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The Highland heavy-mineral sand deposit on Trail Ridge in northern peninsular Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 84 )
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 Material Information
Title: The Highland heavy-mineral sand deposit on Trail Ridge in northern peninsular Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 84 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Report of investigations 84 )
Physical Description: vi, 50 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Pirkle, E. C., 1922-
Pirkle, William A. ( joint author )
Yoho, W. H., 1911- ( joint author )
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
Publisher: The Bureau
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1977
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Heavy minerals -- Florida -- Jacksonville Region   ( lcsh )
Sand -- Florida -- Jacksonville Region   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: prepared for Bureau of Geology, Division of Resource Management, Florida Department of Natural Resources, by E. C. Pirkle, William A. Pirkle, and W. H. Yoho.
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 13.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000195881
oclc - 03692073
notis - AAW2557
lccn - 78621456
System ID: UF00001271:00001

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STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Harmon Shields, Executive Director



DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Charles M. Sanders, Director


BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief



REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 84



THE HIGHLAND HEAVY-MINERAL SAND
DEPOSIT ON TRAIL RIDGE IN NORTHERN
PENINSULAR FLORIDA



By
E. C. Pirkle, William A. Pirkle
and W. H. Yoho



Prepared for
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES

TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
1977





QF







DEPARTMENT
OF
NATURAL RESOURCES


REUBIN O'D. ASKEW
Governor


BRUCE A. SMATHERS
Secretary of State



RALPH D. TURLINGTON
Commissioner of Education



GERALD A. LEWIS
Comptroller


BILL GUNTER
Treasurer



ROBERT L. SHEVIN
Attorney General



DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


HARMON W. SHIELDS
Executive Director






LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Bureau of Geology
Tallahassee
July 15, 1977


Governor Reubin O'D. Askew, Chairman
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Tallahassee, Florida 32304

Dear Governor Askew:

The Bureau of Geology of the Division of Resource Management,
Florida Department of Natural Resources, is pleased to publish as
its Report of Investigations No. 84, "The Highland Heavy-Mineral
Sand Deposit on Trail Ridge in Northern Peninsular Florida," by
E. C. Pirkle, William A. Pirkle and W. H. Yoho.

Those minerals commonly mined in Florida under the heading of
Heavy Minerals are rutile, zircon, ilmenite, leucoxene and stauro-
lite. Florida has consistently been a leading producer of these
minerals and this study contributes significantly to the expansion
of the known reserves of these minerals.

Respectfully yours,



Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief
Bureau of Geology














































Completed Manuscript received
1976
Printed for the
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Division of Resource Management
Bureau of Geology
Tallahassee
1977



iv







CONTENTS

Page
Abstract -- --- -- ---.................... ............... 1
Introduce tion ....... ...... ... ........................................................................................................ ...... ..... ... ... ... 1
Introduction ...........I.~..... 1
Acknowledgm ents ........................ ................. ........ ... ............ .............. 2
Characteristics and geological setting of the Highland ore body ..................... 3
Surface sands in region of Highland ore body ................ .......................... 8
Selected features of heavy minerals ........................................ 8
Distribution of Garnet and Epidote ......... .............. ....... 8
Distribution of Ilmenite and Leucoxene ............................. ........................ 9
Sphericities of heavy minerals ........ ................. ................ ...... ...... 10
Current working hypothesis on origin of ore bodies ............-... .. 11
References ....................-......... 13
Appendices ............. ..... ........................ ................ ............ .....
I. Detailed Lithologic Logs of Highland No. 1 and Highland
N o. 2 D rill H oles .... .................... ............. ..................... .................. 15
II. Characteristics of Highland No. 1 and Highland
N o. 2 Sedim ents ....................................... .................... ....... ......... .................. 33
III. Characteristics of surface sands in study area ..................................... 43







ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure
1 Location map 2
2 Location of Highland ore body and test holes .............................. 4
3 Lithologic logs of Highland No. 1 and Highland No. 2
drill holes -.___ .. ...................... ...... 5
4 Sample sites of surface sands collected in the vicinity of the
Green Cove Springs ore body _................................................ 47
5 Sample sites of surface sands collected in the vicinity of the
Boulougne ore body .... ........... .............. ...................................... 50






TABLES

Table
1 Highland No. 1 drill hole ... ...................... 34
2 Mechanical analyses of quartz sand, Highland No. 1 drill hole .......... 36
3 Percentages of selected heavy minerals, Highland No. 1
drill hole ...._______ ..................... 38
4 Highland No. 2 drill hole .... ......... .................... ................ .......... 40
5 Mechanical analyses of quartz sand, Highland No. 2
drill hole .... ......... ........................ .............. 41
6 Percentages of selected heavy minerals, Highland No. 2
drill hole ........__................. .... 42
7 Analyses of surface sediments collected in vicinity of
Green Cove Springs ore body (Sample sites shown on fig. 4) ............. 44
8 Mechanical analyses of surface sands in vicinity of Green
Cove Springs ore body (Sample sites shown on fig. 4) ............................... 45
9 Percentages of selected heavy minerals (in 1/8 to 1/16 mm
heavy-mineral fraction of surface sands) collected in vicinity
of Green Cove Springs ore body (Sample sites shown on fig. 4) ............ 46
10 Analyses of surface sediments collected in vicinity of Boulougne
ore body (Sample sites shown on fig. 5) ......... ......... ....... ............... 48
11 Mechanical analyses of surface sands in vicinity of Boulougne
ore body (Sample sites shown on fig. 5) ......................................... 48
12 Percentages of selected heavy minerals (in 1/8 to 1/16 mm
heavy-mineral fraction of surface sands) collected in vicinity
of Boulougne ore body (Sample sites shown on fig. 5) ........................... 49







THE HIGHLAND HEAVY-MINERAL SAND DEPOSIT ON
TRAIL RIDGE IN NORTHERN PENINSULAR FLORIDA


By
E. C. Pirkle1, William A. Pirkle2, W. H. Yoho3


ABSTRACT

A heavy-mineral ore body is present along Trail Ridge just
north of the town of Highland in northern peninsular Florida. No
reports of this ore body have been published. The deposit, called the
Highland ore body, consists of loose to slightly indurated quartz
sand with an average of 3 per cent heavy minerals. Approximately
45 per cent of the heavy minerals are titanium minerals which, with
zircon, are the major ore minerals of the deposit.
It is hypothesized that the ore sands accumulated as part of a
beach ridge which was built at the crest of an erodinig, transgress-
ingpsea. The major sourcesediments for Trail Ridge ani for the ore
sands are believed-to-have-been sands of the Northern Highlands
that occur to the-west of TraiLRidge and into which the transgress-
ing seas eroded. This concept for the origin of Trail Ridge and the
Highland ore body is consistent with heavy-mineral suites and with
sedimentary and physiographic features of the region.

INTRODUCTION
Trail Ridge is a 130-mile long sand ridge that extends southward
froThe Altamaha River in southern Georgia to the southern parts
of Clay and Bradford counties in northern peninsular lorida (Fig.
1). The crest elevations of the ridge range from app-roximnately 140
to 170 feet above sea level in Georgia to slightly more than 250 feet
above sea level near its southern end in northern Florida. Extensive
plains areas bound the ridge on both its eastern and western sides.
At most sites the plains immediately west of the ridge are about
40 to 50 feet higher than the plains at the same latitude immediately
east of the ridge.
For many years heavy-mineral sands have been mined in north-

1Department of Physical Sciences and Department of Geology, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
2Division of Natural Sciences, University of South Carolina, Aiken, South
Carolina.
3Department of Physical Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Figure 1. Location map.
Figure 1. Location map.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 84


ern Florida along the southern 18-mile stretch of Trail Ridge (Gar-
nar, 1972). This deposit is the Starke Trail Ridge ore body of E. I.
du Pont de Nemours and Company. Its trend is essentially north-
south. Another heavy-mineral deposit along Trail Ridge is currently
under study. This deposit is a northward continuation of the Starke
deposit and locally is referred to as the Highland ore body (Figs.
1 and 2). The main purpose of this report is to describe the High-
land ore body and to discuss its possible origin.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This report is a contribution of the Bureau of Geology, Florida
Department of Natural Resources, Tallahassee; the Division of
Natural Sciences, University of South Carolina, Aiken; and the
Department of Physical Sciences and the Department of Geology,
University of Florida, Gainesville. The joint authors are deeply
indebted to these organizations for making this work possible.
Various companies have been very helpful and cooperative in
studies of heavy-mineral sand deposits of northern Florida. These
companies include N L Industries, Incorporated; E. I. du Pont de
Nemours and Company; Humphreys Mining Company; and Titani-
um Enterprises. The writers are deeply grateful to these organiza-
tions. Also, thanks are due to Muriel Hunter and Joe Banks of
Coastal Petroleum Company for discussing problems of the Miocene
of Florida and southern Georgia with the authors and for sharing
their ideas concerning the nature of these sediments. The authors
are deeply indebted to T. E. Garnar, Jr., for substantial contribu-
tions through discussions of the characteristics of heavy-mineral
sand deposits. Gratitude is expressed to Justin Hodges and Albert
Phyllips, Jr., for the care they exercised in drilling operations and
to V. M. Patterson, Jr., for drafting the figures. The P205 and Fe203
analyses given in the tables were run by Thornton and Company of
Tampa, Florida. Charles W. Hendry, Jr., T. Walter Herbert, and
Thomas M. Scott graciously reviewed the report and added materi-
ally to the accuracy and clarity of presentation.
The authors are most grateful to Miss Xiomara Ortiz for typing
the manuscript, organizing data, and helping in the design and
preparation of tables and figures.
CHARACTERISTICS AND GEOLOGICAL SETTING OF
THE HIGHLAND ORE BODY
The Highland heavy-mineral sand deposit has a length of 81/2
miles, an average width of nearly 11/2 miles, and an average thick-






4 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY







2 Maxvilli

36 31
DUVAL CO.
CLAY CO.

I
HIGHLAND No. 2!,
1 | HIGHLAND
'-, -- '- ORE
SjBODY


BAKER CO.
BRADFORD CO. I/


HIGHLAND No.I



36 Highjnd
________ a\ A)


Figure 2. Location of Highland ore body and test holes.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 84


HIGHLAND No.2
SURFACEt 191E
SANDS ORE 169
BROWN SAND 1
---------t-156 ***Y/
DRAB 156

ZONE
125 .- .

GRAY
QUARTZ
SAND

64


FEET
200-



150.




100-




50-


No.I


FEET
r200


-26 IuI

....


