The Sand and gravel resources of Florida ( FGS: Report of investigation 90 )
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001277/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Sand and gravel resources of Florida ( FGS: Report of investigation 90 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Report of investigation 90 )
Physical Description: vi, 41 p. : ill., 2 maps (1 folded) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Scott, Thomas M
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
Publisher: Dept. of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1980
Subjects / Keywords: Sand -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Gravel -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by Thomas M. Scott ... et al.
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 31-32.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
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The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000364230
oclc - 07436238
notis - ACA2849
System ID: UF00001277:00001

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I o.MI -

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4.--. .- -.;


Elton J. Gissendanner, Executive Director

Casey J. Gluckman, Division Director

Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief



Thomas M. Scott
Ronald W. Hoenstine, Michael S. Knapp, Ed Lane,
George M. Ogden, Jr., Richard Deuerling, Harry E. Neel

Published for the






Secretary of State


Commissioner of Education

Attorney General


Commissioner of Agriculture

Executive Director



September 30, 1980

ernor Bob Graham, Chairman
Ida Department of Natural Resources
ahassee, Florida 32301

r Governor Graham:

ie Bureau of Geology, Division of Resource Management, Department of
jral Resources, is publishing as its Report of Investigation No. 90, "The Sand
Gravel Resources of Florida".

is report discusses the geological occurrence, uses, market trends, and min-
ethods of sand and gravel deposits of Florida. This Information will aid in
development and use of this natural resource.

Respectfully yours,

Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief
Bureau of Geology

Sri, 3

Printed for the
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Division of Resource Management
Bureau of Geology



Introduction Thomas M. Scott ...............................
Purpose and Scope of Investigation .................. .......
Acknowledgements .......................................
General Statement ....................................... ..

1. 1
.. 1
.. 1
.. 1

Terraces Thomas M. Scott ....................... ... ... ..... .. ........

Geology of Florida's Sand and Gravel Deposits Richard Deuerling, Ronald

W. Hoenstine, George M. Ogden, Jr., Ed Lane.

Northwest Florida...
Physiography ....
Geology .........
North Florida .......
Physiography ....
Geology .........
Central Florida .....
Physiography ....
Geology .........
South Florida.......
Physiography ....
Geology .........

Mining and Processing Methods Michael S. Knapp.

...................... .... 4

......................... 4
......................... 4
........................ 6
......................... 8
......................... 8
......................... 10
......................... 13
......................... 13
......................... 13
......................... 16
........................ 16
......................... 18

....................... 19

Production and Market Trends Ed Lane ................................ 22

The Uses of Sand and Gravel Ronald W. Hoenstine ......
Gravel aggregate....................................
Sand aggregate .....................................
Mortar sands ........................... ...........
Paving sands and base material .....................
Sand-cement riprap .................................
Sand seal coat .................................
Glass sands .......................................
Foundry sands .....................................
Abrasive sands .......................... ...........

References................................. ........................... 31

Appendix Mineral Producers Active and Inactive George M. Ogden, Jr.
and Harry E. Neel .................................................... 33

.......... ...


Figure Pa
1. Study District Map ........................................
2. Physiographic Map ............................... Between pages 4
3. Suction Dredge Operation ......................................
4. Scelping Tanks ........... ........................................
5. Total Production and Value for Sand and Gravel In
Florida for Period 1970-1978 .......................................
6. Quantities of Sand and Gravel for Construction and
Industrial Uses in Florida for Period 1970-1977 .........................

1. Terraces and Shorelines In Florida ..................................
2. Sand and Gravel Usages.......................... ....... .........
3. Critical Control Limits for Glass Sands..............................
4. Foundry Sand Analysis of a Medium Grade Eastern
Silica Sand .....................................................

Thomas M. Scott
Ronald W. Hoenstine, Michael S. Knapp, Ed Lane,
George M. Ogden, Jr., Richard Deuerling, Harry E. Neel
Purpose and Scope of Investigation
The Sand and Gravel Resources of Florida provides a summary of
occurrences and uses of those commodities in Florida. The data
presented are not Intended to be an exhaustive study that would
ultimately lead to the commercial development of a particular
deposit. This report Is based, however, on extensive research by the
geological staff of the Florida Bureau of Geology. The research in-
cluded geological field reconnaissance, examination of cores and
well cuttings, analysis of data from private industry and review of
the pertinent literature. As such, it is an up-to-date report of the
uses and locations of known economic deposits of sand and gravel
In the State of Florida.

The authors gratefully acknowledge the valuable assistance pro-
vided by the many other authors whose publications were used in
compiling this report. Special thanks go to the many Bureau of
Geology personnel who assisted In the compiling and editing of The
Sand and Gravel Resources of Florida.

The Florida Peninsula is underlain by more than 4,000 feet of
sedimentary rocks that overlie basement rocks consisting of older
sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks. This thick sequence
of carbonate and plastic rocks comprises the broad, relatively flat
Florida Plateau. Peninsular Florida as we know it is the above sea
level portion of the much larger platform. The peninsula is veneered
by a relatively thin sequence of predominantly plastic sediments.
The plastic sediments of clay, slit, quartz sand, and gravel overlie an
older and thicker sequence of limestones and dolomites which con-
tain very little plastic material. The change from predominantly car-
bonate sediments to predominantly plastic sediments occurred in
the late OlIgocene Epoch to Early Miocene Epoch (approximately
26 million years ago) when geologic conditions changed allowing a
tremendous Influx of plastic sediments from the mountains to the
north. Since that ifme mostfofthe sediments deposited on the plat-
form have been sands, clays and gravels. The thickness of the plastic
sediments varies widely from a few feet to several hundred feet.





O 30400 .. 1 md%


Figure 1. Study district map.



Virtually all of Florida is covered by this sand veneer. The sand
cover has been extensively modified by numerous sea level stands
that have occurred since the plastic influx began. The various sea level
stands have formed terraces where thicker deposits of sand are often
found. Associated with the various terraces are sand dunes and other
beach features, such as sand bars, which may provide excellent
sources of sand. Rivers and streams have also deposited sand units
which are of economic importance.
Sand is one of Florida's most abundant natural resources. As
anyone who travels through the state can readily observe, there are
few areas that do not have usable general purpose sand deposits
nearby. This report is designed to discuss the specifications, the
various uses, and the geologic framework of the sand and gravel oc-
currences in the State of Florida.
Martens (1928) investigated the sand and gravel resources of Flor-
ida. He tested sand samples from many areas of the state to deter-
mine their quality. Since this is not addressed in this report, the reader
is referred to Martens' (1928) report for further information.
Throughout the State of Florida, numerous marine terraces and an-
cient shorelines were formed by higher sea level stands. The fluctua-
tions of sea level in Florida from the Miocene Epoch through the
Pleistocene Epoch significantly altered the land surface, with subse-
quent coastal erosion and deposition forming marine terraces and
coastal bars. Terraces mapped in Florida include the Silver Bluff,
Pamlico, Talbot, Penholoway, Wicomico, Sunderland, Coharie, and
the Hazlehurst which had shorelines at approximately 10, 25, 52, 70,
100, 170, 220, and 320 feet above present sea level, respectively,
(Cooke, 1945; Healy, 1975; see Table 1). These relict features, with
associated beach dunes and ridges, occur throughout the entire state.
The sand deposits associated with the terraces vary considerably in
thickness and lithology. Lithologically, the terrace deposits are
predominantly quartz sand containing varying proportions of silt, clay,
and organic material. In general, the coarsest sand is found in the
higher terrace deposits while the lower (younger) terrace deposits are
finer and contain more clay and carbonate as contaminating material
(Cooke, 1945). In south Florida, the deposits are much thinner than
those in the north and generally contain more clay, silt, and organic
(Cooke, 1945).
The identification of terraces and shorelines is based primarily on
elevation. The distribution of terraces in Florida has been mapped by
Healy (1975) in his terrace and shoreline map.


Table 1. Correlation of Terraces and Shorelines in Florida.
Cooke (1939, 1945) MacNeil (1950) Healy (1975)
Hazlehurst, formerly High Pliocene Terrace Includea Hazlehurst
Brandywine 150-280 feet Terrace and Coastwis
215-270 feet Delta Plain (Vernon,
1942); part of High
Pllocene Terrace
(MaoNell, 1950) 215.
320 feet
Coharle oharle
170-215 feet 170-215 feet
Sunderland Okefenokee Includes Sunderland
100-170 feet 150 feet (Cooke, 1939) and
(MaoNell, 1950) Oke-
fenokee Terraces
100.170 feet
Wicomico Wicomico Wicomico
70-100 feet 100 feet 70-100 feet
Penholoway -Penholoway
42-70 feet 42-70 feet
Talbot -Talbot
2542 feet 25-42 feet
Pamlico Pamlico Pamlico
5-25 feet 2535 feet 8.25 feet
Silver Bluff Silver Bluff Silver Bluff
0-10 feet 8-10 feet 1-10 feet

The terrace deposits and the associated dunes and other re
marine features contain significant deposits of sand scatte
around the state. These deposits have a great potential for fut

The panhandle of Florida has been divided Into two mi
physiographic regions, the Gulf Coastal Lowlands and the Nort!h
Highlands (Purl and Vernon, 1964a), The Northern Highlands
vince has been further divided Into three major subdivisions. 1'
are the Tallahassee Hills in the east, the Western Highlands in
west, and they are separated by the Marianna Lowlands (Fig. :





Report of Investigation No. 90
Figure 2. Physiographic Map of Florida.




