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Ground-water resources of the Hollywood area, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 77 )
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001264/00001
 Material Information
Title: Ground-water resources of the Hollywood area, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 77 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Report of investigations 77 )
Physical Description: vii, 35 p. : ill., map ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bearden, H. W
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Publisher: Bureau of Geology
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1974
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Groundwater -- Florida -- Hollywood Region   ( lcsh )
Water resources development -- Florida -- Hollywood   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by H. W. Bearden.
Bibliography: Includes bibliography.
General Note: Prepared by U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Geology ... and the City of Hollywood.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000141483
oclc - 01871976
notis - AAQ7628
System ID: UF00001264:00001

Full Text






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STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Harmon W. Shields, Executive Director




DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
Robert O. Vernon, Director



BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
C. W. Hendry, Jr., Chief


REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 77



GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF THE
HOLLYWOOD AREA, FLORIDA



by
H. W. Bearden





Prepared by
U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
and the
CITY OF HOLLYWOOD



Tallahassee, Florida
1974














DEPARTMENT
OF
NATURAL RESOURCES



REUBIN O'D. ASKEW
Governor


DOROTHY W. GLISSON
Secretary of State


THOMAS D. O'MALLEY
Treasurer


RALPH D. TURLINGTON
Commissioner of Education


ROBERT L. SHEVIN
Attorney General


FRED O. DICKINSON, JR.
Comptroller


DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


HARMON W. SHIELDS
Executive Director






LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL





Bureau of Geology
Tallahassee
January 10, 1975


Honorable Reubin O'D. Askew, Chairman
Department of Natural Resources
Tallahassee, Florida


Dear Governor Askew:

We are pleased to make available the report "Ground-water Resources
of the Hollywood Area, Florida" by H. W. Bearden. The purpose of this report
is to provide hydrologic data for an area which, according to current projec-
tions, will double its fresh-water needs within the next fifteen years. The data
developed from this study should prove most useful to planners in developing
plans for additional water supplies and also for safeguarding the existing sup-
plies from salt-water intrusion.


Respectfully yours,




Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief
Bureau of Geology


















































Completed manuscript received
September 25, 1974
Printed for the
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Division of Interior Resources
Bureau of Geology

Tallahassee
1974


iv







CONTENTS

Page
Abstract ...... ............. ................ ....... .......................... ................................................... 1
Introduction ........................................................................................................... ............... .... 2
Location of area ...................... ........2.......................................................... ................ 2
Purpose and scope ........................................................................................................ 4
Previous investigations ............................. .......................... ........................................ 5
Acknowledgements ............................. ..................................................................... 5
The problem .............. ...... .................................... .......... ...................... ....................... 5
Hydrologic setting ................................ ...................... ...................................... ........... 8
Climate .................................................................................................................................. 8
Topography and drainage ........................ .................... ......... .......... ......................... 9
Biscayne aquifer ............................ ..................................................................... ......... 9
Ground water -.............. .... .............. ............................... ......................... ... ................. 10
Recharge and discharge ....................... ...................................................... ....................... 12
W ater-level fluctuations and ground-water movement ............................... ........ 13
W after quality ......................................... ................................................................... ........... 18
Ground water .................................................................................................................. 18
Surface water ....... ................................... ........ ... .... ................................ ............... 21
Salt-water intrusion ................................................................. .................... ............. 25
W after supply ............................................................................................................................. 30
Summary .......... ..................................................................................................... ........... ....... 31
W ell numbers ........................................................................................................................... 33
References ..... ................................................................................................... ........ ........... 34







ILLUSTRATIONS

Page
Figure 1. Map of the State of Florida showing the location of Broward County
and Hollywood ..... .. ....... .................................................. 3

2. Map of Hollywood showing locations of observation and test wells, sur-
face-water gaging stations, canal sampling site, and specific conductance
recording station ....-... ..--............ ............................... 4

3. Graph showing annual municipal pumpage at Hollywood for 1960-72,
and projected pumpage through 1980 ...................................................... 6

4. Graph showing monthly municipal pumpage at Hollywood and rainfall
at Fort Lauderdale, 1970-72 .. .. ........ .................. .......................... 7

5. Map showing location of supply, observation, and test wells and geologic
and sea-water intrusion sections in the well-field area ......................-.. 10

6. Geologic section of the Biscayne aquifer along line A-A' in figure 5 .... 11

7. Geologic section of the Biscayne aquifer along line B-B' in figure 2 ........ 12

8. Hydrograph of well F-291, 1948-72 .......---................................................... 13

9. Hydrograph of well G-1225, 1963-72 .................................................... ........... 14

10. Graphs showing water levels in wells G-1226 and G-1227 and daily
rainfall at Fort Lauderdale, 1972 water year ................................................ 15







ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued)

Page
Figure 11-13. Maps showing:

11. Potentiometric surface of the Biscayne aquifer in the Hollywood
area, M ay 5, 1971 ............... .. ...................................... ..................... 17

12. Potentiometric surface of the Biscayne aquifer in the Hollywood
area, October 19, 1971 ........................................................................... 18

13. Poteniometric surface of the Biscayne aquifer in the Hollywood
area, M ay 11, 1972 ................................................................................... 19

14. Graph showing daily chloride concentration in Hollywood Canal,
daily peak tides in the Intracoastal Waterway at Hollywood, and
daily rainfall at Fort Lauderdale, November 1971 -December 1972 .... 26

15. Map showing the approximate extent of salt-water intrusion at the
base of the Biscayne aquifer (1,000 mg/1) in the Hollywood area,
M ay 6, 1971 .................................. ................... ............................... 27

16. Section C-C' (fig. 5) from Hollywood Canal through the northern
part of the well field showing the extent of salt-water intrusion,
May 6, 1971, near the end of the 1971 dry season ................................ 28

17. Section D-D' (fig. 5) from Hollywood Canal through the southern
part of the well field showing the extent of salt-water intrusion,
May 11, 1972, near the end of the 1972 dry deason .....-.............-...... 29







TABLES

Table I. Average monthly rainfall and average monthly temperature at Fort
Lauderdale, Florida, 1931-72 ................................. ..... .. ............ 8

2 Chemical analyses of water from wells G-1531, G-2037, and G-2038 ...... 20

3A- Chemical analyses of water from Hollywood Canal half a mile south of
Dania Cut-Off Canal ...-.. ............. ......... ............................................. 22

3B. Bacteria and carbon analyses of water from Hollywood Canal half a mile
south of Dania Cut-Off Canal ................................. ...................... 23

3C. Pesticide analyses of water and sediments from Hollywood Canal half a
mile south of Dania Cut-Off Canal ... ............................... ................. 24


viii







GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF THE
HOLLYWOOD AREA, FLORIDA



By
H. W. Bearden



ABSTRACT


Population in the Hollywood area increased more than 200 percent from
1960 to 1970 (35,237 to 106,873) and the growth in population is expected
to continue. This explosion in population is the source of most of the area's
water problems.

Fresh water for all purposes in Hollywood is derived from the highly
permeable Biscayne aquifer. The aquifer is composed chiefly of permeable
beds of limestone, sandstone, and sand that extend from land surface to a depth
of about 200 feet.