HAWTHORN r-
FORMATION --




-- -290
OCALA
LIMESTONE


MEAN


SEA


HIGHLAND
202s
SURFACE I O
SANDS E
-----1---168
BROWN
SAND
148 -

DRAB -'-
CLAY
ZONE --

-- 80so
SHELL
BED
50
GRAY QUARTZ .
SAND -
------ 22
FOSSILIFEROUS
LIMESTONE


. S SURFACE ORE
. SANDS

I--- SAND

CLAY


LIMESTONE

DOLOMITE
i | PHOSPHATE
*"' I PEBBLES


FIT t H SHELLS or
I r 9, L 1 SHELL FRAGMENTS
|_ __ J WOODY or FIBROUS
I ORGANIC MATERIAL


Figure 3. Lithologic logs of Highland No. 1 and Highland No. 2 drill
holes.

ness of 30 to 35 feet. Itomnsists-ofloose to slightly indurated quartz
sands containing ana- e of 3rerentheavy-mineralsof which
about 45 percent are the t~tanim-m'n~als&-ilmenite, leucoxene,
an~ rutile. The average TiO2 content of these titanium minerals is
approximately 69 per cent. Other common heavy minerals in the
deposit include staurolite, zircon, kyanite, sillimailte, and tour-
maline. The most significant ore minerals are ilmenite, leucoxene,
and zircon.
Two holes were drilled through the Highland ore body by the
Florida Buireau of Geology (Figs. 2 and 3). Detailed logs of the
materials penetrated with tables of data to illustrate the nature of


LEVEL






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


the sediments are given in Appendix I and Appendix II. The fol-
lowing abbreviated log summarizes the materials and formations
encountered at the site of the Highland No. 1 drill hole:

Highland No. 1 Drill Hole

Depth in Feet Materials or Formation
and Inches
0 to 53'6".-............ Gray to moderate brown quartz sand
53'6" to 121'9"......Drab to olive-green clay zone
Intercalated lenses or layers of quartz sand, clayey
sand, sandy clay, and massive clay
121'9" to 152' ...... Shell bed
Clayey sand with very poorly preserved shells of
marine mollusks
152' to 180'----....... Gray quartz sand
180' to 227'6"-. .... Fossiliferous limestone
227'6" to 492'........Hawthorn Formation
492' to 493'--........ Ocala Limestone
Total Depth-493' in Ocala Limestone

The oldest and deepest rock reached in the drilling is the Ocala
Limestone of Eocene age. The upper surface of this limestone oc-
curs at a depth of 492 feet. Approximately 265 feet of Hawthorn
sediments unconformably overlie the Ocala Limestone (from 227
feet 6 inches to 492 feet). These Hawthorn sediments consist of
various mixtures of carbonate (mainly dolomite), insoluble clay,
and quartz sand. Sand-size particles and small pebbles of black
phosphorite occur disseminated throughout all of the Hawthorn
materials and as local concentrations within some beds. The Haw-
thorn Formation is usually considered Miocene in age (Espenshade
and Spencer, 1963). A fossiliferous limestone about 48 feet thick
rests on the Hawthorn Formation (from 180 feet to 227 feet 6
inches). Most investigators assign a late Miocene age to this lime-
stone.
The sediments in the interval extending from a depth of 53
feet 6 inches to a depth of 180 feet consist of intercalated lenses
of quartz sand, clayey sand, sandy clay, and massive clay. A seg-
ment of these materials (from 121 feet 9 inches to 152 feet) con-
tains badly leached and fragmented marine mollusk shells. All of
these post-Hawthorn clastics, like the underlying fossiliferous lime-
stone on which they rest, are usually dated as late Miocene.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 84


Resting on these post-Hawthorn clastics are approximately 53
feet of surface sands. The surface sands are believed by some in-
vestigators to be M1iocene (Alt, 1974), by others to be Pliocene
(Brooks, 1966), and by_ still others to be Pleistocene (Doering,
i960). A more complete discussion of post-Hawthorn sediments in
the vicinity of Trail Ridge is given by William A. Pirkle (1972).
The fossiliferous limestone just above the Hawthorn Formation
(from 180 feet to 227 feet 6 inches) occupies the same stratigraphic
position as a fossiliferous limestone exposed just above the Haw-
thorn Formation at Brooks Sink in Bradford- Couinty. The lime-
stone at Brooks Sink has been dated by Puri on the basis of ostra-
cods as lower Choctawhatchee in age-late middle Miocene and/or
late Miocene (Pirkle, 1956, p. 210). At the sites of both the Highland
ore body and Brooks Sink it appears that the fossiliferous lime-
stone and the underlying Hawthorn sediments grade into each other.
A similar fossiliferous limestone is present locally just above the
Hawthorn Formation at other localities in northern Florida.
The badly leached mollusk shells in the clayey sands which
extend from a depth of 121 feet 9 inches to 152 feet have been ex-
amined by Muriel Hunter. In a personal communication discussing
these sediments she states:

Abundant Rangia shells together with a few nearshore varieties of
marine mollusks suggest an estuarine or nearshore lagoonal environ-
ment with very low salinity. Few of the shells in the bed were identi-
fied specifically, and none of these was stratigraphically significant.
Lacking diagnostic mollusk species, the presently available criteria
for positioning this shell bed are vague at best, involving such incon-
clusive factors as general appearance, elevation, and possible relation-
ship to identified stratigraphic units mapped in contiguous areas.
However, the possibility that the shell bed might represent shoreline
deposition during some part of Jackson Bluff/Late Tamiami time
should not be overlooked. For many years, both of these formations
were assigned a late Miocene age. William Akers reported the
presence of Pliocene planktonic foraminifera in the Jackson Bluff
Formation (1972) and mid-Pliocene nanofossils in the upper part of
the Tamiami Formation (Pinecrest Sand Member) in 1974. Akers'
work has been well received, and most stratigraphers now seem to
have accepted a middle Pliocene age for both units. Sediments of the
lower part of the Tamiami Formation and the Area Zone of the
Florida Panhandle are still generally referred to the late Miocene.

If the segment from 121 feet 9 inches to 152 feet proves to be
of Pliocene age, it is conceivable that a rather thick section of
Pliocene materials is present at this site, namely the sediments
beginning at a depth of 53 feet 6 inches and extending downward
through the shell bed, the zone of gray quartz sand, the fossiliferous
limestone, and the upper part of the Hawthorn Formation.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


SURFACE SANDS IN REGION OF HIGHLAND ORE BODY
The sands that compose Trail Ridge are relatively coarse and
are characterized by a uniform grade-size distribution. Usually
between 50 and 70 per cent of the sand falls init-the inedium sand
fraction (1/ to m1/m) and from 20 to 40 percent of the sand falls
into the fine sand fraction (1/4 to %/8 mm). This _rad-e-ize-distri-
bution of Trail Ridge sands is remarkably constant throughout the
entire length and thickness of the ridge.
The sands of the surface sand blanket of the Northern High-
lands west of Trail Ridge are finer than Trail Ridge sands, and the
size distribution of sand grains in these high terrace sands is quite
variable from one locality to another. In this respect the sands
of the Northern Highlands differ considerably from those of Trail
Ridge. However, the high terrace sands contain a substantial per-
centage of medium sand-size particles (1/2 to 1/4 mm) and there-
fore are sufficiently coarse to have served as source sediments for
Trail Ridge sands.
The surface sands of the Duval Upland east of Trail Ridge are
different from the sands of Trail Ridge and the high terraces.
These sands of the Duval Upland are notable for their fine size.
Throughout most of the upland more than 90 per cent of-the sand
falls into the fine (1/4 to 1/8 mm) and very fine (1/8 to 1/16 mm)
sand fractions.
The reader is referred to a report by William A. Pirkle (1972) for
additional analyses of Trail Ridge sands and for analyses of sur-
face sands from the Northern Highlands west of Trail Ridge.
Analyses of surface sands from the Duval Upland in the vicinities
of the Green Cove Springs and Boulougne heavy-mineral sand
deposits are given in Appendix III of this report (Tables 7-12).

SELECTED FEATURES OF HEAVY MINERALS
DISTRIBUTION OF GARNET AND EPIDOTE
A study of the heavy minerals extracted from the sediments
penetrated in Highland No. 1 drill hole reveals a number of inter-
esting features. The loose quartz sands extending from the land
surface downward for 53 feet 6 inches do not contain garnet or
epidote (Table 3, Spls. 1-11, Appendix II). Samples of Trail Ridge
sands have been collected from many other localities along the
130-mile long ridge. Analyses of the samples show that Trail Ridge
sands rarely, if ever, contain these two minerals.
In contrast, all of the post-Eocene sediments beneath the loose






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 84


surface sands contain garnet and epidote. The first garnet was
encountered in Highland No. 1 drill hole at a depth of 61 feet
(Table 3, Spl. 14). From that depth the mineral continues down-
ward through all of the various types and ages of post-Eocene sedi-
ments. It increases markedly in the lower 30 feet of the Hawthorn
Formation (Table 3, Spls. 63-66). An increase in garnet in the
lower part of the Hawthorn Formation has been noted at other
localities in northern Florida.
The distribution of epidote, likewise, is of interest. This mineral
was first encountered at a depth of approximately 62 feet (Table
3, Spl. 15). It increases markedly at a depth of 96_feet (Table 3,
Spl. 26) and continues downward as a common heavy mineral
without interruption to a depth of 304 feet (Table 3, Spl. 44). This
interval with the marked increase of epidote includes the lower
36 feet of the drab to olive-green clay sequence, all of the under-
lying shell bed, the zone of gray quartz sand, the fossiliferous
limestone, and the upper 76 feet of the Hawthorn Formation (Table
3, Spls. 26-44). A similar distribution of epidote occurs in the same
types of post-Eocene sediments at other localities in northern penin-
sular Florida.
Furthermore, it is of interest to note that epidote and garnet
are very rare, and generally not present, in the sands underlying
the Northern Highlands west of Trail Ridge. In contrast, epidote
and garnet are frequently found to be a part of the heavy-mineraL
suite of the sands and heavy-mineral ore bodies of the Duval Up-
land east of Trail Ridge. The distribution of epidote and garnet
in the surface sands of the region should be considered in any at-
tempt to explain the origin of the heavy-mineral ore bodies on Trail
Ridge.
DISTRIBUTION OF ILMENITE AND LEUCOXENE
The occurrences of heavy minerals may be significant in cer-
tain stratigraphic problems of the region. For example, one in-
triguing problem is the relationship of the surface sands (those
sands extending from the land surface to a depth of 53 feet 6
inches, Table 1) to the underlying sediments. It is not known if the
surface sands are of younger age than the underlying materials and
separated from them by an unconformity, or if the surface sands
are of the same general age and a continuation of the underlying
sediments. Sufficient data are not available to draw a conclusion
that would receive general acceptance.
However, the concept that the surface sands are younger than






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


the underlying sediments and separated from them by an uncon-
formity is compatible with the heavy-mineral distribution. For
example, the percentage of leucoxene is relatively high and that
for iimenite correspondingly low in the upper 5 feet of surface
sands at the site of Highland No. 1 drill hole (Table 3, Spls. 1 and
2). A substantial amount of the leucoxene in this upper surface
zone is believed to have formed from the weathering in situ of
ilmenite. Leucoxene is a weathering product of ilmenite and always
seems to be more abundant (and ilmenite correspondingly less
abundant) in the upper part of sand ridges and sand blankets in
the areas of the older surface sands of peninsular Florida.
Therefore, the relatively high percentages of leucoxene and the
corresponding low percentages of ilmenite in the upper part of the
drab to olive-green clay zone (Table 3, Spls. 12-16) suggest that
this clay zone was subjected to subaerial weathering prior to the
deposition of the surface sands or else that the source sediments
for the drab clay zone was different from the source sediments for
the surface sands. In either case the weathering to produce much
of the leucoxene in the upper part of the drab clay sequence must
have taken place before the deposition of the lower part of the
surface sands because the ilmenite in the surface sands immedi-
ately overlying the drab clay zone has not weathered to leucoxene
(Table 3, Spls. 7-11). The same relationship of leucoxene to ilmenite
characterizes the upper part of the drab clay zone in Highland No.
2 drill hole (Table 6, Spls. 10-12, Appendix II) and at other sites
along Trail Ridge.
Furthermore, a buried zone of tree trunks, tree limbs, and
associated organic materials occurs just beneath the surface sands
at the Trail Ridge ore body of the du Pont Company (Grogan et al.,
1964). Many of the tree trunks occur in an upright position suggest-
ing that the organic layer represents a forest buried in place. Such
occurrences further indicate the possibility that the surface sands
are separated from the underlying sediments by an old subaerial
surface.
SPHERICITIES OF HEAVY MINERALS
A study was made comparing the sphericities of zircon and
kyanite-sillimanite of Trail Ridge sands with sphericities of these
same heavy minerals in sediments that might have served as source
materials for Trail Ridge (Fredric L. Pirkle, 1975). The possible
source materials investigated were thick surface sands that crop_
out along the Altamaha River north of Trail Ridge, sands of the
high terraces west of Trail Ridge, and sands from sediments com-







