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Chemical and biological conditions of Lake Okeechobee, Florida, 1969-1972 ( FGS: Report of investigations 71 )
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 Material Information
Title: Chemical and biological conditions of Lake Okeechobee, Florida, 1969-1972 ( FGS: Report of investigations 71 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Report of investigations 71 )
Physical Description: vii, 94 p. : illus., map. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Joyner, Boyd F
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District (Fla.)
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1974
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Water quality -- Florida -- Okeechobee, Lake   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Boyd F. Joyner.
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 59-62.
General Note: "Prepared by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Geology, Division of Interior Resources, Florida Department of Natural Resources and the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District."
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000112370
oclc - 01338044
notis - AAM8062
System ID: UF00001258:00001

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STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Harmon Shields, Executive Director




DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
Charles M. Sanders, Director




BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71




CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS
OF LAKE OKEECHOBEE, FLORIDA, 1969- 72




By
Boyd F. Joyner


Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
and the
CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT


TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
1974







DEPARTMENT
OF
NATURAL RESOURCES



REUBIN O'D. ASKEW
Governor


DOROTHY W. GLISSON
Secretary of State



THOMAS D. OMALLEY
Treasurer



RALPH D. TURLINGTON
Commissioner of Education


ROBERT L.. SHEVIN
Attorney General



FRED O. DICKINSON, JR.
Comptroller



DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner ofAgriculture


HARMON W. SHIELDS
Executive Director








LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Bureau of Geology
Tallahassee
October 16, 1974


Honorable Reubin O'D. Askew, Chairman
Department of Natural Resources
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Governor Askew:

We are pleased to make available the report, "Chemical and Biological
Conditions of Lake Okeechobee, Florida, 1969 72" by Boyd F. Joyner. The
purpose of this report is to document the present status of Lake Okeechobee
with respect to nutrient enrichment. An assessment of the source and status of
enrichment of the lake system is necessary for all future studies or action, and
for establishing a decision base line for managing water and water quality.

Respectfully yours,




Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief
Bureau of Geology


















































Completed manuscript received
May 8, 1974
Printed for the Florida Department of Natural Resources
Division of Interior Resources
Bureau of Geology



Tallahassee
1974




iv








CONTENTS

Summary ................. ........... ........................... 1
Introduction ....................... .................... 3
Purpose, scope, and sampling procedure ................................ 3
Acknowledgments ....................... .............. .......... 8
Description of Lake Okeechobee and drainage system ...... ................... 9
History of the lake ................................................ 9
Physical features ..................... ........ ................... 9
Tributaries...................................................................... 10
Drainage .................. ........ .... ........................ 11
Hydrologic characteristics, 1969 70 ........................... ........ 12
Precipitation .................................................. 12
Inflow ........................... ........ ................. 13
Outflow .................................................... 14
Water budget, January 1969 July 1970 ............................... 15
Chemical and physical characteristics of water and sediment, 1969 70 ........... 17
Lake Okeechobee ....................................... ......... 17
Physical characteristics of water ................................... 17
Major chemical constituents .................................... 19
Distribution of nitrogen and phosphorus ............................. 22
Trace elements ................................................ 28
Pesticides ..................................................... 28
Bottom sediments ............................................ 30
Tributaries .......... ........................................... 30
Drainage canals ................................................... 39
Nitrogen and phosphorus in rainfall .................................... 40
Water-quality budget, 1969 70 .......................................... 43
Biological characteristics of Lake Okeechobee, 1969 72 ...................... 45
Phytoplankton ........ .......................................... 45
Benthic organisms .................................................. 50
Chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of water and
sediment, 1970 72 ....................................... ........ 52
Chemical and physical characteristics of water ........................... 52
Physical characteristics and dissolved solids ........................... 52
Nitrogen and phosphorus ................................... .... 53
Trace elements .................................................. 54
Chemical characteristics of bottom sediments ............................ 54
Biological characteristics ............................................ 54
Phytoplankton ............................................... 54
Benthic organisms .............................................. 55
Eutrophic assessment .......................................... ..... 55
Selected references ................................... ............... 59
Appendix ................... ........ .......... .. .............. 63







ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page
1. Map of Lake Okeechobee and drainage system showing location of
sampling points ............................ ... ............. 4

IA. Rainfall over Lake Okeechobee, January 1969 July 1970 ............. 13

2. Average seasonal variations of dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, and water
temperature in Lake Okeechobee ................ .............. 21

3. Average distribution of nitrogen (N) in Lake Okeechobee .............. 23

4. Areal and seasonal variations of nitrogen (N) in Lake Okeechobee ........ 24

5. Average distribution of phosphorus (P) in Lake Okeeheechobee ............ 26

6. Areal and seasonal variations of phosphorus (P) in Lake Okeechobee ..... 27

7. Nitrogen (N) in tributaries .................................... 35

8. Phosphorus (P) in tributaries .................... .................. 36



TABLES

Table Page
1. Locations of routing sampling sites on Lake Okeechobee .............. 5

2. Chemical and biological sampling of Lake Okeechobee .................. 7

3. Water budget for Lake Okeechobee, January 1, 1969, to July 31, 1970 ... 16

4. Trace metal concentrations in Lake Okeechobee .................... 29

5. Pesticide analyses of water and bottom sediment for Lake Okeechobee .. 31

6. Average chemical analyses of bottom sediments in Lake Okeechobee ..... 37

7. Nitrogen and phosphorus in rainfall at Hurricane Gate Structure 1 ...... 41

8. Generalized water and dissolved solids budget for Lake Okeechobee
(January 1, 1969 to January 31, 1970) ................... ........ 44

vi







TABLES Continued

Table Page
9. Generalized nitrogen (N) budget for Lake Okeechobee, January 1, 1969 to
January 31, 1970 ......... ... ..... ... ....... ... ........... 46

10. Generalized phosphorus (P) budget for Lake Okeechobee, January 1, 1969
to January 31, 1970 ......... ................................ 47

11. Phytoplankton observed in Lake Okeechobee .... ................ 49

12. Average number of bottom organisms per square meter, January, May,
August, 1969, and January 1970 .............................. ... 51

13. Chemical analyses of water in Lake Okeechobee .................... 65

14. Chemical analyses of water in tributaries to Lake Okeechobee .......... 75

15. Chemical analyses of water in drainage canals of Lake Okeechobee ....... 81

16. Phytoplankton in Lake Okeechobee .......................... 85

17. Chemical and biological analyses of water and bottom sediments in Lake
Okeechobee, Kissimmee River and Taylor Creek, October 1970 May 1972 86

18. Phytoplankton observed in Lake Okeechobee, Kissimmee River and Taylor
Creek, August 1971 -May 1972 ................................. 93

19. Average number of bottom organisms per square meter in Lake
Okeechobee November 1971 and May 1972 ......................... 94










CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF
LAKE OKEECHOBEE, FLORIDA, 1969-72


By
Boyd F. Joyner


SUMMARY

Nutrients are adequate in water in Lake Okeechobee for algal growth.
Organic nitrogen averaged 1.3 mg/1 (milligrams per liter) and accounted for
approximately 86 percent of the total nitrogen, and total phosphorus (P)
averaged 0.05 mg/l. The average dissolved-solids content of the lake water was
288 mg/1 in 1969 72 compared to 190 mg/1 in 1940 41. Dilution and flushing
from greater-than-average rainfall and use by algae, however, decreased dissolved
solids from 309 mg/1 in January 1969 to 210 mg/l in April 1970, near average
value for the 1940 41 sampling.

Rainfall contributes significant amounts of nutrients to the lake, and
concentrations in rain are at times similar to concentrations in both the lake and
its major tributaries. Rainfall contributes 30 percent of the total nitrogen and 21
percent of the total phosphorus load. Major tributary sources include the
Kissimmee River, which contributes 39 percent of the total nitrogen and 36
percent of the phosphorus loads, and Taylor Creek, which contributes 26
percent of the total phosphorus load. Twenty-two percent of the nitrogen and
36 percent of the phosphorus entering Lake Okeechobee is retained within the
bottom sediments and biota. Water pumped from agricultural areas to the
southeast is generally the poorest in quality of all water entering Lake
Okeechobee. Trace elements in the lake water are in low concentrations, but are
usually adequate for sustaining healthy algal growth. Boron, aluminum, copper,
and manganese, are below the probable minimum requirements as given in
literature. Low concentrations of nitrite and ammonia indicate an absence of
significant organic pollution. Bottom sediments contain appreciable quantities of
iron, nitrogen, and phosphorus, with the nitrogen and phosphorus being
primarily organic, consistent with the lake behaving as a nutrient sink and
reservoir. The number and variety of benthic organisms were well below levels
normally considered indicative of highly eutrophic waters. Numbers of nuisance
species were generally low.

The warm water (up to 340C) and adequate nutrient concentrations are
conducive to high biologic productivity; however, algal growth may be inhibited
by the relatively high turbidity of the lake. Secchi-disc readings were generally
less than 1 foot. Turbidity is generally highest during low lake stages. Color of
the water is generally less than 50 units but it can run as high as 240 units







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


because of inflow of highly colored water from tributaries and back pumped
water from drainage canals.

Dynamic shifts in phytoplankton population, reflecting a change in
environmental conditions within the lake, occurred between January and July
1970. Phytoplankton concentration was generally less than 50 cells/ml (cells per
milliliter) before January 1970, and the characteristic organism present was
Pediastrum simplex, a green alga typical of early eutrophic lakes. Average
phytoplankton concentration was 32,300 cells/ml in July 1970, 25,400 cells/ml
in October 1970, and 149,630 cells/ml in January 1971, and decreased to 7,956
cells/ml in April 1971. The average phytoplankton concentration was 11,100
cells/mi in August 1971, 38,400 cells/ml in November 1971, 8,400 cells/ml in
February 1972, and 24,700 cells/ml in May 1972. The dominant organism after
July 1970 was Aphanizomenon holsaticum, a blue-green alga typical of
eutrophic lakes.

In the northern part of the lake, concentration of phytoplankton increased
to bloom levels and dominant species changed from green to blue-green algae
after a period of heavy abnormal inflow from tributaries and rainfall (late 1969
to March 1970), with consequent increased influx of nutrients to the lake.
Increases in concentrations of nutrients such as silica, nitrate, phosphate, iron,
and organic material were relatively large in the northern part of Lake
Okeechobee in January 1970 after heavy runoff. Data indicate decreased
concentrations of these nutrients during the subsequent phytoplankton bloom in
July 1970.

Increased concentration of phytoplankton to bloom levels (75,000
cells/ml), consisting of the blue-green algae, Anabaena circinalis, associated with
eutrophic lakes, occurred also in Blue Cypress Lake on the St. Johns River
approximately 35 miles north of Lake Okeechobee, in July 1970. There was no
evidence, however, that this bloom persisted into 1971 72 in Blue Cypress
Lake. Blue Cypress Lake is affected by man less than Lake Okeechobee.

The data obtained and evaluated during the investigation suggest that Lake
Okeechobee is in an early eutrophic condition; however, regional comparisons
suggest that the water quality of Lake Okeechobee, as of 1969 72, is not
significantly different from that of other water bodies in southern peninsular
Florida. Extensive physical, chemical, and biologic variability within the lake
system over a short time span have been documented. As no reliable
comprehensive nutrient or biologic data are available for historical comparisons,
and, as the investigation coincided with a period of abnormal rainfall and runoff
resulting in a relatively high nutrient flux to the lake, prediction of long-term
trends is not currently possible.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71


INTRODUCTION

Lake Okeechobee in south central Florida is a major water-storage,
flood-retention, recreation, fish, and wildlife area. Its water directly supplies
several towns and is used to irrigate extensive agricultural areas to the so-uth. Ft.
Myers, by diversion from the Caloosahatchee River, utilizes the water for its
public supply, and Lee County plans to divert water for public supply from the
Caloosahatchee River, which receives much of its flow from Lake Okeechobee
by way of the Caloosahatchee Canal.

At times, for drainage and flood-control needs, flow through the network
of canals is reversed; and mineralized, nutrient-rich drainage water from the
leached agricultural muckland south of the lake is returned to the lake. Also,
increased use of fertilizers and pesticides on farmland and increased land use in
the drainage area north of Lake Okeechobee have caused an increase in dissolved
solids and nutrients carried to the lake by some tributary streams.

PURPOSE, SCOPE, AND SAMPLING PROCEDURE

Recognizing that the enrichment or eutrophication of lake waters,
although a natural process, may be accelerated by man's activities, the present
status of the lake, with respect to nutrient enrichment, is the primary concern of
this report. An assessment of the source and status of enrichment of the lake
system is necessary for all future studies or actions and for establishing a
decision base line for managing water and water quality.

Parker and others (1955) generated background chemical data (1940 41)
used in the present study area, as did Holcomb (1968), and Duchrow (1970), for
the period immediately preceding the start of the present investigation.

The U. S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Central and Southern
Florida Flood Control District, made such an assessment of Lake Okeechobee
over a 41-month period, January 1969 through May 1972. The objectives were:
(1) to determine the source and quantities of dissolved mineral matter and
nutrients entering and leaving the lake, (2) to determine the occurrence and
distribution of nitrogen, phosphorus, trace elements, selected key biological
factors, and selected physical and chemical parameters pertaining to the lake,
and (3) to define the condition of the lake with respect to its present state of
eutrophication.

To obtain the data necessary for the assessment, at least some of 18 sites
in the lake (fig. 1, table 1)were sampled 13 times. Each sampling run or traverse
is called, in this report, a transect. In general, these transects were tied in to







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Fgure I. Map of Lake Okeechobee and drainage system showing
location of sampling sites.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71



Table 1
Locations of routine sampling sites on Lake Okeechobee


Comment
Okeechobee Waterway
Light-FIR 4 sec "2"

Okeechobee Waterway
Light-Fl 4 sec "7"








Daybeacon R "2"


Site
1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


11


Coordinates
26047'45" N
80051'10" W

26049'30" N
80047'05" W

26052'05" N
80o1'05" W

26055'00" N
80055'00" W

26057'45" N
80058'40" W

26059'45" N
80055'00" W

27002'30" N
80051'05" W

27005'05" N
80047'10" W

27009'30" N
80047'10"W

27003'05"' N
80043'55" W

27001'00" N
80040'15" W

26059'05" N
80037'10" W

26055'00" N
80040'55" W

26052'45" N
80,44'05" W


do.


Martin


do.


Okeechobee Waterway
Light Fl 4 sec "1"

Okeechobee Waterway


Okeechobee Waterway


County
Palm Beach


do.


do.


Glades


do.


Okeechobee


Light-F14 Sec


do.


Palm Beach


do.








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


2655'30" N
8047'55" W

26049'30" N
80040'05" W

27004'46" N
80053'23" W


do.


do.


Glades


18 26048'52" N do.
80O56'50" W
seasonal criteria, that is, they corresponded to cold-, dry-, and hot
(wet)-weather periods. The dates on which the transects were made are listed in
the following table:


Type of data collected


1-16
1-16
1-18
1-16, 18
2, 5, 8, 9, 12, 15


Do
Do
Do
Do
Do
Do


See table 2
Do
Do
Do
In general, data collected same
as in table 2 except for
pesticides, chlorophyll, and
seston. BOD and TOC analyses
included (see table 13 and 17)
Do
Do
Do
Do
Do
Do, trace elements (table 17)
determined on sample collected from
site 15
Do
Do, trace elements determined on
sample collected from site 15


In addition to these 13 transects, daily measurements of specific
conductance and turbidity and monthly analyses for nitrogen species,
phosphorus, and major inorganic ions were obtained at site 16. Vertical profiles,
which included field measurements and analysis for nitrogen species,
phosphorus, and major inorganic ions, were made at sites 1,6, and 11 during the
first four transects.


Transect
Number


Date


Sites
Sampled


Jan. 1969
May
Aug.
Jan. 1970
Apr.


July
Oct.
Jan. 1971
April
Aug.
Nov.


Feb. 1972
May








Table 2
Chemical and biological sampling of Lake Okeechobee
Type of Data Sampling
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18


CHEMISTRY OF WATER
Surface:
Field Measurementsj/
Laboratory analysis:
Complete analysis (unfiltered)2/
S Complete analysis (filtered) 2.
S : ,Trace elements /

Field measurements./
Laboratory analysis:
Complete analysis (unfiltered) ~y

CHEMISTRY OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS

PESTICIDES (water and sediments)
BIOLOGY
Surface:
Plankton
Chlorophyll
Seston (suspended material)
Net tow
Bottom Fauna


x x x x x
x x x x x


x x x x x


x x x x


x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x


x x

x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x


x x


x x x
x x x
x x x
X X X
X


x x


x x X X
x x x x
x x x x
x
x


x x
x x
x x


SECCHI DISC x x x

I/ Specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH and alkalinity.
Major inorganic ions + turbidity, ortho and total phosphate and complete nitrogen cycle.
Spectrographic analysis (field filtered and acidified).
Iron, manganese, nitrogen, phosphorus (analyses made by Florida Department of Air and Pollution Control).







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Inflow tributaries, and also the inflow and outflow canals (if they were
flowing), were generally sampled monthly through 1970. The Kissimmee River
and Taylor Creek were sampled again only when transects 5 through 13 were
made. Field measurements were made, and samples were analyzed for nitrogen
species, phosphorus, and major inorganic ions.

All data collected from transect 1 through 6 and, for phytoplankton data
through transect 9, are included in the discussion of conditions for 1969 70
(1969 71 for photoplankton). All remaining data are included in the discussion
for conditions as of 1970 72.

Unless otherwise specified, all field measurements and all water samples
for chemical and biological analysis were collected just below the water surface.

Plankton samples were preserved with formaldehyde (3- to 4-percent
final concentration), copper sulfate (to help plankton to retain color), and
detergent (to prevent coagulation). In addition to a "whole" water sample for
quantitative plankton counting, a net sample (No. 12 plankton net) was
obtained in some places for qualitative evaluation. Temporary wet mounts of
sample concentrates were used for identification. Identification to species was
made when possible, and counts are expressed as number of cells per milliliter.

Benthic macroinvertebrate samples were collected with a 6 x 6 inch
Ekman dredge. Two samples were taken at each point. Macroinvertebrates were
separated using a 30-mesh sieve and were then preserved in 95 percent ethanol.
Most organisms were identified, to generic or specific levels, and counts were
expressed as numbers per square meter.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of several agencies and
individuals in the collection and analysis of the water, sediment, and biologic
samples.

Mr. Lothian A. Ager, fisheries biologist, Florida Game and Fresh Water
Fish Commission, Okeechobee, Florida, furnished and piloted the boat for the
collection of samples, furnished valuable information on current conditions of
the lake, and offered many suggestions for the study. Messrs. William M. Beck,
Jr, and James L Hulbert, biologists, Florida Department of Polution Control
collected, classified, counted, and made interpretations of bottom fauna. Jay R.
Carver, chemist, Florida Department of Pollution Control assisted in the
collection and chemical analysis of bottom sediments. The Environmental







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71


Protection Agency laboratory in Athens, Georgia, analyzed samples of water and
bottom sediments for pesticides.

Phillip Greeson, aquatic biologist, U. S. Geological Survey, counted and
identified plankton in the samples obtained from the lake and assisted in the
biologic evaluations. The investigation was made and the report was prepared
under the general supervision of C. S. Conover, District Chief, U. S. Geological
Survey, Tallahassee, Florida.

DESCRIPTION OF LAKE OKEECHOBEE AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM

HISTORY OF THE LAKE

The Lake Okeechobee region was occupied by the Calusa Indians for
about two centuries after Ponce de Leon's discovery of Florida in 1513. The
Calusas were replaced by the Seminole tribe, which was formed during the 18th
century by the amalgamation of immigrants from the Creek and Hitchiti tribes
of Georgia and Alabama. Not until after the United States acquired the Territory
of Florida in 1821 did white settlers push southward into the region. Military
campaigns during the second Seminole Indian War (1835 42) led to the
exploration of Lake Okeechobee. and the Everglades region. Before this,
exploration was almost impossible because of Indian resistance and the almost
impenetrable Everglades. In 1881 the channel of the Caloosahatchee River was
extended to the lake. Drainage canals were later dug through the Everglades to
the ocean, and dikes were constructed around the south shore of the lake for
protection against floods. To increase the outflow capacity, the construction of
the St. Lucie Canal to the ocean was begun in 1916; the canal reached full
capacity in 1928.

A low muck levee on the south and east sides of the lake, begun in 1921,
was completed in 1924. This levee was overtopped and breached in 1926 and
1928 by hurrican-driven storm surges. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers began
construction of levees in the early thirties. Hurricane gate structures were built,
several pumping stations have been completed, and others are near completion.
The pumping stations alleviate flooding near the lake by pumping excess water
into the lake. The lake stage ranges from about 11 feet during extreme drought to
about 17 feet during extremely wet years, but generally fluctuates between 14.0
and 15.5 feet.

PHYSICAL FEATURES

Lake Okeechobee, within the Coastal Lowlands of Florida, is part of a
plain, the Pamlico Terrace, that was formed by recession of the sea during the







10 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

late Pleistocene. It is the largest fresh-water lake within a single State; only Lake
Michigan, of lakes entirely within the United States is larger. It is roughly
trapezoidal and has an area of 720 square miles at a stage altitude of 15.0 feet.
Its volume at this stage is 4,020,000 acre-feet. It is 35 miles long, north-south,
and 30 miles wide.

Currents can be fairly strong; the direction and intensity depend on
amount of inflow, outflow, and pumpage into the lake, and on the wind. The
average velocity of prevailing winds is approximately 9 mph, creating an average
wave height of 1.4 feet. This height would result in effective mixing to a depth
of 85 feet. The average depth of Lake Okeechobee is less than 9 feet. Wave
height in excess of about 2 feet could cause effective mixing to virtually all
depths, regardless of stage.


TRIBUTARIES

The streams and canals that are tributary to Lake Okeechobee north of the
Caloosahatchee and St. Lucie Canals drain about 4,400 square miles. Of these,
the Kissimmee River is the largest. It drains 67 percent of the inflow area and
contributes about 75 percent of the tributary inflow to the lake. Fisheating and
Taylor Creeks, Nubbin Slough, and Harney Pond and Indian Prairie Canals
contribute most of the remaining 25 percent.

The Kissimmee River drains 2,950 square miles, where altitude ranges
from about 15 feet at Lake Okeechobee to more than 300 feet in Polk County.
The lakes in the northern and western part of the basin constitute about 10
percent of the drainage area. The lower part of the Kissimmee River basin is
relatively flat and is used extensively for large cattle ranches and some dairy
farming.

Channelization of the Kissimmee River from Lake Kissimmee to Lake
Okeechobee began in April 1962 and was completed in July 1971. Several
water-control structures have been installed, and the flow of the river is now
completely regulated.

Fisheating Creek originates in western Highlands County and flows
southward into Glades County and then eastward to enter Lake Okeechobee at
Lakeport. The creek meanders through cypress swamps, and the drainage
boundaries are often indeterminate in the lower reaches. Runoff is sluggish
because of the large amount of natural storage in the basin. Land in the
Fisheating Creek basin is used for citrus groves, cattle ranches, and dairy
farming.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71


Taylor Creek, draining less than 200 square miles, enters Lake Okeechobee
at its northernmost point. The. channel of the lower reaches of Taylor Creek is
dredged for navigation to and from the lake through HGS-6 (Hurricane Gate
Structure-6). The gate is open except during hurricanes and high lake stages. The
land is used for cattle ranches and large dairy farms.

Nubbin Slough is a small tributary originating in southwestern St. Lucie
County and enters Lake Okeechobee 2-4 miles southeast of Taylor Creek.

Harney Pond 'Canal is connected to Lake Istokpoga by Canal 41-A. The
flow is from Lake Istokpoga through Canal 41-A into Harney Pond Canal (C-41),
which enters Lake Okeechobee, about 4 miles northeast of the mouth of
Fisheating Creek. The flow in Harney Pond Canal is completely regulated.

Indian Prairie Canal, similar to Harney Pond Canal, is connected to Lake
Istokpoga by Canal 41-A. The canal enters Lake Okeechobee from the northwest
about 6 miles northeast of Harney Pond Canal. The flow is, completely regulated
and is about one-quarter of that of Harney Pond Canal.

