cognizance of
the need to preserve certain specialized groups of records. When
the state government was organized in 1845, "the custody, keeping
and care" of all records and documents originating in the offices of
the Governor and Secretary of the Territory of Florida and in the
Legislative Council of the Territory were entrusted to the Secretary
of State.12 Thomas' report of territorial records showed that they
were far from complete," and a survey made several years ago by
the Florida Historical Records Survey, the results of which have not
been published, indicates that important records series noted by
Thomas are not now to be found.
The abolition of the federal offices of Keepers of the Public Ar-
chives in 1848 caused the Legislature to provide for the appointment
of state officers of the same title, who were to receive and administer
the Spanish Archives in Pensacola and St. Augustine." Since the federal
government decided to transfer the archives to the United States
Surveyor General instead of to the state," the law seems to have been
inoperative. Shortly before the abolition of the office of Surveyor
General in Florida in 1906, all the Spanish records that did not relate
to land claims were sent to the Library of Congress." When the
Surveyor General's office was abolished, the government proposed to
'Ibid., secs. 7492, 7495.
"'lbid., sec. 490.
"Ibid., sec. 492.
"Ibid., sec. 111.
"Op. cit., pp. 150-157.
"Florida General Assembly, Acts and Resolutions, 1848-49, Ch. 28.
"Florida Historical Records Survey, Spanish Land Grants in Florida, vol. 1,
p. ix. (Mimeographed.)
REPORT ON PROJECTED ARCHIVES DIVISION, STATE LIBRARY 7
transfer the remaining Spanish archives, as well as the records of the
office, to the Secretary of State, but he refused to accept them because
of lack of space." The Legislature, therefore, authorized the Com-
missioner of Agriculture to accept them and directed the Board of
State Institutions to provide a suitable place in which to keep them.18
These records, well cared for and housed in steel vaults, constitute
one of the most continuous and important groups of archives in the
In 1921, the Adjutant General was made custodian of all the
state's military records, and was directed "to establish and maintain
as part of his office a bureau of records of the services of Florida
troops" in the several wars in which they participated. The records
were to "be catalogued and arranged or filed for general reference and
protection."'1 This is the nearest approach to archival legislation
to be found in the Florida statutes.
The 1925 act establishing the present Florida State Library placed
in the custody of that agency "all books, pictures, documents, publi-
cations, and manuscripts received through gifts, purchase, or exchange,
or on deposit for the use of the State.""2 Although no specific refer-
ence to archives is made in the act, the Hon. W. T. Cash, Secretary
to the State Library Board since its organization in 1927, has been
keenly conscious of the importance of saving the state's archives and
has literally rescued from the trash pile many records of historical
value. He has also constantly and consistently advocated archival
legislation. Upon his recommendation, the State Library Board in-
cluded the position of archivist in its budget for the 1941-43 biennium
and, the budget having met with legislative approval, the writer was
appointed to the position in August, 1941.
The archival program of the State Library must, perforce, for the
time being, be devoted to acquiring and making accessible to students
the older records of the state, insofar as they are extant. In spite
of the toll taken by the carelessness and wanton destruction which
have gone on for years, there is still to be found, in storerooms and
valuts in and outside the capitol building, a considerable quantity
of archives of importance to historians and other social scientists.
It is hoped that the officers now having custody of them will see fit
"Thomas, op. cit., p. 149.
"Ibid., p. 158.
"The Compiled General Laws of Florida, 1927, sec. 204.
"Ibid., sec. 2022.
"Ibid., sec. 1690.
8 PROCEEDINGS FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
No. 1, 1944
to deposit them in the Library, where they can be catalogued and
made available for research.
Although it is obvious, from what has been said of the destruction
of records, that Florida's archives can never be complete, photo-
graphic reproduction offers a means of supplementing some extant
records and of replacing others in a manner at least satisfactory for
research purposes. For example, while it is hardly to be expected
that the Spanish archives will ever be returned to the State from the
Library of Congress, it is possible to secure for our archives microfilm
copies of the more important papers. Similarly, there are in The
National Archives in Washington records relating to territorial affairs,
photographic copies of which would go far toward restoring the con-
tinuity of territorial archives now extant in the state." With this
in mind, the State Library Board has recently purchased a Recordak
camera and two Argus reading machines. A carefully planned micro-
film program should partially remove the sting from the remark of
an eminent Florida historian that, "One goes to Florida last for
manuscripts concerning its history."22
It is to be hoped that the state will soon make possible the ex-
pansion of the Library's present modest archival program. Modern
government grinds out records as relentlessly as the mythical mill
produced the salt of the sea, and the public records of today are the
archives of tomorrow. We can never recover what we have lost, but
we can take steps to keep what we have and are constantly producing.
As has already been indicated, two steps-and they are big ones-
are needed. Proper housing facilities should be provided, and the
responsibility for archival administration should be centralized. The
ideal solution of the housing problem is the erection of an archives
building, which would enable an archives agency to function, as it
should, as an administrative agency of the state government. Although
only a guess, it is probably no exaggeration to say that a single major
department, such as the office of the Comptroller, now creates more
records in one month than were produced in a year by the entire state
government of seventy-five years ago.
The centralization of responsibility for archival administration
can best be secured by the passage of a public records law. Such a
"Even the long-awaited Florida volume of The Territorial Papers of the
United States, now in process of publication by the State Department under the
editorship of Clarence E. Carter, will not, when it appears, obviate the desirability
of securing photographic copies of territorial records in Washington, as the
Carter compilation is selective, rather than all-inclusive.
"Robertson, op. cit., p. 48.
REPORT ON PROJECTED ARCHIVES DIVISION, STATE LIBRARY 9
law should establish an archival agency, since Florida does not have
one in the legal sense of the word. It also
should provide especially that: (a) official records must be preserved, except
where their destruction has been duly authorized; (b) useless records may be
destroyed according to certain procedure; (c) noncurrent records may be
transferred to the archival agency with the consent of the custodian; and (d)
the archival agency shall have general supervision over the care, preservation,
and disposal of the records of all departments, agencies, and institutions of the
"C. C. Crittenden, "Some Problems of State Archival Administration," The
American Archivist, vol. 4 (1941), p. 262. For a model public records act, see
"The Proposed Uniform State Public Records Act," The American Archivist,
vol. 3 (1940), pp. 107-115.
THE STATE OF THE DAILY PRESS OF LONDON
BETWEEN 1858 AND 1861 WITH SPECIAL
REFERENCE TO THE
H1. FRANKLIN WILLIAMS
University of Miami
The use of newspapers as historical sources is a comparatively
recent development. As late as 1908 James Ford Rhodes felt it
necessary to read a paper to the American Historical Association
justifying the employment of newspapers in the writing of history.1
Today no such justification is necessary. Indeed, the historian in
many instances must use newspapers if his documentation is to be
complete. As a consequence many historians have made hasty use
of the press without considering how difficult it is to make sound
use of newspapers as historical sources.
Two types of research call particularly for the study of newspapers.
One is research in social history, in which the newspaper offers a mass
of minute data which escaped record elsewhere. Here the historian
is faced by the problem of selection. Except for bulk, newspaper
sources do not differ from other types of historical material. Research
in opinion is the second field in which newspapers are particularly
useful. But here the historian is beset by many problems. He
may wonder whether the press leads or follows public opinion. And
for every expression of opinion he should know what bias may be
displayed. Too often research of this type ends in a series of abstracts
of newspaper comment, without an estimate of the bias or of the
importance of the articles quoted. This error might be avoided if the
historian were to preface his research by a preliminary study of the
press which he plans to use. This paper presents an example of such
a study, examining the daily press of London as preparation for a
consideration of English reactions to the unification of Italy.
The great period of the press in London began with the Crimean
War. About that time the newspapers underwent a two-fold develop-
ment: on the one hand they expanded physically, and on the other
they increased their influence. The physical change was due partly
to an improvement of printing-presses and partly to the removal of
governmental restrictions. Taxation of advertisements was given up
in 1853; the stamp-tax disappeared in 1855; and finally the repeal
'James Ford Rhodes, "Newspapers as Historical Sources," Historical Essays
(New York: Macmillan Co., 1909), pp. 81-97.
THE STATE OF THE DAILY PRESS OF LONDON, 1858 AND 1861 11
of the paper duty was pushed through in 1861.2 These changes made
cheap newspapers possible, and thus widened the audience and in-
creased the importance of the press. By 1858 London had three
important penny newspapers (the Morning Star, the Daily Telegraph,
and the Standard). The majority of newspapers, however, still brought
three or four pence unstamped and four or five pence stamped. The
optional stamp entitled the paper to travel through the post for
fourteen days without further payment. The second change in the
press-its increase in influence-was based on the increasing inde-
pendence of editors. Newspapers had long been regarded as the organs
of parties or factions or individual statesmen. Some of them still
partook of that character in the years between 1858 and 1861; for
example, the Morning Star was the organ of the Manchester, School
leaders. But politicians had learned that control of a newspaper has
its unpleasant aspects. An official organ is an expense; its views are
discounted for prejudice; and all that appears in it can be blamed
on the sponsor. In the 1850's the Times led the way to a new system.
During the Crimean War it had been not the creature of one party,
but the arbiter between parties. Between 1850 and 1860 politicians
tended to divest themselves of direct interest in newspapers land to
seek subtler methods of exerting influence. In 1854 the Peelites sold
their paper, the Morning Chronicle.' Disraeli in 1858 gave up his
interest in the Conservative weekly, the Press.' Napoleon III aban-
doned his attempt to obtain an organ in London after a quarrel with
Serjeant Glover, who bought the Morning Chronicle in 1854.'
Politicians tried instead to win the feelings of editors by opportune
communications of information. When Napoleon III undertook to
influence the English press in favor of Italy he asked Cavour to
furnish documents showing Austrian "crimes" in Italy.' The effect of
the emancipation of the newspapers from political control was to in-
crease the competition between them, for the new type of, owner
wanted to make a profit in cash rather than in political capital.'
'James Grant, The Newspaper Press: Its Origin, Progress, and Present Posi-
tion (3 vols.; London: Tinsley, 1871-2), vol. 2, pp. 298-322.
'Henry E. Carlisle (edit.), A Selection from the Correspondence of Abraham
Hayward, Q. C., from 1834-1884 (2 vols.; London: Murray 1886), vol. 1, pp.
'William F. Monypenny and George E. Buckle, The Life of Benjamin
pisraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield, (2 vol. edit.; New York: Macmillan, 1929), Vol. 1,
'Grant, op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 312.
'Il Carteggio Cavour-Nigra dal 1858 at 1861 (4 vols.; Bologna: Zanichelli,
1926-9), Vol. 1, pp. 211 ff.
12 PROCEEDINGS FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
No. 1, 1944
The morning papers went to press in the small hours of the morn-
ing and were published in a first edition by eight o'clock. Most of
them had later editions, which sometimes contained foreign dis-
patches which arrived during the morning. Several of the morning
papers had, associated with them, evening papers under the same
or different names. All the papers looked much the same, for the
Times served as a model to all.' Each one had an outside sheet of
advertisements. These advertisements were small notices, much like
the classified advertisements in a modern American newspaper. They
were so unimportant as a source of income that some of them were
omitted when room on the outside sheet ran short. Each newspaper
had several sheets of news material made up of police reports, accounts
of unusual happenings (contributed by the free-lance reporters known
as "penny-a-liners"), and excerpts from provincial and foreign papers.
Regular features were a communication from a "City correspondent"
with the financial news, and a report of the Parliamentary debates
of the preceding day. But the heart of the paper lay in the two
central pages where were found the leading articles, the political news,
and the important dispatches from foreign countries. Each paper
had its particular friends, who supplied it with political informa-
tion. Most of them maintained a Paris correspondent, and
many had their own correspondents in other capitals. These
representatives sent letters that were newspapers in miniature.