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 84


prising the Lake Wales Ridge south of Trail Ridge. On the basis
of the sphericity studies it was concluded that of these possible
source materials, only the high terrace sands of the Northern
Highlands west of Trail Ridge could be the immediate source sands
for Trail Ridge.
CURRENT WORKING HYPOTHESIS ON ORIGIN
OF ORE BODIES
Any hypothesis proposed to explain the origin of Trail Ridge
and the Trail Ridge heavy-mineral ore bodies must be compatible
with the following features. Trail Ridge sands are relatively coarse,
have a very uniform grain-size distribution, do not contain epidote
or garnet, and have heavy minerals with sphericities that are the
same as those of similar heavy minerals in the sands of the North-
ern Highlands. Furthermore, Trail Ridge sands probably are
separated from underlying sediments by an old subaerial surface.
The following ideas and concepts are consistent with these features
(Pirkle et al., 1974).
According to the hypothesis the sand blanket of the Northern
Highlands was left as a plain when ocean waters retreated from
the present Coastal Plain areas of southern Georgia and northern
Florida. This regressing sea was later followed by a major marine
transgression. The transgressing sea eroded into sediments of the
Northern Highlands. Trail Ridge with its ore bodies was built as a
beach ridge at the crest of this eroding, transgressing sea. Accord-
ing to this concept the immediate source sediments for much of
Trail Ridge were sands of the high terraces of the Northern High-
lands.
It is probable that only a very minute amount of epidote or
garnet was originally deposited with the quartz sands that now
underlie the Northern Highlands. Moreover, the sand blanket of the
Northern Highlands, being relatively old, has been subjected to a
rather long period of weathering. Any epidote or garnet that was
deposited with the sands would have been largely destroyed during
this long weathering interval. Therefore this concept for the origin
of the high terrace sands and for Trail Ridge would explain the
absence of epidote and garnet in Trail Ridge and the similarity of
the heavy-mineral suites of the high terrace sands and Trail Ridge
sands.
The size distribution of Trail Ridge sands also can be explained
if the sands of the Northern Highlands were the source sediments
for Trail Ridge. Along the Trail Ridge shoreline relatively fine






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


sands would likely have been washed seaward leaving coarser sands
to comprise shoreline features. Thus the fact that Traii Ridge
sands-ar cs-ef th-aif-tli~sanIdsi underlying the Norther6nHigh-
lands woiild bexp-iEiteidATso, withKlieifie Tactiofi of the sids
being washed seaWard the reworked sands remaining in the shore
zone would have less size-spread and would be more uniform. Theire-
fore, the relative coarseness anid-the- uiiiformity of Trail Ridge
sands are consistent with the hypothesis. Moreover the slightly
convex outline of Trail Ridge, with its most western curvature
occurring in the region of the relatively easily erodable, unconsoli-
dated to slightly consolidated sands of the Northern Highlands,
would be explained, as would the parallelism of the trend of Trail
Ridge with that of the present shoreline (Fig. 1). Furthermore
the concept is consistent with the fact that the Starke heavy-mineral
sand deposit of du Pont is larger and contains a higher percentage
of heavy minerals than the Highland ore body. The du Pont deposit
is in that part of Trail Ridge that is banked up behind, and en-
croaches on, the northern end of the_Lake Wales remnant (the
Interlachen _Karstic Highland on Figure 1). This environment
was conducive to the accumulation of relatively large quantities of
heavy minerals and wind-blown sands (Pirkle and Yoho, 1970).
The Duval Upland east of Trail Ridge (Fig. 1) is believed to
be a regressional beach ridge plain. It is younger than Trail Ridge
and is the remnant of a much larger plains area, much of which
has been destroyed through subaerial erosion and later marine
transgressions. While this regressional beach ridge plain was form-
ing there were temporary halts in regression, and perhaps even
slight transgressions. During these intervals more prominent beach
ridges were built. Some of these ridges contain concentrations of
heavy-mineral sands. Examples of these concentrations are the
commercial Green Cove Springs and Boulougne deposits (Fig. 1).
In summary, the high terraces of the Northern Highlands are
believed tob haveiiiei7 ft as aV plain when ocean waters retreated
from the present areas of southern Georgia and northe-r Floridia.
At a later time transgressing seas eroded into these higi terrace
deposits. Trail Ridge with its heavy-mineral sand deposits was
built as a beach ridge at the height of this transgression. The Duval
Upland is younger than Trail Ridge. It is believed to be a part
of an ancient, regressional beach ridge plain. During its formation
there were temporary halts in regression, perhaps even slight
transgressions, during which times heavy-mineral oire bodies were
formed.













C.




























































































































,1







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 84 13

REFERENCES
Akers, William
1972 Planktonic foraminifera and biostratigraphy of some Neogene
formations, northern Florida and Atlantic Coastal Plain: Tulane
Studies in Geology and Paleontology, v. 9.
1974 Age of Pinecrest beds, South Florida: Tulane Studies in Geology,
v. 11, p. 119-120.
Alt, David
1974 Arid climatic control of Miocene sedimentation and origin of
modern drainage, southeastern United States, in Post-Miocene
stratigraphy, central and southern Atlantic Coastal Plain: Utah
State Univ. Press, p. 21-29.
Brooks, H. K.
1966 Geological history of the Suwannee River, in Olson, N. K., ed.,
Geology of the Miocene and Pliocene series in the North Florida-
South Georgia area: Atlantic Coastal Plain Geol. Assn. 7th Field
Trip, Southeastern Geol. Soc. 12th Field Trip, Guidebook, p. 37-45.
Cannon, Harry B.
1950 Economic minerals in the beach sands of the southeastern United
States: Symposium on Mineral Resources of the Southeastern
United States, Univ. of Tennessee Press, p. 202-210.
Doering, John A.
1960 Quaternary surface formations of southern part of Atlantic Coastal
Plain: Jour. of Geol., v. 68, p. 182-202.
Espenshade, G. H.
1963 (and Spencer, C. W.) Geology of phosphate deposits of northern
peninsular Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 1118.
Garnar, T. E., Jr.
1972 Economic geology of Florida heavy mineral deposits, in Puri, H. S.,
ed., Proc. 7th Forum Geology of Industrial Minerals: Special Pub.
17, Florida Bur. Geology, p. 17-21.
Grogan, R. M.
1964 (Few, W. G., Garnar, T. E., and Hager, C. R.)Milling at du Pont's
heavy mineral mines in Florida, in Milling methods in the Ameri-
ca's, Nathaniel Arbiter, ed.: VII International Mineral Processing
Congress, New York, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, p. 205-
229.
Pirkle, E. C.
1956 The Hawthorne and Alachua formations of Alachua County, Flori-
da: Quart. Jour. Fla. Acad. Sci., v. 19, no. 4, p. 197-240.
1970 (and Yoho, W. H.) The heavy mineral ore body of Trail Ridge,
Florida: Econ. Geol., v. 65, p. 17-30.
1974 (Pirkle, William A., and Yoho, W. H.) The Green Cove Springs
and Boulougne heavy-mineral sand deposits of Florida: Econ. Geol.,
v. 69, p. 1129-1137.
Pirkle, Fredric L.
1975 Evaluation of possible source regions of Trail Ridge sands: South-
eastern Geol., in press.
Pirkle, William A.
1972 Trail Ridge, a relic shoreline feature of Florida and Georgia: Ph.D. >-
dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.






























































































































































4.





REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 84









APPENDIX I
Detailed Lithologle Logs of Highland No. 1
and Highland No. 2
Drill Holes






16 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

HIGHLAND DRILL HOLE NO. 14
SE1/, NEi/4, Section 25, T. 4 S., R. 22 E., Bradford County, Florida
Approximately 1 Mile Northwest of Highland
Surface Elevation- 202 Feet



Thickness
Unit Description In Feet & Inches

Surface Sands5

40 Loose quartz sand, coarse to very fine. Gray to
brown to black.
Gray to brown soil zone from land surface to
depth of 1 foot 3 inches. White sand from 1
foot 3 inches to 4 feet. Black sand from 4 feet
to 20 feet. Variable from gray with brown tint
to dark brown with black tint from 20 feet to
25 feet 6 inches. White sand from 25 feet 6
inches to 27 feet. Dark brown sand with black
tint from 27 feet to 33 feet 9 inches.
The black color is due to finely divided organic
matter. Most of these black sediments are loose
to moderately indurated. At a few places, how-
ever, the black zones are well cemented and
constitute "hard pan." The black organic zones
are especially prominent from 5 feet to 8 feet
6 inches and from 14 feet to 19 feet 6 inches.
The black sands are exceptionally hard from
13 feet 6 inches to 14 feet ............................... 33'9"
(From land surface to 33'9")
Spl. 1 -Channel sample from land surface to
depth of 5 feet.


4This hole was drilled by the Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of
Natural Resources. The .drilling was completed June 12, 1974. Analyses of
the samples are given in Tables 1 through 3, Appendix II.
3A specially designed core barrel was used in sampling the loose sands, clayey
sands, and sandy clays that occur from the land surface to a depth of 121
feet 9 inches. With the aid of this core barrel a very high per cent of recovery
of undisturbed samples of these loose sands and soft sediments was obtained.
The small intervals from which sediments were not recovered are indicated in
the descriptions of the samples.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 84


Spl. 2 Channel sample from depth of 5 feet to
depth of 10 feet.
Spl. 3- Channel sample from 10 feet to 15 feet.
Spl. 4 Channel sample from 15 to 20 feet.
Spl. 5- Channel sample from 20 to 25 feet.
Spl. 6 Channel sample from 25 to 30 feet.

Moderate Brown Sand
39 Quartz sand, medium to fine. Moderate brown
with zones stained black with organic matter.
Black-stained zones are present from 41 feet to
46 feet, 48 feet 6 inches to 49 feet 6 inches, 51
feet 6 inches to 52 feet 9 inches, and from 53
feet to 53 feet 6 inches .--...............--,,.................19'9"
(From 33'9" to 53'6")
Spl. 7 Channel sample from 30 feet to 35 feet.
Spl. 8 Channel sample from 35 to 40 feet.
Spl. 9 Channel sample from 40 to 45 feet. Sedi-
ments not sampled from 41 feet 6 inches
to 42 feet 6 inches.
Spl. 10 Channel sample from 45 to 50 feet.
Spl. 11 Channel sample from 50 feet to 53 feet
6 inches.

Drab to Olive-Green Clay Zone
38 Intercalated lenses or layers of quartz sand, clay-
ey sand, sandy clay, and massive clay. Quartz
sand is very fine to coarse. Most of the sand,
however, is very fine. Sands are white, gray,
tan to light brown, and black. Clay is gray,
drab, olive-green, and black.
Clay in the more massive lenses is sectile.
Small particles and specks of brown to reddish-
brown wood are present in the drab and black
clays and are especially prominent at depths
of 61 feet to 62 feet 3 inches, 63 feet to 64 feet,
and from 64 feet 6 inches to 67 feet. Wood
material, one inch in thickness, occurs at 66
feet.
In some of the clayey sediments tubes and pockets






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


of white sand are present (apparently filled
burrows) .......................... ....... 68'3"
(From 53'6" to 121'9")
Spl. 12 Channel sample from 53 feet 6 inches
to 54 feet 6 inches. Loose, white sand.
Spl. 13 Channel sample from 54 feet 6 inches
to 61 feet. Clayey sand, sandy clay, and
sand. Gray to drab clay content is rela-
tively high from 56 feet to 59 feet.
Mainly gray-white sand from 59 feet to
61 feet.
Spl. 14 Channel sample from 61 feet to 62 feet
3 inches. Black, massive clay with par-
ticles of wood.
Spl. 15 Channel sample from 62 feet 3 inches to
68 feet. Small intercalated lenses or
stringers of white quartz sand and black
quartz sand.
Spl. 16 Channel sample from 63 feet to 64 feet.
Black quartz sand and clayey sand with
particles of wood.
Spl. 17 Channel sample from 64 feet 6 inches
to 67 feet. Massive drab clayey sedi-
ments with particles of wood and oc-
casional stringers of fine white quartz
sand. Sediments not sampled from 64
feet to 64 feet 6 inches.
Spl. 18 Channel sample from 67 feet to 70 feet.
Clayey sand or sandy clay with string-
ers and small lenses of massive, drab
clay. Sediments not sampled from 67
feet to 67 feet 6 inches.
Spl. 19 Channel sample from 70 to 75 feet. Gray,
relatively coarse, loose sand.
Spl. 20-Channel sample from 75 to 77 feet.
Loose, relatively coarse quartz sand.
Spl. 21 Channel sample from 77 feet to 77 feet
9 inches. Massive drab clay with small
pockets of fine sand.
Spl. 22- Channel sample from 77 feet 9 inches
to 78 feet 8 inches. Relatively fine, white
sand.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 84


Spl. 23 Channel sample from 78 feet 3 inches to
85 feet. Massive, olive-drab, clayey sedi-
ments. No sample from 79 feet 6 inches
to 80 feet.
Spl. 24 Sample of clayey sand to massive gray
clay. Representative of interval from 85
feet to 88 feet 6 inches.
Spl. 25 Channel sample from 88 feet 6 inches to
96 feet 3 inches. Light gray to white
quartz sand or clayey sand with string-
ers and small 'lenses of massive clay.
Spl. 26 Channel sample from 96 feet 3 inches to
101 feet 6 inches. Massive black to olive-
green or drab clay. No sample from 97
feet to 97 feet 6 inches.
Spl. 27 Channel sample from 101 feet 6 inches
to 107 feet 6 inches. Dark gray clayey
sand to sandy clay.
Spl. 28- Channel sample from 107 feet 6 inches
to 110 feet. Gray clayey sand with
stringers of massive clay.
Spl. 29- Channel sample from 110 feet to 115
feet. Gray clayey sand with stringers
of massive clay.
Spl. 30 -Channel sample from 115 feet to 121
feet 9 inches. Gray clayey sand with
stringers of massive clay from 120 to
121 feet and small, white, marine mol-
lusk shells from 116 feet 9 inches to 117
feet.


