The Proceedings of
The Florida Academy of Sciences
A Quarterly Journal of Scientific Investigation and Research
THEODORE H. HUBBELL, Editor
THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Dates of Publication
Number i May 4, 1943
Number 2. December, 1943
Number 3-4 January, 1944
CONTENTS OF VOLUME 6
Earthquakes in Florida. By Robert B. Campbell..................
The Soldier and Nymphal Forms of Kalotermes (Calcaritermes) nearc-
ticus Snyder. By E. Morton Miller.......................... 5
The Correlation of Soil pH with Distribution of Woody Plants in
the Gainesville Area. By Wilbur B. De Vall ..... ............ 9
Biological Effects of Neutron Radiation. By Arthur A. Bless.... 25
An Attempt at Complete Statement of the Theory of Normal
Prices. By John H. Sherman. ............................. 2.9
Neoteny in Florida Salamanders. By A. F. Carr, Jr. and Coleman J.
Goin..................... ............................. 37
Littoral Fauna of the Miami Area. By F. G. Walton Smith...... 41
Two New Crayfishes from the Panhandle of Florida. By Horton
H. Hobbs, Jr ..... ........... ............................ 49
Preliminary Report on the Algal Flora of Some Florida Soils. By
F. B. Smith and H. R. Ellis ................................. 59
Progress Report on a Survey of the Amphibia of Florida. By M.
Graham Netting and Coleman J. Goin.......................... 67
Check List of Florida Mosses. By Ruth Olive Schornherst......... -
Notes on the Discovery and Biology of Two Bahaman Fresh-Water
Turtles of the Genus Pseudemys. By L. A. Hodsdon and Jay F.
W. Pearson................................................ 17
The Provision of Controlled Salinity Variations in Experimental
Marine Aquaria. By F. G. Walton Smith .................. 24
Spiral Screen Fractionating Columns for the Separation of Terpenes.
By W. David Stallcup, Robert E. Fuguitt, and J. Erskine Hawkins. 27
A Preliminary Study on the Distribution and Habits of South
Florida Termites. By E. Morton Miller and Dorothy B. Miller.. ioi
A Key to the Termites of Florida. By A. E. Emerson and E. M.
Miller.... .............................................. 1o8
Fishes of Silver Springs, Florida. By Carl L. Hubbs and E. Ross
Allen.................. ............................... o
Needle Rusts of Pine Trees in Florida Caused by Coleosporium Spe-
cies. By George F. Weber .................................. 131
The Lower Vertebrate Fauna of the Water Hyacinth Community
in Northern Florida. By Coleman J. Goin .................. 143
A Contribution to the Natural History of the Florida Short-
Tailed Shrew. By Joseph C. Moore............................ 155
Index to Volume 6....................... .... ................ 167
THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
VOL. 6 No. 1
EARTHQUAKES IN FLORIDA
ROBERT B. CAMPBELL
Florida is not usually included in the lists of states subject to
earthquakes and mention of their possibility brings smiles of skepti-
cism and frequently derision. But a number of earthquakes have
been recorded in the State's history and they are here listed. The
information comes from various sources, the two most important being
Serial 609, issued by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, and
from T.Frederick Davis' "History of Jacksonville." Those listed in
Serial 609 are from the private files of Henry Fielding Reid, and
from early issues of the American Journal of Science. Mr. Davis,
the author of the "History of Jacksonville", was connected with the
weather bureau in Jacksonville for many years and had the advantage
of the records there.
Seismologists divide earthquakes into two classes, "deep focus
earthquakes" and "near surface earthquakes", though there is prob-
ably no essential difference between them that is not introduced by
depth factors. The deep focus earthquakes, comprising about 10%
of the whole, furnish information concerning the internal constitution
of the earth, as they occur from depths of 100 to 700 kilometers. Sur-
face movements and tremors are considered by geologists to repre-
sent slippage along buried faults.
Approximately 10,000 tremors, both major and minor, are record-
ed annually by the'world's seismographs, but it is probable that there
are many thousands more that are not recorded. Twenty years ago
there was hardly a seismological laboratory in the United States that
could be called really first class, but today there are a number of first
rank stations, and it is probable that the next decade will yield more
scientific data on earthquakes than has been gathered in the past cen-
turies. In the past, seismograph installations have been possible only
at considerable expense, but such equipment is now becoming available
to physics laboratories less fortunate in the matter of finances. With
2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
the help of a number of instruments situated in the various universities
in Florida, it may be possible in the next few years to map subsurface
structural trends by recording seismic activity.
In the absence of instrumental records, seismologists must accept
reports from various observers, usually laymen who happen to be at
the scene of seismic activity. To classify the tremors according to
intensity, a 1 to 10 scale called the "Rossi-Forel" is used, which is
briefly as follows:
1. Microseismic shock which is recorded by one or more seismographs
of the same level. It may be felt by an experienced observer.
2. Extremely feeble shock which may be recorded by several seismo-
graphs of different kinds. It may be felt by a small number of persons
3. Very feeble shocks which must be strong enough to determine dura-
tion and direction. These may be felt by persons at rest.
4. Feeble shock which may cause disturbance of movable objects or
cause cracking of ceilings. It may be felt by persons in motion.
5. Shock of moderate intensity which may disturb furniture and ring
some bells. It may be felt generally by everyone.
6. Fairly strong shock causing general ringing of bells, swinging of
chandeliers, arousing those asleep.
7. Strong shock causing overthrow of movable objects, fall of plaster,
and general panic.
8. Very strong shock causing overthrow of chimneys and cracks in
walls of buildings.
9. Extremely strong shock causing destruction of some buildings.
10. Shock of extreme intensity causing great disaster, fissures in the
ground, disturbance of strata.
The record of earthquakes felt in Florida follows:
1727, October 29th. Several secondary sources report a severe earth-
quake in St. Augustine on this date but the original record has not yet
been located. New England suffered a severe shock about 10:40 A.M.
on this date, and an earthquake was reported from Martinique on the
1879, January 12th. A general earthquake felt through north and
central Florida from a line drawn from Punta Rassa to Daytona on the
south, to one drawn from Tallahassee to Savannah on the north, an area
of about 25,000 square miles. At Daytona and St. Augustine doors and
windows rattled, articles were thrown from shelves, and plaster shaken
down. There were two shocks of about thirty seconds each with an in-
tensity of 6 to 8 on the Rossi-Forel scale. The Tampa account gave the
time as 11:30 P.M. There, the trembling was preceded by a rumbling
sound as of a distant railroad train, the undulations described as being
from the southwest to the northeast. This was the first record of an
earthquake felt in Tampa. The Tampa account also noted that the
shock was felt at Ft. Meade.
EARTHQUAKES IN FLORIDA
1880, January 22nd. Severe shocks (intensity 8) were felt in Key
West reflecting a disastrous earthquake in Vuelto Abajo, west of Havana.
This quake was felt and rumblings heard in Western Cuba and on the
Isle of Pines. It covered about 65,000 square miles.
1886, August 31st. This is the date of the great earthquake at Charles-
ton, S. C. It was felt all over northern Florida, church bells rang in
St. Augustine, and severe shocks were felt along that part of the east
coast. The water disappeared from Lake Jackson at that time, and ac-
cording to folk-lore the town water well at Graceville started flowing
at that time. The first shock in Charleston is recorded as occurring at
9:51 P.M., and the second ten minutes later. The Tampa account gives
the time there as 9:15 P.M. In Tampa there were also two shocks, the
first appearing to come from south or southwest, and the second seeming
to come from the north or northeast. Apparently this quake had an
intensity of 5 to 6 in Florida.
1886, September 1, 3, 5, 8, and 9th. Jacksonville experienced more
tremors of about 4 intensity.
1886, October 22nd. Windows and dishes rattled at Jacksonville, inten-
sity 5. This shake was felt with a force of 7 in Charleston, Atlanta, and
Augusta, and with an intensity of 8 at Summerville, S. C.
1893, June 20th. At 10:07 P.M. Jacksonville experienced a slight
shock lasting about 10 seconds. Intensity 4.
1900, No date. The United States Coast and Geodetic Survey records
a local shock fot this year with an intensity of 5 at Jacksonville. T.Fred-
erick Davis, Jacksonville historian, who was with the weather bureau
there at the time, does not include it in his list. On being queried, he
said he thought that the shock had occurred at Lake City.
1930. Frank Lovering, in his "Reporter in Paradise", lists a shock
felt in Everglades, La Belle, and Ft .Myers. Its seismic origin has been
questioned and blasting given as the cause. It does not seem possible
to dismiss it so lightly as it would take tremendous explosions to be felt
over such a wide territory. By 1930 all extensive road building and canal
excavations had ceased in that part of Florida. There is also a report
of windows and dishes rattling at Marco Island about this same time.
The probable intensity at Marco was 5.
1935, November 13th. Two short tremors were felt at Palatka, the
first at 10:10 P.M., and the second, lasting 15 seconds, at 10:30. The
second shock was felt at St. Augustine and on nearby Anastasia Island,
but apparently the disturbance did not extend far as other cities on the
coast reported that they had no disturbances. Intensity at Palatka, 4 to 5.
1942, January 19th. The latest report of earth tremors comes from
the southern part of the State, variously reported as follows: Miami re-
ported five to seven distinct shocks of one minute duration about three
minutes apart, beginning about 2:10 P.M., shaking houses and rattling
windows in North Miami, at the Courthouse, and on Miami Beach. Holly
wood reported five to seven one-minute shocks, shaking houses and win-
dows, and Delray Beach reported five or six tremors each lasting several
seconds. Delray Beach seems to have been the northernmost point on
the east coast to feel the shocks, but Moore Haven on the southwest shore
of Lake Okeechobee reported twelve tremors about 2:00 P.M. Further
west, La Belle reported twelve tremors accompanied by low rumbling
and ground quivering lasting from 2:05 to 2:20 P.M. The shocks seemed
to be stronger in North La Belle. Alva, still further west, reported twenty
4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
distinct tremors, the highest number reported. In Ft. Myers nine distinct
tremors, with booming sounds and severe window rattling occurred about
2:00 P.M. Classes were dismissed at lona, a nearby settlement, and re-
ports and inquiries came by telephone from many of the neighboring
islands, Boca Grande, Sanibel, Captiva and Pine Island. At Naples and
Marco Island, booming and rumbling noises seemed to come out of the
southwest. At Marco, four tremors were reported.
Such is the record of Florida earthquakes, ard meagre as are the
data, it shows that what little seismic activity has occurred here is
divisible into two distinct areas separated roughly by the 27th parallel,
the segment to the north responding to continental structure and the
southern segment with the Atlantic Region. This corresponds with
recent magnetometer studies which indicate the northeast trend in the
northern segment, seemingly controlled by the Appalachian folding
and a trend to the southeast in the lower half of the peninsula, parallel-
ing the Antillean folding. Already some geologists in Florida are
mapping subsurface faults on data yielded by cuttings from oil tests
and water wells, and through these studies, in combination with more
instrument detection of seismic activity, much may be learned of
THE SOLDIER AND NYMPHAL FORMS OF
E. MORTON MILLER
University of Miami
The only species of Calcaritermes known in the United States was
recognized and described by Snyder in 1933' from three winged speci-
mens collected in isolation in Clay, Levy, and Orange counties, Florida.
The nymphs and soldiers of the species remained unknown until col-
lected by the writer near Winter Park, Florida, September 12, 1940.
Subsequent collections were made by Prof. A. E. Emerson and Dr.
Victor Dropkin, to whom I am indebted for use of their additional
Alates which fit Snyder's description were raised from nymphs
kept alive in the laboratory and also were collected with soldiers in
nature. It is believed, therefore, that the castes herein described
are to be assigned to the species Calcaritermes nearcticus Snyder.
Soldier.-Head sub-cylindrical, truncate anteriorly and slightly
concave along dorsal line in profile; a single deep vertical furrow at
the front, shallowest above the labrum and deepest at the frons. Sides
of head parallel when seen in dorsal view. Head color black in front,
lightening more or less abruptly to reddish brown behind the level
of the antennae and to brownish yellow towards the posterior. (Some
specimens lighter over whole head.) Front slightly roughened; whole
head finely punctate. Mandibles reddish brown to black, somewhat
reduced in size, less than one-half the length of the head when viewed
laterally; two distinct teeth on right and three on left. Labrum and an-
tennae yellowish. Antennae with ten or eleven segments nearly equal
in size, excepting the basal segment. Slight shelves protruding from
the head above and below the antennal socket. Eye much reduced,
about 0.1 mm. in diameter; light-colored. Eye slightly dorsal to base
of antennae and distant from it a space twice its own diameter.
Pronotum concave and smooth in front; sides convexly sloped in-
ward to posterior margin; width along anterior border about two and
one-half times the length of pronotum at median line.
'Snyder, Thomas E. 1933. Calcaritermes in the United States. Proc. Ent.
Soc. of Washington, 35 (5): 67-69.
6 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Tibia of each prothoracic leg fitted distally with a conspicuous,
broadly-based spur on its outer margin.
Gula brown to dark brown, lightening to yellow at anterior tip;
margins usually darker; broader at middle.
One specimen from the colony showed wing buds on meso-and
metanota; otherwise this individual seems typical of the description
above. Another specimen is intercaste in its features, possessing a
shallow frontal groove in the head and a tibial spur reminiscent of the
soldier type, but also prominent wing buds, mandibles, and pigmented
eyes approaching the reproductive nymph characters. Its pigmenta-
tion is nymphal. This individual appeared in the laboratory segment
the colony and may represent a response to altered colony conditions.
Measurements (in millimeters): Given for the five soldiers of the
Winter Park collection. The morphotype individual upon which the
description is chiefly based is listed first in each series of numbers.
Head width at posterior margin-1.2, 1.2, 1.2, 1.15, 1.15
Head width at antennal level-1.15, 1.1, 1.1, 1.05, 1.05
Head length to tip of labrum-1.55, 1.75, 1.5, 1.4, 1.45
Head length to frontal furrow-1.1, 1.1, 1.15, 1.0, 1.1
Head depth (dorso-ventral) in profile-1.05, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 0.95
Length of left mandible, tip to condyle-0.64, 0.67, 0.62, 0.62
Width of pronotum-1.25, 1.25, 1.2, 1.1, 1.2
Length of pronotum at median line--0.45, 0.5, 0.5, 0.4, 0.4
Length of pronotum at margin-0.70, 0.65, 0.70, 0.55, 0.55
Number of antennal segments-10, 11, 11, 11, broken
Described from a total of fifteen soldiers from localities as follows:
Orlando, Florida: (Eleven miles north of Winter Park) 12. IX
1940 Coll. E. M. Miller (Morphotype colony)
Bartow, Florida: 24. XI. 1940 Coll. E. M. Miller
Ortega, Florida: 17. III. 1941 Coll. A. E. Emerson
Ortega, Florida: 17. III. 1941 Coll. Victor Dropkin
SOLDIER AND NYMPHAL FORMS
Nymphs.-The nymphs seem to present no features unusual to
Kalotermes, with the exception of a slightly raised median mesonotal
area upon which appear numerous reddish asperities. A similar char-
acter has been noted by Dr. T. E. Snyder2 for Calcaritermes emargini-
collis, and it was at his suggestion that the condition was observed
in nymphs of C. nearcticus.
Samples of the material used are in the collections of the U. S.
National Museum (No. 161193), A. E. Emerson, and Thomas E.
'Snyder, Thomas E. 1926. Five New Termites from Panama and Costa Rica.
Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, 28(1): 13.
Fig. 1.-Soldier of Calcaritermes nearcticus Snyder. A, Head in fronto-lateral
8 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Fig. 2. Soldier of Calcaritermes nearcticus Snyder. B, Head in lateral view,
C, Portion of left fore-leg showing tibial spur. D, Right and left mandibles in
ventral view. All approx. x50.
THE CORRELATION OF SOIL pH WITH
DISTRIBUTION OF WOODY PLANTS
IN THE GAINESVILLE AREA
WILBUR B. DE VALL
University of Florida
The relationship that exists between plants and the complex soil
medium in which they grow has been investigated by many authors.