DRAINAGE

Before the levees were constructed on the south shore of Lake
Okeechobee, natural outflow during wet periods spilled over the south shore
into the Everglades, where it drained slowly through dense sawgrass to the sea.
The outflow is now controlled through several canals, including the St. Lucie
and Caloosahatchee canals. Small quantities of water are discharged through
West Palm Beach, Hillsboro, North New River, and Miami Canals.

St. Lucie Canal, the largest outflow canal, heads on the eastcentral shore
and flows generally northeastward for about 40 miles to the ocean near Stuart
(fig. 1). Its discharge is controlled at a lock and dam about 25 miles downstream
from the lake. When the control level is normal, the only flow through the canal
is from leakage and lockage and a small amount used for power generation at the
lock and dam.

Caloosahatchee Canal heads at HGS-1 on the southwest shore at Moore
Haven (fig. 1), flows southwestward through Lake Micpochee, then through two
locks in the channelized Caloosahatchee River before entering the estuary near
Fort Myers. When the lake storage is at the normal control level, the only flow
into the canal is from leakage and lockage through the navigation lock.

West Palm Beach Canal heads at HGS-5 on the southeast shore about 8
miles south of the St. Lucie Canal. It extends southeastward for 19 miles and







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


then eastward for about the same distance to enter the ocean at West Palm
Beach. The canal is constructed through deep muck soil along the northern
border of the Everglades. Its water is used extensively for irrigation during the
winter vegetable-growing season.

The Hillsboro and North New River Canals originate at S-2 (Pump
Structure 2) and HGS-4 on the southeast shore, dividing 800 feet below HGS-4.
The Hillsboro Canal flows through the winter vegetable-growing area and
extends 51 miles to enter the ocean at Deerfleld Beach. The North New River
Canal is the longest major canal in the Everglades, extending through its heart 60
miles to enter the ocean at Fort Lauderdale. These canals are used for irrigation
and flood control. The North New River Canal is capable of carrying large
quantities of water from Lake Okeechobee to the middle Everglades.

Miami Canal heads at HGS-3 and S-3 on the southcentral shore. The canal
is a continuous waterway, extending 81 miles south and east to enter the ocean
at Miami. The central part of the canal, however, is blocked, and only the upper
and lower reaches are effective waterways.

HYDROLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS, 1969-70

Water enters Lake Okeechobee from rain falling directly on the lake, from
tributaries, and sometimes from reverse, or negative, flow pumped from canals
to remove flood water from the agricultural areas. The lake may also receive
ground-water effluent: at the lake, the potentiometric surface of water in the
Floridan aquifer is about 30 feet above land surface. Water leaves primarily
through the St. Lucie and Caloosahatchee Canals and by evapotranspiration.
Sometimes substantial quantities leave through West Palm Beach, North New
River, Miami, and Hillsboro Canals and a very small amount by seepage through
the levee along the south shore.


PRECIPITATION

The normal (median) rainfall over Lake Okeechobee is 45.60 inches per
year (1,751,040 acre-feet). It varies from about an inch in November to more
than 7 inches in June (U. S. Corps of Engineers, written commun., 1970).

During the 19-month investigation, monthly rainfall was above the
monthly normal (median) for 13 months and below for 6. Departures from
normal (median) ranged from 2.82 inches below (60 percent of normal) to 9.85
inches above (480 percent of normal) in March 1970 when rainfall totaled 12.44
inches. The total amount of rain falling during the 19 months was 91.61 inches,








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71


20 inches (128 percent of normal) greater than the aggregate of the 19 monthly
normals (medians).


Figure 1A shows the rainfall for each month
compared with the monthly normal (median) for each.


Ld &


RAINFALL, INCHES
t O D


of the 19-month span


8 8 = N


Figure lA. Rainfall over Lake Okeechobee, January 1969 July 1970.

INFLOW

Of.the streams contributing water to the lake, the Kissimmee River is by
far the largest. On the average, its contribution is about eight times greater than
that of the next largest, Fisheating Creek, although its maximum daily flow of
record is less. The following table lists the average discharge from each of several
tributaries.


0 N
I :I~f~ai~f55
-- ...,


E ii












.' I








.4 :777777 .01
A tf
::::::::::::;:i::: E-11- :::::6:.:::







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Average Discharge Greatest daily average
Tributary (cfs) (ac-ft/yr) Base period (cfs) (date)

Kissimmee River a/ 2,188 1,584,000 1928-62 27,580 Oct. 3, 1969
Fisheating Creek b/ 264 191,100 1931-68 31,400 --
Harney Pond Canal 212 153,500 1962-68 2,910 --
Taylor Creek c/ 102 73,840 1955-68 6,930 --
Indian Prairie Canal 48.9 35,400 1962-68 1,470 --
Miami Canal 55.2 39,960 1957-68 -- -
Nubbin Slough (d) -- -- -


a/ Flow gaged at station S-65E; location on figure 1.
b/ Flow gaged 14 miles upstream from State Highway 78.
c/ Flow gaged 7.6 miles upstream from mouth.
d/ Flow not gaged on continuous basis; small except during storms.


OUTFLOW

On the average, outflow from the lake through three major canals is about
2,500 cubic feet per second (1,830,000 acre-feet a year). The distribution, by
canal, is as follows

Average discharge Base Greatest daily average
Canal (cfs) (ac-ft/yr) period (cfs) (date)

St. Lucie 1,300 940,000 1952-68 11,430 March 27, 1970
Caloosahatchee 1,024 740,000 1938-68 8,290 April 10-11, 1970
West Palm Beach 173 125,200 1939-68 1,610 a/

a/ At times water flows into the lake from the canal; the daily maximum reverse
flow in the period of record is 1,760 cfs.


Seepage from the lake along its south shore is small in comparison with
outflow through other means. According to Meyer (1971), the seepage along a
50-mile reach of shoreline is 22 cfs (cubic feet per second) at a lake stage of 14
feet and 50 cfs at a stage of 16.5 feet.

The only remaining outflow element considered in this report is
evaporation from the lake's surface. According to the U. S. Corps of Engineers
(written commun., 1970) the normal (median) is 55.70 inches per year. Visher







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71


and Hughes (1969) report that in the vicinity of the lake the difference between
rainfall and potential evaporation ranges from about zero or slightly less than
zero (potential evaporation greater than rainfall) to 9 inches per year.

WATER BUDGET, JANUARY 1969 JULY 1970

Rainfall during the investigation was considerably greater than normal
(median), and for this reason the values of all the elements of inflow and
outflow cited in the foregoing 2 tables, were substantially different from those
of the 19-month study period.

Inflow and outflow are summarized in table 3. Change of storage was
computed by subtracting the capacity of the lake at the end of the study from
that at the start. The lake was at a stage of 15.2 feet at the start and 14.1 feet at
the end. On the basis of a rating table supplied by the U. S. Corps of Engineers,
the difference was 480,000 acre feet.

The "other sources" of table 3 represent unmeasured inflow and about 4
percent of the total budget. The amount, 359,000 acre-feet, is considered to
have been contributed by sources not specifically known or determined, perhaps
upward seepage from the Floridan aquifer (Parker and others, 1955). The
amount could be represented, in part, by inaccuracies in the identified outflows
or inflows.

The average inflow from each stream during the 19-month period was
substantially greater than the long-term average inflow because of the
above-normal rainfall. A partial comparison follows:

Source Percentage of average
Fisheating Creek 142 aj
Harney Pond Canal 130
Indian Prairie Canal 178
Kissimmee River 138
Taylor Creek 193 b_

aj On basis of flows at gaging station, 14 miles upstream from State Highway
78.
.bJ On basis of flows at gaging station, 7.6 miles upstream from mouth.

Outflows, similarly, were greater than the long-term averages. The flow in
the St. Lucie Canal was 151 percent of the long-term average, in the
Caloosahatchee Canal 282 percent, and in the West Palm Beach 121 percent of
average.













Table 3
Generalized Water Budget for Lake Okeechobee
January 1, 1969 to July 31,1970

INFLOW OUTFLOW
Q Total Q Total
Soce cts acre-feet Source cfs acre-feet
Fisieatlng Creek 562 643,000 St. Lucie Canal 1,960 2,240,000
Harnmy Pond Canal 275 315,000 West Palm Beach Canal 210 240,000
Indian Pairie Canal 87 99,200 Miami Canal 111 127,000
Kisimmes River 3,030 3,470,000 Calooshatchee Canal 2,890 3,310,000
Taylor Creek 279 320,000 Evaporation 88.01/ 3,420,000
Nubbin Slough 40 45,700 Change in Storage -1.1 3 -480,000 4/
North New River Canal 31 35,000 0
Pecipitaton 91.6 1/ 3,570,000 2/
OtherSources 187 359,000
TOTAL 8,857,000 TOTAL 8,857,000

If Inches; data supplied by U. S. Corps of Engineers.
2/ Based ona lake area of 730 sq mi
3 Feet; data supplied by U.S. Corps of Engineers
SComputed from stage-volume rating table supplied by U. S. Corps of Engineers







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71


Usually, the Miami Canal contributes water to the lake on a long-term
basis, but, during the 19-month period of investigation, it carried more water
from the lake than into it.

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF
WATER AND SEDIMENT, 1969- 70

LAKE OKEECHOBEE

The quality of the water in Lake Okeechobee varies with both location
and time. Factors such as rainfall patterns, evaporation rates, and water use
cause changes in the quality of the water with time. Probably the greatest factors
influencing the areal variation in water quality are water movement and
circulation patterns caused by varying amounts of inflow, outflow, and back
pumpage of water into the lake from flooded agricultural areas. Characteristics
of the water and bottom sediments of the lake are discussed under the following
sections. The analyses on which the discussion is based are listed in table 13
(Appendix). Both physical and chemical parameters are tabulated, for samples
collected during six sampling transects over a 19-month span from January 1969
through July 1970. Because chemical analyses by Holcomb (1968) and Duchrow
(1970) extend the analytical record back to 1967, some of their analytical data
are summarized in this report.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER
In describing the water quality of Lake Okeechobee, specific conductance,
temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, pH, and color are classified as physical
characteristics.

Specific conductance is a measure of the ability of water to conduct an
electrical current and is reported in micromhos per centimeter at 250C. It is a
rapid determination and may be used to estimate dissolved solids or individual
major chemical constituent in the water. For Lake Okeechobee, the ratios of
eight chemical parameters to specific conductance are as follows:

Dissolved solids (calculated from sum of dissolved constituents;
see table 13 for explanation) 0.56
Calcium (Ca) .09
Magnesium (Mg) .03
Sodium (Na) .08
Potassium (K) .01
Bicarbonate (HCO3) .29
Sulfate (S04) .08
Chloride (Cl) .12







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


From these ratios the dissolved solids (calculated) or concentrations of the
listed constituents can be estimated by multiplying a measured specific
conductance by the ratio.

For the six sampling transects,.average specific conductance ranged from
409 to 541 micromhos. The following table, prepared from data recorded by
Holcomb (1968) and Duchrow (1970), summarized specific conductance
extremes for 1967 70, on samples collected from the center of the lake:


Micromhos Date Lake Stage (feet)
Maximum 590 Feb., 1968 13.0
Minimum 330 Feb., 1970 15.5


During the present investigation, a sample from point 8, about 8 miles
north of the center of the lake, at a stage of 15.9 feet, had a specific
conductance of 199 micromhos, well below the 1967 70 minimum.

Average water temperatures ranged from 120C in January 1970 to 300C in
April 1970. The extremes were 9.0C and 340C (table 13). Vertical profiles at
sites 1,6, and 11 on each sampling date showed no thermal stratification.

Dissolved oxygen (DO) in water is derived from the atmosphere and from
oxygen given off by aquatic plants. Solubility of oxygen in water varied
inversely with temperature. Oxygen is removed from water by the respiratory
process, by decomposition of organic material, by oxidation, and by release to
the atmosphere when the water becomes supersaturated. During heavy biologic
activity, DO may vary considerably diurnally.

All DO measurements were made in-place during daylight. In general,
concentration was lowest in the early morning and highest in mid-afternoon. DO
was usually near saturation, and vertical profiles showed no DO stratification. A
few measurements during periods of high biologic activity showed
supersaturation. Extremes in DO were 59 and 11.2 mg/1.

Average seasonal variation in DO, which is partly dependent on
temperature, ranged narrowly from 7.1 mg/1 (92 percent saturation) in July
1970 to 9.9 mg/1 in January 1970 (92 percent saturation). Average areal
variations in DO were low, ranging from 8.5 mg/1 (92 percent saturation) to 9.1
mg/1 (99 percent saturation), except at site 12 near the mouth of the St. Lucie
Canal where average concentration was 7.4 mg/1 (81 percent saturation). Figure
2 shows how water temperature and DO varied seasonally.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71


The lake water becomes very turbid during storm periods and is noticeably
turbid even during extended periods of relative clam. Turbidity varied markedly
with wind action. Apparently turbid water during storms is historical. Heilprin
(1887) reported the water to be fairly clear when not disturbed
but" .. .generally, however, it is tossed into majestic billows, which rake up the
bottom, and bring to the surface a considerable infusion of sand, rendering the
surface murky." For the lake transects, turbidity ranged from 7 to 56 JTU
(Jackson turbidity units). Daily measurements at site 16 ranged from 1 to 59
JTU.

The pH of a solution is a measure of the effective hydrogen-ion
concentration. A pH value of 7.0 represents neutrality, whereas alkaline water
has a pH greater than 7.0 and acidic water has a pH less than 7.0.

The water in Lake Okeechobee is in a natural carbonate environment,
which causes it to always be alkaline; field pH ranged from 7.8 to 9.0, with a
median of 8.4. The pH was highest when photosynthetic activity in the lake was
greatest, resulting in greater carbon dioxide uptake.

Color of water gives a rough indication of the amount of dissolved organic
material. Also, higher color usually indicates recent heavy inflow from streams
and high lake stages. Color, as does turbidity, reduces light penetration in water
and consequently has a regulatory effect over biologic processes.

Water in the lake is generally much less colored than that of the tributary
streams, possibly because of adsorption and flocculation of the colored organic
matter by suspended material in the lake and by biochemical and photochemical
oxidation. During normal lake stages, water color usually ranges from about 30
to 50 units on the Platinum-Cobalt scale, but the range is much wider from
drought to flood periods. Average color intensity for the six lake transects
ranged from 20 units in August 1969 and July 1970 to 70 units in January
1970. Color ranged from 5 to 120 units. The high color, at site 8, was caused by
heavy inflow from the Kissimmee River.



MAJOR CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

Calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, sulfate, and chloride are major
dissolved chemical constituents in the water of Lake Okeechobee. Silica and
potassium occur in lesser amounts. Figure 2 shows the average calculated
dissolved-solids content for each of eight lake transects, two in 1940 41, and
six in 1969 70.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


The lake water is generally more highly mineralized than inflowing water
from any of the tributary streams. For example, calculated dissolved solids in
the lake are two to three times higher than those in the Kissimmee River. Taylor
Creek is probably the only exception; it at times contributes water much higher
in mineralization than that in the lake. In February 1969 the calculated
dissolved solids of Taylor Creek water was 605 mg/l, about double the
concentration of the lake.

In 1940 -41 Parker, Ferguson, and Love (1955) also noted that dissolved
solids in the lake were about three times as great as those in the major tributary
streams, and hardness was five to seven times as great as that of inflowing water.
They mentioned several explanations for the higher mineralized water from the
artesian Floridan aquifer, concentration from evaporation, and discharge into
the lake of highly mineralized water from the West Palm Beach, Hillsboro, North
New River, and Miami Canals during short rainy periods. They concluded,
however, that the difference could be accounted for by dilute inflow water
dissolving limestone formations on the bottom of the lake. This explanation is
partly correct, although dissolved solids in the lake are concentrated somewhat
from evaporation and there is a strong possibility that upward leakage from the
Floridan aquifer occurs. The average potentiometric surface of the aquifer is
more than 30 feet above the lake surface. A composition diagram of Lake
Okeechobee, Kissimee River and Floridan aquifer waters suggest that some
higher mineralized water from the Floridan aquifer may be entering the lake.
The dissolution of limestone from the lake bottom would not account for the
excess chloride, sodium, and sulfate, but a small input from the Floridan aquifer
would. The flow of water into the lake by pumping from agricultural canals is
small compared with the overall water budget for the lake, but this highly
mineralized water does cause some increase in dissolved solids.

This study shows that mineralization of the lake water varies inversely
with lake stage and the amount of flushing from heavy runoff. As shown in
figure 2, the average calculated dissolved-solids content in 1940- 41 was less
than 190 mg/l, as compared with about 260 mg/1 in 1969 70. Increases in the
concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, sulfate, and
bicarbonate were accordant. The smallest increase was in magnesium (2 mg/l),
and the greatest was in chloride (20 mg/1). Sodium and sulfate increased 19 and
14 mg/l, respectively. In 1940- 41, when calculated dissolved-solids were less
than 200 mg/l, annual average lake stages were 16.03 and 15.90 feet,
respectively, whereas average lake stage from January 1969 to July 1970 was
only about 15 feet. The highest average dissolved-solids content for the six
transects of this investigation was during January 1969 (fig. 2) after a prolonged
drought during which the lake stage had been below 12 feet. During the drought,
evaporation and below-normal inflow and outflow concentrated dissolved solids








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71


remaining in the lake. After the above-average rainfall and flushing of the lake
during this investigation, dissolved solids decreased significantly, from 309 mg/1
in January 1969 to 210 mg/1 in April 1970, near average for the 1940 41
sampling. Also, the July 1940 and July 1970 dissolved solids compare
reasonably well.

Areal variations in dissolved solids are generally smallest at low lake stages,
when water movement is slow. At a lake stage of 14.2 feet in August 1969,
calculated dissolved solids ranged from 253 mg/l at point 7 to 298 mg/l at site
15. For the five sites sampled in July 1970, also at a lake stage of 14.2 feet,
calculated dissolved solids ranged from 227 mg/l at site 12 to 270 mg/l at site 5.


DISSOLVED OXYGEN, MILLIGRAMS PER LITER


DISSOLVED SOLIDS, MILLIGRAMS PER LITER
0o o

0 01 u MU AU D 0 E 01












5 ;- 3 1U1 MfSUOU 5 K --- --- ------ 1 r
A .










031 1










WATER TEMPERATURE, DEGREES CELSIUS


Figure 2. Average seasonal variations of dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen,
and water temperature in Lake Okeechobee.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Areal variation in dissolved solids are greatest at high lake stages, when
water movement is fast. In January 1970 at a lake stage of 15.9 feet, calculated
dissolved solids ranged from 110 mg/l at site 8 to 284 mg/l at site 13. Heavy
inflow from the Kissimmee River largely influenced quality at site 8. The
dissolved solids estimated from four specific conductance measurements of
water collected from the center of the lake, reported by Holcomb (1968) and
Duchrow (1970) from August 1967 to February 1970, ranged from 185 mg/1 at
lake stage 15.5 feet in February 1970 to 330 mg/1 at lake stage 13.0 feet in
February 1968. In this study the dissolved solids were 110 mg/1 at point 8 in
January 1970. Site 8, as mentioned earlier, is about 8 miles north of the center
of the lake.

DISTRIBUTION OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS

Nitrogen and phosphorus have long been considered to be key elements
contributing to accelerated eutrophication of lakes. The concentrations of these
two nutrients are vitally important in controlling the rate of biologic
productivity; however, many other elements, some in trace quantities, are
necessary for plant growth. When concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and
phosphorus are high, algal blooms generally occur.

Figure 3 shows the average concentrations for the various nitrogen species
for the six lake transects made from January 1969 to July 1970.

Total nitrogen (N) includes all forms of organic and inorganic nitrogen.
Inorganic nitrogen in column A of figure 3 includes that from nitrate, nitrite,
and ammonia. Average total nitrogen (N) concentration of 1.4 mg/1 was exactly
the same for the three transects made in 1969. Inorganic nitrogen, however, was
highest in January, but decreased in May and August when biologic activity in
the take increased.

A major part of the nitrogen in the lake is in organic form. During the six
transects (fig. 3) organic nitrogen accounted for 71 to 93 percent of the total
nitrogen and averaged 85 percent. Organic nitrogen is also the major nitrogen
form in adjacent drainage basins. On the upper St. Johns River basin it accounts
for about 90 percent of the total nitrogen (Goolsby and McPherson, 1970).

The higher concentration of nitrogen in January and April 1970 to 1.7
mg/1 was caused by increased heavy inflow and abnormal rainfall. Table 8 shows
that a considerable load of nitrogen can be contributed to the lake by rainfall.
The rainfall over Lake Okeechobee was above normal from October 1969
through March 1970, when 12.44 inches (almost 10 inches above normal) fell.
Average concentration of nitrogen in rainfall during January 1969 to January










REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71


01
w
I-


w


aJ





z






0
2
n-





0
C-


JAN MAY
1969


AUG JAN APR
1970


Figure 3. Average distribution of nitrogen (N) in Lake Okeechobee.


JULY







aqoqipaalO eMw (N) uawou o suo.pm.u posZsgm pro Iay 't amsld




3.0
EXPLANATION


INORGANIC A JANUARY 1969
NITROGEN 9 MAY 1969
-(N C AUGUST 1969
TOTAL NITROGEN (N) D JANUARY 1970
,ORGANIC
NITROGEN E APRIL 1970
S(N) F JULY 1970
.0- W DATE
S2.0 LOCATION
see f g, I )





j .1.0 -.




0....










o00 0 S li 9 E tt 1ft 0 C A C BCa &Cl
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71


1970 was 0.90 mg/l. Nitrogen in rainfall will be discussed in more detail in a
later section. The low nitrogen concentration of 0.79 mg/l was caused by a
phytoplankton bloom.

Average nitrite and ammonia concentrations were generally low, (fig. 3)
which indicates either the absence of gross cultural pollution or the effectiveness
of DO in the lake to oxidize pollutants and to prevent the reducing condition
necessary for in-place formation of nitrite and ammonia. In general, nitrogen
concentration was lowest in the northern part of the lake, a little higher in the
eastern part of the lake, and highest in the southern and western parts, as
indicated by figure 4. Nitrogen concentration ranged from 0.51 to 2.9 mg/1. In
general, inorganic nitrogen was highest during the winter and lowest during the
summer, when biologic productivity was greatest. Inorganic nitrogen
concentration ranged from zero to 1.1 mg/l. The high of 1.1 mg/l, at site 5 in
April 1970, along with adequate phosphate ard other essential nutrients, may
have triggered the large algae bloom at site 5 in July 1970, by which time
inorganic nitrogen was zero, all having been utilized by the growing algae.
Probably there is less circulation at site 5 than at any other place in the lake.

The following table lists extremes in nutrient content of water samples
collected from the center of the lake at four intervals, August 1967, February
1968, August 1969, and February 1970 (Holcomb, 1968; Duchrow, 1970).

Minima Maxima
Milligrams Milligrams
Constituent Date per liter Date per liter
Nitrate nitrogen Aug. 1967 0 Feb. 1968 0.1
Amonia nitrogen Feb. 1968 0 Aug. 1969 .04
Organic nitrogen Aug. 1967 .74 Aug. 1969 1.4
Orthophosphate
(P04-P) Feb. 1968 .003 Feb. 1970 .052
Total phosphorus Aug. 1967 .016 Feb. 1970 .150


Average phosphorus concentration in the lake usually is lower than in the
tibutary streams, which indicates phosphorus uptake in the lake. Large
quantities of both nitrogen and phosphorus are assimilated by the large amount
of vegetation in the lake. Much of the shallow part, especially in the west and
northwest, contains heavy concentrations of grass and other aquatic vegetation.
The vegetation releases the nutrients to the lake water or to bottom sediments
on death. Dying vegetation, however, is continuously being replaced by new
growth, which again requires large quantities of nutrients. Recycling of nutrients





26 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

between water and bottom sediments is a complex process, and further studies
of the process are needed in Lake Okeechobee for a more definitive statement.

