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Appraisal of the water resources of eastern Palm Beach County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 67 )
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 Material Information
Title: Appraisal of the water resources of eastern Palm Beach County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 67 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Report of investigations 67 )
Physical Description: vii, 64 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Land, Larry F
Rodis, Harry G ( Harry George ), 1927- ( joint author )
Schneider, James J. ( joint author )
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Natural Resources, Division of Interior Resources, Bureau of Geology
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1973
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Hydrology -- Florida -- Palm Beach County   ( lcsh )
Water-supply -- Florida -- Palm Beach County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Larry F. Land, Harry G. Rodis and James J. Schneider ; prepared by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with Palm Beach County Board of Commissioners ... et al..
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 63-64.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000109781
oclc - 01274439
notis - AAM5408
lccn - 75620610
System ID: UF00001254:00001

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STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Randolph Hodges, Executive Director




DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
Robert 0. Vernon, Director




BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief



Report of Investigations No. 67



APPRAISAL OF THE
WATER RESOURCES OF EASTERN
PALM BEACH COUNTY, FLORIDA


By
Larry F. Land, Harry G. Rodis and James J. Schneider


Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with
PALM BEACH COUNTY BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS
CITY OF BOCA RATON
CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT
and the
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES


TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
1973










DEPARTMENT
OF
NATURAL RESOURCES



REUBIN O'D. ASKEW
Governor


RICHARD (DICK) STONE
Secretary of State



THOMAS D. O'MALLEY
Treasurer




FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN
Commissioner of Education


ROBERT L. SHEVIN
Attorney General



FRED O. DICKINSON, JR.
Comptroller




DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGES
Executive Director






LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Bureau of Geology
Tallahassee
October 18, 1973


Honorable Reubin O'D. Askew, Chairman
Department of Natural Resources
Tallahassee, Florida


Dear Governor Askew:

The Bureau of Geology of the Division of Interior Resources is
publishing as its Report of Investigation No. 67 a report prepared
by Larry F. Land, Harry G. Rodis and James J. Schneider of the U.
S. Geological Survey entitled "Appraisal of the Water Resources of
Eastern Palm Beach County, Florida".
We are pleased to have participated in this investigation with
the U. S. Geological Survey.
It is hoped this report will furnish necessary data to
water-management agencies needed to plan for protection and
orderly development of water resources. Information is provided
in several areas, including (1) location, amount and quality of
water, (2) quantity and trends of water use, (3) relation of water
use, land drainage, water levels and hydrologic conditions. The
area of investigation primarily includes the eastern 8-10 miles of
Palm Beach County, approximately 400 square miles.

Respectfully yours,


Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief
Bureau of Geology













































Completed manuscript received
September 18, 1973
Printed for the Florida Department of Natural Resources
Division of Interior Resources
Bureau of Geology
by News-Journal Corporation
Daytona Beach, Florida

Tallahassee
1973



iv








CONTENTS
Page
Abstract........................... ......................................... 1
Introduction ....................................................................... 2
Purpose and scope ..................... ...................... 2
Acknowledgments ......................................... 4
D ata collected ............................................. .................... ... 4
Station identification system .......................................... ...................... 7
G eologic setting ........................................................................................ 7
South Florida........................ ........... ........................... 7
Palm Beach County................................. .......................... 7
Physiography....................... ........................................ 10
Rainfall and evapotranspiration ................................. ..................... .. 11
H ydrologic setting ....................................................... ....................... 12
Surface-water system .................................... ............................... 12
W ater-level fluctuations ..................................... ................... 15
Tidal patterns along the Intracoastal Waterway .................................. 18
Ground water systems........................................ ............................ 20
Nonartesian aquifer ............................................. 20
Recharge and discharge.......................................... ....................... 20
Water-level fluctuations ..................... .................. 20
Hydraulic properties.......................................... 23
Sea-water intrusion............................................. 26
Northeast Palm Beach County ................................................... 27
Southeast Palm Beach County......................... ................... 28
Floridan aquifer ............................... ..... ........................... 30
W after quality ................................................... ................................. 30
Shallow aquifer....................................................... .......................... 30
East Palm Beach County .............................................................. 33
Central and West Palm Beach County ........................................... 38
Surface water ............................................................... ..................... 41
Water use........................................................... 54
Agriculture ................................ ....................... 54
Public water supply ............................................... ...................... 54
City of W est Palm Beach.................................................................... 55
City of Boca Raton........................... .... ..................... 55
W aste water ................................................................................... 57
Industrial use ..................................................................................... 58
Effects of solid wastes landfill on ground water ........................................... 58
Other U.S. Geological Survey studies in Palm Beach County ......................... 58
Sum m ary..................................................... ..................................... 59
Explanation of terms................................ ... ................................ 60
Selected references................................................................................... 63
v







ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page
1. Map showing physiographic subdivisions of Palm Beach County .................. 3
2_ Map of surface-water data-collection sites in eastern Palm Beach
County ................................................................... ......................... 5
3. Map of ground-water data-collection sites in eastern Palm Beach
County ... ......................... ................................................ 6
4. Geologic map of Palm Beach County .......................................................... 8
5. Generalized geologic cross-section through central Palm Beach
County ................................................................. ......................... 9
6. Direction of surficial flow before canals and levees were constructed .............. 13
7. Layout of current (1972) surface-water system ........................................... 14
8. Discharge hydrograph for Canal M near Mangonia Park .............................15
9. Discharge hydrograph for El Rio Canal at Boca Raton ...................................15
10. Stage hydrograph for Canal E-1 near Greenacres City ...................................16
11. Stage hydrograph for Canal E-1 near Delray Beach .......................................16
12. Stage hydrograph for Canal E-3 at Greenacres City ....................................... 17
13. Stage hydrographfor Canal E-3 at Boca Raton ............................................. 17
14. Flow-duration curves for West Palm Beach Canal at West Palm Beach ...........17
15. Stage-duration curve for Lake Ida ............................... ..................... 18
16. Stage-duration curve for Lake Clark ................................................. ........18
17. Hydrographs showing effects of strong easterly winds of December
22-25.1971 on tidal patterns ..................................... .................. 19
18. Hydrograph of well PB 99 in eastern Palm Beach County ..............................21
19. IHydrograph of well PB 109 in northeastern Palm Beach County ...................... 21
20. Monthly rainfall and accumulated monthly departures from average
for 1970 and 1971 at Palm Beach International Airport ................................22
21. Water table contour map of eastern Palm Beach County on October 1,
1970.end of wet season ......................................................................... 24
922 Water table contour map of eastern Palm Beach County on April 30,
1971. end of dry season .................................... .......................................25
23. Map showing location of well fields and salinity-monitoring wells in
northeast Palm Beach County .................................................................27
24. Map showing water table contours in Boca Raton area for May 12,1972............29
25. Map showing areal distribution of selected constituents in and
properties of ground water .................................................................. 34
26. Map showing lines of dissolved solid concentrations in ground-water at
various depths in east Palm Beach County ...............................................37
27. Graphs showing areal distribution of changes in specific conductance
of water with depths for selected test wells in east Palm Beach
County .... .......................... ............................................................. 38
28. Map showing location of selected test wells in central and western
Palm Beach County .................................... ......................... ....3.... 39
29. Map showing chloride concentrations in ground water at various
depths in the Everglades ..................................... ..... ....................40
30. Map showing areal distribution of specific conductance of waters from
selected lakes and canals from March 1970 to September 1971 ....................42
31. Map showing areal distribution of inorganic nitrogen in waters from
selected lakes and canals from September 1970 to March 1972 ...:.................47







ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page
32. Map showing areal distribution of phosphorus in waters from selected
lakes and canals from September 1970 to March 1972 ................................. 48
33. Map showing inorganic nitrogen fluctuations for three 24-hour periods
in 1970 and 1971 for selected canals and lakes ............................................ 49
34. Map showing total ortho plus acid hydrolyzable phosphorus (P04-P)
fluctuations for three 24-hour periods in 1970 and 1971 for selected
canals and lakes ............................... ............ ................................... 50
35. Map showing dissolved oxygen fluctuations of water for four 24-hour
periods in 1970 and 1971 for selected canals and lakes ............................ 51
36. Map showing areal distribution of concentrations of total coliform
organisms in waters of selected lakes and canals for four samplings
in 1970 and 1971 .................................................... ........................... 52
37. Map showing areal distribution of concentrations of fecal coliform
organisms in waters of selected lakes and canals for four samplings
in 1970 and 1971 ................. ................................. ........................... 53
38. Graphs of yearly municipal pumpage and rainfall at West Palm Beach .......... 56
39. Graphs of monthly municipal pumpage and rainfall at West Palm
Beach, 1967-71 ............................................................... ..................... 56
40. Graphs of monthly municipal pumpage and rainfall at Boca Raton,
1967-71 ...................... .. ............................................ 57














TABLES
Table Page
1. Geologic formations and characteristics in Palm Beach County ................... 10
2. Chemical analyses of water from selected wells in central and western
Palm Beach County ................................................. ........................ 31
3. Chemical analyses of water from selected wells in east Palm Beach
County ................................................................. ............ ...............35
4. Chemical analyses of water from selected canals and lakes in east Palm
Beach County ................................. .. ........................43
5. Major public supplies in Palm Beach County .............................. ........... 55











APPRAISAL OF THE WATER RESOURCES OF EASTERN
PALM BEACH COUNTY, FLORIDA

by
Larry F. Land, Harry G. Rodis. and James J. Schneider

ABSTRACT
Rapid population growth in the eastern coastal areas of Palm
Beach County places increasing demands on the water resources of
the area and locally has created critical problems. The water
resources of the agricultural and undeveloped areas of the county
remain largely unexplored and are not covered in this report.
Palm Beach County covers approximately 2,230 square miles
and is the largest county east of the Mississippi River. Except for
the narrow coastal ridge the land surface is flat and averages 20
feet above mean sea level. The county is drained mostly by a
network of canals which are used mainly to control flooding, but
also to distribute and store water and to deliver waters to irrigated
areas.
Ground water from the shallow aquifer, a hydrologic unit
comprised of the Biscayne, Pamlico and Anastasia Formations,
underlies the entire area and is the principal source of water for
most uses. The top of the Floridan aquifer, a limestone under high
artesian pressure, underlies the area at depths ranging from 800 to
1,000 feet below land surface but the water is too brackish or salty
for most uses.
Specific capacities of municipal wells range from about 10 to
more than 350 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown. Municipal
pumping averaged about 75 million gallons per day during 1970.
West Palm Beach is the only community which uses surface water
for municipal supply.
The differences between average annual rainfall and potential
evaporation in eastern Palm Beach County is 8 to 14 inches per
year. The annual rainy season extends from May to October when
the eastern part of the county receives more than 40 inches of
annual rainfall. Despite the periodic surpluses, several municipal
well fields are beset with problems of salt-water intrusion caused
by increasing pumpage during droughts.
Total dissolved solids of the fresh water in the shallow aquifer
system ranges from 200 to 300 mg/1 (milligram per liter) in the
coastal ridge to more than 500 mg/1 in the western areas.





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


In the surface water system, the water containing the least
amount of dissolved solids, generally less than 200 mg/1, occurs in
Canal 18 and Canal M immediately downstream from the
Loxahatchee Slough. The inorganic nitrogen concentrations of this
water is less than 0.15 mg/1. The most seriously contaminated
water is in Canal 17 where the coliform bacteria count often
exceeds 50,000 per colonies per 100 ml (milliliters) and inorganic
nitrogen concentration usually exceeds 2 mg/1. The dissolved-solid
content of the surface water is less than that of ground water.
Water in the shallow aquifer is slightly contaminated at shallow
depths in the immediate vicinity of the Cross State Solid Waste
Disposal Area. The contaminants probably stay near the water
table and are filtered out by the sand.