Each in turn has sought to discover a more intimate dependency of
vegetative forms on the soil and its constituents. That this dependency
does exist is brought out by Kurz,1 Berkman' and others with refer-
ence to local areas and selected plant species. Most of these investi-
gations dealing with the plant-soil relationship have been carried out
by ecologists in the eastern half of the United States.
In reviewing the literature pertaining to this one phase of plant
environment, namely pH of soils as related to plant distribution, it is
obvious that many of the investigators accept the fact that this re-
lationship does exist and merely mention it in their papers without
an explanation as to how this dependency came about or how it might
be used. The papers also reveal that actual data pertaining to the
pH of soils as related to tree distribution is scattered and fragmentary.
Young8 gives some very pertinent data for several northern hardwoods
but only as a routine part of an ecological study.
Many ecologists strive to show that even though soil acidity and
alkalinity are affected by many climatic, physiographic and biotic
factors, much can be understood about the distribution of plants
when only the pH of the soil is taken into consideration. There are
certain plants that require acid soils and others that require alkaline
soils. Such plants are generally classed as acidophiles and acidophobes,
respectively. For instance, cranberries can only be grown satisfactorily
in acid soils whereas alfalfa makes its best growth on a soil nearly
neutral or slightly on the alkaline side. Such extremes may be found
to exist with woody plants. If all plants were tolerant over a wide
range of pH values, the forest types of the country would be much
more complex than we know them today.
1Herman Kurz, "The relation of pH to plant distribution in nature," Amer.
Nat., Vol. 64, (693) (1930), pp. 314-41.
'Anton H. Berkman, "The pH of some Texas soils and its relation to the
incidence of certain woody plant species," Soil Sdc., Vol. 25 (1928), pp. 133-42.
'Vernon A. Young, "Plant distribution as influenced by soil heterogeneity in
Cranberry Lake region of the Adirondack mountains," Ecology, Vol. 15, No. 2
(1934), pp. 177-80.
10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
It is the purpose of this paper to show how some woody plants may
be used, alone or in communities, as indicators of soil pH. These data
are not applicable to the State as a whole but will serve as a pre-
liminary step in the process of accumulating more useful pH data
as a basis for further eco-edaphic studies.
SCOPE OF THE INVESTIGATION
This study was begun in September 1939 to obtain specific data on
soil acidity pertaining to two major species of Florida pine, longleaf
pine (Pinus australis Michx. f.) and swamp pine, (Pinus palustris
Mill.) In February 1940 it was thought advisable to extend this to
include other dominant woody plants.
The approach to the latter part of this investigation was considered
from three points of view. First, to select representative soil types
within the Gainesville area and run pH determinations for these soils,
recording all woody plants indigenous to the soil type. The second ap-
proach considered was to study various plant habitats that might
differ with respect to drainage, exposure and competitive vegetation.
The third approach and the one actually followed was to make all pH
determinations on the basis of individual forest types. In some re-
spects this varies but little from the former, but is an approach based
primarily on species and species distribution, rather than differences
in the edaphic factors and environment.
LOCATION AND DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREAS
The major forest types encountered in this area are, (1) pine flat-
woods, (2) mixed hardwood hammock, (3) scrub oak ridge and (4)
cypress-tupelo ponds. The areas selected for study covered all of
these except the latter. Due to partial, or in some cases complete in-
undation, sampling in ponds was not feasible. The hammock forest
type contains a more diversified group of woody plants than does any
of the others and therefore the number of samples taken and number
of areas studied was greater for this than for the flatwoods or oak
Each area is somewhat different as regards topography, drainage
and soil so that a brief description of each will be given. The seven
areas sampled were as follows:
1. Hogtown Creek Hammock-This hardwood area follows a
small creek and extends some four-hundred to eight-hundred feet on
either side. Most of the wooded portion is well-drained except near
the stream and at certain periods of the year when the stream over-
flows its banks. Sampling in this area was confined as far as possible
CORRELATION OF SOIL pH
to portions of the forest not disturbed by high water. The hammock
is situated just north and west of the Gainesville city limits in a
shallow valley. The slopes are largely old fields grown up to loblolly
pine, (Pinus taeda L.). The soil type is Norfolk fine sand.
2. Austin Cdry Forest-This forest comprises 2,083 acres, certain
portions of which are in the oak ridge type, hammock type and pine
flatwoods. The tract is located on State Highway 13, approximately
eight miles northeast of Gainesville. The predominant soil type is
Leon fine sand.
3. Rattlesnake Branch Area-This area consists of a narrow belt
of hammock. A small meandering stream has cut a narrow ravine
through a strata of clay, exposing in some places small areas of lime-
stone. Several seepage areas may be found along the banks of the
stream which in part accounts for a widely varigated flora. It is lo-
cated at the north edge of the city limits at its western extremity on
Norfolk fine sand.
4. Sugarfoot Hammock-This area is an extensive hammock
located about three miles south and west of Gainesville. Approxi-
mately one-hundred acres may be included in the area over which
samples were taken. Adjacent to the hammock is an extensive prairie.
Topography within the hardwood area varies from flat, partially
inundated prairie margin through a well-drained hammock to a high
hammock with occasional exposed limestone. Trees in this area are
of a more mature class than any other hammock type studied. The
prevailing soil type is Norfolk fine sand.
5. Newnan's Lake Area-The area is located about four miles
east of this city on the west side of Newnan's lake. Samples were
taken over an extensive area so as to include four major habitats and
two types. A scrub oak ridge gradually blends into a hardwood
swamp bordered by a narrow margin of low pineland. To the east of
the swamp, the topography rises to a high hammock which again di-
minishes rather abruptly to the lake shore. The species composition
of the hammock is uniform with a much different flora than was
found in the previously described areas. The general soil type is
Norfolk fine sand.
6. Magnesia Springs Area-Magnesia spring is located one mile
south of Grove Park, Florida, adjacent to Lochloosa Creek. This
area was chosen for a comparative study because it is composed of
numerous soil types and is a very low, poorly-drained hammock. Much
of the area surrounding the spring is underlain with limestone. Again
a distinct flora characterizes the area, as compared with the other lo-
cations. Soil types in this area are too complex to enumerate here.
12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
7. Buzzards Roost-This small limestone outcrop located about
eight miles west of Gainesville on the Newberry highway has been
so named by local naturalists and suggested a contrasting type for
this study. Here the limestone is exposed at the surface and at the
base of the outcrop a heavy clay soil is present. The wooded area is
about an acre in extent and is surrounded by a tung tree, (Aleurites
fordi Hemsl.) plantation. Several species found here are represented
only in remote places in the Gainesville area.
METHODS AND PROCEDURE
A general familiarity with plant associations in the vicinity of
Gainesville led to the selection of the previously described study
areas. Within each area plants were found to group themselves
into colonies or communities; thus a randomized sampling method
was deemed best suited to determine the soil pH for each mixture or
group of species.
The selection of the spot to be sampled was determined by the
presence of major tree species; the associated species were recorded
as minor species. Major species as used here means any tree in the
area that is obviously a permanent component of the community or
that is outstanding because of its presence. In a few instances,
samples were taken where a rare and infrequent tree was found. In
addition to the above, areas were selected to get representations of all
trees under different conditions rather than to accumulate any defi-
nite number of samples for a single species. However, in the event
that a species was so abundant as to be represented in several samples,
it was continually recorded along with its associates. Samples in
each separate, yet similar type were so taken as to duplicate species
found in previously sampled areas; also, so that comparative pH
values might be obtained and a general range of acid- or alkaline-
tolerance determined for the species.
The soil sample was taken as a vertical section of the first six
inches of mineral soil, exclusive of duff or litter. This was obtained
.by first digging a small hole approximately six inches in diameter and
eight inches deep. The sample was taken from the side of this hole
with a hand spade and place in a paper bag, properly labeled; any
peculiarities of the sub-soil, surface soil or litter were recorded.
The data for each sample as regards the flora were taken in the
following manner. Using the location of the sample as a center, all
trees within a radius of twenty feet were tallied; also all associated
shrubs within a radius of ten feet. These radii were taken as a con-
CORRELATION OF SOIL pH
servative distance that the tree or shrub would send out lateral feed-
ing roots and would therefore be dependent upon the soil from which
the sample was taken.
All samples were taken into the laboratory and allowed to reach
an air-dry condition before pH determinations were made. When
thoroughly air-dry at room temperature a portion of the sample (10
grams) was tested in water solution for pH using the Coleman, glass-
electrode, pH meter.
In addition to the determinations on the Coleman instrument a
series of check tests was made on the same samples by R. A. Carrigan
of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, using a glass-electrode
with a Leeds and Northrup electrometer. The procedure used in
preparing samples for the check tests was, (1) to dry the sample at
room temperature, (2) screen through a 2mm. sieve to remove debris,
and (3) mix the screened material thoroughly before testing. This
method used a 50 cc. beaker of soil mixed with 100 cc. of distilled
water to make the soil extract.
These tests were made as a check or comparison of the two glass-
electrode instruments as well as the technique used in the determina-
tions. The average algebraic difference, using the second method as a
standard, was .22.
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
Ecologists in general have dealt with plants and plant communi-
ties in much the same manner that sociologists have dealt with people.
Plant communities are limited in their ways and means of advance-
ment and encroachment upon other plant communities. Thus, there
is a stage beyond which these groups find they cannot move into
regions in which they are not wanted or in other words, in which they
cannot compete and maintain themselves. This degree of limitation is
expressed as fidelity. The use of this term with relation to a study
in plant distribution means the sociological distribution of a species.
As all plants do not show the same sociological tendencies, degrees of
fidelity have been devised to express this limitation. The five degrees
of fidelity under which most plants can be classed are as follows:
Fidelity class 5-Plants that are confined to one community; exclusive
Fidelity class 4-Plants that are most frequent in a given plant commun-
ity; selective species.
Fidelity class 3-Plants that occur in one community more than in an-
other; preferential species.
14 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Fidelity class 2-Plants that are limited to no definite community; in-
Fidelity class I-Plants that are of rare occurrence and may be found as
intruding on a community unlike their own; strange
The analysis which follows has been divided into three parts namely,
(1) forest type analysis, (2) habitat analysis, and (3) species analysis.
The previous fidelity classes will be employed in the species analysis
to show the relationship between species and soil pH.
Forest Type Analysis
This analysis is conveniently made in tabular form to show, (1)
the location of the study area, (2) the forest type, (3) the major spe-
cies of the type and (4) the minor species, inclusive of trees and
shrubs. This classification is shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1-CLASSIFICATION OF MAJOR AND MINOR SPECIES BY FOREST TYPES
Forest type Major species Minor species
1. HOGTOWN CREEK AREA
Acer floridanum Pax. Acer rubrum L.
Acer negundo L. Baccharis halimifolia L.
Catalpa bignonioides Walt. Osmanthus americana B. & H.
Fraxinus americana L. Ostyra virginiana (Mill.) Willd.
Hicoria glabra (Mill.) Brit. Prunus caroliniana Ait.
(Hammock) Liquidambar styraciflua L. Quercus austrina Small.
Magnolia grandiflora L. Sambucus simsonii Rehder.
Pinus glabra Walt. Sebastina ligustrina (Michx.)
Prunus serotina Ehrh. Muell. Arg.
Quercus laurifolia Michx.
Tilia crenoserrata Sarg.
2. AUSTIN CARY FOREST
(Flatwoods) Pinus australis Michx. f. Myrica pumila Michx.
Pinus palustris Mill. Serenoa repens (Bartr.) Small.
Quercus catesbaei Michx. PDiospyros virginiana L.
(Oak Ridge) Quercus cinerea Michx. Quercus geminata Small.
Quercus margaretta Ashe. Xolisma ferruginea (Walt.)
Acer rubrum Alnus rugosa (Du Roi) Spreng.
Liquidambar styraciflua Cephalanthus occidentalis L.
(Hammock) Magnolia grandiflora Gordonia lasianthus (L.) Ellis
Nyssa biflora Walt. Myrica cerifera L.
Persea borbonia (L.) Pax.
Viburnum sp. (Tourn.) L.
CORRELATION OF SOIL pH
TABLE 1-CLASSIFICATION OF MAJOR AND MINOR SPECIES BY FOREST TYPES
Forest type Major species Minor species
3. RATTLESNAKE BRANCH AREA
Hicoria glabra Aesculus pavia L.
Liquidambar styraciflua Aralia spinosa L.
Magnolia grandiflora Carpinus caroliniana Walt.
Pinus taeda L. Cercis canadensis L.
(Hammock) Quercus prinus L. Ilex opaca Ait.
(Old Field) Pinus taeda Prunus augustifolia Marsh.
4. SUGARFOOT AREA
(Oak Ridge) Quercus catesbaei
Quercus falcata Michx.
(Prairie Liquidambar styraciflua
Margin) Nyssa biflora
(Hammock Magnolia grandiflora
No. 1) Quercus laurifolia
Quercus virginiana Mill.
(Hammock Persea borbonia
No. 2) Quercus laurifolia
Celtis laevigata Willd.
(Hammock Quercus prinus
No. 3) Tilia crenoserrata
Fraxinus caroliniana Mill.
Planera aquatic (Walt.) Gmel.
Crataegus sp. L.
Vaccinium arboreum Marsh.
Ulmus alata Michx.
Callicarpa americana L.
Cornus florida L.
Xanthoxylum clava-herculis L.
16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
TABLE 1-CLASSIFICATION OF MAJOR AND MINOR SPECIES BY FOREST TYPES
5. NEWNANS LAKE AREA
(Hardwood Liquidambar styraciflua
Swamp) Magnolia virginiana L.
(Oak Ridge) Quercus myrtifolia Willd.
(Hammock) Magnolia grandiflora
(Low Liquidambar styraciflua
Hammock) Magnolia grandiflora
Taxodium ascendens Brong.
Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.
Morus nigra L.
Quercus nigra L.
6. MAGNESIA SPRINGS AREA
(Old Field) Pinus taeda
(Flatwoods) Pinus australis Asimina angustifolia Gray.
Acer rubrum Baccharis halimifolia
Fraxinus americana Callicarpa americana
Juniperus silicicola (Small) Carpinus caroliniana
Bailey Fraxinus caroliniana
(Low Magnolia virginiana Sabal minor (Jacq.) Pers.
Hammock) Nyssa biflora Viburnum sp.
Sabal palmetto (Walt.) Todd.
7. BUZZARDS ROOST AREA
(Limestone Juniperus silicicola
Outcrop) Liquidambar stryaciflua
Melia azedarach L.
Quercus shumardli Buckl.
Comus stricta Lam.
Euonymus americanus L.
Rhus copallina L.
CORRELATION OF SOIL pH
The habitat analysis was made to determine whether or not a pos-
sible correlation exists between the number of times a species occurred
in similar yet separate types and the range of pH values over which the
species was found as a major component of the type. The phrase,
"range of pH values," as used here is a figure representing the differ-
ence between maximum and minimum pH recorded for the species.
The hammock type was most intensively studied, comprising seven
separate study areas; other types included were (1) oak ridge with
three areas, (2) old field with two areas and (3) pine flatwoods repre-
senting two separate areas.
The seven areas classed as hammock are not to be compared on an
equal basis from the standpoint of edaphic factors. Since each of the
areas supported hardwoods, exclusive of scrub species, all were classed
as hammock. All but one of the areas was adjacent to a stream or lake
and on either low land or in a ravine. The one exception to this was
area No. 7 at Buzzards Roost, a limestone outcrop.
Magnolia grandiflora and Liquidambar styraciflua were present as
major species in five out of the seven areas studied. Those species having
an occurrence of four out of seven were, Fraxinus americana, Hicoria
glabra, Quercus laurifolia and Tilia crenoserrata. An intermediate
group of species occurring in only three areas consisted of Acer negundo,
Quercus prinus and Celtis laevigata. The fourth frequency class or
those species found in only two of the areas, consisted of Nyssa biflora,
Acer rubrum, Persea borbonia and Juniperus silicicola. Those species
showing the lowest frequency, i. e., occurring in only one out of the
seven areas were, Sabal palmetto, Magnolia virginiana, Prunus serotina,
Pinus glabra, Acer floridanum, Catalpa bignonioides and Pinus taeda.
