The limestone, dolomite, and coquina resources of Florida ( FGS: Report of investigation 88 )

Material Information

The limestone, dolomite, and coquina resources of Florida ( FGS: Report of investigation 88 )
Series Title:
( FGS: Report of investigation 88 )
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
Schmidt, Walter, 1950-
Place of Publication:
The Bureau
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
vi, 54 p. (p. 54 blank) : ill., 5 fold. maps (in pocket) ; 23 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Limestone -- Florida ( lcsh )
Dolomite -- Florida ( lcsh )
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Bibliography: p. 52-53.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Walter Schmidt ... [et al.] ; prepared by the Bureau of Geology, Division of Resource Management, Florida Department of Natural Resources.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
000349968 ( aleph )
07249612 ( oclc )
ABY7754 ( notis )
80621937 ( lccn )

Full Text

Elton J. Gissendanner, Executive Director
Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief
Walter Schmidt
Ronald W. Hoenstine, Michael S. Knapp,
Ed. Lane, George M. Ogden, Jr., Thomas M. Scott
Prepared by the



Secretary of State
Commissioner of Education

Attorney General
Commissioner of Agriculture

Executive Director


Bureau of Geology Tallahassee
November 19, 1979
Governor Bob Graham, Chairman Florida Department of Natural Resources Tallahassee, Florida 32304
Dear Governor Graham:
The Bureau of Geology, Division of Resource Management, Department of Natural Resources is publishing as its Report of Investigations No. 88, "The Limestone, Dolomite and Coquina Resources of Florida."
This report discusses the geological occurrence, uses, market trends and mining methods of the limestones, dolomite, and coquina deposits found throughout Florida. This information, I believe, will materially assist in the future development of these resources in Florida.
Respectfully yours,
Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief Bureau of Geology

Printed for the
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Division of Resource Management
Bureau of Geology

introduction Walter Schmidt..............................................I
Purpose and Scope of Investigation......................................I
Acknowledgments ..................................................I
General Statement ...................................................I
Limestone, Dolomite, and Coquina: A Background ......................... I
General Uses ........................................................ 2
Geology of Florida's Limestone, Dolomite, and Coquina
Deposits Thomas M. Scott............................................. 3
Northwest Florida .................................................... 4
Western Half of North and Central Peninsular Florida ........................ 6
Atlantic Coast ....................................................... 9
Southwest Florida .................................................... 10
The Uses of Limestone Michael S. Knapp, Ronald W. Hoenstine...................11
Transportation...................................................... 14
Quarry Sites ........................................................ 14
Market Trends Ronald W. Hoenstine ........................................ 15
Roadbase and Concrete Aggregate ....................................... 17
Agricultural Limestone ................................................ 17
Lime.............................................................. 17
General Future Trends ................................................ 20
Economic Factors.................................................... 21
Mining Methods and Beneficiation Ed Lane................................... 22
Mining Methods..................................................... 22
Processing and Beneficiation............................................ 23
Cement Manufacturing ............................................... 27
Mineral Producers George M. Ogden, Jr ..................................... 34
References............................................................. 52

Figure Page
1. Number of active quarries producing limestone, dolomite, and coquina in Florida for the period 196 1977.............................. 15
2. Production and value for crushed limestone from all sources (limestone, dolomite, and coquina) in Florida for the period 1966-1977 ..................... 16
3. Percentages of total Florida limestones that are used for agriculture and for cement,
road, and construction aggregate for the period 1966-1975...................... 18
4. Florida lime production for the period 1968-1977 ....................... I..... i9
5. Portable rock crusher ................................................. 24
6. Simplified processing diagram for limestone, dolomite, and coquina.............. 25
7. Large crusher/screener plant............................................ 26
8. Schematic diagram of the flow-process of materials through a modern "dry-process" cement plant............................................. 28
9. Dry-pit limestone quarrying operation..................................... 29
10. Conveyor belt from quarry to plant ....................................... 30
11. Proportional blender unit .............................................. 31
12. Overall view of cement plant............................................ 32
13. Main control room of cement plant ....................................... 33
MAPS (in pocket)
I Geologic Map of Surface and Near Surface Deposits of Limestones, Dolomites, and Coquinas in Florida
2. Physiographic: Map of Florida
3. Limestone Resource Potential Map of Florida 4. Dolomite Resource Potential Map of Florida 5. Coquina Resource Potential Map of Florida

Purpose and Scope of Investigation
This report summarizes the known data relating to the occurrence of the limestone, dolomite, and coquina resources of the State of Florida and the uses of these commodities. The information presented is not intended to be an exhaustive study leading to immediate commercial development, however, the conclusions and statements made herein are based on extensive research by the Florida Bureau of Geology. Preparation for this report included geological field reconnaissance, examination of well cuttings and core samples, analysis of data from private industry, and comprehensive literature search. This study may be considered an up-to-date "state-of-theart" report including uses and the locations of economic deposits of limestone, dolomite, and coquina in Florida.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the valuable assistance provided by the many other authors whose publications were used in compiling this report. Special thanks goes to Mr. E. W. Bishop, Mr. Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Mr. Steve R. Windham, and Mr. J. William Yon, Jr., for reviewing the manuscript. Their assistance added materially to the accuracy and clarity of presentation.
The authors are most grateful to Mr. John W. Sweeney of the U. S. Bureau of Mines for reviewing the manuscript, and Mr. William D. Reves, Consulting Geologist, for reviewing the resource potential maps.
The State of Florida is underlain by more than 4,000 feet of sedimentary 7ocks that overlie a basement of older sedimentary, metamorphic, and ig:eous rocks. Most of the state is covered by a surface mantle of soils, sands, nd clayey sands that may reach several hundred feet in thickness. This mantle obscures the underlying carbonates (limestone, dolomite, and couina), except where they are exposed in stream valleys, sink holes, coastal 'wlands, and other areas where the cover is thin or absent as a result of eroon.
The term limestone has its origin in the mineral industry. In the literal Sense it means a stone from Which lime can be produced. Geologists, however, refer to a large group of rocks as limestone, regardless of their alue for the production of lime. The geologist would include as limestones lose sedimentary rocks made up of 50 percent or more of the minerals


calcite (calcium carbonate) and dolomite, (calcium magnesium carbonate), with calcite being the predominant mineral. Most commercial limestones are 90 percent or more calcium carbonate.
Dolomite is far less common than calcite. It can be defined as a sedimentary rock containing more than 50 percent of the minerals calcite and dolomite, with dolomite being the most abundant. Dolomite most often forms by subsequent alteration (recrystallization) of a limestone after its deposition. In many cases the major features of the limestone, such as bedding or chert nodules, may carry over into the dolomite.
Coquina consists primarily of cemented mollusk shells in varying degrees of preservation. Generally, the shells are loosely held together by a calcareous cement. In Florida the rock varies from a sandy limestone, to a calcareous sandstone, to unconsolidated sand and shells.
Coquina was the first of Florida's mineral resources to be utilized by early European settlers. The name has its origin from a Spanish word meaning cockle or shellfish. Early Spanish settlers applied the name to the deposits of shell near St. Augustine. The harder layers were used in building forts and missions.
Limestone and dolomite both possess a property which has been known for quite some time: When they are heated they lose carbon dioxide and yield lime.
CaCO, + heat ;- CaO + CO2 I
CaMg(CO3)2 + heat CaO + MgO + 2CO2!
In addition, limestone and dolomite have in common the following uses:
(1) as crushed stone for concrete aggregate, road metal, railroad ballast, and sewage filter beds; and when ground finer, for poultry grit, stucco, a stabilizer for coal mine dust, filler, and whiting; (2) as a fluxing agent, in the smelting and refining of iron and other metals; (3) as dimension stone; (4) as a chemical raw material, as in glassmaking and acid neutralization; (5) as i soil conditioner, often referred to as "agricultural lime" or "aglime", which is used to correct soil acidity and promote plant growth.
Limestone is a basic raw material for Portland cement manufacture, an, I dolomite is the source of certain high-grade refractory materials.
Coquina was used extensively in the past for building stone. An impol tant characteristic of the rock is that, though somewhat soft when first cul, it tends to "case harden" on the outside after exposure to the elements. Th: famous Fort Castillo de San Marcos at St. Augustine is made from cut cc quina. More recently several public buildings along the East Coast cf Florida have been built with facings of coquina blocks. The dominant use Z t present, however, is for roadbase.


Limestone and dolomites presently mined in the State of Florida range in age from late Middle Eocene (42 million years ago, MYA) to Pleistocene (.5 MYA). The mining in the Florida panhandle and the western half of the northern and central peninsula utilizes carbonates that range in age from late Middle Eocene to Upper Oligocene and Middle Miocene. Southwestern Florida mining operations produce limestone from rocks ranging from Middle or Upper Miocene to Pliocene Age. Pleistocene Age limestones and lithified coquina are mined along the Atlantic coast from the Florida Keys in Monroe County north to Flagler and St. Johns counties.
Several geologic factors control the mining potential of limestones and dolomites. Lithology, structure, and geomorphology all are important factors that dictate where mine activities will be economically feasible. The lithologic character of the rocks is the most variable of the three factors. The lithology of any carbonate section may change quickly due to many factors including facies transition, alteration of the rock due to ground water action, varying degrees of dolomitization, and the dolomitization of differing- facies creating a varying dolomite lithology. Other lithologic variables such as sand and clay content also affect the quality of the rock, and may render it useless for certain products.
Structure and geomorphology are much more generalized in their effects on potential mining. Structural control is related to the attitude of the carbonate units and to faulting. The dip of the units, which in Florida is generally less than 30 feet per mile, can cause the limestone or dolomite unit to become more deeply buried beneath undesirable or non-economic units down-dip. Conversely, in an up-dip direction, the unit being mined may have been removed by erosion, thus exposing underlying units which may or ,nay not be economically important. Faulting may also cause rapid changes n lithology within a relatively short distance. This results from the uphrown side of the fault exposing older rocks to erosion while the lownthrown side protects the older rocks from erosion by burying them ,ith younger sediments. An example of this is discussed by Pride, et al i966) in a report on the Green Swamp. The limestone and dolomite units are often buried by younger geomorhic features. These landforms are marine, deltaic, fluvial, and solution latedd in origin. The effect of these geomorphic features can create condions under which limestone or dolomite production is no longer .onomical. The relation of these landforms to the carbonate units will be iscussed in each section.
The geology of Florida's limestone and dolomite resources will be
-iscussed in four sections based on location within the state. Each section


has its own unique geologic setting. The areas to be discussed will be northwest Florida, the western half of the northern and central peninsula, the Atlantic Coast, and southwestern Florida.
Active and potential limestone and dolomite mining areas of the Florida panhandle lie within a four-county area which includes Walton, Holmes, Washington, and Jackson counties. The carbonate resources of this area have been discussed by many previous authors. Vernon (1942), Moore (1955), and Schmidt and Coe (1978) have discussed the stratigraphy and structure of the area. Moore (1955) also presents a detailed discussion of previous authors' works. Reves (1961), Shirley and Sweeney (1965), and Yon and Hendry (1969) all investigated the area's limestone resources.
Stratigraphically, the oldest limestones available for mining in northwest Florida belong to the Upper Eocene Ocala Group. As shown on Map 1 (in pocket), the limestones of the Ocala Group crop out in a broad band along the Florida-Alabama border in Jackson and Holmes counties. They also extend southward into extreme northwestern Washington County.
The limestones of the Ocala Group are white to cream colored, usually poorly indurated, permeable, granular, fossiliferous to highly fossiliferous, and very high in calcium carbonate content. Texturally, the sediments grade from very chalky through microquina to a coarse allochemical limestone composed almost completely of fossil material. The high purity (percent CaCO,) varies slightly with the exception of a lower facies described by Vernon (1942), which occurs in northern Holmes County and contains considerably more quartz sand and glauconite. Induration varies from the common poor induration to moderate induration with areas of well indurated, recrystallized, dense limestone. The well indurated, recrystallized rocks generally cover only small areas (Reves, 1961).
The thickness of the Ocala Group in this area ranges from 200 to 300 feet (Vernon, 1942; Moore, 1955; Reves, 1961). The direction of the dip of the beds varies from southeast in eastern Jackson County to south andI southwest in central and western Jackson County and in Holmes an( Washington counties (Vernon, 1942; Reves, 1961). The dip averages between 12 to 20 feet per mile (Reves, 1961).
The existence of faulting in Jackson County was discussed by Moor, (1955). He identified what he believed to be a large fault in the central poition of the county, and named it the Cypress Fault. Schmidt and Coe (197F) could not substantiate the existence of this fault in their lithostratigraphi study.
The Marianna Limestone, of Oligocene Age, overlies the Ocala Grou and crops out in a narrow band immediately south and southwest of th ,