They also used the telegraph on occasion, although Reuter's
new news service, founded in 1858, was beginning to furnish
most of the telegraphic material." The leading articles combined a
summary of important news with editorial comment and often a dash
of prophecy. Leading articles were always unsigned, a fact which often
aroused suspicion and criticism. The most famous case of this sort
came after the period covered by this study. It was the controversy
between Cobden and the Times in 1863.' The paper stood or fell on
the contents of its central sheet of political and foreign correspond-
ence and leading articles."
'Stanley Morison, The English Newspaper, Some Account of the Physical De-
velopment of Journals Printed in London between 1622 and the Present Day
(Cambridge: University Press, 1932), pp. 207 ff.
'Grant, op. cit., Vol. 2, pp. 323-51.
'Sir Edward Cook, Delane of The Times ("Makers of the Nineteenth Cen-
tury"; New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1916), pp. 161-8. John Morley, The
Life of Richard Cobden (1 vol. ed.; London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1903), pp. 884-
"This paragraphs is based on Grant, op. cit., vol. 2, chap. 11, passim, and on
examination of newspaper files.
THE STATE OF THE DAILY PRESS OF LONDON, 1858 AND 1861 13
One paper, the Times, dominated the press of London so com-,
pletely that no competitor could approach it. Its editor, John
Thadeus Delane, had been given a free hand by the owner, John
Walter, II. Delane, by a remarkable series of "scoops," had made
the Times so successful that it could outbid its competitors for the
services of the best reporters, correspondents, and leader-writers. Its
prestige and the social contacts of Delane brought it all sorts of
political information. This, in turn, increased its power again. In
1858 it maintained correspondents at Paris, Vienna, Turin, Constanti-
nople, and Cairo; there were special correspondents in India and
China. In 1859 it had, in addition, correspondents in Rome, Naples,
and the Ionian Islands. So great was its advantage over other news-
papers in this respect that it felt, at first, no need of subscribing to
Reuter's telegraphic news services. Within a few months, however, it
became a subscriber."
The Times was at the service of no party but was courted by all.
The courting took the usual form of the time, the communication of
information. The editor used the information, but expressed his own
opinion. Through the story of Delane and his paper move all the
great figures of the period. Lord Granville, Lord Derby, Charles
Greville, Disraeli, Henry Reeve, Robert Lowe, and a host of others
served him as informants or as writers." He was often assailed as
possessing excessive power in politics, a charge which is plausible when
we find PalmersLon aund ClaLre7auudi u;eii 11in iaui etAla laLiu"o; uV
their visit to Napoleon III late in 1858," and Napoleon III himself
sending Delane a letter which only a few of the Cabinet had seen."
Once the Times drew the fire of the Queen when it published words
which she had used in confidential conversation with Granville."
The Times was not subject to any party influence, but it was not'
prevented from expressing opinions on politics and foreign affairs.
Between 1858 and 1861 its attitude was watched with care by foreign
statesmen, for it was regarded as the surest guide to the state of
English opinion. Whether this was because it formed that opinion
"Grant, op. cit., vol. 2, p. 330.
"Cook, op. cit., pp. 118, 213, 13, 246, 12, 196, and passim.,
"Arthur Irwin Dasent, John Thadeus Delane, Editor of the "Times": His
Life and Correspondence (2 vols.; Lortdon: John Murray, 1908), vol. 1, pp. 303-4.
"Cook, op. cit., p. 124.
"Lord Edmond Fitzmaurice, The Life of Granville George Leveson Gower,
Second Earl Granviiie, K. G., i8i5-i89i (2 vois.; Londou: Longima.l,, Gicii,
& Co., 1905), vol 1, pp 341-2.
14 PROCEEDINGS FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
No. 1, 1944
or because it reflected it, men were unable to determine.18 There is
some evidence that Delane attempted to conform to public opinion, or
at least not to flout it." But the Times was often at odds with public
opinion, as it was, for example, in the early stages of its Italian policy.
On the whole it tended always to conform with some independence to
the policy of the government. This was particularly the case when
Palmerston was in power'from 1855 to 1858 and from 1859 to 1865.
Delane was on intimate terms with Palmerston, receiving and giving
information." Palmerston thought so highly of Delane that in 1861
he offered him an Under-Secretaryship." But the Times was in-
dependent enough to be hostile to Napoleon III when Palmerston
was on good terms with the French Emperor. In 1858 Palmerston
suggested in vain that the Times should be more moderate in its
criticisms of Napoleon III.20 Lord Derby, when Prime Minister had
made the same suggestion through Greville." Delane did not yield.
In its treatment of Italian affairs the Times was influenced by its
distrust of Napoleon and a dislike of Prussia, so that it naturally tended
to support the Austrian point of view in 1858 and 1859. The Italian
patriots took this to mean that the Times was anti-Italian and blamed
its correspondents in Italy, Hardman and Gallenga." But Austria's
arbitrary action in 1859 and Napoleon III's turn against Italy helped
to bring the Times to the Italian side. The change was clear by
autumn of that year, when Delane visited Italy.23 There seems to be
no evidence that any Italian patriot had any way of influencing the
Times, unless it was through Palmerston. Napoleon's efforts to do so
The nearest rival to the Times was the Morning Post. In 1858
W. J. Rideout inherited the ownership of this paper. He left it in
the hands of the capable editor, Algernon Borthwick, whom he made
irremovable and to whom he allotted one-third of the profits. The
Morning Post sought to attain the character of the Times, but was
"B. Kingsley Martin, The Triumph of Lord Palmerston, a Study of Public
Opinion in England before the Crimean War (London. Allen and Unwin, 1924),
"Cook, op. cit., p. 201.
"Ibid., p. 100.
"Dasent, op. cit., vol. 2, p. 26.
"ODasent, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 305.
"William Dodgson Bowman, The Story of "The Times" (London: Rout-
ledge, 1931), pp. 225-6.
"Giuseppe Massari, Diario, 1858-60 sull 'Azione Politica di Cavour (Bologna:
Cappelli, 1931), pp. 172, 196, 200, 201.
"Cook, op. cit., pp. 121-2.
THE STATE OF THE DAILY PRESS OF LONDON, 1858 AND 1861 15
popularly regarded as a journal of social gossip. But what really
weakened its position was the fact that it was known as the organ of
Palmerston, although he had no share in its ownership. It had not
the independence of the Times and did not attain great influence until
the death of Palmerston in 1865. The leading articles before that
time were reputed to be merely polished versions of Palmerston's mem-
oranda to Borthwick. The importance of the influence is obvious
from memoranda published in Borthwick's biography.24 Borthwick
was also supposed to be in the pay of Napoleon III. Malmesbury
stated this as a fact, citing Walewski, Napoleon's ambassador and
foreign minister, as authority.2" Certain it is that the Morning Post
received favors from the French, especially while Borthwick's friend
Persigny was French ambassador in London. Thus the Morning Post
received Napoleon's letter to Persigny of July 27, 1860, before the
other papers. There were many instances of such French favor to the
The Morning Post showed no great originality on the Italian
question. Borthwick knew Massimo d'Azeglio, but that statesman
was not in the main current of events in these years. The paper sent
a correspondent, Willung, to the war in Italy.27 For the rest it fol-
lowed the line of Palmerston. For that reason it was carefully read
abroad. The Morning Post later became an arch-conservative organ,
and this attitude underlay its Palmerstonianism from the start. It
clung to protection long after 1846.
More important than the Morning Post in aggregate numbers was
the group of newspapers owned by James Johnstone. It included the
Morning Herald, the Evening Herald, the Standard, and the Evening
Standard. He kept the four papers because it occurred to him in
1858 to operate the Standards as penny papers while retaining his
better clientele with the fourpenny Heralds. The combination worked
well, for the Herald survived as a "considerable" paper until 1869,
while the Standard built up a large circulation.28 The papers were
operated on a comparatively modest basis. They used the same news,
but with different leading articles."2 In 1859 they had special cor-
2Reginald Lucas, Lord Glenesk and the "Morning Post" (London: Rivers,
1910), chap. 4, passim.
"Earl of, Malmesbury, Memoirs of an Ex-Minister, an Autobiography (2
vols.; London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1884), Vol. 1, p. 362.
"Lucas, op. cit., p. 183-5; T. H. S. Escott, Masters of English Journalism, a
Study of Personal Forces (London: Unwin, 1911), p. 189.
'Massari, op. cit., p. 319.
28Grant, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 329.
2"Escott, op. cit., p. 197.
16 PROCEEDINGS FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Vol.7
No. 1, 1944
respondents only in Paris and Egypt. For remoter news, such as that
from India, they published the Foreign Office dispatch.
In politics these papers were devoted to official Conservative views.
Before the Crimean War the Herald had been regarded as the organ
of the Conservative party, although Disraeli denied that it was his
paper." In 1857 Malmesbury had an interview, on behalf of Lord
Derby, with a new editor "to arrange as to the line to be taken" by
the Morning Herald." As late as December 5, 1858, the Duke of
Newcastle assumed that the Derby government had inspired an an-
nouncement in the Herald." These papers were almost alone in rep-
resenting the Conservatives. There seems to be no evidence of any
foreign influence on these papers except for the inadequately sup-
ported rumor that Napoleon paid them."
The Morning Chronicle was by 1858 moribund (it died in 1862),
but it enjoyed some remnants of its former prestige. It had been a
great liberal paper before 1843 and had then belonged to the Peelite
and Puseyite group of Newcastle, Herbert, and Gladstone until 1854.
It had been purchased by Serjeant Glover, had ceased to represent
the Peelites, and had lost the services of Abraham Hayward, its best
writer. Glover made a bargain with Napoleon III to put it in the
French service, but fell out with the Emperor and revealed the bar-
gain. This finally destroyed the reputation of the paper. More
fortunate was the Morning Chronicle's evening version, the Globe.
It had enjoyed the favor of Palmerston in the forties and that of
Granville in 1852. It had become independent and remained one of
the best of the evening papers, being read particularly for its excel-
lent foreign news."
The group which had controlled the Morning Chronicle until 1854
was represented during the period 1858-1861 by the Daily News.
This paper, once edited by Charles Dickens, was edited from 1858 to
1869 by T. Walker. It was known to voice Gladstone's opinions and
became, a few years later, the official Liberal paper. It was then
that it gained its greatest reputation, but even in 1858 it was carefully
read in England and on the Continent." The Daily News was the
apostle of liberty abroad as of liberalism at home. It sided with'the
"Dasent, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 148..
"Malmesbury, op. cit., vol. 2, p. 73.
"Carlisle, op cit., vol. 2, p. 19..
"Escott, op cit., p. 200.
"This paragraph is based on Grant, op. cit., vol. 1, pp. 311-12.
"Massari, op. cit., pp. 11, 227. Monypenny and Buckle, op. cit., vol. 1,
THE STATE OF THE DAILY PRESS OF LONDON, 1858 AND 1861 17
North in the American Civil War and with Italian nationalism.
Even Mazzinians, such as Jessie White Mario, contributed to the
Daily News." During 1859 it added to its prestige by excellent war
correspondence. Count Carlo Arrivabene, who had written for it in
London, was sent to northern Italy. Cavour, who was pleased by the
attitude of the Daily News, gave him special letters and opportuni-
ties." The Daily News was Italy's surest friend among the London
The disadvantages of a party journal were clearly shown by the
fate of the Morning Star. It was organized to express the views of
the Manchester School, although Cobden and Bright were not directly
involved in its management, unless the fact that Bright's brother-in-
law was editor be regarded as involvement." It did express those views
and with such persistence and monotony that it never achieved a
large circulation, never more than 15,000, although it was a penny
paper." Free trade and peace at any price were not principles which
would lead it to favor the course which Italian unification took be-
tween 1858 and 1861. The commercial treaty with France in 1860
was more to its taste.