Water levels in the aquifer fluctuate chiefly in response to rainfall, the
major source of recharge. The water table slopes gently from the west and
averages about 1.0 foot higher in the western part of the city than in the east-
ern part. The configuration of the water table is greatly influenced by Holly-
wood Canal and the ocean. Because the permeability of the aquifer is high,
the effect of pumping wells is dispersed over a large area and drawdowns are
about 0.1 foot.

Salt-water intrusion from Hollywood Canal is the chief threat to the ground-
water supply in Hollywood. When discharge is low, the chloride concentration
of water in the canal has reached levels greater than 10,000 milligrams per
liter. Salt water has been detected in the aquifer at depth within 0.1 mile of
the municipal wells.

Results of test drilling and water quality analyses indicate that ground
water of good quality is available in the western part of the Hollywood area.
Because the transmissivity of the Biscayne aquifer is high, with proper planning
additional quantities of water can be obtained without affecting water levels
significantly in existing wells.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


INTRODUCTION


Hollywood's water problems are similar to those of other major cities in
southeastern Florida (fig. 1) that are experiencing explosive increases in pop-
ulation. Demands are being placed on the water-supply systems that far exceed
projected demands for the 1970's. City and Broward County planners indicate
that this growth is destined to continue, and according to current projections,
fresh-water needs will almost double in 15 years.

The highly permeable Biscayne aquifer underlying the Hollywood area is
an excellent source of fresh water. However, if fresh water levels in the aquifer
are lowered very much below their current position, the highly permeable
materials wil permit the inland intrusion of salt water, as well as the infiltra-
tion of urban and industrial contaminants from land surface and canals. The
areas adjacent to uncontrolled reaches of Hollywood Canal are the major
areas in which salt-water intrusion is a threat to fresh water supplies. The
projected water needs of the rapidly expanding population require that well-
field capacity be increased; however, increasing withdrawals could cause fur-
ther salt-water intrusion. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the
City of Hollywood, undertook a study of the fresh ground-water resources of
the area to obtain information that will be useful to planners in developing
plans for additional supplies and safeguarding the existing supplies from salt-
water intrusion. The field work was started in 1970 and completed in 1973.


LOCATION OF AREA

The city of Hollywood (fig. 2) is an area of about 25 square miles in
southeastern Florida. It is bounded by the ocean on the east, the cities of
Halandale and Pembroke Park on the south, the city of Pembroke Pines on
the west, and the cities of Dania and Fort Lauderdale and urbanized areas of
Broward County on the north. The area of investigation encompasses the city
of Hollywood (with the exception of the coastal strip extending north to Fort
Lauderdale) and parts of adjacent cities and urban areas of Broward County.
Particular attention was given to the area of major ground-water withdrawal
centered about the municipal well field in the west-central part of the city.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 77


Figure 1.-Map of the State of Florida showing the location of Broward County
and Hollywood.



PURPOSE AND SCOPE


The purpose of this report is (1) to describe the hydrology and water
problems of the Hollywood area, (2) to summarize data on the fresh ground-
water resources that will aid planners in the development of future water sup-
plies, and (3) to provide information that they can use in developing plans






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Figure 2.-Map of Hollywood showing locations of observation and test wells,
surface-water gaging stations, canal sampling site, and specific
conductance recording station.


for safeguarding ground-water supplies from salt-water intrusion. This infor-
mation was obtained by determining: (1) the availability and chemical quali-
ty of water in the Biscayne aquifer, (2) the relation of water-level fluctuation
to pumping, (3) general direction of ground-water movement, (4) the oc-
cnrrence and extent of salt-water intrusion, and (5) the general geology of
the Biscayne aquifer.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 77


PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS
General information on the hydrology and geology of the Hollywood area
is in reports by Cooke and Mossom (1929), Parker and Cooke (1944), Cooke
and Parker (1945), and Parker and others (1955). Additional information
on the area is included in reports from investigations in Broward County and
north Dade County by Sherwood (1959), Leach and Sherwood (1963), Sher-
wood and Grantham (1965), Grantham and Sherwood (1968), Bearden
(1972), and Sherwood and others (1973).


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Special appreciation is expressed to Mr. Marshall Bergacker, City Engi-
neer; and all the Hollywood officials for their cooperation during the investi-
gation; to Mr. Floyd Leininger, water-treatment-plant superintendent, for in-
formation about the Hollywood water supply; and to the residents of Holly-
wood for supplying information about their wells.

The project was under the immediate direction of T. J. Buchanan, Sub-
district Chief, Miami, and under the general supervision of C. S. Conover,
District Chief, U. S. Geological Survey.


THE PROBLEM
Hollywood is one of the fastest growing major cities in Florida, the popula-
tion increased 203 percent from 35,237 in 1960 to 106,873 in 1970. Tourists
and winter residents probably increase Hollywood's population by as much as
25 percent.

Municipal water needs increased 312 percent from 1.6 billion gallons in
1960 to 5.0 billion gallons in 1972 (fig. 3). Using available municipal pump-
age data at Hollywood from 1960-72, an arithmetic projection of municipal
pumpage to 1980 (fig. 3) shows an estimated pumpage of 8.1 billion gallons
in 1980, an increase of 3.1 billion gallons, 62 percent, over 1972.

Water use is greatest during December-May when the tourist season and
the dry season coincide to cause maximum domestic and recreational use,
along with heavy lawn irrigation. The building of apartment complexes and
condominiums has increased population density and placed heavy demands
on the water system. Pumpage was especially high during the 1971 dry sea-
son; water demands approached record levels in March and April (fig. 4).









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


9000


8000










6000




an 5000
z
0



M 4000



C-
i.

S3000


2000





1000


1960 1965 1970 1975 1980
Figure 3.-Graph showing annual municipal pumpage at Hollywood for 1960-
72, and projected pumpage through 1980.




Hollywood has the second largest water-supply system in Broward County
and is the major municipal supplier in the southern part of the county. All
public, most of the domestic and industrial, and a large part of irrigation
needs in the city are provided for by municipal supply. It is connected with
the Dania, Pembroke Pines, Hallandale, and Davie water systems to provide








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 77


J FM MJ JAS NDIJ FMA MJ A S NDJ M A MJ J A S 0 N D
1970 1971 1972

Figure 4.-Graph showing monthly municipal pumpage at Hollywood and rain-
fall at Fort Lauderdale, 1970-72.


water for their systems during peak demand. Some of these systems, especially
Dania's, use water from the Hollywood system during much of the year.


The Biscayne aquifer is the source of all public, domestic, industrial, and
irrigation water supplies in Hollywood. The Biscayne aquifer is a highly
permeable aquifer and will transmit large volumes of water with only slight
declines in water level.


The most immediate threat to the ground-water supply in the Hollywood
area is salt-water intrusion from the Hollywood Canal. Because salt water is
heavier than fresh water and the Biscayne aquifer is highly permeable, salt
water will move inland into the aquifer if fresh-water levels are not maintained
at an elevation higher than mean sea level.


.560.
550




500


0
-I
-J
450




400 CD




350




300







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Additional ground-water supplies must be developed to meet projected
increases in water needs. What must be determined is whether the additional
supplies are available in the Hollywood area; if so, will the additional with-
drawals lower existing water levels to a point that will induce further salt-
water intrusion.