)cala Group. It occurs in a narrow band across central Jackson, northern WNashington, and southwestern Holmes counties, and into northeastern WYalton County.
The Marianna Limestone is white, cream to light gray in color. It is slightly glauconitic (Moore, 1955) and sandy (Vernon, 1942) in thin beds. The limestone generally appears massive and impermeable with an abundant foraminiferal fauna. It is soft in fresh exposures but case hardens upon exposure to the atmosphere. There are local occurrences of hard recrystallized limestone.
The thickness of the Marianna Limestone is fairly uniform throughout this area. It ranges from approximately 25 feet in some areas of Jackson County to as much as 45 feet in Washington and Holmes counties. It thins to zero due to erosion toward the Eocene outcrop. The beds dip generally southward at a rate of 11 to 18 feet per mile (Reves, 1961). However, Moore (1955) reports a dip of 64 feet per mile in part of Jackson County. This, he believes, is associated with the Cypress Fault.
The Marianna Limestone is overlain by the Suwannee Limestone, of Oligocene Age. It crops out in a narrow band immediately south of the Marianna outcrop belt, and follows the same trend across the four-county area as the Marianna Limestone.
The Suwannee Limestone is a cream to buff colored, poorly to well indurated, extremely fossiliferous, porous, massive limestone. It may occasionally contain beds of chalky, soft limestone. Small areas of highly recrystallized limestone frequently occur but apparently with no regular arrangement. In portions of Jackson County the Suwannee varies from a dolomitic limestone to a dolomite, which is mined in the Chipola River Valley. Silicified zones also occur scattered about the limestone surface.
The thickness of the Suwannee is quite variable due to erosion of its surtce prior to the deposition of the Tampa Stage limestones (Chattahoochee Ad St. Marks Formations). The Suwannee thickens from a feather edge at ;e Marianna outcrop, to over 200 feet thick in the sub-surface down-dip in ckson County. The dip varies from 10 to 20 feet per mile. Moore (1955) ggests a dip of 64 feet per mile in the vicinity of the Cypress Fault in ckson County.
Overlying the Suwannee is the Chattahoochee Formation of Upper :igocene and Miocene Age (Poag, 1972). It crops out immediately south of Suwannee outcrop belt and follows the same trend. The Chattahoochee
buried by younger sediments to the south.
The lithology of the Chattahoochee Formation is quite variable within
- four-county area. In Holmes and Washington counties it is edominately a sandy, silty limestone with greenish, argillaceous silts curring at its base. In Jackson County, it is characterized as an


argillaceous limestone that is white to cream in color, very silty to sandy, and chalky to crystalline (Hendry and Yon, 1958).
The Chattahoochee appears to be thickest in Jackson County, near th--. Jim Woodruff Dam where it is 227 feet thick (Hendry and Yon, 1958). It thins to 100 feet or less in the southwestern part of the county. In Holmes and Washington counties it averages 50 feet in thickness.
The dip of the Chattahoochee varies from 12 feet per mile in Washington County to approximately 20 feet per mile in Holmes county. The dip is approximately 13 feet per mile in Jackson County.
The geologic map (Map 1, in pocket) shows relatively large areas of limestone within northwestern Florida. However, due to the physiography of the region these limestones are often buried to an unmineable depth. By comparing the geologic map (Map 1), the physiographic map (Map 2, in pocket), and the limestone and dolomite potential maps (Maps 3 & 4, in pocket), it becomes clear the effect that the physiography has on the potential for mining the limestone and dolomite resources of northwest Florida.
This area includes the counties of the "Big Bend" south to Manatee County. Included are the counties of Wakulla, Jefferson, Taylor, Lafayette, Suwannee, Dixie, Gilchrist, Alachua, Levy, Marion, Citrus, Sumter, Hernando, Pasco, Hillsborough, Polk, and Manatee. This 17-county area has been discussed by many authors. These include Yon (1966), Geology of Jefferson County; Puri, Yon and Oglesby (1967), Geology of Dixie and Gilchrist Counties; Clark, Musgrove, Menke, and Cagle (1964), Water Resources ofA lachua County; Vernon (1951), Geology of Citrus and Levy Counties; Puri (1957), Stratigraphy and Zonation of the Ocala Group; Yon and Hendry (1972), Suwannee Limestone in Hernando and Pasco Countes; Peek (1958), on Manatee County; Stewart (1966), Cn Polk County; Pride, Meyer, and Cherry (1965), on the Green Swamp; White (1970), Geomorphology of the Florida Peninsula; and many other 3. Each of these previous authors discuss other authors who have complet d investigations in this area. These reports may be consulted for more info,mation and further additional references.
Stratigraphically, the oldest formation cropping out in the state, the la :e Middle Eocene Avon Park Limestone, is found in this area. In Levy Coun y where the Avon Park is being mined at the present time, it is a tan to brow i, thin bedded, laminated, finely crystalline dolomite. The Avon Park vari -s from very porous and soft to dense and well indurated. Layers of fine, sil tsized dolomite occur throughout the Avon Park section. Layers of ligni -e commonly occur, as do layers of carbonaceous plant fossils. Fossil molt is are very common in the more porous zones. The Avon Park also occurs as a


iceam to brownish, highly fossiliferous, soft, porous limestone, but is not c onomically significant. Vernon (1951) estimates the thickness of the Avon Lark to be 200 to 300 feet in Levy County. It thickens in the subsurface east and southeast of the crest of the Ocala High (Citrus and Levy counties) and may reach as much as 600 feet thick in eastern peninsular Florida. West of the crest, the Avon Park dips southwest at approximately 15 feet per mile. East of the crest, it dips to the northeast and east at the same gentle rate. The Ocala High plunges gently to the southeast and the dip of the Avon Park follows that trend south of the outcrop area. The geologic map (Map 1) shows where the Avon Park occurs in outcrop or in the shallow subsurface.
The Upper Eocene Ocala Group limestones overlie the Avon Park Limestone and crop out in a roughly oval pattern around the Avon Park outcrop (Map 1). The Ocala Group is divided into three formations based on lithology and paleontology. The three formations are in ascending order: the Inglis Formation, The Williston Formation, and the Crystal River Formation, as named by Vernon (1951) and Puri (1957). The lowest formation, the Inglis, is a cream to tan, granular, porous, massive, semihard, fossiliferous limestone. It is occasionally a coquina of foraminifers, mollusks, and echinoids (Vernon, 1951). The base of the unit may be dolomitized to varying degrees. When the dolomite occurs it is usually tan to brown, porous, soft to hard and massive. Vernon (1951) reports the base of the unit is generally marked by a rubble zone whose source is the Avon Park Limestone. The Inglis may be cross-bedded as can be seen along the Gulf portion of the Florida Barge Canal and in pits in the surrounding area. The Inglis is approximately 50 feet in thickness.
The Williston Formation overlies the Inglis. It has two lithologic types tnat interfinger. One is a cream colored limestone that is a soft, friable coeina of foraminifers. The other is a cream to tan, highly fossiliferous c trital limestone (Vernon, 1951). Masses of silicified limestone occur and a e generally found near the Williston-Inglis contact (Vernon, 1951). Verr n (1951) describes the top of the Williston as "a transition zone, having f iunal similarities with the Ocala Limestone (now called Crystal River Forr' tion) but generally differing in lithology, being harder, more granular, a d containing fewer specimens of large foraminifers". The Williston in the a :a of potential mining averages 30 feet in thickness.
The Crystal River Formation lies above the Williston and is typically v ,ite to cream, soft, very massive, friable coquina of large foraminifers in a r. ;ty calcite matrix (Vernon, 1951). Occasional thin beds of a more 9 inular miliolid-rich limestone occur, and they also appear at the base as a I ,nsitional zone between the Crystal River and the Williston formations. I le thickness of the Crystal River Formation is highly variable since the top I the formation has been exposed to erosion several times after deposition.


This highly irregular surface is often penetrated by solution features (sinks and solution pipes), as is much of the lower Ocala Group. The total thickness of the Crystal River varies from zero to a maximum of nearly 30) feet in the subsurface of the peninsula. The thickest exposure of the Crystal River is located in the Crystal River Quarry in Citrus County where 108 feet of the limestone is exposed.
Structurally, the Ocala Group crops out in a roughly oval pattern near the crest of and on the flanks of the Ocala High. It dips off the elongate high in all directions. For further information consult the various references for the Ocala Group, particulary Vernon (1951) and Puri (1957).
Unconformably overlying the Ocala is the Suwannee Limestone of the Oligocene Epoch. It is a pale orange, finely crystalline, thin bedded, soft to hard, dense, porous, very fossiliferous limestone. The lithification varies from soft and friable to well indurated, highly recrystallized. In Jefferson and Taylor counties the Suwannee exhibits varying degrees of dolomitization. The dolomitic limestone is tan to brown, porous to dense, fossiliferous, and moldic. It occurs in a band of varying width that parallels the coastline. Boulders of silicified limestone are very common in the outcrop areas.
The Suwannee Limestone crops out on the northwestern and southeastern ends of the Eocene outcrop area (Map 1). It does not occur on the eastern flank of the Ocala High, either because of nondeposition or erosion. The thickness of the Suwannee is highly variable due to erosion and varies widely throughout the outcrop belt, reaching more than 200 feet in thickness in the subsurface of Pasco and Hernando counties.
Overlying the Suwannee is the St. Marks Formation of the Tampa Stage, considered Lower Miocene. Yon (1966) described the St. Marks Formation in north Florida as a white to very pale orange, finely crystalline, sandy, silty, clayey limestone (calcilutite) with poor to moderate porosity. Menke and others (1961) described the "Tampa" limestone (St. Marks) of Hillsborough County as a white to cream and gray, hard to soft, sanc~y limestone containing many fossil molds.
The St. Marks Formation crops out or is near the surface in two wide y separated areas. One is in northern Florida in Wakulla and Jefferson cou 1ties and the other is in central Florida in Pasco and Hillsborough counties In Jefferson County it is a maximum of 120 feet thick and dips to the sout In Pasco and Hillsborough counties the St. Marks is of quite varial .e thickness and dips generally to the south and southwest.
The Middle Miocene Hawthorn Formation overlies the St. Marks Fcmation. The Hawthorn consists of two dominant lithologies, an upp -r clastic unit and a lower carbonate unit. The carbonate unit varies in cot iposition and thickness throughout the state and is of economic importan e only where it is near the surface. The carbonate Hawthorn is mined, or