In 1969 average total phosphorus concentration was low, from slightly less
than 0.02 to 0.03 mg/1 (fig. 5). Orthophosphate (PO4-P) concentration ranged
from 0.01 to slightly more than 0.02 mg/l and averaged 65 percent of the total
phosphorus. Phytoplankton concentration for the 1969 lake transects was
highest in May, resulting in assimilation of most of the orthophosphate. By
January 1970, average total phosphorus (P) and orthophosphate (P04-P) had


JAN MAY
1969


AUG JAN APR JULY
1970


Figue 5. Averge distribution of phosphorus (P) in Lake Okeechobee.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71


increased, to 0.07 and 0.05 mg/l, respectively. The increased phosphorus
concentration was in line with the increased nitrogen concentration in January
1970 and was also caused by abnormal rainfall and increased inflow to the lake
in the fall and winter of 1969. The above-normal rainfall and inflow to the lake
through March 1970 continued to contribute large loads of nutrients. Rain
decreased in April, when only 0.01 inch fell on Lake Okeechobee. Areal and
seasonal variations in phosphate concentrations are wide, as shown by figure 6.
Areal variations are mostly caused by water-inflow changes and movement in the
lake, and seasonal variations are caused by changes in biologic activity. Heavy
inflow to the lake caused increased phosphate concentration and increased
biologic activity causes decreased orthophosphate concentration.

Total phosphorus concentration ranged from 0.01 to 0.15 mg/l;
orthophosphate (P04-P) from 0.00 to 0.14 mg/1. The low and high
concentrations of both orthophosphate and total phosphorus occurred at sites 7
and 8.



EXPLANATION




C O MGOST OUS
LOCATION

C UGUST 969
I 0 JANUARY 1>O
%l E wAPRL IT70
AI I JULY 1OTT


A a U


Figure 6. Areal and seasonal variations of phosphorus (P) in Lake
Okeechobee.


crm l ....mu "' -" ~ ly ... 'Z- .. .. .. ..


I--~







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Phosphorus concentration was low in January 1969 because of low inflow
rates to Lake Okeechobee before and during the sampling period, whereas high
inflow rates in the fall and winter of 1969 flushed large loads of phosphorus into
the lake. Sites 7, 8, and 9, where the concentrations were highest in January
1970, were directly influenced by heavy inflow from the Kissimmee River and
Taylor Creek.

On June 22, 1952, at a low lake stage of 12.81 feet, Odum (1953)
reported phosphorus concentrations of 0.003 ppm (parts per million) and 0.007
ppm near the south shore of Lake Okeechobee and 0.03 ppm near the mouth of
Taylor Creek. In February 1970 (p. 37) phosphorus in water from the center of
the lake was the same as at site 8 in January of that year, 0.150 mg/l, the
maximum for the present study.

TRACE ELEMENTS

In addition to nitrogen and phosphorus, many elements, some in trace
quantities, are essential for plant growth.

For the four lake transects from January 1969 to January 1970, samples
were collected for spectrographic analyses for 25 trace elements at sites 1, 6, and
11. The results are given in table 4.

Of the trace elements listed in table 4, nine (aluminum, boron, cobalt,
copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, and zinc) have been listed by
various investigators as essential for algal growth (Eyster, 1965; Provasoli, 1953,
1958; Walker, 1953; Gerloff and Skogg, 1957). All these elements are present, at
least periodically, in Lake Okeechobee in varying concentrations, ranging from 1
pg/I (microgram per liter) for'molybdenum to 320 pg/1 for iron. All but three
were present in more than adequate quantities for algal growth. The mean
concentrations of boron (47 ig/l), copper (4pg/l), and manganese (< 3.3 ag/1)
were less than minimum requirements for healthy algae growth of 100, (Eyster,
1965; Provasoli, 1958); 6 (Walker, 1953); and 5pg/l (Gerloff and Skogg, 1957),
respectively.

According to Holcomb (1968) a sample collected from the center of the
lake in August 1967 contained zero chromium, manganese, nickel, and cobalt.

PESTICIDES

About 34 million pounds of pesticides were used in Florida in 1966 (Hifer
and Kolipinski, 1970). Approximately 26 million pounds were applied on citrus
fruits, vegetables, and melons. Less was used on other crops, on lawns, in homes,







Table 4
Trace metal concentrations in Lake Okeechobee
(ND, not detected; <, concentration less than value indicated)
(Results in micrograms per liter)



F. A5 E 5 1 E ^
I E


1 1-16-69 10 35 <2 <7 50 < 70 <7 <4 4 < 7 13 <7 3 <3 2 <7 3 <.7 820 <7 <7 <7 ND -
1 5-15-69 2& 45 <2 <3 55 < 75 <8 <8 3 <8 35 <3 4 <3 2 1 8-27-69 30 55 <3 <9 57 <130 <7 <7 2 <3 <13 18 <7 3 <3 2 <7 4 <.7 810 <9 <7 <7 <380 <13
I 1-15-70 10 41 <.6 <3 53 < 60 <6 <6 2 ND < 3 19 <3 .3 <3 2 4 <.6 700 <6 <6 <3 <240 ND
I a I -

6 1-14-69 30 34 <2 <7 47 < 70 <7 <4 4 <7 40 <7 3 <3 1 <7 3 <.7 930 <7 <7 <7 ND -
6 5-169 25 35 <2 <3 50 <60 <6 <6 7 < 6 75 <3 3 3 3 <9 4 <.6 670 <6 <6 <6 <250 -
6 8-27-69 14 55 < 3 <9 51 <130 <7 <7 3 <3 <13 6 <7 4 <3 2 <7 4 <.7 830 <9 <7 <7 <390 <13
6 1-13-70 20 55 <.6 <3 64 < 60 <6 <6 4 ND < 3 320 <3 .3 5 2 8 <.6 750 <6 <6 <3 <250 ND z


11 1-14-69 120 43 < 2 <8 54 < 80 <8 <5 9 < 8 160 < 4 5 2 <8 3 <.8 960 <8 <8 <8 ND -
11 5-14-69 15 40 <2 ,<3 50 < 70 <7 <7 3 < 7 70 <3 4 <3 2 <10 5 <.7 800 <7 <7 <7 <280 -
11 8-26-69 60 55 <3 <9 52 <130 <7 <7 2 <3 <13 14 <7 3 <3 2 <7 4 <.7 830 <9 <7 <7 <370 <13
11 1-13-70 80 41 <.6 <3 54 < 55 <6 <6 3 ND < 3 210 3 .3 5 2 6 <.6 650 <6 6 <3 <230 ND







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


and for mosquito control. Citrus-fruit farming is intensive in the Lake
Okeechobee inflow area, but the total amount of pesticides that enters the lake
drainage is unknown. Winter vegetable farming and sugarcane growing is
extensive south of the lake. As previously mentioned, excess water from these
areas is pumped into Lake Okeechobee at HGS-3 and 4 to alleviate floods.

DDT is applied to sweet corn for controlling army worms. Large acreage
on the east and southeast shores of Lake Okeechobee is used for growing sweet
corn in the winter. Toxaphene, another chlorinated hydrocarbon, is also applied
to sweet corn for controlling corn earworms.

Water and bottom-sediment samples from sites 1,6, 9, 11, 14, and 15 were
analyzed for pesticides including seven chlorinated hydrocarbons, eight
organophosphates, and the carbamate, sevin (table 5). The highest concentration
of DDT series in the water was 0.09'pg/l and in bottom sediments 2,900 pg/kg
(micrograms per kilogram).

The highest concentration of toxaphene in bottom sediments was 1,400
pg/l. All the organophosphates and the carbamate listed in table 5 are used in the
Lake Okeechobee area, but none were found in any of the water and bottom
sediment samples, probably because of the nonpersistence of these pesticides.

BOTTOM SEDIMENTS

In the bottom sediments of Lake Okeechobee at most of the 15 sampling
sites, appreciable quantities of iron, nitrogen, and phosphorus were present, but
very little manganese (table 6). In general, the concentrations of nitrogen and
phosphorus were lowest in the bottom sediments in the western part of the lake.
This may be because of poor water circulation there or possible because of heavy
vegetation than can assimilate these nutrients and prevent deposition to the
sediments.

Iron in the sediments ranged in concentration from 0.50 to 8.1 mg/g
(milligrams per gram), total nitrogen ranged from 0.39 to 11 mg/g. The organic
nitrogen was usually greater than 90 percent of the total nitrogen. The total
phosphorus as P04 ranged from 0.08 (0.03 P) to 2.1 mg/g (0.69 P).

TRIBUTARIES

Nitrogen and phosphorus contents of streams and canals tributary to Lake
Okeechobee are shown in figures 7 and 8, respectively and all data are shown in
table 14. Figures 7 and 8 do not include data for Harney Pond and Indian Prairie
Canals because water from them was usually not flowing into the lake during the







Table 5
Pesticide analyses of water and bottom sediment for Lake Okeechobee
(Results for water samples in pg/l (micrograms per liter), Bottom sediments pg/kg (micrograms per kilogram)
ND (Not Detected)

Chlorinated
Date Hydrocarbons O(ganophosphates Carbamates








WATER SAMPLES
1 1-16-69 0.02 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
1 5-15-69 ND ND 0.06 "
1 8-27-69 ND "
1 1-15-70 "
BOTTOM SEDIMENTS
1 1-16-69 82 74 180 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
1 5-15-69 97 520 390 120 "
1 8-27-69 58 96 340 ND "
1 1-15-70 60 200 250 99 9 9 P 9 9 t 9 i
WATER SAMPLES
6 1-14-69 0.02 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
6 5-13-69 ND ND 0.09 9 "
6 8-27-69 ND "
6 1-13-70 0.02 9 "







Table 5
Pesticide analyse of water and bottom sediment for Lake Okeechobee Continued
(Results for water samples in pg/1 (micrograms per liter) Bottom sediments pg/kg (micrograms per kilogram)
ND (Not Detected)








So 2 1 z 0


BOTTOM SEDIMENTS
6 1-1469 9.9 11 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
6 5-1369 ND ND "I "g i I. I It
6 8-27-69 t" I "" I
6 1-13-70 9 32 38 IS D ". "
WATER SAMPLES
9 1-13-69 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
9 5-1349 "." .
9 8-25-9 is "
9 1-12-71 .. .. .. .. ..
BOTTOM SEDIMENTS
9 1-13-69 144 34 14 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
9 5-13-69 64 140 380 120 "
9 8-25-69 150 ND ND "
9 1-12-70 27 100 32 "I ""







Table 5
Pesticide analyses of water and bottom sediment for Lake Okeechobee Continued
(Results for water samples in pg/I (micrograms per liter), Bottom sediments pg/kg (micrograms per kilogram)

ND (Not Detected)

Chlorinated
Date Hydrocarbons Organophosphates Carbamates



z N




WATER SAMPLES
11 1-14-69 .03 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
11 5-14-69 N D s i T I 9 9 t 9 .
11 8-26-69 "
11 1-13-70 "
BOTTOM SEDIMENTS
11 1-14-69 14 6.4 11.2 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
11 5-14-69 78 150 1900 200 "1 I" i .
11 .8-26-69 ND 120 ND ND I i "
11 1-13-70 6 19
WATER SAMPLES
14 1-16-69 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
14 5-14-69 "
14 8-28-69 "







Table 5
Pesticide analyses of water and bottom sediment for Lake Okeechobee Continued
(Results for water samples in pg/l (micrograms per liter), Bottom sediments pg/kg (micrograms per kilogram)

Chlorinated
Date Hydrocarbons Organophosphatea Carbamates



|z 0




BOTTOM SEDIMENTS
14 1-16-69 58 7.4 21 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
14 5-14-69 11 14 250 9 .. i i i i
14 8-28-69 82 320 160 1400 "
WATER SAMPLES
15 1-16-69 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
15 5-14-69 "
15 8-28-69 "
15 1-13-70 I
BOTTOM SEDIMENTS
15 1-16-69 97 214 226. ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
15 5-14-69 91 380 200 i 9
15 8-28-69 140 605 100 i i i i i .
15 1-12-70 61 250 325 ) "





saue.nqq ul (N) uoSgoa!N "L xn sd


A, FISHEATING CREEK
B. KISSIMMEE RIVER
C. TAYLOR CREEK
D. NUBBIN SLOUGH


INORGANIC NITROGEN
ORGANIC NITROGEN


Hr


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5 5
LaL

2.0

i
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0
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b ito


in


JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC JAN
1969 1970


i





osaurnqe. u! (a) snzoqdsoqd "8 amfd


> LWJ
CA I-


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1969 1910
Ig6g 1g/o








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71


Table 6
Average chemical analyses of bottom sediments in Lake Okeechobee

(Results in milligrams per gram, dry weight)


Iron Nitrite &
(Fe) Nitrate (N)


Ammonia Organic Total Total
(N) Nitrogen (N) Nitrogen (N) Phosphorus (PO4)


1 4.8 0.12 0.36 6.2 6.7 2.1 0.04
2 3.3 .50 .16 3.1 3.8 .83 .04
3 1.7 .00 .19 .48 .67 .13 .01
4 1.0 .00 .04 .40 .44 .27 .00
5 .50 .01 .04 .34 .39 .13 .00
6 .85 .01 .05 .44 .50 .08 .00
7 2.4 .01 .06 2.0 2.1 1.0 .00
8 1.0 .01 .04 .66 .71 .36 .08
9 7.2 .01 .14 9.2 9.4 .93 .00
10 6.7 .01 .15 10 10 .50 .02
11 6.3 .08 .14 8.7 8.9 .81 .01
12 4.0 .08 .17 4.2 4.4 1.0 .01
13 7.8 .14 .31 9.4 9.8 1.6 .00
14 .8 .02 .18 11 11 1.0 .00
15 8.1 .03 .22 7.5 7.8 1.8 .01

monthly sampling periods. Analyses of water standing in the channels of both
are included in table 14.

The high color of the water in Fisheating Creek is caused by organic
material contributed by the dense swamps through which the stream flows.
Dissolved solids (calculated) ranged in concentration from 51 to 119 mg/1.
Generally the difference between dissolved solids (calculated) and dissolved
solids (residue) represents organic material (table 14). The low mineral content
of the water is caused by a lack of soluble mineral matter in the drainage basin.
The total nitrogen load (N) contributed to Lake Okeechobee by Fisheating
Creek from January 1969 through January 1970 is estimated to have averaged
2.0 tons per day. Average concentration was 1.4 mg/l. The average total
phosphorus concentration (P) was 0.069 mg/1 and the load averaged 0.09 ton per
day.

There was a tendency for the DO in water of Fisheating Creek to sag
during high flow, probably because of oxidation of organic materials that were
washed in by flood waters. The low DO concentration of 3.3 mg/l (43 percent of
saturation) in August (table 14) was probably caused both by oxidation of


Manganese
(Mn)







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


organic material in the stream and high water temperature. Most of the DO
measurements for Fisheating Creek were made in mid or late afternoon.

In water from Hamey Pond Canal, average concentration of total nitrogen
was 1.2 mg/l, daily load 0.92 ton. Average total phosphorus concentration was
0.072 mg/1 and the daily load averaged 0.06 ton per day.

The total nitrogen (N) concentration in water of Indian Prairie Canal
averaged 1.6 mg/1. The average daily load was 0.42 ton per day, less than half
that of the Harney Pond Canal because of the smaller discharge of the Indian
Prairie Canal. The sample collected in March (table 14) contained 0.058 mg/l
nitrite-nitrogen and 0.76 mg/1 ammonia-nitrogen, which may indicate some form
of pollution. Average total phosphorus concentration was 0.081 mg/l, and the
average daily load was 0.02 ton, less than half that of the Harney Pond Canal.

Water in the Kissimmee River (although colored) is less mineralized than
that of any other stream and canal tributary to Lake Okeechobee except
Fisheating Creek, and is of excellent chemical quality. Calculated dissolved solids
average 108 mg/l. Even though the mineral content is low, the river contributes
the greatest load of dissolved solids to Lake Okeechobee, 1,010 tons per day.
This, of course, is because of the large discharge of the Kissimmee.

The total nitrogen (N) concentration in water of the Kissimmee River
averaged 099 mg/l, lower than in any other stream and canal tributary to Lake
Okeechobee. Because of the large discharge, however, the total nitrogen load of
9.22 tons per day was the highest. Average total phosphorus concentration was
0.078 mg/1, and the daily load averaged 0.73 ton, which was the greatest load
entering Lake Okeechobee. DO ranged from 4.9 mg/1 (66 percent saturation) to
10.1 (103 percent saturation). The lower concentrations occurred in the
summer, when both water temperature and flow were seasonally high.

Odum (1953) reported for a sample collected from the Kissimmee River
on June 22, 1952, a total phosphorus (P) concentration of 0.012 ppm. The
average discharge of the river on that date was 1,450 cfs. These measurements
indicate that the total phosphorus load of the Kissimmee River on June 22,
1952, was only 0.052 ton per day.

The water contributed to Lake Okeechobee by Taylor Creek is often high
in dissolved solids, sodium, sulfate, and chloride and is almost always high in
nutrients, especially phosphorus. The high color of the water, ranging from 40 to
220 units, is probably caused by the natural swampy environment through
which the stream flows.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71


Average dissolved-solids content (calculated) for the 13 monthly samples
collected was 249 mg/l. At other times, dissolved-solids content (calculated) of
water in Taylor Creek has been much greater because of contributions from
Williamson Ditch, a tributary.

Total nitrogen (N) concentration in water from Taylor Creek averaged 1.6
mg/1, and the load contributed to Lake Okeechobee averaged 1.39 tons per day.
Ammonia-nitrogen concentration was always high, ranging from 0.086 to 0.44
mg/l.

Average phosphorus concentration in water from Taylor Creek was higher
than that in any other water in the Lake Okeechobee drainage system during the
period of study. Average total phosphorus concentration was 0.62 mg/1, and the
daily load was 0.54 ton per day. Taylor Creek contributed less than 10 percent
as much water to Lake Okeechobee as the Kissimmee River during the
investigation, but its contribution of phosphorus was 75 percent of that
discharged by the Kissimmee. Odum (1953) reported a total phosphorus
concentration of only 0.057 mg/l in water from Taylor Creek on June 22, 1952.

Nubbin Slough contributed only about one-half percent of the total inflow
to the lake during the investigation, but its nitrogen and phosphorus
contribution was high, relatively. Total nitrogen (N) concentration averaged 2.0
mg/1, highest observed in the drainage system, excepting the North New River
Canal. Total nitrogen load, however, averaged only 0.25 ton per day because of
the small discharge. Most of the inorganic nitrogen in Nubbin Slough water was
in the form of ammonia nitrogen, averaging 0.66 mg/1.

Total phosphorus concentration in Nubbin Slough water averaged 0.36
mg/1, second only to Taylor Creek. The average daily load of 0.05 ton per day,
however, was relatively low because of the small discharge.

Average DO concentration in Nubbin Slough water ranged from 1.0 mg/1
(11 percent of saturation) to 9.4 mg/l (124 percent of saturation). The low
concentrations were caused by the use of large quantities of oxygen for
decomposition of organic substances. The supersaturated concentrations were
caused by oxygen-producing photosynthesis triggered by the availability of
nutrients for biological activity.

DRAINAGE CANALS

The drainage canals were sampled only when water was moving to or from
the lake. Excellent data were obtained from the St. Lucie Canal and relatively
good data from West Palm Beach, North New River, and Caloosahatchee Canals







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


(table 15). Only three samples, however, two where flow was positive and one
where flow was negative, were obtained from Miami Canal.

The quality of water in the drainage canals is generally similar to that of
the lake water during positive flow (flow from the lake). During negative-flow,
when water is either flowing or being pumped into the lake through HGS-3 at
pump structure 3 or HGS4 at pump structure 2, the quality of the water in the
North New River and Miami Canals deteriorates rapidly. Dissolved solids,
nutrients, and other major constituents increase to concentrations often
exceeding State water-quality standards. Also, dissolved oxygen concentration
frequently sags to below 5.0 mg/1 and' less than 50 percent saturation. Water
pumped into the lake from the agricultural areas is the poorest in quality of any
other entering Lake Okeechobee.

Dissolved solids ranged from 163 mg/ in the Caloosahatchee Canal during
positive flow to 1,160 mg/l in the North New River Canal during negative flow.
The negative-flow sample from the North New River Canal also contained high
concentrations of sodium (239 mg/1) and chloride (332 mg/1), in excess of the
State standards of 250 mg/1. Dissolved oxygen was 4.0 mg/l, or 43 percent of
saturation. Total nitrogen concentration was 3.8 mg/1, of which 2.0 mg/l, or 53
percent, was organic nitrogen. The 1.8 mg/l inorganic nitrogen consisted of 1.0
mg/l NO3-N, 0.08 mg/1 NO2-N, and 0.72 mg/l NH4-N. The high concentrations
of nitrite and ammonia may indicate pollution. The highest phosphorus
concentration was in a positive-flow sample from the North New River Canal in
January 1970. Orthophosphate was 0.19 mg/1 as P, and total phosphorus was
0.20 mg/l. Water in the drainage canals has a high color, exceeding 150 units,
during negative flow, which indicates that large quantities of organic matter are
pumped from the agricultural areas into the lake. The color of water flowing
directly from the lake was usually no more than 30 units.



NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS IN RAINFALL

Rainfall contributes large quantities of nutrients to Lake Okeechobee. In
order to assess nitrogen and phosphorus contributed by rainfall, samples were
collected at HGS-1 (Moore Haven Lock) from January to December 1969. An
aliquot from each period of rain was collected to obtain an adequate sample for
one analysis each month. The results of the analyses are given in table 7. The
results do not include dry fallout inasmuch as the sample-collection apparatus
was covered except during rainfall periods. About 75 percent of the total rainfall
during 1969 was sampled. The rainfall at HGS-1 was about 10 inches greater
than the average rainfall of 54.47 inches measured for the lake in 1969.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71



Table 7
Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Rainfall at Hurricane Gate Structure-1
(Results in milligrams per liter except for rainfall which is in inches
and specific conductance which is in micromhos at 250C)


o

DATES 1969 .|

___ M g II ii t 2 I

January 4, 5, 6 1.19 25 0.07 0.009 0.10 0.25 0.43 0.007 0.007

February 16 1.51 26 .05 .003 .00 .20 .25 .007 .029

March 3, 8 1.06 21 .11 .003 .09 .24 .44 .003 .007

March 8, 9, 13, 17 3.70 29 .1 .006 .12 .25 .48 .003 .013

March 26, 31; April 2, 11, 29
and May 2, 3, 15 2.33 47 .3 .000 .12 .45 .87 .036 .055

June 14, 15, 16, 17, 20 5.89 60 .02 .000 .41 .24 .67 .020 .029

June 21, 28; July 3, 11, 14, 18
20, 21, 22, 27, 28, 29 5.38 80 .02 .003 .06 .40 .48 .013 .020
August 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12,
13, 14, 16, 18, 25 7.54 80 .1 .006 .12 .35 .58 .007 .026
September 24, 27, 29, 30; October
1, 2, 3, 6, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24 12.17 17 .2 .000 .85 .58 1.6 .11 .13

October 30; November 10, 14 3.93 29 .07 .009 .85 .52 1.4 .055 .091

December 8, 10, 11 3.40 14 .0 .003 .04 .58 .62 .000 .016

Rainfall weighted averages l/ 48.10 43 .10 .003 .38 .42 .90 .040 .056

1/ Total rainfall in samples analyzed.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Table 7 shows wide variations in the measured constituents. Specific
conductance ranged for 14 to 80 micromhos, total nitrogen from 0.25 to 1.6
mg/l, and total phosphorus ranged from 0.007 mg/l in January and March to
0.13 mg/1 in September and October. The rainfall in the summer and fall
apparently contains higher nutrient concentrations than it does in winter and
spring.
At times the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in rainfall are
comparable to concentrations found in tributary inflow and in the lake. The
concentration of total phosphorus in rainfall average 0.056 mg/l, equivalent to
the average concentration in Lake Okeechobee during 1969 70. The
concentration of total nitrogen in rainfall averaged 0.90 mg/l, which was
approximately 50 percent of the average concentration in Lake Okeechobee
during 1969 70.
The average nitrogen and phosphorus values reported in table 7 compare
favorably with results from other studies (see table below):
Analyses of Rainfall
(Results in Milligrams per liter except specific conductance)

Source A B C D

Specific conductance
(micromhos at 25C) 43 10-30
Nitrate (N03-N) 0.10 0.20 0.09 0.13
Nitrite (NO2-N) .003 .006 -- .00
Ammonia (NH4-N) .38 .21 .18 .07
Organic nitrogen (N) .42 .32
Total nitrogen (N) .90 .74 .43
Orthophosphate (PO4-P) .040 .026
Total phosphorus (P) .056 .033 .059

A. Hurricane Gate Structure 1, Lake Okeechobee (average of 11 analyses,
January to December 1969).
B. Brezonik, P. L., Morgan, W. H., Shannon, E. E., and Putnam, H. D., 1969
(Average rainfall analyses in north central Florida, 1968).