It is significant to note that those species with the highest fre-
quency are the most abundant. It is highly probable that had each
area been identical as to soil, drainage and exposure, some species
would have occurred in all areas. No species was found in more than
five out of seven areas. Magnolia grandiflora and Liquidambar
styraciflua represent a frequency of about 71, or expressed differently,
might be found in similar hammock types in 717% of such cases.
The significance of the above data can best be shown in graphic
form, Fig. 1. This graph shows a possible correlation between acid
tolerance and frequency of the species in various comparable ham-
mocks. Regardless of the fact that there were several variables in the
18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
study, such as, number of soil samples analyzed to obtain the pH range
for each species as well as differences in soil type, the data presented
show a significant trend. This graph is based upon eighteen major
species found in the hammock type and includes all of the previously
mentioned species except Magnolia virginiana and Catalpa bignonioides.
The straight line on the graph represents the average pH for each fre-
quency class. The distribution of values regardless of species is out-
lined with a dotted line. Using the average for each frequency class,
the graph may be interpreted as showing a correlation between pH
tolerance and frequency of occurrence of the species in the hammock
type. The graph also shows that as the frequency of occurrence of the
species increases the difference between maximum and minimum pH
values becomes greater. Therefore, any species which is a common con-
K Species value
SAverage for class
I I I I I I I
3 4 5 6 7
of total number of areas studied
Fig. 1.-Graph showing correlation between species frequency and acid tolerance
for the hammock type.
CORRELATION OF SOIL pH
stituent of the hammock type over wide areas, would be expected to
tolerate a wide range in pH values, whereas one found only_ occa-
sionally in the same type.would indicate a lower degree of acid-tolerance,
or a narrower pH range.
However, it must be recognized here that there are many other
factors which may be either directly or indirectly responsible for this
relationship but as this analysis is made on the basis of soil pH and
plant distribution only, the trend is significant.
Oak Ridge type
The oak ridge type was studied in the Austin Cary Forest, Newnans
Lake area and Sugarfoot Prairie area. Quercus catesbaei is the major
species inhabiting the ridge in all of these areas. Although Quercus
cinerea was recorded only in the Forest area, it is highly probable that
this species should rate next to the former species. Species found in
the ridge type having a frequency of one, were Quercus geminata, Q.
falcata, Q. margaretta, Q. myrtifolia and Xolisma ferruginea. In all
cases species having a frequency of one, normally attain their maximum
growth on a similar yet somewhat different type of soil than that found
in the ridge type.
The flatwoods type makes up the largest percentage of forest land
in Alachua county. However, the extensiveness of the type in area
is inversely proportional to the number of major woody plants asso-
ciated with it. Since pines usually constitute the major woody vege-
tation, an extensive investigation of this type was not deemed neces-
sary. Data included in a separate study has been combined with that
on the two areas in the present investigation as a basis for the type
analysis. The two areas included here are the Austin Cary Forest and
Magnesia Springs. Pinus australis was the dominant species on both
sites while P. palustris occurred in the Forest area only. Associated
species were Serenoa repens and Myrica pumila on the former and
Asimina augustifolia on the latter.
Determinations of soil pH were made on two old field areas merely
to obtain values for Pinus taeda which is a frequent invader of this
type of land. On the old field adjacent to Rattlesnake branch, Quercus
laurifolia and Pinus taeda were the major species. The old field located
near Magnesia Springs produced a pure, dense stand of Pinus taeda.
There were no distinctive minor species in these locations.
20 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
An analysis of the data on the basis of individual species would
require several pages of descriptive explanations, relationships and
exceptions. With this in mind the sixty-eight species with their re-
spective ranges of pH-tolerance have been listed alphabetically in
Table 2. This listing includes seven species of Gymnosperms and
sixty-one species of Angiosperms. Plants previously listed as major
and minor species have necessarily been mixed together so as to have
all plants in alphabetical order.
TABLE 2-TABULATION OF pH DATA PERTAINING TO SPECIES COVERED IN THE STUDY
No. Soil Observed pH Range
Species Samples Minim. Maxim. Diff.
Acer floridanum 2 5.21 5.82 .61
Acer negundo 5 5.21 7.97 2.76
Acer rubrzm 3 5.60 7.59 1.99
Aesculus pavia 3 5.73 6.50 .77
Aralia spinosa 2 5.41 6.76 1.35
Baccharis halimifolia 3 5.60 6.61 1.01
Bignonia capreolata 1 5.79 x x
Callicarpa americana 4 5.73 7.38 1.65
Carpinus caroliniana 5 5.01 7.18 2.17
Catalpa bignonioides 1 5.21 x x
Celtis laevigata 9 5.99 7.97 1.98
Cephalanthus occidentalis 1 5.72 x x
Cercis canadensis 6 5.80 7.38 1.58
Cornus florida 1 x 6.37 x
Cornus stricta 2 6.59 7.35 .76
Crataegus sp. 4 5.46 7.02 1.56
Diospyros virginiana 3 5.76 7.02 1.26
Euonymus americanus 2 6.70 7.97 1.27
Fraxinus americana 4 5.73 7.35 1.62
Fraxinus caroliniana 2 6.61 7.59 .98
Hicoria glabra 9 5.01 7.97 2.96
Ilex opaca 5 4.20 7.08 2.88
Juniperus silicicola 6 5.73 7.97 2.14
Liquidambar styraciflua 11 4.20 6.71 2.51
Magnolia grandiflora 12 4.20 7.18 2.98
Melia azedarach 2 5.99 7.97 1.98
Morus nigra 2 6.39 735 .96
Muscadina rotundifolia (Michx.) Sm. 1 4.20 x x
Myrica cerifera 2 4.59 5.72 1.13
Myrica pumila 1 5.50 x x
CORRELATION OF SOIL pH
TABLE 2-TABULATION OF pH DATA PERTAINING TO SPECIES COVERED IN TIIE STUDY
No. Soil Observed pH Range
Species Samples Minim. Maxim. Diff.
Nyssa biflora 2 5.72 7.59 1.87
Osmanthus americana 4 5.73 6.76 1.03
Ostrya virginiana 10 5.01 7.97 2.96
Persea borbonia 3 6.02 6.71 .69
Pinus australis 15 4.33 5.37 1.04
Pinus glabra 3 5.21 5.82 .61
Pinus palustris 22 3.80 5.22 1.42
Pinus taeda 5 4.78 5.90 1.12
Prunus augustifolia 1 5.80 x x
Prunus caroliniana 2 5.82 7.97 2.15
Prunus serotina 3 5.76 6.43 .67
Quercus austrina 1 5.68 x x
Quercus catesbaei 2 5.46 6.20 .74
Quercus cinerea 1 5.06 x x
Quercus falcata 2 5.46 6.59 1.13
Quercus geminata 3 5.20 5.46 .26
Quercus laurifolia 6 4.20 7.18 2.98
Quercus margaretta 2 5.21 6.20 .99
Quercus myrtifolia 1 5.39 x x
Quercus nigra 1 5.41 x x
Quercus prinus 6 6.02 738 1.36
Quercus shumardii 4 5.99 7.97 1.98
Quercus virginiana 1 4.20 x .x
Rhus copallina 2 6.61 7.97 1.36
Rubus trivialis Michx. 1 x 7.38 x
Sabal minor 1 5.73 x x
Sabal palmetto 2 5.73 7.18 1.45
Sambucus simpsonii 3 5.60 5.99 .39
Sebastiana ligustrina 1 5.79 x x
Taxodium ascendens 1 5.25 x x
Taxodium distichum 1 5.25 x x
Tilia crenoserrata 6 5.73 7.97 2.24
Ulmus alata 3 6.02 7.35 1.33
Ulmus floridana Chapm. 1 5.99 x x
Vaccinium arboreum 2 4.20 6.34 2.14
Viburnum sp. 1 6.61 x x
Xanthoxylum clawa-herculis 2 7.08 7.38 .30
Xolisma ferruginea 4 4.44 5.76 1.32
22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
The following analysis is made with reference to Table 2. On the
basis of sixty-eight species, (1) twenty-eight species occurred on defi-
nitely alkaline soils, (2) twenty-eight species were found on neutral
soils, (3) forty-one species were found on slightly acid soils, i. e., a
pH of 6.0-7.0, (4) fifty species occurred on moderately-acid soils
ranging from a pH of 5.0-6.0, (5) twelve species were found inhabiting
strongly acid soils with a pH of 4.0-5.0, and (6) one species, Pinus
palustris was found on a very acid soil, the pH of which was 3.80.
The largest single group of species studied was the genus Quercus.
Twelve species were included and may be segregated into three gen-
eral groups as indicators of soil pH. Group 1, indicating very acid
soils, consists of Quercus virginiana which was found on soils more acid
than any other species with the possible exception of Q. laurifolia; this
depending upon the type of hapitat considered for the latter species
Group 2, consists of those species indicating a moderately acid soil,
pH of 5.0-6.0 and includes mostly the scrub oaks such as Quercus
catesbaei, Q. margaretta, Q. geminata, Q. myrtifolia, Q. cinerea and
possibly two other commercial species, Q. nigra and Q. austrina.
Group 3, may be said to indicate slightly acid to slightly alkaline soils,
with a pH of 6.0-8.0, and includes the more commercial species such as
Q. prinus, Q. falcata, Q. shumardii and Q. laurifolia.
The meaning of the word fidelity was explained previously. Fidelity
classes are used in this analysis as a means of segregating groups of
species off by themselves, based upon similar and dissimilar sociologi-
cal tendencies to mix with other plants in a large number of plant
communities or to be restricted to a habitat of its own.
In this investigation, it was found that certain species were only
represented in remote locations of a habitat and then only by a small
number of individuals. These plants would be suggestive of fidelity
Class 5 or species that are confined to one community for various
reasons. These reasons may be soil type, pH, moisture or perhaps
tolerance. Fidelity Class 5 should not be confused with Class 1. Class
1 recognizes such plants as are of infrequent occurrence in a commu-
nity unlike their native one. Plants that have been introduced by man
into a new locality or plants that may have taken up their new abode
after transportation by wind, water or mechanical means into a new
area, would be considered as strange species and placed in Class 1. The
intermediate classes two, three and four, in their respective order show
an increasing tendency for plants to become more selective in their
TABLE 3-FIDELITY-CLASS RATING OF Woo DY PLANTS FOUND IN THE GAINESVILLE AREA
Fidelity-Class Rating (Trees)
1. Strange Species 2. Indifferent Species 3. Preferential Species 4. Selective Species 5. Exclusive Species
Catalpa bignonioides Acer negundo Celtis laevigata Acer rubrum
Melia azedarach Carpinus caroliniana Cornus stricta Cercis canadensis Acer floridanum
Morus nigra Crataegus sp. Ilex opaca Cornus florida Fraxinus caroliniana
Quercus austrina Diospyros virginiana Osmanthus americana Fraxinus americana Juniperus silicicola
Quercus myrtifolia Liquidambar styraciflua Pins australis Hicoria glabra Myrica cerifera
Ulmus floridana Magnolia grandiflora Prunus augustifolia Persea borbonia Nyssa biflora
Ostyra virginiana Quercus falcata Pinus glabra Quercus catesbaei
Pinus taeda Quercus virginiana Pinus palustris Quercus cinerea
Quercus laurifolia Sabal palmetto Prunus caroliniana Quercus geminata
Quercus nigra Vaccinium arboreum Prunus serotina Quercus margaretta
Rhus copallina Viburnum sp. Quercus prinus Quercus shumardii
Tilia crenoserrata Xanthoxylum clava-herculis Ulmus alata Taxodium ascendens
Fidelity-Class Rating (Shrubs and Woody Vines)
Bignonia capreolata Aralia spinosa Aesculus pavia Baccharis halimifolia
Muscadina rotundifolia Callicarpa americana Rubus trivialis Cephalanthus occidentalis
Sebastina ligustrina Euonymus americanus
24 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
The sixty-eight species have been classified into these five fidelity
classes as based upon the author's interpretation of the data and a
knowledge of the general distribution and adaptation qualities of the
species. This listing is found in Table 3.
The fidelity table shows that of a total of sixty-eight species of
woody plants, six trees are classed as strange or intruding species;
eleven trees and two shrubs as indifferent to the type of habitat in
which they will grow; twelve trees and three shrubs prefer one type of
habitat to another although they may grow in another if conditions
are favorable; twelve trees and two shrubs are listed as selective species
in that they are generally found in a given type of habitat due to a
selective quality of the species; and thirteen trees and seven shrubs are
classed as exclusive in nature because their occurrence shows a definite
dependency of the plant upon some edaphic or environmental factor
or factors and therefore is seldom found outside its native habitat.
This classification as to fidelity class may be used to advantage by
way of comparison with the previous discussion on pH and the acid-
tolerance range of species. It must be kept in mind that the fidelity
rating is not a mechanical rating but is a listing as deemed adequate
by the writer to show how these species differ in their natural selection
of plant communities based upon their degree of natural adaptiveness
to soil pH.
1. Plant and soil research workers have shown that pH of soils
is an important factor in limiting or furthering the distribution of
2. The major forest types found in the Gainesville area, are flat-
woods pine land, mixed hardwood hammock, scrub-oak ridge and
3. Similar forest types may consist of a varied composition of
species as a result of variation in the underlying soil structure.
4. Each woody plant in a given habitat may be classed as a major
or minor species based upon its growth and occurrence as suggestive
5. There is a certain degree of correlation between pH and habitat
as well as pH and species distribution.
6. Woody plants group themselves into certain fidelity classes
based upon their sociological tendencies and these species may be used
as indicators of soil pH within certain limits, based upon a knowledge
of the habitats involved.
BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF NEUTRON
ARTHUR A. BLESS
University of Florida
Neutrons are the primary constituents of the nuclei of atoms. They
are particles with a mass as large as the proton, the nucleus of the
hydrogen atom, but have no charge. Because of the neutral character
of these particles and their minute size they can travel through ma-
terials undisturbed by the negatively charged electrons around the
nuclei of atoms or by positively charged nuclei. For this reason they
can penetrate with ease great thicknesses of material.
A stream of neutrons may be produced by bombarding atoms of low
atomic weight with high speed particles. At first such streams were
produced by the bombardment of light materials, such as berillium,
with alpha particles from radium C or from radon. The bombard-
ment resulted in the creation of carbon with the liberation of a neutron
in accordance with the reaction
where the numbers on the lower left hand corner refer to the charge
on the particle, while those at the upper right hand corner refer to the
atomic weight. The neutron traveling through matter neither affects
the material nor is affected by it, except in those rare cases where it
strikes the nucleus of an atom of light atomic weight, such as a proton.
The proton may be ejected, and the passage of this charged particle
leaves an ionized track which may be detected by a suitable device,
such as a Gieger counter or a Wilson cloud chamber.
Very early in the study of neutrons it was observed that these par-
ticles pass through great thicknesses of materials of high atomic
weight but are comparatively easily absorbed by materials of low
atomic weight. A small slab of paraffin absorbs a greater fraction
of neutrons than a slab of lead many times thicker. It is not difficult
to understand the reason for this behavior. When a neutron strikes
a heavy nucleus it bounces off with undiminished speed after the en-
counter. On the other hand .if it strikes a light nucleus, such as a
proton, it may stop altogether, and the proton may proceed with the
speed of the impinging neutron. The situation is similar to a billiard
ball striking a large cannon ball or striking another billiard ball. In
the first case it will rebound with undiminished speed, while in the
second case it may give up all of its energy and stop altogether. The
26 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
energy of the neutrons is thus easily absorbed by atoms of low atomic
The fact that neutrons may be stopped by substances of low atomic
weight suggested at once the possibility that these particles would be
stopped by biological materials, since these are usually of low atomic
weight, and that they would exert great biological effects. A great deal
of experimental evidence is now available, and some conclusion may
be drawn from these experiments.