Shell Bed

37 Clayey sand with abundant badly leached, white
shells of marine mollusks. Gray to light gray.
Quartz sand is coarse to very fine.
Zone from 121 feet 9 inches to 132 feet is very
fossiliferous. These sediments contain numer-
ous fragments of relatively large mollusk
shells.
No sample obtained from the interval extending






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


from 132 feet to 140 feet. The material within
this interval probably is fine sand.
Sediments from 140 feet to 148 feet are very fos-
siliferous. These materials include abundant
fragments of relatively small mollusk shells.
The sediments from 148 feet to 152 feet contain
numerous fragments of relatively large mol-
lusk shells .............. ................. ......................... ..
(From 121'9" to 152')
Spl. 31 Channel sample from 121 feet 9 inches
to 182 feet. Clayey sands characterized
by fragments of relatively large mollusk
shells.
Spl. 32-Channel sample from 140 feet to 148
feet. Clayey sands characterized by frag-
ments of relatively small mollusk shells.
Spl. 33- Channel sample from 148 feet to 152
feet. Clayey sands with fragments of
relatively large mollusk shells.


Gray Quartz Sand

36 Quartz sand, fine to coarse. Gray. A few frag-
ments of fossil shells are present in the sands ......5'0"
(From 152' to 157')
Spl. 34 Channel sample of gray quartz sand.
35 No recovery. This interval contains sands like
those in the above interval (152 feet to 157
feet). However, the sands of this lower zone
are probably finer with silt-size particles in-
creasing with depth .......... ................................ 2
(From 157' to 180')


Fossiliferous Limestone

34 Fossiliferous limestone. Light gray. Soft.
Numerous shell impressions.
Locally the limestone contains a considerable
amount of quartz sand and insoluble clay .............6'0"
(From 180' to 186')






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 84


Spl. 85- Channel sample of fossiliferous lime-
stone.
33 Impure limestone with a very high content of
insoluble clay. Gray to light gray. Firm but soft ...16'3"
(From 186' to 202'3")
Spl. 36 Channel sample of limestone.
32 Fossiliferous limestone. Brownish gray. Porous
and rock-like, hard.
A mass of fossil impressions ........... .......... 10'3"
(From 202'3" to 212'6")
Sp. 37 Channel sample of hard, fossiliferous
limestone.
31 Impure limestone. Contains much insoluble clay.
Gray. Firm but soft.
A few fossil impressions ............. ......................3'"
(From 212'6" to 215'6")
Spl. 38 Channel sample of limestone.
30 Fossiliferous limestone. Gray.
A mass of mollusk impressions. Porous and rock-
like, hard.
At 227 feet 6 inches black particles of phosphorite
becomes common to abundant ................... ......12'0"
(From 215'6" to 227'6")
Spl. 39- Channel sample of fossiliferous lime-
stone.

Hawthorn Formation"

29 Impure carbonate bed or mixture of carbonate,
quartz sand, and insoluble clay. Light gray to
gray. Firm.
Common black, shiny, sand-size grains and small
pebbles of phosphorite.
Quartz sand is very fine to medium ......................18'6"
(From 227'6" to 246')
Spl. 40 Channel sample of impure carbonate
sediments.

oMuch of the carbonate material in the Hawthorn Formation is dolomite. No
attempt was made in this study to distinguish between calcic limestone,
dolomitic limestones, or dolomite. In most cases the various types of lime-
stones and dolomites are simply referred to as carbonate beds. The reader
is referred to the work of Espenshade and Spencer (1968) for descriptions
of the carbonate beds of the Hawthorn Formation.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


28 Impure carbonate bed. Contains much quartz sand
and some insoluble clay. Light gray to gray.
Firm.
A phosphate zone. Sand-size grains and small
pebbles of black phosphorite are abundant.
This zone is similar to overlying and underlying
beds except for a higher content of phosphorite ....16'6"
(From 246' to 262'6")
Spl. 41 Channel sample of carbonate bed.
27 Impure carbonate bed or mixture of carbonate,
quartz sand, and insoluble clay. Light gray.
Firm.
Common black phosphorite, mainly of sand size
but some of small pebble size.
Quartz sand is very fine to medium ............................17'0"
(From 262'6" to 279'6")
Spl. 42 Channel sample of sediments.
26 Mixture of quartz sand, carbonate, and insoluble
clay. Dark Gray. Firm but soft.
Black shiny grains and small pebbles of phos-
phorite occur throughout the sediments. The
phosphorite content increases from a depth of
290 feet to the base of the bed.
Quartz sand is fine to coarse.
These are the first Hawthorn sediments en-
countered that were so soft they could be cut
with a knife while sampling ....................................15'9"
(From 279'6" to 295'3")
Spl. 43 Channel sample of sediments from 279
feet 6 inches to 295 feet 3 inches.
25 Mixture of quartz sand, carbonate, and insoluble
clay. Gray. Firm With soft zones.
Black grains of phosphorite are common.
Quartz sand is fine to coarse .........................................8'
(From 295'8" to 803'6")
Spl. 44- Channel sample of mixture of quartz
sand, carbonate, and insoluble clay.
24 Impure carbonate bed. Contains much quartz
sand and some insoluble clay. Light gray. Rock-
like.
Common shiny grains of black phosphorite.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 84


These sediments grade into underlying materials ........9'3
(From 303'6" to 312'9")
Spl. 45 Channel sample of sediments.
23 Impure quartz sand or mixture of quartz sand,
carbonate, and insoluble clay. Light gray.
Quartz sand is very fine to medium.
Fine black phosphorite is common ...............................4'3"
(From 312'9" to 317')
Spl. 46 Channel sample of sediments.
22 Insoluble clay. Contains much carbonate and some
quartz sand. Dark gray.
Clay is banded.
A few sand-size grains of black phosphorite ..............8'9"
(From 317' to 325'9")
Spl. 47 Channel sample of dark gray clay.
21 Mixture of insoluble clay, carbonate, and quartz
sand. Dark gray to light gray.
Shiny black phosphate particles are common.
Quartz sand is very fine to fine ....... ............. 13'3"
(From 325'9" to 339')
Spl. 48 Channel sample of mixture of clay, car-
bonate, and quartz sand.
20 Mixture of quartz sand, insoluble clay, and car-
bonate. These sediments are cut by stringers of
more nearly pure carbonate. Gray to light gray.
Shiny black phosphorite, mostly of sand-size,
is abundant.
Quartz sand is coarse to fine ..........................................
(From 339' to 347')
Spl. 49 Channel sample of sediments.
19 Mixture of quartz sand, carbonate, and insoluble
clay. Light gray. Firm and rock-like.
Shiny grains of black phosphorite are common.
Quartz sand is fine to coarse ......................................20'0"
(From 347' to 367')
Spl. 50 Channel sample of rock-like mixture of
sand, carbonate, and clay.
18 Quartz sand with disseminated carbonate and in-'
soluble clay. Dark olive to gray.
Sediments are much softer than those of overly-
ing bed.
Sand-size, black phosphorite is common. Phos-






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


phorite increases markedly at a depth of 872
feet.
Quartz sand is very fine to medium ................................5'0"
(From 867' to 372')
Spl. 51 Channel sample of Unit 18.
17 Impure carbonate bed or mixture of carbonate,
quartz sand, insoluble clay, and phosphorite.
Light gray to gray. Firm.
The phosphorite occurs as black, sand-size grains
and as small pebbles.
Quartz sand is coarse to fine.
Clay increases at a depth of 382 feet ...............'......10'O"
(From 872' to 382')
Spl. 52 Channel sample of impure carbonate bed.
16 Mixture of carbonate, insoluble clay, and quartz
sand. Gray.
Black grains of phosphorite are common.
Pockets containing a mixture of quartz sand and
phosphorite are present in the sediments.
Quartz sand is very fine to coarse.
Clay decreases at a depth of 386 feet ..........................4'"
(From 382' to 386')
Spl. 53 Channel sample of mixture of carbonate,
clay, and quartz sand.
15 Impure carbonate bed or mixture of carbonate,
insoluble clay, quartz sand, and phosphorite.
Gray. Firm.
The sediments in this interval are similar to the
sediments in the interval from 872 feet to 882
feet.
Phosphorite is abundant and occurs as shiny
black, sand-size particles and small black
pebbles.
Quartz sand is fine to coarse ..........................................2'0"
(From 886' to 388')
Spl. 54 Channel sample of Unit 15.
14 Impure carbonate bed. Contains a high percentage
of insoluble clay and a little quartz sand. Light
gray to gray.
Small lenses and stringers of relatively pure car-
bonate cut the sediments.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 84


Locally the materials have the appearance of a
breccia.
Fine black phosphorite is disseminated through
the sediments and concentrated with quartz
sand in pockets.
This impure carbonate rock grades downward
into hard limestone or dolomite 'at 400 feet
9 inches ....... ..............................................................12'9"
(From 388' to 400'9")
Spl. 55 Channel sample of impure carbonate bed.
13 Impure carbonate bed. Contains insoluble clay and
quartz sand. Gray. Hard and rock-like.
Black grains of phosphorite are present and are
especially abundant in the lower six inches
of the sediments ............................... ....................... '0"
(From 400'9" to 401'9")
Spl. 56 Channel sample of carbonate bed.
12 Impure carbonate bed or mixture of carbonate
and quartz sand. Light gray. Firm but soft.
Common black sand-size grains and small pebbles
of phophorite.
Quartz sand is medium to fine.
The interval from 401 feet 9 inches to 432 feet
consists of intercalated zones of hard, massive,
impure dolomite or limestone and softer zones
consisting of a mixture of quartz sand, insol-
uble clay, and carbonate. Black, shiny, sand-size
grains and small black pebbles of phosphorite
are present throughout the sediments. The
hard, massive dolomites contain pockets filled
with quartz sand, clay, and phosphorite. The
losses in sampling in this interval are of the
softer mixtures of sediments ................................6'
(From 401'9" to 408')
Spl. 57- Channel sample of a 2-foot core from
Unit 12.
11 No recovery from this interval ............. .......... ........9'0"
(From 408' to 417')
10 Very impure carbonate bed or a mixture of car-
bonate and quartz sand. Light gray to gray.
Soft.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Black sand-size particles of phosphorite are com-
mon.
Quartz sand is medium to fine ............... ............................ 8'6"
(From 417' to 425'6")
Spl. 58 Channel sample of a 2-foot 6-inch core
obtained from Unit 8.
9 Impure carbonate bed containing insoluble clay
and quartz sand. Light gray to gray. Hard and
rock-like.
A few grains of black phosphorite are dissemi-
nated through the sediments.
Lenses consisting of quartz sand, insoluble clay,
carbonate, and phosphorite are present in the
carbonate bed .......................... ........ ..............6'6"
(From 425'6" to 432')
Spl. 59- Sample of representative chips of the
hard carbonate bed.
8 Impure clay or a mixture of insoluble clay, quartz
sand, and carbonate. Dark gray-green. Massive.
A few grains of black phosphorite are present in
the clay.
Quartz sand is very fine.
A 2-inch thick lens of hard limestone or dolo-
mite is present at a depth of 434'3". This hard
carbonate rock was not included in the sample
taken of these sediments.
Quartz sand increases at a depth of 441 feet...............9'0"
(From 432' to 441')
Spl. 60 Channel sample of impure elay.
7 Quartz sand with high content of insoluble clay
and carbonate or a mixture of quartz sand, in-
soluble clay, an'd carbonate. Gray.
Some cross bedding is present.
Occasional sand-size particles of black phospho-
rite.
Quartz sand is very fine ...............................................5'0"
(From 441' to 446')
Spl. 61 Channel sample of the mixture of quartz
sand, insoluble clay, and carbonate.
6 Mixture of insoluble clay, silt, carbonate, and
quartz sand. Greenish-black to black.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 84