C. Schneider, Robert F., and Little, John A., 1969 (Average of 3 rainfall
samples in central Florida, 1969).

D. Gambell, Arlo W., and Fisher, Donald W., 1966 (Average monthly analyses
of rainfall in eastern North Carolina and southeastern Virginia, August
1962 to July 1963).








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71


WATER-QUALITY BUDGET, 1969 70

A water budget for Lake Okeechobee for the 19-month span January 1,
1969 to July 31, 1970 is presented in table 3. A water and dissolved-solids
budget for the 13-month span January 1, 1969, to January 31, 1970 is shown in
table 8. The dissolved-solids budget could not be extended to July 1970 because
data collection for tributaries and drainage canals was terminated in January
1970.

Inflow water from major water sources for the 13-month period failed to
balance the measured outflow by 180,800 acre feet, 2.8 percent of the total
water budget. This amount is indicated under the "inflow" column (table 8) as
being from other sources and, as mentioned in the 19-month budget, may be
from upward seepage from the Floridan aquifer.

The dissolved-solids budget shown in table 8 was computed from average
dissolved-solids content in the inflow and outflow water. Average dissolved-
solids content in precipitation was computed by multipling the average specific
conductance of 43 (table 7) by 0.65, which is considered to be the average
factor for conversion of specific conductance of rainfall to dissolved solids (U. S.
Geological Survey, Water Resources Data for Florida, 1968, part 2, water quality
records, p. 8). The computed factor for the lake water was 0.56. The change in
storage for dissolved solids was computed from the difference in the total tons in
the lake in January 1969 and January 1970.

The inflow of dissolved solids in table 8 failed to balance the outflow by
more than 250,000 tons, or approximately 20 percent of the dissolved-solids
budget. This 250,000-ton residual may result, in part, from cumulative errors in
measurements and, in part, from pickup of dissolved solids by the outflow
waters.

The most probable explanation for pickup of dissolved solids in the
outflow water is solution of limestone from the lake bottom and resolution of
dissolved solids previously trapped in the sediments. Most lakes act as sinks to
trap part of the dissolved solids entering from tributaries, especially at low flow,
as part of natural eutrophication. For example, Oneida Lake in New York State
traps 11 percent of the dissolved solids (Greeson, 1971).








TABLE 8
Generalized water and dissolved solids budget for Lake Okeechobee,
January 1, 1969 to January 31, 1970

INFLOW OUTFLOW
Dissolved Solids Dissolved Solids
Q Total Total Q Total Total
Source cfs Ace-ft. Mg/1 tons/day tons Source cfs Acre-ft. mg/l tons/day tons
Fisheating Creek 529 415,000 73 104 41,000 St. Lucie Canal 1,700 1,340,00 1,330 525,000
Harney Pond Canal 286 224,000 151 116 46,000 W.P. Beach Canal 218 171,000 310 182 72,000
Indian Prairie Canal 84 66,100 169 37 14,700 N. New River Canal 311 244,000 451 378 150,000
Kissimmee River 3,450 2,710,000 108 1,010 398,000 Miami Canal 351 276,000 356 337 134,000
Taylor Creek 322 253,000 249 214 84,800 Caloosahatchee Cnl 2,386 1,870,000 246 1,584 627,000
Nubbin Slough 46 36,100 167 20 7,940 Evaporationj/ 57.14 2,220,000 -
N. New River Canal 213 167,000 893 512 203,000 Change in StorageJ/ 0.5 240,0004/ -833 -330,000
Miami Canal 62 49,000 642 108 42,800
Precipitationj/ 58.09 2,260,000.2/
Other Sources 49 180,000
TOTALS 6,361,000 2,978 1,178,000 TOTALS 6,361,000 2,978 1,178,000

1/ Inches; data supplied by U. S. Corps of Engineers
2/ Based on a lake area of 730 sq mi
3/ Feet; data supplied by U. S. Corpsof Engineers
4/ Computed from stage-volume rating table supplied by U.S. Corps of Engineers








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71


Interestingly, precipitation during the 13 months contributed 30 percent
of the nitrogen entering Lake Okeechobee, second only to the Kissimmee River,
which contributed 39 percent. The concentration of nitrogen in water from the
Kissimmee was only a little greater than that in rainfall (table 9). Catfish bait
used by commercial fishermen was thought to be an important source of
nutrients to the lake, but only 0.20 percent of the 6.75 tons per day of the
cottonseed and soybean meal cake used for bait is soluble nitrogen. Nitrogen in
catfish bait and the commercial fish harvest is small compared with the total
nitrogen budget. Ager (1970) estimated that the annual commercial fish harvest
could be increased to 34,200,000 pounds per year, dressed weight. The rough
weight (undressed) would be about double, or 94 tons per day, which would
increase the estimated nitrogen removal from the lake from 0.02 ton per day to
0.56 ton per day, or 222 tons for the 13-month budget and the amount retained
in the lake would decrease to about 20 percent of the total nitrogen budget.

Table 9 shows that 2,080 tons or 22 percent, of the nitrogen was trapped
in the lake. Lakes naturally act as sinks and trap nitrogen. For example,
approximately 20 percent of the nitrogen entering Oneida Lake, New York, is
trapped, (Greeson, 1971).

Taylor Creek contributes only 4 percent of the water to Lake Okeechobee
(table 8) but contributes 26 percent of the total phosphorus load, the second
largest source (table 10). The Kissimmee River contributes 36 percent of the
total phosphorus load. Precipitation, the third major source, contributes 21
percent.

The largest value on the outflow side of the phosphorus budget was 295
tons, or 36 percent, trapped in the lake for the 13- month period. In Oneida
Lake, New York, 62 percent of the phosphorus entering is trapped (Greeson,
1971). The change is storage of 277 tons of phosphorus was the second largest
value on the outflow side of the budget. The phosphorus concentration in
January 1969 was 0.02 mg/1 and in January 1970 was 0.07 mg/l.

BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LAKE OKEECHOBEE, 1969- 71

PHYTOPLANKTON

Of about 90 samples collected between January 1969 and April 1971 for
determination of phytoplankton content, 14 had more than 5,000 cells/ml and 5
had more than 100,000 cells/ml, as shown in the following table and table 16 in
the appendix. The estimated average number of cells per milliliter for 6 sites in
January 1971 was 149,630 cells/ml, and the maximum number was 473,700
cells/ml from site 5.








Table 9
Generalized nitrogen (N) budget for Lake Okeechobee
January 1, 1969 to January 31, 1970


INFLOW OUTFLOW
Q Nitrogen Q Nitrogen
Source cfs mg/l tons/day total tons Source cfs mg/1 tons/day total tons
Fisheating Creek 529 1.4 2.00 792 St. Lucie Canal 1,700 1.2 5.53 2,190
Harney Pond Canal 286 1.2 .93 367 West Palm Beach Canal 218 1.3 .76 302
Indian Prairie Canal 84 1.6 .36 144 N. New River Canal 311 1.5 1.26 498
Kissimmee River 3,450 .99 9.22 3,650 Miami Canal 351 1.1 1.04 413
Taylor Creek 322 1.6 1.39 551 Caloosahatchee Canal 2,396 1.1 7.07 2,800
Nubbin Slough 46 2.0 .25 98 Change in Storage 2.65 1,050
N. New River Canal 213 3.8 2.18 864 Commercial Fish H. 4 3.05./ .6 .02 8
Miami Canal 62 1:6 .27 107 Trapped in lake 5.25 2,080
PrecipitationJ/ 58.09 .90 6.98 2,760
Catfish Bait2/ 6.75j/ .20 .01 4
TOTALS 23.59 9,340 TOTALS 18.33 7,261


*, 'J Inches
S2 Tons per day
3 Percent of soluble nitrogen (N)
Dressed weight 1.45 T/day
S5/ Percent nitrogen (N)





INFLOW OUTFLOW
Q Phosphorus Q Phosphorus
Source cfs mg/I tons/day total tons Source cfs mg/I tons/day total tons
Fisheating Creek 529 0.068 0.09 39 St. Lucie Canal 1,700 0.062 0.29 113
Harey Pond Canal 286 .072 .06 22 West Palm Beach Canal 218 .033 .02 8
Indian Prairie Canal 84 .082 .02 7 N. New River Canal 311 .026 .02 9
Kissimmee River 3,450 .078 .73 289 Miami Canal 351 .020 .02 8
Taylor Creek 322 .62 .54 213 Caloosahatchee Canal 2,390 .039 .25 99
Nubbin Slough 46 .36 .05 18 Change in Storage .70 277
N. New River Canal 213 .18 .10 40 Commercial Fish Har .2 3.0 -
Miami Canal 62 .036 .01 3 Trapped in Lake .74 295
Precipitation/ 58.09 .056 .43 170
Catfish Bait / 6.75./ .29 .02 8
TOTALS 2.04 809 TOTALS 2.04 809

./ Inches
2/ Tons per day
/ Percent of soluble phosphorus (P)


Table 10
Generalized Phosphorus (F) Budget for Lake Okeechobee

January 1, 1969 to January 31, 1970


-I
0







0
z

0
-2


. i,







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Numbers of phytoplankters in cells per milliliter in Lake Okeechobee,
January 1969 to April 1971.

Maximum and minimum not determined when cells per milliliter were less than 50.

Date Average Number Maximum Minimum No. of sites
January 1969 Less than 50 Less than 50 Less than 50 15
May 1969 1,220 4,600 100 15
August 1969 Less than 50 Less than 50 Less than 50 15
January 1970 Less than 50 Less than 50 Less than 50 15
April 1970 1,560 7,500 Less than 50 7
July 1970 32,300 106,800 60 6
October 1970 25,400* 108,500* 2,100 6
January 1971 149,630* 473,700* 960* 6
April 1971 7,956* 37,400* 80* 8
Estimated.


In general, the highest concentrations of phytoplankton were observed in
the western and northern parts of the lake. Concentration was high at site 5 in
the western part of the lake except in April 1970 and April 1971. In April 1970
a sample was taken from the Kissimmee River in addition to those collected
from the lake. The phytoplankton count in the sample from the Kissimmee was
greater (7,700 cells/ml) than in any of the lake samples of that month. Possibly
algal blooms were then occurring in one or more of the lakes drained by the
Kissimmee. At site 12, also in April 1970, at the mouth of the St. Lucie Canal,
the count was 7,500 cells/ml. In April 1971 the maximum count was at site 8
(37,400 cells/ml) and 9 (15,900 cells/ml), both in the northern part of the lake.
Genera and species of phytoplankton observed in Lake Okeechobee are listed in
table 11.

Pediastrun simplex, a green alga typical of very early eutrophic lakes, was
abundant in Lake Okeechobee in January, May, and August 1969 and in January
1970. Other codominant species present with Pediastrum simplex during this
period were: Oscillatoria cortina (January 1969, August 1969); Melosira sp.
(January 1969 and 1970); Mongeotia sp. (January 1969 and 1970);
Merismopedia elegans (May 1969); Microcystis aeruginosa (August 1969); and
Aphanizomenon holsaticum (August 1969).

Microcystis aeruginosa and Aphanizomenon holsaticum are both potential
nuisance forms of blue-green algae that often grow abundantly during late
summer when temperatures are at a maximum. When conditions are favorable,
these species form dense growths that tend to float and thus interfere with
recreational utility of lakes. Both forms can spoil water for domestic uses,
swimming, and recreation, and often cause the death of fish in heavily infested









REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71

Table 11
Phytoplankton observed in Lake Okeechobee

(A, abundant; P, present; -, not present)


Average water temperatures (0C) 15 26 29 12
CHLOROPHYTA (Green algae)
Closterium parvulum P P -
Closterium pronum P -
Mougeotia sp. A A
Pediastrum Boryanum P -
Pediastrum duplex P P P
Pediastrum integrum P -
Pediastrum simplex A A A A
Pediastrum tetras P -
Scenedesmus bijuga- -
Staurastrum sp. P P -

CHRYSOPHYTA (Yellow-brown algae including diatoms)
Cyclotella sp. p -
Melosira sp. A P A
Stephanodiscus sp. P -
Synedra sp. P P P
Tabellaria sp. P -


30 30 27 22 27


A P P


P P
P P

P P


P A -
P
A P
P
-


PYRROPHYTA (Dinoflagellates)
Ceratium hirundinella

CYANOPHYTA (Blue-green algae)
Anabaena Circinalis
Anabaena flos-aquae
Aphanizomenon holsaticum
Lyngbya contorta
Merismopedia elegans
Microcystis aeruginosa
Oscillatoria cortina (?)
Spirulina sp.


P


- P P
- A -
A
P -
- A
P A P
A A


SA
A P P
A A A A
P
A A P
P P P

A P


A P



P P


P A
P

P P


P
A
P


a, Ch ~ q C h 0 0 0 4 ".
tz to 4j Or PI ;c
80~ ~ ~il 4Mas -0, 99







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


lakes. When detected during August 1969, however, concentrations of both
forms in the lake were far below nuisance levels.

After January 1970, Pediastrum simplex was replaced as the dominant alga
at most points by Aphanizomenon holsaticum. The increased concentration of
phytoplankton to bloom levels and the change of dominant species from green
to blue-green algae after January 1970 followed a period of heavy inflow from
rainfall and tributaries, with consequent increased influx of nutrients. The rapid
seasonal changes in phytoplankton population reflect a change in the
environmental conditions within the lake. In April 1970 and 1971,
Aphanizomenon holsaticum dominated samples collected from the northern part
of the lake. In July 1970 and January 1971, Aphanizomenon holsaticum was the
most numerous alga at all except site 2, and in October 1970 it was the
dominant species at half the sites.

Other dominant alga included: the diatoms (Cyclotella sp. April 1970 at
sites 2, 5, and 15 and July 1970 at site 2) and Stephanodiscus niagarae (April
1971 at site 2); the green algae, Closterium sp. (codominant in January 1971 at
site 2 with Aphanizomenon holsaticum) and Pediastrum simplex (April 1971 at
site 5); and the blue-green algae Merimopidia elegans (October 1970 at sites 2
and 12);Spiruhna sp. (October 1970 at site 8 and April 1971 at sites 12 and 15);
and Anabaena flos-aquae (April 1971 in the Kissimmee River). Concentrations
of Aphanizomenon holsaticum far exceed the numbers of other alga, with the
exception of a single sample collected by the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission in a plankton bloom on June 29, 1970. The phytoplankters in this
bloom were represented almost exclusively by Anabaena flos-aquae, which
numbered 595,600 cells/ml.

Although large blooms ofAphanizomenon holsaticum occurred during July
and October 1970 and January 1971, most specimens were small. This may
indicate that nutrient conditions in the lake were favorable for reproduction but
unfavorable for optimum growth.

Growth of phytoplankton in the lake may be limited by high turbidity.
Secchi disc readings were generally less than 1.0 foot. The high turbidity results
from finely suspended sediment. Lake Okeechobee has an average depth of
about 9 feet, and mixing, in which sediment is constantly resuspended from the
bottom, is effective.

BENTHIC ORGANISMS

Average number of benthic macroinvertebrates in sediment samples
collected in January, May, and August 1969 and in January 1970 at seven sites











REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71

Table 12
Average number of bottom organisms per square meter
January, May, August 1969, and January 1970

(Determinations made by Florida Department of Air and Water Pollution Control)

Point
Organisms 1 5 6 8 9 11 15


Oligochaeta


Gammarus sp.'


Hyalella azteca

Cyathura polita


Taphromysis sp.


Coelotanypus sp.


Procladius sp.


Chironomus
crassicaudatus

Glyptotendipes
lobiferus

Glypotendipes
paripes

Tanytarsus sp.


Cladotanytarsus sp.


Polypedilum sp.


Chaoborus sp.


Viviporus sp.


Melanoides sp.


Unid. snail


301 602 150 898


935
...X

37
-XXX

-X-








124
X-X.





210
-X-
-x.





.-'-













21
-XX


494
XX..

10
XX-



199
..XX

16
-X-X

59
XXXX

5
X-

5
-X-

5
X-





102
X-X-

48
-X-

11
-X-


226
XXX.

48
-.-X



75
-XX

5
-X-

166
.-.X















16
-X-








5
X-


XXX.

43
-.-X



118
XX-X





252
.XXX





215
-.-








16
X-








5
-X-


1,774


Totals 1,332 954 541 950 1,569 5,433

SDominant species sampled at site for date indicated. ; Present X ; Not present ;
Position indicates date of collection: January, May, August, January


XX..

16
-X.-



32
-XXX





269
X.-X





575
.-X-





11
X-















64
XXXX


XXXX

5
-X







5
-X-

640
XXXX





220
-XX








16
X-











5
-X

4,392
,....


10
X-X



16
-X





399
XXXX

























5
X-

11
-X

328
-xx

107
-XXX







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


in Lake Okeechobee ranged in number from 541 per m2 (square meter) at site 6
to 5,433 m2 at site 11 (table 12). The average for all sites was 1,794 per m2.
Highly enriched lakes in central Florida support numbers ranging from
thousands to tens of thousands per square meter. Numbers in excess of 10,000
are often indicative of organic pollution.

Macroinvertebrates were most numerous in the northern, eastern and
central parts of the lake, at sites 9, 11, and 15, respectively. At these sites
bottom samples were mud; at other sites, samples were sand, or shell mixed with
mud. Mud usually supports larger standing crops of benthic animals than sand or
shell because of the greater amount of available organic food.

The highest numbers of benthic macroinvertebrates were collected in
August 1969, with an average for all sites of 3,754 per m2. Intermediate
numbers were recorded in January 1969 (961 per m2) and January 1970 (1795
per m2), and the lowest average number was recorded in May 1969 (664 per
m2).

Oligochaetes and chironomid, Coelotanypus sp. were the most widely
distributed benethic macroinvertebrates collected (table 12). The other
chironomids collected in the lake and Chaoborus sp. are potential nuisance
species. Their numbers, however, were far below nuisance levels.

CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
OF WATER AND SEDIMENT, 1970-72

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND DISSOLVED SOLIDS

The average specific conductance of the water samples from Lake
Okeechobee for the seven monitoring transects ranged from 451 micromhos in
October 1970 to 633 micromhos in May 1972. The average calculated dissolved
solids ranged from 256 mg/l in October 1970 to 365 mg/l in May 1972. The
dissolved solids and major dissolved constituents can easily be related to specific
conductance. The increase in specific conductance, dissolved solids, and major
constituents during the monitoring period was caused by back pumping of
highly mineralized water into the lake, flow into the lake from drainage canals
during the drought of 1971, and concentration of water in the lake caused by
high evaporation rates. The lake stage averaged only about 13 feet for the time
span October 1970 May 1972 as compared to an average of 15 feet for January
1969 to July 1970. The average dissolved solids during the later period, was 312
mg/1, and for the earlier period, 260 mg/l.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71


Average dissolved oxygen concentrations in the lake for each transect
ranged from 6.7 nig/I (84 percent of saturation) to 9.4 mg/1 (107 percent of
saturation). A low dissolved oxygen concentration of 3.5 mg/1 (41 percent of
saturation) occurred in Taylor Creek in November 1971.

Because the lake stage was 2 feet lower October 1970 May 1972 than
January 1969 July 1970, the lake was generally more turbid during the later
period. The average measurements for the seven lake transects ranged from 9 to
48 JTU. The Kissimmee River and Taylor Creek were usually less turbid than the
lake (table 17).

The color of the lake water was generally less than 50 units but tended to
increase beginning about in November 1971 because of pumpage and inflow of
highly colored water from tributaries and drainage canals. In November, 1971
the color was 240 units at point 12 near the St. Lucie Canal and 100 units at
point 5 in western part of the lake. These high colors were probably caused by
inflow of highly colored water from the St. Lucie Canal (reverse flow),
Fisheating Creek, Indian Prairie and Harney Pond Canals. The color of the water
was not as high, only 80 units, at point 15 in the middle of the lake in May
1972.

Most field and laboratory pH measurements in the lake were greater than
8.0. The pH of lake water was lowest in November 1971, after a period of heavy
inflow of water of lower pH from tributaries and drainage canals. The lowest pH
was 5.7 for the Kissimmee River and the next lowest was 6.0 for Taylor Creek,
both in November, 1971.
NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS

The average total nitrogen (N) concentrations in Lake Okeechobee on the
basis of data collected from transects 7 through 13 ranged from 0.66 to 3.0
mg/l. Most of the nitrogen was in the organic form, ranging from 81 to 96
percent of the total, and averaging 91 percent. Average inorganic nitrogen
concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 0.40 mg/1. The average total nitrogen
concentration for.all 7 transects were higher (1.6 mg/1) than for transects 1 6
(1.4 mg/1). The average inorganic nitrogen, however, was lower (0.14 mg/1) than
for transects 1 6 (0.30 mg/1).

On the basis of samples of river water collected 1970 72, the average
total nitrogen concentration of the Kissimmee River was 1.1 mg/1 as compared
to 0.99 mg/1 for those collected 1969 70. For Taylor Creek, the values are 1.9
and 1.6 mg/l. As during the project study, the ammonia nitrogen continued high
in Taylor Creek, as much as 0.50 mg/l. For the last sampling in May 1972,
however, the concentration was 0.04 mg/1.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


The average total phosphorus (P) concentrations in the lake for the seven
transects (numbers 7 13) ranged from 0.03 mg/1 in May 1972 transectt 13) to
0.06 mg/1 in November 1971 transectt 11). The average total phosphorus for
lake transects 7 13 was 0.05 mg/l as compared to 0.04 mg/1 for transects 1 6.

The average total phosphorus concentrations for the Kissimmee River and
Taylor Creek were lower after October 1970 than before. The average for the
Kissimmee River for the monitoring period was 0.07 mg/l and before October
1970 was 0.08 mg/1. Similarly for Taylor Creek the values are 0.54 mg/1 after
and 0.62 mg/l before.

TRACE ELEMENTS

The quantities of dissolved trace elements were very low in samples
collected from site 15 in the center of Lake Okeechobee in November 1971 and
May 1972 (table 17) (See also table on p. 5). Of the trace elements listed in table
17, five (aluminum, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc) have been cited by
various investigators as essential for algal growth. For healthy algal growth, trace
quantities of aluminum and 5 micrograms per liter of manganese are essential. In
neither of the two samples analyzed was aluminum or manganese detected.

CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS

The analyses of the bottom sediment samples that were collected from
transects 11 and 13 indicate that the sediments at sites 9 and 15 contain the
highest percentage of organic material 16.87 and 15.57 percent of carbon,
respectively, and sites 5 and 8 the least, 0.08 and 0.12 percent. This was as
expected as the bottom material at sites 5 and 8 is mostly sand. As shown in
table 17 the nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron were lowest at points 5 and 8. The
bottom material at point 2 was marly, which accounted for the relatively small
quantity of carbon, nitrogen, and iron present.


BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

PHYTOPLANKTON

Table 17 lists phytoplankton concentrations at each sampling point for
transects 7-13. Table 18 lists the species of phytoplankton observed and
average total concentrations in cells per millimeter for all sampling points during
four transects from August 1971 to May 1972. The average lake concentrations
during the last four transects were 11,100 cells/ml; 38,400/cells/ml; 8,400
cells/ml; and 24,700 cells/ml.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71


Concentrations of phytoplankton into 1972 continued highest in the
western and northern parts of the lake. Average concentration of phytoplankton
decreased from 149,630 cells/ml in January 1971 to 38,400 cells/ml in
November 1971.