15 50 KM

0 15 30 MILES

Florida Bureau of Geology
-i ---


The Tallahassee Hills occur east of the Apalachicola River and
north of a 20 to 100-foot escarpment known as the Cody Scarp (Purl
and Vernon, 1964a). This subdivision continues into Georgia to the
north and into central Madison County to the east (Fig. 2). The
Tallahassee Hills are continuous except where they are broken by
larger river valleys. They are relatively high in elevation and are well
drained. Stream patterns are generally dendritic with major streams
eventually flowing into the Gulf of Mexico. These highlands are
composed of sands, clays, and clayey sands of the Hawthorn and
Miccosukee formations.
The Western Highlands (Purl and Vernon, 1964a) are located in
the extreme western part of the panhandle. This is a relatively high
area similar to the Tallahassee Hills, but with some differences.
First, the Citronelle Formation, which makes up most of the
Western Highlands, is geologically younger than the formations
that comprise the Tallahassee Hills. Second, the Citronelle is a
fluvial deposit and contains more coarse sands and gravels than
the clayey sands of the Hawthorn and Miccosukee formations
which make up much of the Tallahassee Hills.
A relatively low area known as the Marianna Lowlands (Purl and
Vernon, 1964a) separates the Tallahassee Hills from the Western
Highlands (Fig. 2). The Marianna Lowlands occur between the
Choctawhatchee River on the west and the Apalachicola River on
the east and extend northward into Alabama. In some areas of the
Marlanna Lowlands the clayey sands have been eroded away ex-
posing limestone. In other areas, sands and clayey sands reach
thicknesses of over 200 feet (Moore, 1955; Schmidt and Coe, 1978).
Where the limestone Is either at or very near land surface, slightly
acidic groundwater comes in contact with the limestone and
dissolves large quantities of rock forming the many karst features
seen in the area. Karst topography is characterized by sinkholes,
caverns, limestone ridges, disappearing streams, and underground
Physlographic features such as New Hope Ridge, Grand Ridge,
and the remnant hills of Washington County Including High Hill,
Orange Hill, Rock Hill, Oak Hill, and Falling Water Hill (Purl and Ver-
non, 1964a) tend to indicate that the Tallahassee Hills and the
Western Highlands were once a continuous highland area. These
areas are composed of sands and clays similar to those of the
Tallahassee Hills and Western Highlands.
The Gulf Coastal Lowlands (Purl and Vernon, 1964a) is a gently
southward sloping feature with a low relief extending across the en-
tire southern half of the panhandle. The thickness of the plastic


sediments overlying the marine limestones in the Gulf Coastal
Lowlands ranges from a thin veneer of Pleistocene sands In the
east to more than 1,500 feet of sand, gravel, clay, and sandy clays in
the Pensacola area.
For the purpose of this report, the sand and gravel deposits will
be divided into four categories. These are: (1) recent beach-type
deposits, whether they are wave or wind-derived; (2) river alluvium;
(3) marine terrace deposits, this includes relict bars, dunes, and
beach ridges; and (4) sand and gravel mined directly from a par-
ticular geologic formation.
Most of the sand and gravel being mined in northwest Florida
falls in two categories of the four mentioned above. These are the
(1) marine terrace deposits (sand pits south of Tallahassee in Leon
and Wakulla counties), and (2) sand and gravel mined directly from
the formation (sand and gravel operations mining the Citronelle
Formation in Escambia County).
Lithologically, the sediments which underlie the panhandle of
Florida are marine limestones, dolomites, and sandy limestones
which are overlain by marine and non-marine clastics. The clastics
are generally thicker in the Northern Highlands than in the Gulf
Coastal Lowlands. Thickness of the clastics changes very little
from the extreme eastern panhandle (Madison County) westward to
the Choctawhatchee River. West of the Choctawhatchee River,
however, the thickness increases from a few tens of feet in eastern
Walton County to over 1,500 feet near Pensacola. Greatest
thickness (1,621 ft., penetrated in Bureau of Geology well W-3364)
occurs in extreme southwest Escambia County, near the Alabama
state line.
There are many indications that sea level was once higher than at
present. These Include the presence of beach ridges, sand bars,
and coastal dunes that are many miles Inland, and marine terraces
which can be traced over much of the state. The marine terraces
form a bench at a particular elevation which has sand deposition
associated with it. Eight of these terraces have been mapped in
northwest Florida (Table 1). Sand associated with marine terraces
occurs over most of northwest Florida. These sands overlie
sediments ranging in age from Eocene (in northern Jackson Coun-
ty) to Pleistocene (along the present coast). Most of the sand was
derived from the Northern Highlands.
Sand is also being deposited on many beaches today. The coastal
property, however, is too valuable to be used for the mining of sand.


Another source of sand and gravel is that which is deposited by
streams. Streams erode sediments in the highlands and deposit
these materials in valleys and other lowland areas. Stream deposits
are a major source of gravel in northwest Florida.
Stream deposits can be divided into two groups, deposits
associated with wash load and deposits associated with bed load.
Wash load is the suspended material (silt and clay) carried by rivers.
This material is usually deposited in quiet areas (lakes, swamps,
floodplain). Bed load consists of the larger materials (sand, coarse
sand, and gravel) which are transported along the river bottom until
water velocity becomes low enough for deposition to occur. The
sand and gravel deposits associated with stream deposition may
be very irregular; but in many cases they are large enough to be of
value. The Irregular geometry of the deposits is due to the meander-
ing of stream channels and changes in the stream's ability to carry
In northwest Florida there are many rivers and streams that have
sand and gravel deposits associated with them. Sand and gravel
has been dredged from the Apalachicola River in the past, and
many smaller stream deposits have been used locally.
Three formations which are important to the sand and gravel in-
dustry are the Hawthorn, Miccosukee, and Citronelle formations.
All are found predominantly in the Northern Highlands in northwest
The Hawthorn Formation was named for Middle Miocene
deposits exposed at Hawthorne, Alachua County, Florida. In north-
west Florida, the Hawthorn Formation lies unconformably on Tam-
pa Age (Lower Miocene) and older carbonates (Hendry and Sproul,
1966; Yon, 1966). It consists of marine sands, sandy clay, clay, marl,
and limestone. The limestones are usually found near the base of
the formation. The Hawthorn deposition marks a change from the
marine limestone deposition of pre-Hawthorn times to a shallow
marine, brackish environment in which much plastic material was
introduced (Yon, 1966).
In northwest Florida, the Hawthorn Formation is found only in the
Northern Highlands, north of the Cody Scarp and east of the
Apalachicola River. It is not found in the Gulf Coastal Lowlands
where the Hawthorn Formation may have been deposited but has
since been removed by erosion (Hendry and Sproul, 1966). The
Hawthorn Formation extends northward into Georgia and onto the
Florida peninsula to the east. The western extent of the Hawthorn
Formation is not definitely known. Thicknesses vary from less than
50 feet to greater than 250 feet.


Sands found in the Hawthorn Formation usually contain much
clay which limits its usefulness as a commercial source of sand
and gravel. It is predominantly used for roadbase material, and it is
usually taken from small pits along highways.
The Miccosukee Formation (Hendry and Yon, 1967) includes all
plastic sediments of the Tallahassee Hills that occur above the
Miocene Hawthorn and Jackson Bluff formations but below the
Pleistocene sands. The contact between the Miccosukee Forma-
tion and underlying sediments is unconformable. The Miccosukee
Formation is found only in the Northern Highlands where it caps
the hills, while the Hawthorn Formation is exposed in low areas.
Core holes drilled on the highest hills indicate that the original
thickness of the Miccosukee Formation was probably between 80
and 100 feet. This thickness, however, has been greatly reduced by
erosion and thicknesses now range from less than 20 feet in
western Leon County to about 90 feet in the Tallahassee Hills of
northern Jefferson and Leon counties (Hendry and Yon, 1967).
Lithologically, the Miccosukee Formation is a poorly sorted,
coarse to fine grained, vari-colored clayey quartz sand and vari-
colored sandy clays. Thin laminae of white to gray clay are also
present. The sands are sometimes cross-bedded. Individual units
cannot be traced very far laterally (Hendry and Sproul, 1966; Yon,
1966). The Miccosukee Formation represents a change from the
shallow marine to brackish environment of the Hawthorn Forma-
tion, to a deltaic sequence in late Miocene-Pliocene time (Yon,
The Citronelle Formation (Matson, 1916) unconformably overlies
the Miocene coarse clastics in the western panhandle (Marsh,
1966). This formation is thought to be Pliocene or early Pleistocene
in age (Vernon, 1951). The eastern extent of the Citronelle is not
definitely known. It extends into Alabama to the north and west.
The Citronelle consists mostly of angular to subangular, very poorly
sorted, fine to very coarse grained quartz sand. Lenses of gravel
and clay are also present. Units are usually traceable only over
short lateral distances (Marsh, 1966; Coe, 1979). Most of the sand
and gravel mined or dredged on the Western Highlands is either
taken directly from the Citronelle Formation or from river alluvium
derived from Citronelle sediments.
North Florida is characterized by a high broad upland which ex-
tends eastward to the Eastern Valley and westward into the



