Group Title: Early Life History stages of fishes of Lake Orange
Title: Early Life History stages of fishes of Lake Orange, Florida
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 Material Information
Title: Early Life History stages of fishes of Lake Orange, Florida an illustrated identification manual
Series Title: Technical report - Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit ; 15
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Conrow, Roxanne
Vale, Alexander V.
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1985
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00001461
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0750
ltuf - AJY1714
alephbibnum - 001906304

Full Text












EARLY LIFE HISTORY STAGES OF FISHES
OF ORANGE LAKE, FLORIDA:

AN ILLUSTRATED IDENTIFICATION MANUAL






by



Roxanne Conrow


U-NIK i Off ;; LOi


and


Alexander V. Zale



Florida Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit
School of Forest Resources & Conservation
Institute of Food & Agricultural Sciences
117 Newins-Ziegler Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611




TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 15


May 1985




























































i 7i















































Citation should read:

Conrow, R., and A. V. Zale. 1985. Early life history stages of fishes of
Orange Lake, Florida: an illustrated identification manual. Florida
Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit Technical Report No. 15.
45 pp.




ii















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


We wish to thank R. W. Gregory and H. F. Percival for their advice and
support. Friends and colleagues who assisted in field sampling included M.
Buck, J. Christoph, J. DeFazio, J. DeValerio, C. Jeske, and S. Upchurch.
We are grateful to them all. Special thanks are extended to Jacqueline L.
Carter, who generously volunteered many hours to the project. Identifi-
cations of certain specimens were aided by advice or specimens from Robert
Wallus, Tennessee Valley Authority; Paula M. Mabee, Department of Biology,
Duke University; and Gerald McGowan, Carolina Power and Light Company.
George H. Burgess, Jr., Clay L. Montague, and Franklin F. Snelson, Jr.
reviewed drafts of this report.

Funding for this study was provided by the Florida Cooperative Fish
and Wildlife Research Unit. The Florida Unit is jointly supported by the
United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the Florida Game and Fresh Water
Fish Commission, the University of Florida, and the Wildlife Management
Institute.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Acknowledgments ......................................... ............ ii
Introduction ........................................................... 1
Key to fishes less than 10 mm total length ............................ 3
Clupeidae (herrings) ............................. .......... ........ 7
Esocidae (pikes) ........................................................ 9
Cyprinidae (minnows) .................................................... 11
Cyprinodontidae (killifishes) .......................... .............. 15
Poeciliidae (livebearers) ................................ ................. 19
Atherinidae (silversides) ........................................... 21
Centrarchidae sunfishess) ............................. .............. ... ... 23
Percidae (perches) .............................................. .. .. 39
Additional species ..................................................... 41


Literature Cited ....................................................... 42















INTRODUCTION


From June 1983 to June 1984, the senior author examined the habitat
associations and seasonal succession of early life history stages of fishes
of Orange Lake, Alachua County, Florida (Conrow 1984). The study included
an evaluation of three sampling gears -- a 0.5-m diameter tow net, a Breder
trap (a plastic trap with leaders; Breder 1960), and a light trap (Floyd et
al. 1984).

A total of 23 fish species was captured during the study. Illustra-
tions and identifying characteristics of 18 of these are presented, along
with brief mention of habitat associations and seasonal occurrences. Note
that all illustrations and identifications were made from fish captured in
the field and are therefore not definitive. Identifications were based on
descriptions in the literature and, when possible, comparisons with known
series. Species reported from Orange Lake (Reid 1950; DuRant 1980; Conrow
1984) but not considered in this report are listed on page 41.

Orange Lake has a surface area of approximately 5000 hectares and a
maximum depth of 3.5 meters (Fig. 1). The four habitats defined for the
study were open water, panic grasses (Panicum spp.), hydrilla (Hydrilla
verticillata), and.floating/emergent vegetation. The latter in charac-
terized primarily by spatterdock (Nuphar luteum), but also includes water
hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum), cabomba
(Cabomba caroliniana), and bladderwort (Utricularia inflata).























.Z7

I~-J


HYDRILLA

OPEN WATER

PANIC GRASS


FLOATING/


Fig. 1. Distribution of four major habitat types of Orange Lake, Florida,
1983. Sampling was restricted to the northeast section of the
lake, inside L-shaped line on the map.