The concentrations of phytoplankton in the Kissimmee River and Taylor
Creek, especially the Kissimmee, were surprisingly low. Not a single algal cell was
observed in the Kissimmee River in August 1971 and only one species
(Microcystis aeruginosa) with a concentration of 200 cells/ml, was observed in
November 1971. A maximum concentration of 2,450 cells/ml was observed in
the Kissimmee River in February 1972 during a no-flow period. The maximum
concentration observed in Taylor Creek was 4,800 cells/ml in May, 1972 of
which Aphenizonmenon holsaticum constituted 90 percent.

Aphanizomenon holsaticum continued to be the dominant alga in the lake.
It was dominant at all sites in November transectt 11), and May transectt 13),
sites 8, 9, 12, and 15 in August transectt 10), and sites 5, 8, 9, and 15 in
February transectt 12). In August Spirulina sp. was the dominant'alga at sites 2
and Merismopedia elegans was dominant at site 5. A total concentration of only
150 cells/ml was. observed at site 2 in February; 50 cells/ml each for Spirulina
sp., Stephanodiscus niagarae and Synedr sp. In February the total
concentrations at sites 12 consisted of 200 cells/ml Spirulina sp and 50 cells/ml
Stephanodiscus niagarae.

BENTHIC ORGANISMS

The number of benthic organisms collected ranged from 129/m2 (square
meter) at sites 2 in November 1971 to 12,837 m2 at site 12 in May 1972 (table
19). The average counts for all six sites was 1,376/m2 in November and 3,318
m2 in May 1972.

In general, the number of organisms was highest at site 15 in the center of
the lake and at site 12 near the St. Lucie Canal. The counts at site 12 were high,
probably because the mucky bottom is rich in organic material and nutrients.
The counts at site 2 were low, probably because the marly bottom is low in
organic material and nutrients. At sites 5 and 8 the lake bottom is sandy.

EUTROPHIC ASSESSMENT

Eutrophication is part of the aging process of lakes from one life stage to
another, ending in extinction. In the youngest stage of the life cycle, a lake is
called oligotrophic and is characterized by low biologic productivity, low
amounts of nutrients, and little sediment. Because a lake serves as a trap for







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


nutrients originating in the surrounding drainage basin and entering through
streams, with rainfall, and with ground-water inflow, in time the oligotrophic
lake becomes mesotrophic, or partly enriched with nutrients. As aging continues,
the shore encroaches upon the water, the nutrient content increases, plants grow
abundantly, and silt and organic matter accumulate on the bottom. The lake
then becomes eutrophic, or enriched, and is characterized by high biologic
productivity, high nutrient content, and extensive sedimentation. The final stage
before extinction is a pond, marsh, or swamp. The lake may eventually become
dry land. Eutrophication may be accelerated by the cultural activities of man,
such as altering of drainage basins, agricultural practices, deforestation, mine
development, and urbanization.

The chemical, physical, and biological data indicate that, in general,
adequate nutrients were available for algal growth in Lake Okeechobee during
1969 72. With respect to the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus, the average
nitrate (N03-N) concentration for each transect ranged from 0.02 to 0.38 mg/1,
and the average organic nitrogen (N) from 0.60 to 2.8 mg/l; organic nitrogen
accounted for approximately 86 percent of the total nitrogen in the lake. The
average orthophosphate (P04-P) and total phosphorus (P) concentrations for all
transects were 0.03 and 0.04 mg/l, respectively. These values are comparable to
those found during an investigation in 1969- 70 (Goolsby and McPherson,
1970) of the chemical and biological characteristics of the upper St. Johns River
basin immediately north-northeast of Lake Okeechobee and its drainage system.
Results of the latter study indicated that organic nitrogen averaged 1.0 mg/l and
accounted for more than 90 percent of the total nitrogen and that total
phosphorus (P) averaged 0.05 mg/1 on the main stem.

The filtering action of marshes may remove large quantities of nutrients.
The nutrient concentrations were very low in samples collected from Lake
Okeechobee at sites 17 and 18 in areas of dense emergent marsh vegetation in
August 1969. Also, no phytoplankters were observed at site 18; only four
filaments of Oscillatoria cortina were observed at site 17.

The greater than normal inflow from tributaries and rainfall from late
1969 to March 1970 contributed increased loads of nutrients, which, in turn,
triggered increased concentration of phytoplankton to bloom levels and a change
in dominant species from green (Pediastrum simplex) to blue-green algae
(Aphanizomenon holsaticum) These changes began in the northern part of the
lake. The dynamic shifts in phytoplankton population reflect a change in the
environmental conditions, at least temporarily, within the lake.

Goolsby and McPherson (1970) report increased concentration of
phytoplankton to bloom levels (approximately 75,000 cells/ml), consisting of









REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71 57
the blue-green algae, Anabaena Circinalis associated with eutrophic lakes, in
Blue Cypress Lake in July 1970. There was no evidence of bloom conditions,
however, in 1971 72.'Blue Cypress Lake is affected by man less than Lake
Okeechobee.

Increases in concentrations of nutrients, such as silica, nitrate, phosphate,
iron, and organic material (as approximated by color determinations) were
relatively large in the northern part of Lake Okeechobee in January 1970 (table
13) after the period of heavy runoff. Available data indicate decreased
concentrations of these nutrients during the subsequent phytoplankton bloom in
July 1970. Phytoplankton concentration in Lake Okeechobee had significantly
decreased by April 1971.

Examples of changes in selected nutrient concentrations associated with
the high nutrient flux into the lake in January and April 1970 and the
subsequent algal bloom in July 1970 follow:


Site No.
and Nutrient


Aug. 1969
(Prior
inflow)


Jan. 1970 Apr. 1970
(During and Following
inflow)


July 1970
(During
algal bloom)


5-Silica mg/l
Nitrate (NO 3-N) mg/l
Orthophosphate (P04-P) mg/1
Color Units

6-Silica mg/1
Nitrate (N03-N) mg/l
Orthophosphate (P04-P) mg/1
Color Units

7-Nitrate (NO3-N) mg/1
Orthophosphate (P04-P) mg/1
Color Units
Iron mg/l

8-Silica mg/1
Nitrate (NO3-N) mg/1
Orthophosphate (P04-P) mg/l
Color units
Iron. mg/1

9-Orthophosphate (P04-P) mg/1
Color Units
Iron mg/1


6.6
.07
.010
15

5.8
.02
.007
15

0.02
.016
30
.04

6.1
0.02
.020
20
.02

0.013
15


L 6.2
.3 1.1
.049 .016
60


.3
.052 --


0.09
.098
60
.12

3.1
0.05
.14
120
.16


5.9
0.2
.029
60


0.11 0.029
100 60
.12 -


2.8
.0
.007
25


1.1
0.0
0.013
10







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Lake Okeechobee is effectively mixed, and dissolved oxygen and
temperature are not stratified. Dissolved-oxygen values are high, whereas the low
values of ammonia and nitrite indicate the absence of organic pollution. The
average numbers of benthic organisms were well below levels normally
considered indicative of highly eutrophic waters. Although the warm water (as
much as 340C) and adequate nutrient concentrations are conducive to high
biologic productivity, algal growth may be inhibited by the high turbidity of the
lake.

The data collected and evaluated suggest that Lake Okeechobee is in an
early eutrophic condition. The investigation coincided with a period of greater
than normal rainfall and runoff, resulting in a relatively high nutrient flux into
the lake. The data document extensive physical, chemical, and biological
variability within the lake system over a short-time span and cannot be utilized
for predicting long-term trends. No reliable comprehensive nutrient or biological
data are available for historical comparisons; however, phosphorus concentration
was relatively high near the mouth of Taylor Creek in 1952 (Odum, 1953),
similar to the concentration during the present investigation. Regional
comparisons, although sparse, suggest that water quality of Lake Okeechobee, as
of 1969 70, was not significantly different that that of other water bodies in
southern peninsular Florida.









REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71


SELECTED REFERENCES


Ager, Lothian
1970 Annual report, Lake Okeechobee project: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission (unpublished).

Brenzonik, P. L., Morgan, W. H., Shannon, E. E., and Putnam, H. D.
1969 Eutrophication factors in north central Florida lakes: Florida Univ. Eng. and
Indus. Expt. Sta.

Buddhari, W.
1960 Cobalt as an essential element for blue-green algae: Unpublished PhD
dissertation, Univ. of California, 163 p.

Clayton, B. S., Neller, J. R., and Allison, R.V.
1942 Water control in the peat and muck soils of the Florida Everglades: Florida
Agr. Expt. Sta., Bull. 378.

Cobb, H. D., and Meyers, J.
1964 Comparative studies of nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis in Anabaena
cylindrica: Am. Jour. Botany, 51:753-762.

Cooke, C. W.
1939 Scenery of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. No. 17, 118 p.

Davis, J. H., Jr.
1943 The natural features of southern Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. no. 25,
311 p.

Davis, J. H., Jr.
1946 The peat deposits of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. no. 30, 247 p.

Duchrow, Richard M;
1970 Annual, progress report for investigation project as required by Federal Aid in
Fish Restoration, Dingell-Johnson Project F-21-4, 1969- 70: Florida Game
and Fresh Water Fish Commission.

Eyster, C.
1964 Micronutrient requirements for green plants, especially algae: in Algae and
Man D. F. Jackson (ed.), p. 86 119.

Frey, D. G. (Ed.)
1966 Limnology in North America: Univ. of Wise. Press, Madison, 734 p.








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Gambell, A. W., and Fisher, D. W.
1966 Chemical composition of rainfall, eastern North Carolina and southeastern
Virginia: U. S. GeoL Survey Water Supply Paper 1535-K.

Gerloff, G. C., and F. Skoggs
1957 Availability of iron and manganese in southern Wisconsin lakes for the growth
ofMlicrocystis aeruginosa: Ecology 38 (4): 551-556.

Goolsby, D. A. and McPherson, B. F.
1970 Preliminary evaluation of chemical and biological characteristics of the upper
St. Johns River Basin, Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey open-file report.

Greeson, Philip E.
1971 Limnology of Oneida Lake with emphasis on factors contributing to algal
blooms: New York State Dept. Environmental Conserv., open-file report.

Heilprin, Angelo
1887 Explorations on the west coast of Florida and in the Okeechobee Wilderness:
Wagner Free Inst. Sci.

Higer, Aaron L-, and Kolipinski, Milton C.
1970 Sources of pesticides in Florida waters: U. S. Geol. Survey open-file report.

Holcomb, Dennis E.
1968 Annual progress report for research project as required by Federal Aid and
Fish Restoration, Dingell-Johnson Project F-21-R-2: Florida Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission, 1967 68.

Hutchinson, G. Evelyn
1957 A treatise of limnology, v. 1, geography, physics, and chemistry: John Wiley
and Sons, N. Y., 1015 p.

Joyner, Boyd F., and Greeson, Phillip E.
1971 Appraisal of biological condition and nutrient content of Lake Okeechobee,
Florida: Presented at International Sumposium on Manmade Lakes, Knoxville,
Tenn., May 3 7, 1971.

Loveless, C. M.
1959 A study of the vegetation in the Florida .Everglades: Ecology 40: 1 -9.

Meyer, B. S., Anderson, D. B., and Bohning, R. H.
1964 Introduction to plant physiology: D. Van Nostrand Co., Princeton, N. J., 541
P-









REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71


Meyer, F. W.
1971


Seepage beneath Hoover Dike, southern shore of Lake Okeechobee, Florida:
Florida Dept. Nat. Resources, Bur. Geol., Rept. Inv. 58 (in press).


Odum, Howard T.
1953 Dissolved phosphorus in Florida Waters: Florida Geol. Survey, Rept. Inv. 9.

Parker, G. G., Ferguson, G. E., and Love, S. K., and others
1955 Water resources of southeastern Florida, with special reference to the geology
and ground water of the Miami area: U. S. Geol Survey Water Supply Paper
1255.


Provasoli, L.
1958


Nutrition and ecology of protozoa and algae: Ann. Rev. Micro Biol.,
12:279-303.


Provasoli, L., and Pinter, J. J.
1953 Ecological implications of in vitro nutritional requirements of algal flagellates:
New York Acad. Sci Annuals, 56:839-851.

Rainwater, F. H., and Thatcher, L. L.
1960 Methods for collection and analysis of water samples: U. S. Geol. Survey
Water Supply Paper 1454.


Reid, G. K.
1961


Ecology of inland waters and estuaries: New York, Rheinhold PubL Co., 375


Ryther, J. H., and Kramer, D. D.


1961



Schelske, C.
1962


Relative iron requirements of some coastal and offshore plankton algae:
Ecology 42 (2): 444-446.

L.
Iron. organic matter, and other factors limiting primary productivity in a marl
lake: Science 136 (3510):45-46.


Schneider, R. F., and Little, J. A.
1969 Characterization of bottom sediments and selected nitrogen and phosphorus
sources in Lake Apopka, Florida: Athens, Georgia, Federal Water Pollution
Control Admin.

Shannon, J. E.
1965 Nutrient requirements for aquatic plants, Part 1: Water Chemistry Seminar,
Wisconsin Univ.






62 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

Smith, D. B.
1965 A study of the hydrologic characteristics of the Caloosahatchee River basin:
Cent. Dist. Misc. PubL.

Visher, F. N., and Hughes, G. H.
1969 The difference between rinfall and potential evaporation in Florida: Florida
Dept. Nat. Resources, Bur. GeoL, Map Ser. 32.

Waker, J. B.
1953 Inorganic micronutrient requirements of Chlorella 1. Requirements for
calcium (or strontium), copper and molybdenum: Arch. Biochem. 46:1-11.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 71


APPENDIX









Table 13
Chemical Analyses of Water in Lake Okeechobee
(Results in milligrams per liter except as noted)
Analysis made by U. S. Geological Survey
Blcabonate Carbonate
(HcV3) (C03)





S1969
/1 Jan-16 0925 15.3 13 0 15 4.6 0.03 47 13 40 3.0 152 45 62 0.3 0.3 0.003 0.03
1 Jan-16 0925 15.3 13 0 15 5.1 .07 47 13 39 2.7 160 152 46 60 .3 .3 .009 0.01
1 Jan-16 0926 15.3 13 3 15 -
1 Jan-16 0927 15.3 13 6 15 5.5 .07 47 13 39 2.8 168 148 44 66 .3 .3 .009 .00
1 Jan-16 0928 15.3 13 9 15 -- -
1 Jan-16 0929 15.3 13 12 15 4.7 .08 47 13 39 2.7 172 152 44 62 .2 .3 .006 .01
JJi May-15 0930 14.2 11.5 0 25 6.2 .02 50 14 43 2.9 164 42 65 .4 .2 .003' .04
1 May-15 0930 14.2 11.5 0 25 8.1 .02 50 14 43 2.9 162 49 63 .3 .2 .003 .02
.1 May-15 0931 14.2 11.5 6 24 6.2 .03 50 14 43 2.9 162 47 64 .3 .3 .006 .01
1 May-15 0932 14.2 11.5 11.5 24 6.2 .02 49 15 43 2.9 162 48 63 .4 .2 .006 .05
1 Aug-27 1545 14.4 10 0 30 6.2 .02 38 13 42 3.0 122 12 45 63 .3 .02 .000 .04
1 Aug-27 1545 14.4 10 0 30 6.3 .03 39 13 43 2.9 104 136 18 44 66 .3 .00 ..000 .05
1 Au27 1546 14.4 10 5 30 5.9 .02 40 13 42 3.5 102 136 18 42 64 .3 .1 .009 .05
1 Au'27 1547 14.4 10 10 30 6.6 .07 41 13 42 2.9 108 136 16 44 64 .3 .05 .000 .04
1970
1/I Jan-15 1430 15.9 12.5 0 12.5 9.2 .02 42 11 34 2.4 132 34 53 .3 .3 .000 .06
1 Jan-15 1430 15.9 12.5 0 12.5 10 .00 43 12 34 2.6 146 132 4 41 53 .4 .2 .000 .05
1 Jan-15 1431 15.9 12.5 6 12.5 140 6 -
1 Jan-15 1431 15.9 12.5 7.5 12.5 9.5 .03 43 11 33 2.6 134 34 52 .3 .2 .006 .00
1 Jan-15 1432 15.9 12.5 12 12.5 9.5 .00 42 11 33 2.6 142 132 6 40 53 .4 .2 .006 .01
1969
2 Jan-16 1015 15.3 13 0 15.5 5.1 .08 47 13 39 2.7 160 152 45 62 .3 .3 .009 .00
2 May-15 1005 14.2 13 0 25 6.4 .02 52 15 44 3.0 170 51 64 .4 .09 .006 .01
2 Aug-28 1000 14.4 0 29 7.2 .03 44 13 43 3.0 126 152 14 41 64 .3 .02 .000 .05
1970
2 Jan-14 1600 15.9 14.5 0 12 10 .11 44 12 37 2.7 168 138 0 44 55 .4 .2 .009 .00
2 Apr-21 1230 15.6 34 9.1 40 10 30 2.4 122 28 45 .3 .2 .009 .07
2 Jul-16 1015 14.2 29.5 1.8 41 10 29 2.4 132 35 45 .4 .05 .003 .04


i
0








CI
z

p,,








Table 13
Chemical Analyses of Water in Lake Okeechobee
(Results in milligrams per liter except as noted)
Analysis made by U. S, Geological Survey

Dissolved Haudneuss pH value Chlorohyll Diu ed


a C3
SSolid Ca CO3 ug/ Oxygen






1969
/1 Jan-16 0 0.89 1.2 0.000 0.006 291 318 171 46 520 7.6 35 -
1 Jan-16 0 .83 1.2 .0;0 .026 290 316 152 171 46 520 510 8,2 7.4 40 0.70 19 27 67 113 9.7 95
1 Jan-16 3 9.5 93
1 Jan-16 6 .83 1.2 .016 .026 292 341 171 50 520 520 8.2 7.4 35 9.5 93
1 Jan-16 9 9.5 93
1 Jan-16 12 .93 1.3 .013 .020 289 318 171 46 520 510 8.0 7.4 40 9.5 93
1 May-1S 0 .99 1.2 .003 .006 305 341 183 48 556 8.1 20 -- -
I May-15 0 .96 1.1 .010 .016 311 348 80 183 50 540 556 7.9 20 14 1.50 7 5 16 28 8.0 95
1 May-15 6 .87 1.2 .010 .016 309 347 183 50 540 556 7.9 20 16 7.2 85
1 My-15 11.5 1.2 1.4 .010 .013 308 354 184 51 545 556 7.9 20 16 10.3 121
J1/ Aug-27 0 .94 1.0 .006 .013 283 329 149 49 490 8.8 20 -
1 Aug-27 0 1.5 1.6 .036 .042 282 354 54 151 40 438 510 8.9 7.5 10 15 1.75 55 37 23 115 7.7 101
1 Aug-27 5 1.3 1.5 .020 .023 279 306 154 42 498 520 8.9 7.5 10 22 7.2 95
1 Aug-27 10 1.6 1.7 .016 .026 281 318 156 45 491 525 8.9 7.6 10 13 5.7 75
1970
1 Jan-15 0 1.4 .8 .016 .029 252 289 150 42 453 8.1 30 -
1 Jan-15 0 2.6 .9 .052 .068 262 290 169 157 49 410 468 8.4 8.0 60 29 .50 10 0 1.5 12 10 93
1 Jan-15 6 410 8.4 -- 9.8 92
1 Jan-IS 7.5 1.3 1.5 .055 .068 253 285 153 43 450 8.0 60 31 -
1 Jan-15 12 1.0 1.3 .050 .062 258 289 150 42 408 456 8.4 8.1 60 29 8.0 75
1969
2 Jan-16 0 .87 1.2 .020 .026 291 321 171 46 525 510 8.0 7.5 35 8 6 11 25 9.9 98
2 May-15 0 1.0 1.1 .010 .010 320 351 141 191 52 565 570 7.9 20 32 5 5 7 17 7.7 93
2 Au 28 0 1.9 2.0 .026 .029 291 339 56 164 39 452 540 8.8 7.8 10 18 71 54 0 125 6.8 87
2 Jan-14 0 1.4 1.7 .050 .065 274 305 237 160 47 488 486 8.2 7.8 60 32 8 0 4 12 9.8 91
2 Apr-21 1.2 .055 .062 226 266 141 41 410 408 8.5 8.1 60 -
2 Jul-16 .62 .033 .033 230 265 144 36 415 410 8.7 8.1 20 25 7.2 94






Table 13
Chemical Analyses of Water in Lake Okeechobee Continued
(Results in milligrams per liter except as noted)
Analysis made by U. S. Geological Survey
Bicarbonate Carbonate
SM (HC03) (Co3)




1969
3 Jan-16 1350 15.3 11.5 0 16 6.1 0.09 47 14 41 2.8 172 152 47 63 0.3 0.4 0.009 0.01
3 May-15 1030 14.2 10 0 26 .6.0 .02 51 15 44 2.9 162 50 66 .3 .09 .003 .02
3 Au.28 1100 14.4 12 0 29 7.0 .03 42 13 43 3.1 116 140 14 42 64 .3 .02 .000 .07
1970
3 Jan-15 1530 15.9 15.5 0 13 8.8 .05 43 12 35 2.5 138 134 38 53 .3 .2 .006 .08
1969
4 Jan-16 1430 15.3 12 0 16 5.0 .06 48 13 41 2.8 168 154 48 63 .4 .4 .006 .02
4 May-15 1100 14.2 10 0 27 6.1 .01 50 14 43 2.7 160 48 65 .4 .09 .003 .03
4 Au-28 1130 14.4 12 0 29 6.5 .04 43 13 42 2.2 112 144 16 42 62 .2 .05 .000 .05
1970
4 Jan-15 1600 15.9 12.5 0 13.5 9.4 .06 43 12 35 2.5 143 138 5. 39 53 .3 .2 .006 .01
1969
S Jan-14 1100 15.3 10 0 14 4.1 .07 46 13 38 2.6 156 148 45 60 .4 .3 .006 .02
5 May-13 1130 14.2 0 26 .8 .00 51 14 44 2.7 172 162 50 66 .4 .02 .006 .01
5 Au-27 0920 14.4 10 0 29 6.6 .02 40 14 44 3.0 118 140 12 45 66 .3 .07 .006 .04
5 Jan-13 1210 15.9 11.5 0 11 11 .02 45 12 37 2.6 164 142 0 42 57 .3 .3 .006 .02
5 Apr-21 1450 15.6 30 6.2 56 16 41 3.2 174 56 60 .5 1.1 .006 .11
Jul.16 1115 14.2 31 2.8 44 13 34 2.6 148 45 55 .5 .00 .003 .04
1969
6 Jan-14 1145 15.3 12 0 14.5 4.2 .05 47 13 40 2.7 160 152 46 62 .3 .2 .006 .02
6 Jan-14 1146 15.3 12 3 14 160 -- -
6 Jan-14 1147 15.3 12 6 14.3 3.7 .09 48 13 40 2.7 160 154 46 63 .2 .2 .003 .02
6 Jan-14 1148 15.3 12 9 14 -
6 Jan-14 1149 15.3 12 12 14 3.7 .04 48 13 40 2.7 160 152 42 62 .3 .3 .006 .01
1/6 May-13 1030 14.2 9 0 25 5.1 .03 42 11 32 2.4 138 37 48 .3 .0 .003 .02
6 May-13 1030 14.2 9 0 25 4.8 .03 43 10 31 2.2 146 136 38 50 .4 .00 .006 .09
6 May-13 1030 14.2 9 4.5 25 152 -
6 May-13 1030 14.2 9 5 25 4.9 .03 44 10 32 2.2 136 38 51 .4 .05 .003 .07
6 May-13 1032 14.2 9 9 25 5.0 .07 44 10 32 2.2 152 138 38 50 .4 .02 .003 .05
/6 Aug-27 0830 14.4 11 0 29 6.8 .02 42 13 41 2.8 142 43 64 .3 .02 .006 .02
6 Aug-27 0830 14.4 11 0 29 5.8 .03 42 13 43 2.9 120 144 12 42 63 .02 .000 .03
6 Aug-27 0831 14.4 11 5 29 5.6 .02 41 13 43 2.9 124 140 12 44 67 .3 02 .006 .02
6 Aug-27 0832 14.4 11 11 29 5.6 .02 42 13 42 2.9 124 144 12 40 64 .3 .02 .000 .15