3tern Highlands of the panhandle (Purl and Vernon, 1964; White,
'3). Surface elevations over most of this area are above the
:3ntiometric surface, with highland karst features such as dry
Is, abandoned spring heads, dry stream courses, and prairies
ich were once broad shallow lakes. The following major land-
ms of this zone that are addressed here include: the Northern
handsd, Trail Ridge, Bell Ridge, the northern segment of the
)oksville Ridge, Atlantic Coastal Ridge, and the Eastern Valley
3. 2).
he Northern Highlands extend across the northern part of
rida from Trail Ridge on the east to Florida's western boundary
ere they cross into Alabama. The southern and eastern boun-
les are defined by a scarp which extends through the East Gulf
SAtlantic Coastal Plains (Doering, 1960). The topography of
se highlands east of the Suwannee River varies considerably
h maximum elevations of 150 to 200 feet encountered near
ville, Live Oak, and Lake City. Northward of this area the terrain
nore subdued.
hawthorn clays generally cap the eastern part of the Northern
hands and exposures of limestone occur in the southern part of
landform. This has a marked influence on the drainage pat-
s, as surface discharge of streams occurs east of Gainesville
Streams frequently go underground in the limestone terrain
st of Gainesville.
andforms comprising the Northern Highlands in north Florida
1 the panhandle include Tallahassee Hills, Grand Ridge, and the
w Hope Ridge. These high areas may be remnants of a once in-
rate highland which included the Central Highlands, and have
ce been separated by erosion and solution (White, 1970).
rail Ridge represents the eastern boundary of the Northern
hands. Varying widely in elevation throughout its length, this
form generally gains elevation southward, broadens, and
stic surface features such as solution depressions and lakes
ome more common.
,ail Ridge is thought to be part of a beach ridge which was built
ie crest of an eroding, transgressing sea. The source sediments
Trail-Rldg--may be sands eroded from the Northern Highlands
his transgressing sea (Pirkle, Yoho, and Hendry, 1970).
ell Ridge, a prominent feature located in Gilchrist County, was
ied by Purl and Vernon in 1964. Bell Ridge, which consists of
irregularly shaped ridges, extends for a distance of 20 miles
thward from the city of Trenton. These ridges, which may repre-


sent a relict barrier island, have crest elevations that reach a max-
imum of 100 feet above sea level.
Several sand hills that occur along the west side of the ridge near
Bell, Florida, are believed to have once been a part of the main
structure of Bell Ridge. Solution of the underlying limestone may
have caused the collapse of these sand hills and their subsequent
separation from Bell Ridge.
The Brooksville Ridge extends from the eastern part of Gilchrlst
County southward to Hillsborough County. This linear feature Is
divided into two sections by the Withlacoochee River at Dunnellon.
Its width varies between 4 and 15 miles and a prominent scarp
forms its western edge. This ridge has a very irregular surface with
surface elevations varying over short distances from about 70 to
200 feet.
The segment of the Brooksville Ridge north of the Withlacoochee
River is covered by a thick sand sequence, which In turn is
underlain by clayey phosphatic sediments of the Alachua Forma-
tion. The insoluble clastics associated with the Alachua Formation
readily explains the ridge's resistance to solution, as compared to
the more soluble limestone composition of the Gulf Coastal
Lowlands to the west and the Western Valley to the east.
The Atlantic Coastal Ridge extends along the eastern mainland
coast of the Florida peninsula from the Georgia state boundary
southward into Dade County. The relict beach ridges and bars that
make up the Atlantic Coastal Ridge have elevations averaging 30
feet above sea level. These surface elevations, together with obser-
vations that the eastern slope of this landform roughly parallels the
present submarine slope, are indications that the Atlantic Coastal
Ridge may represent remnants of the Pamlico mainland shore.
The Eastern Valley is a broad, flat valley extending southward of
the St. Marys Meander Plain. It is bounded to the west by the north-
south trending Duval Uplands and to the east by the Atlantic
Coastal Ridges and the Center Park Ridge. Relict beach ridges oc-
cur throughout the valley. The presence of these sand ridges sug-
gests that this valley was once a regressional beach ridge plain
(White, 1970).
Five units are present in the north Florida area which contain ap-
preciable amounts of sand. These Include the Hawthorn, MIc-
cosukee, and Alachua formations, in addition to an unnamed
coarse plastic unit, and undifferentiated sands of Pliocene or
younger age including terrace deposits (Purl and Vernon, 1964).


The Hawthorn Formation contains assorted alluvial, marine, and
deltaic beds of the Alum Bluff Stage. Named by Dall and Harris
(1892), the Hawthorn Formation is based on sections in Alachua
County at Niggersink, Newmanville, and Sullivan's Hammock. It
has near-surface occurrences in Alachua, Clay, Bradford, and
Union counties, in addition to a thick sequence underlying much of
the Trail Ridge area.
This formation, which underlies or crops out over most of this
area, consists of quartz sand, clay, carbonate, and phosphate
minerals, all of which lithologlcally vary considerably both horizon-
tally and vertically. Individual lenses, whose thicknesses range
from a few inches to over 30 feet, have compositions that vary from
essentially all calcitic or dolomitic material to all clayey sandy
The variable grain texture, significant clay content, and extreme
variability of the Hawthorn Formation precludes extensive develop-
ment of these sands, other than for local uses such as road base
material and fill. In these uses the high cost of transportation dic-
tates the use of inferior quality sands where available.
The Miccosukee Formation extends from the western half of
Madison County westward into Jefferson, Leon, and Gadsden
counties. This formation is a heterogeneous unit with physical
features that are characteristic of deltaic deposits, such as channel
cut and fill, Irregular and variable bedding in the vertical sections,
lenticular deposits of sand and clay, and crossbedded sands (Yon,
1966). The presence of the above features lends weight to the
theory by Vernon (1951) that these sediments are part of a large
deltaic mass. The heterogeneous nature of this deposit obviates
commercial exploitation other than for local use, as in Madison
County where this abundant red, sandy clay is used for roadbase
Thick deposits of a coarse plastic unit, once considered as part
of the Citronelle Formation, are present in the Lake Wales Ridge
area of peninsular Florida that extends in a narrow band from
western Clay County southward through Putnam, Marion, Lake,
Orange, and Polk counties. This clastic unit consists of loose sur-
face sands overlying red and yellow clayey sands, which in turn
overlie a sequence of white clayey sands. A maximum unit
thickness of 150 feet is encountered in the ridge area of Polk Coun-
These sediments were deposited in Florida as clayey sands with
local occurrences of quartz gravel and discoidal shaped quartzite
pebbles. Unlike the underlying Hawthorn Formation, which exhibits


a wide variation in lithologic features, this unit displays a relatively
uniform lithology through Its lateral and vertical extent. The virtual
absence of fossils in these sediments may be explained by two
principal theories: (1) complete leaching of fossils during weather-
ing, or (2) an alluvial origin for these sediments.
Bishop (1956) and Purl and Vernon (1964) have proposed that the
reddish material underlying these loose surface sands be Included
in the Hawthorn Formation of Early and Middle Miocene age; they
considered these reddish, clayey sands deltaic In origin. Bishop
(1956) proposed that these sediments are alluvial deposits
associated with a large delta. Observed features supporting this
theory include: cut-and-fill structure, rapid changes in mixtures of
clay, sand, and gravel in both horizontal and vertical directions, Ir-
regular stratification features, and the mixing of clay with quartzite
These sediments represent one of the few sources of gravel in
Florida. The quartzite pebbles frequently attain lengths of more
than two inches and occur extensively throughout this central part
of peninsular Florida. Significant amounts of fine to coarse grained
sands are also present in abundant quantities. These sands,
together with a surface veneer of loose sands, have a combined
thickness of up to 15 feet, thus representing a large potential
source of sand suitable for many uses.
The name "Alachua Clays" was applied by Dall and Harris (1892)
to the bone-bearing beds found "... In sinks, gullies, and other
depressions in the Upper Eocene, Miocene, and later rocks of
Florida especially on the western anticline In the higher portions of
Alachua County and along the banks of many rivers and streams."
Sellards (1910) recommended that these sediments be called the
Alachua Formation. They are now considered to be the compacted
residue of the Hawthorn Formation.
The Alachua Formation extends from northern Gilchrist County
into Hernando County. The Withlacoochee River divides this forma-
tion into two parts by cutting down into the limestones of the Ocala
Group along its course. Outcrops are present In the southwestern
part of Lafayette County, the western part of Hamilton County, and
part of Alachua and Marion counties. The Alachua Formation
overlies the Ocala Group limestones in many areas, and Is uncon-
formably overlain by Pleistocene marine sands. It reaches
thicknesses in excess of 100 feet In parts of Citrus County, though
it is usually thinner. These sands represent a significant resource
suitable for future development as roadbase and fill.