Occasional sand-size grains of black phosphorite.
Quartz sand is very fine to fine ...--....................--........16'0"
(From 446' to 462')
Spl. 62 Channel sample of sediments.
5 Impure carbonate bed. Contains much quartz
sand. Gray. Hard and rock-like.
Abundant impressions of mollusks.
Phosphorite is disseminated through
the sediments .- ......-------------............----------.................................. 8'6"
(From 462' to 470'6")
Spl. 63 Channel sample of impure carbonate bed.
4 Impure carbonate bed or mixture of carbonate,
quartz sand, and insoluble clay. Light gray.
Hard.
Black sand-size particles of phosphorite are
present.
Quartz sand is coarse to fine .-..--...-...--... ...................11'6
(From 470'6" to 482')
Spl. 64 Channel sample of impure carbonate bed.
3 Impure carbonate bed. Contains much quartz
sand and some insoluble clay. Gray.
Common sand-size grains and small pebbles of
black phosphorite.
Only 9 inches of sample obtained from
this interval ........-..... ...-................................. 5'0"
(From 482' to 487')
Spl. 65 Sample of 9-inch core of carbonate bed.
2 Impure carbonate bed containing much quartz
sand. Light gray. Hard and rock-like.
Common mollusk impressions.
There are numerous mollusk borings in the lime-
stone or dolomite. Also, brecciatedd" zones are
present. Some of the fragments in the breccia
zones are limestone or dolomite masses, several
of which apparently are mollusk-bored. The
borings are filled with various combinations of
quartz sand, clay, and phosphorite.
Fine black phosphate grains and small phosphate
pebbles are abundant .............. .--.........................5'0"
(From 487' to 492')
Spl. 66 Channel sample of carbonate rock.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Limestone of the Ocala Group

1 Ocala Limestone. Pure. White to cream.
The top of the limestone is mollusk bored or
solution riddled and the borings or solution
openings are filled with the overlying gray
carbonate sediments ............................................1'0"
(From 492' to 493')
Spl. 67 Channel sample of Ocala Limestone.

Total depth of hole ........................493'0"





HIGHLAND DRILL HOLE NO. 27
NEI, SE14, Section 12, T. 4 S., R. 22 E., Baker County, Florida
Approximately 312 Miles Slightly West of North of Highland
Surface Elevation 191 Feet



Thickness
Unit Description In Feet & Inches

Surface Sands
9 Quartz sand. White to gray to black.
Gray to brown soil zone from land surface to
depth of 3 feet 6 inches.
The sands are black from 4 feet to 10 feet 6
inches and from 15 feet to 22 feet 6 inches.
The black color is due to the presence of finely
divided organic matter.
Quartz sand is medium to fine ....................................22'6"
(From land surface to 22'6")

-This hole was drilled by the Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of
Natural Resources. The drilling was completed June 26, 1974. Analyses of
the samples are given in Tables 4 through 6, Appendix II. A specially de-
signed core barrel was used in sampling the sediments penetrated in this
drill hole. A high recovery of undisturbed samples was obtained. The inter-
vals from which sediments were not recovered are indicated in the descriptions
of the samples.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 84


Spl. 1- Channel sample of white to gray sur-
face sand from land surface to depth of
1 foot 9 inches.
Spl. 2- Channel sample of brown to gray sand
from 1 foot 9 inches to 5 feet.
Spl. 3 Channel sample from 5 feet to 10 feet.
Spl. 4- Channel sample from 10 to 15 feet.
Spl. 5 Channel sample from 15 to 20 feet.
Spl. 6 Channel sample from 20 feet to 22 feet
6 inches.

Moderate Brown Sand
8 Quartz sand. Moderate brown.
Sand is medium to fine ................... ................. ....12'6"
(From 22'6" to 35')
Spl. 7 Channel sample of moderate brown sand
from 22 feet 6 inches to 25 feet.
Spl. 8 Channel sample from 25 to 30 feet.
Spl. 9 Channel sample from 30 to 35 feet.

,Gray to Olive-Drab Clay Zone
7 Quartz sand. Yellow brown to white. Upper 3
feet are yellow brown; lower 2 feet are white.
Sand is medium to very fine.
A 3-inch zone of black sand is present from 37
feet 3 inches to 87 feet 6 inches ................................5'0
(From 35' to 40')
Spl. 10 Channel sample of quartz sand.
6 Clayey sand. Tan to gray.
Stringers or small lenses of sandy clay are present
in the clayey sand.
Wood fragments are common, especially from
43 feet 6 inches to 45 feet 3 inches.
Quartz sand is very fine to medium ............--.................8'0"
(From 40' to 48')
Spl. 11 Channel sample from 40 feet to 42 feet
6 inches.
Spl. 12- Channel sample from 42 feet 6 inches
to 45 feet.
Spl. 13 Channel sample from 45 feet to 48 feet.





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


5 Massive clay. Quartz sand is disseminated
through the clay and also occurs in stringers cut-
ting the clay. Dark gray to nearly black at top.
Abundant wood fragments (reddish brown). A
relatively large fragment (11/ inches across)
occurs at a depth of 52 feet 3 inches ......................4'6"
(From 48' to 52'6")
Spl. 14 Channel sample of massive clay.
4N o recovery .................................................................... '0"
(From 52'6" to 55'6")
3 Sandy clay to massive clay. Dark gray to olive-
drab.
The clay is dark gray on a fresh surface. In the
lower part of the unit the gray color readily
oxidizes to an olive-drab color. From 59 feet
to 60 feet 6 inches the clay is mottled dark
gray and olive-drab.
Stringers and small lenses of quartz sand or clay-
ey sand are present in the clay. These sandy
sediments occur from:
55 feet 6 inches to 56 feet 9 inches
58 feet to 58 feet 9 inches
61 feet 6 inches to 63 feet 3 inches
64 feet 6 inches to 65 feet.
Large wood fragments are present at a depth of
approximately 56 feet.
The quartz sand is very fine to medium ..................10'0"
(From 55'6" to 65'6")
Spl. 15-Channel sample from 55 feet 6 inches
to 59 feet.
Spl. 16 Channel sample from 59 feet to 60 feet
6 inches.
Spl. 17 Channel sample from 60 feet 6 inches to
65 feet 6 inches.


Quartz Sand

2 Quartz sand, loose. Gray.
Quartz sand is very fine to coarse.
The coarsest sand occurs from a depth of 81 feet
6 inches to a depth of 82 feet 6 inches. A small





REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 84


discoid quartz or quartzite pebble was noted
in these coarse sands ................. ............................55'0"
(From 65'6" to 120'6")
Spl. 18 Channel sample from 65 feet 6 inches to
69 feet 6 inches.
Spl. 19 -Channel sample from 70 to 74 feet 6
inches.
Spl. 20 Channel sample from 75 feet to 80 feet
except for 6-inch interval from 74 feet
6 inches to 75 feet and a 6-inch interval
from 77 feet to 77 feet 6 inches.
Spl. 21 Channel sample from 80 to 85 feet.
Spl. 22 Channel sample from 85 to 90 feet.
Spl. 28 Channel sample from 90 to 95 feet.
Spl. 24 Channel sample from 95 to 100 feet.
Spl. 25 Channel sample from 100 to 105 feet ex-
cept for a 1-foot interval from 102 feet
6 inches to 103 feet 6 inches.
Spl. 26 Channel sample from 105 to 110 feet ex-
cept for a 1-foot interval from 107 to
108 feet.
Spl. 27- Channel sample from 110 feet to 112
feet combined with spot samples from
112 feet to 115 feet.
Spl. 28 Channel sample from 115 to 118 feet.
Quartz sand, loose. Gray.
Sands contain fragments of white mollusk shells.
These shells are especially noticeable from a
depth of 120 feet 6 inches to a depth of 124
feet.
Quartz sand is medium to fine ........................................6'6
(From 120'6" to 127')
Spl. 29 Channel sample from 120 feet 6 inches
to 124 feet of loose sands with white
shell fragments.
Spl. 30 Channel sample from 125 to 127 feet.

Total depth ................................127'0"








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 84







APPENDIX II
Characteristics of Highland No. 1 and
Highland No. 2 Sediments







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY



TABLE I
Highland Drill Hole #1
SE4. NEI, Section 25, T. 4 S.. R. 22 E., Bradford County, Florida
Approximately I Mile Northwest of Highland
Surface Elevation 202 Feet


Intoluble Residue
Coarse Fine Heavy
Silt Silt and Soluble Minerals Total
Depth Quartz (-230 mesh Clay and P 0 F2 0 (1/8 to 1/16 Heavy
in Feet Sand +325 mesh) (-325 mesh) Organic 2 5 2 3 mm Fraction) Minerals
sol. snd Inches In Z In t In 2 In 2 in 2 i n % In 2 in 2

Gray to Moderate Brown Surface Sands (Elv. 202 Ft.)
I 5' I 4.11 1.28 3.61 1.00 0.51 1.26 .66 1.44
2 51 o' 97.27 0. 1.20 1.20 0.32 1.2 1 .t 2.62r
) io' i 0.08 11.4 0.40 0.27 io 17.33 2.3r
15_S' 20' ~9.62 0.22 2.29 5.88 0.39 1.33 12.17 2.72
5 20' 25' 95.19 0.92 3.89 0.00 0.29 1.16 18.12 4.' 3
b 25' 30' 9436 0.66 .2 2. 0.29 .0T 2761 4.20
o30' 35' 96._3 o0. 1.88 1.50 0.2 7 72
7- W'- 0o' 8.24 0.16 1.00 0.60 0.10 1.2 21.88 1.73
9 o'- .76 0.16 o .29 1.79 0 .?3 6 2 .12 1. -
10 5a 0' 5.71 0.20 2.90 1.20 0.15 1.58 12.2 0.4
II s 5 5'" 0.3 0.60 3.5 0.15 3.3L8 5.18 0.651

Drab to Olive-Green Clay Zone Elev. 149 Ft.
2 i 5'"- 88.50 80 2.80 0.4 0.1 0. 1.3 1.62
1 5'6"- 61' 8 5 3.47 7.68 0.80 0.17 0.75 0.74 0.72
I- 61' 62'3" 31.4 .7 62.96 1.90 0.20
IS 62'3- 63 90.4 3.76 5.11 0.70 O.i 1.22 0.86 0
lb- 6 6 82.9t 2.71 12.77 1.60 0.27 7.48 1.01 ~ 0.7
17 6f'6"- 67 52.32 .66 39.80 3.22 0.22 2.01 1.26 0.4
I" r 67 O7' 61.5I 15.07 20.82 2.60 0.22 1.12 1 0.77 0.1
19 70' 75, 94.55 1.24 4.20 0.00 0.7= 3 = ..2 .63 OV47
20 75' t7' 98.98 0.02 -- .0 0.00 1.46 0.91 1=.IT 0.27
211 7' 77'9" 25.47 Ii.i 56.92 6.17 0.2 67 --
22 77''9- 78'3" 83.43 8.13 8. ~ 0.00 0.19 1.04 1.26 0.70
2 78'"- s' 6.) ).00 .o0 .68 0.27 1.T7 0.70 .26
S -88'6 26.08 .76 56.87 7.8 1.7 1.1 0.59 0.06
2. 88'6"- 96'" 71.06 10.99 16.13 1.81 1.7 1.40 0.79 o.S1
26 4 -10o1'" 1.62 5.73 72.8 6.77 0. 1.0 1.24 0,1
z7 ol O- "-107'6" 21.33 5.52 64.06 9.09 0.56 1.52 1.32 0.28
'28 10'6"-110' 55.53 i3.85 25.54 5.09 0.32 1.1 1.26 0.58
2' 110 -I5' 76.3 6.T3 1i.11 4.20 1.71 .8 l.p 0.93
_n 115 -121'9" 64.971 3.04 24.59 7.40 0.24 1.i5 2.32 0.51