Withdrawal from five of the city's municipal wells had been discontinued
because of water-quality problems not related to salt-water intrusion and this
aggravated the problem of adequate supply during periods of high demand.
Results of test drilling during this investigation indicated that the quality
problem could be overcome by deepening the wells to another zone in the
Biscayne aquifer and casing out the zone in which they were originally com-
pleted. The wells have been deepened and returned to full production.

HYDROLOGIC SETTING
CLIMATE

The climate of Hollywood is sub-tropical, with long,warm, humid sum-
mers and mild winters. The average annual temperature for 1931-72 at Fort
Lauderdale. just north of Hollywood, was 75.20F (table 1) with infrequent ex-
tremes ranging from 290 to 960F (U. S. Dept. of Commerce, 1968). The aver-
age monthly temperature for the period ranged from 67.30F in January to
82.60 F in August. The average annual rainfall at Fort Lauderdale for the
period was 60.22 inches. Rainfall is unevenly distributed during the year;
72 percent occurs during May-October.


Table 1.-Average monthly rainfall and average monthly temperature at
Fort Lauderdale, Florida, 1931-72.'


Month


Rainfall (inches)


Ter


January 2.18
February 2.34
March 2.78
April 3.58
May 5.57
June 8.34
July 5.94
August 6.77
September 8.52
October 8.48
November 3.21
December 2.51
Yearly Average 60.22
' Record from National Weather Service Climatological Data.


nperature OF
67.3
67.9
70.4
74.3
77.5
80.4
82.0
82.6
81.4
77.7
72.3
68.6
75.2


---







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 77


TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE
A major part of the city of Hollywood is on the coastal ridge that parallels
the seacoast. The ridge is about 6 miles wide and nearly everywhere is very
low and flat. The ridge crests about 2 miles inland and begins to decline 4 to
5 miles inland. The land surface in Hollywood generally is 5 to 10 feet above
msl (mean sea level) except along the coast and just west of the Intracoastal
Waterway. West of the coastal ridge, the Everglades extends some 40 miles
inland and covers the western two-thirds of Broward county (Sherwood and
others, 1973).

A network of levees and canals has been constructed throughout most of
the Everglades area to form conservation areas where water can be impounded
and stored for use during the dry season. The conservation areas are connected
to the coastal canal system in the county.

Drainage is controlled chiefly by the Hollywood (C-10) Canal that extends
through the heart of the city (fig. 2) and north to the Dania Cut-Off Canal,
a tidal canal. Hollywood Canal is tidal from the Dania Cut-Off Canal south
to the control near Hollywood Boulevard and west to the control at 46th Avenue
on the western reach of the canal that parallels Sheridan Street. East of Dixie
Highway the ridge area slopes to the east and drainage is eastward to the
Intracoastal Waterway.


BISCAYNE AQUIFER
In the Hollywood area, fresh-water supplies for all purposes are obtained
from the Biscayne aquifer. The aquifer underlies all the coastal areas and
most of the Everglades in Broward County (Schroeder and others, 1958).
The aquifer is thickest along the coast where it extends from land surface to
a depth of about 200 feet and thins westward to a feather-edge near the Collier-
Broward County line. It is underlain by marl of low permeability which ex-
tends to a depth of about 900 feet and separates the Biscayne aquifer from the
underlying Floridan aquifer.

The Biscayne aquifer of southeastern Florida is a highly permeable se-
quence of beds of limestone, sandstone, and sand that ranges in age from late
Miocene through Pleistocene. In Hollywood, the aquifer is composed of the
following marine Pleistocene formations (from the oldest to youngest), Ana-
stasia Formation, Miami Oolite, and Pamlico Sand (Tarver 1964). The thick-
ness of the limestone section and the permeability of the aquifer generally
decrease to the north.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Figure 5.-Map showing location of supply, observation, and test wells and
geologic and sea-water intrusion sections in the well-field area.


In most of the Hollywood area the Biscayne aquifer contains two distinct
sandy limestone beds that are highly permeable and will yield large quantities
of water to wells. The upper bed occurs between 40 and 100 feet and the lower
bed between 110 and to at least 200 feet at some locations. The existence of
these beds in the vicinity of the municipal well field was determined by drill-
ing test wells (fig. 5) ranging in depth from 47 to 200 feet. The beds vary in
thickness from less than 20 feet to about 50 feet and are generally separated
by 40 to 50 feet of sand (figs. 6 and 7).


GROUND WATER
Ground water in the Hollywood area occurs both under confined (artesian)
and unconfined (nonartesian) conditions. Confined ground water as defined








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 77


FEET
40 -



*sF-


LEVEL


EXPLANATION
SAZND CLCAREOU SAND SHELL
SANE- LIMESTMEII


0 0.1 02 MILE

VERTICAL EXAGGERATION X 13


Figure 6.--Geologic section of the Biscayne aquifer along line A-A' in figure 5.


by Lohman and others (1972, p. 7) is "water under pressure significantly
greater than atmospheric, and its upper limit is the bottom of a bed of dis-
tinctly lower hydraulic conductivity (coefficient of permeability) than that of
the material in which the confined water occurs." Confined highly mineralized
water in the Hollywood area occurs in the Floridan aquifer which underlies
the area at a depth of about 900 feet.


Unconfined ground water as described by Lohman and others (1972, p. 7)
is "water in an aquifer that has a water table." The water table is the upper
surface of the water, is at atmospheric pressure, and is free to rise and fall.
Unconfined water in the Hollywood area occurs in the Biscayne aquifer.

In the Hollywood area, the water table normally lies 6 to 10 feet below
land surface. The water table fluctuates seasonally in response to rainfall,


200


M
0







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


B'
FEET


EXPLANATION
14. L- E-O


0 02 04 MILE
VERTICAL =XAGGERATION' X 26


Figure 7.--Geologic section of the Biscayne aquifer along line B-B' in figure 2.

rising during periods of heavy rainfall and falling during periods of low rain-
falL- Other forces such as discharge to canals, evaporation, transpiration, and
pumping from wells also cause the water table to fluctuate. The water table
can be mapped( contoured) by determining the elevation of water-levels in a
network of wells. Water-level maps show the shape and slope of the water
table and the general direction that ground water moves. Ground water moves
downgradient from the area of recharge (high elevation) to the areas of dis-
charge (low elevations).

RECHARGE AND DISCHARGE
During the wet season the major source of recharge to the Biscayne aquifer
in the Hollywood area is rainfall that filters through surface materials to the
water table. During the dry season water in the South New River and Snake
Creek Canals provides a source of recharge. The water levels in these con-







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 77


trolled canals are maintained at a higher elevation that the water table by
water released from the conservation areas. Because of this elevation difference
water can move from the canals into the aquifer.

Evapotranspiration, ground-water flow to canals and the sea, and pumping
from wells are the means of discharge from the Biscayne aquifer in the Holly-
wood area. Evapotranspiration and flow to the canals and the sea are major
means of discharge and are greatest when water levels in the aquifer are high.
Pumping from wells is the greatest means of discharge during the dry season
because of higher public water-supply demand and the need to irrigate lawns
and gardens.