0
0





N
H




0
z


z
9



14








Table 13
Chemical Analyses of Water In Lake Okeechobee Continued
(Results in milligrams per liter except as noted)
Analysis made by U. S. Geological Survey
Di olved Hudnmu Co H valu Chlo ohyl Di olved
Sg So lids C C03 p v p u uS/iY Oxygen



S ) t a b j

1969
3 Jan.16 0 .84 1.3 0.020 0.026 298 334 125 50 542 530 7.9 7.5 40 11 11 9 31 8.6 86
3 May-15 0 1.2 1.3 .010 .016 316 351 118 189 56 555 560 8,0 20 16 7 6 11 24 8,2 100
3 Au-28 0 1,9 2.0 .020 .029 283 346 368 159 44 448 530 8.8 7.7 20 17 75 21 72 168 7,4 95
3 Jan-15 0 1.2 1.5 .042 .059 260 300 232 157 47 408 452 8.4 7.9 60 26 7.5 0 3 10 10.2 96
1969
4 Jan-16 0 .91 1.3 .013 .020 299 328 174 48 538 530 7.9 7.4 35 4 12 9 25 8.9 89
4 May-15 0 1.3 1.4 .003 .013 309 349 116 183 52 545 550 8.1 25 16 12 4 20 36 8.0 99
4 Aug.28 0 1.4 1.5 .010 .016 279 340 396 161 43 488 520 8.9 7.7 20 17 132 260 370 762 8.2 105
1970
4 Jan-15 0 1.4 1.7 .039 .062 263 309 214 157 44 475 468 8.4 7.9 50 31 10 0 1.5 12 9.5 90
1969
5 Jan-14 0 .85 1.2 .010 .010 283 312 164 43 520 500 6.8 7.4 35 12 13 16 41 10.1 97
5 May-13 0 1.1 1.1 .003 .006 314 351 162 185 52 545 560 8.2 7.8 30 18 12 7 18 37 7.6 93
5 Aug-27 0 1.1 1.2 .010 .013 288 327 565 158 43 490 540 8.7 8.0 15 11 18 22 84 124 8.1 104
1970
5 Jan-13 0 1.6 1.9 .050 .068 278 322 123 162 46 491 481 8.1 7.8 50 32 9 1.5 7.5 18 9.5 85
S Apr-21 0 1.5 .016 .036 330 372 206 63 580 570 8.9 8.2 60 -
5 Jul-16 0 1.0 .026 .010 270 333 164 42 478 480 9.0 8.1 25 18 7.7 103
1969
6 Jan-14 0 .88 1.1 .016 .026 291 319 173 171 46 555 510 8.3 7.4 35 .92 10 9 11 30 10.0 97
6 Jan-14 3 -- -- -- -- 8.3 -- 10.2 98
6 Jan-14 6 .81 1.1 .013 .023 294 321 174 48 555 520 8.0 7.5 40 10.0 97
6 Jan-14 9 10.2 98
6 Jan-14 12 .81 1.1 .016 .026 288 318 174 49 555 510 8.1 7.5 40 10.1 97
1/6 May-13 0 .73 .75 .000 .006 246 272 150 37 442 8.0 20 -
6 May-13 0 1.7 1.8 .006 .013 246 281 223 149 37 430 439 8.2 7.5 40 35 .75 22 8 18 48 7.5 89
6 May-13 4.5 430 8.2 -- 7.5 89
6 May-13 5 1.6 1.7 .006 .016 250 284 151 40 441 7.6 50 35 -
6 May-3 9 2.0 2.1 .006 .039 250 291 151 38 435 448 8.2 7.4 50 35 -
1/6 Aug-27 0 0.95 1.0 .006 .013 283 324 159 42 520 8.2 5 -
6 Aug-27 0 1.1 1.2 .006 .013 283 340 304 159 41 498 515 8.7 7.9 15 7 33 36 87 156 7.7 99
6 Aug-27 5 1.1 1.2 .010 .016 286 324 156 42 442 515 8.7 8.0 30 7 2.83 7.4 95
6 Aug.27 11 1.1 1.1 .016 .023 281 328 159 41 498 510 8.7 7.9 20 8 9.8 126







Table 13
Chemical Analyses of Water in Lake Okeechobee Continued
(Results in milligrams per liter except as noted)
Analysis made by U. S. Geological Survey

Bicarbonate Carbonate
SC (HCO3) (C03)





1970
J/6 Jan-13 1100 15.9 13.5 0 9.5 0.02 42 11 34 2.6 130 40 53 0.3 0.2 0.000 0.02
6 Jan-13 1100 15.9 13.5 0 10.5 10 .00 42 11 34 2.6 146 132 8 40 52 .4 .3 .006 .01
6 Jan-13 1101 15.9 13.5 6 11 10 .03 43 11 34 2.6 142 130 6 40 52 .3 .3 .009 .00
6 Jan-13 1102 15.9 13.5 13.5 10 11 .00 43 11 34 2.6 156 134 4 39 54 .3 .2 .006 .02
1969
j/7 Jan-14 1300 15.3 12 0 14 4.6 .02 48 13 42 2.8 156 42 66 .3 .4 .003 .07
7 Jan-14 1300 15.3 12 0 14 162 -
7 May-13 0900 14.2 11 0 25 5.5 .02 49 13 38 2.6 170 156 -- 45 61 .5 .02 .003 .10
7 Aug-27 0800 14.4 10 0 29 5.2 .04 38 12 38 2.6 104 124 10 38 58 .2 .02 .000 .15
1970
7 Jan-13 1030 15.9 13 0 11 6.0 .12 32 6.7 20 1.9 88 95 2 24 32 .3 .09 .009 .00
1969
./8 Jan-13 1715 15.3 12 0 15 5.3 .02 51 15 45 3.0 164 50 69 .3 .5 .000 .01
8 Jan-13 1715 15.3 12 0 15 -
8 May-12 1500 14.2 11 0 27 5.7 .02 48 12 40 2.6 176 154 45 60 .4 .00 .003 .00
8 Auf-25 1340 14.4 12 0 30 6.1 .02 39 12 39 2.7 114 136 12 42 59 .3 .02 .000 .06
1970
8 Jan-12 1340 15.9 13 0 14 3.1 .16 29 3.3 11 1.6 76 65 0 14 19 .3 .05 .006 .09
8 Apr-21 0930 15.6 5.9 37 9.4 27 2.2 114 32 41 .3 .2 .006 .09
8 Jul-16 0810 14.2 29 1.1 41 10 29 2.4 136 35 46 .4 .00 .000 .04
1969
./9 Jan-13 1600 15.3 12 0 15 6.2 .02 52 15 47 3.2 172 54 72 .4 ,5 .003 .02
9 Jan-13 1600 15.3 12 0 15 -
9 May-12 1415 14.2 11 0 26 6.1 .03 46 13 39 3.0 172 152 42 59 .4 .07 .003 .01
9 Aug-25 1500' 14.4 12.5 0 30 5.2 .03 41 12 40 2.7 122 148 8 42 60 .3 .02 .000 .06
1970
9 Jan-12 1500 15.9 13 0 14 3.6 .12 28 5.0 16 1.7 74 79 0 18 28 .2 .05 .006 .05
9 Apr-21 1530 15.6 32 5.1 35 8.7 25 2.1 112 18 38 .3 .09 .006 .11
10 Jan-14 1700 15.3 13.5 0 15 .6.7 .07 50 15 46 3.0 190 170 52 72 .3 .5 .009 .01
10 May-14 0840 14.2 12 0 25 7.0 .04 51 14 44 2.8 172 168 4 48 65 .5 .09 .006 .01
10 Au-26 '0800 14.4 13 0 28 6.3 .01 44 13 40 2.8 128 152 12 42 58 .3 .05 '.003 .01
10 Jan-13 1645 15.9 15 0 11.5 8.4 .02 37 9.0 26 2.2 124 112 0 32 41 .3 .02 .009 .00








Table 13
Chemical Analyses of Water in Lake Okeechobee. Continued
(Results in milligrams per liter except as noted)
Analysis made by U. S. Geological Survey

D C CO3a W *j p. value Chlorophyll Dllved
Sd CP Oxygen





1970
/6 Jan13 0 .7 .97 0.020 0.029 258 282 150 44 452 8.1 30 -
6 Jan.13 0 1.3 1.6 .052 .075 258 285 113 150 42 455 459 8.4 8.1 60 33 .50 10 0 1.5 12 11.2 100
6 Jan-13 6 1.7 2.0 .068 .085 258 287 153 46 400 458 8.4 7.8 60 32 11.1 100
6 Jan-13 ,13.5 1.6 1.9 .055 .068 262 292 153 43 402 451 8.3 7.8 60 34 11.0 97
1969
'/7 Jan-14 0 .87 1.4 .000 .006 298 332 174 46 ~- 530 7.5 40 -
7 Jan-14 0 76 585 8.2 7 6 5 18 10.1 97
7 May13 0 1.6 1.7 .003 .010 292 326 234 176 48 505 520 8.2 7.6 40 12 8 1 0 9 7.8 93
7 Au:27 0 .88 1.0 .016 .026 253 305 282 145 43 445 470 8.7 7.4 30 11 32 13 53 98 7.3 94
19
7 Jan-13 0 1.2 1.3 .098 .12 171 202 118 108 30 300 309 8.3 7.8 60 37 12 0 6 18 10.2 92
1969
j18 Jan-13 0 .89 1.4 .010 .020 322 353 188 54 560 7.6 40 -
8 Jan-13 0 165 545 -- 10 11 15 36 10.1 99
8 May-12 0 1.3 1.3 .006 .016 290 330 208 170 ,44 508 520 8.2 7.9 30 56 5.5 .5 3 9 -
8 Ag-2 0 1.1 1.2 .020 .029 267 322 393 147 36 482 500 8.8 7.9 20 10 0 0 0 0 7.7 101
1970
8 Jan-12 0 1.4 1.6 .14 .15 110 152 87 76 23 210 199 8.2 7.5 120 23 9 0 1.5 10 9.8 :94
8 Apr-21 0 1.1 ..029 .039 212 251 131 38 385 388 8.3 7.6 60 -
8 Jul-16 0 .89 .013 .016 232 265 144 32 408 420 8.2 8.1 10 19 7.5 96
1969
J/9, Janl13 0 1.1 1.6 .006 .013 337 368 191 50 580 7.6 35 -
9 Jan13 0 110 375 5 2 0 7 9.0 88
9' May-12 0 1.2 1.3 .016 .020 284 309 168 169 44 505 515 8.2 7.9 20 35 9 1 2 12 7.8 95
9 Aug 25 0 1.2 1.3 .013 .020 276 306 375 152 31 500 500 8,7 7.8 15 9 0 0 0 0 7.3 96
1970
9 Jan-12 0 1.0 1.1 .11 .13 140 179 82 91 26 238 250 8.2 7.6 100 21 9 3 3 15 10.5 101
9 Apr-21 0 .97 .029 .042 188 234 124 32 370 359 8.9 7.6 60 -
1969
10 Jan-14 0 .96 1.4 .020 .029 329 361 186 47 596 570 8.0 7.5 35 5 2 0 7 10 98
10 May-14 0 1.3 1.4 .016 .023 316 355 188 185 47 545 560 8.5 8.0 30 23 9 1 13 23 7.6 91
10 Aug-26 0 1.2 1,2 .023 .029 282 299 340 164 39 498 520 8.8 7.9 5 9 32 26 18 76 7.3 92
10 Jan13 0 1.6 1.8 .059 .091 212241 218 130 38 380 378 8.4 7.8 60 34
10 Jan-13 0 1.6 1.8 .059 .091 212 241 218 130 38 380 378 8.4 7.8 60 34 -










.I/- Filtered


Table 13
Chemical Analyses of Water in Lake Okeechobee Continued
(Results in milligrams per liter except as noted)
Analysis made by U. S. Geological Survey


Bicarbon- Carbonate
ate(HCO3) (C03) I





1969
11 Jan-14 1600 15.3 13 0 15 6.3 0.07 50 15 45 3.0 188 166 50 70 0.3 0.4 0.003 0.01
11 Jan-14 1601 15.3 13 3 15 -
11 Jan-14 1602 15.3 13 6 15 6.4 .07 50 15 44 3.0 188 168 50 68 .3 .5 .012 .01
11 Jan-14 1603 15.3 13 9 15 -
11 Jan-14 1604 15.3 13 12 14 6.8 .07 51 15 45 3.0 190 166 51 70 .3 .5 .012 .01
/11 May-14 0910 14.2 12 0 25 6.0 .01 48 12 39 2.6 152 43 60 .5 .07 .003 .00
11 May-14 0910 14.2 12 0 25 6.7 .05 48 12 39 2.5 164 152 4 45 59 .4 .07 .006 .02
11 May-14 0911 14.2 12 6 25 6.0 .07 48 12 38 2.6 166 152 45 59 .4 .07 .002 .01
11 May-14 0912 14.2 12 12 25 6.3 .07 48 12 38 2.6 166 150 42 59 .5 .09 .002 .00
11 Aug-26 0830 14.4 13 0 28 5.2 .03 44 12 37 2.7 138 8 38 55 .3 .00 .000 .05
11 Aug-26 0845 14.4 13 0 28 5.9 .03 43 12 37 2.8 118 144 14 41 54 .4 .02 .002 .02
11 Aug-26 0846 14.4 13 6 28 5.4 .03 42 11 37 2.7 120 144 14 37 56 .3 .02 .000 .01
11 Aug-26 0847 14.4 13 13 29 6.3 .03 43 12 37 2.7 124 144 12 40 54 .3 .05 .009 .03
1970
i/11 Jan-13 1545 15.9 15 0 11 9.4 .03 40 9.7 31 2.4 124 36 47 .3 .2 .000 .00
11 Jan-13 1545 15.9 15 0 11 10 .18 41 10 30 2.5 138 122 0 36 48 .3 .2 .009 .00
11 Jan-13 1546 15.9 15 7.5 9 9.9 .05 40 10 30 2.4 144 124 0 36 48 .3 .2 .009 .01
11 Jan-13 1547 15.9 15 15 9 9.6 .07 42 11 32 2.5 140 126 0 38 50 .3 .2 .009 .05
1969
J/12 Jan-14 1530 15.3 8 0 15.5 5.9 .02 51 15 47 3.2 170 52 70 .4 .00 .000 .14
12 Jan-14 1530 15.3 8 0 15.5 192 -
12 May-14 1005 14.2 7 0 25 5.3 .02 44 11 34 2.5 148 138 33 52 .4 .05 .006 .06
12 Aug-26. 0930 14.4 8 0 30 5.3 .02 42 11 36 2.7 128 140 6 37 54 .3 .07 .006 .03
1970
12 Jan-13 1515 15.9 10 0 12 7.8 .11 40 9.4 29 2.3 132 124 0 33 45 .3 .2 .006 .03
12 Apr-21 1045 15.6 27.5 5.2 33 7.2 21 2.0 94 20 31 .3 .1 .012 .16
12 Jul-16 0900 14.2 29 2.2 41 10 29 2.4 128 35 44 .4 .00 .003 .05
1969
13 Jan-16 1225 15.3 14 0 15.5 6.1 .07 50 15 45 3.0 180 168 50 68 .4 .2 .009 .01
13 May-14 1145 14.2 13,5 0 25 6.0 .03 46 12 36 2.5 148 146 40 55 .4 .07 .006 .04
13 Au -28 0945 14.4 14 0 29 5.6 .02 41 13 42 3.0 124 148 14 39 62 .3 .07 .000 .03
19
13 Jan-14 1515 15.9 16.5 0 13.5 11 .10 46 12 38 2.7 144 142 0 44 59 .3 .3 .006 .08







Table 13
Chemical Analyses of Water in Lake Okeechobee Continued
(Results in milligrams per liter except as noted)
Analysis made by U. S, Geological Survey
SDissolved Hudneuu coS2i 6 Disolvod
SSoUd Ca CO03 I,2 pH value ChlosophyU Oxygen



111 JM~ 111111 b a0 JJ jj

1969
11 Jan-14 0 .96 1.4 0.026 0.036 324 355 110 186 50 610 560 8.0 7.5 35 .50 5 3 4 12 10.0 98
11 Jan-14 3 --- -- 10.0 98
11 Jan-14 6 .95 1.4 .026 .036 322 353 186 49 620 560 8.0 7.4 35 10.0 98
11 Jan-14 9 -- 9.3 91
11 Jan-14 12 1.0 1.5 .26 .036 327 358 188 52 620 560 8.1 7.5 35 8.0 87
1/11 May-14 0 1.1 1,2 .000 .003 286 325 170 45 510 8.1 40 -
11 May-14 0 1.1 1,2 .013 .020 288 322 173 170 45 500. 520 .8.4 7.8 40 35 1.00 11 2 15 28 7.7 92
11 May-14 6 1.2 1.3 .010 .026 286 324 170 45 500 510 8.2 7.9 45 30 7.4 88
11 May-14 12 1.2 1.3 .006 .020 283 327 170 46 500 510 8.2 7.8 40 30 10.5 125
Ji/1 Aug-26 0 .78 .83 .006 .013 270 306 160 47 480 8.5 30 -
11 Aug-26 0 1.2 1.2 .029 .039 268 301 360 157 39 470 480 8.8 8.2 25 11 74 76 154 304 7.1 90
11 Aug-26 6 1.2 1.2 .029 .036 259 329 150 32 470 490 8.8 7.9 20 12 6.8 86
11 Aug-26 13 .76 .85 .033 .033 267 287 157 39 420 485 8.7 7.9 5 11 6.0 77
1/11 Jan-13 0 .59 .75 .020 .029 238 258 140 39 420 7.7 40 -
11 Jan-13 0 1.4 1.6 .059 .082 239 272 232 144 44 370 425 8.2 7.9 60 34 .58 9 1.5 7.5 18 -
11 Jan-13 7.5 1.9 2.1 .078 .095 239 266 141 40 381 415 8.2 8.0 60 35 8.5 73
11 Jan-13 15 2.5 2.8 .059 .088 249 278 150 47 380 440 8.2 7.9 70 36 10.2 88
1969
/12 Jan-14 0 .93 1.0 .003 .010 339 361 188 49 580 7.6 35 -
12 Jan-14 0 113 630 8.0 9 7 13 29 8.0 79
12 May-14 0 1.5 1.6 .016 .029 250 297 107 155 42 460 462 8.1 7.7 40 16 9 4 15 28 7.0 83
12 Aug-26 0 1.3 1.4 .046 .050 258 295 309 150 36 474 470 8.6 7.8 25 12 20 16 27 63 5.9 78
1970
12 Jan-13 0 1.7 1.9 .065 .088 229 275 210 139 37 370 400 8.2 7.7 80 32 12 0 6 18 8.8 81
12 Apr-21 0 1.2 .082 .085 167 214 112 35 310 310 8.4 7.1 60 -
12 Jul-16 0 .67 .033 .033 227 263 144 39 400 410 8.5 8.0 20 21 6.6 85
1969
13 Jan-16 0 .93 1.2 .020 .029 321 355 186 49 580 560 8.0 7.6 35 1 0 0 1 9.5 94
13 May-14 0 1.4 1.5 .016 .029 270 308 136 165 45 497 482 8.3 7.8 40 25 6 0 12 18 7.6 91
13 Aug-28 0 1.3 1.4 .020 .033 279 345 396 156 35 548 530 8.8 7.8 10 16 7.5 96
1970
13 Jan-14 0 1.3 1.7 .050 .059 284 323 217 165 48 460 492 8.2 7.6 33 '11 10 3 12 25 10.5 100







Table-13
Chemical Analyses of Water in Lake Okeechobee Continued
(Results in milligrams per liter except as noted)
Analysis made by U. S. Geological Survey

Bicabonate Carbonate
S(aHC03) (CO3)





1969
14 Jan-16 1305 15.3 14.5 0 16 5.0 0.07 49 14 41 2.9 172 156 46 63 0.3 0.2 0.003 0.08
14 May-14 1215 14.2 13 0 26 6.7 .02 50 13 41 2.8 166 160 48 64 .4 .07 .003 .09
14 Aug-28 0830 14.2 14 0 29 6.1. .03 43 13 43 3.0 124 148 14 42 64 .3 .02 .000 .05
1970
14 Jan-14 1500 15.9 16 0 12 6.6 .05 42 11 33 2.5 144 136 0 34 49 .4 .09 .003 .05
1969
15 Jan-16 1045 15.3 15 0 15 5.7 .05 50 15 44 3.0 188 164 48 66 .3 .2 .003 .03
15 May-14 1310 14.2 14.5 0 26 6.7 .01 52 14 45 2.8 170 168 8 50 68 .5 .02 .006 .01
rs Aug-28 1030 14.4 15 0 29 6,2 .03 47 14 43 3.1 140 156 14 42 65 .3 .02 .000 .05
1970
15 Jan-13 1300 15.9 16 0 11 7.2 .04 42 10 30 2.5 140 128 0 33 48 .3 .1 .006 .01
15 Apr-21 1200 15.6 31 8.7 40 10 31 2.4 126 33 45 .3 .4 .009 .12
15 Jul-16 0945 14.2 29 1.4 41 10 29 2.4 136 36 46 .4 .00 .000 .05
1969
16 Feb-18 0920 0 16 9.0 18 59 1.9 68 3.9 215 202 72 100 .5 .3 .006 .09
16 Mar-26 1200 0 20 5.2 .04 51 15 46 3.1 185 168 48 69 .5 .2 .000 .03
16 Apr-16 1050 0 24 6.2 .05 51 15 47 3.2 172 172 51 68 .4 .2 .000 .07
16 May-15 1550 0 30 6.7 .02 48 15 49 3.4 164 52 72 .3 .1 .003 .06
16 Jun-10 1450 0 33 2.6 .03 45 12 35 2.6 132 144 3 40 54 .5 .02 .003 .03
16 Jul-17 1100 0 32 7.6 .02 69 14 48 3.0 150 156 8 52 70 .5 .02 .003 .05
16 Aug-29 0930 14.4 0 29 17 .06 69 24 82 4.5 244 236 0 101 115 .5 .7 .079 .23
16 Sep-22 155 0 28 12 .04 49 15 49 3.1 172 164 52 72 .4 .2 .018 .27
16 Oct-28 1000 0 25 15 .02 46 14 45 3.1 168 152 47 70 .4 .2 .009 .03
16 Nov-20 1600 0 19 13 .04 50 16 51 3.2 194 170 60 76 .5 .3 .003 .09
1970
16 Jan-15 1043 15.9 0 12 7.1 .04 45 12 37 2.7 155 146 0 40 55 .3 .05 .003 .12
1969
17 Au 27 1000 14.4 4 0 29 3.5 .04 35 11 40 1.8 130 140 2 24 60 .3 .00 .000 .07
18 Aug-28 1200 14.4 3 0 30 5.4 .03 38 19 59 3.6 116 136 8 69 88 .3 .00 .000. .05
1970
18 Jan-15 1630 15.9 0 16 6.8 .01 40 10 30 2.3 121 126 6 35 46 .3 ,02 .006 .06