KEY
To fishes less than 10 mm Total Length (TL)


1. a. Chin barbels present:
ICTALURIDAE
Ictalurus natalis 0
I. nebulosus
WJoturus gyrinus
b. Chin barbels absent -- 2


2. a. Adhesive disc present
on snout -- 3


b. Adhesive disc absent -- 4


3. a. Adhesive disc with papillae:
LEPISOSTEIDAE
Lepisosteus platyrhincus


b. Adhesive disc smooth:
Amia calva


40
N7


AMIIDAE


4. a. Preanal length (measured from
tip of snout to posterior
margin of vent)
less than 33% TL:
ATHERINIDAE;
Labidesthes sicculus
(page 21)



b. Preanal length greater than
33% TL -- 5


33%


33%



:











5. a. Mouth superior, lower jaw
extends past upper jaw;
if present, yolk with
small oil droplets
scattered throughout -- 6

b. Mouth not superior; yolk
with one or no oil
globules -- 10



6. a. Dorsal and anal finfolds
present: CYPRINODONTIDAE -- 7




b. Dorsal and anal fins present
at birth: POECILIIDAE -- 8




7. a. Origin of dorsal finfold
begins slightly anterior to
anal finfold:
Lucania goodei (page 15)

b. Origin of dorsal finfold
originating posterior to
the level of the origin
of the .anal finfold:
Fundulus chrysotus
(page 15)

8. a. Origin of dorsal fin anterior
to origin of anal fin:
Poecilia latipinna
(page 19)



b. Origin of dorsal fin posterior
to origin of anal fin -- 9


O+

r?+




I._


9. a. Distinct lateral pigment band
crossed by 6-9 bars:
Heterandria formosa (page 19)




b. No lateral pigment band:
Gambusia affinis (page 19)





10. a. Preanal length greater than
or equal to 70% TL -- 11






b. Preanal length less than
70% TL -- 12





11. a. Preanal length about 70% TL:
ESOCIDAE; Esox spp. (page 9)





b. Preanal length about 84% TL:
CLUPEIDAE; Dorosoma spp.
(page 7)




12. a. Preanal length 36-46% TL:
CENTRARCHIDAE (page 23)


O~~~ .. .;r . .


70%
--


70%
I


84%






36-46%

0 j


49 62%

b. Preanal length 49-62% TL -- 13 fo -










13. a. Preanal length 49-50% TL -- 14


b. Preanal length 60-62% TL:
CYPRINIDAE (page 11)


50%





60%


Qi17;


a. Narrow body with straight gut:
PERCIDAE; Etheostoma fusiforme
(page 39)


b. Deep-bodied with gut massively
coiled: CENTRARCHIDAE
Micropterus salmoides
floridanus (page 27)


Suggested references:


Auer 1982
Hogue et al. 1976
Lathrop 1982
Lippson and Moran 1974
Margulies 1983















CLUPEIDAE (herrings)


Two species of clupeids (Fig. 2), gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum)
and threadfin shad (D. petenense) occur in the lake We did notattempt to
differentiate the species because positive discrimination between the two
species is difficult at early larval stages. Young gizzard shad (7.0- ca.
21 mm TL) have 39-44 preanal myomeres; whereas young threadfin shad (5.2-20
mm TL) have ca. 36 preanal myomeres (Jones et al. 1978). Shelton and
Stephens (1980) reported that newly hatched to one-day-old gizzard shad
(3.5-4.5 mm TL) were devoid of pigment (including eyes). Shelton and
Stephens (1980) also reported that threadfin shad larvae have scattered
melanophores and pigmented eyes at hatching. However, in Orange Lake, these
criteria apparently do not apply (Figs. 2a and 2b).

In Orange Lake, larval shad were first captured in February (surface
water temperature 16-17 C). Peak abundance was in April (18-22 C).
Although shad less than 6 mm TL were captured in panic grasses, very few
were found in open water. Fish 6-12 mm TL (the largest size category) were
most abundant in open water.

Clupeids are readily distinguishable from other families by their very
long and narrow shape and the posterior location of the vent (preanal length
is approximately 85% of the total length).



Suggested references:
Hogue et al. 1976
Jones et al. 1978
Shelton and Stephens 1980
Tin 1982a





















'at *
*'< t -


















































1 ,. .. ** r .' . ,*
a. .









Fig. 2. Shad, Dorosoma spp.