WATER-LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS AND
GROUND WATER MOVEMENT
Water levels in the Biscayne aquifer fluctuate in response to recharge to
and discharge from the aquifer. Rapid 'short-term fluctuations are caused by
rainfall and by pumping. Fluctuations of several feet a day have occurred
from heavy rainfall. Fluctuations due to pumping of wells are generally small.





I 111111111 I 111111111 I I
9
8


Figure 8.--Hydrograph of well F-291, 1948-72.








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


W
_l




Cn
Lal
-n




ul

W
UJ





-1
z


Ll

Ld

0

H

ILl
tLi
IL
1-


Li

U-
LtJ
_l


1963 64 65 66 67 68


69 70 71 1972


Figure 9.-Hydrograph of well G-1225, 1963-72.



Gradual changes in water levels are caused by evapotranspiration and ground-
water outflow to the canals or directly to the ocean.


Water-level fluctuations in the Hollywood area were measured in 45 wells,
of which 5 are equipped with automatic recording instruments (fig. 2). All
the wells are finished with open hole in permeable limestone and sandy lime-
stone formations.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 77


The water level in the western part of the Hollywood area, on the average,
is about 1.0 higher than in the eastern part as shown by comparing hydro-
graphs of well F-291 (fig. 8), in the eastern part of the city, and well G-1225
(fig. 9), in the western part of the city. The peak water levels vary in time
of occurrence each year because of the distribution of rainfall during the year.
Although large seasonal fluctuations occur, the levels return quickly to about
average elevation.


Because the Biscayne aquifer is highly permeable, the effects of pumping
are dispersed over a large area. For example, although well G-1227 is in the
midst of a cluster of pumping wells, and well G-1226 is 0.4 mile away (loca-
tions on fig. 2), the water levels are nearly identical (fig. 10). Water levels


5

4
-I
LLIw3


U)
z
UJ 0
:2
Ui
0

I- 5
w
LLI
--4

-I
w 2
I-


SWEI IG-1

WELL G-1227


ILU1L


OCT NOV DEC


I I I







t Ii


I I I I I I


I lU I .,1.


AUG SEPT


Figure 10.-Graphs showing water levels in wells G-1226 and G-1227 and daily
rainfall at Fort Lauderdale, 1972 water year.


JAN FEB MAR APR MA JUNE JULY


1. I . .


'' rol B H


E-






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


in these wells rise rapidly in response to recharge by rainfall (fig. 10). The
peak water levels during the 1972 water year (October 1971 September 1972),
were 4.10 feet above mean sea level in well G-1226, and 3.15 feet above in
well G-1227, and occurred on July 21 as a result of 5.12 inches of rainfall on
July 20. Decline of the water level from the peak was more gradual than the
rise to the peak and is caused by evapotranspiration, pumping, and discharge
to the canal system and the ocean.

To prepare dry- and wet-season water-level contour maps for 1971, water-
level measurements were made in the network of observation wells (fig.2) in
the Hollywood area near the end of the wet and dry seasons. For the dry sea-
son map water levels were measured on May 5, 1971 (fig. 11), near the end
of an extreme drought. Rainfall at Fort Lauderdale totaled 0.89 inch for
March and April 1971, 5.47 inches below average (table 1) for the 2 months
and rainfall had been deficient for several months. Although the aquifer was
being partly recharged by South New River and Snake Creek Canals, water
levels in wells G-1225, G-1226 and G-1227 (fig. 2) reached record low levels dur-
ing March and April. Levels in well G-1227 reached an extreme low of 0.2 foot
above sea level, but due to 0.4 inch of rainfall on May 2 and 3, the water
level had risen to 0.7 foot above sea level by May 5, 1971. Peak daily water
levels in Hollywood Canal at the gaging station just south of Dania Cut-Off
Canal ranged from 0.61 to 1.88 feet during high tide and averaged about 1.25
feet for the months of April and May for 1962-68. With water levels of 0.7
foot above sea level in the well field the assumption is reasonable that during
high tide water levels in the tidal part of the Hollywood Canal (C-10) were
higher than ground-water levels in the adjacent aquifer.

For the wet season map water levels were measured on October 19, 1971
(fig. 12) and were from 0.7 to 1.3 feet higher than on May 5, 1971. Rainfall
at Fort Lauderdale was 8.98 inches in September 1971, 0.46 inch above the
average rainfall for September, and 4.57 inches in October, 3.91 inches below
the average rainfall for October (table 1).

The contours on both maps, figures 11 and 12, reveal virtually the same
flow pattern throughout the area. The general direction that ground water moves
can be inferred from the contour map because ground water generally moves
downgradient perpendicular to the contours. The hydraulic gradients slope
gently toward the Hollywood Canal from the northwest, west, and southwest
and from the east along the ridge area near Dixie Highway. East of Dixie
Highway, gradients slope gently to the ocean and north of Stirling Road, to
Dania Cut-Off Canal. In the southwest part of Hollywood, water levels are
maintained during the dry season by recharge from Snake Creek Canal 3 miles






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 77


Figure 11.-Map showing potentiometric surface of the Biscayne aquifer in
the Hollywood area, May 5, 1971.


south of Hollywood. In the northwest part of Hollywood, water levels are main-
tained during the dry season by recharge from South New River Canal (fig.
1). During periods of high rainfall, water levels in Snake Creek Canal and
South New River Canal are regulated to aid in lowering ground-water levels
in the Hollywood area. Because the transmissivity of the aquifer in the Holly-
wood area is large, the effect of pumping of wells in the Hollywood well field
is dispersed over a large area and drawdowns are small.

The recharge and drainage system in the Hollywood area is effective in
keeping ground-water levels between 1 and 2 feet above msl year around ex-
cept during extreme wet and dry periods. Water levels on May 11, 1972 (fig.
13), near the end of the 1972 dry season were only slightly lower than the







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


HOLLYWOD CORPORATE BOUNDARY -
.A i Ie N BELL W TH
*ATE:- A'BLU CaXTOUR \
xftz DASHED #HER1E IN- 6-7 a G-1434
TVRME LEFOOT *ALLAN OALE BEA ___________________1____*___* __\



Figure 12.-Map showing potentiometric surface of the Biscayne aquifer in the
Hollywood area, October 19, 1971.


water levels on October 19, 1971 (fig. 12), near the end of the 1971 wet sea-
son. Rainfall during the 1971 wet season was slightly below average, and dur-
ing the 1972 dry season was slightly above average. Consequently, water levels
in the aquifer were maintained at fairly stable levels.

WATER QUALITY

GROUND WATER

Ground water in the Biscayne aquifer can be easily treated to meet
standards recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service (1962) for public
supply. Chemical analyses listed in table 2 show that the chemical character
of water in the Biscayne aquifer from 20 to 144 feet below land surface is







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 77


Figure 13.-Map showing potentiometric surface of the Biscayne aquifer in the
Hollywood area, May 11, 1972.


suitable for public supply but that the water will require some treatment to
reduce hardness and iron content.

The U.S. Public Health Service recommends that iron in water for public
supply not exceed 0.3 mg/1 (milligrams per liter). Iron concentrations in
excess of 0.3 mg/1 begins to affect the taste and if the water is used for lawn
irrigation, it will stain buildings and sidewalks. The iron concentration of the
samples whose analyses are listed in table 2 ranged from 0.08 to 2.2 mg/1.
Dissolved iron within that concentration range can be easily removed by aera-
tion and filtration.