.:ould be mined, in parts of Polk, Hillsborough, and Manatee counties. As described by Peek (1958) in Manatee county, the Hawthorn consists of gray, bluish-gray, and greenish-gray, sandy, calcareous clay interbedded with white, gray and tan sandy limestone and thin beds of sand and shells. The limestones contain varying amounts of chert and dolomite. Dolomite is very abundant in the Hawthorn of western Manatee County where it is mined. In many instances, the dolomites are very crystalline and hard.
The Hawthorn thickens down-dip to the south and varies from 150 feet to over 300 feet thick in the subsurface.
Limestone and dolomite in western peninsular Florida are mined predominantly from the Gulf Coastal Lowlands. Several highland features influence the economics of the resource and these are shown on Map 2. A comparison of the physiographic map (Map 2), the geologic map (Map 1), and the potential map (Map 3) relate the influences of geomorphology, stratigraphy, and lithologies.
The limestones and lithified coquina actively mined along Florida's Atlantic Coast occur from St. Johns County on the north to Monroe County in the Keys. The lithified coquina occurs in the Pleistocene Anastasia Formation and forms the backbone of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge south to approximately the Palm Beach-Broward County line. South of that county line to the Keys the Pleistocene Miami Oolite forms the ridge and is actively mined for limestone. The limestones of the Florida Keys belong to two formiations, the Key Largo Limestone and the Miami Oolite. The Upper Keys, from Soldier Key to Big Pine Key, are composed of the Pleistocene Key Largo Limestone while the Lower Keys are Miami Oolite. As seen on Map I le Upper Keys are designated as the Coral Keys while the Lower Keys are 1Ae Oolite Keys.
Lithologically, the Anastasia Formation consists primarily of a sandy )quina of mollusk shells held loosely together by a calcareous cement (Puri 'id Vernon, 1964). Cooke (1945) states "the most conspicuous part of the nastasia is coquina, a deposit of whole or broken shells that have been ore or less firmly cemented by calcium carbonate, iron oxide, or other nding material. All gradations can be found between coarse rock, com,sed almost entirely of unbroken shells, and sandstones in which all the
ells have been reduced to rounded grains of coral sand."
The Anastasia Formation represents an ancient beach facies and occurs
dly in a band of limited extent. It occurs rarely more than 5 miles inland :)m the Intracoastal Waterway where it interfingers with and is equivalent unnamed contemporaneous deposits and, in south Florida, the marine embers of the Ft. Thompson Formation (Parker, et al 1955). Southward


the Anastasia interfingers with and grades into the Miami Oolite which replaces it as the core of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge. Parker, et al (1955) states that the Anastasia may exceed 100 feet thick in some areas.
The Miami Oolite is typically a soft, white to yellow, stratified to massive, cross-bedded, sandy to pure limestone analyzing as high as 95 percent CaCO3, and consists of small, spherical ovules with marked concentric structure (Puri and Vernon, 1964). It reaches a maximum thickness of nearly 40 feet under the ridge and thins away from it. The Miami Oolite is often pitted with numerous sand-filled solution cavities. It is found underlying nearly all of Dade County, much of Broward County, a very small area of Collier County, Florida Bay, and the Lower Keys of Monroe County. The Miami Oolite interfingers with the upper part of the Key Largo Limestone and overlies the lower, older part of the Key Largo to the south. It overlies the Ft. Thompson in some areas of the Everglades to the west of the coastal ridge.
The Key Largo Limestone represents an ancient coral reef tract and its associated environments. It forms the Upper Keys of the Florida Keys in Monroe County. Lithologically, it is a white to cream colored, coralline limestone, with 40 percent composed of skeletal remains of reef-building corals, and the rest being a skeletal limestone containing remains of coral, mollusks, foraminifers, coralline algae, and echinoids (Puri and Vernon, 1964). Cooke (1945) states that it is highly variable in appearance and structure ranging from a fine, white, compact, homogeneous limestone to the coralline limestone described above.
The Key Largo Limestone interfingers with both the Miami Oolite on the mainland and in the Lower Keys and the Ft. Thompson on the mainland. Parts of the Upper Key Largo Limestone are the same age as the Miami Oolite, while the lower portion is older and is equivalent in age to the Ft. Thompson Formation.
Active limestone mining operations occur in Lee, Hendry, and Collie: counties of Southwest Florida. The limestone is predominatly mined fror the Plio-Miocene (7-10 MYA) Tamiami Formation. Some secondary minin; activity removes limestone from the Pleistocene Ft. Thompson (?) Formetion near Lake Okeechobee. The limestone surface is generally buried by thin layer of quartz sand usually referred to the Pleistocene Epoch, (1. MYA), which is easily removed prior to mining.
Lithologically, the limestones of the upper Tamiami Formation are tal to white, soft to very hard, sandy, and contain an abundant and varie I fauna of mollusks, barnacles, echinoids, and corals. Preservation of fossil; varies from excellent to mostly moldic in a highly recrystallized matri,


(Meeder, 1979). Several facies of the upper Tamiami have been named, while others remain unnamed and their relationships are still questioned (Meeder, personal communication, 1979; Hunter, personal communication, 1979).
Dubar (1958) states that the Tamiami Formation ranges from 40 to 100 feet in thickness in the area of the Caloosahatchee River in Lee and Hendry counties. Parker (1955) gives a maximum Tamiami thickness of 150 feet in south Florida.
Limited mining of Ft. Thompson limestones and possibly lithified portions of the Caloosahatchee Formation occurs locally, but is of little economic significance.
The uses of limestone and dolomite are so variable and abundant that a list of specifications is beyond the scope of this report. Certain uses of limestone and dolomite are dependent upon the chemical composition, whereas other uses are largely controlled by the physical characteristics (Bowles, 1956). The following is a listing of the major uses of limestone modified after Wood (1958).
RAW MATERIAL Cement, agriculture (liming), stock feeds, synthetic whiting, rubber, calcium cyanamid, calcium carbide, insecticides, abrasives, glass BONDING AGENT road-soil stabilization, sand-lime brick, asphalt
paving, mortars, plasters, insulation materials, silica brick, stuccos
NEUTRALIZATION water treatment, sewage treatment, fine
chemicals, citric acid, gasoline, wood distillation, calcium phosphates, dyestuffs, metal pickling wastes, explosives wastes, chrome chemicals, acid mine drainage
LOCCULATION water purification, industrial waste treatment,
paint pigments, sugar, ore flotation, salt processing.
OLVENT gelatin, animal glue, leather (dehairing), casein
paints, strawboard
BSORPTION bleaches, gas purification, sulfite pulp
YDROLIZATION soap, pulp cloth, lubricating grease, organic
chemicals, ammonia
LUX alumina, open hearth steel, electric furnace steel,
non-ferrous metals
UBRICANT oil-well muds, wire drawing


caustic soda, soda and sulfate pulp


DEHYDRATION air drying, petroleum, other organic solvents,
Nationally the limestone industry is divided into two groups: The producers of crushed and broken stone, and the producers of cut or dimensional stone. Dimensional stone is not currently produced in Florida, although in the past, Florida limestones and coquinas were extensively used for building block.
The largest percentage of limestone produced in Florida is used for roadbase. The limestone can be used as a surface treatment aggregate to improve unstabilized roads, as bituminous aggregate for road pavement, or more commonly as a limerock base and stabilized base material.
The limestone used for limerock base and stabilized base material must meet both chemical purity and certain physical requirements as specified in the Florida Department of Transportation Standard Specifications For Road and Bridge Construction (section 911 1-6, page 541). The minimum percentage of carbonates of calcium and magnesium in the limerock material shall be 70 percent. The liquid limit' for both limerock and limerock stabilized base material shall not exceed 35. The limerock base material shall be non-plastic and the limerock stabilized base material's plastic index2 shall not exceed 10. The limerock also shall not contain any harmful materials such as chert, extremely hard pieces or lumps, balls, or pockets of sand or clay size material in sufficient quantity to be detrimental to the proper bonding, finishing or strength of the limerock base. The gradation and size requirement for limerock base is that at least 97 percent (by weight) of the material shall pass a 3 inch sieve and that the material shall be graded uniformly to dust. The size requirement for limerock stabilized base differs from the limerock base in that 97 percent of the material shall pass the 11 inch sieve. The limerock material used in construction of limerock base shall have an average limerock bearing ratio of not less than 100.
Florida limestones are also used in great quantities for cement aggregate. In this form they are used primarily in highway construction and ill the building trades. In general, the stone used for aggregate should consisof clean, hard, strong, durable, uncoated fragments free from injuriou; amounts of soft, friable, thin, elongated, or laminated pieces. Alkalies, organic matter, and soluble sulfides are also undesirable. The fitness of th', limestone for concrete aggregate can be ascertained by a variety of tests. These tests are outlined in the American Society for Testing Material;
'The liquid limit of a material is the water content expressed as a percentage of the weight ( f the oven-dried material, at the boundary between the liquid and plastic states. (ASTM 1978 The plastic limit of a material is the water content, expressed as a percentage of the weight ( f the oven-dried material, at the boundary between plastic and semisolid states (ASTM 1978,.


(ASTM) 1978 manual and include the Los Angeles abrasion test, Deval abrasion test, the Dory hardness test, the Page impact test, and ordinary crushing strength tests. In Florida the Los Angeles abrasion test is normally the only test conducted on potential aggregate material.
The next most common use for the limestones and dolomites of Florida is for agricultural stone. The limestones and dolomites are used as fertilizer, soil conditioners, and correcters for soil acidity. The major prerequisite for the limestone or the dolomite used as agricultural stone is that it have a high percentage of calcium or magnesium available for improving the soil.
Limestone dust is used as a filler in road asphalt surface mixtures. The Florida Department of Transportation requires that 65 percent of the material shall pass a no. 200 sieve, 95 percent of the material shall pass a no. 80 sieve, and 100 percent of the material shall pass a no. 30 sieve. Their specifications also stipulate that no phosphate shall be present in the mineral filler.
Another use for limestone and dolomite is as rip rap. Rip rap consists of heavy, irregular blocks used primarily for harbor and river erosion control structures such as jetties, spillways at dams, docks, and sea walls. The Florida Department of Transportation requires that rip rap materials be sound and durable, with specific gravities of at least 1.90. The rip rap shall be free of cracks, soft seams and other structural defects. The pieces shall be roughly angular and shall be reasonably free from thin, flat or elongated pieces.
Limestone screenings are used in place of silica sand in many areas of the state for roofing grvvel, playground surface, concrete block manufacture, and poultry grit. When used as roofing gravel the limestone chips are mixed with tar for coating flat roofs. Limestone screenings without a binder make good surfaces for playgrounds, schoolyards, and walkways. Concrete .-locks almost always have some limestone aggregate incorporated within hem. Crushed limestone is satisfactory for sewage filter beds.
Impurities in limestone such as marcasite, pyrite, and clay should be voided. Siliceous impurities are not objectional as long as they are fine--ained and evenly distributed. The limestone fragments should be compact 'id strong with rough surfaces. Fines and dirt should also be screened out the limestone.
Finely ground limestone or dolomite is often used as a whiting substitute
*ceramic raw materials and as fillers in numerous products, which include bber, paint, paper, oilcloth, window shades, and linoleum.
Limestone is the major raw material used in making Portland cement
4 lime. The manufacturing processes for cement are discussed in detail in e section on Mining Methods. Briefly, cement manufacture requires the emical conversion of limestone (calcium carbonate) to lime (calcium ox*).This conversion is accomplished by a calcination process, which is the


burning of limestone at high temperature in special kilns to drive off the CO2 (Reves, 1961). It is not necessary to have pure limestone as a raw material. However, limestones that have high percentages of calcium carbonate are most desirable, since processing is simplified. The limestone should be free of iron-rich concretions, and it should be low in silica, alumina, magnesium, and sulfur.
In addition to cement, lime is an important and essential raw material for numerous other industries. It is one of the most widely used chemical reagents in the chemical and other manufacturing industries. Lime's physical properties make it a valuable commodity to the building industry. In agriculture lime is widely used as a soil corrective.
The manufacture of lime generally requires an exceptionally pure limestone for the kiln, with total carbonates more than 97 percent. A high carbonate content is desirable because virtually all of the impurities in the limestone remain in the lime after calcination.
Both high-calcium and high-magnesium limestones can be used in these operations. The physical properties of the limestone are also important, but requirements vary with the method of manufacture. A sound and compact stone is desirable for a vertical shaft kiln operation because it does not produce an excess of fines, which retard the draft in the kiln. For a horizontal rotary kiln operation finer materials may be used.
Crushed limestone in Florida is transported by truck, rail, and water. Conveyance by truck represents the principle means of transportation and averages between 75 and 85 percent of the total tonnage hauled (U. S. Bureau of Mines, 1945-1974). Rail is an important minor means of transportation of crushed stone and averages from 10 to 15 percent. Due to energy demands and projected future expansion of mass transportation, shipments by rail should increase significantly in the' future. Shipment by water is a very minor means of transportation averaging from 0.5 to 2 percent.
Limestone and dolomite in Florida is produced from several formation; including the Key Largo Limestone, the Miami Oolite, the Hawthorn Fol mation, the Tampa Limestone, the Suwannee Limestone, the Mariann i Limestone, the Ocala Group, and the Avon Park Limestone (Cooke, 1945'. All limestone and dolomite produced in Florida is by open pit mining wit 1 the highest concentrations of quarries located in Broward, Dade, an I Marion counties.
The production of aggregate (hard-rock) limestone in Florida is primar ly concentrated in Broward, Collier, Dade, Hernando, Lee, Monro,