As stated earlier, the passage of neutrons through material leaves
the material undisturbed because of the neutral character of the par-
ticles. Neutrons betray their presence only when they strike and
eject the nucleus of hydrogen or of some other light particle. The
intense electric field around the proton causes the disruption and
ionization of atoms through which it passes, and a strongly ionized
path is left in its wake. The ionization of the material creates forces
and chemical reactions which result in biological effects. In this re-
spect the action of neutrons is similar to the action of X-rays. Through
the photoelectric and the Compton effects X-rays produce ionization
of the material through which they pass, and cause thereby chemical
changes and biological effects.
The biological effects of neutrons are qualitatively at least, similar
to the action of X-rays. In common with X-rays neutrons produce
genetic effects,1 chromosome abnormalities, inhibitions of mitosis, re-
tardation of growth, and also death of plants, animals, and of carci-
While qualitatively the effects of neutrons are similar to those of
X-rays the quantitative effects are quite different. The action of
neutrons per unit of absorbed energy is in most cases very much greater
than the action of X-rays. Moreover the ratio of effectiveness of the
two types of radiation differs for different effects or for different ma-
terials. For example, the ratio of effectiveness of neutron rays to that
of X-rays in the case of mutations of Drosophila is 2:1, in the case of
carcinoma it is 6:1, in the case of seedlings it is 5:1 for the successive
effects on wheat seeds it is 20:1.
The greater effectiveness of the neutron rays was explained by
Zircle and Aebersold2 and by Failia' as being due to the intense fields
'For a fairly complete bibliography see: L. H. Gray, J. C. Mottram, John
Read, and F. G. Spear, "Some Experiments upon the Biological Effects of Fast
Neutrons," The British Journal of Radiology, Vol. 13 (1940) pp. 155-70.
"R. E. Zircle and P. C. Aebersold, "Relative Effects of X-rays and Neutrons,"
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 22, (1936): pp. 134-40.
"G. Failia, "Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations," Journal of Applied
Physics, Vol. 12 (1941) pp. 279-90.
EFFECTS OF NEUTRON RADIATION
of the ion pairs created by the passage of a proton through materials.
The passage of protons produces an ionization density very much
greater than that produced by X-rays, of the order of 100 fold. The
concentration of ions may create field of such strength as to affect
biological processes. The plausibility of such a view is very great. We
must remember that each biological unit, whether a chromosome or a
cell, must be conceived of as an entity surrounded by some kind of a
boundary or membrane. The exchange of materials between this unit
and the surrounding material must take place through this membrane.
It is well known that such boundaries or membranes have electrical
properties, which influence the passage of matter through them. It
is therefore safe to assume that electrical conditions near such mem-
branes may affect it very profoundly and thus exert strong biological
influences. The presence of large concentrations of ions near such
boundaries are thus likely to produce profound biological effects.
Unfortunately there are flaws with this explanation. If the bio-
logical effects are dependent on the density of ionization the effects of
X-rays would depend not only on the dosage, but also on the intensity
of the X-ray beam. The density of ionization produced by protons or
by alpha particles is about 100 times as large as the density of X-rays
under certain conditions. It follows, therefore, that if the intensity
of the X-ray beam is very greatly increased we may expect a departure
from the observed linearity of the effects of X-ray and the dose. Very
recently experiments have been performed in our laboratory on the
biological effects of a given dose of X-rays as a function of the in-
tensity of radiation, in which the intensity was varied by a factor of
100. No significant variation with intensity was observed. Also, as
was stated before, the ratio of effectiveness of the two types of radia-
tion varies with different substances and with different effects exerted
by these rays. This suggests that the action of each type of radiation
is, in part at least, different in character, and not merely in the degree
of ionization. This view is supported by effects of neutrons which have
very recently come to light. It has been found that while the neutrons
produce the same erythema as an equivalent dose of X-rays, the ery-
thema does not last as long. It has also been found that in the case of
inhibition of mytosisi of some organism the'effect of the neutrone dose
increases exponentially, while the curve of the effects of X-rays is
sygmoid in character.
It seems that the hypothesis that neutron rays exert their action
only through ionization caused by the ejected protons and that the
difference in action is due entirely to density of ionization is open to
28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
The difference in the action of neutrons and X-rays may be
attributed in part at least to the manner of action of the two types of
radiation. X-rays exert their action entirely through ejection of
electrons and ionization. This is not the case with neutrons. Their
action is due mainly to the ejection of protons from molecules contain-
ing hydrogen. The removal of a proton is bound to alter the chemical
constitution of the molecule, aside from the ionization produced by the
passage of the proton through space. The action of the altered mole-
cules may be the cause of the difference in the effects of neutron and
It is estimated that a million volt proton may produce in air some
30,000 ion pairs. It would seem at first glance that the single molecule
from which the proton was removed would not exert an action compar-
able to the 30,000 ions produced by the passage of the proton. The
effect of the altered molecules would thus be negligible compared to
that of the numerous ions. This, however, is not so. Most neutrons
do not make a head-on collision which results in the ejection of a high
speed proton. Most neutrons deliver only glancing blows to the
protons with which they come in contact since the probability of such
an encounter is very much greater than a head-on collision. These
glancing blows may result in an ejection of the proton, while the ion-
ization produced by it may be very negligible. Since the loss of energy
at each encounter is very small a single neutron may thus affect the
constitution of a great number of molecules, while the contribution
to the total ionization produced by the protons may not be great. It is
clear therefore that the number of altered molecules may be quite
appreciable. These altered molecules may produce biological effects
and thus account for the difference in the action of neutrons and of
AN ATTEMPT AT COMPLETE STATEMENT OF
THE THEORY OF NORMAL PRICE
JOHN H. SHERMAN
One of the more widely used among current texts on economics,1
chosen because typical, opens its discussion of normal price with
The conclusion has just been reached that in a competitive market
there is an irresistible tendency for market price to be established
at the point of equilibruim between demand and supply. But is there
any way of telling in advance what this equilibruim price will be?
If we may assume a fairly steady demand for a good, is there such
a thing as normal price? Market price is the price of the moment
conditioned by demand and supply. Normal price is the price that
prevails in the long run. Market price is temporary; normal price
is relatively more permanent. Market prices may at times be
either too high or too low for protracted maintenance at such levels.
They are regarded as abnormal. An erratic demand occasioned by
the vogue of the moment may force prices up. A temporary local
over-supply may force prices down. Competitive market prices
over a period of time tend toward a level which is called normal
price. From one point of view, normal price is nothing more than
the long-time trend of market prices, since market prices are the
only real and objective prices. If we may assume a sustaining
demand, it is the cost of producing goods which in the long run
determines their normal price.
Then follows the now standardized condensation of the theory of
Alfred Marshall, under which the competition of entrepreneurs in-
evitably increases the supply until, by the increase of supply against a
continuingly steady demand, market prices are driven down to bulk-
line costs of production.
This idea has dominated economic value theorizing for a century
and a quarter. David Ricardo in 1817 developed it at considerable
length," and John Stuart Mill' gave it his sanction in 1848. But it
is in the successive editions of Alfred Marshall, from 1890 to his
death in 1924, that we find this theory of a normal price made the
central and dominating concept of an entire system of economic
'W. H. Kiekhofer, Economic Principles, Problems and Polcies (New York:
Appleton-Century Co., 1936), p. 486 et seq.
'David Ricardo, Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (any edition),
"John Stuart Mill, Principles of Political Economy (Ashley edition; London:
Longmans, Green & Co., 1909), p. 478.
30 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Throughout his work Marshall focused attention upon the tend-
ency of prices of stable goods and the accounting costs of their pro-
duction to approximate to equality "in the long run." His "normal
price" was the necessary cost of production and he accounted for it as
due to the competition of entrepreneurs in a free market driving the
market prices downward until checked by foundation costs of pro-
duction. These costs were the competitive returns to land, labor,
capital and entrepreneurs as rent, wages, interest and wages of man-
His system presupposed by the Ricardian formulae that each of
these returns by nature seeks lowest level in a closed competitive sys-
tem in which the prime factor, management, operates and controls
the other factors-the traditional land, labor, capital triology of the
English classicists. Pure profits, i. e. profits at a rate over and above
that necessary as wages of management adequate to hold the normal
entrepreneur in the industry,' tended to disappear through entrepre-
neurial competitive reduction of market prices.
He thus created an a priori reasoning to project the continuance
of that which he had observed, and he carried this on to the field of
monopoly prices, where he argued that the tendency to disappearance
of pure profits was due to the Monopolist's desire to increase volume
for the production advantages of larger-scale operations.6
At this point he touches upon the tendency of monopoly to stimu-
late corresponding monopoly in fact or practice in the supplying of
the raw materials needed to be purchased by the monopoly," and in
so doing he gets close to the gateway out of his logical difficulties,
but being apparently unaware of the difficulties he did not seek
These difficulties are three: First, that having defined demand
and supply each in terms of amounts to be taken from or released
to the market at given successive prices, his conclusions are by logi-
cal necessity totally inadequate as expressions of law of cause and
effect; second, that he attributes the break-down of the entrepreneur's
prime urge to a short-sighted scramble for immediate profits among
the class which he' describes with great emphasis as the most in-
telligent and far-seeing group; and third, that the goods which fill
a demand of the long-time stability assumed in his theory, go into a
'Alfred Marshall, Principles of Political Economy (8th ed.: London: Mac-
millan, 1938), Books IV and VI.
'Ibid., Book V. Chap. 14.
'Ibid., Section 9, p. 493.
'Ibid., pp. 297-313
STATEMENT OF THEORY OF NORMAL PRICE
market in which the gross volume demanded is steadily increasing at
a rate approximately commensurate to the growth of population, so
that the underlying tendency of the market is upward.
The purpose of this inquiry is to ascertain the reasons for the long-
time approximation of market prices to bulkline costs and the observed
tendency to disappearance of pure profits, by a reasoning which shall
avoid the use of Marshall's fallacies and shall include the factors
which he omitted.
The entrepreneur, possessing intelligence and foresight, launches
a new enterprise or enlarges an old one only after satisfying himself
that the market price prevailing after the advent of his product will
be sufficient to cover all necessary costs of functions which must be
performed in the productive process. There are six such functions,
each performed by an appropriate factor, necessary in any production,
regardless of the size of operation or the number of individuals in-
volved in it. These are:
1. Spacing, or room provision. Every productive activity must'
utilize land area to the exclusion of other uses. Whether this land
area be privately or publicly held is immaterial. In any case its use
for one process excludes its use for some other which is dispensed
with, or conducted at increased disadvantage elsewhere. The func-
tion must always be performed by somebody, and is an inevitable
cost in any production. This cost is called rent, and exists whether
covered by accounting process or not. It is a bargained share.
2. Working, or the moving of things. The objective physical as-
pect of every productive enterprise is the same: man moves external
things into certain juxtaposition and forces of nature operate upon
them to cause growth, destruction, adhesion, repulsion, expansion,
condensation, stability, regularity or eccentricity of subsequent move-
ment, as the human desire may be. This moving of things is onerous
and usually unpleasant. It can be secured only at expense of goods
for inducement (usually money) or of alternative activities foregone,
and is a necessary cost in any production, called wages. It exists
whether covered by accounting process or not. It is a bargained share.
3. Waiting, or lending. It takes time to move things; natural
processes require time; and most productive processes require suc-
cessions of such moving and processing. Those human beings who
engage in productive activity, therefore, always have a period of delay
between the time of their functioning and the moment of return. In
civilized practice those who do the moving usually have need for im-
32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
mediate sustenance prior to the distribution of the product, and a
class of specialists arises to perform this waiting. They advance
money for wages, purchase of tools, and other costs necessary to be
incurred in anticipation of product, in consideration of a contracted
share in the final dividend. This money or goods advanced by spe-
cialized waiters in aid of projected production is capital; its contracted
return, interest. Such waiting is inherently necessary in all produc-
tion, whether performed by a specialized class and covered by ac-
counting process or not. It is always present and is a true cost: a
4. Risking, or undertaking. Just as, objectively, man does only
one thing through life, moving things; so subjectively he does only
one thing. He makes decisions. All mental activities-, thinking, hop-
ing, remembering, planning,-are but steps in the process of deciding
what to do next. Most men are subject to confusions of thinking
such as to force them frequently to indecision or paralysis of action,
yet are under economic compulsion to act. They become followers of
those having capacity for prompt decision. The decisions thus dele-
gated by the masses of men are of two classes: those involving pri-
marily a choice of what to do, and those involving primarily a choice
of how to do it. Decisions what to do or undertake are primarily de-
cisions of assumption of risk: speculative decisions, essentially philo-
sophical in character, forecasts of future conditions exterior to the
productive enterprise itself-usually of markets for product or of
changing sources of supply of factors to be combined in the enterprise.
This risking, or entrepreneurship, is a necessary function even in a
one-man industry. It requires time, attention, and energies diverted
from other productive activities. It is a true cost, usually not so
considered in the accounting, and is undertaken by the entrepreneur
in an effort to secure a residue of pure unbargained profit after paying
contracted returns to each of the other factors, and to himself what-
ever amount is in fact necessary as a bargained share to hold him in
risking as against his next most attractive form of functioning. It
is this pure profit which all economists agree tends to disappear in
the long run.
5. Managing, or planned combining of factors. Just as decisions
what to do are primarily decisions of assumption of risk, speculative,
philosophical in character, and concerned with future exterior condi-
tions; so decisions of how to do it are primarily decisions of technique,
nonspeculative, scientific in character, and concerned with present or
currently evolving interior conditions of the productive organization.
Such decisions, controlling the working, waiting, spacing, etc., are
STATEMENT OF THEORY OF NORMAL PRICE
the function of the manager. Managing is done always to the exclu-
sion of other activities and at sacrifice to the factor. It is a necessary
cost, present whether covered by accounting process or not. Its re-
turn, in form of salary or salary-equivalent, is a bargained share.
6. Seeing fair, or guarding the competitive interests. The in-
come to the enterprise and also the return to each of the bargained
factors as well as the sure retention of any surplus which may result to
the entrepreneur for his risking, are technically determined and desig-
nated by contracts. The maintenance of fair play between the parties
to the negotiation of these contracts and the guarding of those inter-
ests as they materialize, form a necessary function without which no
stable productive enterprise, and no safe market, would be possible.
This function is performed by government in the interest of the whole
society. Where formal contract has not been made, government con-
structs by legal process a contract which is in compliance with the
custom of the industry, and enforces that. In the performance of this
function of seeing fair, government sets limits to the type of bargaining
which may be used and also determines the kind of bargain which may
be sought to be enforced in the dealings and relationships between the
factors as well as between the industry and the outside buying public.
The reward of government is taxes--a bargained share, especially ob-
servable to be such in democracies and clearly so recognized by so-
ciologists, political scientists, and practical politicians.
The industrial picture then, in even the most simple of human so-
cieties is that of a few men making decisions of risk, in pursuance of
which decisions of management are made and workers follow these
decisions of management in moving things around on space provided
at sacrifice of other uses, while specialized waiters furnish needed
equipment for operations and for sustenance of all these factors under
guard and control of a supervising government.
What happens then upon the successful establishment of a new
industry or an enlargement of the old?
Upon the appearance of the net return or pure profit, with result-
ant prosperity of enterprise and enterpreneur, six tendencies at once
come into play:
1. Rents increase. On this Ricardo's analysis and explanation
are still satisfying.
'David Ricardo, Political Economy and Taxation (any edition), Chap. 2.
34 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
2. Labor, always restless under the appearance of successful ex-
ploitation, sees the large profit and demands more wages. This de-
mand is insatiable so long as the margin remains visible or known.
If evaded by "betterments" these are costs. If resisted openly, this
means reduced efficiency, increased labor turnover, and increased
costs for superintendence. On principle laborers quite generally resent
any organization in which they believe profits unduly large. This
feeling, and considerations of groupal loyalty operate to prevent labor-
ers on the outside from competing by underbidding for the job of the
laborer who is well paid or striking for more pay. The "scab" is
the exception among laborers. The appearance of pure profits thus
increases the demands of labor and reduces competition within the
ranks of labor. Wages rise.