3.8 mm


13.2 mm


18.4 mm


I . - .- -
















ESOCIDAE (pikes)


Both the chain pickerel (Esox niger) and the redfin pickerel (E.
americanus) occur in the lake. Only seven larval pickerel (10.5-14 mm TL)
were captured. All were caught in January (surface water temperature 14-15
C) in the floating/emergent vegetation.

Esox larvae have a large, oval yolk sac and, as with the shads, the
vent is placed well back (preanal length about 70% of TL). However, unlike
the shads, Esox larvae are robust and deep-bodied (Fig. 3).

At early stages, the two pickerels may be distinguished by myomere
counts. At 11-18 mm TL, E. americanus has ca. 46 myomeres; at 10-14 mm TL,
E. niger has 53-54 myomeres (Fuiman 1982a). Intermediate counts (Fig. 3b)
preclude positive differentiation of all specimens.

At 20-120 mm TL, a lateral pigment-free stripe is evident on E.
americanus; lateral pigmentation of E. niger is homogeneous (Fig. 3d)
(Fuiman 1982a).



Suggested references:

Fuiman 1982a
Hogue et al. 1976
Jones et al. 1978
McGowan 1984

















10.5 mm
45 myomeres


13.0 mm
49 myomeres


15.0 mm


34.0 mm


Fig. 3. Pickerel, a. Esox americanus;


b. and c. Esox spp.;


d. E. niger.













CYPRINIDAE (minnows)


Three cyprinids, pugnose minnow (Notropis emiliae), taillight shiner
(Notropis maculatus), and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) have been
reported from the lake (Reid 1950). The pugnose minnow was not found by
Durant (1980) or by Conrow (1984).

Only golden shiners (Fig. 4) were captured in large numbers. Golden
shiners less than 8 mm TL were first caught in early March, were most dense
later that month and were collected through April. Young shiners were cap-
tured almost exclusively in the floating/emergent and panic grass habitats.

Larval cyprinids and catastomids are superficially similar. The lake
chubsucker, Erimyzon sucetta, occurs in Orange Lake, but only a few juve-
niles (no larvae) were captured. They may be separated on the basis of
preanal myomere counts; 27-29 for the lake chubsucker vs. 23-25 for golden
shiner (Jones et al. 1978).

Very few taillight shiners (Fig. 5) were captured. They may be distin-
guished from golden shiners by preanal myomere counts. By 5.9 mm TL, N.
maculatus has 21 preanal myomeres (Beach 1971); at 5-11 mm TL, N. cryso-
leucas has 23-25 (Buynak and Mohr 1980). In addition, up until the forma-
tion of the caudal fin rays, the golden shiner has a heavy concentration of
pigment around the urostyle (Fig. 4); this pigmentation is absent in the
taillight shiner (Fig. 5).



Suggested references:

Beach 1971
Heufelder and Fuiman 1982
Jones et al. 1978
Snyder 1979
Snyder et al. 1977



























11.0 mm


- .-.. .; -- "* t r. .* ," ,
"* '*** *. -. *- >; ''' n
dv v*. *r .
C0 r


14.0 m


22.5 mm


35.0 mm


Fig. 4. Golden shiner, Notemigonus crysoleucas.



















6.0 mm


6.7 mm


7.2 m


Fig. 5. Taillight shiner, Notropis maculatus.































This page intentionally blank.
















CYPRINODONTIDAE (killifishes)


Six species have been reported for Orange Lake: bluefin killifish
(Lucania goodei), pygmy killifish (Leptolucania ommata), golden topminnow
(FunduTus chrysotus), lined topminnow (F. FineoTatus), seminole kiflifish
(F. seminolis), and flagfish (Jordanella floridae).

Juvenile and adult bluefin killifishes and golden topminnows were
abundant from May through October. Golden topminnows were captured in all
four habitats; however, the majority of specimens was found in the
floating/emergent and panic grass habitats. Bluefin killifishes occurred
rarely in panic grasses and were most abundant in the floating/emergent
vegetation. Flagfishes and lined topminnows were rare, and no pygmy killi-
fish or seminole killifish were captured.

Species separation at early stages is facilitated by the location of
the dorsal finfold. Origin of the finfold is posterior to the origin of the
anal finfold for the pygmy killifish and topminnows (Fig. 6), well in front
of the origin of the anal finfold for the flagfish, and only slightly
anterior to the anal finfold for the bluefin killish (Fig. 7) (Foster 1967).