INTRODUCTION
Population growth is rapid in the entire southeast coast of
Florida. In Palm Beach County (fig. 1) the population increased
from slightly less than 250,000 in 1960, to more than 333,000 in 1970, a
growth of more than 50 percent. The population growth is applying
increasing pressure on many natural resources including fresh
water. To assure that the fresh-water supply will remain adequate,
much hydrologic information is needed for water management and
land-use decisions. The Palm Beach County Board of Commission-
ers in January 1970 entered into a cooperative agreement with the
U.S. Geological Survey for a county-wide water-resource
investigation. At a later date the commissioners requested special
emphasis be placed on the eastern (urban-suburban) section
where water-supply problems are numerous, and some critical.
One of the most pressing problems is the existing and potential
pollution of the hundreds of miles of canals that dissect eastern
Palm Beach County, and that cross agricultural as well as urban
areas. Pollution in the canals is being increased by runoff that
carries nutrients from the farms and ranches and by discharge of
waste water from sewage plants. The County Health Department
states that many of the canals and lakes, including Lake Worth are
so contaminated they are unfit for recreation.


PURPOSE AND SCOPE
The purpose of this report is to furnish to water-management
agencies much of the information needed to plan for the protection
and orderly development of water resources. Information is





































Figure 1. Physiographic subdivisions of Palm Beach County.





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


provided on (1) location, amount, and quality of water in the
shallow aquifer system, (2) occurrence and extent of sea-water
intrusion into the shallow aquifer, (3) quantity and trends of water
use, (4) fluctuations of water-level and quality of water in lakes and
canals, and (5) relation of water use, land drainage, water levels,
and hydrologic conditions. The area of investigation primarily
includes the eastern 8-10 miles of county, approximately 400 square
miles.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Appreciation is expressed to the many municipal water
managers, well drillers and consulting engineers who provided
data on wells. Special acknowledgment is made of the several
Palm Beach County and Central and Southern Florida Flood
Control District officials who were responsible for getting this
study underway.

DATA COLLECTED
The first two steps of the investigation were a search of the
literature for information on the geology and hydrology of the
county and surrounding area and establishment of a network of
surface-water and ground-water gaging stations to supplement the
existing network. The surface-water stations were located on
selected canals and lakes to monitor the fluctuations of water-level
and canal flow (fig. 2). Some of these canal stations immediately
inland from the Intracoastal Waterway are operated by other
government agencies. The ground-water gaging stations, estab-
lished on wells to monitor water-level fluctuations, are shown in
figure 3.
Water samples were collected from selected canals, lakes, and
wells for chemical analysis. The sampling sites are also shown in
figures 2 and 3. From numerous surface-water sites, water
samples were also collected and analyzed for pesticides, coliform
bacteria, and nutrients. On three occasions four to six samples
were collected at regular intervals during a 24-hour period and
analyzed for specific conductance, nutrients, dissolved oxygen,
and alkalinity.
The investigation also included drilling exploratory wells near
the coast to monitor the extent of salt-water intrusion. Information
collected during the drilling process was used to determine the
geology of the area and the mineral content of the water within the
aquifer.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 67 5


_0' 15

MARTIN COUNTY I
EXPLANATION

021277700
GAGING STATION AND NUMBER
Al
SURFACE WATER SAMPLING POINT CANAL I1
AND NUMBER


Conservation Area
No. I


omasius~
0-


Figure 2. Surface-water data-collection sites in eastern Palm Beach County.










6 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


0 15,
MAfIIN COUNTY

EXPLANATION P'
PB-S66 P-56
RCCONOING OBSERVATION WELL '\
AND NUMBER j
0 P8-59s
GROUNO-WATER SAMPLING POINT -
ANO NUNMER

Oe-s)hP
UKWI)OU~I~ 5YCW-f i3^-


* 4't *I~ ** r1


Conn-rv l;'on Ar~e
No 2 a


Figure 3. Ground-water data-collection sites in eastern Palm Beach County.