Okeechobee, Palm Beach, and Suwannee counties (U. S. Geological Survey investigations, 1973). Dade, Hernando, and Broward counties are, in the order noted, the leading limestone producing counties in the state, supplying 70 percent of the total tonnage and value.
Soft-rock limestone commonly used for road base is more evenly distributed over Florida and averages about 63 percent of the total output of all limestone produced. Figure 1 is a graph showing the number of active quarries (total of hard plus soft-rock) in Florida over the period 1965-1977 (U. S. Bureau of Mines, Mineral Yearbooks 1965-1977). The graph illustrates the wide variation from year to year in the numbers of active quarries. These variations are primarily a result of changing market conditions and quarry suitability.
The total U. S. production of crushed and broken limestone (excluding that used in making lime) has shown a marked increase over the years. In

- 77
- 73





90 89

119 119

377 127
.lure 1.-Number of active quarries producing limestone, dolomite, and coquina in Florida
for the period 1965-1977. Numbers represent totals of hard-rock plus soft-rock

1965 1966


1971 1972 973 974
975 376

1922 production was 52,684,000 tons; in 1942, 142,025,000 tons; in 1952, 216,468,000 tons; in 1962, 460,953,000 tons, and in 1975 about 666,320,000 tons. This rapid growth over the last 50 years can be attributed to a marked increase in highway construction (especially the development of the interstate system), the building construction industry, and a significant expan1966 3.542
1966 5.767

132.617 1967 M 36.669

1968 1969 1970 1971



- 35.548
--------- 1 44.612


40.730 ... .. .. .- 53.626
40.210 55.176
...................... :: 59.319

. 53.093
2 ......... 81.621

7.5 ............................................................ 105.536

1975 38.556
1 7 ::::::::: :: ............................... ..t 7 7



: :: 74.300


.. 101.400
Figure 2.-Production and value for crushed limestone from all sources (limestone, dolomi e,
and coquina) in Florida for the period 1966-1977.


1974 ... ......
.... ... .... ... .... ... .... ... ... ............................ . . . 10 3 7


R,_ R O

11.2 9 9


sion in the metallurgical, cheiaical, and processing industries for which limestone is an important ingredient. In addition, limestone can be substituted for lime in areas such as agriculture, fluxing, and sulfur removal. This substitution of limestone for lime is further facilitated by the much lower cost of limestone as compared to the more expensive calcined, energy dependent lime.
Figure 2 is a graph showing the record of total crushed limestone production in Florida for the years 1966 to 1977. Production of crushed limestone, which totaled about 33.5 million tons in 1966, rose gradually to a peak of 61.7 million tons in 1973 (U. S. Bureau of Mines, 1966-1976). This steady growth closely paralleled the upward trend in the construction industry during this period of time. The sharp downturn in production recorded in 1974 was directly attributable to a recession and consequent slowdown in the construction and road-building industries. Further reduction in limestone production in 1975 reflected this continued downward trend in the number of homebuilding and highway projects.
The two principal uses of limestone in Florida are for concrete aggregate and roadbase. Figure 3 shows the trend of this segment of the industry for the period 1966-1975. About 29.5 million tons, 88 percent of the total of Florida's 1966 limestone production, was mined (in 1966) for use as roadbase and concrete aggregate. This can be compared with approximately 33.6 million tons, which is 87.2 percent of the total crushed stone produced in 1975. A comparison of these values shows a relatively small growth for this sector of the industry over this ten-year interval, reflecting in part the recesion of 1973-1974 in homebuilding and road construction.
Agricultural limestone, which includes both pure limestone and Aolomitic limestone, represents a small but significant part of the Florida
-rushed limestone industry. Figure 3 graphically depicts the fluctuations of lis commodity over the period 1966-1975. Use of agricultural limestone ere is for fertilizers, soil conditioners and correctives for soil acidity. bout 880,000 tons, 2.6 percent of the total limestone production in 1966, as utilized for agricultural limestone. This can be compared with 1975 proaction figures of 942,000 tons, representing 2.4 percent of the total 'ushed limestone produced that year.
Florida lime production in 1965 was 425,000 tons as compared to a total
f199,362 tons in 1975. Figure 4 shows Florida lime production from 1968

to 1977. Total lime production for 1977 in the U. S. and Puerto Rico was 20 million tons, which showed a 1 percent decrease from 1976 and 8 percent below the production level of 1974. Florida lime production represents a figure far below lime consumption in the state.


I 0 i


.............................................................................. 1 0 .U
............... 79.0
...............................I. 81.5
1.2 88.4
........................................................ . . . . 8 8 .4

1967 1968 1969 1970
1971 1972
1974 1975


................................. .............. 89.2
................I 88 .9
-.. ..... ...... --,-,,.. --............................. 87.2

Figure 3.-Percentages of total Florida limestone that are used for agriculture and for cement t,
road, and construction aggregate for the period 1966-1975.

.1 9
...............I 79 .7

. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

08 E


In June of 1978, the national demand for fluxing lime declined some 15 )ercent due in a large part to the problems of the U. S. steel industry and ;'oreign steel competition (Boynton, 1978). The curtailment of steel producLion has had an adverse effect on the lime industry in the east. However, Florida and the rest of the southeast, where sales of fluxing lime are minimal, have experienced an increase in production as a result of increased demand for road stabilization uses, environmental uses, and other chemical-lime markets.

1968 1969 1970




W 125




187 185



aure 4.-Florida lime production for the period 1968-1977.



Virtually all of the crushed stone in Florida is limestone. Nationally thprominence of crushed limestone as an aggregate is reflected in statistics which show limestone accounting for almost 75 percent of the total crushed stone production.
Cement and crushed stone are integral parts of the construction industry, and demands for them closely parallel changes in this part of the economy. Homebuilding, which peaked in October 1977 at an annual rate of 2.2 million new starts, has continued at an annual rate of 2.0 million through 1978 (Carter, 1979). The National Crushed Stone Association sees continued gradual growth for the homebuilding and commercial construction industries through the forseeable future, and the demand for limestone aggregate and cement should parallel this growth.
Roadbase and concrete aggregate usage in public highway construction should show a moderate increase due to the national goal of completing the interstate system in Florida, as well as other areas of the country. In addition, reconstruction, rehabilitation, and resurfacing projects should continue to increase due to the high level of road usage which results in the continued deterioration of the nation's existing road system.
Due to the world's expanding population and consequent need for higher yield crops, the use of limestone for agricultural limestone is projected to be an area of substantial growth. Nationally, the use of agricultural limestone has shown an average annual increase of nearly 18 percent from 1973 to 1976. This recent growth has been attributed to several factors, including the higher cost of other chemical fertilizers, and the general acceptance by farmers of the importance of liming. The future outlook is for continued growth, but at a more modest rate (Koch, 1979).
In recent years, limestone has experienced an expanding role in the environmental field. One new environmental application is in the area of fluegas desulfurization. As power plants install scrubber systems, crushed limestone will be needed to charge them. As new and stricter environmental standards are required this market should experience substantial growth in the years ahead (Gutschick, 1979). For example, it is estimated that 600,010 tons of limestone per year will be needed for SO2 removal in the LakelaLd area (Personal communication, J. L. Eades). Other environmental uses with growth potential include the application of limestone for erosion co ltrol and waste water treatment.
Some current minor uses of crushed limestone should show moder- te growth in the future. For example, the need for railroad ballast should i acrease substantially in the future due to an increasing national dependen 'e on mass transportation. In addition, it is probable that new industrial aid chemical applications of limestone will be found which will contribute :0 the further growth of this segment of the industry.


The success of a crushed limestone operation is dependent on a number of factors including market distance, quarry and plant locations, availability of transportation, accessibility, power, reclamation costs, and land values. More recently, factors such as inflation and environmental requirements have had a significant impact on this industry.
Cost factors are especially critical in the crushed limestone industry due to the small profit margin associated with this relatively low priced, high volume commodity. For example, with today's rising fuel costs a long truck or rail haul may be prohibitive, thus requiring quarries to be relatively near to the consumer. Direct costs now average about $1.35 to $1.75 per ton, and truck haulage adds $.15 to $.25 per ton for the first mile and $.05 to $. 10 for each additional mile.
An additional factor is the aggravation to the urban population centers from dust, noise, and blasting. As the urban areas expand, active quarries and potential quarry sites are encroached upon. Consequently, the conflicting interests of continued urban growth and the development of limestone quarries are major considerations to the industry.
The upward spiral in land prices will continue to be an important economic consideration in the production of crushed limestone. Adequate property must be purchased or leased economically for future expansion of the quarry, as well as space for processing plant, storage, and waste disposal facilities. It is estimated that Florida's limestone reserves total some 85 billion tons, of whi-ch 32 billion tons are readily available for mining (U. S. Geological Survey Investigations, 1973). Much of the remainder is unavailable for reasons of urban encroachment or excessive overburden thickness.
Another major factor affecting the production of limestone in the future
the price of energy. The ever-rising costs of energy, labor, and materials :ill continue, thereby increasing the price of limestone. In addition, the re*!,nt increase in the minimum wage and a new tougher Mine Health and afety Act should also contribute to higher prices (Carter, 1979). Other measures either pending in Congress or under serious considerain affecting this vital industry include: sharp increases in social security xes on employee and employers, additional taxes to industrial users of iergy in the form of wellhead taxes, peak hour utility rates, requiring the
* nversion of oil and gas operation to coal, a reduction or elimination of xrcentage depletion allowances, and the application of strict coal mine re'irements to the stone industry. A large potential factor af fecting the proiction of limestone is more restrictive EPA standards which would -,nificantly reduce the mineral particle content in ambient air at produc)n sites, thus restricting the uses of unbound crushed stone. These EPA andards would require that a minimum of 99.85 percent of the dust