Hardness is a term applied to the soap-neutralizing power of a water (Mc-














Table 2.-Chemical analyses of water from test wells G-1531, G-2037, and G-2088.
(Chemical constituents in milligrams per liter, physical properties, in units as shown.)
S I I Phosphorus
be || as
NWell of .. 0".
NoCollection 0 a 6
8.0 98 0
U" ii i e


66
128
20

144


natf


3.29.71
4. 8.71
2. 4.72
2.14.73
2. 4.72
2.14.73


3.29.71
4. 8.71
2- 4-72
2.14-73
2. 4.72
2.14.73


460
246
230
180
230
240


1,200
520
568
365
561
560


U



I


0
0
30
0
100
0


7.8
8.0
8.0
7.7
8.0
7.7


Dissolved
solids



I I
(


708
304
340
220
314
319


685
299
328
220
305
310


30
20
20
20
10
10


0.04
.05
- -


10
25
10
50
20
30


0,09
.06
.08
.16
,07
,07


8.2
8.2
5.4
3.4
12.0
9.6


0.32
.44
.08
.91
2.2
.50


0.000
.000
.004
.000
.011
.004


0,00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00


160
88
88
68
82
86


0.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00


15
6.2
2.5
2.9
6.7
6.7


8.20
.77
.30
,93
.92


65
15
23
8.5
24
24


.30
.70
.04
,20
.0,o


36
0.7
8.8
8.2
1.2
.9


.06
.1
.02
.1
.01


8.0
0.0
45
12
.0
.0


22.
1.4
2,fi
.2
1.9
,9


98
22
38
8
38
36


0.00
.00
.00
,00
.00
.00


0.20
.20
.20
.30
.20
.20


0.01
.00
.02
.00
.11
.00


11
.26
2.2
.55
.33
.33


.05
.08
.08
.06
.00


0.04
.00
.00
.01
,(X)
AM)


I A l Ib W II I IAt .p n .
; Anlyzed) by Uintlywood Water Plant persofttt-.


489
249
194
180
232
243


0
0
09
0r



0


G.1531

G.2037

G.2038


Well
No.


G.1533

G.2037

;.2030


I


I













REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 77


Kee and Wolf, 1963, p. 195). It is attributable principally to calcium and
magnesium and is expressed as an equivalent amount of calcium carbonate
(CaCOs). Hardness in water consumes soap in laundry operations and forms
incrustrations in pipes, boilers, and plumbing fixtures. Any water with hard-
ness between 61 and 120 mg/1 is moderately hard; between 121 and 180
mg/l, hard; and over 180 mg/1, very hard (Durfor and Becker, 1962, p. 27).
The hardness in table 2 ranged from 180 to 460 mg/1.

The U.S. Public Health Service recommends that the color of water for
public supply not exceed 15 platinum cobalt units. Color in ground water is
usually caused by organic matter extracted from the soil. Water that is colored
is undesirable for public use. Color in the samples in table 2 ranged from 10
to 30 units. It generally can be lowered by chlorination and lime softening.

SURFACE WATER
The Hollywood Canal is the major waterway in the Hollywood area. The
canal is tidal and during periods of high tides and low fresh-water discharge,
water in the canal is mostly sea water. The canal is used primarily for recre-
ation and drainage. Therefore, the quality of the water is important chiefly
for appearance and because it may be used for contact sports. Both its salinity
and its level of manmade wastes are highest during low flow because of the
lack of flushing.

Poor water quality in Hollywood Canal other than the high chloride con-
centration is generally the result of manmade contaminants. Typical contami-
nants are bacteria, nutrients, detergents, and pesticides. Bacteria indicative
of contamination include total and fecal coliform; nutrients include the nitro-
gen family and phosphorous; and pesticides include all insecticides and
herbicides.

Of the coliform bacteria, some live in soils and natural waters and others
in the intestines of warm-blooded animals. Fecal coliform are found in the
intestinal tracts of warm blooded animals and their detection in water indi-
cates the presence of animal or human wastes.

High levels of nitrogen (nitrite, nitrate, ammonia and organic nitrogen)
and phosphorous can usually be attributed to sewage effluent and/or agricul-
tural fertilizers. Detergents, MBAS (methylene blue active substances), reflect
the household and industrial cleaners introduced into the canals in waste water.

Water quality in Hollywood Canal was determined at a site half a mile
south of Dania Cut-Off Canal (fig. 2). That the canal is affected by tidal in-









22 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


ux h2 b -..3 Qo C
-0erO eLI


Date


-I Hardness
ji siii (Ca.Mg)


P*.- I-^._r Non-carbonate
% 8 Ihardness


[li i i I I I I


'00? ~~.Co-O


II' trI*.
I I I


S! b b0
00 0b I 3 -Q
NLU r Wr'3


o


Residue
at 180 *C


Calcu-
lated


Aluminum (Al)


Zinc (Zn)


Lead (Pb)


---------------


--- "


9
= W
0


Specific conduc-
tance in micromhos
at 25"C (KxlO6)


to I a o Temperature
o0 ooi~Co~ ("C)

,, Color (cobalt-
8 ooo platinum units)

we oc t. n ca Turbidity (Jackson
turbidity units)


'ta> Wi mm n t Silica Si02


I ~
Cl-^- lC 00 ^>'
to enIcnmwCICMO


Iron (Fe)


2 S 2 Manganese


(Mn)


Su o D .' Calcium (Ca)
o0 8 8"to


hji "9a b Copper(Cu) oc ,oPto
0 000 CopperC) Magnesium (Mg)


Chromium (Cr+6) iS coowool Strontium (Sr)

n Ln 1O3 Sodium (Na)
,o aOo0000 Arsenic (As) S0 0oS0
0 000 0 __oo_ ____

c w Potassium (K)
.I "o -enu- Boron (B)
g Bicarbonate
o0 MBAS d o (HCOa)
~ SS~k'Co I IDetergents)

o Ammonium Sulfate (S04)
^*~!sS'S^^ NH4asN ______ ____N

o Nitrate wZ > g 8Pj2 Chloride (Cl)
--.."" -"o;-- NO3asN o eo o

I Nitrite
boa- 22 NOasN to F job Fluoride (F)

0 Totalorganic Ortho P04
to : nitrogen as N g 3 as P

po a s..Total PO0 6
i4' '4 I -o C 0 Oil and grease Totgg as P g

S Alkalinity
I 4 -4 I 4- b.^ as CaCOa


'-3







a
0-
















OW
P"


03
on.

la



CC',


C',


Nwpwco C4~
U808HUS8t~







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 77


flow is evident from the high hardness and high concentrations of chloride,
sodium, and dissolved solids (table 3A). In general, the concentrations of
principle cations and anions in Hollywood Canal (table 3A) are below limits
set by the FDPC (Florida Department of Pollution Control) for pollution
of surface waters to be used for contact sports. Nitrogen, phosphorous, and
MBAS were also found in the water in Hollywood Canal.