Two moderate liberal papers remain to be discussed. The Morning
Advertiser had a large circulation among innkeepers and Members
of Parliament. It had long been, merely the organ of a society of
licensed victuallers, but under the editorship of James Grant it was
gaining a wider audience. In 1858 Napoleon bracketed it with the
Times and the Morning Post as one of the great papers to which
material should be supplied." The editor described it as "con-
sistently Liberal and thoroughly Independent.""' In foreign affairs
this meant hostility to Napoleon III and to Austria, and sympathy for
Italy. Similar views were expressed by the Daily Telegraph, the other
liberal paper. It was the first of the penny papers. Founded in 1855,
it had established its low price in the same year. By 1858 it had
not gained much influence, but the owner, Joseph Moses Levy, had
"Miriam B. Urban, British Opinion and Policy on the Unification of Italy
(Privately Printed, 1938), p. 79.
"Luigi Chiala (edit.), Lettere Editee ed Inedite di Camillo Cavour (6 vols.;
Turin: Roux & Favale, 1883-7), Vol. 3, pp. 59-60, 82-3, 163.
"Justin McCarthy, Portraits of the Sixties (London: Unwin, 1903), p. 111.
"Grant, op. cit., vol. 1, pp. 376-9.
"ll Carteggio Cavour-Nigra dal 1858 at 1861 (4 vols.; Bologna: Zanichelli,
1826-9), vol. 1,, pp. 211-12.
"Grant, op. cit., vol. 2, p. 63.
18 PROCEEDINGS FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Vol. 7
No. 1, 1944
gathered a brilliant staff for his paper. By 1870 it was able to boast
the largest circulation in the world." It obtained its audience among
the middle classes and maintained its liberal policy for their benefit.
It was hardly known abroad.
The state of the press may be summarized, as far as political in-
fluence is concerned, by indicating to what newspaper each of the
important leaders would turn if he wished to express his views. On
the Conservative side, the party leader, Lord Derby, was an old-
school politician, who disliked the press" and the Times in particular.
If it was necessary to speak in a newspaper, he chose the Morning
Herald, as did his colleague Lord Malmesbury. Disraeli hoped to
win the Times, but the friendship was a troubled one. He had a re-
liable weekly paper, the Press, at his service. On the Liberal side, all
the leaders could use the Morning Advertiser and the Daily Telegraph,
but had no control over them. Russell, like Derby, disliked the press,
and the feeling was reciprocated, especially by the Times. Palmerston
could count on the Morning Post and often used the Times. Lord
Granville and Lord Clarendon were friendly with Delane and usually
agreed with the Times. Gladstone was disliked by the Times, but
had a sure medium in the Daily News. Cobden and Bright were
at war with all the press but their own Morning Star.
Foreign influence on the press was small, except where English
leaders consented to use their influence on behalf of a foreign cause.
Austria had no desire to influence the press and did not know how to
work with a free press. The foreign statesmen who knew how to use
the English press were Napoleon III and Cavour. The Emperor had
real influence over the Morning Post. Cavour found the Daily News
the most friendly of the papers. By furnishing them usable mate-
rial they could occasionally obtain a hearing in other papers, but they
could not count on them.
The fact which emerges most clearly from this survey is that the
daily press of London was rapidly achieving independence in the years
between 1858 and 1861. Newspapers might have a Liberal or a
Conservative tendency, but few of them were committed to one leader
or one faction. The Morning Star, the Morning Post, and to a
smaller degree the Daily News were subject to influence subversive
of their independence. In the next decade these, too, became inde-
pendent or disappeared. The Fourth Estate came into existence.
"Ibid, p. 96.
"Malmesbury, 'op. cit., vol. 2, p. 73.
University of Tampa
The problem with which this paper deals has its origin in psychol-
ogy, where it was acutely sensed long ago. More recently it has arisen
in the other natural sciences, particularly in physics. It belongs,
accordingly, in the fundamental discipline underlying all the natural
sciences, namely the Philosophy of Science.
In the broadest sense the problem consists in determining the
character of a certain type of cause and effect which has stubbornly
resisted the mechanistic interpretation of tradition. The physicists,
in their normal condition of unregenerate philosophical naivete, have
generally been oblivious of its existence. The psychologists, on the
other hand, driven by the peculiar nature of the material of their
science, and being, moreover, less blinded by traditional philosophical
misconceptions and ineptitudes, have at least been acutely aware of
the difficulty, and what is more, have made some stumbling efforts
toward its solution. This paper is one more such an attempt by a
psychologist to bring the solution of the problem perceptibly nearer.
From Aristotle to the physical scientists of our time, the fallacious
assumption has been made that any complex phenomenon, taken as an
effect, was to be entirely and satisfactorily explained by the summa-
tion of the properties of the component parts or antecedents, taken as
the cause. Thus, the molecular weight of water (18) was, and still
is, adequately accounted for by the summation of the corresponding
properties of its components-two atoms of hydrogen with atomic
weight of 1, and one atom of oxygen with atomic weight of 16. As this
cannot be disputed, it has served as the stereotype for the explanation
of all other properties of water also-that is, when it happened to occur
to the physicist that any further explanation was called for, which was
For convenience, I shall use the term resultant to designate such.
mechanistically determined properties of complexes-properties that
can be explained simply by a summing up of the corresponding prop-
erties of the component elements or parts of the complex. Properties
of compounds or complexes which fall into the categories of weights
and extents appear to be resultants, satisfactorily accounted for by this
mechanistic explanation. Since the physical scientist is essentially a
creature who weighs and measures, he has either overlooked another
class of properties, or has comfortably assumed that this other cate-
gory would be similarly explained when more is known.
20 PROCEEDINGS FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Vol.71944
No. 1, 1944
Unfortunately for this view, there is reason to suppose that this
second class of properties-for example, in the instance of water, its
freezing and boiling points, its anomalous expansion, its surface ten-
sion, and even its specific gravity-will continue to resist all efforts to
treat them as resultants. Increased knowledge of the properties of
oxygen and hydrogen atoms has brought us no nearer to an ability to
predict the above-named properties of their compound, water. Again
for convenience, I shall designate such properties of the complex
whole as are not mechanistic summations of the properties of its parts
as relational emergents, or more simply as emergents.
The issue, for the natural sciences as a whole, may be best pre-
sented by considering a simple effect in psychology which does not
yield to a mechanistic explanation based on summation of properties,
but which appears instead to constitute an emergent. In a simple
perception, such as that involved in seeing a green piece of paper, one
has a right to ask the mechanist what there is in the properties of the
preconditions of this phenomenon that can be added to give the ex-
perience of green as a resultant. The first precondition or cause of
"green" is the stimulus-an electromagnetic disturbance of about
520 millimicrons wave-length. There is nothing of "green" about
the properties of this stimulus is sufficiently established by color-
blindness. Likewise, in the ensuing neural process in the retina,
optic nerve and brain there is nothing of "green." Just as the stim-
ulus is itself merely an electromagnetic disturbance entirely destitute
of the property of "greenness," so the neural process is merely an elec-
trochemical disturbance from beginning to end likewise destitute of
the property of "greenness." There is nothing in the summation of the
properties of the stimulus and the ensuing neural processes that causes
or results in the perceptual effect known as "green" which in any
manner contains or accounts for that effect. In other words, this
greenness is an emergent, something wholly new, and not a resultant,
which is something old and already given, in the sense that it re-
quires merely a summation of constituent parts to form a mechanistic
From a very early day the psychologist has at least recognized
something troublesome in connection with the effects that are here
distinguished as emergents, because the essential material of psychology
is precisely this kind of phenomenon. It is not to be wondered at
that the physicist has failed to recognize the existence of this second
class of effects, requiring a supplementary category of cause or ex-
planation, for physics is so filled with effects which are clearly result-
ants that the student in this field could well occupy himself solely
with summative effects and still be busy for a lifetime.
Finding that summation of the properties of preconditions could
not explain an effect such as "green," and knowing no other kind of
explanation, the earlier psychologists resorted to shuffling evasions
and dodges. Typical of these is Liebnitz's theory of Psychophysical
Parallelism, which is still widely taught by uncritical teachers to help-
less students. This theory boils down to the strange notion that the
"greenness" of our perception has no necessary connection with the
preconditions in the physical world, namely with the stimulus and
the neural processes, but merely happens by some divine preordination
to be synchronized with those preconditions. It is a singular com-
mentary on the ingenuity and at the same time the deficiency of judg-
ment of psychologists that they should have been satisfied with the
notion of one set of events for the physical world and a distinct but
parallel set for the mental world, when at every hand nature provides
simple and overwhelming evidence of its unitary order. Any scientific
explanation, including any psychological explanation, of such phenomena
as "greenness" must accept the unity of nature as its foundation.
A simple explanation, that accords with the uniqueness of "green-
ness," calls for no special status for the mental, and provides a pattern
for explanation of emergent relations in general, may be formulated
somewhat as follows. The wave-ienguil 520, ilpillging oil tue IeUida,
comes into interaction or relationship with the latent electrochemical
forces of the retinal substance. From this interaction something en-
tirely new emerges-something that is not to be found already existant
partly in the stimulus and partly in the retina. This new thing is the
electrochemical process that now commences in the retina, and which
is not to be explained as a summative or mechanistic effect of the
properties inherent in the stimulus and in the retina. It is neither the
one nor the other, nor the algebraic sum of the two. It is, in fact,
totally new, being derived from the newly established relationship set
up by the coming together of the stimulus and the retinal potentialities.
This new phenomenon may be called a relational emergent, or simply
The denial that the emergent produced is an algebraic sum of the
properties of stimulus and retina is not a denial that a particular
wave-length, 520 millimicrons, and a particular retina are necessary and
sufficient causes or preconditions of the experience of "green." They
are necessary, and therefore causes; without them the phenomenon of
"green" could not occur. But to concede this is very far from saying,
22 PROCEEDINGS FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Vol. 7
No. 1, 1944
with the mechanists, that the properties of wave-length 520 millicrons
and a retina of a certain constitution add up to "green."
Now this first emergent, the electrochemical impulse in the optic
nerve fibers, in turn operates as a cause or preconditional element when
it reaches the projection areas of the cerebral cortex. Here the im-
pulse comes into conjunction with certain latent properties of the cor-
tical cells, and from this conjunction arises a still newer and equally
unique emergent, the sensation of "greenness." This "greenness" is
neither the impulse in the nerve pathways, the responsive activities of
the cortical cells, nor the algebraic sum of any or all of the properties
of nerve or cortical cell activity.
In more general terms, then, all perceptions, and all overt re-
sponses of muscles and glands as well, can be best explained as emer-
gents, caused by antecedent emergents as necessary preconditions,
but not comprised of a summation of properties of these preconditions.
Indeed, no emergent, taken anywhere in the continuous chain of caus-
ality, is to be accounted for as a mere summation of the properties of
its antecedents, but is something unique and initially unpredictable
from these antecedents.
A concluding example from the physical sciences may help to
clarify this presentation. At normal temperature and pressure, hydro-
gen and oxygen are gases. If we imagine a physicist who knew all
the properties of these two gases, but who at the same time was wholly
unacquainted with water, we can see that it would be impossible for
him to define any of the properties of water except its molecular
weight, even if he were told that it consisted of two atoms of hydrogen
joined to one of oxygen. He could not predict the liquid state of water
at ordinary temperatures and pressures, its boiling and freezing points,
its anomalous expansion, its viscosity, or its surface tension, for the
same reason that since water is an emergent of hydrogen and oxygen
in the relationship of combination, it is something unique that cannot
be derived a prior from the properties of its component substances.
In brief, just as the stimulus wave-length 520 millicrons and the
retina and optical nerve and cortical cells are one thing, while the
"greenness" that results from their relation is an altogether different
thing, so oxygen and hydrogen are one thing, and water a new and
unpredictable emergent that arises from their coming together.