The fluctuations of sea level in Florida from Miocene through
Pleistocene significantly altered the land surface, with subsequent
coastal erosion and deposition forming marine terraces and
coastal bars. All terraces shown in Table 1 are present in the north
Florida area. Although the thickness and quality of the deposits
vary, the terraces provide an important sand resource in the area.
Thicknesses vary from less than one foot to greater than 50 feet.
The major contaminants are clay and organic matter which limit the
uses of the sand (Cooke, 1945).

There are numerous physiographic features listed by Purl and
Vernon (1964a) for this area. However, for the purpose of this report,
they will be combined into three major physiographic regions.
There are, from east to west: the Atlantic Coastal Lowlands, the
Central Highlands, and the Gulf Coastal Lowlands.
The Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Lowlands are low in elevation (less
than 100 feet) and poorly drained. Their characteristic features are
generally coast-parallel, indicating a close control of their shape
and formation by marine forces. The landforms found in the coastal
lowlands are ancient barrier islands, lagoons, estuaries, coastal
ridges, sand dune ridges, relict spits and bars, and intervening
coast-parallel valleys (Purl and Vernon, 1964a).
The Central Highlands are comprised of a number of localized
areas of higher elevation (Fig. 2). The Central Highlands are con-
sidered here to be any feature above elevation 100 feet. Some of the
more prominent of these features are the Lake Wales, Brooksville,
Winter Haven, Mount Dora, and Orlando ridges. These ridges
enclose large elongate lowlands, the Central and Western vallies,
and the valley occupied by the St. Johns River. For the most part,
the higher areas are elongated and ridge-like, especially the Lake
Wales Ridge, which is only a few miles wide but more than 100
miles long. Many of the other features are more or less equi-
dimensional, but the arrangement of higher areas within their boun-
daries show strong lineatlon parallel to the Atlantic Coast. The
larger valleys also share the same general elongation, parallel with
the length of the peninsula.

The sand deposits in the Central Highlands are economically im-
portant In central Florida. Numerous sand ridges, such as the


Brooksville, Lake Wales, Mount Dora, and Orlando ridges make up
the highest elevations in the Central Highlands, and contain signifi-
cant amounts of marketable sand (Purl and Vernon, 1964a).
An unnamed coarse plastic unit of Miocene age, which was
formerly called the Citronelle Formation and Fort Preston Forma-
tion (Cooke, 1945; Scott, 1978), is found in parts of Highlands, Lake,
Marion, Orange, and Polk counties. These coarse clastics make up
the Mount Dora, Orlando, and Lake Wales ridges. The coarse
clastics are the chief source of most of Florida's construction sand,
and the clays in these deposits are the source of commercial
These non-marine coarse plastic sediments consist of poorly-
sorted quartz grains, ranging in size from fine sand to small peb-
bles. The sands and pebbles are imbedded in a predominantly
kaolinitic clay matrix. The upper part of these sediments is usually
red to orange, and the lower part is white to light yellow-gray.
Most of the surface sands in the Central Highlands are
associated with terrace deposits of Pleistocene age (Table 1). The
highest terrace is the Hazlehurst (215-320 feet) and is found only in
parts of south-central Polk County (Healy, 1975). It is not important
as a source of sand because of its limited areal extent. The Coharie
terrace (170-215 feet), which is found in Hillsborough, Lake,
Manatee, Marion, Pasco, and Polk counties, is composed of coarse
sand and has a thickness of approximately six feet in the Lakeland
area (Cooke, 1945). The Sunderland terrace (100-170 feet), which is
found in all the counties within the Central Highlands area, is com-
posed of sand and clay of varying degrees of fineness. It probably
does not exceed 40 feet in thickness over most of the area. The
Coharie and Sunderland terrace sands in Citrus, Pasco, and Her-
nando counties are the southern extension of the Brooksville
Recent alluvium is present in the Central Highlands in flood
plains of rivers and streams, such as the Kissimmee River, Arbuckle
Creek, and the lower portions of Fisheating Creek. Alluvial deposits
may contain some organic material and can range from a sandy
peat to bars of pure sand. These deposits are important only in cer-
tain localities where relatively clean sands are present.
Recent dune sands are also present, occurring near many of the
larger lakes and as thin coverings over the Pleistocene coastal bars
near the southern part of Lake Wales Ridge in Highlands County.
Dune deposits may be economically important on a local scale, but
usually are too thin to be of value.


Because of varying geologic factors, large sand deposits were
not formed in the Atlantic Coastal Lowlands, but it does have the
potential for minor sand production. The Anastasia Formation,
which is found in parts of Brevard, Flagler, Indian River, Martin, St.
Lucie, and Volusia counties, can locally be an almost pure sand
and has been utilized as a source of sand. It is better known for the
coquina which has been produced from it (Schmidt, et al., 1979).
Puri and Vernon (1964) estimated that the Anastasia Formation may
have a thickness of up to 100 feet. Sand deposits associated with
the Anastasia Formation are characterized by being discontinuous,
with lithology and texture varying considerably both laterally and
vertically within short distances. The unconsolidated sediments of
the Anastasia Formation are fine to medium-grained quartz sands,
locally interbedded with shells or clay. These deposits are generally
considered to have been deposited during the Pleistocene Epoch
(Puri and Vernon, 1964).
The Atlantic Coastal Lowlands are blanketed by terrace sands of
Pleistocene age. The terraces found in this area are the Wicomico
(70-100 feet), Penholoway (42-70 feet), Talbot (25-42 feet), Pamlico
(8-25 feet), and Silver Bluff (1-10 feet) (Table 1). The Wicomico sands
are usually a gray-brown color where exposed to weathering, and
are yellow and red on a fresh surface. Its thickness is variable, but
probably does not exceed 50 feet.
Sands from the Penholoway, Talbot, Pamlico, and Silver Bluff ter-
races, taken as a group, range from a few inches to several tens of
feet in thickness. These sands are found nearest the Atlantic coast
but are not as extensive as the sand at higher elevations. Further in-
land, Scott (1978) mapped sands with a large areal extent southeast
of Orlando, Orange County, which have a thickness of up to 50 feet.
Recent deposits consist of alluvial sand and clay in stream
valleys and dune sand along the coastline. Alluvial and dune
deposits are not extensive and are only locally important.
Most of the Gulf Coastal Lowlands surface sand is related to
Pleistocene terrace deposits. The Pamlico sands cover most of this
area, and are usually less than five feet in thickness. Sediments
associated with the Wicomico, Penholoway, Talbot, and Silver Bluff
terraces are also found in this area, and can have varying thickness
and composition. These sediments are composed of very fine to
medium-grained quartz sands, locally interbedded with clay. These
sands are finer than the sands found in the Atlantic Coastal
Lowlands (Wright, 1974), and in some locations, are too fine to be
used for construction purposes. Deposits of glass sand are found in
the Plant City area and are relatively pure, with only a small amount


of heavy minerals being present (Wright, 1974). The Gulf Coastal
Lowlands are not an important source of sand and most of the sand
used in this physiographic region is obtained from deposits in the
Central Highlands.
One feature that is found on the eastern boundary of the Gulf
Coastal Lowlands that is important as a source of sand is the
southern part of the Brooksville Ridge. Purl and Vernon (1964a)
assign the sediments that make up the Brooksville Ridge to the
Alachua Formation, but more recently Knapp (1978a) suggested
that they belong to the Wicomico terrace deposit at an approximate
elevation of 100 feet. These sediments are fine to medium-grained
quartz sands and silts, and are used for construction, fill material,
and the manufacturing of asphalt.