Suggested reference:

Foster 1967


4 P




























; '.* .' ** *' ''': .'***' :*'. * '-- ^v
f f 7


..-.:1_ ,- 7 .2

7.2 Bm


7.6 m


9.5 m


Fig. 6. Golden topminnow. Fundulus chrysotus.



















5.5 mm


6.3 mm


'r L' :

.*. . .. "." '.: "
.*
" c '-~'"" I, 8 '"0 m
r. .:.': ,., ..' ,' .. : .
8.0=


9.0 m


13.0 mm


Fig. 7. Bluefin killifish, Lucania goodei.


mm






























This page intentionally blank.

















POECILIIDAE (livebearers)


Three species of livebearers are present in the lake. The mosquitofish
(Gambusia affinis) and least killifish (Heterandria formosa) were both very
common in the floating/emergent vegetation. The sailfin molly (Poecilia
latipinna) was also captured primarily in the floating/emergent habitat;
however the frequency of capture was much lower than that of the other two
species.

The earliest post-parturition stages of poeciliids are much more
advanced than the earliest stages of oviparous fish. The three species of
poeciliids found in Orange Lake are easily differentiated. Origin of the
dorsal fin is anterior to the origin of the anal fin in the molly, but
posterior to the anal fin origin in the mosquitofish and least killifish
(Fig. 8). The least killifish has a lateral band with 6-9 crossbars and a
black spot on the dorsal and anal fins; these are absent In the mosquito-
fish. By 8.5 mm TL a characteristic subocular bar ('tear drop') pigmen-
tation pattern is visible below the eye of the mosquitofish.



Suggested reference:


Hardy 1978a





















7.5 mm


8.7 m









C.
7o

It .. i
S. o- '( 4 1.- '*--
.X N 1- .:




.-,-.. .9.7 mm



Fig. 8. a. Least killifish. Heterandria formosa; b. mosquitofish, Gambusia
affinis; c. sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna.

















ATHERINIDAE (silversides)


Only one species, the brook silverside (Labidesthes sicculus) (Fig. 9)
is found in the lake. Young silversides were first captured in May;
however, the greatest number was caught in July and August (surface water
temperature 24-27 C). The smallest size group (less than 6 mm TL) was
caught almost exclusively in hydrilla. Fish 6-8 mm TL were captured in all
four habitats but were most abundant in open water. Silversides captured in
the panic grasses and, especially in the floating/emergent vegetation,
tended to be large (greater than 12 mm TL).



Suggested references:

Rasmussen 1980
Tin 1982b

































8.6 m


13.2 mm


32.0 mm


Fig. 9. Brook silverside, Labidesthes sicculus.

-------____22

















CENTRARCHIDAE sunfishess)


Six genera and 15 species of centrarchids have been reported for Orange
Lake (Reid 1950; DuRant 1980; Conrow 1984). The bluespotted sunfish
(Enneacanthus gloriouss, black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), warmouth
(Lepomis gulosus), bluegill (L. macrochirus), and redear sunfish (L.
microlophus) are the dominant sunfish in the lake (Chable 1947). These
species, along with the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), dominated
the centrarchid catch.


Enneacanthus glorious


Bluespotted sunfish (Fig. 10) were captured almost exclusively in the
floating/emergent vegetation. Although juveniles were plentiful, only one
larval specimen (3.9 mm TL) was captured.

Distinguishing characteristics of this larva are its small size, and
the presence of pigmentation. The very dense pattern of melanophores
located on the ventrum from the anus to the caudal finfold is unique to this
species.




Suggested references:

Anjard 1974
Hardy 1978b
McGowan 1984
Wang and Kernehan 1979




























3.9 mm


13.5 m


17.0 mn


Fig. 10. Bluespotted sunfish. Enneacanthus aloriosus.


*- -"I

















Elassoma okefenokee


All but one of the 55 Okefenokee pygmy
found in the floating/emergent vegetation.
were captured.


sunfish (Fig. 11) collected were
No specimens less than 12 mm TL


Sugggested references:


Conner 1979
Mettee 1974
Walsh and Burr 1984
























































19.0 mm


Fig. 11. Okefenokee pygmy sunfish, Elassoma okefenokee.