AN EARLY INDIAN CLAM BAKE
R. B. BECKER
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
A few years ago, a visit was made to an Indian campsite, which
was preserved to a remarkable degree despite the long time since its
abandonment. This campsite was located in Walton County within
sight of the Gulf of Mexico some distance from U. S. Highway 98.
Now for the narrative.
Before white man's history of the event, an Indian settlement was
located at the junction of Eastern Lake and the Gulf of Mexico. The
.campsite was an ideal one. Eastern Lake supplied fresh water, while
the salt waters of the gulf provided sea foods. The campsite was
located about a large live oak with the campfire farther inland from
the gulf. Under the spreading branches of the oak, the Indians dug
pits into the reddish-brown sand-clay soil down onto the hardpan
subsoil and heated these pits with fire. After these pits were heated
throughly, moist white sand from the shore was placed in the hot pits,
whole clams (poquauhocks or "quahogs," a variety of Venus merce-
naria Linn.) in the shells were placed above the moist sand, and the
live clams covered over with hot ashes. Numerous clam bakes had
been prepared under this great tree. During such a clam bake a storm
swept in off the gulf. Waves and wind drove the Indians inland,
and covered the campsite with a sand dune. The sand buried the
roots of the great oak so deeply that it died. The trunk and branches
decayed, and wasted away, but the trunk and roots remained, pre-
served by a deep cover of dune sand. Years or perhaps centuries later, I
Mr.-W. We\.-fvly and his bride entered on a 160 acre homestead&t"-e ^
bordering on the Gulf of Mexico and including this exact site. Their
cabin was built about 500 yards inland from the old sand dunes, the
sands of which had shifted to expose the trunk of the old tree. They
"proved up" on the homestead and later moved a few miles away to
Point Washington on Choctawhatchee Bay.
About a quarter of a century passed. In 1926 another storm
lashed the waters of the Gulf. Waves and wind removed a part of
the large dune and exposed the ancient Indian campsite. A few per-
sons who fished, or hunted crabs on the gulf picked up flint arrows
and fairly large pieces of broken Indian pottery on the campsite.
On December 21, 1931, the author visited this ancient campsite
accompanied by the elder Mr. Wesley and his sons Arthur and Edgar.
A casual survey of the site was made in search for Indian relics. The
24 PROCEEDINGS FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
No. 1, 1944
search yielded nine arrow points, a small bone needle, piece of quartz,
two rough bird points, a broken arrow, two small worked flints and
a selection of broken pottery from the numerous fragments scattered
It was possible to distinguish the original level of the Indian
camp by pieces of flint, the arrow points, broken pottery and fire
sites. Where the sand had blown and washed away from part of the
dune, a portion of the terrain was below the old camp level. This
was shown by debris being on the surface only. In other places
a layer of beach sand of a different color covered the campsite. A fire
site, about 7 x 9 feet in dimensions, revealed by its rounding surface and
a deposit of ashes mixed with sand, was excavated. Broken parts of two
pots too fragmentary for restoration were found ir these ashes, as was
also a rounded and worn fragment of coral. The find of greatest in-
terest was discovered next.
At an intersection of the present terrain with the level of the old
campsite, Arthur Westley and the author began to excavate. The sites
of six clam bake pits with whole clam shells, were found together, and
two others near them. Each of these was identical in outline and
structure, indicating the method used by the Indians in preparing this
repast. The pits were 7 to 10 inches across, and deeper than the
diameter. Sand had been removed and a fire or burning coals placed
therein to heat the pit. When the fire had burned down, the cavity
was filled level with white beach sand and the whole clams placed
over the top. (It is believed that the white beach sand was wet,
and that the clams were steamed). One of the whole clams was taken
for identification. It was variety of the quahog Venus mercenaria
Another hurricane moved across the Gulf and went inland near
Eastern Lake in the summer of 1936. High tides swept the waves of
the Gulf over the campsite. Beach sands were swept inward. When
the waves receded, the coastline was one-eighth mile farther seaward
than in 1931.
The old campsite was visited again on September 3, 1936. Beach
sands covered so much of the earlier campsite level, that only here
and there were any traces of Indian occupancy evident. A few small
fragments of Indian pottery and a single broken flint arrow were
secured. The southern face of the old dune had washed away, leaving
the few remaining roots of the old live oak tree exposed. The surface
soil of the campsite had been washed away at this point exposing the
hardpan subsoil. Numerous discolored spots in the dark organic hard-
pan showed where many clam feasts had been steamed. At only two
S FIRE PT /EASTERN LAK
I --- _"' // //
IA LIVE-OAK /
7', STUr-MP SAND DUNE >
GULF of MEXICO
CLAMS MIXED WITH
SAND AND ASHES
%ND DUNE >
Je .jd r o -YELLOW S- W. NITEA uNW-
Sv/of /' '/ cp SAND~- a: C JAYER
e-- oj,.r,,-f/c, IIN-SITU- S.. 5AND- OF SAND
:-i-L4g.^ :- __. _.' *- A5E
-C. ^---^ ~-
Figure 1-Sketch of Indian campsite showing features exposed prior to last
hurricane. A-Plan, B-Profile, not drawn to scale. C-Cross-section of clambake pit.
26 PROCEEDINGS FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
No. 1, 1944
Figure 2.-Indian campsite. Upper-A part of the sand dune remaining south-
east of Eastern Lake after the second hurricane. Lower-Scattered remains of an
Indian clambake at the campsite, with two pieces of broken pottery, after the sec-
AN EARLY INDIAN CLAM BAKE 27
points were the empty shells of such a bake still intact with the original
ashes. Two fragments of Indian pottery lay by one of these. A
photograph taken for record, accompanies these observations.
Thus was pieced together a part of the camp life of some American
Indians prior to the influence of white men. 'The forces of Nature
which once preserved the site are destroying it again by the action
of wind and waves and the shifting of the sands along the gulf coast.
QUANTITATIVE CRITERIA FOR THE
APPLICATION OF NORMAL
RICHARD J. ANDERSON
University of Florida
The successful application of the normal distribution curve,
through the use of tables of areas under the curve, to problems involv-
ing probability of occurrence, and for the prediction of distributions,
has resulted in the development and dissemination of systems assign-
ing academic grades on the basis of percentages obtained from the
normal curve. These normal grading systems gain further prestige
from the demonstrable facts that human traits such as height, weight,
intelligence, and therefore by inference, academic ability and achieve-
ment, very closely approach normal distribution if sizable, representa-
tive samples are taken.
Of the many normal grading systems offered, the one obtained by
using the standard tables of areas under the normal curve and dividing
the group into five letter grade groups of unit standard deviation size
is almost universally recognized as the most conventional scheme to
adopt. It gives the grade C a percentage of 38 (the percentage of the
area within .5 standard deviation on either side of the mean), B and
D percentages of 24 each, (the percentages of the area, between .5
and 1.5 standard deviations on either side of the mean), and A and E
each percentages of 7 (corresponding to the remaining extreme areas).
This system is the one with which we shall be concerned, although
the method introduced could be applied to any such system.
Those who have had experience in assigning grades on the basis of
scores which can be ranged in a single distribution, have developed
criteria for interpreting the degree of conformity to a normal grading
system which may be expected. However, people who are less familiar
with the topic are often perplexed by the high degree of precision in
the derivation of normal grading systems and the apparently incon-
gruous, large deviations from the fixed theoretical percentages which
are usually experienced. Textbook discussions of the topic of normal
grading systems are of little use to one in investigating the degree of
conformity to be expected. They usually give merely the precise
statistical derivation of the system or systems in question, and then
either rigid endorsement, or some general statement to the effect that
conformity will not be too high if the group is too small.
The problem of comparing an experienced distribution with one
theoretically derived from fixed assumptions is easily solved by appli-
QUANTITATIVE CRITERIA-NORMAL GRADING SYSTEMS 29
cation of the Chi Square test. This determines whether or not the
deviations are too large for mere chance fluctuations by obtaining
the probability of occurrence of so large a value of this measure of
deviations, called Chi Square. The method to be presented considers
the opposite aspect of the problem. Using A-7 per cent, B-24 per
cent, C-38 per cent, D-24 per cent, E-7 per cent as our theoretical dis-
tribution, we shall compute deviations so as to obtain the greatest
possible value of Chi Square having a probability of occurrence greater
than 0.1. The probability 0.1 is chosen because Chi Square probability
of 0.1 is considered as not contradicting the theoretical assumptions.'
Any useful probability could be taken, but 0.1 will give the largest
universally acceptable deviations, and therefore, provide criteria in the
form of limiting distributions. In considering deviations we shall con-
sider all possible situations of maximum and minimum concentration
of single or paired letter grades for a group of 100, and consider only
single letter concentrations for a group of 200 to show the effect of
size. A group of one hundred is chosen as the smallest group to which
normal grading systems can reasonably be applied, and also, because
of the frequent occurrence of groups of this size. Furthermore, this
permits immediate realization of the percentage distribution. For
a fixed group of any size, with five categories and P=0.1, the value of
Chi Square is 7.779. Thus, any distribution from which we obtain
a value of Chi Square less than 7.779 will be consistent with our
assumed distribution of 7, 24, 38, 24, 7.
The following example will serve to illustrate the computation:
Chi Square = Z (f,-ft)*
ft f (f-ft)_ (fp- -ft)
A 7 14 7 49 7.000
B 24 22 -2 4 :.167
C 38 36 -2 4 .105
D 24 22 -2 4 .167
E 7 6 -1 1 .143
'John F. Kenny, Mathematics of Statistics, Pt. II (New York. D. Van
Nostrand Co., 1939), p. 169. This work will serve as a general reference to the
subject treated in the present paper.
30 PROCEEDINGS FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
No. 1, 1944
This illustration maximizes A's. Since the deviations are squared
we need but change the signs of the deviations to minimize A's. Also,
because of the symmetry of the assumed distribution, from this single
computation we can also draw maximum and minimum E's.
The following tables with Chi Square values given, show how far
our experienced distributions may deviate from the fixed percentages.
Parentheses indicate alternate figures.
N = 100 P =0.1 Chi Square < 7.779
MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM A OR E (7.582)
A B C D E
Theoretical 7 24 38 24 7
Maximum A 14 22 36 22 6
Minimum A 0 26 40 26 8
Maximum E 6 22 36 22 14
Minimum E 8 26 40 26 0
MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM B OR D (6.653)
A B C D E
Theoretical 7 24 38 24 7
Maximum B 6 35 33 20 6
Minimum B 8 13 43 28 8
Maximum D 6 20 33 35 6
Minimum D 8 28 43 13 8
MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM C (7.298)
A B C D E
Theoretical 7 24 38 24 7
Maximum C 5 19(20) 51 20(19) 5
Minimum C 9 29(28) 25 28(29) 9
MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM A AND E SIMULTANEOUSLY (6.820)
A B C D E
Theoretical 7 24 38 24 7
Maximum A andE 12(11) 22(21) 34 21(22) 11(12)
Minimum A and E 2(3) 26(27) 42 27(26) 3(2)
QUANTITATIVE CRITERIA-NORMAL GRADING SYSTEMS 31
MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM A AND C, OR E AND C
Maximum A and C
Minimum A and C
Maximum E and C
Minimum E and C
A B C D
MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM B
Maximum B and C 5
Minimum B and C 9
Maximum D and C 5
Minimum D and C 9
MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM A
Maximum A and
Minimum A and
Maximum A and
Minimum A and
Maximum E and
Minimum E and.