Total coliform levels in Hollywood Canal ranged from 1,020 to 15,200
colonies per 100 ml (milliliters) of water and fecal coliform levels ranged from
80 to 800 colonies per 100 ml in 1970-72 (table 3B). The FDPC requires that
in water to be used for body contact activities, total coliforms are not to exceed
1,000 colonies per 100 ml on a monthly average; nor to exceed this number
in more than 20 percent of the samples examined during the month, no fecal


Table 3B..-Bacteria and carbon analyses of water from Hollywood Canal
half a mile south of Dania Cut-Off Canal.


Coliform in
colonies/100 ml
Total Organic Inorganic
BOD carbon carbon carbon
DATE Total Fecal (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l)
9/28/70 6,200 400 0.7 -
1/26/71 4,100 120 .7 -
4/27/71 37 6 31
4/29/71 1,600 80 -
5/19/71 1,540 120 2.1 -
6/30/71 1.3 -
7/ 7/71 1,020 -
7/13/71 62 16 46
9/20/71 1.6 -
10/ 5/71 7,500 160 -
1/ 3/72 63 5 58
1/ 6/72 56 7 49
1/11/72 1.6 -
1/18/72 5,600 360 -
4/ 3/72 15,200 670 2.1 -
6/15/72 9,600 800 -








Table SC. -Pesticide analyses of water and sediments from Hollywood Canal half a mile south of Dania Cut-Off Canal.
Water samples in micrograms per liter (ug/1)




DATE g g || g 1 zn
11. 570 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.11 000 -0 .00 0.04 -
1-14-71 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 -
4.15.71 ---- -- -- -- -- -- -- .01 .00 .00 -
7-13-71 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 0.00 .00 .00 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 .03 .00 .03 -
9-22-71 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 0.00 -
1. 6-72 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .02 .00 0.0 0.0 -
4- 3.72 .00 .00 .00 .00 .01 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .03 .00 .01 .00 .0 .1 0.00
9.27.72 .00 .00 00 .00 .0 00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .0 00 .00 .0 .0 -

Bottom sediments in micrograms per kilogram (ug/kg)




DATE g g 4, | |l
1.14.71 0.00 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.00 0.00 0,00 -
4.16.71 .00 .5 .4 .0 .1 .00 .00 .00 -
7313.71 .00 2,6 1.8 14.0 .0 00 .00 .00 0,00.00 0.00 -
9.22-71 .00 .6 .4 .0 .0 .00 .00 .00 0 0
1. 6.72 .00 23.0 19,0 .0 2.3 .0X0 .00 ,00 -- 160 110
9.27.72 .00 1.7 1,0 .0 .8 -- .00 .00 0 5,0 0







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 77


limits are included in this standard. The FWPCA (Federal Water Pollution
Control Administration) requires that in waters to be used for recreation and
body contact activities, fecal coliforms shall not exceed a log mean of 200
colonies per 100 ml nor shall more than 10 percent of the total samples col-
lected during any 30-day period exceed 400 colonies per 100 ml.

The nutrients and detergents and the high coliform levels in the Hollywood
Canal come from wastes introduced into the Canal by three plants and by the
many boats and marinas in the Hollywood and Dania cut-off Canals.

Pesticides are introduced into the canal from agricultural areas in western
Broward County by way of South New River Canal and by urban runoff and
waste water. The DDT family (DDT, DDD, and DDE) generally constitutes
the highest level of insecticides and silvex the highest level of herbicides found
in Broward County canals. The concentrations are generally much higher in
the sediments. DDD and DDE are the first and second breakdown stages, re-
spectively, of the insecticide DDT. Of water and sediment samples collected in
Hollywood Canal from January 1971-September 1972, the water was almost
free of pesticides (table 3C) and the DDT family constituted the major pesti-
cides found in the sediment. The pesticide levels shown in table 3C are about
average for most of the canals in Broward County on the basis of recurrent
samples from canals collected during the same time span.

SALT-WATER INTRUSION
The inland extent of salt-water intrusion into coastal aquifers is, in part,
governed by the elevation of the fresh water table above mean sea level.
Studies by Kohout (1960, p. 2133-2141) shows that the depth and shape of
the interface between fresh and salt water are altered somewhat by fresh water
moving toward and discharging into the ocean. Even under dynamic condi-
tions, if fresh-water levels are not maintained at a level appreciably higher
than mean sea level, sea water will move inland.

Salt-water intrusion into the Biscayne aquifer, the chief threat to the fresh-
water supplies in the Hollywood area, generally occurs by one of two methods:
(1) intrusion from the ocean into coastal parts of the aquifer and from un-
controlled canals into inland parts of the aquifer and (2) upward movement
of sea water that infiltrated the beds below the Biscayne aquifer during Pleis-
tocene interglacial stages (McCoy and Hardee, 1970, p. 33).

The salt water in the aquifer along the coast, east of Dixie Highway, oc-
curred from direct intrusion from the ocean. The Hollywood Canal used to
drain the inland areas and divert the water to the ocean also serves as a con-







26 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


duct for salt water to move inland. During the dry season when there is little
runoff to the canal and discharge is low, sea water is able to flow far inland
and infltrate into the aquifer.


Because the relation of specific conductance to chloride is direct in the
range of values normally found in nature in waters that are predominantly
sodium chloride, the specific conductance of water can be used to determine
the chloride concentration. A specific conductance recorder was installed in
Hollywood Canal (fig. 2) 0.3 mile north of Hollywood Boulevard to monitor
the salt-water content. The area that the canal drains is small and ground-water
gradients in the area are almost flat. Therefore, fresh-water discharge is low
except when rainfall runoff is high.


1971 1972
NO DEC JAN FEB MAR I APR I AY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT I OCT NOV 0 DEC


I "I 6 00
3- -5000 o




CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION
4000




CO

S200


3-0b 0:



aIs DAILY PEAK TIDE I o
>. -














S gI DEC .JIAN I FEB I MAR APR I MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT I NOV DEC

Figure 14.-Graph showing daily chloride concentration in Hollywood Canal,
daily peak tides in the Intracoastal Waterway at Hollywood, and
daily rainfall at Fort Lauderdale, November 1971-Decmber 1972.
I- MViOCIJN IFBIMR P A UEIJL A6 ISP C O E
IO. I 97.-- -
Kgr 4-rp hoigdiyclrdecnetaininHlyodCnl
daUiektdsi h nrcasa aewya^Hlyod n
dal anala ot adrae oebr 91bcme^92







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 77 27









L"- U R ,,' "
A-l r ~ if :.



S Q B4G,- GW ,




5. RI_ I l
S!-/ t-o ---" \ ,,
G0-147) G 3-I2B -






Fi%0 I a
area a 6 1914
IC r-l7 7 qi









E cplo r "o c r r 4-. i H o l
b_________ /1 because o 00he lowainll
203 e n ofzooo s i i t aqie in t




TEST WELL AND N sUMBEoR I I 6 1 .-1 g '
F" R OBSERVATION WELL WITH NOR .: 1 :'
RECORDING GAG. E I ''* "'
CHLORIDE CONCENTATION (MG/L

0 .RHALLANDALE _____________ v*
MATY 6,T7 .





Figure 15.-Map showing the approximate extent of salt-water intrusion at
the base of the Biscayne aquifer (l,000mg/I) in the Hollywood

area, May 6, 1971.