The physiographic divisions in south Florida are shown on Figure
2. From east to west are the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, the Eastern
Valley, the Everglades, the Southwestern Slope, Immokalee Rise,
Big Cypress Spur, the Reticulate Coastal Swamps, and Cape Sable.
Offshore at the southern tip of the peninsula lie the Florida Keys.
Several of these areas do not have significant sand resources, and
they will not be discussed in detail in this study. Their sand is either
included as an accessory mineral in limestone, or it is mixed in a
very thin veneer of sandy, shelly, peaty clastics. These areas are the
Southwestern Slope, Reticulate Coastal Swamps, Cape Sable, and
Florida Keys.
The mainland of south Florida, south of Lake Okeechobee and
the Caloosahatchee River, with the exception of the Atlantic
Coastal Ridge, may be described as topographically flat. The Atlan-
tic Coastal Ridge is distinguished from the region's other
physiographic areas by its significantly higher elevations, its
linearity, and its coast-parallel orientation. These characteristics,
along with other geologic evidence, indicate that the ridge
originated in the Pleistocene as an ancient counterpart of the
present-day complex of offshore bars, barrier beaches, dunes, and
other shoreline features. Its average width is about one or two
miles, but sand up to 10-feet thick may extend five to ten miles in-
land from the coast. General elevations are from 30 to 60 feet, with
some dunes near Jensen Beach and in Jonathan Dickinson State
Park rising over 80 feet. These ancient coastal dunes are composed
of clean (debris-free) quartz sand and silt. Locally, they may have


iron staining and minor amounts of accessory minerals, such as
phosphorite or heavy minerals. Thicknesses of 50 feet or more of
relatively clean sand are available. Because they provide large
quantities of easily accessible sand, these dunes have been and
are still being mined in a few places.
Near Boynton Beach, in southern Palm Beach County, elevations
of the ridge become lower, ranging from 10 to 15 feet above sea
level. Consequently, south from Boynton Beach, the sand is thin-
ner, and locally it may be intermixed with the underlying lithologic
units, such as shell beds or limestone.
South of Fort Lauderdale the ridge becomes a gently rolling
limestone ridge that trends southwest to Homestead, where it
loses stature and merges with the surrounding Everglades. The
prominent parts of this extension of the ridge are composed of
limestone of the Miami Oolite, of Pleistocene age. Usual crest
elevations are 10 to 15 feet, with highest elevations between 20 to
24 feet in the Coconut Grove area of Miami. As far south as Miami
the limestone is veneered by shelly, quartz sand that may be several
feet thick.
The area between the eastern edge of the Everglades and the
Atlantic Coastal Ridge is named the Eastern Valley. It is not a true
valley, but is a gently undulating area that is lower in elevation than
the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, yet slightly higher than the Everglades.
Most of the area is covered by sand. In general, both surface eleva-
tions and sand thickness increase in an easterly direction from the
edge of the Everglades towards the Atlantic Coastal Ridge. Sand
thickness is quite variable and can range from a few inches to over
20 feet. Much of the sand contains organic, shells, or interfingers
with peat, marl, or limestone units.
The Everglades is a vast expanse of Recent peat. This great ac-
cumulation of organic debris has filled a shallow, trough-like
depression in the bedrock. Throughout the past several thousand
years, during which the peat was being deposited, sand and other
erosion products from the higher surrounding land were introduced
into the fringes of the peat. Because of man's activities of draining
and farming in the Everglades, the original extent of the peat has
been reduced. These activities have caused the loss of much peat
through spontaneous combustion or slow oxidation. Compaction
also has reduced the surface elevations and caused thinning of the
peat over large areas. Areas around the edges of the Everglades
that once were covered by several feet of peat are now bare sand,
marl, or limestone. Potentially mineable sources of such recently
exposed sand occur around the southern shore of Lake


Okeechobee. However, they may contain high percentages of
organic material. The areas that lie to the east and west of the
Everglades, which have been denuded of peat, have less potential
as sources of sand because the sand Is usually too thin or mixed
with shells, marl, limestone, or organic.
White (1970) postulated the origin of the Immokalee Rise as being
a submarine shoal that developed south of the Lake Wales Ridge
during late Pleistocene time. The Lake Wales Ridge was thought to
have been a large mainland cape during the Pleistocene. The boun-
dary of the Immokalee Rise is placed at the 25-feet elevation con-
tour; its highest elevation is between 40 and 45 feet, a few miles
north of the town of Immokalee. Sequences of relatively clean sand
more than 10-feet thick occur at the higher elevations. However,
thickness and purity decrease in all directions going towards lower
elevations. The sand becomes thinner and mixed with the shells,
marls, limestones, and organic materials that occur at or near the
surface of the Caloosahatchee Valley, Big Cypress Spur, and
Southwestern Slope.

Five units in the south Florida area may contain appreciable
sand. They are: terrace deposits, Anastasia Formation, Ft. Thomp-
son Formation, Caloosahatchee Formation, and the Tamiami For-
The terrace sands, presumably of Pleistocene age, blanket much
of the south Florida land area. Based on elevation alone, these
sands are assigned to the Silver Bluff terrace deposits and the
Pamlico terrace deposits. Generally, the terrace sands do not form
economically important deposits. However, small locally Important
accumulations do occur. Cooke (1945) believed that very little sand
was actually carried into the area during Pamlico and Silver Bluff
time resulting in only a thin sand veneer. Hoffmeister (1974)
described the Pamlico sands as having a thickness of up to 60 feet
locally. Commonly associated with the terraces and the present
day coastal zone are dunes of varying stature. These sands are
generally well sorted with minor contaminating material.
Cooke (1945) described the Pleistocene Anastasia Formation as
consisting of all gradations, "... between coarse rock, composed
almost entirely of unbroken shells, and sandstone... ". More
recently, many geologists have included some unconsolidated
sand beds in the Anastasia Formation of south Florida. These beds
are only sporadic and are generally of little interest to the sand in-
dustry. Along the east coast the coquina and sands of the


Anastasia Interfinger and southward grade laterally into the Miami
Oolite. The Anastasia is overlain by the terrace sand, is laterally
equivalent to the Fort Thompson Formation, and overlies the
Caloosahatchee Formation along the east coast.
The Pleistocene Fort Thompson Formation consists of alter-
nating marine, brackish, and fresh water marls, limestones and
sands (Cooke, 1945; Hoffmeister, 1974). It is thought to have occa-
sional sand concentrations that may be locally important (Puri and
Vernon. 1964). It is laterally equivalent to the Anastasia, and
overlies the Caloosahatchee and Tamiami formations.
The Caloosahatchee Formation is described as containing sandy
marl, clay, silt, sand and shell beds. The sand units are of local im-
portance only. The age of the Caloosahatchee is thought to be
Pliocene by some (Hoffmeister, 1974), and Pleistocene by others
(Hunter, 1978; Dubar, 1958). It overlies the Tamiami Formation.
The Tamiami Formation is present near the surface over much of
south Florida. It consists of limestone, clay, marl and sands. Hunter
(1978) describes two sand members, the Pinecrest Sand and the Or-
tona Sand. The Pinecrest Sand member is a shelly calcareous sand
that has been recognized over much of south Florida and is mined
in many areas including some in central Florida. The Ortona Sand is
an informal unit proposed by Hunter (1978) for a sand unit being
mined near Ortona in Glades County. These sands are typically
coarse. The areal extent of the unit is unknown but Hunter does
suggest it may be present on the northwest side of Lake
Okeechobee. The age of the Tamiami is Upper Miocene-Pliocene.

There are many producers of sand and gravel in Florida (see Ap-
pendix). Their size and mode of operation are quite variable. Most
producers have rather small operations in comparison with the
other mineral Industries in the state. However, due to the relatively
low unit value and abundant resources, there are more individual
sand and gravel producers than any other mineral commodity pro-
ducers in Florida.
The scope of a sand and gravel mining operation is determined
primarily by local and regional market conditions. The largest and
most modern operations are near metropolitan and developing
areas. The smaller (borrow pit) type of operations are scattered
throughout the state; their locations determined by the local de-
mand. Countless numbers of borrow pits for sand parallel the
highways of Florida.


Surface mining is the only method of producing sand and gravel
in Florida. The surface mining of sand and gravel can be divided
into three major divisions, primarily by the character of the deposit
(Thoenen, 1936). These divisions are: bank mining, where the eleva-
tion of the excavation floor is level with or above the surrounding
land surface; pit mining, where the deposit and the excavation sur-
face lie below the surrounding land surface; and subaqueous min-
ing, where the excavation is carried out on a deposit located entire-
ly below the surface of a natural body of water. All surface mining is
carried out by what is known as the "bench" method. Bench or
benching is defined as the horizontal step or floor along which the
sand or overburden is worked (Fay, 1968).
In Florida, the pit and bank types of mining are the most com-
mon. The mining of sand and gravel from a pit or bank can be quite
difficult, because the mining products desired normally need to be
graded. The larger operations use a suction dredge to mine sand
and gravel from pit bottoms (Fig. 3). A hydraulic gun is used to
undermine the bank and allow sand and gravel to slump into the pit
where it can be piped in a slurry to the classifying operations. It
then passes through screen shakers which separate the coarser
gravel portion. The sand component of the mixture passing through
the screens is introduced into a jet-stream of water as it goes into
settling tanks known as scelping tanks (Fig. 4). The scelping tanks
use a jet-stream of water to separate the sand into fine and coarse
fractions. The fines are piped to a settling pond and the coarser
product is transported by conveyor belt to a stockpile or truck. The
smaller operations employ draglines, tractors, and other heavy
equipment to load sand and gravel directly onto trucks with few or
no classifying operations.
Subaqueous mining is restricted to Florida's coastal areas where
erosional problems have created the need for beach replenishment
programs. Sand is usually dredged from inlets or offshore areas
and then introduced into the nearshore littoral system. The near-
shore littoral system is very sensitive to wave energy, and the off-
shore suction dredges are monitored closely to be sure they do not
excavate protective offshore bars and barriers, which could ag-
gravate the very problem they are attempting to solve.
Sand and gravel in Florida is transported by truck, rail, and water.
Conveyance by truck represents by far the principal means of
transportation and averages between 88 and 92 percent of the total
tonnage hauled (U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1965-1975). Rail is an impor-
tant minor means of transportation and averages from 7 to 9 per-
cent. Due to energy demands and projected future expenses of


Figure 3. Suction dredge method of sand and gravel mining.