Maximum E and
Minimum E and
AND C, OR
D AND C SIMULTANEOUSLY
B C D
24 38 24
29 46 15
19 30 33
15 46 29
33 30 19
AND B, OR A
E AND B SIMULTANEOUSLY
B 10 33
B 4 15
D 10 19
D 4 29
D 6 19
D 8 29
B 6 33
B 8 15
AND D, OR E AND D, OR
MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM B AND D SIMULTANEOUSLY (6.816)
Maximum B and D
Mininium B and D
C D E
38 24 7
29 30(31) 5
47 18(17) 9
32 PROCEEDINGS FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
N =200 P = .1 ChiSquare < 7.779
MAXIMUM ANDI MINIMUM A OR E (7.743)
MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM B OR D (7.053)
MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM C (7.676)
No. 1, 1944
QUANTITATIVE CRITERIA-NORMAL GRADING SYSTEMS 33
The higher degree of conformity for the, larger group of 200 in-
dicates the effect of size. With very large groups, we would get much
closer limiting distributions.
The rather large deviations in the foregoing tables are to be ex-
pected on a mere chance basis in the absence of other factors. Selec-
tive grouping would include other more fundamental changes. Also,
the grading must be relative; external minimum standards or similar
criteria are not covered.
These tables not only offer specific examples of limiting distri-
butions for letter grade concentrations, but taken as a whole they
present an overall picture of the possible variations.
Similar tables are obtainable for any Chi Square probability or
for any size group by these same methods, thus supplementing the
mere single Chi Square checks we could obtain onr experienced dis-
tributions. In this way we can get an overall picture of the limiting
distributions in advance, instead of mere affirmation or denial of the
possibility of conformity to some theoretical distribution using some
single experienced distribution.
THE CURRENT FREIGHT RATE DISPUTE IN
WILLIAM H. JOUBERT
University of Florida
From the beginning of railway transportation in the United States,
freight rates have been a matter of serious controversy within the
southern railway territory. The basic issues of this conflict are out-
lined in the present paper, with the object of clarifying the question
and helping to eliminate the misunderstandings that surround it-
misunderstandings such as usually exist when highly technical matters
become public and therefore political issues.
For purposes of making railway freight rates the United States
has been divided into five territories: northern, southern, western
trunk line, southwestern and mountain-Pacific. The northern and
southern territories lie east of the Mississippi River; the other three
lie west of the river. The railroads have classified all articles of
freight into three great "classifications." The official classification
applies to the northern territory, the southern to southern territory,
and the western to western trunk line, mountain-Pacific and south-
Rates on freight classes lower than first class are expressed in per-
centages of the first class rate; all class rates are therefore very closely
interrelated. In the southern classification, for example, 15,994 freight
items are listed and assigned to 12 classes; for each of these 12 classes
rates have been prescribed for all possible distances. In each of the
five freight rate territories a different level of class rates exists, north-
ern or official territory having the lowest rates. The other territories
have class rates higher than those of northern territory by the follow-
ing percentages: southern territory, 39%; western trunk line terri-
tory, 47%; mountain-Pacific, 71%; southwestern territory, 75%.
It is essential to note that class rates are distinct from commodity
rates. When the railroads voluntarily or by order of the Interstate
Commerce Commission give an item special treatment in the form of
a rate lower than its class rate, the result is called a commodity rate.
Most of the railway freight tonnage of the United States is moved on
commodity rates. In fact, class rated traffic accounts for less than
25 % of the freight revenue of southern railroads. This is explained by
the fact that important agricultural and raw material commodities
like cotton, tobacco, vegetables, citrus fruits, lumber, coal, iron ore,
petroleum, and the leading manufactured products of the South, such
THE CURRENT FREIGHT RATE DISPUTE IN THE SOUTH 35
as textiles, tobacco products and furniture, move in large volume and
have been granted relatively low commodity rates.
For purposes of comparison and criticism, however, class rates and
not commodity rates are the most reliable and accurate measure of rate
relationships between the different rate territories. This conclusion
is supported by the following facts: (1) the number of different freight
items shipped under class rates is far greater than the number shipped
under commodity rates; (2) since 1928 many commodity rates have
been related to first class rates by percentages or parallel classification
columns, and are, in reality, class rates; (3) in the South many
finished manufactures, as contrasted with raw materials and semi-
manufactured articles, are shipped on high class rates; (4) industries
not yet established but contemplating location in the South are often
discouraged from doing so by the high class rates upon which their
products would have to move during the organizational stage.
Under the impact of the first world war the defects of the south-
ern class rate structure were glaringly revealed. The railroads, by
themselves and in cooperation with the shippers, made many efforts
at revision, but were unable to construct a workable plan. Following
these failures, in February, 1922, the Interstate Commerce Com-
mission, armed with broadened powers, instituted a study of the en-
tire southern class rate structure. After deliberating six years the
Commission finally established three major systems of class rates to
apply to southern territory: (1) a maximum distance scale of intra-
territorial class rates to apply between points wholly within southern
territory (the region east of the Mississippi River and south of the
Ohio and Potomac rivers, but excluding most of Virginia; (2) a sched-
ule of all-rail, water-rail and rail-water rates to apply between
rate groups in that part of the northern territory lying east of the
Mississippi River and rate groups in southern territory; and (3) scales
of maximum interterritorial class rates, lower than the southern
intraterritorial maximum scale, to apply on shipments of class items
between the western part of the northern territory and the South.
A special adjustment was made in the intraterritorial rates to and
from points in the South near northern territory, in order not to dis-
criminate against southern shippers located close enough to the bound-
ary to compete with shippers in northern territory. Also, the Florida
Peninsula received separate and special treatment in the form of a
mileage scale of arbitrary rates, (known as "arbitraries"), to be added
to the regular southern class scale on interstate shipments to and from
points in Florida. South of the line of the Seaboard from Jackson-
ville to River Junction, the class rate maximum was made approxi-
36 PROCEEDINGS FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES vol. 7
No. 1, 1944
mately 15 % higher than in the remainder of southern territory. For
example, if an interstate shipment of first class freight is hauled 100
miles in southern territory other than the Florida Peninsula the rate
is 79 cents per 100 pounds. However, if the identical shipment moves
100 miles, fifty miles of which are in Georgia and fifty miles in Florida,
the rate is 79 cents plus an "arbitrary" of 9 cents, or 88 cents. Similar
discrimination applies against Florida on all interstate shipments of
freight moving on class rates except those to and from the East (where
group rate adjustments have been made).
The maximum rates established as a result of the southern class
rate investigation went into effect on January 15, 1928. The only
important modification since made was a realignment of class rates
between points in the North and borderline points in Carolina, Kentucky
and Tennessee, made in 1935 and 1936.
The positive benefits of the southern class rate investigation of
the nineteen-twenties cannot be denied. Numerous long overdue im-
provements in the rate fabric of the South were effected. On the other
hand, serious causes for complaint and protest continued to exist. Al-
though constructive changes had been made, the basic structure of
rates in, and to and from, the South remained the same as before; the
general level within the South was still much higher than in northern
territory, and interterritorial class rates between the South and the
North remained higher, mile for mile, than rates within the North. Be-
cause of coastwise water competition, rates from the eastern part of
northern territory to the South were and have continued considerably
lower, mile for mile, than rates from the western part of northern
territory to the South. This was true in spite of the fact that by
1920 the southern railroads owned or completely controlled all of the
steamship lines plying between the eastern and southern ports. Com-
munities in Kentucky and the Carolinas continued to enjoy con-
siderably lower rates per mile than the rest of the South on class
shipments to and from northern territory. This so-called borderline
adjustment is still the source of much dissatisfaction.
The system of "arbitraries" set up to apply on class rates to and
from Florida, though much more reasonable and just than the previous
combinations of local and specific rates on Jacksonville which the
"arbitraries" replaced, is nevertheless based upon the same principle
and theory as those combinations. In establishing these "arbitraries"
the Commission failed to recognize that the population and the
economy of the State have shifted southward into the peninsula, and
that Florida is now the origin and destination of a large volume of
high class freight tonnage. Many other justifiable criticisms can be
THE CURRENT FREIGHT RATE DISPUTE IN THE SOUTH 37
brought against the Commission for its failure to make material changes
in the southern class rate level and in the relationship of southern
to northern rates.
During the late twenties and early thirties the Interstate Commerce
Commission also investigated class rates in southwestern, western trunk
line, and northern territory, and in the Far West. Scales of maximum
intra- and interterritorial class rates were adopted for each territory,
but in no case were the traditional relationships disturbed. In every
revision the Commission adhered to the same general principles that
guided it in the southern class rate investigation. Outworn systems
and practices were discarded, but no fundamental changes were made
in the existing rate levels or in the relationships between them.
Since 1928, when the revised rates went into effect, southern
shippers have expressed growing ,dissatisfaction with the southern class
rate structure. The South's rate problem may be dissected into three
component parts: (1) class rates between points in the South are ap-
proximately 39% higher than class rates between points in official
territory; (2) for equal distances class rates from the South to points
in northern territory are approximately 20% higher than those wholly
within the North; (3) in many instances class rates from northern terri-
tory to points in the South are considerably less, mile for mile, than
those wholly within the South.
In 1937 the general opposition of the South to the existing freight
rate structure was summarized in a brilliant report prepared by J. H.
Alldredge of the Tennessee Valley Authority. On July 25, 1938, the
National Emergency Council issued its now famous "Report on
Economic Conditions in the South" which contained a brief (although
erroneous and misleading) summary of the Alldredge document. The
propaganda purposes of that report were nevertheless successfully ac-
complished, since it brought about nationwide discussion of the South's
freight rate problem.
Another important page in the recent history of southern freight
rates was the successful effort of the Southern Governors' Conference
to persuade the Interstate Commerce Commission to reduce the rates
from the South to the North on fourteen commodities to the same
level, mile for mile, as rates within the northern territory. In a 5 to 4
decision on November 22, 1939, the Commission ordered material re-
ductions in the interterritorial rates on these items, on the ground that
the existing rates were extortionately high, unduly prejudicial to
southern shippers and violative of section 15(a)2 of the Interstate
Commerce Act, which requires the railroads not to set rates that im-
pede the flow of traffic. In many respects the findings of the ma-
38 PROCEEDINGS FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Vol. 7
No. 1, 1944
jority in this case were unique because they departed from the tra-
ditional interpretations of the Commission. On the other hand the de-
cision resulted in readjustment of rates on only a few relatively un-
important commodities. It is doubtful if this action can be taken as
indicative of the nature of the changes the Commission may ulti-
mately make in the relative levels of territorial class rates throughout
The result of the Alldredge report, the report on economic con-
ditions in the South, and the Southern Governors' case, was to convert
the freight rate problem of the South into a political issue. In January,
1939, Congress began consideration of seven bills to readjust southern
freight rates. Each of the bills has one or the other of two possible
objectives: (1) to establish a mandatory and rigid destination prin-
ciple of rate making or (2) to grant the Interstate Commerce Commis-
sion power to eliminate freight rate discrimination between regions, dis-
tricts and territories. The destination principle would make rates from
one territory to another no higher, mile for mile, than rates wholly with-
in the territory to which the shipments were destined. As the debate pro-
ceeded the destination rule lost favor because of three main defects:
(1) it would have necessitated different rates on freight moving in op-
posite directions over the same route-an inconsistency the Interstate
Commerce Commission tried to avoid; (2) it was too inflexible; (3) it
would have upset many rates with which both carriers and shippers were
satisfied. Finally, the Transportation Act of 1940 was passed, con-
taining a clause strengthening the hand of the Commission over regional
rate discrimination. Specifically, section 3 of the Interstate Commerce
Act was amended by the addition of the words "region," "district" and
"territory" to the persons, things, and localities against which it had long
been illegal to show undue or unreasonable prejudice or preference in
making freight rates.
Neither the Alldredge report of 1937, nor the report on economic
conditions in the South in 1938, nor the decision of the Commission in
the Southern Governors' case of 1939, nor the Transportation Act of
1940 is the most significant recent development in the long struggle over
freight rates in the South. Closely related to these events, and resulting
largely from them, was the announcement by the Interstate Commerce
Commission on July 29, 1939, that it was undertaking a general investi-
gation of all class rates in the four freight rate territories lying east of
the Rocky Mountains. This is not only the most important development
in the present rate dispute, but also one of the most far-reaching steps
ever taken by the Commission. Strengthened by the Transportation
Act of 1940, the Commission may for the first time order a realign-
ment of all class rates in the nation.