Shell Bed (Elev. 80 Ft.)
32I 122'6"- 3. 6.02 I 0.62.95 0 1 2.87 I 0.4T
132' -I 4' No Sample
12 140' -1 65. I 0.34 .99 29.22 I 0.2 I 0.84 3.27 0.38
II _Q' -152' 4.8 0.24 3.99 51.29 0.29 0.70 6.21 0.2

Gray Quartz Sand (Elev. 50 Ft.)
3 : iS2 -T"7' 9 .77 0.20 4.22 I 3 0.1 10.41 0.60 .15 0.3
1S7' -180' No Sample

Fossilliferous Limestone (Elev. 22 Ft.)
-1- 180' -16' Ii.31 0.1 10.46 78.09 0o.27 0.6 .76 --
6 186' -202'3" 0.40 0.12 5.13 .35 0.32 1.25 6.22 -
i 202')"-212'6" 1.52 0.08 4.30 94.11 0.32 0.31 I 1.42 0.03
=3 212'6"-215'6" 0.9 0.08 23.52 7.46 0.2 0.99 --
'3t 21t6"-227'6" .8 0. 0.0 .0 0 0.66 0.) .60 0.05

Hawthorn Formation Elev. -26 Ft.
"40 221'6"-246' 37.93 0.26 .80 53.01 2.66 0.7 1.26 0.1
"1 2I 6 -262'6" 28. 3 0.16 7.67 63.84 7.93 1.14 1.89 0.16
7T2 262'6"-279'6" 8.44 0.32 i 53.13 0.9 .13
W 279 '-29 .91 0.40 20.26 2.4 1.2 2.96 0.18
4 2 -o3. 78.8 o 5.18 45.93 3.7 T 2.03 0. 1
0'6"- 12'9" 34.17 .8 .98 60.67 3.34 0.2 .2 0.
3t2z'9-17 5i.02 0.46 1- 3.7 53.20 0. 5 0.92 0.26
317" -125-6'3" .t3 1.88 _63-96 27.23 .8tT80 0. 32 0i-0
_. 2 2 .
S 325' 9-339' 7.20 0.2 .6 .75 0 1.35 O.07
79 339 W -37 30.78 0.24 20.61 48.38 =9.=59 .4 .0
O 47' -367' .k 7.17 44.93 1Jt 2.0794 1.35 0.10






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 84


TABLE 1 (Continued)


Insoluble Residue
Coarse Fine Heavy
Depth Quartm (-230 mash Clay and p 1 Fe (1/8 to 1/16 Heavy
in Feet Sand +325 mesh) (-325 mesh) Organic 2 5 2) mm Fraction) Minerals
Spl. and Inches In % In t n In in in t In In t
1 6' 1 72 71.29 2.46 11 .T-= '. 7 = .9 0.7 --
T72- 21 .60 0.20 S3 9 0.- 2.8 0.1
32. -36 T 0.22 40. 1 _M7-06- 2 20.10 0.0
S.6 8 0.10


40 019.-402 1; 9 2 o.8 0.7 F W.7 f7.17 0.2. .0j
01-O' 169 22 2 _3 _0.
'Ocala Lim e No Samlstoe e
11 -2 .2- 0.0 0.20 .02 0. 0.2





the percentage of the original sample consisting of quartz and heavy-
60 1 *2' -406 ?-8 22. 1 4..2 1 ,69.20 1 1,S 0070 06. 3
421T -102' ./1,42 2.L B s ~ 0.2092 0,1
I 45rZ' 70'G" -.92 O.14 2.30 1 577.92 -.50 0.7 3 6.32


Ocala Limestone (Elev. -290 Ft.)
67 1492' -493' I 0.22 I 0.02 I 0.20 I 99.02 10. 11. 1 1.25 I ""


8The value listed under the insoluble residue as the per cent quartz sand is
the percentage of the original sample consisting of quartz and heavy-
mineral sand. The figure given under the coarse silt column is the per
cent of the original sample consisting of sediments that passed through
a 230-mesh screen and were retained on a 325-mesh screen (62 microns
to 44 microns). The per cent fine silt and clay represents that part of the
original sample consisting of insoluble sediments that passed through a
325-mesh screen (-44 microns). Because of techniques used in separa-
tions, some of the finely divided organic matter present in the surface
sands (Spls. 1-11) may be recorded in the figure for fine silt and clay.
The percentage figure given under the heading "Soluble and Organic"
reflects mainly finely divided organic matter in the surface sands (Spls.
1-11) and carbonate and phosphate content in all samples beneath the
surface sands (Spls. 12-67). The PuOn and Fe2Oi values are the percent-
ages of POn and FeO.: in the original samples. The value for the % to
1/10 mm heavy minerals is the per cent of the to 1/16 mm fraction of
the sediments consisting of heavy minerals. The value given for the total
per cent heavy minerals is the per cent of the original sample consisting
of heavy minerals. The values for the heavy minerals do not include phos-
phorite, mica, pyrite, or iron concretions.









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


TABLE 2
Highland Drill Hole #1
Mechanical Analyses of Quartz Sand Extracted from Sediments


Percent of Quartz Sand Retained on Mesh Mean
Mean
Quartz 10 18 35 60 120 230 Grain
Sand (4 to (2 to (1 to (1/2 to (1/4 to (1/8 to Size
ISp. in % 2 mm) 1 mm) 1/2 mm) 1/4 mm) 1/8 mm) 1/16 mm) In mm

Gray to Moderate Brown Surface Sands
1 94.11 0.04 .13 5. 26.77 11.24 0.32
2 97-27 0.04 5.99 0.32 33.92 9.73 0.31
3 98.T 2 0.04 4.86 540 31.01 5.69 0.32
4 91.62 3.6 2.87 26.0 0 0.32
5 95.19 0.04 7 2.57 5. 0.30
6 94.36 0.1 12.2 .2 21. .
7 9.43 0.0 8.12 2.84 0.3
3 98.24 o 0.12 8.80 527.35 5.08 0.
9 94.76 0.06 9.10 7.7 20.00 .09 0.
10 95.71 0.10 3.53 23.64 4.07 0.35
11 95.45 0.06 9.19 62.01 23.66 5.0 0.35

Drab to Olive-Green Cla Zone
12 88.50 0.45 4.05 11.78 .72 0.2
13 88.05 0.32 2.60 11.55 53 0.11
14 31.49 0.70 5.54 1 8 80.5 0.13
15 90.43 0.02 1.13 11.87 21.25 .7 0.15
15 82.91 0.02 1.16 12.18 2 64.81 0.16
17 52.32 0.04 1.73 16.71 25.3 56.17 0.18
I 61.51 0.78 8.01 7.97 2 0.13
19 94.55 7.33 67.86 21.4 3.39 0.3
20 98.98 0.02 12.27 73.81 11.7 1.93 0.39
21 25.47 0.08 1.02 8.5 15.3 74.69 0.14
22 -83.43 0.07 0.36 3.78 2.95 2.08 40.76 0.23
23 46.31 0.26 0.73 7.9 8.60 83.02 0.13
24 26. 0.46 8.11 86.00 0.12
25 71.06 0.17 1.50 7.07 13.22 78.04 0.14
26 1.62 0.14 1.09 8.04 12.13 78.61 0.14
27 21.33 0.28 1.22 9.84 13. .8 0.15
28 55.53 .04 1.47 2.37 8.98 87.14 0.12
29 76.36 0.24 3.46 18.72 29.9 47.52 0.20
30 64.97 0.77 6.74 23.85 38.86 29.78 0.25

Shell Bed
31 36.42 | 0.77 7.28 129.38 1 42.72 19.86 I 0.28
No Sample for 8-foot Interval
32 65-46 0.64 0.52 13.07 56.83 17.46 11.49 0.38
33 47.48 1.84 2.83 19.83 57.87 12.61 5.02 0.49

Gray Quartz Sand
34 91.77 .83 I 12.99 I 46.13 I 35.19 I 4.86 I 0.35
No Sample for 23-foot Interval (Material similar to Spl. 34)

Fossiliferous Limestone
35 11.31 1.94 2.82 14.44 54.23 20.25 6.43 0.46
36 0.40 4.87 15.03 20.10 24.9 .07 0.34
37 1.52 1.32 .58 18.42 27.63 46.05 0.23
38 0.94 6.38 17.02 23.40 53.19 0.21
39 4.4 0.45 3.13 27.23 57.14 12.05 0.25









REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 84


TABLE 2 (Continued)


Percent of Quartz'Sand Retained on Mesh Mean
Quartz 10 18 35 60 120 230 Grain
Sand (4 to (2 to (1 to (1/2 to (1/4 to (1/8 to Size
Spi. In % 2 mm) 1 mm) 1/2 mm) 1/4 mm) 1 1/8 mm) 1/16 mm) In mm

Hawthorn Formation
40 37.93 0.21 2.43 15.30 47.20 34.86 0.20
Wl 28.33 40 ~ 6 23.98 3.66 17.51 0.25
42 8.4 0.65 18.74 .19 27.54 0.23
3 6.91 1.62 1121 42.04 3.79 8.34 0.36
4 8.78 .1 2.00 10.38 47.10 .6 .76 0.36
45 34. 7 0.82 21.05 .7 21.17 7.00 0.40
46 51.02 0.12 1.99 11.72 50.94 35.23 0.1
47 6.93 0.87 2.02 3.76 8.38 897 0.14
S 21.20 0. 0.56 3.8 29.14 6.5 0.13
S 30. 0.3 30.01 44.0 1 2.65 0.55
50 7.46 0.21 1.22 15.03 59.24 16.2 8.06.40
S71.29 0.11 29.4 18.26 4.3 0.22
52 7 01
52 34.60 1.33 2594 5.66 14.9 4.09 0.45
53 10.21 0.78 10.18 40.90 28.18 19.9 0. 1
54 20.72 -0.8 10.72 48.02 3.82 6.76 0.3
55 2.57 2.34 .69 15. 32.03 45.31 0.23
56 6.97 1.12 12.08 56.7 20.22 .80.37
57 46.64 0.51 p.8 .87 26.0 3.760.36
No Sample or 9-foot Interval
58 45.30 0.66 .1 2. .15 0.6
59 12. 0.16 10 2.6 1 8.25 0.2
60 22.12 0.09 0. 1.62 7.0 90.7 0.11
561 s0.226 97 0.0 012 2 0.10
62 13.5 0.72 4.73 6.74 13.92 7.8 0.17
3 19.60 .6 o.o 4. 0.07 0.
4 40.72 0.64 23.24 7.35 16.07 2.70 0.43
65 29.60 0.3 .5 21.8 2.59 18.53 12.26 0.45
66 14.63 __3.69 .2 22.98 14.09 0.31

Ocala Limestone
67 0.22 18.18 36.36 27.27 18.18 0.3







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

TABLE 3
Highland Drill Hole #1
Percentages of Selected Heavy Minerals in
1/8 to 1/16 mm Fraction


Leucoxene Ilmenite Epidote Garnet Hornblende
SpT. in % in % in % in % in %


Gray to Moderate Brown Surface Sands
1 31.86 13.88 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 12.16 40.12 0.00 0.00 0.00
3 2.65 50.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
1.21 58.18 0.00 0.00 0.00
5 5.66 52.52 0.00 0.00 0.00
6.15 44.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
7 1.45 58.26 0.00 0.00 0.00
S 1.46 45.91 0.00 0.00 0.00
9 1.21 49.70 0.00 0.00 0.00
10 2.02 49.16 0.00 0.00 0.00
11 3.52 48.78 0.00 0.00 0.00

Drab to Olive-Green Clay Zone
12 14.50 29.91 0.00 0.00 0.00
13 11.50 22.36 0.00 0.00 0.00
1 11.56 35.03 0.00 0.25 0.00
15 13.14 23.43 2.06 1.04 0.00
16 10.03 36.05 1.57 0.00 0.00
17 6.69 38.80 0.00 0.94 1.00
1_ 9.70 36.45 0.00 1.07 0.00
19 0.70 50.35 0.00 0.35 0.00
20 1.89 53.14 0.00 1.10 0.00
21 6.59 31.78 1.16 0.67 0.39
22 4.99 46.26 0.00 2.15 0.55
23 7.62 37.09 0.00 1.03 0.00
24 8.89 33.89 0.00 0.88 0.00
25 2.38 38.44 3.06 1.79 0.00
26 2.92 24.45 17.15 2.11 0.00
27 2.29 25.14 30.86 0.79 0.29
8 0.99 25.83 30.79 0.98 0.99
29 2.90 27.54 3.55 1.00 1.16
30 2.17 23.91 26.09 2.01 2.48