~-i-~---; L

Figure 4. Scelping tanks. A part of a sand and gravel size-classification system.


mass transportation, shipment by rail should Increase significantly
in the future. Shipment by water is a very minor means of transpor-
tation, averaging from 0.5 to 1 percent.
Sand and gravel mined in Florida is produced from stream
alluvial deposits, highland sands, terraces, fluvial, beach, and dune
deposits. All sand and gravel produced in Florida is by open pit min-
ing with the highest producing sand quarries located in Polk, Put-
nam, Hendry, Broward, and Lake counties. This is further Illustrated
by 1975 statistics which show that the five counties above account
for about 60 percent of the state's total sand and gravel output (U.S.
Bureau of Mines).
Most of Florida's gravel production is from the panhandle, with
concentrations occurring in Escambia, Bay, and Gadsden counties.
Presently, gravel is being mined along the Escambla River near the
Florida-Alabama boundary and along the Apalachicola River at
Chattahoochee, Florida. Sand and gravel mines are also located in
the central peninsula of Florida, and this area has potential for in-
creased future development. South Florida has extensive sand
deposits and many quarries along the eastern coast, with potential
for more development than at present. There are no known gravel
deposits in south Florida.

Figure 5 shows the total production and the corresponding value
for sand and gravel in Florida for the years 1970-1978. It must be
noted here that the U.S. Bureau of Mines (the source of these data)
improved its statistical coverage for production values after 1973.
The production figures from 1973 to 1974, therefore, are only an ap-
parent increase due to better coverage. The data do show the true
trends, however, for the periods 1970-1973 and 1974-1978. They
show that production and value increased significantly after 1970
and through 1973, which reflected both the nation's and Florida's
increased activities in the industrial and construction segments of
the economy.
Beginning in 1974, however, spiralling Inflation rates have
caused across-the-board rises of production costs, which are
passed on to the consumer. Inflation's effect on the cost of sand
and gravel in Florida is shown on Figure 5. After 1973, a comparison
of the relative heights of each year's quantity and value pair of bars
shows that the value bars are disproportionately high for the quanti-
ty of sand and gravel produced, which Indicates a higher per-unit
cost of commodity.



0 w

2 5N

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977


Figure 5. Total production
of Mines.

and value for sand and gravel in Florida for period 1970-1978. Data from U.S. Bureau



Several other factors add to the cost of sand and gravel to con-
sumers. Two cost factors that are directly tied to the price of energy
are transportation and processing costs. Other indirect factors that
can add to the consumer's cost are increased labor costs, In-
creased land value for new mines, and the need to produce from
lower quality deposits as the better ones become depleted or are
encroached upon by urban expansion. Future state or Federal
legislation may place sand and gravel operations under the purview
of strip-mining laws, which may require operators to reclaim mined
areas and add to the cost of mining. In early 1979, sand and gravel
producers were required to implement training programs which
meet the requirements of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act
(MSHA), thereby adding to the cost of operating.
Figure 6 is a breakdown of the industrial and construction com-
ponents that make up the total production of sand and gravel. In-
dustrial uses show dramatic decreases In 1971-1977, and construc-
tion uses show decreases after 1974. These statistics are symp-
tomatic of the nationwide depressed economic conditions for the
From a 1976 base, total national demand for sand and gravel is
forecast to increase at an annual rate of 1.6 percent (U.S. Bureau of
Mines, 1979). The National Sand and Gravel Association's short-
term, national forecast is optimistic because the outlook for in-
dustrial and commercial construction activity for 1979 appears to
be good, and the Federal spending for highways has Increased (Pit
and Quarry, 1979).

Sand and gravel is the largest nonfuel mineral industry In the
United States and its products have a multiplicity of applications.
Due to the large number of uses only a few of the major applica-
tions will be addressed in this report.
The term "sand" as used in this report represents material within
the size range of 0.0625 to 2 millimeters and a composition con-
sisting primarily of silica (quartz). Gravel as used here describes
rock particles larger than 2 millimeters but less than 64 millimeters
in diameter.
Sands mined commercially contain quartz, feldspar, iron oxides,
mica and heavy minerals. Due to the wide variation in the chemical
and physical characteristics of sand and gravel, their various
usages have numerous different specifications.
Sand and gravel production can be divided into two groups: con-
struction usage and industrial usage. Construction sand and gravel




d o

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974

Figure 6 Quantities of sand and gravel for construction and
period 1970-1977. Data from U.S. Bureau of Mines.

industrial uses in Florda for


is the largest usage by far; consuming about 95 percent of the total
sand and gravel produced in the United States in recent years. It ex-
ceeded the next most-used construction commodity, crushed
stone, by some 245 million short tons. Industrial sand and gravel,
though accounting for only 4 to 5 percent of the total sand and
gravel production, represents almost 10 percent of the total value.
Table 2, though not complete, lists some of the various sand and
gravel usages. The listed usages have been further classified as
construction or industrial sand and gravel. A complete list of
specifications for these usages is beyond the scope of this report;
therefore, specifications for only some of the principal usages will
be addressed here. A more complete list of usages and their
specifications is outlined in the Florida Department of Transporta-
tion Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction

A. Construction Sand and Gravel
Aggregates for concrete and bituminous mixes
Sand cement riprap
Filter aggregate for underdrain
Sand asphalt hot mix
Sand seal coat
B. Industrial Sand and Gravel
Glass sand
Foundry sand
Abrasive products
Silicate chemicals
Filtering media

Gravel aggregate used in portland cement must meet both
physical and chemical requirements. The specifications for gravel
used as aggregate are outlined in the 1977 Florida Department of
Transportation Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Con-
struction (Section 901-1, page 535), "Gravel shall be composed of
clean, tough, durable quartz. The loss when this material is sub-
jected to the Los Angeles Abrasion Test (American Association of
State Highway and Transportation Officials T 96), shall be no more


than 50 percent. The dry-rodded weight per cubic foot of the gravel,
tested according to AASHTO T 19, shall be not less than 95

The tests for sand used as fine aggregate for cement concrete
are outlined in the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM)
1978 Manual. The Florida Department of Transportation requires
the fine aggregate to consist of sand composed only of hard,
strong, durable, uncoated grains of quartz. The fine aggregate is
subjected to the colorimetric test for organic impurities in accord-
ance with AASHTO Methods T 71 and M 6. The quartz sand fine ag-
gregate is required to be reasonably well graded from coarse to fine
when tested by laboratory sieves.

Mortar sands used for block and brick masonry represent a
significant percentage of total sand production in Florida. These
sands shall generally conform to the quality requirements of sand
used for cement concrete. The material shall all pass the No. 8
sieve and shall be uniformly graded from coarse to fine.

Florida sands are also used in great quantities for asphaltic con-
crete surface paving. Fine aggregate used for this purpose shall be
composed of clean, tough, angular grains free from clay, loam and
other foreign matter. In addition, this aggregate must meet the
following sieve requirements put forth by the Florida Department of
Transportation Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Con-
struction (Section 333 1-5, pages 233-234):
Passing Sieve Percent
318 inch 97-100
No. 4 65-100
No. 10 40- 75
No. 40 20- 45
No. 80 10- 30
No.200 0- 10
Clayey sands are an essential ingredient of paving base material
Sand require a mixture of sand and clay free of foreign matter. This


material shall have a Limerock Bearing Ratio Value of at least 75
and meet the following sieve specifications:
Percent of Material Passing the 10-Mesh Sieve
Clay ......................... 8 to21
Silt ......................... 0 to 10
Combined clay and silt .........8 to 25

The essential ingredients of this important usage consist of
portland cement, fine aggregate, sacks, and grout. Portland cement
used in sand-cement riprap shall be from an approved source and
the product of an established and reputable manufacturer. The fine
aggregate must meet the following sieve requirements put forth by
the Florida Department of Transportation Standard Specifications
for Road and Bridge Construction (Section 902-3.1, page 540):
Passing Sieve Retained on Sieve Percent by Weight
No. 4 90-100
No. 4 No. 10 0-15
No. 10 No. 40 15-50
No. 40 No. 80 25-60
No. 80 No. 200 8-40
No. 200 0-10
The sacks must be of any suitable material which will hold the
sand-cement mixture without leakage but permeable enough to per-
mit the passage of water when wetted. In addition, the sacks must
be of uniform size and dimensions and only one type and size of
sack can be used at any one structure. The grout between the sacks
must contain a clean commercial sand.

This small but significant product shall use sand that Is clean
and non-plastic. The grains must be hard, durable, and free from
loam, roots, clay balls, and other deleterious substances. Many
local sands meet these specifications.