THE CURRENT FREIGHT RATE DISPUTE IN THE SOUTH 39
The outcome of this investigation cannot yet be predicted, but the
arguments and evidence that have been and will be presented by the
various groups and interests can be analyzed briefly. The shippers of
the Southern, Southwestern and western trunk line territories want an
equality of class rates with northern territory. The southern rail-
roads, the northern railroads and northern shippers strongly oppose any
fundamental change in the existing relationship. Also opposed are
many southern producers of raw materials such as coal, iron ore, lum-
ber, and crude manufactures. These producers already enjoy low
commodity rates, and fear that any change in class rates may destroy
The major arguments in favor of a modification are as follows. (1)
Recent studies by the statistical staff of the Interstate Commerce
Commission show that the cost of railway transportation in the South
and Southwest is considerably lower than in the northern territory.
This is especially true for hauls in boxcar loads, which is the most
common method of shipping class freight. (2) A majority of the
Interstate Commerce Commission has already held that the existing
class rate maxima for the various rate territories are no longer a just
measure of what class rates ought to be. (3) The present territorial
boundaries, defined before 1900, are now illogical and should be
abolished or radically readjusted. (4) A large body of evidence shows
that valuable and highly refined manufactured products are particularly
burdened and prejudiced by the present class rates. Recent studies
made by the Tennessee Valley Authority reveal that the nearer a pro-
duct comes to the final stage of production, the greater is the dis-
advantage in rates against the southern manufacturer. For example,
rates on raw cotton from the South to the North are the same, mile
for mile, as those within official territory. On bleached cotton fabrics
the South to North rate is 11% higher than the rate wholly within
northern territory; and on oil-cloth, a more highly processed cotton
product, the disparity is 54%. Similar disparities exist on com-
modities made from cottonseed oil, pig iron, asphalt, ceramic clay,
sulphur, lead and many others. (5) Farmers and other small raw
material producers of the southern, southwestern, and western trunk
line territories are persuaded that if manufacturing moves from north-
ern territory into these regions, transportation costs from farm, forest
and mine to the factory will be less, and hence the extractive indus-
tries will receive a larger share of the ultimate price. According to
orthodox economic theory, reduced transportation costs do not result
in larger incomes to competitive shippers, but in the case at hand the
farmers would probably benefit.
40 PROCEEDINGS FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
No. 1, 1944
The arguments presented by the northern manufacturers against
revision of the present class structure are the same as those they have
presented in favor of every tariff law from the "tariff of abominations"
of 1832 to the Smoot-Hawley tariff of 1930. This group makes the
following claims: (1) reduced transportation costs from the South
to the North will cause a vast migration of industry, (2) the low wage
industries in the South will destroy the wage level of the North, (3)
the northern market belongs to northern producers, and (4) high
freight rates have not hampered industrialization in the South.
The first three of these four arguments are based upon selfishness
and fear. In determining fair rates the Interstate Commerce Com-
mission is supposed to consider only those factors bearing upon trans-
portation conditions. It is regrettable that sectional prejudices must
be heard. As to the growth of southern industry, it is clear that in
spite of remarkable progress in some fields, such as textiles, the South,
for all its wealth of human and material resources, is still a poverty-
ridden economic region.
The northern railroads oppose any change in existing class rate
relationships on the ground that past approval by the Interstate Com-
merce Commission of the existing class rate structure attests to the
reasonableness of those rates. An important but little publicized ob-
jection of these roads to elimination of the class rate disparities is
that if the South manufactures its finished products from raw materials
grown or extracted in the southern states, the northern carriers will
neither share in the profitable long hauls of southern raw materials
to factories in northern territory, nor enjoy the even more lucrative
class rate traffic from the North to the South.
Although the railroads of the South sided with the southern gov-
ernors in the Southern Governors' case, they have switched their po-
sition in the general investigation, and now express opposition to any
change whatever in the present class rate relationships. As witnesses
in the Southern Governors' case, the southern railroads were willing to
cooperate in obtaining lower rates from the South to the North on
a few relatively unimportant commodities because the northern rail-
roads usually refuse to establish joint rates with the southern roads
on manufactured products from the South to the North. In the gen-
eral investigation the southern governors seek a lower scale of rates
on all class traffic within and to and from the South. The southern
railroads strongly oppose these reductions because of the fear of
losses in revenue. These lines are entirely sympathetic with the north-
ern railroads, and are exerting every power at their command to de-
feat the agitation for revising the existing rate structure. They have
THE CURRENT FREIGHT RATE DISPUTE IN THE SOUTH 41
several arguments to support their case: (1) the revenue per mile of
line operated is much less in the South than in northern territory, and
lower rates would increase this disadvantage; (2) in distributing the
transportation burden the southern railroads have to charge high; rates
on class traffic to offset the low commodity rates granted southern
shippers; (3) since the Civil War the southern railroads have fol-
lowed a traditional policy of granting low commodity rates on some
southern manufactured goods in order to encourage industrialization
in the South.
Judging from previous decisions of the Interstate Commerce Com-
mission, and assuming no sharp break with past practice, one can con-
fidently predict that the Commission will give no consideration or
weight to most of these arguments. If the evidence convinces the
Commission that costs of railway operation are less in the South than
in the North, the cost argument will receive great weight. But even
that evidence will not be conclusive if changes in rates would jeopard-
ize railway revenue.
As has been said, it is too early to anticipate the outcome of the
general investigation. The Commission may adopt a do-nothing atti-
tude and eventually dismiss the case; or it may go so far as to elimi-
nate the five freight rate territories and establish a maximum scale
of class rates and a single uniform classification to apply throughout
the United States. These are the extreme negative and positive possi-
bilities. The decision will probably fall somewhere in between. The
problem is very complex. An increase in the class rate level of north-
ern territory might cause a great shift of class traffic to the truck
and water lines and a relocation of the nation's industry. On the
other hand a lowering of .class rates in the high rated territories might
bankrupt the railroads. This would be remotely possible if no imme-
diate increase in the volume of traffic followed these reductions and if
no readjustments were made in the division of joint rates between
the northern and southern railroads. Also, lower class rates in the
South might necessitate increases in rates on many commodities now
enjoying low commodity rates.
One possible outcome is a modification of the present rate terri-
tories. An outstanding member of the Interstate Commerce Com-
mission, the late Mr. Joseph B. Eastman, who handed down a dissent
from the majority decision in the Southern Governors' case and who
generally opposed the recent agitation by the South andWest for
lower rates, recognized the inequality of the present territorial
boundaries. In 1934 he referred to the territory boundary lines as
"Chinese Walls" and complained that the existence of different freight
42 PROCEEDINGS FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
No. 1, 1944
rate territories tended to provincialize the railroads and to discour-
age national unity of action.
In the present conflict the southern shippers, acting through the
Southern Governors' Conference and the Tennessee Valley Authority,
have won every preliminary skirmish and every major battle. The pre-
ponderance of evidence tends to substantiate their arguments. Neverthe-
less, anticipation of a decision favorable to the South in the present
controversy must be qualified by consideration of the past actions, at-
titude and traditional reasoning of the Interstate Commerce Commission.
On the basis of its historical record southern shippers direct six major
charges against that body. (1) The Commission neglects its admin-
istrative functions as a quasi-judicial body by over-emphasizing its
judicial functions. (2) The Commission adheres too rigidly to prece-
dent and tradition, long after, economic developments have overthrown
the necessity and justification for relying upon historical evidence.
For example, although the center of Florida's population and eco-
nomic activity has shifted southward into the peninsula, the present
class rate adjustment is based upon a time when the economy of the
state was clustered around Jacksonville. (3) In more than twenty de-
cisions the Commission has stated that transportation conditions are
more favorable, therefore, costs of transportation are less in north-
ern territory than in southern territory. Until recently, however,
neither the Commission itself, nor the railroads, nor the shippers have
made a reliable study of comparative transportation costs in the va-
rious rate territories. (4) In setting up a maximum scale of class rates
the Commission has placed mistaken emphasis upon high traffic den-
sity in northern as compared with southern territory. It is true that
much of the capacity of a railroad is unused, and many of the costs
like interest, taxes, rentals and depreciation are constant. Therefore,
the more traffic hauled, the less the per unit cost and the lower the
rate. Accepting this density argument as conclusive, the Commission
sanctions a low class rate level in the North and a high rate level in
the South. By doing so it overlooks two vital items: (a) a high level
of class rates discourages the growth of traffic density in the South;
(b) greater density justifies reduced rates only up to a certain point,
beyond which point inefficiencies appear, costs increase and higher
rates may be justified; evidence seems to show that northern rail-
roads have reached this stage of increasing costs. (5) Probably be-
cause of fear of reversal by the federal courts, the Commission has
tended to argue that it cannot exercise powers which Congress clearly
intended it to possess, and the vigorous application of which would
relieve the South of many onerous freight rate discrimination. (6)
THE CURRENT FREIGHT RATE DISPUTE IN THE SOUTH 43
The Interstate Commerce Commission, either intentionally or unin-
tentionally, arrives at decisions which complicate the problems of
southern shippers. The horizontal percentage rate increases in 1938
and 1942 support this contention. Percentage increases always mili-
tate against high rated territory. For example, if the rate in south-
ern territory is $1.39 and that in northern territory is $1.00, the dif-
ference is 39 cents. If the rates are increased 10% the southern rate
becomes $1.53 and the official rate $1.10. The difference in the rates
is increased from 39 cents to 43 cents, or an increased disadvantage of
4 cents per 100 pounds for the southern shipper. This difference of
4 cents per 100 pounds, applied to hundreds of millions of pounds of
traffic, adds up to a tremendous burden on the southern economy.
To the extent that the Interstate Commerce Commission has modi-
fied the policies that gave rise to these six criticisms, the outlook for
the southern shippers in the general investigation is bright. The fav-
orable decisions in the borderline cases of 1935 and in the Southern
Governors' case, and the refusal of the Commission thus far to dis-
miss the general investigation because of the war emergency are very
favorable signs. Whatever the outcome of the general investigation,
the agricultural, manufacturing and commercial interests of the sou-
thern, southwestern and western trunk line territories will continue
their fight against the existing class rate disparities until some con-
cessions are wrung from the Interstate Commerce Commission, or the
railroads, or Congress.
ITHE OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF
ALGAE IN SOILS'
F. B. SMITH
SUniversity of Florida
Since the algae are able to synthesize organic matter and some
species may fix atmospheric nitrogen, the economic significance of
these organisms is, at least by implication, considerable. The answer
to the question of their practical importance in soils depends to a large
extent upon the frequency of their occurrence and their distribution
in soils as well as their ability to fix carbon and nitrogen. According
to Singh2 certain Indian soils were increased in organic matter from
'Singh, R. N. The Role of Blue Green Algae in the Reclamation of "USAR"
Land. Proc. Indian Sci. Congr., 28: paper No. 4 (1941). (Abs. in Biol. Abs. 16,
No. 7, 1942).
1-2% to 4-6% by the growth of some of the blue-green algae. The
ability of certain of the blue-green algae to fix nitrogen is unques-
tioned. Although a great deal of work has been done to show the
existence of an algal flora of soils, as pointed out before,' very little of
'Smith, F. B. and H. R. Ellis, Preliminary Report on the Algal Flora of Some
Florida Soils. Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci., Vol. 6 (1943), pp. 59-65.
this work has been done on the soil type basis. The purpose of the
work reported here was to make further studies on the occurrence and
distribution of algae in soils.