3. Investors and financiers who see a large gross profit, and
know or suspect a part of it to be pure profit, take advantage of every
crisis and every need, to secure for themselves a larger share in the
returns of the enterprise. This they accomplish by the conditioning of
loans upon the maintenance of other trade relationships such as raw
material purchases, with other concerns in which the financiers are
interested. Thus the total percentage costs incident to the waiting
function are increased.
4. Lawyers' and consultants' fees, expert services of every kind,
and managers' salaries all increase sharply as profitability becomes
evident. With the passage of time the services of the individual con-
sultants and managers become increasingly essential to smooth opera-
tion. Overhead systems multiply. Distributors and salesmen secure
personal control over trade territories and strike for more discount,
increased commissions, or increased salaries and expense allowances.
The entrepreneur's costs for management all increase.
5. Taxes, license fees, franchise renewal costs, etc., all increase in
amount. Whether they increase in amount per unit of product may
depend upon conditions of the specific time, jurisdiction, and product,
but since in general the effort of the state is to place these burdens
where experience demonstrates that they can be borne-i. e. on profits
and profitability in gross amount-there tends to be an increase in
the unit cost.
6. Pure profits shrink-through the competition of productive
factors within the industry, which drives costs up toward whatever
STATEMENT OF THEORY OF NORMAL PRICE
happens to have been the original market price, whether that price
was initially set by competition, by custom, or by governmental fiat
and monopoly control, as in the case of tariff-created infant industries.
In the face of these practical considerations, what likelihood is
there that new entrepreneurs will enter to force sales prices down?
A very few may. They will be little fellows of the kind having
from the start insufficient advice and inadequate banking. The en-
trepreneur who is to enter with adequate financing quickly finds that
his investors advancing permanent capital and his bankers furnishing
short term credit for current operations must be convinced that taxes,
license fees, franchise costs; rents and all location costs; interest,
commissions and other costs of financing; wages, "betterments," in-
surance and other costs of labor; and wages of management, salaries,
retainer fees and other expenses of control, all are stable; that there
exists a comfortable margin of safety above these; and that the market
is sufficient to support current prices for the increased product within
the immediately visible future.
These investors and bankers are both the best informed and most
conservative elements in the whole industrial society. They also are
a relatively small group, inclined to be mutually protective as against
other interests. The plan and prospects of the entrepreneur must
pass the scrutiny of this most conservative group of critics before he
can proceed. It would appear probable therefore that entrepreneurial
competition is the least likely of all possible forces to destroy pure
The existence of counterbalancing tendencies is not denied, espe-
cially during short periods of falling prices and declining volume of
business, but it is probable that over the average of long periods the
above described tendencies prevail so long as the secular trend of
prices is upward.
Over short cycles these tendencies are practically unchecked during
periods of rising prices; while during periods of falling prices a multi-
tude of social and governmental forces centering around the effort
to hold any improvements that may have been secured for the masses,
enter to protect them from complete counterbalance or reversal.
Viewing the problem from the points of view of industry as a
whole, the single industry, and the single plant: it will be found that
36 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
in industry as a whole the above statement needs no modification. In
the single industry taxes, rents, and management will show all these
upward tendencies at their full; while wages and costs of financing
will have upward tendencies, retarded only insofar as competitive
forces may prevent their more fluid factors from showing such marked
difference from immediately surrounding industries as in the case of
taxes and rents.
The same observations will apply to the single plant. The ten-
dencies are all there, even though in any given instance one, or other,
or all, may happen at the moment to be counterbalanced. A case
in which all are counterbalanced momentarily would be exceptional.
A case in which all are counterbalanced permanently for the long run
probably would be impossible.
NEOTENY IN FLORIDA SALAMANDERS
A. F. CAR JR. AND COLEMAN J. GoIN
University of Florida
The tendency to attain sexual maturity as a gilled larva is exhibited
with unusual frequency by many of the races of the tiger salamander
(Ambystoma tigrinum), a species which is distributed practically
throughout the United States. As a transformed adult tigrinum is
a terrestrial, somewhat fossorial salamander with a tendency to wander
some distance from water and to subject itself to surprisingly high
evaporation rates. In Florida we have taken it as far as a quarter of
a mile from any permanent water, usually in sandy, well drained soil
in upland hammocks or fields. In certain parts of its range it is
found regularly as a permanent larva, while in other sections only an
occasional small colony of such individuals is encountered. A recent
paper by Dunn' on the races of tigrinum gives some information on
the distribution of neoteny in the complex. This may be summarized
Race of General Distribution Occurrence of
A. tigrinum Neoteny
tigrinum Long Island to northern Florida to Minne- in one Florida
sota to Missouri specimen
velasci Mexican Plateau frequent
mavortium Kansas and Colorado southward through occasional
western Texas and central New Mexico
diaboli North Dakota and adjacent parts of not infrequent
slater Northwestern United States and western not infrequent
The condition is also demonstrated by the species of Siredon, a genus
recently resurrected for the Ambystoma-like forms which are char-
acteristically, if not invariably, perennibranch.
Neoteny is, thus, a condition found almost exclusively among the
western representatives of the group. The problem of explaining the
occurrence of these sexually mature larvae, or axolotls, has stimulated
considerable inquiry by experimental physiologists, who have greatly
'Emmett Reid Dunn, "The Races of Ambystoma tigrinrum," Copeia, 1940,
No. 3, pp. 154-162.
38 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
augmented our understanding of hormonal action in the metamorphosis
of the Amphibia but who have yet to explain the regional distribution
of the axolotl.
It is well known that the thyroid gland, a potent influence in mam-
malian metabolism and development, is a principal agent in amphibian
metamorphosis. Various investigators have shown that thyroid abnorm-
alities, due either to chemical or physical maladjustments (such as a
lack of iodine in the water or extremely low temperatures) or to heredi-
tary factors, may be responsible for the phenomenon of neoteny. In
this connection it is of interest to note a considerable distributional
overlapping between the higher incidences of goiter in man and of
neoteny in Ambystoma.
The only published record of neotenic tendencies in the Ambys-
tomidae of Florida is that of Dunn2 for a single specimen (USNM
14682) of Ambystoma t. tigrinum from Micanopy, Florida.. This is
a large larva, in a poor state of preservation, with head-body length
of 110 mm, tail length of 92 mm, and with apparently 12 costal
While collecting for the Carnegie Museum in January, 1935, Dr.
Wesley Clanton obtained thirteen neotenous talpoideum, seven gravid
females and six males, from a small woodland pond near Hale's Siding,
Paynes Prairie, Alachua Co., Florida. In this series, which shows consid-
erable variation in the degree of retention of larval characters, the char-
acteristic sexual swellings are as well developed as in completely meta-
morphosed adults from the same locality. Wide variation is also ex-
hibited in the extent of the dorsal fin. In those specimens which
have retained the gill filaments the fin reaches the region above the
gills, while in those with reduced gills it extends only to the region
above the hind legs. All of the specimens are brownish-gray above
with numerous small, round, black spots. The ventral pattern is
striking, being consistently comprised of a spindle-shaped median black
stripe enclosed by two curving, cream-colored bands. These latter
are in turn bordered by poorly defined light gray stripes which sep-
arate them from a second pair of ventro-lateral light cream-colored
We have recently located a population of a neotenous ambystomid
salamander in a small pond about seven miles northeast of Marianna,
Jackson Co., Florida. Although we do not feel it advisable at present
to propose a hew name for this curious creature we are unable to
*assign it to any form known to us. In the presence of two plantar
"Op. cit., p. 156.
NEOTENY IN FLORIDA SALAMANDERS
and two palmar tubercles and 11 costal grooves it agrees with A. t. tig-
rinum and A. talpoideum but not with A. maculatum or A. opacum.
In general appearance and coloration it seems most like larval tigrinum,
but tigrinum has from sixteen to twenty gill rakers (the Micanopy
specimen has twenty) whereas our specimens have only eight. This is
also the count for talpoideum, but the Jackson County specimens are
readily distinguished from the neotenic talpoideum mentioned above
by the more spatulate head, the more pendulous upper lip, the less
prominent eyelids, a more pronounced dorsal keel, and a thicker,
heavier body. In all of our specimens the posterior edge of the gular
fold forms a broadly obtuse, anteriorly directed angle, rather than a
smooth curve as in talpoideum. When collected, these salamanders
were a pale pea-green above and light below. Since preservation they
have become dark gray dorsally and dirty white below, with numerous
flecks of dark gray on a line between the front and hind legs and on
the venter, leaving a narrow immaculate band between the two re-
gions of flecking. Neotenous talpoideuni tend to be brown rather
than gray with much heavier pigmentation, usually in the form of
longitutinal stripes, on the venter.
Examination of these specimens shows them to be strikingly sim-
ilar in general build and coloration to the Mexican axolotl, Siredon
mexicanum Shaw. However, the latter has about twice as many gill
rakers as our specimens, is somewhat heavier in build and is lighter
gray in coloration. In none of our specimens is the tail fin as strongly
developed as in the Siredon we have examined.
Our only field acquaintance with the Mexican axolotl was gained
on a recent collecting trip, when a flourishing colony was found in a
series of shallow ponds southeast of the city of Puebla (kilometer 224
from Mexico, D. F.) Half a dozen seine hauls in this unpromising
situation yielded more than a hundred specimens of Siredon. Although
the arid terrain of the Mexican Plateau is scarcely comparable to
the rolling, pine-clad hills of the Marianna lowlands, striking simi-
larities in the ponds themselves were noted. In both instances they
were turbid, clay-bottomed, and fed by local drainage. A paucity of
hydrophytic vegetation, except microscopic algae, appeared to indicate
extreme seasonal fluctuation with probable occasional disappearance
of all water. In both places the fauna was poor in variety. In the
Mexican pond a kinosternid turtle was the only other vertebrate
found, while at Marianna the vertebrate associates of the axolotls
were tadpoles of Rana catesbeiana, a few softshelled turtles (Amyda
rerox) and newts (Triturus v. lousianensis). In both situations the
most abundant invertebrate was a species of water boatman (Corixidae)
40 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
and in each instance this form appeared to be the staple food of the
axolotls. To emphasize further what may be a purely coincidental
agreement in physiognomy, a beetle taken in the Marianna pond and
brought to Mr. Frank N. Young for identification was found to be
Eretes sticticus (L.), a form hitherto known in the United States only
from Arizona to Kansas, but which is widely distributed in Mexico.
What appears to us as perhaps the most significant of the several
points of agreement in the two habitats is the lack of logs, stones, or
other debris around the water's edge and the generally unprepossessing
aspect of the surrounding territory. Having observed adult ambys-
tomas only as burrowers in loose, friable soils or as occupants of
chambers hollowed out beneath objects lying on the surface of the
ground, we were unable to see how either of the colonies of axolotls
could have prospered as metamorphosed, air-breathing adults. The
abandonment of larval existence in the comparatively benign aquatic
environment to take up a new kind of life on land must at best be a
critical and hazardous step for an amphibian. In the case of the
axolotls such a project would appear foredoomed to disaster.
As was implied above, axolotls are found most frequently in either
very arid regions or at high altitudes, where the disparity in terrestrial
and aquatic ecological factors is emphasized. It is thus necessary to
consider the possibility that neoteny in certain cases may be an adaptive
response rather than a mere endocrine aberration due to chemical de-
ficiency or to fortuitous gene changes. Accordingly, it seems reasonable
to believe than in what appear to be homogeneous colonies of perma-
nent larvae, certain individuals may from time to time undergo meta-
morphosis only to dessicate or starve in a hostile environment, while
those showing a hereditary tendency toward hormone deficiency sur-
vive and become gradually the predominant strain.
LITTORAL FAUNA OF THE MIAMI AREA.
I THE MADREPORAPIA*
F. G. WALTON SMITH
University of Miami
The need for comprehensive accounts of the littoral fauna of
southeastern Florida is greatly emphasized by the incomplete and
scattered nature of the nevertheless numerous earlier reports. In
1928, however, Pearson (1936) by the introduction of the diving hel-
met as a regular feature of classes in marine zoology made possible
the development of accurate underwater surveys of the waters south
of Miami. During the course of over ten years these have resulted
in the collection of considerable data and have made it possible to
begin detailed ecological studies of the area. As a preliminary to
these studies it is necessary to fill the gaps left by earlier workers and
to list the organisms commonly occurring together with such notes as to
numbers, habitat and breeding habits as are available.
For the past few years, since the closing of the Dry Tortugas lab-
oratory of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, facilities for the
study of tropical shore and reef organisms and the many fundamental
problems centered around them have been very limited in the United
States. It is believed, however, that the present series of reports, re-
sulting from the study of an area now made accessible, may facilitate
such investigations on the shores and reefs within working distance of
the Miami stations. Insofar as possible an attempt is being made
to list all the animals so far known in each of the principal groups,
together with ecological notes and keys for their identification in
cases where these are not already available.
Some of the earliest general descriptions of the Florida reefs are
those of Pourtales (1880), Agassiz (1882, 1888, 1894) and Dana
(1890). Incomplete lists of the corals forming these reefs are to be
found in the publications of Pourtales (1870) and Duncan (1884).
For more detailed lists of the corals, however, it is necessary to con-
sult the papers of Vaughan (1900 b), Verrill (1902 a), and Duerden
*Awarded Achievement Medal for 1942.
42 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
(1902). Verrill gives particularly good descriptions and figures of
most of the species, while Vaughan provides an account of the Puerto
Rico corals. Since the fauna of the West Indies and Southern Florida
are in many ways similar, Vaughan's discussion of the Puerto Rican
species applies equally to the Miami area. Descriptions of the "brain-
corals" and other meandriform corals in the more recent work of
Matthai (1928) are detailed and comprehensive. His descriptions and
illustrations together with those of Vaughan and Verill cover all the spe-
cies known to Florida.
Ecological observations, particularly those regarding the effects
of exposure to varying conditions of sunlight, temperature, salinity and
sedimentation, are contained in a series of reports in the Carnegie In-
stitute Year Books (Vaughan 1908-15) and are summarized in a later
paper by the same author (1916). The same sources include brief
notes on the breeding habits and figures for the growth rates of Florida
A large memoir revising the classification and nomenclature of
the Hexacoralla, by Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan and Dr. John W. Wells,
is in the course of publication. This contains a detailed account of
the structure of the polyp and skeleton and includes a chapter on the
ecology of corals.
The present account lists all the reef and inshore corals taken in
the area and is based upon the collections of the Zoology Department
of the University of Miami. They are representative of about one
hundred and fifty charted stations between Carysfort Reef and Fowey
Rocks. Identified specimens of each species and of some doubtful
sub-species and varieties have been deposited in the Marine Museum
of that institution. The nomenclature employed here has been adapt-
ed primarily to facilitate reference by the non-taxonomic worker to
the more recent accounts cited, and is not necessarily accepted by all
contemporary systematists. Most species have been taken on at
least one occasion in the Miami area, although some, shown in brack-
ets, have been recorded only from the Tortugas or West Indian shores.
The list is limited to inshore forms found in less than 10 fathoms.
For the identification of some of the corals and for valuable advice
I am indebted to Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan of the Smithsonian Insti-
LITTORA FAUNA OF MIAMI AREA 43
tution. Acknowledgments are also due to Dr. Jay F. W. Pearson and
others who have during the past ten years collected the large amount
of material upon which this report is based.
KEY TO THE MADREPORARIA
1. Corallum porous and loosely constructed. Septa not more than twelve....(2)
Corallum not porous. Septa numerous ................................................(8)
2. Small cylindrical calices projecting and separate from each other.
Large branching colony ..................................................................................(3)
Calices shallow and continuous, not projecting. Small branching
or m massive colony ........................................... .... ..... ....................... (5)
3. Branches palmate or fan-like. Acropora palmata (Lamarck)
B ranches cylindrical .................................... .... .............................................. (4)
4. Branches crowded, anastomosing and fused. Acropora prolifera
Branches not anastomosing but diffuse. Acropora cervicornis
5. Colonies massive, lobulate. Pali usually absent. Calices usually
about 1.5 mm. in diameter. Porites astreoides Lamarck.