The chloride concentration ranged from 45 to 4,700 mg/i in Hollywood
Canal from November 1971 to December 1972 (fig. 14). Concentration was
highest during November 1971 and October 1972 because tides were highest
during these months. Chloride was extremely low during June, July and part
of August 1972 because of the low tide and the high rainfall. Tides were low-
est during April, yet the chloride concentration in the canal remained high,
about 600 mg/1, because of the low rainfall.

The extent of salt-water intrusion into the aquifer in the Hollywood area
adjacent to Hollywood Canal by infiltration of salty water from the canal was
determined by analyzing water from a series of test wells for salt content. The
wells were sampled on May 6, 1971 (fig. 15) during the extreme drought. The
wells werejsampled on May. 6, 1971- (fig. -15) during the extreme drought. The







28 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY








40T-^ ^+40

SMAIE PARK oR. N.32 AVE. HOLLYWOD
SUPPLY WELL 16 G-1240 G-.458 ,CANAL
EW -SEA
EL LEVEL


40- -40


FRESH
at- -80



120


SALTY




SAPROIMMATE BASE OF THE BISCAYNE AQUIFER
o a0 a@ mILI



Figure 16.-Section C-C" (fig.5) from Hollywood Canal through the northern
part of the well field showing the extent of salt-water intrusion,
May 6, 1971, near the end of the 1971 dry season.



chloride concentration of a water sample collected from the canal at Holly-
wood Boulevard, May 6, 1971 was 10,000 mg/1 (the chloride concentration of
sea water is 19,000 mg/1).

Salt water has moved inland at the base of the aquifer to within 0.1 mile
of supply well 16 (fig. 16) in the north part of the well field (fig. 5) and with-
in about 0.15 mile of supply well 12 (fig. 17) in the south part of the well
field (fig. 5). The toe of the salt front fluctuates slightly with the wet and dry
seasons. Owing to the proximity of the salt front to the well field, wells be-
tween the Hollywood Canal and the well field may need to be sampled periodi-
caly for chloride concentration, especially during the dry season when pump-
ing is heavy, to detect any changes in the position of the salt-water front.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 77


FEET
+ 40

SUPPLY ENTRADA AVE. S.CAL E GRANDE AVE
GL 1531 G-2037 G-159 HOLLYWOO
CANAL
SEA
LEVEL



40
FRESH



80 -



120- -22 Mg/I

-21Mg/ SAL

160 -



200
SI MILE

Figure 17.--Section D-D' (fig. 5) from Hollywood Canal through the southern
part of the well field showing the extent of salt-water intrusion,
May 11, 1972, near the end of the 1972 dry season.


The major threat to the to the ground-water supply in the Hollywood area
is salt-water intrusion up Hollywood Canal from the Atlantic Ocean via the
Dania Cut-Off Canal. Water management officials have considered the installa-
tion of salinity barriers to control the movement of sea water upstream from
Dania Cut-Off Canal. One possible barrier location (site 1 on fig. 2) is south-
west of the Dania well field. Another possible site (site 2 on fig. 2) has the
advantage of helping protect both the Hollywood and Dania municipal water
supplies. Barriers at either of these locations would permit the west reach of
the canal to be used as a link with either South New River Canal or Snake
Creek Canal; both are possible major sources of fresh water. If a salinity
control is constructed, fresh water replenishment to the Hollywood Canal would
insure that the Canal does not stagnate during the dry season. In addition,
flow aigmentatioi would keep a positive head on the upstream side of the






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


salinity barrier. Without this positive head salty water can intrude upstream
around the barrier by flowing through the Biscayne aquifer.

WATER SUPPLY
Hollywood has the second largest water-supply system in Broward County
and is the major municipal supplier in the southern part of the county. Its
water-supply system consists of a water treatment plant with a design capacity
of 20 mgd and 19 wells that will each produce from 1 to 1.5 mgd, with a total
capacity of 27 mgd. The wells range in depth from 60 to 149 feet and in di-
ameter from 10 to 16 inches.

Because of treatment problems that resulted from high carbon dioxide,
chloride, total hardness, and alkalinity in water from supply wells 11-15
(fig. 5) the city was forced to stop using water from these wells except during
emergencies. The area just west of these wells was once used as a landfill area.
The wells average only about 62 feet deep and due to this shallow depth,
chemicals probably leached from the landfill area causing the water-quality
problems. A test well, G-1531 (fig. 5), was drilled to a depth of 128 feet be-
tween supply wells 11 and 12 to determine whether the quality of water im-
proved at depths below that of the supply wells. The well was sampled for
chemical analysis at a depth of 66 feet during drilling, and at the 128-foot
depth upon completion in a permeable limestone. The quality of the water
improved appreciably at the 128-foot depth. The specific conductance dropped
from 1,200 to 520 micromhos per cm, dissolved solids from 708 to 304 mg/1,
and chloride from 98 to 22 mg/1 (table 2). Carbon dioxide, the major con-
stituent causing difficulties with treatment but not listed in table 2, dropped
from 119 to 22 mg/1. In addition, the specific conductance, pH, chloride, and
carbon dioxide in water from a test well (city owned) 94 feet deep near well
G-1531 were approximately the same as those of the 128-foot zone of well
G-1531.

Because the data indicate that large quantities of water of good quality
are available from the limestone formations below 100 feet, the city deepened
their supply well 12. The supply well, initially 62 feet deep, was deepened to
149 feet with open hole in a limestone formation from 140 to 149 feet. The
well yielded over 2,000 gpm (gallons per minute) and was pumped contin-
uously for 2 months at a rate of 900 gpm with no appreciable change in water
quality. The other four wells were then deepened and vary from 100 to 125
feet in depth. All five wells are now again in full production.

Large quantities of ground water can be obtained from the Biscayne aqui-
fer in the western Hollywood area without appreciably affecting ground-water







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 77


levels. However, the threat of salt-water intrusion necessitates careful consid-
eration of well spacing and water withdrawal to prevent lowering of water
levels in the existing well field.

An area half a mile west of the water treatment plant and south of Holly-
wood Boulevard (fig. 2) is being considered by the city as an area in which
to drill additional supply wells. This area is relatively safe from salt-water in-
trusion and receives some recharge from Snake Creek Canal during low-water
periods. To determine whether the quantity and quality of water available in
this area are suitable three test wells, G-2037, G-2038, and G-2039 were
drilled in the median of Rainbow Drive near South Circle Drive (fig. 5) to
depths of 20, 144, and 187 feet, respectively. Wells G-2037 and G-2038 were
sampled on February 4, 1972, and February 14, 1973, for chemical analysis
(table 2). The analyses show that the chemical character of water from these
wells is similar to the chemical character of water from the existing supply
wells. The pH indicates that the water is slightly alkaline, a characteristic of
water from the Biscayne aquifer. The iron concentration of water in well
G-2038 was 0.5 mg/l, about average for water from the existing supply wells.
Evidently, the sample taken on February 4, 1972, was collected before the well
had been pumped long enough and the iron concentration was affected by the
new casing. The data in table 2 indicate that water of good quality is avail-
able less than 150 feet below land surface and with minimal treatment will
meet U.S. Public Health Standards for drinking water.