Shell Bed
31 1.28 33.01 19.55 0.33 2.24
No Sample
S32 1.03 24.32 30.2 1.17 6.51
33 0.67 24.58 24.24 0.61 3.37

Gray Quartz Sand
34 1.21 28.79 I 15.45 1.40 | 6.06
No Sample

Fossiliferous Limestone
35 2.78 21.94 27.22 0.26 0.83
36 2.17 7.61 16.30 0.00 0.00
37 1.35 24.24 27.27 1.74 0.35
38 0.00 17.14 28.57 3.57 0.00
39 1.80 16.19 32.37 5.05 0.36







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 84


TABLE 3 (Continued)


Leucoxene llmenite Epidote Garnet Hornblende
Spl. in % in % in % in % in %


Hawthorn Formation
40 0.62 11.15 25.39 6.56 0.00
41 1.36 21.77 22.79 10.12 0.00
42 1.58 31.96 16.77 5.88 0.00
43 3.24 27.18 11.65 9.25 0.00
44 1.32 29.80 17.22 4.08 0.00
45 2.55 35.13 9.63 4.11 0.00
46 0.85 25.35 6.48 6.94 0.00
47 0.54 20.16 3.00 4.93 0.00
48 1.55 25.47 1.86 6.12 0.00
49 2.43 34.95 3.3 4.4 0.00
50 1.55 36.65 5.28 4.56 0.00
51 3.94 38.48 5.76 5.70 0.00
52 1.34 29.77 7.36 7.43 0.00
53 1.19 43.32 1.78 6.61 0.00
54 1.24 1.49 3.10 .38 0.00
55 2.15 30.77 4.92 3.27 0.00
56 2.27 33.50 12.59 3.28 0.00
57 2.45 33.03 9.79 5.47 0.00
No Sample
58 2.32 36.81 9.86 6.95 0.00
59 2.77 50.46 1.54 4.96 0.00
60 3.00 5.67 1.33 5.72 0.00
61 3.83 45.05 3.19 4.61 0.00
62 7.57 37.85 3.47 5.25 0.00
63 1.56 19.31 19.31 21.27 0.00
64 1.58 32.91 2.22 23.4 0.00
5 4.67 41.33 1.33 14.52 0.00
66 0.62 27.08 8.00 14.51 0.00

Ocala Limestone
67 1.05 15.79 5.26 4.76 I 0.00

Per cent of the 1/8 to 1/16 mm heavy-mineral fraction that consists of leucoxene.









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


TABLE 4
Highland Drill Hole "2
NE, SEk, Section 12, T. 4 S., R. 22 E., Baker County, Florida
Approximately 31 Miles Slightly West of North of Highland
Surface Elevation 191 Feet


Insoluble Residue
Coarse Fine Heavy
Silt Silt and Soluble Minerals Total
Depth Quartz (-230 mesh Clay and (1/8 to 1/16 Heavy
in Feet Sand +325 mesh) (-325 mesh) Organic mm Fraction) Minerals
Sol. and Inches in % in % in % in % in % in %

Gray to Moderate Brown Surface Sands (Elev. 191 Ft.)
S 0 1'9" 95.15 1.03 2.52 1.31 11.54 2.32
S 1'9"- 5' 92.97 0.94 .19 1.90 13.58 2.20
3 5' 10' 97.14 0.46 1.20 1.20 22.06 4.43
4 10' 15' 98.46 0.64 0.40 0.50 30.33 3.38
5 15' 20' 91.43 0.18 6.29 2.10 34.64 4.30
6 20' 22'6" 91.70 0.40 5.40 2.50 29.16 4.02
7 22'6"- 25' 96.22 0.38 1.20 2.20 32.88 4.75
T 25' 30' 96.60 0.10 1.20 2.10 34.40 .1
9 30' 35' 97.17 0.22 1.10 1.50 41.08 4.38

Gray to Olive-Drab Clay Zone (Elev. 156 Ft.)
10 35' 40' 92.44 3.46 2.50 1.60 4.75 2.86
11 o' 42'6" 83.04 3.89 9.18 3.89 1.19 0.90
12 2' 6- 45' 86.12 5.18 8.60 0.10 1.33 0.76
13 45' 48' 90.76 2.85 5.89 0.50 1.98 0.87
14 4' 52'6" 37.69 5.40 51.42 5.50 1.82 0.36
15 55'6"- 59' 50.20 14.44 30.65 4.71 2.66 0.81
a6 59' 60'6" 19.31 7.6 70.56 2.50 1.19 0.36
17 60'6"- 65'6" 64.56 8.16 26.37 0.90 1.23 0.54

Gray Quartz Sand (Elev. 125 Ft.)_____
id 65'6"- 69'6" 89.38 3.39 6.72 0.50 2.02 .
19 70' 74'6" 92.32 1.89 5.28 0.50 2.19 0.91
20 75' 80' 94.74 0.4 .3 0.40 2.65 0.77
21 80' 85' 93.12 0.40 .79 1.70 4.23 0.5
22 85' 90' 95.74 0.38 3 0.50 4.50 0.90
23 90' 95' 96.90 0.40 2.10 0.60 .05 0.76
2- 95' -100' 96.40 0.40 2.70 0.50 3.33 0.88
25 100' -105' 96.00 0.58 1.73 1.9 3.32 0.70
?6 105' -110' 99 044 1. 1.10 3.13 0.82
ZI 110' -115' 98.00 0.24 0.96 0.80 3.93 0.46
2 115' -118' 94.91 0.2 2.25 2.59 .38 0.52
29 120'6"-124' 94.25 0.14 1.92 3.69 5.94 0.
30 125' -127' 91.49 0.20 3.13 5.18 5.29 0.72








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 84

TABLE 5
Highland Drill Hole #2
Mechanical Analyses of Quartz Sand Extracted from Sediments


Percent of Quartz Sand Retained on Mesh Mean
Mean
Quartz 10 18 35 60 120 230 Grain
Sand (4 to (2 to (1 to (1/2 to (1/4 to (1/8 to Size
Sp1. in % 2 mm) 1 mm) 1/2 mm) 1/4 mm) 1/8 mm) 1/16 mm) in mm

Gray to Moderate Brown Surface Sands
1 95.15 0.02 4.53 61.96 24.06 9.44 0.32
2 92.97 0.02 5.35 60.04 25.13 9.5 0.32
3 97.14 0.12 4.89 59.31 28.32 7.36 0.32
4 98.i46 0.02 .36 52.50 33.38 9.74 0.30
5 91.43 0.02 6.1 62.02 26.05 5.77 0.33
6 91.70 0.02 4.82 59.06 27.49 8.61 0.32
7 96.22 0.08 6.46 57.06 27.49 8.91 0.32
8 96.60 0.08 6.64 65.4 23.51 4.35 0.3
9 97.17 __ 0.02 5.53 62.48 25.01 6.96 0.33

Gra to Olive-Drab Clay Zone
10 92.44 0.11 7.16 45.80 21.58 25.35 0.29
11 3.0 0.62 13.12 33.77 52.49 0.17
12 86.12 0.02 2.95 23.6 24.45 8.90 0.20
13 90.76 0.02 0.33 16.93 48.42 34.30 0.19
14 37.69 0.05 1.13 20.53 31.23 7.06 0.19
15 50.20 0.04 1.00 28.77 26.54 43.66 0.21
16 19.31 0.31 1.86 18.94 19.4 59.42 0.18
17 64.56 0.65 3.82 15.47 23.21 56.85 0.19

Gray Quartz Sand
18 89.38 0.63 6.40 23.27 43.79 25.92 0.25
19 92.32 1.08 .67 20.88 44.55 2.82 0.25
20 94.74 0.91 1.82 9.69 23.92 47.37 16.30 0.32
21 93.12 0.71 2.74 12.43 20.18 52.86 11.08 0.34
22 95.48 0.73 6.03 22.54 58.75 11.95 0.26
23 96.90 0.58 6.41 34.37 51.59 7.05 0.29
24 96.40 0.10 1.43 15.79 64.12 18.56 0.21
25 96.00 0.15 2.74 2_i.9 53.44 18.69 0.23
26 96.99 0.16 3.95 36.38 44.12 15.39 0.27
27 98.00 0.0 0.41 7.23 59.87 26.71 5.7 0.34
28 94.91 0.08 0.54 6.87 67.57 19.28 5.66 0.36
29 94.25 0_.44 4.06 64.14 25.91 5.44 0.33
30 91.49 0.11 0.22 3.55 49.04 38.99 8.09 0.30








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


TABLE 6
Highland Drill Hole #2
Percentages of Selected Heavy Minerals in
1/8 to 1/16 mm Fraction


Leucoxene Ilmenite Epidote Garnet Hornblende
SpT. in % in % in % in % in %


Gra to Moderate Brown Surface Sands
1 29.74 18.30 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 24.84 26.45 0.00 0.00 0.00
3 15.87 41.32 0.00 0.00 0.00
4 6.98 7.88 0.00 0.00 0.00
5 0.00 580.000.00 0.00 0.00
6 2.02 60.69 0.00 0.00 0.00
7 1.54 57.85 0.00 0.00 0.00
8 0.00 55.22 0.00 0.00 0.00
9 0.32 63.46 1.60 0.00 0.00

Gray to Olive-Drab Clay Zone
10 6.10 45.06 0.58 0.00 0.00
11 17.42 30.97 0.00 0.00 0.00
12 21.49 17.01 0.30 0.00 0.00
13 5.31 48.01 0.00 0.27 0.00
14 3.36 41.97 0.00 1.51 0.00
15 4.84 46.45 0.00 0.62 0.00
16 7.52 39.47 0.38 1.13 0.38
17 1.23 75.00 4.32 0.68 0.00

Gray Quartz Sand
18 3.08 34.93 22.26 1.23 0.00
19 1.96 26.80 22.88 2.67 0.33
20 1.64 29.67 23.13 1.52 0.23
21 1.88 30.63 28.13 1.16 2.81
22 0.68 23.05 18.64 0.95 3.05
23 1.28 15.38 27.44 1.83 5.38
24 2.10 24.32 23.72 0.99 2.10
25 0.32 26.03 20.32 2.27 4.13
26 1.26 25.55 24.92 1.43 3.47
27 0.96 19.61 21.5 0.95 6.09
28 0.88 31.76 25.29 1.30 3.24
29 1.99 29.90 28.90 1.14 2.33
30 0.92 29.05 20.80 1.15 3.98






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 84








APPENDIX III
Characteristics of Surface Sands
in Study Area








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


TABLE 7
Analyses of Surface Sediments Collected
in Vicinity of Green Cove Springs Ore Body
Sample Sites Shown on Figure 4