Colonies branched. Five or six pali...................................... ...................... (6)
6. Branches with blunt swollen ends. Calices shallow and about 2
mm. in diameter. Columella usually with tubercle above.
Porites clavaria Lamarck.
More slender branches, tips not swollen. Columella without
tu b ercle. ............................................ ........ .............. .. ............................... (7 )
7. Calices 1.5 mm. in diameter; stems usually more than 6 mm. in
diameter. Porites furcata Lamarck.
Calices 2 mm. in diameter; stems less than 6 mm. in diameter.
Porites divaricata Le Sueur.
8. Lamellate septa with synapticulae; calices closely placed but not
confluent. No definite walls .................................. ....... .......... (9).
Synapticulae usually absent. Definite walls to calices. ..............................(12)
9. C colonies m massive. ................................................................... .................... (10)
Colonies usually foliaceous. ........................... .................................... ................(11)
10. Upper edges of septa between calices flattened, inner margin ver-
tical. Calices irregular in shape, 2.5 to 3.0 mm. across.
Siderastrea radians (Pallas).
Upper edge of septa subacute, inner margin sloping to bottom of
calice. Calices subhexagonal and about 4.5 mm. in diameter.
Siderastrea siderea... (Ellis and Solander).
11. Typically foliaceous colonies. Ridges separate calices into more or
less parallel rows. Agaricia agaricites (Linne).
Growth more massive than foliaceous. Ridges irregularly disposed.
Agarica agaricites. var. crassa Verrill.
44 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
12. Branching colonies. Well separated calices. ............................................(13)
Massive colonies. Calices not widely separated. .......................................(16)
13. Branches less than 10 mm. in diameter. .........................................................(15)
Branches more than 10 mm. in diameter, short and thick. ..........................(14)
14. Columellar centres distinct; septa up to 8 per cm., margins much
toothed; walls 6-8 mm. thick. (Mussa angulasa (Pallas) ).
Columellar centres not marked; septa up to 18 per cm., margins
entire; walls 2 mm. thick. Eusmilia fastigiata (Pallas).
includes E. Knorri M. Edwards and Haine and E. aspera
15. Corallite rim projects only slightly above coenenchyma. Oculina
Elongate tubular calices project prominently. ,Cladocora arbuscula
16. Corallites not confluent .......................................................... ......................(17)
Corallites confluent. ...................... ................... (22)
17. C orallites contiguous. .................................................................... .................(18)
Corallites in less close contact, oval or rounded...................... ............. (19)
18. Corallites eliptical or hexagonal, simple; septal margins not coarsely
toothed. Favia fragum (Esper)
Corallites rather polygonal, compound. Collines grooved or ridges.
Septal margins coarsely toothed. (Isophyllastrea rigida
19. Corallites oval in shape. Colonies dome shaped. Dichocoenia
stokes Milne Edwards and Haime.
Corallites rounded. .......................................................................................... (20)
20. Costae do not extend between calices. Solenastrea hyades (Dana).
Costae extend between calices ......................................... ...........................(21)
21. Calices up to 8 mm. in diameter; 48 septa. Montastrea cavernosa
Calices about 3 mm. in diameter; 24 septa. Montastrea annularis
(Ellis and Solander).
22. Valleys radiating or relatively short and wide. Colony usually
small, often attached by stalk. .................................................. ......(23)
Valleys labyrinthiform. Colony large and heavy. ........................................(27)
23. Septa and teeth thin, m any. ...........................................................................(24)
Septa and teeth coarse, few ...................................................... .....................(25)
24. Corallum vesicular, large. Columella absent. Septa about 10
per cm., converging. Valleys wider and deeper than above.
(Colpophyllia natans (Muller) ).
25. Sub-turbinate, elongate. Columellar centres connected by lamellae.
Valleys about 15 mm. wide at edge of corallum. (Myceto-
phyllia lamarckiana.) (Milne Edwards and Haime).
Flat-convex. Columellar centres connected by trabeculae. Valleys
near edge 20-30 m m wide .......................................... ..........................(26)
LITTORA FAUNA OF MIAMI AREA
26. Valleys 14 mm. wide, 20 mm. at edge of corallum. Septa 11-12
(Isophyllia multiflora Verrill).
Valleys 22 mm. wide, 35 mm. at edge of corallum. Septa 7-9 per
cm. Isophyllia sinuosa (Ellis and Solander) = I dispacea
27. Edges of septa dentate, columella trabecular, narrow valleys.....................(28)
Edges of septa entire, columella lamellar or solid........................................ (30)
28. Collines with well defined ambulacra. Diploria labyrinthiformis
Collines without well defined ambulacra. .................... ..............................(29)
29. Corallum hemispherical, surface evenly convex. (Diploria strigosa
Corallum flat. Surface uneven and nodular. Diploria clivosa
(Ellis & Solander).
30. Cylindrical branches arising from massive base. Valleys less than
6 mm. wide, collins 6 mm. Septa relatively thick. Dend-
rogyra cylindrus Ehrenberg.
Massive, without branches or nodules. Valleys up to 20 mm. wide.
L arge septa. .................................................. .......................................... ..(31)
31. Large, massive. Valley discontinuous, usually about 10-12 mm.
wide. Meandrina meandrites (Linne).
Smaller, turbinate, with short penducle. Valley continuous longi-
tudinal portion with lateral branches 15-20 mm. wide. Mean-
drina brasiliensis Milne Edwards & Haime.
The distribution of corals is dependent upon several important
factors, the action of which has been investigated by Vaughan in the
case of Florida species. The temperature of Miami waters is near the
lower limit (Vaughan 1916) so that vigorous reef formations do not
occur north of the Eliott Key area. Only a few scattered coral heads
and some of the shallow water species are to b found sparsely dis-
tributed irn the waters immediately north of Fowey Rocks.
In the reef zone itself, characterized by strong wave action, rela-
tively little sedimentation, absence of atmospheric exposure and rela-
tively small temperature range are found the massive forms, firmly
attached to the bottom and able to withstand the mechanical strain of
wave action. The only branching form characteristically occurring
here is Acropora palmata, one of the most important reef builders,
enabled to withstand reef conditions by virtue of its strong branches.
Other corals characteristic of this zone are Diploria strigosa, Diploria
labyrinthiformis and Montastrea annularis. Rather less plentiful are
Diploria clivosa, Montastrea cavernosa and Solenastres hyades. Dicho-
46 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
coenia stokesi and Porittes astreoides are also present, though not form-
ing such large masses as those previously mentioned. Porites clavaria,
forming stumpy, branching masses is common to the leeward side of the
reef, with Agaricia agaricites, Favia fragrum and Siderastrea siderea
present to a lesser degree. Further removed from the seaward edge of
the reef is Acropora cervicornis, which seems to grade into Acropora
palmata by way of Acropora prolifera, with increasing exposure to the
mechanical effects of wave action. A discussion of the validity of these
species is out of place here but has been covered by Vaughan (1900).
The extension of the reef seaward is limited by depth and possibly
by the associated diminishing plankton content and wave action, to-
gether with increasing sedimentation.
At the opposite extreme of the environmental range, along the
eastern shores of the Keys and on the exposed flats corresponding to
Pearson's zones 1 and 2, occur corals able to withstand periodical ex-
posure to the atmosphere, occasional high temperature and heavy sedi-
mentation. These are principally Porites furcata, Manicina areolata
and Siderastrea radians. Between the two extremes is a considerable
amount of overlapping, especially in the case of the hardy Porites
clavaria, which is common throughout all zones, being more stumpy
where exposed to strong wave action, and more slender on the shallow
flats and shores. Manicina areolata is another hardy species found
wherever wave action is not strong enough to wash it from its hold or
to overturn it. It is particularly useful for physiological experiments
because of the large polyp and the ease with which it may be kept
alive in aquaria, using small fish and crustacea for food.
The massive corals of large growth form do not extend inward from
the reef zone, probably because of their lack of ability to withstand
sedimentation. This is not so noticeable in the case of branching forms
other than Acropora species. The less common Oculina diffusa, Cla-
docora arbuscula and Eusmilia fastigiata (E. aspera), found on the less
exposed parts of the reef are also found in the intermediate zones
where water currents prevent sedimentation but where there is not
exposure to heavy wave action. Others occurring less frequently are
Dendrogyra cylindrus, found only on the exposed outer reef, Mean-
LITTORA FAUNA OF MIAMI AREA
drina meandrites, a massive reef form, and Isophyllia sinuosa (I.
dipsaceae) in the less exposed zones of the inner reefs and flats.
Growth rates of some of the forms above mentioned have been
measured by Vaughan (1916). It appears that the greatest mass in-
crease occurs in the branching Acropora palmata which may during the
course of a year grow in height as much as 3.5 cm. and in spread con-
siderably more. The massive forms, such as Montastrea annularis, do
not increase vertically more than 7 mm. per annum.
So far planulae have been found only in the early months of
summer, between the beginning of May and July, but it is by no means
certain that breeding is restricted to these periods. Very little has been
published with regard to coral larvae and it is accordingly difficult to
distinguish them. It is hoped that more information on this subject
may be collected from future studies in the Miami area.
Dana, J. D.
Duerden, J. E.
Duncan, P. M.
Gregory, J. W.
Pearson, J. F. W.
1880. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. VII.
1882. Mem. Amer. Acad. XI.
1888. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. XIV
1894. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. XXVI.
1929. The Development of Manicina Areolata. Car-
negie Inst. Wash. Publ. 391. IV.
1910. Feeding Reactions in the Rose-coral. Proc. Amer.
1890. Corals and Coral Islands, New York.
1902. West Indian Madreporarian Polyps. Nat. Acad.
Sci. Mem. 8.
1904. Post-Larval Development of Siderastrea radians.
Carneg. Inst. Wash. Publ. 20.
1884. J. Linn. Soc. Lond. XVIII.
1900. West Indian Species of Madrepora Ann. Mag.
Nat. Hist. VI.
1924. An introduction to the study of corals. Man-
chester University Press.
1928. A Monograph of the Recent Meandroid Astraei-
dae. Brit. Mus. Cat. Madrep, Corals, VII.
1936. Studies on the Life Zones of Marine Waters
Adjacent to Miami: I. Distribution of the Ophi-
uroidea. Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci. I.
48 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Pourtales, L. F.
1870. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. II.
1880. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. VII.
1887. On the Genus Porites. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. X.
Vaughan, T. Wayland 1900 (a). Coral Faunas of the United States. Monog. U.
S. Geol. Survey XXXIX.
1900 (b). Stony Corals of Porto Rico. Bull. U. S. Fish
1908-15. Various reports in the Year Books of the Car-
negie Institute of Washington.
1916. Ecology of the Florida and Bahamas Shoalwater
Corals. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. Wash. 2.
1918. Temperature of the Florida Coral-reef Tract.
Carneg. Inst. Wash. Publ. 213.
1919. Fossil Corals from 'Central America, Etc. U. S.
Nat. Mus. Bull. 103.
Verrill, A. E.
Yonge, C. M.
1902 (a). Variation and Nomenclature of West Indian
Corals, Trans. Conn. Acad. Sci. XI.
1902 (b). Comparisons of the Coral Faunas of Florida,
Bahamas, etc. loc. cit.
1902 (c). 1902 (c). Corals of the Genus Acropora. loc. cit.
1937. Studies on the Biology of Tortugas Reef Corals.
(1) Observations on Meandra areolata.
(2) Variations in the Genus Siderastrea. Carneg.
Inst. Wash. Publ. 452.
(3) Effect of Mucus on Oxygen Consumption.
Carneg. Inst. Wash. Publ. 475.
TWO NEW CRAYFISHES FROM THE
PANHANDLE OF FLORIDA
HORTON H. HOBBS, JR.
University of Florida
The two new crayfishes herein described represent the two most
common crayfishes occurring in the panhandle of Florida. Procambarus
leonensis occupies numerous habitats in the area between the Suwannee
and the Apalachicola rivers, and Procambarus pycnogonopodus, also
decidedly ubiquitous, is restricted to an area between the Apalachicola
River and a well-drained region in Walton and Holmes counties. While
both of these species occur in a wide variety of habitats, they are more
abundant in lenitic or sluggish lotic situations.
Procambarus leonensis sp. nov.
Figs. 1, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 22, 26, 29, 31.
Diagnosis.-Rostrum with small lateral spines or tubercules, areola
moderately broad with two rows of punctations, hooks on ischipodites
of third and fourth pereiopods in the male; first pleopod of first form
male bearing all five processes, caudal process vestigial, mesial and
cephalic processes subspiculiform, cephalic process not distinctly
recurved, distal portion of appendage directed caudo-ventrad.
Holotypic Male, Form I.-Body subcylindrical, slightly compressed
laterally. Abdomen narrower than thorax (1.92-2.14 cm. in widest
Width and depth of carapace subequal in region of caudo-dorsal
margin of cervical groove. Greatest width of carapace slightly caudad
of caudo-dorsal margin of cervical groove.
Areola of moderate width (7.14 times longer than wide); with two
rows of punctations in its narrowest part; sides parallel for a short dis-
tance in middle. Cephalic section of carapace about 1.9 times as long
as areola (length of areola 33.8%o of entire length of carapace).
Rostrum excavate, reaching base of distal segment of peduncle of
antennule; margins converging (with only a slight break at the base of
the acumen) to tip forming a sharp spine. Acumen set off rather in-
distinctly by two small rounded tubercles at its base. Upper surface
of rostrum polished; ridges on sides not swollen. Tip of acumen not
1Contribution from the Department of Biology, University of Florida.
50 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY, OF SCIENCES
upturned. Subrostral ridges well defined but obscured in dorsal
aspect by the upper part of rostrum.
Postorbital ridges well defined, terminating cephalad in small
rounded tubercles. Suborbital angles obtuse, weak. Branchiostegal
spines well developed. A well-defined tuberculiform lateral spine
present on side of carapace, subtended by a few smaller tubercles. Sur-
face of carapace punctate dorsad, granulate laterad.
Abdomen longer than thorax (4.84-4.65 cm.).
Anterior section of telson with four spines in the right postero-
lateral corner and three in the left.
Epistome (Fig. 29) isosceles-trapezoidal in shape with a distinct,
strong medium spine on the mid-cephalic border.
Antennule of usual form; a spine present on the ventro-mesial side
of basal segment.
Antenna reaching caudad to cephalic margin of telson. Antennal
scale broad (broadest slightly proximad of middle), extending to tip of
peduncle of antennule; spine on outer margin strong.
Chela (Fig. 22) subovate, compressed dorso-ventrally, long and
slender; tip of dactyl passing below tip of propodus when fingers are
brought together. Hand entirely tuberculate. Inner margin of palm
of right chela with one row of ten tubercles subtended both above and
below by smaller scattered tubercles. A distinct ridge present on both
fingers. Fingers not gaping.
Mesial margin of movable finger concave mesiad with a row of nine
distinct tubercles on proximal two-thirds; distal third with a row of
punctations. Proximal third of finger with tubercles both above and
below; distal two-thirds punctate. Proximal half of lateral margin
with a row of twelve tubercles; numbering from base of finger, the
sixth through the ninth are larger. A linear series of four widely
spaced tubercles subtending this row above. Crowded denticles along
the whole length of lateral margin.
Immovable finger with crowded denticles along whole length of
mesial margin. Nine knob-like tubercles, of which the third from base
is largest, lie along proximal half of mesial margin. One very con-
spicuous, acute tubercle extends from ventro-mesial margin slightly
distad of mid-length. Proximal half of outer margin of finger with a
row of small tubercles which give away to punctations along distal half.
Carpus longer than wide (1.35-.76 cm.); shorter than inner margin
of palm of chela (1.73 cm.); a distinct longitudinal groove above;
dorso-mesial, mesial and ventro-mesial surfaces tuberculate, otherwise
TWO NEW CRAYFISHES
punctate. Three well defined spines on mesial surface: one on dorsal
cephalo-mesial margin, one on mesial surface, and the other on ventral
Merus punctate on lateral and proximo-mesial surfaces, distal
portion of mesial surface with a few scattered tubercles. Upper sur-
face tuberculate with two spines on upper distal portion.. Lower sur-
face with two rows of spike-like tubercules: a well defined inner row
of 15, and a less well defined row of '16, subtended on both sides by
other smaller tubercles.