Methods of Procedure
The soils used in this study were Norfolk fine sand, Orangeburg
fine sandy loam, Bradenton fine sandy loam and Muskingum stony
loam. With reference to the great soil groups, the first two types be-
long in the Red and Yellow podsolic group and the Muskingum stony
loam is a member of the Gray Brown podsolic group. The Red and
Yellow soils were developed in central and northern Florida, and the
Gray Brown podsolic was developed in Giles County, Virginia, in
the vicinity of Mountain Lake. The Norfolk fine sand was sampled
June 6, 1942, about 3 miles east of Gainesville, Florida, on the Haw-
thorne road. The profile was exposed by digging a trench about 2 feet
wide, 3 feet long and 3 feet deep. Samples of soil were taken aseptically
from this vertical cut at 0-1 inch, 4-5 inch, 8-9 inch, 12-13 inch, 24-
'Report of work done under a research fellowship granted by the Mountain
Lake Biological Station, Mountain Lake, Virginia, 1942. The author takes this
occasion to express his appreciation of the aid and to acknowledge the assistance
of Director Ivey F. Lewis and Dr. E. C. Cocke in the identification of some of the
THE OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF ALGAE IN SOILS 45
25 and 30-31 inch depths. The other soil profiles were sampled in a
similar manner, except that samples were not taken at all depths named
above in the other soil types. The Orangeburg fine sandy loam was
obtained in the vicinity of Quincy, Florida, and was sampled June 16,
1942. The Bradenton fine sandy loam was taken in Manatee County,
Florida, June 26, 1942. The Muskingum soil was sampled August 7,
Typical profiles of the above named soil types are described as
1. NORFOLK FINE SAND.4
'Henderson, J. R. Soils of Florida. Bull. Florida Agric. Exp. Station, No.
A1 0-3" Gray to yellowish-gray fine sand.
A2 3-30" plus-yellow sands, underlaid usually at 6 to 8 feet
below the surface with friable sandy clay.
2. ORANGEBURG FINE SANDY LOAM.
Ai 0-4" brownish-gray to grayish-brown fine sandy loam.
A2 4-16" yellow to brownish-yellow sandy loam.
B 16-54" bright red friable sandy clay.
C 54" plus-red friable sandy clay mottled with yellow
3. BRADENTON FINE SANDY LOAM.
I. 0-4" gray loose fine sand.
II. 4-18" light gray or almost white incoherent fine sand.
III. 18-26" gray, brown and yellow mottled compact fine sandy
IV. 26-36" plus-grayish white marl.
4. MUSKINGUM STONY LOAM.
Ao thin layer of loose forest litter.
A1 0-2" dark grayish brown loam and small rock fragments.
A2 2-8" grayish yellow heavy loam, friable, rock fragments.
B 8-18" light grayish-yellow silty clay and rock fragments.
C 18" plus-bedrock sandstone and shale.
The soils were brought into the laboratory thoroughly mixed
and 10 grams of the moist soil placed in 50 cc. of sterile Beijernick's
solution in 250 cc. Erlenmeyer flacks. The cultures were placed in a
window where the sun could strike them a part of the day. Cultures
of the Norfolk fine sand, were inoculated June 6 and growth appeared
June 17. Cultures of the Orangeburg fine sandy loam were inoculated
June 17 and growth appeared June 27. Cultures inoculated with the
46 PROCEEDINGS FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
No. 1, 1944
Bradenton fine sandy loam June 27 showed growth July 4. On ac-
count of the relatively low temperatures prevailing in the laboratory
at Mountain Lake (15-250C.) it was found necessary to provide arti-
ficial light and heat. Two large battery jars were each fitted with
covers to which 200 watt Mazda lamps were attached. This arrange-
ment provided a temperature of 40-45*C. inside the battery jar and a
light intensity 'of 200 foot candles. This temperature proved to be too
high for the growth of the soil algae. The cultures were placed on the
table in front of a window outside the battery jars and a cardboard
shield placed around three sides of the battery jars opposite the cul-
tures. This arrangement provided a minimum light intensity of 200
foot candles and a temperature of 25-300C. Growth appeared in 14-18
days under these conditions. Water mounts made from a loopful of
the culture served for microscopical examination. The forms found
are recorded in Table I.
LIST OF SPECIES
Norfolk fine sand.
Numerous pear-shaped cells in young cultures of soil from the 0-1
inch depth, 20x50 to 40x60 microns in size, becoming ovoid after a
few weeks were identified as Kentrosphaera sp. Attempts to isolate
this organism for pure culture study failed but this work is being
continued. The most numerous alga in this soil was Chlorococcum
humicola (Nag.) Rab. Another common form found in the surface
inch of this soil was Stichococcus subtilis (Kiitz.) Kl cc r. Pormi-
dium autumnale (Ag). Gom. and Phormidium inundatum Kiitz. were
abundant in older cultures from the surface sample of this soil., Pro-
tococcus sp. and Chlorella sp. were fairly numerous in the surface
sample. Mesotaenium sp. and Navicula sp. were encountered less fre-
quently than other forms in the surface sample of the Norfolk fine
sand. Chlorococcum humicola was present abundantly in all samples
of Norfolk fine sand examined to the 24-25 inch depth. Stichococcus
sp. was found only in the 30-31 inch depth of this soil. This organism
was not found in any other soil examined.
Orangeburg fine sandy loam.
Chlorococcum humicola was the most abundant form in the Or-
angeburg fine sandy loam. This organism was present in the surface
inch and the 4-5 inch samples. Numerous cells of Protococcus sp. and
Tetraedon sp. were found in the surface inch but not at greater depths.
Numerous filaments of Stichococcus subtilis developed in the cultures
from both the 0-1 inch and the 4-5 inch samples of soil. An occa-
sional filament of Phormidium sp. was found in old cultures of the 0-1
THE OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF ALGAE IN SOILS 47
Bradenton fine sandy loam.
Chlorococcum humicola was found in all samples of the Braden-
ton fine sandy loam from the surface to the 9 inch depth. The
Chlorococcum in this soil differed from the Chlorococcum in the Or-
angeburg fine sandy loam in that cells with button-like swellings nev-
er occurred and from the Chlorococcum in the Norfolk fine sand in
the greater variation in the size of cells. Unialgal cultures of this
organism from these soils have been prepared for further study.
Chlorella sp. was numerous in the surface and subsurface samples of
this soil. The cells of Kentrosphaera sp. were 25 to 40 microns in
diameter and were spherical to pyriform in shape, differing consider-
ably in appearance from the Kentrosphaera sp. found in the Norfolk
Muskingum stony loam.
Chlorococcum humicola and Stichococcus subtilis developed abund-
antly in the culture inoculated with the surface sample, 0-5 inch depth,
of Muskingum stony loam. The culture was inoculated August 7 and
examined August 26. Possibly other forms would have developed in
the culture later. A sample of the soil was taken for further study.
DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY
The methods employed in this study were adaptations of the bac-
teriological technique and a modification of the methods usually em-
ployed in a study of aquatic forms. The procedure followed was not
entirely satisfactory because of the different rates of growth of the
different genera, and the succession of forms made several examina-
tions necessary. Also because some forms soon deteriorate and if the
culture is not examined at the proper time such forms may not be
found. Furthermore, it is difficult to determine a given species in a
mixture of other species. In many cases unialgal cultures may be an
aid in species differentiation but efforts in this direction have not
been uniformly successful. Also the other difficulties enumerated
often exist in unialgal cultures as well as in mixed cultures. However,
in spite of these difficulties considerable information concerning the
occurrence and distribution of algae in soils was gained. /The d-ataii!-
Table 1 show that Chlorococcum humicola was found in the surface
inch of all soils examined. This species was found in all samples of
Norfolk fine sand to a depth of 25 inches but not below the 8-9 inch
depth in the Bradenton fine sandy loam and the 4-5 inch depth of the
Orangeburg fine sandy loam. Stichococcus sp. was widely distributed
in the soils examined and Protococcus sp. was found in the surface
inch of Norfolk fine sand and Orangeburg fine sandy loam. Only
48 PROCEEDINGS FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
No. 1. 1944
one genus of the Myxophyceae, Phormidium, was found in these soils,
the surface of Norfolk fine sand and the surface of Orangeburg fine
ady.loam. Diatoms were encountered in only the surface inch of
Norfolk fine sand.
While certain forms seem to be widely distributed in soils, the
different soil types appeared to have a characteristic algal flora, or at
least soil type differences were apparent. However, there was no ap-
parent relationship between soil reaction (Table 2) and the occurrence
of the forms found in these soils.
Representative coastal plain soils from south, central and north
Florida and from the Appalachian Highlands in southwestern Virginia
were used in this study. Chloroccum hUmicola was found in the sur-
face of all soils examined. This organism was also found distributed
throughout the profile of the Norfolk fine sand to a depth of 25 inches.
Species of Algae in Four Soil Types
Norfolk fine Orangeburg fine Bradenton fine Muskingum
Depth sand sandy loam sandy loam stony loam
0- in. 1 1 1 1
2 2 8 6
3 6 7
4- 5 in. 1 1 1 1
6 7 6
8- 9 in. 1 0 1 **
12-13 in. 1 0 0 **
24-25 in. 1 ** ** **
30-31 in. 12 ** ** **
0 No organism found 7 Kentrosphaera sp.
1 Chlorococcum humicola (Nag.) Rab. 8 Chlorella sp.
2 Protococcus sp. 9 Mesotaenium sp.
3 Phormidium autumnale (Ag.) Gom. 10 Navicula sp.
4 Phormidium inundatum Kiitz. 11 Tetraedron sp.
5 Phormidium sp. 12 Stichococcus sp.
6 Stichococcus subtilis (Kiitz.) Klecker.** Not Sampled.
THE OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF ALGAE IN SOILS 49
Norfolk fine sand
Orangeburg fine sandy loam
Bradenton fine sandy loam
Muskingum stony loam
pH of Soils
Depth of Sample (inches)
SOME PROPERTIES OF ROSIN
J. ERSKINE HAWKINS
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
Until a few years ago color was the principal criterion in determin-
ing the value of a given sample of rosin, regardless of the purpose
for which it was to be used. More recently, greater emphasis has
been placed on the physical and chemical properties of the rosin in
deciding its suitability for any particular use.
When sufficient information becomes available it may be that one
or two characteristics can be correlated satisfactorily with other prop-
erties so that these other properties can be estimated without resort-
ing to their direct determinations. As the interrelations of the constitu-
ents of rosin are unfolded, the optical rotation may become a basis
for this correlation.
In addition, it is of interest to know how successfully the method
used by Georgi,' in determining the specific rotation of some pure rosin
acids from rotations of their solutions, can be applied to rosin.
In view of the above, and inasmuch as commercial processes are
carried out with rosin and not with pure acids, the present work was
undertaken to determine the possibility of measuring the rotation of
rosin solutions of various concentrations and estimating the specific
rotation of the solid rosin from these data.
Some determinations of this nature have been made by Hawkins,
Black and others. The purpose of the latter work was to complete a
study of the conventional constants of gum turpentine and gum rosin
of known origin, which had been undertaken by Black and co-
workers." The unpublished data of Hawkins, Black, and others in-
volving the optical rotation showed some interesting relations which
will be briefly indicated. They prepared solutions of rosin of various
concentrations, using benzene and alcohol as solvents.
The specific rotation of the solutions was calculated by the
'Georgi, E. A., "The Rosin Acids," Journal of Chemical Education, Vol. 10
(1933), p. 415.
2(a) Black, A. P. and Thronson, S. M., "Oleoresin from Individual Trees of
Slash and Longleaf Pine," Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol. 26 (1934),
(b)Dustin, W. A., "Conventional Constants of Pine Gum Rosin of Known
Origin," Thesis, University of Florida, 1935.