Table 13
Chemical Analyses of Water In Lake Okeechobee Continued
(Results in milligrams per liter except as noted)
Analysis made by U. S. Geological Survey

g E DIdiv H nuas pH lue Ch orophyl Diolved
SoUdld C CaCO3 28C ugh

I I A


1969
14 Jan-16 0 2.0 2.2 0.029 0.029 299 328 180 52 540 525 8.1 7,6 40 8 8 14 30 9.4 94
14 May-14 0 1.0 1.2 .006 .016 305 337 195 179 48 535 550 8.3 7.8 30 30 5 0 5 7.5 92
14 Aug-28 0 2.0 2.1 .026 .036 287 331 420 161 40 548 530 8.8 7.8 10 19 46 3 96 145 7.0 90
1970
14 Jan-14 0 1.1 1.2 .033 .050 246 285 190 150 39 400 440 8.2 7.7 60 23 7 1 5 13 10 93
1969
15 Jan-16 0 1.4 1.7 .023 .029 314 350 186 52 567 555 8.1 7.7 30 5 2 0 7 9.6 94
15 May-14 0 1.1 1.1 .013 .010 322 368 103 187 50 555 570 8.6 8.0 30 37 3 0 0 3 8.2 100
15 AU 28 0 .77 .84 .023 .029 298 339 357 175 47 538 550 8.8 7.9 20 18 3 0 0 3 7.7 99
15 Jan-13 0 1.3 1,4 .050 .062 236 262 196 146 41 378 428 7.8 7.8 60 32 -12 4 14 30 8.5 77
15 Apr-21 0 .99 .042 ,052 234 270 141 38 420 420 8.6 7.9 60 -
15 Jul-16 0 .46 .026 .033 233 267 144 32 422 420 8.7 8.1 20 17 6.6 85
1969
16 Feb-18 0 .77 1.2 .042 .050 433 467 225 60. 680 730 8.1 7.7 45 -- 9.5 95
16 Mar-26 0 .94 1.2 .006 .029 322 360 189 51 570 579 8.2 7.7 40 8.5 92
16 Apr-16 0 .85 1.2 .006 .026 328 353 189 48 580 585 8.2 7.9 30 7.0 82
16 May-15 0 .87 1.1 .026 .042 328 367 182 47 573 590 7.8 20 7.5 99
16 Jun10 0 1.0 1.1. .020 .029 263 313 162 44 488 455 8.6 7.2 20 9.8 134
16 Jul-17 0 1.1 1.2 .020 .029 321 379 180 52 620 550 8.5 7.6 30 6.5 88
16 Aug-29 0 2.0 3.0 .042 .050 532 596 271 77 870 925 8.0 7.9 60 5.3 68
16 Sep-22 0 1.9 2.4 .042 .050 334 380 184 50 575 600 7.5 7.6 20 5.0 63
16 Oct-28 0 1.0 1.2' .050 .055 316 346 173 48 540 550 7.8 8.0 20 -- 7.0 83
16 Nov-16 0 1.2 1.6 ..052 .062 355 389 191 52 530 624 7.9 8.2 45 8.5 90
1970
16 Jan.15 0 1.3 1.5 .033 .036 271 310 162 43 445 481 8.2 7.8 50 9.8 91
1969
17 Au 27 0 1.0 1.1 .020 .029 246 293 582 133 18 458 460 8.3 7.7 40 7 19 0 74 93 7.2 92
1969
18 Au -28 0 1.2 1.2 .006 .010 349 404 294 173 62 563 650 8.6 7.8 30 10 0 0 0 0 7.3 96
1970
18 Jan-15 0 .91 1.0 .023 .033 233 271 141 38 370 419 8.5 7.9 50 18 -- -- 8.7 87






Table 14
Chemical Analyses of Water in Tributaries to Lake Okeechobee
(Results in milligrams per liter except as noted)
Analysis made by U. S. Geological Survey
Bicarbonate
S5(HC03)
Station Name | I I




1969
Fisheating Creek Jan-15 1215 48 16 1.4 .19 8.8 3.5 20 5.9 25 1.6 40 0.2 0.02 0.003 0.09
Feb-17 1700 72 18 1.2 .15 15 3.8 25 3.1 37 41 2.0 48 .3 .02 .015 .38
Mar-25 1435 680 24 1.7 .21 7.9 3.3 15 1.6 16 16 4.8 29 .3 .02 .006 .06
Ap-15 1615 44 26 23 .30 9.4 3.6 17 .5 26 26 .4 31 .2 .02 .015 .16
May-6 0925 7.6 27 2.8 .18 12 4.2 16 .3 34 35 6.8 31 .5 .00 .009 .09
Jun-10 1745 31 31 2.6 .20 14 3.1 14 .8 38 42 4.0 24 .3 .00 .012 .06
Jul-16 1600 74 32 5.1 .41 5.7 2.5 10 .2 14 14 .0 20 .4 .00 .009 .08
Aug-27 1345 225 30 4.3 .24 7.7 2.4 11 .2 18 20 4.0 18 .2 .4 .009 .09
Sep-23 0900 320 28 5.1 .29 8.2 2.7 13 .4 24 23 .0 24 .3 .02 .006 .24
Oct-27 1620 1600 25 6.1 .51 7.3 2.3 9.7 1.0 24 17 .0 17 .2 .00 .009 .03
Nov-21 0930 1100 15 3.5 .22 6.4 2.4 12 .5 14 14 .0 26 .2 .5 .012 .11
Dec-9 1650 125 19 2.8 .13 7.7 2.7 14 1.1 42 18 .8 30 .3 .2 .006 .03
1970
Jan-14 1050 1150 12 2.7 .12 4.8 2.2 13 1.3 6 10 .0 24 .6 .00 .003 .09
1969 32
Harney Pond Canal Jan-15 1200 0 15 2.9 .30 36 8.8 24 2.5 78 44 43 .2 .1 .003 .03
Feb-17 1620 0 18 1.2 .12 19 9.1 26 2.7 00 102 39 42 .4 .09 .018 .09
Mar-25 1420 0 23 2.7 .10 26 5.3 13 2.1 24 22 46 22 .4 .09 .003 .12
Apr-15 1545 0 26 3.7 .07 25 6.7 19 1.8 58 58 40 31 .2 .05 .034 .05
May-6 1000 0 27 5.2 .20 18 6.2 15 2.2 44 44 49 23 .3 .05 .009 .05
Jun-10 1805 0 30 3.1 .09 21 4.3 13 2.2 30 34 32 22 .3 .02 .003 .09
Sep-23 0945 4010 29 7.3 .40 5.0 11 1.4 26 28 45 18 .2 ..2 .012 .23
1970 25
Jan-16 0945 0 13.5 6.3 .24 5.7 11 2.3 22 20 61 20 .3 .1 .009 .54
1969 19
Indian Prairie Canal Jan-15 1145 0 16 4.2 .24 5.5 11 3.6 26 44 20 .2 .2 .003 .11
Feb-17 1545 0 18 4.3 .21 30 6.9 16 3:2 59 58 50 26 .2 .3 .009 .12
Mar-25 1420 0 22 5.1 .21 4.7 1.0 15 2.8 22 16 139 23 .3 .05 .058 .76
Apr-15 1420 0 25 3.7 .09 47 9.5 20 1.9 66 64 95 33 .3 .4 .030 .14
May-16 1025 0 27 3.4 .10 14 4.0 8.8 6.5 20 21 32 14 .2 .00 .006 .05
Jun-10 1825 0 30 4.7 .24 36 6.1 17 2.8 74 72 46 30 .4 .02 .009 .18
1970
Jan-16 1000 0 15.5 3.0 .28 21 4.2 15 2.9 30 29 36 26 .2 .07 .012 .20







Table 14
SChemical Analyses of Water In Tributaries to Lake Okeechobee Continued
(Results in milligrams per letter except as noted)
_Analysis made by U. S. Geological Survey
D w _oe iudnu o .
?Sa Cat pH value Dbuovd

Station Nwme ^ i | ^ | ] ^ I | J J |

I-_ fj i l iii
Fisheating Creek Jan-IS 1.7 1.8 0.10 0.12 94 146 36 16 203 191 6.5 120 10.0 100
Feb-17 .92 1.4 .052 .075 119 172 53 20 227 235 7.0 6.8 120 10.0 105
Mar-25 .74 .83 .052 .085 72 127 33 20 145 143 6.4. 6.3 200 6.0 71
Apr-IS 2.1 2.3 .052 .098 78 140 39 17 154 158 6.9 6.3 240 7.0 85
May-16 1.5 1.6 .029 .039 91 146 48 19 165 173 6.8 6.7 160 7.5 93
Jun-10 1.2 1.3 .039 .059 .84 131 48 14 135 157 7.1 6.7 160 5.9 79
Jul-16 1.2 1.3 .050 .072 51 110 25 13 80 95 6.2 6.2 200 4.5 61
Aug-27 1.3 1.8 .046 .052 60 92 29 13 90 107 6.6 6.6 180 3.3 43
Sep23 .23 51 .059 .065 65 127 32 13 104 122 6.7 6.6 200 6.5 82
Oct-27 1.0 1.0 .072 .088 53 102 28 14 100 100 6.5 6.3 160 5.0 60
Nov-21 1.1 1.8 .023 .042 60 108 26 15 95 119 5.8 6.6 220 9.0 88
Dec-09 1.0 1.3 .036 .055 70 117 30 15 140 135 7.0 6.5 200 7.0 74
1970
Jan-14 .86 .95 .036 .050 54 103. 21 13 115 110 5.2 6.3 120
1969
Harney Pond Canal Jan-15 1.4 1.5 .042 .055 196 260 116 52 353 340 6.9 140 10.1 99
Feb.17 56 .76 .026 .050 207 241 128 44 360 379 7.5 7.3 100 10.0 105
Mar-25 1.0 1.2 .036 .085 122 155 70 52 215 216 6.9 6.5 120 7.6 87
Apr-15 2.1 2.2 .023 .050 158 201 93 45 295 285 7.6 7.7 100 7.5 92
May-16 .81 .92 .072 .075 149 192 88 52 256 264 6.9 7.1 100 55 68
Jun-10 .86 .98 .039 .055 112 146 63 35 132 192 6.5 6.7 80 5.5 72
Sep 23 .22 .64 .072 .085 124 160 73 50 196 210 6.6 6.8 120 3.0 38
1970 .
Jan-16 .1.1 1.8 .10 .11 143 206 86 70 240 242 6.3 6.6 160 9.3 88
1969
Indian Prairie Canal Jan-I1 1.2 1.5 .039 .059 122 169 70 48 215 210 6.4 140 8.0 80
Feb-17 .42 .88 .052 .052 167 202 104 56 270 282 7.3 7.1 100 10.0 105
Mar-25 1.4 2.3 .006 .026 252 324 159 146 408 398 65 6.4 140 6.4 73
Apr-IS 1.6 2.2 .026 .050 244 296 157 104 418 405 7.5 6.6 100 6.8 81
May-6 .84 .90 .052 .052 93 120 52 35 121 160 6.5 6.5 80 5.5 68
Jun10 .88 1.1 .14 .15 179 232 115 56 131 292 6.9 6.8 100 5.4 71
1970
Jan-16 1.8 21 .16 .18 124 168 70 46 230 222 6.7 6.8 100 7.5 74






Table 14
Chemical Analyses of Water in Tributaries to Lake Okeechobee Continued
(Results in milligrams per liter except as noted)
Analysis made by U. S. Geological Smvey

Bicarbonate
a (HC03)Z

6 I S z. ?
Station Name E S
5 I' Q 3 a D a 3 -

1969
Kissimmee River Jan-15 1125 1060 16 4.6 0.15 36 5.4 15 1.8 92 32 26 D.2 0.2 0.003 0.04
Feb-17 1500 794 17 2.0 .17 28 5.2 17 2.6 84 80 24 29 .3 .1 .018 .10
Mar-25 1320 3940 22 2.0 .13 26 2.5 8.0 1.4 66 64 15 13 .2 .02 .006 .08
Apr-15 144S 2640 25 1.9 .11 26 2.8 8.8 1.0 80 54 21 16 .3 .05 .012 .03
May-13 1515 1730 26 3.9 .14 26 2.9 9.3 1.1 72 72 14 16 .2 .1 .006 .03
Jun-10 1845 1120 29 3.8 .08 24 3.4 11 1.2 66 66 15 18 .3 .02 .012 .02
Jul-16 1430 116 32 4.5 .11 24 5.9 18 1.8 66 62 27 29 .4 .00 .015 .03
Aug-26 1515 3060 32 4.1 .17 14 3.2 8.8 1.3 34 28 17 14 .2 .02 .009 .12
Sep23 1100 2480 29 6.7 .24 30 3.3 11 1.2 86 85 16 22 .3 .1 .006 .23
Oct-27 1500 5920 25 4.3 .17 18 2.5 7.7 1.3 46 46 5.2 14 .2 .02 .012 .07
Nov-21 1045 5040 18 3.0 .15 16 2.0 7.2 1.1 46 42 11 14 .3 .02 .006 .06
Dec-09 1550 1300 18 3.2 .15 18 2.4 8.0 1.1 46 46 14 16 .3 .02 .021 .08
1970
Jan-14 1015 8950 9.5 2.4 .17 14 2.1 7.7 1.4 36 36 8.0 13 .6 .02 .009 .08
1969
Taylor Creek Jan-15 1045 14 14 6.5 .06 53 17 52 3.6 175 57 79 .4 3 .006 .09
Feb-17 1400 16 16 4.5 .16 74 22 111 7.5 167 165 86 212 .4 .5 .021 .35
Mar-25 1245 43 23 4.8 .24 26 5.2 23 4.9 78 63 17 40 .4 .2 .030 .43
Apr-15 1400 12 25 3.3 .15 39 7.4 28 3.7 119 108 26 47 .4 .2 .024 .19
May-13 1700 121 29 7.5 .38 33 9.0 46 4.5 74 65 37 87 .4 .3 .058 .28
Jun-10 1305 16 30 7.2 .10 49 13 66 5.0 124 120 48 121 .4 .09 .015. .26
Jul-16 1330 15 34 6.6 .21 37 8.9 39 3.8 102 97 34 71 .5 .09 .015 .31
Aug-26 1430 333 30 8.5 .34 26 6.9 38 3.1 66 55 24 76 .3 .2 .027 .36
Sep-22 1300 40 30 8.1 .26 26 5.2 28 3.0 60 59 19 54 .3 .2 .018 .33
Oct-27 1400 136 25 8.6 .30 16 3.6 15 3.9 38 37 7.0 32 .3 .1 .015 .16
Nov-20 1400 97 19 4.8 .18 21 3.9 17 3.2 60 56 12 36 .4 .07 .015 .09
Dec-09 1500 0 18 1.3 .18 37 8.0 39 4.1 96 92 28 79 .4 .3 .030 .26
1970
Jan-14 0945 47 11.5 5.6 .17 24 5.4 25 4.0 62 58 20 46 .2 ..1 .0$ .26


0











0

2:
s








Table 14
Chemical Analyses of Water in Tributaries to Lake Okeechobee Continued
(Results in milligrams per liter except as noted)
Analysis made by U. S. Geological Survey


N Diolved Harudna as Disolved
aSolids CaD03 T"Ae" pH value oXyP

Station Name S C v1



1969
Kissimmee River Jan-15 0.67 0.97 0.050 0.059 167 203 112 36 288 288 7.2 120 8.5 85
Feb-17 .56 .82 .072 .091 148 185 92 26 265 267 7.3 7.2 110 10.1 103
Mar-25 .78 .89 .052 .078 100 116 76 23 149 180 7.9 7.0 120 7.4 84
Apr-15 .65 .74 .062 .098 105 124 77 32 177 183 7.8 7.3 80 7.0 83
May-13 .48 .66 .068 .11 109 144 77 18 179 200 7.9 7.4 80 7.0 85
Jun-10 .65 .71 .039 .055 110 144 74 20 195 190 7.6 6.8 70 6.9 89
Jul-16 .94 .99 .029 .042 142 180 85 34 266 245 7.7 6.9 70 7.2 97
Aug-26 .87 1.0 .042 .052 77 119 48 25 150 150 6.8 7.0 80 4.9 66
Sep-23 1.9 2.3 .088 .098 134 176 89 19 220 246 7.6 7.2 140 5.0 64
Oct-27 1.3 1.4 .062 .072 77 115 56 18 145 142 7.3 7.3 90 6.4 76
Nov-21 .63 .73 .075 .091 76 107 48 14 111 143 7.0 7.5 120 8.5 88
Dec-09 .60 .72 .065 .078 86 113 55 18 170 158 8.0 7.1 120 7.5 79
1970
Jan-14 .83 .94 .065 .072 68 105 44 14 112 125 8.1 6.9 120 -
1969
Taylor Creek Jan-15 1.7 2.1 .17 .18 357 401 202 59 573 625 7.4 40 8.5 82
Feb-17 .60 1.5 .98 .98 604 697 275 140 1750 7.6 7.4 60 9.0 90
Mar-25 .49 1.1 .98 1.1 156 189 87 35 288 285 7.0 6.9 220 4.5 52
Apr-15 .45 .88 59 .59 211 243 128 40 388 386 7.6 7.4 100 6.0 71
May-13 1.3 2.0 .95 1.1 261 355 120 66 497 485 7.3 7.0 120 6.2 80
Jun-10 1.3 1.7 .072 .075 371 478 176 78 750 660 8.1 7.0 70 8.1 106
Jul-16 1.3 1.7 .55 .55 251 317 129 50 462 438 7.7 7.1 100 5.5 76
Aug-26 .98 1.6 .49 .52 213 286 94 48 405 400 6.8 7.0 100 4.4 58
Sep-22 1.9, 2.4 .055 .059 175 219 87 39 462 315 6.9 7.0 130 5.0 66
Oct-27 1.0 1.3 .91 .91 108 155 55 25 204 190 6.0 6.7 140 4.0 48
Nov-20 .72 .90 .55 .55 128 156 69 23 197 236 7.0 7.6 120 8.0 85
Dec09 1.1 1.7 .62 .68 245 293 126 51 490 453 7.4 7.6 130 7.4 78
1970
Jan-14 .83 1.3, .59 .62 162 208 82 35 271 300 7.0 7.1 100 -















Table 14
Chemical Analyses of Water in Tributaries to Lake Okeechobee Continued
(Results in milligrams per liter except as noted)
Analysis made by U. S. Geological Survey
Bicarbonate
(HC03)
cVIE

Station Name g


1969
Nubbin Slough Feb-18 1140 17 4.7 0.15 40 11 37 3.9 130 128 39 65 0.4 0.05 0.012 0.07
Mar-26 1530 20 7.1 .34 22 6.1 23 3.0 65 57 22 38 .4 .00 .009 .48
Apr-16 1445 30 3.7 .10 38 8.8 30 2.8 114 120 34 47 .4 .00 .003 .12
May-13 1625 28 9.3 .15 35 10 33 3.7 104 93 38 55 .3 .02 .015 .85
Jun-10 1330 30 9.7 .20 25 6.4 25 5.0 78 63 21 42 .4 .02 .009 1.4
Jul-17 1450 35 11 .20 29 8.3 28 6.3 101 75 30 49 .4 .00 .015 1.6
Aug-26 1545 32 10 .35 17 4.2 16 2.7 48 41 20 27 .3 .3 .015 .49
Sep-22 1330 31 10 .53 13 3.4 15 2.3 38 40 6.8 28 .3 .4 .009 .48
Oct-28 1320 25 9.9 .40 14 4.2 17 3.4 42 37 10 33 .4 .00 .018 .63
Nov-20 1430 19 5.6 .30 13 3.5 14 2.8 40 35 8.0 28 .4 .3 .009 .45















Table 14
Chemical Analyses of Water in Tributaries to Lake Okeechobee Continued
(Results in milligrams per liter except as noted)
Analysis made by U. S. Geological Survey

S Diuolved Haudneuou cas d m pH Dvalu
Sods Ca CO3 tl P Oxyygn

Station Name I I 8 1 O S..



1969
Nubbin Slough Feb-18 .98 1.1 0.29 0.30 265 306 145 40 458 465 7.5 7.4 90 6.0 62
Mar-26 1.3 1.8 .36 .36 151 187 80 33 278 275 6.8 6.8 140 1.0 11
Apr-16 .87 .99 .18 .20 224 254 131 33 398 398 7.9 7.3 80 9.4 124
May-13 1.1 2.0 .42 .42 232 286 129 53 428 423 7.4 7.0 80 4.9 62
Jun-10 1.8 3.3 .68 .68 168 233 89 38 312 290 6.9 6.8 120 1.1 15
Jul-17 1.7 3.4 .85 .91 202 277 .107 45 425 358 7.4 6.6 100 9.0 127
Aug-26 1.3 2.1 .39 .43 120 158 60 26 188 195 6.6 6.7 160 2.8 38
Sep-22 .21 1.1 .36 .36 102 169 47 14 165 180 6.6 6.8 240 3.5 47
Oct-28 1.4 2.1 .65 .65 112 159 53 23 200 195 6.7 6.6 200 2.3 27
Nov-20 1.3 2.0 .042 .046 95 138 47 18 152 178 6.5 6.8 160 7.5 80





Table 15
Chemical Analyses of Water in Drainage Canals of Lake Okeechobee Continued
(Results in milligrams per liter except as noted)
Analysis made by U. S. Geological Survey

Bicarbonate
S(HCO3) E |

Station Name a



1969
St. Lucie Canal Jan-15 1620 43 17 6.2 .06 55 17 51 3.5 182 55 77 .4 0.2 0.003 0.06
Feb-18 1050 43 17 6.4 .09 54 15 46 3.0 177 170 49 68 .4 .4 .012 .12
Mar-26 1440 6590 20 7.1 .05 52 15 48 3.2 196 174 51 69 .6 .4 .003 .02
Apr-16 1400 759 25 7.3 .00 52 14 45 2.8 161 166 50 69 .5 .2 .006 .05
May-14 1025 37 25 5.9 .08 42 12 34 2.9 148 142 40 54 .3 .07 .003 .09
Jun-10 1410 28 31 4.8 .01 46 11 36 2.6 146 148 39 56 .4 .05 .003 .08
Jul-17 1350 28 32 5.6 .02 43 11 34 2.6 128 136 34 53 .5 .02 .000 .13
Aug-29 1030 26 29 6.1 .02 43 12 40 2.9 124 144 40 60 .3 .05 .009 .18
Sep-22 1415 26 29 8.6 .11 50 8.1 34 2.9 152 149 34 52 .3 .2 .052 .08
Oct-28 1230 6090 25 11 .07 41 11 32 2.4 138 136 31 53 .3 .07 .006 .01
Nov-20 1530 6710 19 9.0 .10 40 9.7 27 2.7 140 123 30 46 A4 .2 .006 .01
1970
Jan-15 1130 1640 13.5 7.1 .17 55 7.5 34 2.7 174 156 28 58 .3 .1 .015 .16
1969
North New River Canal Mar-26 1045 1580 21 5.8 .04 59 16 53 3.1 223 208 53 74 .5 .09 .000 .05
Apr-16 0930 666 25 4.8 .04 56 16 52 3.0 192 188 54 74 .5 .05 .000 .07
Jul-17 0945 512 31 18 .07 83 33 93 5.0 284 286 126 132 .8 .02 .006 .11
Jul-29 1530 -2100 20 .08 100 41 122 5.8 340 163 170 .8 .07 .003 -
Jul-31 1700 -2040 25 .07 114 49 110 5.7 400 179 154 .9 .02 .006
Deo-10 1000 -2040 20 29 .09 113 50 239 8.5 556 495 107 332 1.3 .99 .070 .71
1970
Jan-15 1000 -1980 14 26 .06 91 38 138 7.5 385 367 122 182 .8 .21 .043 .51
1969
West Palm Beach Canal Mar-26 1350 1030 20 5.7 .04 51 14 47 3.0 183 168 49 67 .5 .2 .003 .02
Apr-16 1240 615 24 6.6 .14 51 14 47 3.1 167 176 50 67 A4 .2 .003 .01
Jul-17 1220 507 32 5.8 .02 47 12 38 2.7 150 152 41 58 .4 .02 .000 .09
Aug-29 0945 409 29 7.1 .02 47 14 45 3.1 124 152 49 68 .3 .1 .015 .05
Oct-28 1100 786 25 16 .05 48 15 43 3.4 158 152 43 66 .3 .3 .009 .'2
1969
Miami Canal Mar-26 0915 1640 22 5.1 .03 60 16 54 3.1 100 196 48 75 .5 .1 .003 .06
Apr-16 0830 927 24 5.4 .04 53 15 51 3.0 179 184 52 73 .5 .07 .000 .03
Jul-20 1000 -2040 19 .06 86 34 96 5.4 300 118 134 .7 .2 .009 .10


0
V
0i











h-3
0









-4








Table 15
Chemical Analyses of Water in Drainage Canals of Lake Okeechobee Continued
(Results in milligrams per liter except as noted)
Analysis made by U. S. Geological Survey
Disolved Hardne as Co5S2 pH value Dsolved
Solids C03CO3 MuJIO Oxygen