Hooks present on ischiopodites of third and fourth pereiopods.
Basiopodite of fourth pereiopod with a weak tubercle directed toward
hook on ischiopodite.
First pleopod (Figs. 1, 6, 13) reaching to base of third pereiopods;
terminal portion of appendage (outer part) with a heavy tuft of setae
which completely obscures all terminal processes except the mesial.
Appendage terminating in four distinct parts. The mesial subspiculi-
form process extends from the mesial side of the appendage in a distal
caudo-lateral direction. The cephalic process, also subspiculiform,
extends from the cephalic portion of the tip in a caudo-lateral direction.
The central projection, composed of two parts, is a small corneous,
subspatulate structure extending from the center of the outer part of
the appendage; the centro-cephalic process is the larger of the two
elements. The caudal process is vestigial, slightly curved, and lies at
the base of the centro-caudal process of the central projection.
Male Form II.-Differs from male, form I, in the following re-
spects: Rostrum with small lateral spines at base of acumen. Post-
orbital ridges terminate cephalad in small spines. Lateral spines dis-
tinctly spiniform. Anterior section of telson with three spines in each
postero-lateral corner. Antenna reaching to end of telson. First
pereiopod weaker than in first form male, but essentially similar.
Hooks on the ischiopodites of third and fourth pereiopods reduced to
tubercles. First pleopod with same number of terminals, all of which
are reduced, and non-corneous.
Female Allotype.-The only appreciable difference in the female
and the first form male is that the chela is smaller in proportion and
Annulus ventralis (Plate I, fig. 9) subtriangular; caudal margin
symmetrically bilobed. Sinus originating along midventral line near
cephalic margin, extends gently caudo-sinistrad, then caudo-dextrad
to the midventral line and finally caudad almost to the caudal margin
of the annulus, terminating on the caudal surface of a small mound.
52 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Measurements.-Male (Form I) Holotype: carapace, height 2.15,
width 2.15, length 4.65 cm.; areola, width .22, length 1.57 cm.; ros-
trum, width .73, length 1.28 cm.; abdomen, length 4.84 cm.; right
chela, length of inner margin of palm 1.73, width of palm 1.29, length
of outer margin of hand 4.52, length of movable finger, 2.56 cm. Fe-
male Allotype: carapace, height 1.82, width 1.95, length 4.14 cm.;
areola, width .26, length 1.26 cm.; rostrum, width .72, length 1.29
cm.; abdomen, length 4.73 cm.; (right chela, broken) left chela, length
of inner margin of palm 1.14, width of palm .95, length of outer mar-
gin of hand 2.99, length of movable finger 1.74.
Type Locality.-A sinkhole pond 3 miles southwest of Tallahassee,
State Highway 19, Leon County, Florida. It is unfortunate that this
pond is adjacent to the large Army airport now being developed, and'
it may be entirely filled in the construction work now going on. This
was chosen as the type locality because the best specimens and the
largest series of leonensis in my collection were taken from this pond.
At the time the collections were made, the pond was drying up, and the
crayfish were dug from burrows ranging from one and one-half to two
and one-half feet deep. The burrows were for the most part simple,
that is, one straight or sloping passage downward to the water table.
The soil was black plastic mud.
Range and Habits.-This species occupies a relatively large range
in the state, having been recorded from the following counties:
Franklin, Jefferson, Lafayette, Leon, Liberty, Madison and Taylor.
Procambarus leonensis frequents ponds, lakes, sluggish streams, spring
runs, and roadside ditches in which standing water is present most of
the year. Upon the drying up of any of these ditches, ponds, or lakes,
the crayfish construct simple burrows which usually penetrate the
water table within three feet from the surface.
Disposition of Types.-The male holotype and the female allotype,
U. S. N. M. no. 81091, and a, second form male paratype are deposited
in the United States National Museum. Of the remaining paratypes one
male, form I, one male, form II, and one female are deposited in the
Museum of Comparative Zoology. One male, form I, one male, form
II, and a female in the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology.
One male, form I ,one male, form II, and one female, in the Academy
of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia. Ten males, form I, six males,
form II, 26 females, 76 immature males, and 93 immature females are
in my personal collection at the University of Florida.
Relationships.-Procambarus leonensis has its closest affinities
with Procambarus fallax (Hagen) and Procambarus pycnogonopodus,
TWO NEW CRAYFISHES
and indeed, may some day prove to be a subspecies of the former.
From present information, however, their ranges seem to be entirely
Procambarus pycnogonopodus sp. nov.
Figs. 3, 4, 8, 9, 11, 15, 19, 20, 21, 24, 25, 27, 28, 30, 32.
Diagnosis.-Margins of rostrums with small lateral spines or
tubercles, or only slightly interrupted, areola moderately broad with
two or three rows of punctations, hooks on ischiopodites of third and
fourth pereiopods in the male; first pleopod of first form male bear-
ing only four processes, caudal process obsolete, mesial process sub-
spiculiform, cephalic process in lateral aspect either distinctly recurved
(somewhat resembling the head of a bird) or is straight; distal por-
tion of appendage directed ventrad. Distal truncate portion of outer
Holotypic Male, Form I.-Body subcylindrical, slightly com-
pressed laterally. Abdomen narrower than thorax (1.5-1.67 cm. in
widest parts respectively).
Depth of carapace slightly greater than width in region of caudo-
dorsal margin of cervical groove (1.8-1.7 cm.). Greatest width of
carapace slightly cephalad of caudo-dorsal margin of cervical groove.
Areola of moderate width (5.7 times longer than wide); with three
rows of punctations in the narrowest part; sides parallel for a short dis-
tance in middle. Cephalic section of carapace about 2.16 times as long
as areola (length of areola 31.7% of entire length of carapace).
Rostrum excavate, reaching base of distal segment of peduncle of
antennule; margins converging to tip where they form a sharp spine.
Acumen not distinctly set off from rest of rostrum, only faintest in-
dication of interruptions on margins at base of acumen. Upper sur-
face of rostrum polished; ridges on sides not swollen. Tip of acumen
not upturned. Subrostral ridges well defined but obscured in dorsal
aspect by the upper part of rostrum.
Postorbital ridges prominent, truncate cephalad. Suborbital angles
obtuse, extremely weak. Branchiostegal spines well developed. No
lateral spines present on side of carapace, only a few small tubercles
in region where they normally occur. Surface of carapace punctate
dorsad, granulate laterad.
Abdomen longer than thorax (4.1-3.6 cm.).
Anterior section of telson with five' spines in left postero-lateral
corner and four in right.
Epistome (Fig. 32) broadly semi-ovate with a cephalo-median
54 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Antennule of the usual form; a spine present on ventro-mesial sur-
face of basal segment.
Antenna reaching beyond caudal margin of telson. Antennal scale
broad (broadest slightly proximad of middle), extending to middle of
distal segment of peduncle of antennule; spine on outer margin strong.
First pereiopod almost identical with that of leonensis. A few
slight differences are seen in tubercle counts. Length of outer margin
of hand and length of carapace subequal.
Hooks present on ischiopodites of third and fourth pereiopods.
Basiopodite of fourth pereiopod with a large tubercle directed distad
toward hook on ischiopodite.
First pleopod reaching to base of third pereiopods; terminal por-
tion of appendage (outer part) with a heavy tuft of setae which in
lateral and cephalic views completely obscures all terminal processes
except the mesial. The subspiculiform mesial process extends from the
mesial side of the appendage in a distal caudo-lateral direction (not as
decidedly so as in leonensis). The cephalic process, also subspiculi-
form, but shorter than the mesial process, arises from the cephalo-
mesial part of the appendage, and directed distad. The central pro-
jection is a minute corneous blade extending from the terminal portion
of the outer part. The two processes making up the corneous blades
hardly discernible; the centrocephalic process, however, is much the
larger. Caudal process absent. Truncated end of the outer part largely
Male Form 1I.-Differs from male, form I, in the following re-
spects: Rostrum with acumen more definitely set off, but with no spines
or tubercles. Postorbital ridges terminate cephalad in small tubercles.
A small lateral spine present on each side of carapace. Anterior section
of telson with five spines in right postero-lateral corner and four in the
left. Epistome isosceles-trapezoidal, with a spine on mid-cephalic
border. First pereiopod essentially like that in first form male, differ-
ing principally in distribution and number of tubercles. Hooks on
ischiopodites of third and fourth pereiopods greatly reduced. First
pleopod with same number of terminals, all reduced in size, and non-
Female Allotype.-Differs from male, form I, in the following re-
spects: Anterior section of telson with four spines in each postero-
lateral corner. Epistome more irregular but same general shape. Hands
much weaker and shorter in proportion.
Annulus ventralis (Plate I, Fig. 9) broadly bell-shaped. Caudal
margin shallowly cleft in middle. Sinus originating on cephalic border
on mid-ventral line, following rather closely the mid-ventral line to
TWO NEW CRAYFISHES
mid-length of annulus, bending gently dextrad, for a short distance
caudad, then sinistrad to mid-ventral line, and finally caudad to cut
the caudal margin.
Maesurements.-Male (Form I) Holotype: carapace, height 1.8,
width 1.7, length 3.6 cm.; areola, width .20, length 1.14 cm.; rostrum,
width .59, length .92 cm.; abdomen, length 4.1 cm.; right chela, length
of inner margin of palm 1.42, width of palm 1.00, length of outer
margin of hand 3.62, length of movable finger (abnormal). Female
Allotype: carapace, height 1.70, width 1.66, length 3.26 cm.; areola,
width .16, length .96 cm.; rostrum, width .56, length .88 cm.; abdomen,
length 3.63 cm.; right chela, length of inner margin of palm .92, width
of palm .78, length of outer margin of hand 2.55, length of movable
finger 1.49 cm.
Type Locality.-A roadside excavation and adjoining intermittent
stream in the flatwoods 5.8 miles west of Wewahitchka on State High-
way 52, Gulf County, Florida. At the time my collections were made
the stream was practically dry. The specimens were taken in a seine
and from shallow, simple burrows about one and one-half feet in
Range and Habits.-Procambarus pycnogonopodus has been col-
lected from seve counties west of the Apalachicola River in Florida:
Bay, Calhoun, Gulf, Holmes, Jackson, Walton and Washington.
This species, like Procambarus leonensis, is somewhat ubiquitous,
inhabiting ponds, sluggish and moderately flowing streams, and road-
side ditches; on one occasion it was taken from brackish water. It
constructs burrows similar to those of leonensis.
Disposition of Types.-The male holotype and female allotype,
U. S. N. M. no. 81092, and a second form male paratype are deposited
in the United States National Museum. Of the remaining paratypes
one male, form I, one male, form II, and one female are deposited in
the Museum of Comparative Zoology; one male, form I, one male,
form II, and one female in the University of Michigan Museum of
Zoology. One male, form I, one male, form II, and one female in the
Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia. Of the remaining para-
types 5 males, form I, 52 males, form II, 60 females, 26 immature
males, and 54 immature females are in my personal collection at the
University of Florida.
Relationships.-Procambarus pycnogonopodus has its closest affi-
nities with Procambarus fallax and P. leonensis. In fact it is difficult
on casual examination to distinguish between the females of these three
species, and the first pleopods of the males show distinct affinities.
56 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
Variation.-Considerable variation is found in this species. In a
large number of mature specimens, as well as in nearly all of the im-
mature specimens, the lateral rostral spines are very strongly developed,
while in others they are obsolete. Lateral spines on the carapace are
also common in this species. The shape of the epistome is quite vari-
able; rounded parts as seen in the holotype (Plate I, fig. 32) are some-
times distinctly angulate. The postorbital ridges often terminate in
sharp spines. Even the relative sizes of the chelae are variable. Ap-
parently the least variable character is the first pleopod of the first
form male, and even here the cephalic process varies in shape from re-
curved to straight and spiculiform (Plate II, figs. 24, 25, 27, 28).
NOTE: Due to inadvertent delay in publication of this volume diagnoses of
these species appeared earlier in "The Crayfishes of Florida" (Hobbs:
Univ. Fla. Pub., Biol. Series 3 (2): 114-115, 117) and thus actually
constitute the original descriptions.
LEGEND FOR PLATE I
Pubescence has been removed from all structures illustrated.
Fig. 1 Mesial view of first pleopod (male, form I) Procambarus leonensis.
Fig. 2 Mesial view of first pleopod (male, form I) Procambarus fallax (Hagen).
Fig. 3 Mesial view of first pleopod (male, form I) Procambarus pycnogonopodus.
Fig. 4 Lateral view of first pleopod (male, form I) Procambarus pycnogonopodus.
Fig. 5 Lateral view of first pleopod (male, form I) Procambarus fallax (Hagen).
Fig. 6 Lateral view of first pleopod (male, form I) Procambarus leonensis.
Fig. 7 Mesial view of first pleopod (male, form II) Procambarus leonensis.
Fig. 8 Mesial view of first pleopod (male, form II) Procambarus pycnogonopodus.
Fig. 9 Annulus ventralis of Procambarus pycnogonopodus.
Fig. 10 Annulus ventralis of Procambarus leonensis.
Fig. 11 Lateral view of first pleopod (male, form II) Procambarus pycnogono-
Fig. 12 Lateral view of first pleopod (male, form II) Procambarus leonensis.
LEGEND FOR PLATE II
Pubescence has been removed from all structures illustrated.
Fig. 13 Mesial view of tip of first pleopod (male, form I) Procambarus leonensis.
Fig. 14 Dorsal view of carapace of Procambarus leonensis.
Fig. 15 Mesial view of tip of first pleopod (male, form I) Procambarus pycno-
Figs. 16 and 17 Hooks on ischiopodites of third and fourth pereiopods of male,
form I, Procambarus leonensis.
Fig. 18 Mesial view of tip of first pleopod (male, form I) Procambarus fallax
Figs. 19 and 20 Hooks on ischiopodites of third and fourth pereiopods of male,
.form I, Procambarus pycnogonopodus.
Fig. 21 Dorsal view of carapace of Procambarus pycnogonopodus.
Fig. 22 Upper surface of right chela, Procambarus leonensis.
Fig. 23 Dorsal view of carapace of Procambarus fallax (Hagen).
Figs. 24, 25, 27, 28 Variations in the cephalic process of the first pleopod (male,
form I) of Procambarus pycnogonopodus.
Fig. 26 Lateral view of carapace of Procambarus leonensis.
Fig. 29 Epistome of Procambarus leonensis.
Fig. 30 Antennal scale of Procambarus pycnogonopodus.
Fig. 31 Antennal scale of Procambarus leonensis.
Fig. 32 Epistome of Procambarus pycnogonopodus.
TWO NEW CRAYFISHES
58 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE ALGAL
FLORA OF SOME FLORIDA SOILS
F. B. SMITH and H. R. ELLIS
University of Florida
The study of the soil algae dates back to about the middle of the
last century and was a natural consequence of the development of the
other branches of the science of soil microbiology. Attention was at
first centered in nitrogen fixation by this group following the suggestion
that this process in soils was biological. However, it was not' until
recently that the nitrogen fixing ability of certain blue-green algae was
definitely established. The study of the occurrence and distribution
of the algae in soils has not kept pace with the study of their physio-
logical processes. Consequently, the economic importance of nitrogen
fixation in soils by the blue-green algae remains to be determined.
Many of the earlier investigators claimed an increased nitrogen
fixation by Azotobacter when algae were present. It is commonly ac-
cepted that the algae supply the Azotobacter with a source of available
energy. Recent investigations (11) do not support this belief. How-
ever, there remains the possibility of other interesting and highly im-
portant interrelationships between these organisms.
Esmarch (3) was possibly the first to recognize the importance of
soil conditions in limiting the growth and distribution of algae in soils.