Glass sand represents a principal usage of industrial sands In
Florida. These sands have strict specifications with respect to col-
orant, refractory minerals, mesh distribution, and chemical re-


quirements. The critical control limits and acceptable mesh
specifications of the various contaminants are listed in Table 3.


Total Iron




Acceptable Mesh Specification (after Brown 1977).

Cumulative Retained On:
Cumulative Retained On:
Cumulative Retained On:
Cumulative Retained On:
Cumulative Retained On:
Cumulative Retained On:

U.S. Standard
16 Mesh
20 -Mesh
40 Mesh
140 Mesh
200 Mesh
325 Mesh

Not one piece
.01% maximum
.10% maximum*
92.0% minimum
99.5% minimum
100.0% minimum

*May be substantially modified if the base deposit is free of refractory particles ex-
ceeding 70-Mesh.

Refractory minerals are particles that fail to melt or pass into
solution in molten glass within a reasonable span of time. The
glass industry has only recently begun to place specifications
limits on refractory contaminants. Specification techniques have
not been standardized at this time. Refractory particulates include
chromite, corundum, andalusite, kyanite, sillimanite, and zircon.


Foundry sands include silica sands that are used to make
casting forms. Physical properties are of utmost importance and in-
clude finess, bonding strength, permeability, sintering point, and
durability. The tests commonly employed are those adopted as
standard by the American Foundrymen's Association for Testing
Materials (ASTM) 1978 Manual. A typical anlaysis of a foundry sand
is given in Table 4.


SAND. (adapted from Industrial Minerals and Rocks, 1975).
U.S. Sieve Series Percent Retained
20 0.4
30 1.6
40 6.4
50 22.6
70 40.4
100 23.6
140 4.6
200 0.6
270 0.0
Pan 0.0
AFS Finess #53


These sands require well sorted sand grains. Purity specifica-
tions are dependent on the requirements of the final product. Con-
sequently, these specifications are written by the various commer-
cial users, government agencies, and the American Society for
Testing Materials.


American Society for Testing Materials Standards, Part 3: Cement, Road Materials,
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Doering, J. A., 1960, Quaternary Surface Formations of Southern Part of Atlantic
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of Mines.
Florida Department of Transportation; Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge
Construction, 1977.
Healy, Henry G., 1975, Terraces and Shorelines of Florida: Florida Bureau of
Geology Map Series No. 71.
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Jim Woodruff Reservoir: Florida Geological Survey, Report of Investigation No.
16, Pt. 1, 52 p.
Hendry, C. W., Jr., and Sproul, C. R., 1966, Geology and Ground Water Resources of
Leon County, Florida: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 47, pp. 11-34, 53-101.
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Hoffmeister, J. E., 1974, Land from the Sea: University of Miami Press, 143 p.
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South Central Florida.
Knapp, M. S., 1978, Environmental Geology Series Gainesville Sheet: Florida Bu-
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Knapp, M. S., 1978, Environmental Geology Series Valdosta Sheet: Florida Bureau
of Geology Map Series 88.
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Lord, E. H., and Haley, P. C., 1958, An Analysis of Ochlocknee River Channel Sedi-
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Survey Prof. Paper 221-F.
Marsh, Owen T., 1966, Geology of Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties, Western
Florida Panhandle: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 46, 140 p.
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Survey, Nineteenth Annual Report, pp. 33-123.
Matson, G. C., 1916, The Pliocene Citronelle Formation of the Gulf Coastal Plain: 7
U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 98, pp. 167-192.


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Survey Bulletin 37, 101 p.
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Florida: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 52, 61 p.
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lin, Economic Geology v. 55, No. 7, pp. 1382-1405.
Pit and Quarry Magazine, January, 1979, pp. 72-73, 97-98.
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Area in Central Florida: Florida Geological Survey, Report of Investigation No.
42, 137 p.
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Survey Bulletin 48, 115 p., 28 figures, 1 pl., 9 tables.



Calloway Sand Co.
P. O. Box 343
Panama City, FL 32402
Florida Asphalt Paving Co.
P. O. Box 1310
Panama City, FL 32401
Gulf Asphalt Corp.
6610 West Highway 98
Panama City, FL 32401
Pitts Sand Co.
Panama City, FL 32401

Calloway Pit

Hutchinson Pit
Register Pit

Gulf Asphalt Pit

Lynn Haven Mine

Tnsp Range
4S 13W



2S 13W 13,14

3S 14W

Melbourne Sand Co.
Route 1, Box 214
Eau Gallle, FL 32935

(No Name)

26S 36E 1,12

Bergeron Sand and
Rock Mining Co.
2121 North 184th Avenue
Hollywood, FL 33021
D. C. Hiatt
6301 N. W. 9th Avenue
Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33309
Des Rosher, Inc.
3660 N. W. North River Drive
Miami, FL 33142
Florida Commercial Development
P. O. Box 5147
Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33310
Frank Newth, Inc.
P. O. Box 3065
Pompano Beach,
FL 33062
L. W. Rozzo, Inc.
4435 S. W. 26th Street
Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33314
Meekins, Inc.
3500 Pembroke Road
Hollywood, FL 33021

Hollywood Pit

C&J Fill

Pompano Pit

Prospect Pit

Margate Pit

(No Name)

Pembroke Road

51S 39E

48S 42E

48S 42E 21

49S 42E 7

48S 42E 21

51S 40E 31,32

51S 42E


Pompano Silica Sand Co.
1951 N. Powerline Road
Pompano Beach, FL 33060
Rockland Industries, Inc.
P. O. Box 959
Deerfield Beach, FL 33441

Panhandle Mining Development
Route 1
Blountstown, FL 32424

General Development Corp.
1111 South Bayshore Drive
Miami, FL 33131

Florida Rock Industries, Inc.
P. O. Box 4667
Jacksonville, FL 32201

A. J. Capeletti, Inc.
P. O. Box 9444
Hialeah, FL 33021
Coral Aggregates Corp.
Division of Meekins, Inc.
3500 Pembroke Road
Hollywood, FL 33021
Florida Rock and Sand Co.
P. O. Box 3004
Florida City, FL 33030

Campbell Sand and Gravel Co.
RFD 1, Box 242
Flomaton, AL 36441
Clark Sand Co.
P. O. Box 4267
Pensacola, FL 32507
Edward M. Chadbourne, Inc.
4375 McCoy Drive
Pensacola, FL 32503
Escambia Materials, Inc.
P. 0. Box 12268
Pensacola, FL 32581
Green's Fill Dirt
Route 5, Box 212
Pensacola, FL 32503

Tsiotis Sand Mind

Pit No. 1

Overholt Pit

Charlotte Co. Pit

Gold Head Mine

Dade Pit No. 6

Coral Aggregates

Card Sound Pit

Century Pit

Pensacola Mine

Escambia Pit

Bluff Springs Mine

(No Name)

48S 42E 28

48S 42E

1N 8W 27

41S 21E 23,26

8S 23E 2

51S 41E

53S 39E

58S 39E

5N 30W 22

2S 30W 37,38


5N 31W 25,26

1S 31W


J. W. McKay Sand Co. McKay Sand 1S
263 Aquamarine Dr.
Pensacola, FL 32505
Pioneer Sand Co. Sauflay Pit 1S
P. O. Box 4599
Pensacola, FL 32507
E. R. Jahna Industries Ortona Mine 42S
P. O. Box 317
Lecanto, FL 32661
Florida Rock Industries, Inc. Caloosa Pit 42S
P. O. Box 4667
Jacksonville, FL 32201

L. T. Ridgdill & Sons
P. O. Box 447
Clewiston, FL 33440
Labelle Limerock Co.
General Delivery
Labelle, FL 33935

Jernigan Trucking Co.
Route 1, Box 141J
Sefner, FL 33584

Coddings White Sand Co.
795 State Road 19A
Mt. Dora, FL 32757
E. R. Jahna Industries, Inc.
P. O. Box 317
Lecanto, FL 32661
Eustis Sand Co.
P. O. Box 861
Mt. Dora, FL 32757
Florida Crushed Stone Co.
P. O. Box 668
Brooksville, FL 33512

Clewiston Quarry

Labelle Limerock Mine

579 Pit

Coddings White
Sand Pit

East Mine
West Mine

Eustis Mine

Tulley Sand Mine

Florida Rock Industries, Inc. Astatula Sand Mine
P. O. Box 4667 Lake Sand Plant
Jacksonville, FL 32201
National Silica Corp. Wallace Mine
Division of Standard Sand & Silica
P. O. Box 8
Silver Springs, FL 32688
Silver Sand Co. Center Sand Pit
RR 1, Box US 1
Clermont, FL 32711
,? .