Micropterus salmoides


Largemouth bass (Fig. 12) were captured primarily in the panic grasses
and the floating/emergent vegetation, beginning in March.

Larvae are relatively robust, the preanal length is approximately equal
to postanal length, and the gut is thick and massively coiled.



Suggested references:

Anjard 1974
Hardy 1978b
Tin 1982c


Fig. 12. Largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides floridanus.





















10.0 mm


13.0 m


17.5 um


Fig. 12. Continued.











Pomoxis nigromaculatus

Black crappie (Fig. 13) less than 8 mm TL were captured in greatest
numbers from February through April (surface water temperature 14-18*C).
Abundances were equivalent in open water, floating/emergent vegetation and
panic grasses (hydrilla was sparse in the lake during those months).

Postanal length greatly exceeds preanal length, the body is slender,
there is massive gut coiling even in specimens less than 5 mm TL, and the
vent is under or only slightly behind the air bladder. If present, the oil
globule is located in the anterior-middle portion of the yolk sac.



Suggested references: Anjard 1974; Hardy 1978b


5.0 mm


6.3 m


Fig. 13. Black crappie, Pomoxis nigromaculatus.

















11.1 mm


13.0 mm


16.0 mm


43.0 =m


Fig. 13. Continued.











Lepomis spp.

The most frequently captured Lepomis was the bluegill (Fig. 15),
followed by the warmouth (Fig. 16), and the redear sunfish (Fig. 17). Peak
occurrence of bluegills was in July and August (surface water temperature
24-27* C); however, specimens less than 8 mm TL were captured from April
through September. The smallest bluegills were taken in the open, hydrilla,
and panic grass habitats. Very few bluegills greater than 12 mm TL were
captured in open water. Conversely, few bluegills less than 20 mm TL were
captured in the floating/emergent vegetation. Occurrence of warmouths
extended through the summer (June-September). The smallest warmouths (less
than 8 mm TL) were captured in hydrilla and panic grasses. Larger juveniles
(greater than 17 mm TL) predominated in the floating/emergent habitat.
Redear sunfish were uncommon; only 23 individuals were captured. Two were
taken from open water; the remainder were equally distributed between the
hydrilla, panic grass, and floating/emergent habitats.

Species in the genus Lepomis may be distinguished by the presence of a
melanophore immediately above the anus. The gut is S-shaped and long, with
the vent well posterior to the air bladder. After about 6 mm TL, the
warmouth is distinguishable from the bluegill and redear sunfish by mouth
size (extending past the anterior edge of the orbit in the warmouth;
anterior to the eye in the other two). In addition, pigmentation patterns
differ for the three species. At 4-5 mm TL the supra-anal pigment spot is
more prominent on the bluegill than on the other two species. Chromato-
phores on the dorsum of the head appear early on the redear sunfish (ca. 5-6
mm TL), slightly later on the warmouth (ca. 7 mm TL), and rarely before 8 mm
TL on the bluegill. By about 14-15 mm TL the three species can be separated
by the relative shape of their air bladders (Fig. 14). The easiest way to
do so is to place the specimens on a clear surface and view them against a
backlight. Also, by that size, gill rakers have attained adult morphologies
and the redear sunfish may be separated from the other two species by its
short, stubby rakers (Fig. 14).

Suggested references: Anjard 1974; Hardy 1978b; Larimore 1957; Wang and
Kernehan 1979







































b.::
b. ';;;;;!:;~::..... .... ......~. :s
:~:;!:~::~:::;.::~'2..............~ ~ 3
....... -----:;;:~;~:: ::: ::~~:~~;:~:::~~::~
X:;;..Z :S :: f~ ::
........... ----- ----:ss~s~
:~:~:::~:::'i:~::~.:; ........ ~: :~:




~?;r:: ~5;~.:s:~~:.~::::~~:~~::~::::~~:8~~:::~~:: ;..5':~::::: ;~.... .....:; I:::::::;f
"s~s~a::... ...... ... ......... ...... ....... :i:~~:: ~;:;:'~~':':"'~'~;
R::R ::::8::~::t:S... ....... ............::~i~~ijii:::8:~:::::":si
........ ..t~~~~::~~::.;~
............. ...... ...... .....~:~:~:~
'' x~i~:c.-:~;.~.~~.:~;~~..............~~:~
..... ... . ... .... ... ....... .............s~
......................: ~ ~ "; ""1~~::;:~;;~::::~~:t;;
~~i~~~i~j:~:~:::~~~:~5 ~ ~ ~........ a
.......... ..........
............:::::::::~~': :::::::~::::~;~::::~..~~:: ~ ~...
................'Z~x: X ~:
~:~::~iY.:-s.. - ex- :x