Station Name



St. Lucie Canal Jan-15 1.8 2.1 0.029 0.033 356 393 207 58 680 620 7.5 45 8.5 98
Feb-18 .17 .68 .033 .052 328 356 196 56 560 560 7.8 7.6 40 11.0 113
Mar-26 .81 1.2 .036 .10 334 377 191 49 580 595 8.2 7.5 40 8.8 96
Apr-16 1.4 1.6 .010 .023 323 359 187 51 575 580 8.5 7.3 40 9.5 113
May-4 .91 1.1 .033 .036 280 380 155 38 475 472 8.0 7.6 20 6.0 71
Jun-10 1.0 1.1 .029 .039 -269 316 160 39 488 460 8.2 7.1 25 7.5 100
Jul17 1.1 1.3 .033 .042 251 316 153 41 490 431 8.6 7.3 30 7.3 99 0
Aug-29 1.4 1.6 .036 .046 276 310 157 39 495 515 8.5 7.7 15 5.9 76 '
Sep.22 .84 1.2 .14 .15 299 360 159 36 473 470 7.6 7.4 80 6.0 77
Oct-28 1.0 1.1 .039 .042 249 280 148 36 445 440 8.0 8.0 40 6.7 80
Nov-20 .00 .18 .055 .065 226 256 140 39 338 398 7.9 8.1 60 9.0 96
1970 0
Jan-15 .88 1.2 .11 .11 271 323 168 41 475 488 7.8 7.7 50 9.0 86
1969
West Palm Beach Canal Mar-26 1.0 1.2 .006 .026 '321 368 185 47 570 584 8.2 7.5 30 8.8 96
Apr-16 .88 1.1 .000 .013 327 360 185 41 578 584 8.4 7.9 30 7.5 89
Jul-17 1.3 1.4 .026 .036 280 331 167 43 542 478 8.5 7.5 30 5.5 74
Aug-29 1.4 1.6 .042 .046 309 338 175 51 532 570 8.5 7.6 20 6.7 86
Oct-28 .69 1.1 .050 .050 311 342 182 57 535 540 7.9 8.0 30 6.5 77
1969
North New River Canal Mar-26 1.0 1.1 .006 .023 367 412 213 43 630 663 8.1 7.5 40 7.0 78
Apr-16 .94 1.1 .006 .016 354 394 206 52 620 640 8.2 7.9 30 6.4 76
Jul-17 2.1 2.2 .029 .039 632 755 343 108 1080 1000 8.4 7.7 90 5.5 73
Jul-29 790 859 418 140 1350 8.2 100 -
Jul-31 835 949 486 158 400 8.0 140 -
Dec-10 2.0 3.8 .17 .16 1160 1240 488 82 2010 1980 7.7 8.3 160 4.0 43
1970
Jan-15 2.9 3.7 .19 .20 788 875 384 83 1260 1340 7.8 7.8 120 4.5 43
1969
Miami Canal Mar-26 1.1 1.3 .006 .020 369 404 216 55 640 663 8.2 7.8 35 7.0 80
Apr-16 .84 .94 .013 .023 344 389 194 43 602 620 8.4 8.0 30 7.0 82
Jul-20 1.3 1.6 .029 .036 642 746 355 109 1100 8.0 80 -













Table 15
Chemical Analyses of Water in Drainage Canals of Lake Okeechobee Continued
(Results in milligrams per liter except as noted)
Analysis made by U. S. Geological Survey Statio


n Name


BIcarbonate
(HCO3)
9 } 5 Q I I 8 -4
Station Name g I


1969
Caloosahatchee Canal Mar-25 1535 4060 23 3.3 .01 49 12 39 3.7 142 142 46 62 0.5 0.05 0.006 0.09
Apr-15 1715 1600 24 2.5 .03 47 12 40 2.7 152 148 41 59 .5 .02 .000 .05
May-16 0900 2420 26 2.7 .05 45 12 35 2.4 140 138 45 54 .3 .00 .003 .09
Aug-27 1430 5450 30 7.4 .08 36 15 46 5.8 124 124 53 65 .3 .00 .003 .08
Oct-27 1700 4680 25 8.8 .17 32 10 30 2.6 106 110 27 48 .3 .00 .006 .12
Nov-21 0900 5490 18 6.1 .07 36 11 31 2.3 114 118 34 48 .4 .07 .000 .05
1970
Jan-14 1150 12 3.7 .08 29 6.8 22 1.9 84 82 24 35 .3 .00 .003 .09


O







0
I


-4














Table 15
Chemical Analyses of Water in Drainage Canals of Lake Okeechobee Continued
(Results in milligrams per liter except as noted)
Analysis made by U. S. Geological Survey
Diolved Hudneuus 3suo old
sowHs CCC03 P uH valm

Station N amez s i


1969
Caloosahatchee Canal Mar-25 1.0 1.2 0.039 0.055 286 336 172 56 518 520 7.6 7.2 70 5.4 62
Apr-15 .93 1.0 .010 .010 278 310 167 46 508 505 7.8 7.5 50 6.1 72
May-16 1.1 1.2 .050 .052 265 300 162 49 463 482 7.8 7.4 20 7.5 93
Aug27 1.4 1.5 .029 .033 290 325 152 50 520 525 7.7 8.1 60 5.2 68
Oct-27 .98 1.1 .023 .033 213 258 121 31 380 380 7.0 7.5 60 4.8 57
Nov-21 .83 .95 .020 .029 227 255 135 39 318 401 7.2 7.9 60 8.5 90
1970
Jan-14 .85 .94 .050 .059 163 204 101 34 298 298 7.5 7.4 80 -


2/ Negative sign indicates reverse flow.






Table 16
Phytoplankton in Lake Okeechobee
CONCENTRATION IN CELLS PER MILLIMETER
JAN MAY AUG JAN APR JUL OCT JAN APR
Site 1969 1969 1969 1970 1970 1970 1970 1971 1971

1 <50 800 <40 <40 -

2 <50 320 <40 <40 <20 60 2,100 2,400 80

3 <50 100 <40 <40 -

4 <50 1,200 <40 <40 -

5 <50 4,600 <40 <40 <20 105,800 108,500e 473,700e 220

6 <50 3,600 <40 <40 -

7 <50 1,450 <40 <40 -

8 <50 340 <40 <40 1,130 5,850 3,200e 218,900e 37,400e
z
9 <50 170 <40 80 560 66,600 20,100e 200,600e 15,900e C

10 <50 860 <40 <40 -

11 <50 1,350 <40 <40 -

12 <50 240 <40 <40 7,500 12,500 3,200e 960e 2,300

13 <50 100 <40 <40 -

14 <50 270 <40 <40 -

15 <50 2,900 <40 <40 100 1,730 15,400e 1,220e 6,400
e-Estimated








Table 17
Chemical and Biololgicd Analyses of Water and Bottom Sediments In Lake Okeechobee, Kiaaimmee River and Taylor Creek,
October 1970.May 1972
(Results in milligrams per liter, except as noted)
Analysis made by U. S. Geologocal Survey


Station Name



Lake Okeechobee
Point No. 2
Point No. 5
Point No. 8
Point No. 9
Point No. 12
Point No. 15
Kissimmee River
Taylor Creek
Lake Okeechobee
Point No. 2
Point No. 5
Point No. 8
Point No. 9
Point No. 12
Point No. 15
Kisimmee River
Taylor Creek
Lake Okeechobee
Point No. 2
Point No. 5
Point No. 8
Point No. 9
Point No. 12
Point No. 15
Kissimmee River
Taylor Creek


10-14-70 1045 14.2
10-14-70 1305 14.2
10-14-70 0915 14.2
10-14-70 0845 14.2
10-14-70 0935 14.2
10-14-70 1020 14.2
1-12-71 1235 125
1-12-71 1400 17
1-12-71 1045 12.9
1-12-71 1145 12.9
1-12-71 0925 12.9
1-12-71 0900 12.9
1-12-71 1000 12.9
1-12-71 1110 12.9
4-27-71 1430 0
4-27-71 0815 3.3
4-27-71 1100 11.1
4-27-71 1230 11.1
4-27-71 0900 11.1
4-27-71 0845 11.1
4-27-71 0945 11.1
4-27-71 1130 11.1
8-19-71 1215 3030
8-19-71 1330 462


Carbonate
(C03)

0


I c


z


?E


J.

I-


27.0
29.0
26.0
26.0
26.0
26.5
22.0
24.0
22.0
23.0
21.0
21.0
22.0
22.0
28.0
26.0
27.5
29.5
26.0
25.0
26.5
27.5
30.0
28.0


U..
2
U,
8r


9.1
8.4
11
7.8
11
7.8
7.2
5.2
12
7.8
8.1
8.1
12
12
2.7
5.0
10.0
10.0
9.6
8.4
6.2
11
5.8
4.2


i


12
9.6
11
11
12
9.6
8.8
20
12
13
II
11
12
12
7.7
15
13
14
15
14
13
12
4.7
4.6


Bicarbonate
(HC03)


140
132
148
142
154
142
128
173
156
148
144
144
160
148
96
176
166
168
168
168
166
168
57
52


I


2.6
2.4
2.4
'2.5
2.7
2.5
2.4
7.0
2.7
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.8
2.8
2.4
3.8
2.9
3.0
3.0
3.1
2.9
2.9
1.5
3.6


40
41
46
43
45
44
50
72
47
48
49
50
48
48
36
56
52
54
54
54
:54
53
23
23


33
30
31
31
37
33
30
110
36
35
35
35
37
36
27
53
38
40
40
41
39
38
15
21


:1


.9


49
44
47
46
52
48
52
200
54
54
52
52
58
54
44
84
58
60
60
62
63
58
26
40


0


0.4
.3
.3
.3
.4
.3
.2
.2
.3
.2
.3
.3
.3
.2
.3
.5
.4
.4
.4
.5
.4
.4
.2
.3


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
8
8
0
4
0
0
0
6
4
4
0
0
0
0


38
35
37
37
43
38
49
80
40
41
41
41
44
43
38
55
47
50'
51
49
48
47
26
20


0.002 0.003
.00 .003
.00 .018
.00 .003
.09 .009
.00 .006
.2 .006
.2 .030
.1 .009
.00 .006
.00 .006
.00 .006
.1 .009
.1 .012
.02 .018
.00 .012
.3 .015
3 .009
.2 .009
.00 .012
.2 .018
.3 .021
.3 .015
.3 .088


0.013
.013
.006
.010
.016
.013
.010
.17
.000
.006
.003
.006
.013
.006
.10
.21
.075
.072
.072
.078
.078
.095
.026
.18


0o
0
0


' ~ '





T












Table 17
Chemical and Biological Analyses of Water and Bottom Sediments in Lake Okeechobee, Kissimmee River and Taylor Creek,
October 1970-May 1972 Continued
(Results in milligrams per liter, except as noted)
Analysis made by U. S. Geological Survey

Dissolved Hardnes as c C Dissolved
SSolids CaC03 m PH alue S 25cn


Station Name S Z |6


Lake Okeechobee
Point No. 2 10-14-70 0.61 0.67 0.020 0.050 254 282 151 36 445 450 8.3 8.1 20 15 7.6 94 2,00e
Point No. 5 10-14-70 .63 .67 .013 .036 236 271 143 35 420 420 8.3 7.9 20 6 7.9 101 108,500e
Point No. 8 10-14-70 .54 .58 .029 .052 260 274 161 40 445 450 8.2 8.0 20 4 7.8 95 3,200e
Point No. 9 10-14470 .59 .61 .013 .046 249 283 154 37 435 440 8.2 8.0 20 7 7.8 95 20,100e
Point No. 12 10-14-70 .57 .71 .026 .052 280 311 163 37 500 495 8.0 8.1 30 9 6.7 82 3,200e
Point No. 15 10-14-70 .67 .71 .016 .046 254 284 151 34 450 450 8.4 8.0 15 13 7.4 91 15,400e
Kissimmee River 1-12-71 .5 .76 .039 .050 260 313 160 56 475 464 8.1 8.1 80 6 1.2 8.5 97
Taylor Creek 1-12-71 1.0 1.6 .62 .78 580 696 260 120 1160 1080 7.7 8.0 60 12 2.2 6.8 80 -
Lake Okeechobee
Point No. 2 1-12-71 .52 .64 .026 1 .026 280 313 170 39 485 497 8.5 8.1 30 6 .0 8.7 99 2,400
PointNo. 5 1-12-71 .68 .71 .016 .016 283 310 170 39 478 497 8.8 8.4 30 10 1.4 9.3 107 473,700e
Point No. 8 1-12-71 .62 .64 .016 .026 280 322 170 36 470 486 8.6 8.4 25 12 1.1 9.0 100 218,900e
PointNo.9 1-12-71 .61 .64 .013 .029 280 314 170 39 460 486 8.6 8.4 30 13 1.1 9.0 100 200,600e
Point No. 12 1-12-71 .57 .72 .033 .050 290 326 170 39 495 508 8.5 8.2 30 14 .9 8.7 99 960e
PointNo. 15 1-12-71 .58 .75 .033 .039 290 319 170 42 490 497 8.5 8.3 30 20 1.1 8.6 98 1,220e
Kissimmee River 4-27-71 .85 1.1 .023 .050 13 205 247 120 43 380 8.2 8.0 15 9 8.3 105 650
Taylor Creek 4-27-71 2.1 2.6 .17 .20 115 359 421 200 57 605 670 8.0 8.0 20 25 8.7 4.6 56 6,400
Lake Okeechobee
Point No. 2 4-27-71 2.2 2.7 .050 .065 19 305 363 180 47 535 550 8.1 8.2 15 45 1.8 7.8 98 80
Point No. 5 4-27-71 1.8 2.3 .026 .039 40 322 362 190 55 565 560 8.4 8.4 15 30 1.4 8.9 116 220
Point No. 8 4-27-71 2.3 2.6 .026 .039 18 321 337 200 52 545 570 8.5 8.4 10 35 2.5 7.7 94 37,400e
Point No. 9 4-27-71 .75 .95 .029 .046 22 319 357 190 48 550 570 8.6 8.3 15 40 1.3 7.3 87 15,900e
Point No. 12 4-27-71 .82 1.2 .042 .059 72 309 333 190 52 530 550 8.3 8.2 20 80 2.6 7.2 87 2,300
Point No. 15 4-27-71 2.3 2.9 .055 .075 22 307 345 180 44 545 550 8.4 8.2 20 60 1.6 8.2 102 1,000
KissimmeeRiver 8-19-71 1.2 1.6 .14 .18 23 132 227 77 31 225 235 7.1 7.0 140 3 1.1 3.9 51 0
Taylor Creek 8-19-71 1.5 2.3 .85 .88 31 146 162 77 34 311 270 6.7 7.7 200 10 3.0 5.0 63 1,100
e/ estimated


0
i


0





z











00
j^







Table 17
Chemical and Biological Analyses of Water and Bottom Sediments in Lake Okeechobee, Kissimmee River and Taylor Creek,
October 1970-May 1972 Continued
(Results in milligrams per liter, except as noted)
Analysis made by U. S. Geological Survey

Bicarbonate Carbonate
SP(HC03) (C03)


Station Name t & J



Lake Okeechobee
Point No. 2 8-19-71 1040 12.0 28.0 1.6 50 14 45 3.1 164 176 38 0 50 66 0.4 0.00 0.006 0.07
Point No. 5 8-19-71 0920 12.0 28.5 7.9 42 17 '52 4.5 120 146 16 0 66 77 .5 .00 .006 .04
Point No. 8 8-19-71 0815 12.0 28.0 4.8 48 17 50 3.2 164 176 8 0 55 74 .4 .00 .006 .05
Point No. 9 8-19-71 1300 12.0 28.0 4.8 38 11 36 2.9 112 114 0 0 44 57 .3 .02 .009 .02
Point No. 12 8-19-71 1130 12.0 30.0 6.4 52 9.0 38 3.0 164 162 0 0 34 58 .4 .09 .018 .12
Point No. 15 8-19-71 1010 12.0 28.0 .6 52 14 44 3.0 160 166 12 8 50 64 .4 .00 .006 .08
Kissinmmee River 11-10-71 0940 349 24.5 4.0 15 4.4 11 1.7 24 30 0 0 29 20 .2 .2 .012 .06
Taylor Creek 11-10-71 1515 52 23.5 7.0 27 6.6 29 5.1 74 72 0 0 24 54 .3 .3 .058 .27
Lake Okeechobee
Point No. 2 11-11-71 1200 14.4 21.5 6.3 60 18 53 3.8 232 216 12 0 66 80 .4 .1 .006 .04
Point No. 5 11-10-71 1130 14.4 23.0 3.7 42 12 36 3.1 132 140 8 0 46 56 .3 .00 .000 .02
Point No. 8 11-10-71 0845 14.4 23.5 4.4 46 14 42 3.3 160 160 0 0 48 65 .3 .00 .000 .02
Point No. 9 11-10-71 0800 14.4 23.5 3.9 42 12 37 3.2 144 148 0 0 42 59 .3 .00 .003 .04
Point No. 12 11-11-71 1330 14.4 23.0 6.6 47 8.0 28 4.2 144 152 0 0 34 46 .3 .3 .021 .10
Point No. 15 11-11-71 1030 14.4 21.5 3.4 49 16 46 3.5 184 176 8 0 50 70 .3 .00 .009 .06
Kissimmee River 2-02-72 1130 0 22.0 4.6 42 12 39 2.7 120 0 53 62 .3 .1 .009 .05
Taylor Creek 2-02-72 1345 21 23.0 4.1 56 17 68 4.8 168 0 64 110 .4 .09 .018 .12
Lake Okeechobee
Point No. 2 2-02-72 1015 13.7 22.0 7.4 56 17 50 3.3 192 0 59 72 .4 .2 .012 .04
Point No. 5 2-02-72 1445 13.7 23.0 7.0 56 18 54 3.4 176 12 61 76 .4 .00 .006 .02
Point No. 8 2-02-72 0830 13.7 22.0 4.6 56 16 48 3.3 176 8 53 70 .4 .00 .012 .02.
Point No. 9 2-02-72 0745 13.7 21.5 5.8 54 17 48 3.3 180 4 54 72 .4 .00 .015 .05
Point No. 12 2-02-72 0915 13.7 22.0 8.4 56 17 48 3.3 192 0 57 70 .4 .2 .018 .08
Point No. 15 2-02-72 1045 13.7 22.0 6.0 54 16 46 3.3 180 0 56 66 .3 .1 .018 .09
I I IF I - I I.I.






Table 17
Chemical and Biological Analyses of Water and Bottom Sediments in Lake Okeechobee, Kissimmee River and Taylor Creek,
October 1970-May 1972 Continued
(Results in milligrams per liter, except as noted)
Analysis made by U. S. Geological Survey

Dissolved madness Sp .HDissolved
SSolids CaC03 j PHWveu Oxygen


Station Name i 1 O e n
3 1on10i

Lake Okeechobee
Point No. 2 8-19-71 1.5 1.6 0.010 0.036 13 317 300 180 39 560 580 8.5 8.3 20 20 1.0 6.8 86 950
Point No. 5 8-19-71 1.9 2.0 .010 ..029 25 339 426 175 56 583 610 8.7 8.3 50 62 1.1 7.0 89 3,000
Point No. 8 8-19-71 1.9 2.0 .010 .033 18 339 365 190 46 680 630 8.6 8.3 30 20 1.1 6.8 86 670
Point No. 9 8-19-71 2.5 2.6 .042 .078 18 250 305 140 47 450 450 8.2 8.0 55 15 2.6 7.3 92 54,600e
Point No, 12 8-19-71 1.3 1.5 .10 .13 14 282 338 170 34 512 500 7.8 7.5 80 10 1.4 5.0 66 6,000
Point No. 15 8-19-71 1.4 1.4 .010 .036 12 318 381 190 28 562 580 8.6 8.4 20 15 1.3 7.2 91 1,600
Kissimmee River 11-10-71 .85 1.1 .046 .052 14 101 139 56 31 145 182 6.9 5.7 120 3 .8 6.5 77 200
Taylor Creek 11-10-71 1.6 2.2 .65 .65 24 191 251 95 36 330 353 7.0 6.0 320 10 1.8 3.5 41 1,600
Lake Okeechobee
Point No. 2 11-11-71 2.2 2.4 .036 .039 16 394 449 224 108 660 704 8.5 6.5 50 45 .8 8.7 98 14,500
Point No. 5 11-10-71 1.8 1.8 .016 .026 15 268 316 155 40 485 486 8.5 6.2 100 7 1.6 8.7 100 47,200
Point No. 8 11-10-71 1.8 1.8 .016 .026 13 302 338 173 42 480 551 8.0 6.3 60 15 1.5 8.4 98 79,600
Point No. 9 11-10-71 1.6 1.6 .016 .033 13 272 311 155 33 450 490 8.2 6.6 60 10 1.8 8.5 99 29,200
Point No. 12 11-11-71 1.5 1.9 .19 .20 22. 251 299 151 26 441 7.5 6.1 240 10 .9 6.2 71 3,900
Point No. 15 11-11-71 1.9 2.0 .046 .046 12 325 367 189 45 750 592 8.5 7.4 50 45 2.3 8.5 96 56,000
Kissimmee River 2-02-72 1.1 1.3 .033 .052 14 275 284 150 56 500 480 7.6 7.9 70 5 1.1 9.3 106 2,450
Taylor Creek 2-02-72 1.1 1.3 .23 .27 16 409 422 210 72 830 740 7.4 7.9 60 8 2.1 9.3 107 950
lake Okeechobee
Point No. 2 2-02-72 2.3 2.6 .050 .050 17 361 374 210 52 615 600 8.3 8.3 45 35 1.6 9.3 106 150
PointfNo. 5 2-02-72 2.7 2.7 .016 .026 24 375 382 220 52 690 640 8.6 8.7 45 8 1.4 9.5 109 15,700
Point No. 8 2-02-72 3.0 3.0 .026 .039 20 338 350 210 48 595 570 8.5 8.5 45 25 2.3 9.3 106 21,100
Point No. 9 2-02-72 3.0 3.1 .042 .055 19 344 362 200 51 625 600 8.5 8.4 45 35 1.7 9.6 108 11,900
Point No. 12 2-02-72 3.0 3.3 .052 .062 22 356 362 210 52 615 590 8.2 8.3 50 50 2.1 9.2 104 250
Point No. 15 2-02-72 3.0 3.2 .059 .062 24 337 348 200 53 580 560 8.3 8.3 70 50 1.5 9.3 106 1,250
e/ estimated















Table 17
Chemical and Biological Analyses of Water and Bottom Sediments in Lake Okeechobee, Kissimmee River and Taylor Creek,
October 1970-May1972 Continued
(Results in mllg s per liter, except as noted)
Analysis made by U. S. Geological Survey

Bicarbonate Cabonat
(HCO3) (0c3)

Station N me H

lip" Af It
Kssinnee River 5-31-72 1750 875 28.0 2.0 14 4.4 13 1.9 29 30 0 0 26 21 0.3 0.00 .003 0.03
Taylor Creek 5-13-72 1745 41 29.0 2.5 60 19 90 5.1 160 156 0 0 72 160 .5 .02 .009 .04
Lake Okeechobee
Point No. 2 5-31-72 1155 13.1 27.5 6.9 55 18 53 3.9 204 178 0 7 62 78 .5 .1 .003 .02
Point No. S 5-31-72 1300 13.1 27.5 7.2 54 18 54 4.0 184 162 6 11 62 84 .5 .00 .003 .03
Point No. 8 5-31-72 0800 13.1 26.5 4.2 54 16 51 3.8 198 172 2 5 58 76 .5 .00 .006 .04
Point No. 9 5-31-72 D715 13.1 26.5 2.7 52 15 47 3.6 148 158 12 7 56 74 5 .00 .003 .02
Point No. 12 5-31-72 1000 13.1 28.0 3.7 59 15 49 3.9 196 180 0 2 57 76 .5 .05 .006 .04
Point No. 15 5-31-72 0900 13.1 26.5 7.2 56 17 53 3.9 204 174 2 7 62 78 5 .00 .006 .02