Insoluble Residue
Coarse Fine Heavy
Silt Silt and Soluble Minerals Total
Quartz (-230 mesh Clay and (1/8 to 1/16 Heavy Mean Grain
Sand +325 mesh) (-325 mesh) Organic mm Fraction) Minerals Size of Quartz
So!. in in % in % in % in % in % Sand in mm
I 90.13 1.66 7.81 0. 1.87 0.88 0.15
2 1 96.70 0.50 2.80 0.00 5.93 1.66 0.20
S3 95.98 1.02 3.00 0.00 1.89 0.65 0.18
4 87.69 2.32 8.69 1.30 1.23 0.69 0.15
5 90-51 2.20 6.69 0.60 1.44 0.68 0.15
36 94.85 0.86 4.30 0.00 1.89 0.75 0.17
7 94.39 0.72 4.80 0.10 1.63 O.4 0.17
a 93.73 0.88 5.09 0.30 1.75 0.65 0.17
9 95.90 0.80 3.30 0.00 1.47 0.75 0.18
il 95.21 0.5 .02 0.20 1.57 0.70 0.17
11 95-38 0.82 3.50 0.30 3.18 1.11 0.15
12 90.34 i 0.26 6.60 2.80 4.50 1.30 0.18
13 85.54 1 1-78 11.38 1.30 1.18 0.51 0.17
i 1 95-39 I 0.80 3.51 0.30 1.65 0.36 0.18
15 90.97 1 1.44 6.50 1.10 2.04 .7 0..17
16 93.23 1 0.54 4.62 1.61 3.42 1.12 0.17
17 93.68 I 1.12 4.70 0.50 2.95 1.10 0.17
13 1 92.50 1 0.72 6.18 0.60 1.67 0.58 0.18
l 19 94-75 0.24 4.01 1.00 1.65 0.3 0.18
20 95.54 1-36 3.10 0.00 1.86 0.71 0.16
21 93.72 0.98 5.00 0.30 2.77 1.09 0.16
22 9.21 1.68 4.01 0.10 6.99 2.61 0.17
23 90.30 0.50 6.80 2.40 1.58 0.42 0.17
24 97.61 0.58 1.81 0.00 1.92 0.77 0.19
25 91.08 2.43 5.49 1.00 1.41 0.49 0.16
26 98.26 0.64 1.10 0.00 1.22 0.52 0.16
27 97-4 0.42 1.80 0.30 6.8 2.15 0.17
zi 2 95.45 0.76 3.29 0.50 5.02 1.54 0.16
29 95-87 0.62 2.50 1.00 1.07 0.56 .1
30 897 1.04 7.78 1.40 1.31 0.63 0.15
1 31 95.80 1.00 2.80 0.40 2.13 0.72 0.17
S32 94.41 1.80 2.99 0.80 0.80 0.50 0.14
33 95.79 0.62 3.50 0.10 1.44 0.47 0.17
34 94.73 0.98 4.09 0.20 1.20 0.;7 0.16
35 96.60 0.8 2.50 0.10 2.01 0.56 0.22
36 9-88 0.32 2.50 0.30 1.79 0.61 0.17
i37 96. 0-56 2.20 0.60 2.25 0.8 0.19
S3 97.15 0.84 1.60 0.I0 1.38 0.4 0.18








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 84


TABLE 8
Mechanical Analyses of Surface Sands Collected
in Vicinity of Green Cove Springs Ore Body


Percent of Quartz Sand in Various Sand Fractions Mean Approximate
Quartz Granules Very Coarse Coarse Medium Fine Very Fine Grain Elevation
Spl. Sand (4 to (2 to (1 to (1/2 to (1/4 to (1/8 to Size in
No. in % 2 mm) 1 mm) 1/2 mm) 1/4 mm) 1/8 mm 1/16 m) in mm Feet
1 90.13 0.02 0.09 2.80 55.32 41.77 0.15 92
2 96.70 0.04 1.32 14.91 55.16 28.56 0.20 87
3 95.98 0.29 1.54 8.60 55.63 3.94 0.18 35
4 87.69 0.02 0.05 2.48 47.95 49.50 0.15 101
5 90.51 0.09 2.7 51.41 45.63 0.15 103
6 94.85 0.11 5.27 63.24 31.39 0.17 120
7 94.39 0.08 5.16 60.37 34.48 0.17 108
8 93.73 0.0 0.030 6.41 62.31 30-93 0.17 65
9 95.90 0.21 1.61 10.25 46.56 4138 0.18 17
10 95.21 0.06 0.76 8.19 52.86 38.12 0.17 22
11 95.38 0.04 2.87 63.61 33.48 0.15 93
12 90.34 0.13 7.00 67.12 25.75 0.18 118
13 85 54 0.02 0.21 7.54 54.20 38.03 0.17 71
14 95.39 0.02 0.15 7.31 66.22 26.30 0.18 11
15 90.97 0.09 .28 65.19 30.43 0.17 96
16 93.23 0.09 5.71 61.24 32.97 0.17 112
17 93.68 0.11 5.34 61.60 32.96 0.17 108
18 92.50 0.02 0.24 8.50 6.88 26.37 0.18 65
19 94.75 0.04 4.90 77.24 17.82 0.18 12
20 95.54 0.02 0.10 4.42 60.58 34.88 0.16 95
21 93.72 0.02 0.04 2.80 57.89 39.25 0.16 112
22 94.21 0.02 0.15 6.29 60.71 32.83 0.17 9
23 90.30 0.22 6.91 57.53 35.34 0.17 70
241 97.61 0.06 0.56 11.55 58.29 29.54 0.19 31
25 91.08 0.02 0.13 2.69 57.81 39.34 0.16 100
26 98.26 0.12 3.68 55.24 40.96 0.16 100
27 97.48 0.12 5.04 64.99 29.84 0.17 100
28 95.45 0.10 5.54 58.13 36.23 0.16 5
29 95.87 0.36 6.33 51.94 41.37 0.16 20
30 89.78 0.07 2.56 49.00 48.38 0.15 81
31 95.80 0.02 0.17 6.51 60.16 33.15 0.17 39
32 94.41 0.02 0.42 4.80 30.61 64.14 0.14 5
33 95.79 0.60 7.13 59.98 32.28 0.17 11
34 94.73 0.06 5.14 58.20 36.59 0.16 25
35 96.60 0.19 1.87 18.0 58.6 20.91 0.22 27
36 96.88 0.02 0.31 829 57.65 33.73 0.17 63
37 96.64 1.59 11.69 60.99 25.73 0.19 20
38 97.15 0.10 7.70 69.50 22.70 0.18 13








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


TABLE 9

Percentages of Selected Heavy Minerals in 1/8 to 1/16 mm
Heavy-Mineral Fraction of Surface Sands Collected
in Vicinity of Green Cove Springs Ore Body


Leucoxene Ilmenite Epidote Garnet Hornblende
Spl. in % in % in % in % in %

1 18.49 34.73 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 14.05 39.52 0.00 0.00 0.00
3 9.29 40.71 0.00 0.00 0.00
4 41.82 16.98 0.00 0.00 0.00
5 51.32 8.88 0.00 0.00 0.00
6 25.95 23.42 0.00 0.00 0.00
7 25.00 22.19 0.00 0.00 0.00
8 23.23 35.02 1.01 0.00 0.00
9 6.89 44.26 0.00 0.00 0.00
10 7.62 38.08 3.97 0.00 0.00
11 29.87 22.15 0.00 0.00 0.00
12 13.64 44.81 0.00 0.00 0.00
13 23.13 34.06 0.00 0.00 0.00
14 9.63 31.44 1.98 0.00 0.00
15 35.24 17.14 0.00 0.00 0.00
16 45.55 16.79 0.00 0.00 0.00
17 31.53 18.31 0.00 0.00 0.00
18 21.45 26.02 0.00 0.00 0.00
19 12.69 22.96 1.21 0.00 0.00
20 27.36 20.95 0.00 0.00 0.00
21 30.82 18.36 0.00 0.00 0.00
22 35.03 16.56 0.00 0.00 0.00
23 20.87 24.93 0.29 0.00 0.00
24 9.72 45.14 0.00 0.00 0.00
25 42.41 11.46 0.00 0.00 0.00
26 29.39 7.49 0.00 0.00 0.00
27 29.91 20.56 0.00 0.00 0.00
28 21.41 18.59 0.00 0.00 0.00
29 16.51 35.56 0.00 0.00 0.00
30 31.82 19.52 0.00 0.00 0.00
31 33.33 .99 0.00 0.00 0.00
32 9.84 31.91 0.00 0.00 0.00
33 10.09 23.55 0.00 0.00 0.00
34 21.53 28.77 0.00 0.00 0.40
35 11.58 36.01 0.00 0.00 0.00
36 10.67 40.17 0.00 0.00 0.00
37 15.12 30.81 0.00 0.00 0.00
3 i6.09 22.71 0.00 0.00 0.00








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 84 47

R27E R2BE
/ ^ ",, \


~. ~2~K


Figure 4. Sample sites of surface sands collected in the vicinity of
the Green Cove Springs ore body.








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


TABLE 10

Analyses of Surface Sediments Collected
in Vicinity of Boulougne Ore Body
Sample Sites Shown on Figure 5


Insoluble Residue
Coarse Fine Heavy
Silt Silt and Soluble Minerals Total Mean Grain
Quartz (-230 mesh Clay and (1/8 to 1/16 Heavy Size of
Sand +325 mesh) (-325 mesh) Organic mm Fraction) Minerals Quartz Sand
Sol. in % in % in % in % in % In % In mm
1 94-36 0.86 4.58 0.20 0.59 0.46 0.14
2 95-01 0.80.09 0.10 1.94 0.83 0.15
3 96.33 0.96 2.51 0.20 1.59 0.90 0.15
4 51.31 13.26 33.34 2.09 0.67 0.65 0.13
5 77.37 9.16 12.77 0.70 0.57 1.06 0.13
89.71 2.81 7.28 0.20 0.64 0.70 0.14
7 93-94 0.98 4.69 o.4o 3.07 1.70 0.15
8 -9.28 0.82 4.40 0.50 9.40 2.17 0.15
9 92.91 1.10 5.89 0.10 3.48 2.09 0.15
10 91.78 i.42 5.70 1.10 0.93 0.75 0.16
11 73.19 7.6 18.36 0.80 0.68 0.82 0.12
12 94.19 1.63 3.98 0.20 0.84 0.65 0.13
13 90-52 3.39 5.99 0.10 0.83 1.01 0.12
14 91.19 0.94 7.18 0.70 1.71 0.94 0.17
15 93.77 1.54 4.59 0.10 2.73 1.75 0.14
16 91.09 1.30 7.40 0.20 3.17 2.03 0.14
17 96.47 0.74 2.79 0.00 1.51 1.06 0.15
T T80.08 7.26 11.86 0.80 1.01 1t.5 0.11




TABLE 11
Mechanical Analyses of Surface Sands Collected
in Vicinity of Boulougne Ore Body




Percent of sand in various size fractions Mean Approximate
Quartz Very Coarse Coarse Medium Fine Very Fine Grain Elevation
Spl. Sand (2 to (1 to (1/2 to (1/4 to (1/8 to Size In
No. rn 1 mu) 1/2 mm) 1/4 m) 1/8 mm) 1/16 mm) in mm Feet
1 94.36 0.19 4.92 32.80 62.09 0.14 92
2 ~95.01 0.21 4.79 48.54 46.6 0.15 93
3 96.33 0.02 0.29 a4.39 46.47 48.82 0.15 58
4 51.31 0.39 1.12 3.4 13.19 81.54 0.13 18
S77.37 0.10 0.28 1.01 8.23 9038 0.13 21
6 9.71 -- 0.31 5.27 29.60 64.82 0.14 75
7 93.94 0.11 5 .20 45.08 49.61 0.15 101
34.o 0.15 5.43 45.27 49.15 0.15 101
9 92.91 0.02 0.15 3.35 43.75 52.73 0.15 93
]0 91.78 0.17 1.09 8.32 37.93 52.48 0.16 42
11 73-19 0.14 0.52 2.97 14.70 81.67 0.12 22
12 94.19 0.15 2.90 28.78 68.17 0.13 73
13 90.52 0.13 2.27 17.53 80.06 0.12 72
14 91.19 0.02 0.39 8.90 48.68 42.01 0.17 81
15 93.77 0.02 0.15 2.77 36.97 60.09 0.14 83
16 91.09 0.13 2.57 40.22 57.07 0.14 90
17 96.47 0.10 0.6 5.14 38.17 7 5.95 0.15 0
I do.od 0.20 0.50 11.63 1 87.68 0.11 22







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 84 49


TABLE 12

Percentages of Selected Heavy Minerals in 1/8 to 1/16 mm
Heavy-Mineral Fraction of Surface Sands Collected
in Vicinity of Boulougne Ore Body



Leucoxene Ilmenite Epidote Garnet
Spl. in % in % in % in %

1 12.42 37.27 8.48 0.00
2 12.06 38.24 0.00 0.33
3 1.61 47.74 0.00 0.00
4 8.88 38.68 0.86 0.00
5 8.84 42.99 9.45 0.00
6 21.14 28.29 0.00 0.00
7 33.85 21.54 0.00 0.00
8 32.93 24.17 0.00 0.00
9 16.19 45.08 0.00 0.00
10 25.31 26.56 0.63 0.00
11 7.29 41.40 2.62 0.00
12 18.75 30.06 1.49 0.00
13 20.25 27.53 0.00 0.00
14 19.87 58.94 0.00 0.00
15 31.76 29.87 0.00 0.00
16 11.46 38.85 0.00 0.00
17 4.01 50.62 4.01 0.18
18 4.64 36.07 7.65 0.16









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


R 24E


Figure 5. Sample sites of surface sands collected in the vicinity of
the Boulougne ore body.


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