generated at a lime plant would be collected, or a maximum emission of 0.3, lb/ton and an opacity of no more than 10 percent (Carter, 1979). A continuous monitoring program would ensure compliance. The effect of such restrictions could seriously limit plant expansion, according to the National Lime Association.
In summary, the future outlook for the limestone industry in Florida is bright, especially in areas of environmental application, constuction, and agriculture. The National Crushed Stone Association estimates a slow but solid expansion of production through 1979 in Florida and a 2 to 3 percent national annual rate increase.
There is considerable variation among the sizes of mining operations in the state. At one end of the scale are "backyard operations", with one man and a tractor digging a small pit and selling the material locally. At the other end of the scale are the huge operations that encompass several square miles of holdings and produce several commodities simultaneously from the same pit. They have plant facilities to completely process the commodities, and their products are sold internationally.
Market conditions will determine the scope of a company's operations; that is, how much raw material must be mined in order to get as much finished product as can be sold? The projected scope of operations, then, will determine the type and size of mining and processing equipment needed. Other important determinants of required equipment are the kinds of materials to be mined, and the geological conditions where the quarry is to be located.
All limestone, dolomite, and coquina mining in Florida is by the open pit method. Almost without exception, it is necessary to remove overburden before mining can proceed. Usually, the overburden consists of quartz sand with widely varying amounts and combinations of other constituents, such as clay, silt, organic materials, shells, phosphorite, and heavy minerals. TI e maximum thickness of overburden tolerated is 20-25 feet; most mines a- e located where there is less than that. The overburden is stripped off I y dragline or bulldozer and stacked near the excavation. However, if the ove burden is an important commodity that can be sold, it may be process d and transported away from the quarry. Good examples of saleable b products are sand, clay, or peat.
Mining operations can be classified generally as wet versus dry pits, ar d hard versus soft rock. The easiest mining conditions occur in soft-rock, dr rr pit operations. The most difficult conditions occur where hard rock must I e


lined from underwater. Soft, dry rock can be mined with bulldozers or ront-end loaders that simply "rip" the working face. In dry pits, the rock ,iay be loaded onto trucks or conveyors and taken directly to the processing plant; or it may be crushed and then hauled to the plant. Where pits are flooded, mining is done by dragline. The broken rock is removed and either stacked to dry for later hauling to the plant, or it may be crushed and then moved to the plant. For harder rocks it first may be necessary to blast them into manageable sizes, before transport or crushing. This entails a separate operation, in which shot-holes are drilled into the rock and explosives are placed and detonated.
Processing involves operations which physically or chemically change materials on their way to becoming finished products.
The most common uses of limestone, dolomite, and coquina are as crushed stone or aggregate products. The crushed stone is the basic raw material that can be processed further, if necessary, for roadbase, cement manufacture, fertilizer and soil conditioners, rip rap and other uses. Market conditions or customer specification, of course, will determine the necessary degree of processing.
Processing of limestone and dolomite mostly involves size reduction and invariably includes crushing and screening (size grading). These processes produce the different sizes of stone that are the raw materials required in subsequent uses. Some small mining operations may be able to utilize the simplest of machines, such as a portable, one-step crusher/screener, illustrated in Figure 5. Larger mines require more elaborate, multi-stage systems, with each successive stage producing finer-sized material. Figure 6 is a simplified block diagram of a multi-stage processing plant for crushed s;one. Examples of these processing methods and equipment are shown in F gure 7.
Screening processes allow for the removal of properly sized fractions f )m the system, and for coarse fractions to be recycled for further c fishing. As indicated down the left side of Figure 6, the crushing and s, eening techniques allow for the removal of different size fractions of s. ne at intermediate stages. After sufficient crushing and screening the sl ne may be transferred to storage, or loaded directly onto trucks, rail c, s, or barges for delivery to customers.
For some uses it may be necessary to do more to the stone than reduce its s, Such processes can involve beneficiation techniques. Beneficiation is a, process with removes unwanted components from the raw material, or ich adds relatively pure desirable components to the raw material. fishing, screening, drying, and blending are the most common beneficia-

Figure 5.-One type of portable rock crusher used in quarries. Man at crusher controls gives

on processs used for limestone, dolomite, and coquina. A special beneficac on of limestone, in the form of pyroprocessing (commonly called turning), is required to manufacture Portland cement. Because cement manufacturing is such a specialized, high consumptive user of limestone, it will be discussed separately.

(drilling, blasting, or ripping and
transport of broken rock)

F sire 6.-Simplified processing diagram for limestone, dolomite, and coquina. Some mining
operations may have either more-or fewer steps.

Figure 7.-A multi-stage crusher/screener plant that can produce and separate several sizes of
stone. The large hoppers store the various fractions of stone, which also can be shunted to stockpiles by several outrigger conveyors. Trucks can be loaded beneath
the hoppers and at the stockpiles.


The manufacture of Portland cement (hereafter called cement) is the :rocessing of selected raw materials to produce a synthetic "clinker", .;hich can be processed further to give a "raw cement" mix to meet the specifications of the customers. In the discussion that follows, reference is made to Figure 8, which is a schematic diagram of the flow-process of materials through a modern "dry process" cement plant. Corresponding photographs of major equipment found in such a plant are shown as Figures 9-13.
The technology of cement manufacturing has undergone significant changes over the last 20 to 30 years. Older plants were more energy intensive, while modern plants are designed to be energy conservative. An example of this is shown on Figure 8, where hot gases from the exit of the kiln are recycled to'several prior stages. Process control and its corollary, quality control, have improved due to automation and computer monitoring of processes. Because of these technological advances, some large modern cement plants are designed to operate with less than 10 men. Most older cement plants use a "wet" process, whereby all grinding, blending, and conveying are done with wet slurries. Recent upward spirals of fuel costs have led to the design of energy saving "dry" process plants, where emphasis is on keeping moisture content low. But, because of other economic considerations, converting from wet to dry plants may not be justified. Therefore, depending on any given company's requirements and plant design, specific equipment may vary from that shown here. In all cases, however, the basic cement manufacturing process is as described.
Cement manufacturing combines mechanical and chemical processes. All steps prior to the "rotary kiln" are mechanical, and their functions are t: prepare the raw materials into a form that is suitable for "feed" to the k-ln. The kiln is a high-temperature pyroprocess that chemically combines t e raw materials to form a "clinker".
Cement compounds differ in chemical makeup according to endr oduct specifications, but generally they range from Ca3SiO5 through ( -4A12Fe2O,2 (Lefond, 1975). The primary ingredient of cement is lime
(aO). Cement manufacturing requires large quantities of lime, which is c gained from calcium carbonate minerals (CaCO3). In Florida, manufact ers' sources of calcium carbonate are limestones. In the past, deposits of s i shells were mined, but that source of calcium carbonate is no longer L d in the state. Limestone that is relatively soft and of high purity is the r )st desirable, since these two attributes decrease the amount of processing r ::essary, as well as reducing the cost of manufacturing.
Secondary raw materials needed in cement manufacturing are silica, a .mina, and in some cases, iron. Sources of these raw materials may be D, Lural or artificial. In Florida, natural sources of these materials are sand,


Figure 8.-Schematic diagram of the flow-process of materials through a modern "dry
process" cement plant.

0 Oi


Figure 9.-View of a dry-pit limestone quarrying operation. The rock is ripped and stacked by
a bulldozer. The front-end loader feeds the portable crusher, and the crushed rock is then carried to the plant on the conveyor belt. (Piclture used with permission of
Florida Mining & Materials Corp., Brooskville.)

All, -%
11"M 7


-.aurolite or clay; artificial sources are slag or fly ash. If natural deposits of iese additives do not occur on the plant property, it is necessary to purinase them from outside sources. Fly ash is an example. This material, ,:hich is a waste by-product of coal burning electrical utilities' generating Ivlants, is an excellent source of additives.
As with limestone and coquina processing, cement manufacturing in Florida begins with quarrying operations. These operations are discussed above, and they are applicable here up to the point where the crushed limestone enters the cement plant.


ure 11.-Proportional blender unit. Surge storage bins for limestone, clay, and fly ash.
(Picture used with permission of Florida Mining & Materials Corp., Brooksville.)

, -,
so," , ". '. '
. .... .. ,., .,
KILN ,. .
Figure 12.-Panoramic view of cement plant showing, from left to right: rotating raw mill
(grinder/dryer), kiln-feed preheater and blending/storage silos, rotary kiln, and clinker storage silos. (Picture used with permission of Florida Mining & Materials
Corp., Brooksville.)


After one or more stages of crushing, the limestone is stockpiled, where iis available as raw feed according to the demands of the plant. If clay is ised as an additive, the plant may have a clay crusher/dryer, whose output is, conveyed to storage. Other raw materials, such as fly ash, are stored separately.
All of the raw materials are brought together at the proportional blender unit. This unit consists of weigh-scales and belt conveyors. The central control room controls the proportions (by weight) of each raw material that is released from storage and blended. This blend is conveyed to a rotating raw mill, which performs the dual functions of grinder and dryer. Some of the hot gases from the kiln are recycled to the raw mill to dry the mix. Grinding is accomplished by steel balls in the rotating mill.
This raw mix is sent to the kiln preh eater /blender, which is the final mechanical step- in preparing the "feed" for the kiln. Using recycled hot gases from the kiln (about 18000 F), the raw mix is preheated before being fed into the kiln. This step increases the efficiency of the kiln by having the initial large heat exchange take place outside the kiln. This increased efficiency allows the use of a considerably shorter kiln. This last item, the size

are 13.-Main control room of cement plant showing, from top to bottom: illuminated
process flow diagram, automatic process control instruments with alarms, sloped panel with operator's controls. The TV screen in the center monitors the clinker as it leaves the kiln. (Picture used with permission of Florida Mining & Manufacturing Corp., Brooksville.)


of the kiln, is substantial in terms of both investment and physical dimensions. Until recent years, the trend in the cement industry was to bigger kilns
- the largest in the United States being over 600 feet long and 25 feet in diameter. Today, with the emphasis on energy conservation, the trend is to smaller and more efficient kilns, with overall dimensions reduced by 30 to 60 percent from that mentioned above.
The kiln is the center of the cement plant. All processes up to this point have been to get the raw materials into proper size and proportions,so that the kiln can burn them to form the artificial cement '"lTe.Tkiln is very slightly inclined so that it slowly moves the feed down its length as it rotates. Temperature increases toward the exit end, where it can be as high as 27000 F. The high temperature produces several physical and chemical changes in the raw feed. Physically, the material is melted and fused. The most important chemical changes are calcination, which drives off carbon dioxide gas (GO,) from the limestone to form lime (GaO), and subsequent reactions of the hot lime with the additives of silica, alumina, and iron to produce a synthetic silicate "clinker". The clinker products are cooled and stored for further processing, which usually includes pulverizing and blending, with other additives to meet customer specifications.
The following list of active and inactive limestone, dolomite, and coquina producers was compiled from many sources, the main ones being the U. S. Bureau of Mines, the Mine Safety and Health Administration, and the Florida Department of Transportation. A telephone survey was conducted for those producers whose mine location was uncertain. Because of the nature of the mining industry, the location and sometimes the operational status of the producer changes, and therefore the list is only accurate as of the time the survey was made. Any updates to this list are requested and should be sent to the Bureau of Geology, 903 West Tennessee Street, Tallahasssee,* Florida 32304. The compiler of this list is indebted to the members of the Florida stone industry and the above agencies for inform 1tion supplied on the industry in Florida.
The list is divided into active and inactive producers. Within the3e categories the list is further divided into commodity, county, and produc r. The counties and then the producers in each county are listed alphabeti, .Jly. All of the active producers' locations are plotted on the resource pote ,1tial maps located in the pocket at the back of this publication.
The inactive producers list is not to be considered exhaustive, as it is v rtually impossible to locate all the inactive operations in the state. Some in, ctive producers locations are known only by county with no information -)n their exact locations. The addresses given for the producers that have ceas operations are given for historical purposes only.