Test well G-2039 taps permeable sections of sandy limestone, shell, and
sand between 50 and 80, 134 and 159, and at 182 feet below land surface. The
section from 134 to 159 feet contained less sand than the other sections and
was permeable through the entire 25-foot section (fig. 6).


The permeability of the Biscayne aquifer in the Hollywood-Hallandale well
fields is virtually the same as it is in North Miami Beach's Sunny Isles and
Norwood well fields. Aquifer tests by Leach and Sherwood (1963), in the
Norwood and Sunny Isles well fields indicated transmissivities ranging from
2.0 to 2.5 mgd per foot and storage coefficients ranging from 0.1 to 0.2.


SUMMARY

Hollywood is a coastal city in southeastern Florida with an area of about
25 square miles. It is primarily a residential community and is one of the
fastest growing major cities in Florida. Population increased 203 percent from







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


35,237 in 1960 to 106,873 in 1970. The mild sub-tropical climate also attracts
many winter vacationers.

In the Hollywood area fresh water for all purposes is pumped from the
Biscayne aquifer which is composed chiefly of permeable beds of limestone,
sandstone, and sand that range in age from late Miocene through Pleistocene.
The aquifer is thickest along the coast and in the Hollywood area extends
from land surface to about 200 feet and is underlain by beds of poorly perme-
able marl to a depth of about 900 feet. Rainfall that infiltrates through surface
materials to the water table is the major source of recharge to the Biscayne
aquifer.

Major water-level fluctuations in the aquifer in the Hollywood area result
from rainfall and fluctuations of several feet a day have occurred. The water
table slopes gently to the east and, on the average, is about 1.0 foot higher in
the western part of the city than in the eastern part. Water levels rise sharply
with heavy rainfall, but also decline sharply owing to high permeability of
the aquifer.

The water levels in the Hollywood area are greatly influenced by the ocean
and by Hollywood Canal and to a lesser degree by Snake Creek Canal, South
New River Canal, and Dania Cut-Off Canal. Owing to the high permeability
of the aquifer water levels in the well field area decline only about 0.1 foot
when the wells are pumped because the drawdown is dispersed over a large
area. West of Dixie Highway gradients slope gently downward to the Holly-
wood Canal and east of Dixie Highway to the ocean.

Salt-water intrusion from Hollywood Canal is the chief threat to the
fresh-water supply in the Hollywood area. Hollywood Canal is a drainage
canal that extends through the heart of the city and is connected to the tidal
reach of Dania Cut-Off Canal. Salt water from Hollywood Canal has filtered
into the aquifer. When fresh-water discharge in Hollywood Canal is low the
chloride concentration of the water in the canal has been as high as 10,000
mg/I. At depth in the aquifer salt water has moved inland west of the canal
to within 0.1 mile of some of the municipal wells.

Large quantities of ground water of good quality can be obtained from
the Biscayne aquifer in the Hollywood area. Because of the high permeability
of the aquifer in the area, large quantities of water can be withdrawn without
appreciably affecting ground-water levels. However, the threat of salt-water
intrusion necessitates careful consideration of well spacing and water with-
drawal to prevent lowering of water levels in the existing well field.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 77


WELL NUMBERS
In order to coordinate data from wells on a nationwide basis, the U.S.
Geological Survey has adopted a well-location number system, which locates
the well by a 16-digit number based on latitude and longitude. The consecu-
tive county wells numbers used in this report are referred to the nationwide
system, as follows:


County No. Latitude-Longitude No. County No.


Latitude-Longitude No.


260011N0800851.1
260252N0800853.1
260032N0801357.1
260053N0801057.1
260039N0801042.1
260312N0801001.1
260252N0800914.1
260054N0801033.1
255948N0800909.1
260155N0801013.1
255916N0800853.1
260212N0800834.1


1447
1474
1476
1531
1548
1597
2000
2035
2037
2038
2039
2040


260213N0800923.1
260234N0800906.1
260251N0800937.1
260035N0801034.1

260053N0801023.1
260035N0801015.1
260045N0801032.1
260040N0801044.1
260027N0801101.1
260027N0801102.2
260027N0801102.3
260045N0801034.1


G 1446 260213N0800848.1


291
1224
1225

1226
1227
1237
1238
1240
1241
1346
1434
1445


G 2073 260035NO801027.1







34 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

REFERENCES

Bearden, H. W.
1972 Ground water in the Hallandale area, Florida: Florida Dept. of Natural
Resources, Bureau of Geology Inf. Circ. 77, 32 p.

Cooke, C. W, and Mossom, Stuart
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geol map.

Cooke, C. W, and Parker, G. G.
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida GeoL Survey Bull 29.

Durfor, C. N, and Becker, Edith
1962 Public water supplies of the 100 largest cities in the United States; U.S.
GeoL Survey Water Supply Paper 1812.

Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
1968 Vater quality criteria: U.S. Dept. of the Interior.

Florida Department of Pollution Control
1972 Pollution of water: Supp. No. 23, chap. 17-3.

Grantham, R. C, and Sherwood, C. B.
1968 Chemical quality of waters of Broward County, Florida: Florida Div. Geology
Rept. Inv. 51, 52 p.

Kohout, F. A-
1960 Cyclic flow of salt water in the Biscayne aquifer of southeastern Florida:
Jour. Geophys, Research, v. 65, no. 7, p. 2133-2141.

Leach, S. D, and Sherwood, C. B.
1963 Hydrologic studies in the Snake Creek Canal area, Dade County, Florida:
Florida GeoL Survey Rept. Inv. 24, 33 p.

Lohman, S. W, and others
1972 Definition of selected ground-water terms-Revisions and conceptional re-
finements: U.S. GeoL Survey Water Supply Paper, 1988,21 p.

McCoy, H. J, and Hardee, Jack
1970 Ground-water resources of the lower Hillsboro Canal area, southeastern
Florida: Florida Dept. Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology Rept. Inv.
55, 44 p.

MeKee, J. E, and Wolf, H. W.
1963 Vater quality criteria: California Water Quality Control Board Pub. 3-A,
p. 195.

Parker, G. G, and Cooke, C. W.
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water: Florida GeoL Survey Bull 27, 119 p.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 77


REFERENCES (Continued)

Parker, G. G., Ferguson, G. E., Love, S. K., and others
1955 Water Resources of southeastern Florida, with special reference to the
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Supply 1255, 965 p.

Schroeder, M. C., Klein, Howard, and Hoy, N. D.
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Sherwood, C. B.
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County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 20, 40 p.

Sherwood, C. B., and Grantham, R. G.
1965 Water control vs. sea-water intrusion, Broward County, Florida: Florida
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Sherwood, C. B., McCoy, H. J., and Galliher, C. F.
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sources, Bureau of Geology Rept. of Inv. 15.

Tarver,.G. R.
1964 Hydrology of the Biscayne aquifer in the Pompano Beach area, Broward
County, Florida: Florida GeoL Survey Rept. Inv. 36, 48 p.

U. S. Dept. of Commerce
Climatological data: Florida Annual Summaries.

U. S. Public Health Service
1962 Drinking water standards: U. S. Public Health Service Pub. 956, 61 p.