In a study of some African soils, he found the blue-green algae to be
more abundant in cultivated than in virgin soils. In another study (4)
differences in soil texture, organic matter content, moisture relation-
ships and soil treatment were observed to affect the occurrence of cer-
Robbins (9) found algae to occtr abundantly in many cultivated
soils of Colorado. Of 21 species isolated, 19 were species of the blue-
green algae. The soils were described as sandy loam, clay loam, heavy
clay, hard, gravelly clay, heavy abode and river bottom silt. This
would hardly be recognized as a complete characterization of the soils,
but an attempt was made to correlate species with kind of soil.
Bristol (1, 2) investigated the occurrence of algae in soils under
different moisture conditions. Moore and Karrer (7) and Moore and
Carter (8) studied the distribution of algae in soils at different depths.
More recently, Stokes (10) studied the influence of certain environ-
mental factors on the development of algae in the Sassafras loam. It
was found that liming had a marked beneficial effect on the growth of
algae in this soil. It was also found that additions of active organic
60 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
matter inhibited the growth of algae, apparently because of a compe-
tition with other organisms for the essential elements since normal
algal growth occurred after the organic matter decomposed.
The fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, the addition of energy to
the soil through the fixation of carbon, and the interrelationships of
the algae with the other soil organisms, offer many interesting possi-
bilities for investigation. It has long been known that the algae are a
source of food for certain protozoa but the full significance of this to
soil fertility is not known. The addition of even small amounts of
nitrogen and organic matter to sandy soils low in these constituents
may be of large practical value in the management of these soils,
In a majority of the investigations reported the soil has been re-
garded as incidental only to the occurrence of the organisms; and the
characterization of the soil, when attempted at all, was superficial and
inadequate. However, in many cases investigators have been aware of
the influence of soil type on the occurrence and distribution of certain
species. Little, if any, significance can be attached to lists of forms
isolated from the soil without regard to soil type differences. The
problem is worthy of at least a scientific approach. It was with this in
mind that the present investigation was begun. Three soil types are
under investigation at the present and although the studies are by no
means complete some interesting differences have developed and the
results are offered as a progress report. The work will be continued
with the same soil types through different seasons and on different
types under various conditions of management.
Methods of Procedure
Sufrace samples of virgin Portsmouth fine sand and a resting
Norfolk fine sand were taken in September. The different horizons
4of a virgin Leon fine sand were taken January 1, January 31, March
S31, and June 11. Typical profiles of the three soils are described (5)
1. Norfolk fine sand.
A1 0-3" Gray to yellowish gray fine sand, loose and
A2 3-30" Yellow fine sand, incoherent and structureless.
B -- Yellow, friable sandy clay. Depth to clay quite
variable, ranging from 30 inches to 6 or 8 feet.
These soils have developed on marine deposits of non-calcareous
sand and clay. They occupy the well drained uplands and are gently
ALGAL FLORA OF SOME SOILS
undulating to rolling in topography. The profile is acid throughout
and the reaction of the surface samples of this soil was pH 6.5.
2. Portsmouth fine sand.
A1 0-10" Dark gray to black fine sand.
A2 10-24" Light gray fine sand.
BC 25" plus-- Light gray friable sandy clay, slightly mottled
Small areas of these soils occur frequently in the flatwoods, usually
as marsh or swamp and the permanent water table is usually within
24-30 inches of the surface. The reaction of the Portsmouth fine sand
is normally acid throughout the profile. However, the pH of the sur-
face of this soil was 7.2.
3. Leon fine sand.
A1 0-5" Gray fine sand.
A2 5-12" Bleached layer, white fine sand.
B1 12-14" Dark gray to black fine sand. Transitional
B2 14-18" Dark brown fine sand, firmly cemented with
organic matter (Hardpan layer).
B3 18-30" Light brown fine sand. Water table at 30
The soils occupy extensive areas within the flatwoods and occur on
slightly higher positions than the associated Portsmouth soils. The
Leon soils have variable drainage conditions, depending upon rainfall
and the thickness of the cemented layer. The movement of water
through these soils is greatly retarded where the hardpan is well de-
veloped and consequently the surface of some of these soils may become
flooded during rainy seasons or very dry during drought. The pH of
the surface of this soil was 5.13.
Samples from the surface two inches of the Portsmouth and Nor-
folk soils were collected in sterile pint Mason jars and brought into the
laboratory. The moisture content of the soils was adjusted to 30 per
cent by the addition of distilled water. The jars were covered and
placed in a window where the sun could strike them a part of the day.
After about three weeks an abundant growth appeared on the sides
of the jars. Some of the growth scraped from the sides of the jars was
suspended in tubes of melted and cooled agar. Dilution plates were
62 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
poured and after growth appeared were transferred to agar slants for
identification. The medium used had the following composition:
Amm onium nitrate .............................................. 0.5 gm
Mono-potassium phosphate................................ 0.2 gm.
M agnesium sulfate .............................................. 0.2 gm .
Calcium chloride ................................................ 0.1 gm .
Iron sulfate .................................... ................ trace
A gar ................................................................... 20 gm s.
D istilled water ...................................................1 liter.
A slightly different procedure from that described above was fol-
lowed in the case of the Leon fine sand. Amounts of moist soil equiv-
alent to 10 grams of dry soil were weighed into 500 cc. sterilized
Erlenmeyer flasks, containing 100 grams of washed sand and 100 cc.
of medium. The medium used was the same as that described above,
except that the agar was omitted. The flasks were shaken to disperse
the algae and then placed in a window where the sun could strike
them. After growth appeared, dilution plates were poured and then
colonies transferred to agar slants for identification.
Unialgal cultures prepared either directly from the soil or from
enrichment cultures were used in most cases for identification. The
results obtained are presented in Table 1.
Growth appeared in both the Norfolk and Portsmouth fine sands
about three weeks after adjusting the moisture content and incuba-
tion in the laboratory. Considerable difficulty was experienced in ob-
taining unialgal cultures and repeated dilutions were necessary to
separate the several species. Synechocystis aquatilis, Aphanocapsa
virescens, Oscillatoria limosa, 0. violacea, Nostoc muscoram and N.
foliaceum were found in about equal abundance in both the Norfolk
and Portsmouth fine sands.
Growth appeared in the cultures from the A1 horizon of the Leon
fine sand after 22 days and in the cultures from the A2 horizon after
31 days. At the, second sampling, growth appeared in samples from
the A1 horizon after 20 day and in the A2 horizon after 38 days. At
the third sampling, March 14, growth appeared in the A1 cultures
after 12 days and in the A2 cultures after 15 days. The same algae
were found in the A2 horizon as in the A1 horizon, but no growth ap-
peared in the cultures inoculated with soil from the lower horizons.
The same species were present at the different samplings from Janu-
ary 1 to March 14. However, a sample of the A1 horizon of the Leon
fine sand taken June 11, after a long dry period, contained Chloro-
coccum hilmicola as the dominant species and an occasional Rivularia
ALGAL FLORA OF SOME SOILS
sp., Hormidium sp., Chlamydomonas sp., and Protococcus sp. Cul-
tures were inoculated June 16 from the sample taken June 11, but
growth did not appear until August 16.
The soils used in this investigation, although similar in many re-
spects, represent extreme conditions in reaction, organic matter, and
moisture relations. The Norfolk fine sand was excessively drained
and dry, the Leon fine sand was wet and the Portsmouth fine sand was
practically saturated with water. The Portsmouth fine sand is nor-
mally acid in reaction, but due to some local abnormality the Ports-
mouth sampled was slightly basic in reaction. This was probably
brought about by seepage of water or drainage from a limed area in
the vicinity of the area sampled. The organic matter content of the
Portsmouth fine sand is relatively high in comparison with the Norfolk
fine sand. The reaction, moisture content and relatively high organic
matter content of the Portsmouth soil undoubtedly were factors dif-
ferentiating the occurrence of species in this type from those occurring
in the Norfolk and Leon soils.
The data in Table 1 show the flora of the different soils to be
as diverse as their physical characteristics. Only species of Myxo-
phyceae were found in the Portsmouth and Norfolk fine sands, where-
as only species of the Chlorophyceae were found in the Leon fine sand
at the January and March samplings of this type. However, at the
June 11 sampling of the Leon fine sand a species of Rivularia was
encountered. This difference in type of flora in the different soils may
be due at least in part to soil type differences. This difference was
also undoubtedly partly due to seasonal differences, as was evidenced
in the flora of the Leon fine sand at the different samplings. Martin
(6) in a study of the occurrence of algae in some virgin Utah soils
found a change in kinds that predominated at different times of the
year. This investigation will be continued to obtain information on
the relative abundance of the different kinds of algae in the various
soils at the different seasons of the year.
Three soil types representing extreme conditions with respect to
physical and chemical properties, ranging from permanently wet,
swampy conditions, alternate wet and dry flatwoods to the high, dry
ridge sands were sampled for biological analysis. Eighteen species
of Myxophyceae were found in the poorly drained Portsmouth fine
sand. Six of these species were also represented in the Norfolk fine
sand, a soil that is excessively drained and relatively dry. The Nor-
64 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
folk fine sand contained nine species of Mysophyceae not found in
Portsmouth fine sand. Nine species of Chlorophyceae and one
Myxophyceae were found in the Leon fine sand. This soil has a hard-
pan and is alternately wet and dry. No algae were found in the
Leon fine sand below the A2 horizon, 5 to 12 inch depth. There were
indications of a seasonal variation in the algal flora of the Leon fine
TABLE 1.-THE ALGAL FLORA or SOME FLORIDA SOILS
Leon fine sand
"8 0 E! 00
Palmella sp. X X
Stichococcus subtilis (Kuetz.) Klecker X X
Chrococcus rubrapunctus Wolle X
Chrocococcus turicensis Naeg. X
Chricococcus turgidus Naeg. X
Chroococcus sp. X "'
Synechocystis aquatilis Sauv. X. X
Synechocystis sp. X
Gloeocapsa sp. A X
Gloeocapsa sp. B. X
Aphanocapsa virescens (Hass.) Rab. X
Microcystis aeruginosa Kuetz. X
Microcystis robusta (Clark) Smith X
Synechocystis aquatilis Sauv.
Oscillatoria limosa Ag. X X
Oscillatoria violacea Wallrath X X
Oscillatoria sp. A. X
Oscillatoria sp. B. X
Nostoc muscorum Ag. X X
Nostoc foliaceum Mougeot X X
Nostoc verrucosum (Linn.) Vauch. X
Nostoc sp. A X
Nostoc sp. B X
Nostoc sp. C. X
Microcoleus subtorulosus Kuetz X
Cylindrospermam majus Kuetz. X
Cylindrospermum sp. A. X
Cylindrospermam sp. B. X
Gomphosphaeria sp. X
Chlamydomonas sp. X X
Protococcus viridis Ag. X X
Geminella p. 'X X
Chlorocuccwm humicola (Naeg.) Rab. X X
Rivularia sp. X X
Hormidium sp. X X.
Lyngbya martensiana Meneghini X
ALGAL FLORA OF SOME SOILS 65
TABLE 2.-PERCENTAGE MOISTURE IN THE LEON FINE SAND AT DIFFERENT
Horizon 1/1/41 1/31/31 3/14/41 6/11/41
A1 7.70 7.25 6.60 0.49
A2 8.60 7.05 12.00 ........
B1 23.15 22.80 19.95........
B2 15.35 18.35 16.20 ........
B3 ........ 15.60 14.80 .......
1. Bristol, B. M. 1919. On the retention of vitality by algae from old stored
soils. New Phytol 18:92-107.
2. 1920. On the alga-flora of some desiccated English soils: An
important factor in soil biology. Ann. Bot. 34:35-80.
3 Esmarch, F. 1910. .jetrag zur Cyanophyceen flora unsrer kolonien. Bot.
Staatsinst, in Haml ti, Mitt. Abt. 2, 28:63-82.
4. 1914. Untersuchungen ueber die verbreitung der cyanophyceen
auf und in Versheidene n Boeden. Hedwigia 55: 224-273.
5. Henderson, J. R. 1939. The soils of Florida Fla. Agri. Exp. Station, Bulle-
6. Martin, T. L. 1940. The occurrence of Algae in some virgin- Utah soils.
Abs. in Soil Sci. Soc. Amer., Proc. 4:249-250.
7. Moore, C. T. and Karrer, J. L. 1919. A subterranean algal flora. Ann.
Mo Mot. Garden, 6:281-307.
8. and Carter, Nellie. 1926. Further studies on the subterranean
algal flora of the Missouri Botanical Garden. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden, 13:101-
9. Robbins, W. W. 1912. Algae in some Colorado soils. Colo. Exp. Station,
10. Stokes, J. L. 1940. The influence of environmental factors upon the develop-
ment of algae and other microorganisms in soil. Soil Sci. 49:171-184.
11. 1940. The role of algae in the nitrogen cycle of the soil. Soil
PROGRESS REPORT ON A SURVEY OF THE
AMPHIBIA OF FLORIDA
M. GRAHAM NETTING AND COLEMAN J. GOING
Carnegie Museum and University of Florida
After several years' investigation on the amphibian fauna of Flor-
ida we wish to present to the members of this Academy a summary of
progress. We hope that this report will serve to stimulate further
collecting, especially in those areas from which additional material is
Although active interest in Florida herpetology may be said to date
from'1791 when William Bartram published his "Travels through
North & South Carolina, Georgia, East & West Florida, the Cherokee
Country," no other paper has stimulated interest in the amphibians
and reptiles of this state as has Dr. A. F. Carr's "Contribution to the
Herpetology of Florida." Many herpetologists from various institu-
tions have made collections in the state, but since no summary of the
fauna was in existence prior to his work much of the collecting was
haphazard. As a result many critical areas remained unvisited and
many gaps were left in our knowledge of Florida herpetology. This
was particularly true of the amphibians which never have evoked as
much interest as have the reptiles. With the accumulation of ma-
terial from hitherto neglected areas, several new forms have come to
light and much information has been obtained on the relationships,
geographic variations, and distribution of species that had been little
Dr. Carr lists twenty-three salamanders and twenty-six frogs and
toads in his report. Subsequent work on additional specimens from
Florida and other regions has dictated nomenclatorial changes for
several of these forms and the revival of some old names that had
previously been placed in synonymy. We have described two new
races, and our material indicates that several more yet remain to be
described. In addition, during the last few years one species of sal-
amander and one species of toad that were not previously known to
occur in Florida have been collected in the state. It is probable that
several other forms may be added to the state list in the near future.
Such forms as Necturus lidingi Viosca, Hemidactylium scutatum
(Schlegel), Rana sevosa Goin and Netting, and Rana vigatipes Cope
are known to occur in adjacent areas, and we believe it is probable
68 PROCEEDINGS OF THE FLORIDA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
that at least some of these may be collected in Florida in the near
The amphibians of Florida offer numerous examples of apparently
active differentiation. While none of the amphibia show the almost
bewildering amount of speciation and racial differentiation exhibited
by the Florida crayfish, crane flies, and spiders, they do, nevertheless,
break up into races which indicate the existence of five more or less
well defined regions of the state. These areas may be listed as: South
Florida and the Keys, Peninsular Florida, North Florida, Apalachicola
Ravines, and the Western Panhandle.
Comparison of numerous Florida specimens of wide ranging east-
ern species with large series of extra-limital specimens indicates the
existence of certain geographic trends. For example, several species
of frogs in the eastern United States show a gradient from the New
England specimens with short, obtuse snouts, large feet, and blunt
toes to the Florida specimens which have acuminate snouts, small
feet, and sharply pointed toes.
Our aim at present is to collect intensively in those areas from
which specimens are most urgently needed; to determine the relation-
ships and the geographic variations of all of the species that occur
in Florida; to work out the synonymy for these forms; and finally
to gather data on the life histories of Florida amphibians.
There still remain numerous unanswered questions relative to our
species, and it is incumbent on Florida residents interested in biology
to investigate these. The life histories of most of the Florida am-
phibians are at best incompletely known, and these can be adequately
studied only by a person living "on the ground." Furthermore, in-
vestigations on habit, habitat preference, seasonal occurrence, and
population density for each form are much to be desired. We hope
that Florida biologists will interest themselves in these problems, and
we can assure them that work along these lines will bring results that
will much more than repay the effort expended.