Company Name/Address

Mine Name

Township Range Section

Houdaille Duval Wright Corp. P. O. Box 1588 Jacksonville, FL 32201 Limerock Industries, Inc. P. O. Drawer 790 Bronson, FL 32621 Limestone Products, Inc. P. O. Box 177 Newberry, FL 32669

S. M. Wall Co. 1650 N. E. 23rd Blvd. Gainesville, FL 32601

Haile Quarry Chastain Pit
Newberry Pit
Haile Quarry North Pit North Pit Cleary Pit High Springs Mine

9S 17E 13,14,23,24
9S 18E 18
9S 17E 25

17E S17E 18E 17E

24 13,24 18-20

7S 18E 30


Bergeron Sand and Rock Mining Co.
2121 North 184th Ave. P. O. Box 6280 Hollywood, FL 33021 BNJ Equipment Corp. 401 Hanchey Drive Nokomis, FL 33555 'roward Paving, Inc. 11 North State Road 7 :ollywood, FL 33021
SJ. Capeletti, Inc.
0 O. Box 9444 ialeah, FL 33021 urcie Brothers, Inc. 50 Park Road
allendale, FL 33009 mar Industries llywood Quarries 00 SW 64th Ave.
SLauderdale, FL 33314 orida Fill Inc. O. Box 560992 iami, FL 33156

Hollywood Pit

Broward Rock & Fill Pit

Rhodes Pit

Broward Pit No. 1I Glades Rock Pit

(No Name)

Gator Rock

51S 39E 12

48S 42E 16
50S 42E 31
51S 41E 29

51S 40E

50S 41E 23

50S 39E


Griffin Brothers Co., Inc. 6143 SW 45th Street Davie, FL 33314
Hardrives Paving, Inc. 846 NW 8th Ave. 6143 SW 45th Street Davie, FL 33314
Hardrives Paving, Inc. 846 NW 8th Ave. Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33311
Meekins, Inc. 3500 Pembroke Road Hollywood, FL 33021
Miramar Rock, Inc. Box 6418
Hollywood, FL 33021
L. W. Rozzo, Inc. 4435 SW 26th Street Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33314
Vulcan Materials S/E Division P. O. Box 80730 Atlanta, Ga. 30366
Carroll Contracting & Ready Mix, Inc.
P. O. Drawer 1398 Inverness, FL 32650
Colitz Mining Co. (Crystal River Quarries, Inc.) P. O. Box 216
Crystal River, FL 32629
E. R. Jahna Industries, Inc.
Lecanto Rock Division
P. O. Box 317
Lecanto, FL 32661
Lecanto Materials Co.
(Crystal Construction Co.)
Drawer 291
Lecanto, FL 32661

Griffin Brothers Pit
State Road Quarry State Road Quarry
State Road Quarry State Road Quarry Snake Creek Mine Pit No. 4
Miramar Lakes Pit
Derfield Quarry
Miramar Mine

Rozzo Mine Broward Mine

50S 40E 1

50S 42E
50S 16

50S 50S
51S 48S SS


42E 41E 39E
42E 39E

48S 42E 4
51S 39E 36
51S 40E 31,32
51S 39E 24


Carroll's Lecanto Pit Lecanto Rock Pit

Lecanto Mine

Lecanto Rock Mine

18S 18E 33
19S 18E 15, 6

18S 18E 5

18S 18E 5


"\shland-Warren, Inc. .'. 0. Box 7368 r4aples, FL 33941 A. J. Capeletti, Inc. P. O. Box 9444 Hialeah, FL 33021 Century Industries P. 0. Box 4667 Jacksonville, FL Florida Rock Corp. Box 2037
Naples, FL 33940 Highway Pavers, Inc. P. 0. Box 7098 Naples, FL 33941 Meekins, Inc. 3500 Pembroke Road Hollywood, FL 33021
Limerock Industries, Inc. P. 0. Box 473 Chiefland, FL 32626
The Brewer Co. of Fla., Inc. 9800 N.W. 106th Street Miami, FI 33166 A. J. Capeletti, Inc. P. 0. Box 9444 Hialeah, FL 33021

C -al Aggregates Corp. L ision of Meekins 3:0 Pembroke Road F dlywood, FL 33021 L, veil Dunn Co. P ). Box 2577 ?v imi, FL 33012 F rida Rock and Sand Co. P. ). Box 3004 Fi dda City, FL 33030

Golden Gate Quarry Collier No. 1 Quarry Sunniland Quarry Golden Gate Quarry Virgil Marcum Pit Mule Pen Rock Quarry
COLUMBIA Columbia City Mine
Naranja Road Rock Pit

49S 27E 16
53S 33E 14
48S 30E 28
49S 26E 21

50S 26E

48S 26E 13,14

5S 16E 16,17

55S 39E 34

52S 52S 53S 53S 53S 55S

Dade Pit No. 1 Dade Pit No. 7 Dade Pit No. 9 Dade Pit No. 10 Dade Pit No. 11 Dade Pit No. 12 Dade Pit No. 13
Miami Mine
Dunn Airport Pit Indian Lakes Pit
Card Sound Pit

40E 40E 39E 39E 39E 39E 39E

20 26 23
21 13,14

53S 39E 36
52S 39E 2
54S 40E 16
58S 39E 17


General Portland Inc. Florida Division Box 440336 Miami, FL 33144 A. J. House and Sons, Inc. P. O. Box 457 Miami, FL 33144 Lone Star Florida, Inc. 6451 N. Federal Highway Fort Lauderdale, FL 33308 Miami Crushed Rock, Inc. P. O. Box 440214 Miami, FL 33166 Redland Construction Co. 9800 N.W. 106th St. Miami, FL 33166 Redland Rock Co. 23799 S. W. 167th Ave. Homestead, FL 33030 Rinker Southeastern Materials, Inc.
P. O. Box 2634 Miami, FL 33012 Ronlee, Inc. P. O. Box 660655 Miami Springs, FL 33166 Sterling Crushed Stone Co. Box 630877 Ojus Branch Miami, FL 33163 Vulcan Materials Co. S/E Division P. O. Box 80730 Atlanta, Ga. 30366

West Dade Rock & Fill Co., Inc. (Marks Brothers Co.) 1313 N. W. 97th Ave. Miami, FL 33126

Dade County Quarry

Pit No. 1

Pennsuco Quarry Pennsuco Quarry Coral Gables Quarry

Brewer Pit Eureka Pit

F. E. C. Quarry (No Name) Rinker Lake Quarry Miami Quarry Ronlee Inc. Pit
Richmond Quarry Golden Prince Quarry

Medley Plant

West Dade Rock Pit

54S 38E 3(.

53S 39E 13
52S 39E 26,35,36
53S 39E 2
53S 39E 25,36
Gov. Lotl
55S 39E 27,34
55S 39E 34

52S 39E 25
52S 40E 31
52S 40E 20
53S 39E 34
52S 39E 12
55S 39E 24
53S 39E 25
53S 40E 5,9
53S 39E

Anderson Contracting Co., Inc. Tennille Pit P. O. Box 38 Old Town, FL 32680

8S 10E .7

LaBelle Limerock Co. General Delivery LaBelle, Fl 33935

LaBelle Limerock Mine

43S 28E


i T. Ridgdill & Sons P. 0. Box 447 Clewiston, FL 33440
Brooksville Rock Co., Inc. 605 W. Broad St. Brooksville, FL 33512 W. L. Cobb Construction Co. P. O. Box 11826 5002 E. Hillsborough Ave. Tampa, FL 33610 Florida Crushed Stone Co. P. 0. Box 668 Brooksville, FL 33512 Florida Rock Industries, Inc. P. 0. Box 457 Brooksville, FL 33512 E. R. Jahna Industries, Inc. P. 0. Drawer 317 Lecanto, FL 32661
Anderson Contracting Co. P. 0. Box 38 Old Town, FL 32680
Ballard Shell & Fill, Inc. Rt. 2, Box 1104 North Ft. Myers, FL 33903 Coral Rock Industries, Inc. P 0. Box 1021 (,pe Coral, FL 33904 F :)rida Rock Industries, Inc. F 0. Box 158 F Myers, FL 33901 F gate Construction Co. I. 'Texas Ave.
F Myers, FL 33901
1 rper Brothers, Inc. R ate 13, Box 821 F Myers, FL 33901 J i. Kelly Rock Co., Inc. P 0. Box 353 L 3elle, FL 33935

Clewiston Quarry
Broco Quarry
Aripeka Quarry
Brooksville Gay Quarry Brooksville Gay Quarry Brooksville Gay Quarry Diamond Hill Mine

Mills Mine

Dowling Park Pit
Ballard Pit Cape Coral Pit Alico Road Pit Alva Mine Estero Quarry

Alva Pit

43S 34E 24
21S 18E 23
23S 17E 19

22S 22S 21S

1,12 5-8,18

23S 21E

3S liE

44S 23E 10
43S 24E 17,18
(mining canal spoil banks) 46S 25E 1,12
43S 27E 10

46S 25E

43S 27E 11,14


Connell & Schultz Box 97
Inverness, FL 32650 Levy County Road Dept. P. O. Box 336 Bronson, FL 32621 V. E. Whitehurst & Sons, Inc. Route 1. Box 125 Williston, FL 32696
Lecanto Materials Co. (Crystal Construction Co.) Drawer 291 Lecanto, FL 32661 Marion County Highway Dept.
3190 S. E. Maricamp Road Ocala, FL 32670
Monroe Rock Co. P. O. Box 417 Belle View, FL 33626 Ocala Limerock Corp. Box 1060
1013 N. E. Osceola Street Ocala, FL 32670 O'Neal Construction Co. 5685 S.W. 52nd Street Ocala, FL 32670 Southern Materials Corp. P. O. Box 218 Ocala, FL 32670 M. J. Stavola Industries, Inc. P. O. Box 187 Anthony, FL 32617

Parks Banks Trucking P. O. Box 327 Rockledge, FL 32955 A. J. Capeletti, Inc. P.O. Box 9444 Hialeah, FL 33021 Alonzo Cothron, Inc. P. 0. Box 450 Big Pine Key, FL 33043

Williston Quarry
Arrington Pit Williston Pit Grissin Pit Raleigh Quarry
MARION Britt (Ocala) Pit

(No Name) Canal Right of Way Pit Bell Pit Godwin Pit Zuber Pit Pedro Mine Barco Pit No. 7 Kendrick Quarry Zuber Pit
O'Neal Pit
Lowell Quarry
Stavola Pit
Big Pine Key Quarry
Monroe Pit No. 1

Tavernier Pit

12S 19E 31

14E 19E

31 12
4 19,20

16S 22E 20

14S 16S 12S

22E 22E 21E 20E 21E 22E 20E 21E 21E

14S 21E 25,36
13S 21E 23
14S 22E 19

66S 29E 15
60S 40E !9

62S 39E


Charley Toppino & Sons, Inc. Box 787
Key West, FL 33041
Belcher Mine, Inc. P. 0. Box 86 Aripeka, FL 33502 International Minerals and Chemical Co. Box 867
Bartow, FL 33830
Florida Rock Industries P. 0. Box 4667 Jacksonville, FL 32201
Dixie Lime & Stone Co. Suite 700,. Lincoln Center Tampa, Fl Florida Crushed Stone Co. 303 E. Silver Springs Blvd. P. 0. Box 608 Ocala, FL 32670 Ocala Limerock Corp. Box 1060
1013 N. E. Osceola St. Ocala, FL 32670 St. Catherine Rock Co. Box 103
obleton, FL 33554

nderson Contracting Co., 0. Box 38 Id Town, FL 32680 atch Enterprises, Inc. 3x 238
ranford, FL 32008

nderson Contracting Co., Inc.
0. Box 38 !d Town, FL 32680

Rockland Key Quarry

PASCO Belcher Mine

Morrel Limerock Mine

ST. LUCIE (No Name)