Fig. 14. Shapes of air bladders an gill arches of a. redear sunfish
Lepomis microlophus, b. warmouth, L. gulosus, c. bluegillr~:
L. macrochirus.;;:::;:~ ~ C.s v .;;..':~;~::


6;-)



























7.0 mm


8.2 mm


10.0 mm


12.0 mm


Fig. 15. Bluegill. Lepomis macrochirus.

































































29.5 mn


Fig. 15. Continued.


2A




















4.5 mm


6.7 mm


10.8 um


Fig. 16. Warmouth, Lepomis gulosus.

























































Fig. 16. Continued.




36

















5.9 m


6.4 m


17.2 mm


29.0 mr


Fig. 17. Redear sunfish, Lepomis microlophus.












Unidentified centrarchids


Two unidentified centrarchids (Fig. 18), possibly the same species,
were captured at the end of March in the floating/emergent habitat. Note
the incipient dorsal and anal fin rays in the larger specimen.


5.2 mm


7.3 mm


Fig. 18. Unidentified centrarchids captured in Orange Lake.


0% n
















PERCIDAE (perches)


One species, the swamp darter (Etheostoma fusiforme), occurs in the
lake. Specimens less than 8 mm TL were captured from November through April
with a peak in November (surface water temperature 15-17* C). Swamp darters
less than 8 mm TL were caught primarily in open water and panic grasses.

Pre- and postanal lengths are approximately equal, and the gut is
straight. Early larvae have characteristic vertical slashes of pigment on
the lower half of the body posterior to the vent (Fig. 19).



Suggested references:

Hardy 1978b
McGowan 1984












4.7 mm


5.8 m


7.7 mm


10.8 Em


11.8 m


15.2 mm


Fig. 19. Swamp darter, Etheostoma fusiforme.
















ADDITIONAL SPECIES


The following fishes have been reported from Orange Lake (Reid 1950;
DuRant 1980; Conrow 1984) but early life history stages of these were absent
from our collections.


Species Suggested references


Lepisosteidae
Lepisosteus platyrhincus


Heufelder
(see also


Heufelder
(see also


Amiidae
Amia calva


1982a
page 3)


1982b
page 3)


Cyprinidae
Notropis emiliae

Catostomidae
Erimyzon sucetta


Ictaluridae
Ictalurus natalis
Ictalurus nebulosus
Noturus gyrinus

Cyprinodontidae
Leptolucania ommata
Jordanella floridae
Fundulus seminolis
Fundulus lineolatus

Centrarchidae
Enneacanthus chaetodon
Enneacanthus obesus
Elassoma zonatum
Elassoma okefenokee
Elassoma evergladel
Centrarchus macropterus
Lepomis punctatus
Lepomis marginatus
Lepomis auritus


none


Fuiman 1982b
(see also page 11)


Tin 1982d
sI i
s II


Foster 1967
Foster 1967; McGowan 1984
H n
Foster 1967; McGowan 1984


Hardy
Hardy
Conner
Mettee
a


1978b;
1978b
1979;
1974
Ui


McGowan 1984

Walsh and Burr 1984


Conner 1979
none

Lippson and Moran 1974; Buynak
and Mohr 1978




-~_ -_- -


LITERATURE CITED

Anjard, C. A. 1974. Centrarchidae sunfishes. Pages 178-195 in A. J.
Lippson and R. L. Moran, editors. Manual for identification 'o early
developmental stages of fishes of the Potomac River Estuary. Martin
Marietta Corporation, Special Publlication PPSP-MP-13. Baltimore,
Maryland, USA.

Auer, N. A., editor. 1982. Identification of larval fishes of the Great
Lakes basin with emphasis on the Lake Michigan drainage. Great Lakes
Fishery Commission, Special Publication 82-3. Ann Arbor, Michigan,
USA.

Beach, M. L. 1971. Some aspects of the life history of the taillight
shiner, Notropis maculatus, in central Florida. Thesis. University of
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