SOME PROPERTIES OF ROSIN 51
Rotations of Solid Rosins
Sample Temp. C Length dom. Obs. Rotation By Eq. 3 By Eq. 4
A 38 0.588 19.9 33.9
33 .588 20.2 34.3
30 .632 21.9 34.7
30 .395 13.6 34.4
27.2 .632 22.1 35.0
Average Value 34.4 32.3
B 32 0.150 4.45 29.7
32 .640 18.9 29.5
30 .885 26.5 29.9
30 .535 16.1 30.1
30 .640 19.1 29.8
30 .885 26.2 29.6
26 .535 16.3 30.5
26 .885 26.8 30.3
26 .640 19.3 30.2
Average Value! 30.0 28.2
C 32.2 0.705 21.3 30.2
30.5 .495 14.9 30.1
30 .705 21.2 30.1
29.8 .795 23.8 29.9
26 .495 15.1 30.5
26 .705 21.5 30.5
26 .795 23.7 29.8
Average Values 30.2 28.3
D 32 0.475 14.2 29.9
32 1.13 33.7 29.8
26 .475 14.5 30.5
26 1.13 33.7 29.8
Average Valuer 30.0 28.2
E 28.5 1.39 56.6 40.7
28.5 1.40 56.9 40.6
28.5 .820 33.5 40.8
28.5 .530 21.7 41.0
28.4 .905 36.9 40.8
28.4 .440 17.9 40.7
Average Value 40.8 38.3
F 28.7 .592 24.2 40.9
28.7 .585 24.0 41.0
28 1.24 50.3 40.6
Average Valuei 40.8 38.3
G 28 .595 22.7 38.1
28 1.02 38.8 38.1
28 1.02 38.9 38.2
Average Value 38.1 36.1
52 PROCEEDINGS FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Average Results of 2 to 4 Readings on 1 to 3 Samples at Temperatures
Between 260 and 31C
% Rosin 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 100 100 100
Sample Extrp. Eq.3 Eq.4
B 41.8 41.2 39.6 38.8 37.5 36.5 35.5 33.0 30.2 30.0 28.2
C ...... ...... 39.0 38.5 37.8 36.5 35.4 33.9 31.0 30.2 28.3
D ....-..... 40.3 39.0 37.9 36.5 35.5 34.4 30.7 30.0 28.2
Complete Data on Samples on which Only One Series of
Determinations Was Made
5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 100 100 100
Extrp. Eq.3 Eq.4
28.0 27.8 27.6 27.3 28.0 26.0 26.0 31.0 ...... ......
1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 ...... ...... 31.6
2.19 4.35 8.50 12.6 16.5 20.4 24.3 27.1 ...... ......
49.7 48.8 47.0 45.5 44.6 42.2 41.3 39.2 35.0 34.4 32.3
20 30 40 50 60 70 100 100 100
Extrp. Eq.3 Eq.4
27.5 28.0 27.5 28.0 28.0 29.2 .... ...... 28.5
2.0 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 ...... ......
18.7 28.1 37.1 22.0 27.5 31.5 ...... ......
51.8 50.7 49.4 47.9 46.9 45.1 41.3 40.8 38.3
20 30 40 50 60 70 100 100 100
Extrp. Eq.3 Eq.4
28.6 28.8 28.0 28.6 28.8 29.0 .... ...... 28.5
2.0 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 ...... ......
19.1 28.5 37.8 23.5 27.7 31.5 ...... ......
52.7 51.5 50.3 49.0 47.2 45.2 41.4 40.8 38.3
20 30 40 50 60. 70 100 100 100
Extrp. Eq.3 Eq.4
30.0 30.0 29.0 29.8 29.8 29.8 ...... ...... 28.0
2.0 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 ...... ......
18.1 27.1 36.0 22.2 26.5 30.3 .... ...
50.0 49.1 47.8 46.1 45.2 43.4 39.4 38.1 36.1
SOME PROPERTIES OF ROSIN
in which a is the observed angle of rotation, g is the weight, in grams,
of rosin, I is the length of polarimeter tube in decimeters, and v is
the volume of solvent. This equation differs from the ordinary one
but has been used by Aschan' in his studies.
Plots of specific rotation versus per cent of rosin by weight in the
solution produced results indicated by the graphs in Figure 1. There
appears to be no doubt that the specific rotation is affected by the
concentration of the solution and by the solvent used. The tendency
for the extrapolated curves, for the same sample of rosin in different
solvents, to meet at 100% rosin is of no particular significance. This
point corresponds to zero volume of solvent and should therefore be
at 0* rotation in all cases.
Georgi' has presented the results of similar studies of solutions of
pure abietic acid. For an example see Fig. 2. In calculating the values
of the specific rotation he used the customary relation
Where a = the observed rotation; w = the weight of solution; I = the
length of the polarimeter tube in decimeters; g = the grams of acid
dissolved in w grams of solution; d = the density of the solution. The
extrapolation of his graphs to a point corresponding to 100% acid
indicate that the curves meet at a common point, in this case -38,
which should be the specific rotation of the pure acid. This value
checks reasonably well with the -35" obtained from measurements on
the solid compound.
In preparing the sample of the solid acid Georgi fused the material.
Since abietic acid is isomerized by heating, it is believed that this
procedure changed the value of the rotation and therefore a close
check should not be expected here.
In the present work fusion of the rosin was avoided. Samples of
the solid were prepared either by chipping large pieces of rosin to the
appropriate size and then smoothing the parallel surfaces with a hot
flat iron, or by pouring the rosin into molds at the still and smooth-
ing the surfaces as indicated. This latter procedure is recommended.
The molds were made from cardboard mailing tubes with a cork
closing the lower end and were approximately 1 3/8 inches in diameter
and 10 inches long. After cooling, the samples were broken into two
unequal lengths and their ends, perpendicular to the long axis,
smoothed on a hot flatiron. The optical rotation of each piece was de-
"Aschan, O., Naphtenverbindungen Terpen and Campherten (Berlin: Walter
De Gruyter and Co., 1929).
54 PROCEEDINGS FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
No. 1, 1944
termined and its length and temperature recorded. Following this,
solutions varying from 5% to 70% rosin in benzene were made. In
carrying out this last step, the rosin was weighed, after the surface
layer had been removed, and immediately dissolved in the proper
amount of solvent. This precaution reduces the possibility of having
oxidized rosin acids in the solution. The optical rotation of each
solution was read as soon as possible.
Benzene was used as the solvent. It was found that commercial
benzene was just as satisfactory for the purpose as was a highly puri-
fied product. All measurements were made with a polarimeter reading
directly to 0.010 and at temperatures between 260 and 310 C.
The calculation of the specific rotation of the solid was made ac-
cording to the following equations:
] a a
a]D (3) and a]D (4)
The value of d used was the density at the average temperature of the
observations as listed in Table I. The calculated values of a are
given in Table I. The values calculated by (3) agreed with the
values obtained by the extrapolation of the data on the solutions better
than the values calulated by equation (4).
The literature contains comparatively little information concern-
ing the rotatory power of solids. The relations expressed by equa-
tions (3) and (4) have been applied to crystals and have been used
in the calculations in this paper. On page 340 of his book, Lowry'
states: "The rotatory power of a crystal is usually expressed as the rota-
tion produced by 1 mm. thickness; the rotatory power of a solution may
be expressed in comparable units by means of the function [a] d/100
where [a] is the specific rotation and d the density of the solution;
conversely the rotatory power of a crystal, per mm. can be expressed
like that of a solution as [a] = ---
The specific rotation of each solution was calculated by use of
equation (2). Some data and results are included in Table 2 and are
plotted in Fig. 3.
In a number of cases the reproducibility of the data, especially at
concentrations below 30% rosin, was not satisfactory. In some cases
the optical rotation of a given solution seemed to change continuously.
On the other hand, many solutions were kept for months with no
appreciable alteration in the rotation. No explanation for the lack of
'Lowry, T. M., Optical Rotatory Power. (London: Longmans, Green and Co.,
SOME PROPERTIES OF ROSIN
Density of Solutions of Rosin in Benzene
% Rosin 0 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
28 0.8703 .8786 .8898 .9043 .9215 .9399 .9599 .9790 .9978
33 0.8653 .8740 .8855 .9006 .9186 .9377 .9569 .9767 .9954
38 0.8603 .8700 .8809 .8957 .9133 .9323 .9525 .9717 .9912
Density of Solid Rosin
C 27.2 33.0 38.0
1 1.0678 1.0653 1.0591
2 1.0670 1.0634 1.0611
3 1.0659 1.0626 ..........
4 1.0673 1.0638 1.0602
Average 1.0670 1.0638 1.0602
Apparent Specific Volume of Rosin in Benzene at 33
% Rosin 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
0 1.146 0.9960 0.9755 0.9589 0.9497 0.9458 0.9437 0.9448
reproducibility is offered. However, in every case, data on solutions
above 30% rosin could be reproduced sufficiently well so that extrapo-
lation to 100% usually gave a value which checked the observed value
of the solid within approximately 10, when using equation 3.
Discussions of the solvent effects on rotation and the variation of
specific rotation with concentration have been presented by T. M.
Lowry' and more recently by Kauzmann, Walter and Eyring."
Density Determination. The densities of the rosin solutions were
determined, by using a Westphal balance, at 28.0, 33.0, and 38.0 +
0.1. These values could be readily reproduced to within 3 parts
in the fourth place. Values of pure benzene checked within this
limit with the values given in the International Critical Tables.6 The
data are given in Table III. The variation of density with concentra-
tion is not linear.
The densities of four solid rosin samples were determined at 27.20,
33.00 and 38.0 0.1. The rosin samples were about 10 cm. long
and 3.5 cm. in diameter. These were suspended by a thread in a
thermostat for several days and then weighed in water at the same
temperature and afterwards rapidly dried with a cloth and weighed
"Kauzmann, W. J., Walter, J. E., and Eyring, H. "Theories of Optical
Rotatory Power." Chemical Reviews, Vol. 26 (1940), p. 339.
"I. C. T., Vol. 3, pp. 29, 33. (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company,
56 PROCEEDINGS FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
No. 1, 1944
+ R Rosln Sample N4.
30 A=j in Alcohol.
1-4H70H 6 olid
-,qo) 60 80
Ficn.2. Abiet-ic Acid Solui-ions
SOME PROPERTIES OF ROSIN
2o 40 60 s0
Pere ent Ro~irl
Fir.4. Sebific- Val. VA WRoasin-330C.
58 PROCEEDINGS FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
No. 1, 1944
in air. The results are given in Table IV. These values are believed
to be no better than one in the third decimal place.
Apparent and Partial Specific Volumes. The apparent specific
volume of rosin in benzene was calculated at 33.00 from the density
data by the equation, O = v w V1 (5),
where v equals the volume of one gram of the solution, wi equals
the weight of benzene in one gram of solution, vl equals the volume of
one gram of benzene, and w2 equals the weight of rosin in one gram
of solution. These values are given in Table 5.
The partial specific volume of the rosin may be defined as the
change in volume of the solution of a given concentration when one
gram of rosin is added to the solution under such conditions that there
is no appreciable change in the concentration of the solution. Math-
ematically it is the ratio
d CoIp. and is designated by v2.
One method of determining the value of the partial specific volume
is to plot the specific volume of the solution against the percent rosin
present at various concentrations. If a tangent to this curve is drawn
at any concentration, then, the intercept of the tangent at 100% rosin
is the partial specific volume of rosin and the intercept at 0% -rosin
is the partial specific volume of benzene at the chosen concentration.
This plot is given in Fig. 4 and appears to be almost a straight line.
This means that the partial specific volumes are practically the same
at all concentrations and have a value of 1.0005 cc. for rosin and 1.1557
cc. for benzene.
The samples of rosin used in this investigation were supplied
through the courtesy of Mr. E. Mize of Fairbanks, Florida.
1. The estimation of the specific rotation of solid rosin can be
made from measurements of the optical rotation of rosin solutions.
2. The densities of rosin and rosin solutions in benzene at 280,
330, and 380 C. have been determined.
3. The apparent and partial specific volume of rosin in benzene
has been calculated at 33.