43S 34E

43S 28E 13

28S 20E 22

19S 26E 23

22S 26E 27
22S 25E 22

18S 27E 13,14
23, 24

22S 36E 34

20S 26E 17
24S 26E 19

24S 25E 17

23S 26E 1






Standard Sand & Silica Co.
P. O0 Box 35
Davenport, FL 33837

Labelle Umerock Co.
General Delivery
Labelle, FL 33935

Wallace Mine

Triple C Fill & Paving

Crowder Contracting and
Excavating, Inc.
3705 Doris Drive
Tallahassee, FL 32303
Excavating and Land Clearing,
Route 4, Box 475
Tallahassee, FL 32304
Roberts Sand Co.
P. O. Box 1642
Tallahassee, FL 32302

(No Name)

(No Name)

Norfleet Pit

1S 2W 12

1S 1W 6

1N 2W 35

Purington and Rhoades
Route 3, Box 98A
Sarasota, FL 33580
Wendei Kent and Co.
P. O. Box 2719
Sarasota, FL 33580

P & R Shell Pit

State Road 70 Pit

National Silica Corp National Pit
Division of Standard Sand & Silica
P.O. Box 8
Silver Springs, FL 32688

35S 17E

35S 19E

15S 24E

Morrell Sand Co.
Route 2
Crestview, FL 32536
Twin City Sand Co.
168 Bayshore Drive
Niceville, FL 32578

Devane Silica Mining Co.
P. O. Drawer 338
Polk City, FL 33868
E. RF Jahna Industries, Inc.
P. 0. Box 317
Lecanto, FL 32661

Dorcas Pit

Niceville Mine

Devane # Pit

Haines City Mine
(No Name)

24S 28E

44S 26E

4N 22W

1S 22W

25S 25E

27S 27E
26S 27E


Florida Rock Industries, Inc.
P. 0. Box 4667
Jacksonville, FL 32201
Gall Silica Mining Co.
P. O. Box 987
Lake Wales, FL 33853
National Silica Corp.
Division of Standard & Silica
P. O. Box 8
Silver Springs, FL 32688

Chesser and Strickland Sand Co.
P. O. Drawer D
Hollister, FL 32047
Florida Rock Industries, Inc.
P. O. Box 4667
Jacksonville, FL 32201
The Feldspar Corp.
EPK Division
P. O. Box 8
Edgar, FL 32049

Glenn Blackburn, Inc.
Route 4, Box 157
Ft. Pierce, FL 33450

Santa Rosa Asphalt & Materials,
Route 7, Box 284A
Milton, FL 32570

Ashland-Warren, Inc.
P. O. Box 7368
Naples, FL 33941
B & J Dragline
Hanchey Dr. & Nokomis
Venice, FL 33959
General Development Corp.
1111 South Bayshore Drive
Miami, FL 33131
Venice Fill and Shell Co.
P. O. Box 691
Venice, FL 33595
Wendell Kent and Co.
P. O. Box 2719
Sarasota, FL 33580

Sandland Mine

Ga!! 16-078

Polk City Mine
A Tower Mine

Interlachen Mine

Kueka Mine

Edgar Mine

Morgan Pit

Gault City Pit

Newburn Road Pit

(No Name)

Sarasota Co. Pit

Laurel Pit

Brown Road Pit

24S 26E 19,20

30S 28E 3,9,10

26S 25E 26
26S 27E 26

10S 24E

10S 24E 29

10S 24E 30

35S 40E 36

1N 28W

36S 18E

39S 19E

39S 22E 19,36

38S 19E

36S 19E


Castoldi Hauling, Inc.
P. O. Box 26
Panacea, FL 32346

Adams Sand Co.
General Delivery
Mossy Head, FL 32434

Cass-Ora Pit
Revell Pit
Kornegay Pit
Adams Mine

3N 21W

A partial list of inactive sand and gravel mines is found on the following pages.
Many other small pits occur throughout the state that are not listed.

Brewton Engineering Company
P. O. Box 1039
Panama City, FL
Cato Sand Company
Box 21, Springfield Station
Panama City, FL
Panama Concrete Products Co.
Panama City, FL
ABCO Concrete Company
Box 846, Airport
Melbourne, FL
C and P Dredging Company
Box 101
Palm Bay, FL
Alfred Destin Company
235 SW 4th Ave.
Miami, FL
Ideal Crushed Stone Company
5500 NW 37th Ave.
Hialeah, FL
Maule Industries
1760 Purdy Ave.
Miami Beach, FL
Sand Lake Development Co.
260 NW 27th St.
Miami, FL
Seminole Rock and Sand Co.
Box 3430
Miami, FL
Florida Sand and Excavating Co.,
Jacksonville, FL

Mill Bayou Pit Bay

Mill Bayou Pit

Bayou George

Melbourne Pit

Micco Dredge

Morris Cut (Dade Co.)
Palmer Lake (Miami)

Dade Co. Pit
T53, R40E, sec. 4


Tarbert Pit

NW 14 St.

Near Jacksonville












Jacksonville Sand Company
Jacksonville, FL
E. E. Boone Construction
Rt. 7, Box 378
Pensacola, FL
D and B Sand Company
5th Ave. and 28th
Tampa, FL
Hillsborough Sand and Material
Nebraska and 131st St.
Tampa, FL
B. M. Walker
1945 18th Ave.
Vero Beach, FL
Cartledge Fertilizer Co.
Cottondale, FL
The Suwannee River Sand Co.
Drawer C
Foley, FL
Acme Sand Co.
Eustis, FL
American Building Products Co.
Okahumpka, FL
Central Sand Co.
P. O. Box 1175
Tavares, FL
Underwood and Gaines
Clermont, FL
Ft. Myers Rock Co.
Box 1942
Ft. Myers, FL
Middle Florida Sand Co., Inc.
P. O. Box 922
Tallahassee, FL
Ochlocknee Sand Co.
Tallahassee, FL
Tallahassee Sand Co.
Tallahassee, FL
F. R. Edwards Sand Co.
Ellenton Road
Palmetto, FL
Cummer Lime and Manufacturing
Oqala, FL

St. Johns River Dredge
(near Jacksonville)
Bells Head Dredge



Vero Beach Pit

Near Cottondale

Dell Pit
T4S, R11E, sec. 8

Various pits in Lake Coun-
ty and in Lake Eustis
Okahumpka Pit

Tavares Pit

Lake Louisa
(near Clermont)
Near Ft. Myers

Tallahassee Pit
T1N, R1W, sec. 5

Ochlocknee River Dredge

Near Tallahassee

Manatee River Dredge






Indian River














Materials, Inc.
Ocala, FL
Femandina Sand Company
Fernandina, FL
Perry's Sand Company
Box 525
Ft Walton Beach, FL
Johnson Coberly Washed Sand
Doctor Phillips, FL
Florida Glass Manufacturing
Jacksonville, FL
Transit Mix Concrete, Inc.
1622 N. Mills
Orlando, FL
A. E. Hoffman
Skees Rd.
West Palm Beach, FL
Hoyt Sand and Muck
Box 50
Lake Park, FL
General Materials Co.
601 24th St. S.
St Petersburg, FL
Hodges Concrete Works Co.
331 16th St.
St. Petersburg, FL
Largo Washed Sand Co.
P. O. Box 677
Largo, FL
Davenport Sand Co.
Box 350
Lake Wales, FL
Lakeland Cement Co.
Lakeland, FL
Lake Wales Concrete Sand Co.
706 Carlton Ave.
Lake Wales, FL
Mac Calla Brothers, Inc.
Box 791
Winter Haven, FL
Oak Ridge Sand Co.
Box 2565
Mulberry, FL
Southern Phosphate Corp.
342 Madison Ave.
New York, NY

Lake Weir


Ft. Walton Pit

Dr. Phillips


Wekiwa Springs

Hoffman Pit

Pit Loc. T41S, R43E,
sec. 20


50th and 60th St.
(St. Petersburg)

Largo Pit
T29S, R15E, sec. 25

Davenport Pit
T26S, R27E, sec. 24


Lake Wales

Auburndale Pit

Achan Pit

Pauway Mine
San Gully Mine
(both near Lakeland)








Palm Beach











Keystone Sand Company
47 W. Forsyth St.
Jacksonville, FL
United Clay Mines Corp.
Box 27
Hawthorne, FL
Meade and McClain
Davis Shore
St. Augustine, FL
North City Stone Works
St. Augustine, FL
Florida East Coast Railway
St. Augustine, FL
Bee Ridge Corporation
Sarasota, FL
K. C. Chapman
547 N. Ridgewood Ave.
Daytona Beach, FL
Concrete Products Co.
Box 827
Daytona Beach, FL
Hauser Concrete Co.
3361/ W. Michigan
DeLand, FL
E. C. Thompson
109 S. Hollywood Ave.
Daytona Beach, FL
White Sands and Materials
Box 1168
New Smyrna Beach, FL

Grandin Pit
T9S, R24E, sec. 8

Crossley Mine
T10S, R23E, sec. 27

Moultrie Creek
(near St. Augustine)

St. Augustine

St. Lucie Pit

Phillips Creek
Holly Hill Quarry
T15S, R32E, sec. 37

Port Orange

Volusia County Pit

Barbour Pit
T15S, R32E, sec. 37

White Pit



St. Johns

St. Johns

St. Lucie