Sumterville Complex Center Hill Quarry Mabel Quarry St. Catherine Quarry

SUWANNEE Inc. Lanier Pit

Hatch Quarry

Cabbage Grove Pit

67S 26E 21

24S 16E 1,2
25S 22E 24,25

37S 38E 15

20S 22E 1,12,13
23E 6,7
21S 23E 16
22S 23E 10,11
22S 21E 2

6S 15E 21
6S 14E 16

3S 4E 34


Limerock Industries, Inc. P. O. Drawer 790 Chiefland, FL 32626

Cabbage Grove No. 2

3S 4E 34

Colitz Mining Co. (Crystal River Quarries, Inc.) P. 0. Box 216 Crystal River, FL 32629 Dolime Minerals, Inc. (Florida Lime Works, Inc.) P. 0. Drawer ARI Bartow, FL 33830
Dolomite, Inc. P. 0. Box 1586 Marianna, FL 32446 Florida Lime & Dolomite P.O. Box 681 Marianna, FL 32446
Florida Rock Industries P. O. Box 227 Gulf Hammock, FL 32639
Dolime Minerals, Inc. P. 0. Drawer ARI Barrow. FL 33830 Limerock Industries, Inc. P. O. Drawer 790 Chiefland, FL 32626

Red Level Mine

Crystal River Quarry

JACKSON Rocky Creek Mine

(No Name)

Gulf Hammock Mine

(No Name)

Cabbage Grove Quarry

17S 16E 36

17S 16E 11,12

3N 9W 18
3N 9W 19

14S 16E 21,28

4S 4E 13
4S 4E 2,3


Brevard Co. Public Works Div.
Road and Bridge Department 1948 Pineapple Ave. Melbourne, FL 32935

Kings Park Pit Valkaria Pit Rockledge Pit Sarno Pit Rifle Range Pit Pluckeybaum Pit

24S 29S 25S 27S 21S 22S

36E 37E 36E 36E


Bell Engineering Route 3
7755 Jog Road
Lake Worth, FL 33460 Palm Beach Co. Highway Dept.
2030 Congress Ave. West Palm Beach, FL 33406 Rubin Construction Co. P. 0. Box 15065 West Palm Beach, FL 33406

PALM BEACH Bell Farms Shell Pit

Lantan Pit Okeechobee Pit

Pebb Pit

45S 42E 15

42E 31
42E 29

44S 42E 6,7


Company Name/Address

Mine Name

Mine Location Township Range

Newberry Corporation P. 0. Box 1588 Jacksonville, FL Williston Shell Rock Co. Box 600
Ocala FL
Deerfield Rock Corp. P. 0. Box 781 Ft. Lauderdale, FL Florida Material Producers,
0'. 0. Box 9902 't. Lauderdale, FL 33310 lallandale Rock Corp. lox 781
't. Lauderdale, FL loudaille Industries, Inc. loudaille-Duval-Wright Div. '. 0. Box 8068 050 NE 5th Terrace t. Lauderdale, FL 33310 ayne Dredging Co. '. 0. Box 5791 t. Lauderdale, FL 33310

Haile Quarry
Buda Quarry Haile Quarry
BROWARD Deerfield Quarry

Deem Pit

Hallandale Quarry Hollywood Quarry Deerfield Quarry Decker Quarry

9S 17E 13
8S 17E 32
(Location Unknown)
48S 42E 4,9

49S 42E 18
51S 42E 28
51S 40E 7,18
48S 42E 10
49S 42E 22



Maule Industries, Inc. 5220 Biscayne Blvd. Miami, FL Meekins, Inc. 3500 Pembroke Rd. Hollywood, FL 33021 E. L. Montgomery, Inc. 815 NW 7th Terrace Ft- Lauderdale. FL Oakland Park Rock, Inc. 740 NE 45th Street Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33308 Perna Asphalt P. O. Box 959 Deerfield Beach, FL 33441 Road Rock, Inc. 2700 W. State Road 84 Ft. Lauderdale, FL L- W. Rozzo, Inc. 4435 SW 26th Street Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33314
Finley P. Smith Rt. 1, Box 733 Ft. Lauderdale, FL Snyder Paving Co., Inc. P. O. Box 1199 Ft. Lauderdale, FL Task Corporation 660 North SR 7 Plantation, FL 33317 R. H. Wright & Son, Inc. Box 781
Ft. Lauderdale, FL Zinke-Smith, Inc. Box 2004
Pompano Beach, FL
B & C Mining Co. P. O. Box 316 Lecanto, FL 32661 Carroll Contracting & Ready Mix. Inc.
P. O. Drawer 1398 Inverness, FL 32650

Prospect Quarry Monarch Quarry Meekins Quarry Montgomery Quarry

Rhodes Pit (No Name)

Road Rock Quarry

49S 42E 18
51S 40E 18
51S 42E 20
(Location Unknown) 49S 42E 18
(Location Unknown) 50S 42E 20

48S 50S
49S 50S

(No Name) (No Name) (No Name) (No Name) (No Name)

Dania Quarry Ft. Lauderdale Quarry

(No Name)

Wright Quarry

(No Name)

Lecanto Pit
Floral City Pit Floral City Pit

42E 42E 42E 43E

48S 42E

42E 4
42E 17

(Location Unknown) (Location Unknown)

48S 42E

19S 18E 22
20S 20E 24
20S 21E I


Florida Lime Works, Inc. P. O. Box 774 Bartow, FL 33830 General Portland Cement Co. Box 1528 Tampa, FL Gulf Coast Aggregates, Inc. P. O. Box 1686 Crystal River, FL 32629 Ocala Limerock Corp. 1013 NE Osceola Ave. Ocala, FL 32670
Leon McCormick & Son, Inc. 3601 Davis Blvd. P. O. Box 326 Naples, FL 33940 Ochopee Rock Co., Inc. P. O. Box 154 Naples, FL 33940 Sunniland Limerock Co. Box 1547 Ft. Myers, FL Ashland-Warren, Inc. P. O. Box 7368 Naples, FL 33941
E. E. Collins Construction Co.
2175 SW 32nd Ave. M'iami FL 33012 .owell Dunn Co. '. O. Box 2577 liami, FL 33012 Jeal Crushed Rock Co., Inc. 500 NW 37th Ave.
iialeah, FL
. J. James Construction Co.,
700 NW 119th Street
iiami, Fl
eHigh Portland Cement Co.
southeastern Division 370 NW 36th Street
liami, FL 33148

(No Name)

Storey Quarry Gulf Coast Quarry Rooks-Homosassa
COLLIER Avalon Quarry

Ochopee Quarry Sunniland Quarry

North Pit South Pit

17S 17E 31
20S 19E 35
17S 19E 10
(Location Unknown)

50S 25E 13

52S 30E 34
48S 30E 29
49S 25E 25
50S 26E 34,35


Collins Quarry Medley Pit Opalocka Pit Indian Mound Pit Dade County Pit
James Quarry LeHigh Quarry

(Location Unknown}

53S 52S

40E 39E

56S 40E 4

(Location Unknown) 52S 40E 32,33


Maule Industries, Inc. 5220 Biscayne Blvd. Miami, FL
Murphy & Mills Corp. 2601 NW 75th Street Miami, FL Naranja Rock Co. P. 0. Box 98 Naranja, FL Native Stone, Inc. Box 252
Miami, FL Oolite Rock Co. P. O. Drawer 868 South Miami, Fl Peffer Construction Co. Box 185
Shenandoah Station Miami, FL E. A. Pynchon P. O. Box 1921 North Miami, FL Seminole Rock Products Co. P. O. Box 335 Tamiami Station Miami, FL Three Bays Improvement Co. (Formerly Hialeah Crushed Stone Co.) 2601 NW 75th St. Miami, FL Troup Quarries, Inc. P. O. Box 168 Miami, FL
Brooksville Rock Co., Inc. 605 W. Broad Street Brooksville, FL 33512 Camp Concrete Rock Co. Box 608
Ocala, FL Florida Crushed Stone Co. 303 E. Silver Springs Blvd. P. O. Box 608 Ocala, FL 32670

Ojus Quarry Red Road Quarry Tropical Quarry Pennsuco Quarry (No Name) (No Name)
Naranja Quarry

Ball Quarry

Oolite Rock Quarry Hialeah Gardens Quarry North Miami Quarry Red Road Quarry Medley Quarry Dade County Mine

Kendall Quarry Perrine Quarry
Annutteliga Quarry Gay Plant Lansing Quarry

53S 54S 52S 53S 51S

40E 40E 40E 41E 42E

Lots 1,2

56S 39E 33,34
(Location Unknown) 54S 40E 23
(Location Unknown) 50S 42E 20
53S 41E 31
53S 40E 9,10
52S 41E 35

55S 40E
55S 40E

21S 18E 23,2(
22S 19E
21S 19E 2:;


W. P. McDonald Corp. of Florida Box 1256 Lakeland, FL

Conroc Quarry

22S 20E 19

Anderson Contracting Co. P. O. Box 38 Old Town, FL 32680 Green Valley Lime Co. P. O. Box 387 Marianna, FL 32446
Marjax Company Marianna, FL
West Florida Lime Company Box 208
Cottandale, FL 32431

Sam Smith Mine Marianna Quarry Marjax Quarry Cottondale Quarry

Anderson Contracting Co. P. O. Box 38 Old Town, FI 32680
Williston Shell Rock Co. Box 600
Ocala, FL

LAFAYETTE Gardiner Pit Dell Quarry

4S 1E 32
11S 4E 32

:entral Florida Mining Co. O. Box 4525
-rth Ft. Myers, FL 33902
nes Contracting Co., Inc. 33 Gramac Drive rth Ft. Myers, FL 33903
1 e-Mar Corp. 1 .3, Box489 I Myers, FL 33901
iple C Fill & Paving Co. neral Delivery I Belle, FL
irren Bros. Co. r O. Box 7368 I
North Ft. Myers Pit

Matlacha Pit Lee-Mar Pit Triple C Pit

LeHigh Acres Pit

43S 25E 5
44S 23E 10
45S 24E 32
44S 25E 25
44S 27E 30

SN 11W
SN o10W SN 10W SN 11W


Levy County Lime Rock Corp.
Box 194
Williston, FL Limerock Industries, Inc. P. O. Drawer 790 Chiefland, FL 32626 Charles E. Peacock Williston, FL United Limerock Co. P. O. Box 4667 Jacksonville, FL W & M Construction, Inc. Williston, FL
City of Ocala 435 NW 2nd Street Ocala, FL W. L. Cobb Construction Co. P. O. Box 11826 5002 E. Hillsborough Ave. Tampa, FL 33610 Summer Inc. of Ocala P. 0. Box 1539 Ocala, FL Cummer Lime & Manufacturing Co.
P.O. Box 4640 Jacksonville, FL Dixie Lime & Stone Co. Rt. 4, Box 363A Ocala, FL 32670 Dixie Lime Products Co. P. O. Box 598 F & G Enterprises P. O. Box 615 Beileview, FL 32620 Marion County Road Dept. 3330 E. Maricamp Road Ocala, FL 32670

Leo Haskins 726 Caroline St. Key West, FL

Quarry #1 Quarry #2 Quarry #3 Vista Pit

Peacock Quarry Williston Quarry Raleigh Quarry
MARION Ocala Quarry York Quarry

Kendrick Quarry
Martin Quarry
Martin Quarry Zuber Quarry LeHigh Quarry Plant No. I Reddick Plant No. 3 Kendrick Belleview Pit Dallas Pit Santos Pit Proctor Pit Castro Pit
Haskins Rock Pit

12S 14E 19
(Location Unknown) (Location Unknown) 12S 18E 24

15S 22E 19
15S 20E 26

14S 21E 24
14S 21E 10,11
14S 21E 11
14S 21E 13
(Location Unknown) (Location Unknown) (Location Unknown) 16S 22E 2
17S 23E
16S 22E :0
17S 23E 0
15S 21E 6

(Location Unknown)


Keystone Art Co. 684 NW 7th St. Miami, FL Charlie Toppino & Sons, Inc. Box 787
Key West, FL 33041
Dixie Lime & Stone Co. Rt. 4, Box 363A Ocala, FL 32670 Lakeland Rock Co. P. 0. Box 2563 Lakeland, FL 33803 Limerock Minerals P. 0. Box 3813 Lakeland, FL 33803 Ocala Limerock Corp. P. 0. Box 1060 Ocala, FL 32670
Charles Phillips 1307 2nd Ave. SW Largo, FL
Claussen-Laurence Const. Co. Augusta, GA 11hillip McLeod Y 1x 673
Augustine, FL
1 B. Meade & Sons Sx 677
, Augustine, FL
:itral Quarries, Inc.
0 0. Box 822 1 'sburg, FL I rida Rock Industries, Inc.
0 0. Box 4677
ksonville, FL 32201 S enter Lime Products F O. Box 6 S flterville, FL

Windleys Key Quarry Stock Island Quarry
Kathleen Mine Hampton Quarry Hampton Mine Hampton Property Limerock Mine
Alverton Road Quarry
Anastasia Quarry McLeod Quarry Anastasia Quarry
Sumterville Quarry Center Hill Quarry Sumter Quarry

(Location Unknown) 67S 26E 30
26S 23E 32
25S 23E 36
25S 23E 22

25S 23E

(Location Unknown)

(Location Unknown) 7S 30E 28
7S 30E 28
(Location Unknown) 21S 23E 28
20S 23E 18


Anderson Contracting Co., Inc.
P. O. Box 38 Old Town, FL 32680 Florida Rock Industries, Inc. P. O. Box 4667 Jacksonville, FL 32201 Live Oak Stone Co. P.O. Box 327 Live Oak, FL L. J. McCray Const. Co. 429 East Street Lake City, FL 32055 Suwannee Limerock Co. Branford, FL S. M. Wall Co. 1650 NE 23rd Blvd. Gainesville, FL 32601
Limerock Industries, Inc. P. O. Drawer 790 Chiefland, FL 32626
Golden Dolomite Co. P. O. Box 1193 Orlando, FL
Dixie Lime Products Co. P.O. Box 578 Ocala, FL
Bradenton Stone Co. P. O. Box 256 Bradenton, FL Florida Travertine Co. Oneco, FL Manatee Dolomite Co. P. O. Box 37 Samoset, FL

Mulkey Pit Hall Quarry Suwannee Quarry Live Oak Quarry Mulkey Pit Ralph Quarry Branford Quarry
Tennile Pit
Red Level Quarry
Lebannon Quarry
Bradenton Quarry Clark's Quarry Minton Quarry

6S 15E 21
(Location Unknown) 2S 13E 1,2,3,
(Location Unknown) 6S 14E 23
5S 14E 32
(Location Unknown)
8S 10E 21
17S 16E 25
16S 16E 12
34S 18E .2
35S 18E 7
35S 18E 5


Southern Dolomite Co. P. 0. Box 23 Bradenton, FL
Florida Dolomite Co. Pembroke, FL Venice Dolomite Co. 303 E. Silver Springs Blvd. P. 0. Box 367 Ocala, FL 32670

Palmetto Quarry
Sarasota Quarry Venice Dolomite

34S 18E 19

36S 17E

(Location Unknown)

Belle Glade Rock Co. P. 0. Box 37 Northwest Branch Miami, FL Burnip & Sims Inc. 505 Park Street West Palm Beach, FL Driskell & Mayo Jupiter, FL Handle Construction Co. Airport Road Pahokee, FL Palm Beach Co. Highway Dept.
2030 Congress Ave. West Palm Beach, FL 33406 P ubin Construction Co. F. 0. Box 15065
S'est Palm Beach, FL 33406

PALM BEACH South Bay Quarry
Peanut Island Mine DuBois Quarry Palm Beach Co. Quarry

Lantana Rock Pit Okeechobee Pit Rangeline Pit Burke Trustee Pit Dingwall Pit Rosa Tusa

44S 36E 23
42S 43E 34
40S 42E 31
(Location Unknown)

5S 42E
3S 42E
5S 41E
(Location Unknown) (Location Unknown) (Location Unknown)


American Society for Testing Materials 1978 Book of Standards, part 14. Bowles, Oliver 1956 Limestone and Dolomite: U. S. Bureau of Mines 1. C. 7738, 28 pp. Boynton, R. 1978 Lime Outlook for 1977-1978; Pit and Quarry, Vol. 70, No. 7; p. 76. Carter, W. 1979 Review and Outlook for Crushed Stone; Pit and Quarry, Vol. 71, No. 7; p.
Clark, W. E., Musgrove, R. H., Menke, L. G. and Cagle, J. W. Jr. 1964 Water Resources of
Alachua, Bradford, Clay and Union Counties, Florida; Florida Geological Survey,
Report of Investigations 35.
Cooke, C. W. 1945 Geology of Florida; Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 29. DuBar, J. R. 1958 Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the Late Neogene Strata of the
Caloosahatchee River Area of Southern Florida; Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 40. Florida Department of Transportation 1977 Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction.
Gutschick, K. 1979 Lime Outlook; Pit and Quarry, Vol. 71, No 7; p. 75-76. Hendry, C. W. Jr., and Yon, J. W. Jr. 1958 Geology of the Area In and Around The Jim
Woodruff Reservoir; Florida Geological Survey, Report of Investigations No. 16. Koch. R. 1979 Limestone Industry Forecast; Pit and Quarry, Vol. 71, No. 7; p. 74-75. Lefond, S. J. 1975 Industrial Minerals and Rocks, 4th ed.; Copyright by American Institute of
Mining Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc.
Meeder, J. F. 1979 A Field Guide with Road Log to the Pliocene Fossil Reef of Southwest
Florida: Miami Geological Society.
Menke, C. G., Meredith, E. W. and Wetterhall, W. S. 1961 Water Resources of Hillsborough
County, Florida; Florida Bureau of Geology, Report of Investigations 26.
Moore, W. E. 1955 Geology of Jackson County, Florida; Florida Bureau of Geology,
Bulletin 37.
Parker, G. G., Ferguson, G. E. Love, S. K. and others 1955 Water Resources of Southeastern
Florida; U. S. Geological Survey, Water Supply Paper 1255.
Peek, H. M. 1958 Ground Water Resources of Manatee County, Florida; Florida Geological
Survey, Report of Investigations 18.
Poag. C. W. 1972 Planktonic Foraminifers of the Chickasawhay Formation, United States
Gulf Coast; Micropaleontology, Vol. 18, No. 3.
Pride, R. W., Meyer, F. W. and Cherry, R. N. 1966 Hydrology of Green Swamp Area in Celltral Florida; Florida Geological Survey, Report of Investigations 42.
Pur, H. S. 1957 Stratigraphy and Zonation of the Ocala Group; Florida Geological Survy
Bulletin 38.
Puri. H. S.. Yon, J. W. Jr., and Oglesby, W. R. 1967 Geology of Dixie and Gilchrist Countic V,
Florida; Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 49.
Puri, H. S. and Vernon, R. 0. 1964 Summary of the Geology of Florida and a Guidebook 0
the Classic Erposures; Florida Geological Survey, Special Publication No.5 revised. Reeves, W. D. 1961 The Limestone Resources of Washington, Hohnes, and Jackson Countif ,
Florida; Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 42.
Schmidt, W. and Coe, C. 1978 Regional Structure and Stratigraphy of the Limestone Outcr ,p
Belt in the Florida Panhandle; Florida Bureau of Geology, Report of Investigations 15. Shirley, L. E. and Sweeney, J. W. 1965 Limestone Resources of Washington County, Flori A;
Published in Florida Bureau of Geology Bulletin 50.
Stewart, H. G. Jr. 1966 Ground Water Study of Polk County; Florida Geological Surm Y,
Report of Investigations 44.
U. S. Bureau of Mines 1945-74 Mineral Yearbooks, Chapter on Stone; Vol. I1. U. S. Geological Survey Investigations 1-850 1973 Resource and Land Information for Soi t Dade County, Florida; 65pp.

Vernon, R. 0. 1942 Geology of Holmes and Washington Counties, Florida; Florida Bureau of
Geology, Bulletin 21.
Vernon, R. 0. 1951 Geololgy of Citrus and Levy Counties, Florida; Florida Geological Survey
Bulletin 33.
Vernon, R. 0. and Puni, H. S. 1964 Geologic Map of Florida; Florida Bureau of Geology Map
Series 18.
White, W. A. 1970 Geomorphology of Florida; Florida Bureau of Geology Bulletin 5 1. Wood, Robert S. 1958 Lime Industry in Virginia, in Virginia Minerals; Virgina Division of
Mineral Resources, Vol. 4, No. 2; P. 1-9.
Yon, J. W. Jr. 1966 Geology of Jefferson County Florida; Florida Geological Survey Bulletin
Yon, J. W. Jr. and Hendry, C. W. Jr. 1969 Mineral Resource Study of Holmes, Walton, and
Washington Counties; Florida Bureau of Geology Bulletin 50.
Yon, 3. W. Jr. and C. W. H-endry, Jr. 1972 Suwannee Limestone in Hernando and Pasco
Counties, Florida; Florida Bureau of Geology, Bulletin 54.

7 Report of Investigation No. 88
Map 1. Geologic Map of Surface and Near Surface Deposits


0 I0 20 30 40 50 M I LES

Ror Burm of Geolo

" j -- of Limestones, Dolomites, ana uoquinas in
Years Ago) NOS.J-
Anastasia Fm. IAC
+ +
Key Largo Limestone
1 A1a1taiaiFm.
5Hawthorn Fm. ----- HIGH
EII aahoc m. Tampa Stage ARASOT D MA
- --- ---- ---2 . .---- --- LAKE-
an ainee Ls. CALTEPL
Ocala Group I GHENDRY
Avon Park Ls.
_,-,.Park Ls




Report of Investigation No. 88
Map 2. Physiographic Map of Florida.


0 -~

. ook IT

Florida Bureau of Geology

0 10 20 30 40 50 MILES
'IIt I A

S. -..,-~---...,. .~......~



A (I -~ '1


....YET I.
Report of Investigation No. 88 Map 3. Limestone Resource Potential Map of Florida.
- r-...-/ -1o co_ /DUVAL
,L E V Y
__T sLAK E
SHIGH POTENTIAL Present production and/or provenR reserves in past production areas. /
duced in the past and/or there are potential --- HIGHLANDS
LOW POTENTIAL Material present but not proven IA- rLAKE
economic at this time. -- -CHARLOTTE GLADES OKEECHOBEE
W NONE (No Potential) Material not present or present PALM
at depth which prohibits development. LEE HENDRY
* Location of active producers of Limestone.
o 10 20 30 40 OMILES Florida Bureau of Geology I I

Report of Investigation No. 88

Map 4. Dolomite Resource Potential Map of Florida.







W HIGH POTENTIAL Present production and/or proven
reserves in past production areas.
INTERMEDIATE POTENTIAL Material has been produced in the past and/or there are potential
LOW POTENTIAL Material present but not proven
economic at this time.
NONE (No Potential) Material not present or present
at depth which prohibits development.


0 Location of active producers of Dolomite.





0 10 20 30 40 50OMILES
1 t" 1I 1i aI 1 1

Florida Bureau of Geology








Report of Investigation No. 88

Map 5. Coquina Resource Potential Map of Florida.









[7 HIGH POTENTIAL Present production and/or proven
reserves in past production areas.
V 1 INTERMEDIATE POTENTIAL Material has been produced in the past and/or there are potential
Z J LOW POTENTIAL Material present but not proven
economic at this time.
-- NONE (No Potential) Material not present or present
at depth which prohibits development.

Location of active producers of Coquina.

Florida Bureau of Geology






-- r --



o o 2o 0 310 40 150 MILES