Sn-'-nt vwiton Aroo
N I






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 67


STATION IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
Gaging stations on wells are numbered by determining the
location of the well by latitude and longitude and combining these
numbers, omitting the degree, minute, and second symbols. The
latitude number is listed first, then the hemisphere designation
("N" for northern hemisphere), and then the longitude number.
The PB (Palm Beach) number is for local identification.
For surface-water gaging stations within a given drainage basin,
the smallest, eight-digit, station identification number is assigned
to the farthest upstream station. Successively larger numbers are
assigned to stations in sequence downstream.


GEOLOGIC SETTING
SOUTH FLORIDA
Peninsular Florida is the narrow, uppermost part of a much
wider projection from the continental mass of North America. It
has been called the Florida Plateau. It is a core of metamorphic
and igneous rocks similar to those underlying the Piedmont region
of eastern United States. The core is covered with marine
sediments that range in thickness from about 4,000 feet in
north-central Florida to more than 15,000 feet in south Florida.
The Tertiary and Quaternary rocks, formed from the marine
sediments of Tertiary and Quaternary age are shaped into a broad,
elongate dome, or anticline, that trends southeast. The Ocala
Limestone (upper Eocene) slopes southward about 5 feet per mile
and its top is about 1,200 feet below sea level in northeastern
Monroe County. Formations of Oligocene and Miocene age flank
the uplift and slope in all directions from the crest and thicken
seaward. In Palm Beach County the lower Miocene formations dip
to the east at about 3 feet per mile and to the south at about 5 feet per
mile (Parker and others, 1955).

PALM BEACH COUNTY
For the purposes of this report the geologic formations in Palm
Beach County are grouped into three hydrologic units; upper,
middle, and lower. The upper unit is a shallow nonartesian aquifer;
the lower unit is the deep artesian Floridan aquifer and the middle
unit is a confining bed separating the two aquifers.
In Palm Beach County the shallow aquifer consists of the
Pamlico Sand, Anastasia Formation, Miami Oolite, and Fort
Thompson Formation, of Pleistocene age, and the Caloosahatchee










8000'


Tequila
\Jupiter


Juno Beach


Riviera Beoch
Polm beoch inlet
west -
Polm Beoch
PALM BEACH


'XVA

Conservation An
S No. 2a
BROWARD COUNTY


SLOke Worlh




8oynlon Inlet
Boynton Beach


Delray Beach





o 10,v BMEn Rolon
InlRetl

0 10 Miles


Figure 4. Geologic map of Palm Beach County, (pre-Pamlico, after Vernon and Purl, 1964).


80a4 '


264 5'







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 67


Marl of Pliocene age (Schroeder and others, 1954, fig. 4, 5). Recent
test drilling indicates that the Miami Oolite occurs in the extreme
southeastern part of the county.
The artesian aquifer consists of the Hawthorn Formation (lower
part) the Tampa Limestone of Miocene age, the Suwanee


WEST EAST
d
U




200 -
0





a:) 0 1
SEA OA SOILS PAMLICO SAND

LEVEL FT THOMPSON AORM. ANASTASIA

CALOOSHATCHEE









NONARTESIAN AQUIFER
400 -
IHAWTHORN FORMATION


500 -


6od -
700'- 4

SEA O 10Mil SAND


VERTICAL SCALE
0 EXAGGERATED
106

























Figure 5. Generalized geologic cross-section through central Palm Beach
County.







10 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Limestone of Oligocene age, the Ocala Group, and the Avon Park
Limestone of Eocene age, and possibly deeper formations.
Table 1 lists the geologic formations and their physical and
hydrologic characteristics. Figure 4 is a geologic map showing the
occurrence of the uppermost formations exclusive of surficial
sands and soils. A generalized geologic section (east-west) through
the county is given in figure 5. In some areas the transition from one
formation to another is poorly defined because of similar geologic
characteristics or insufficient data; therefore, the formation
boundaries are approximate.



PHYSIOGRAPHY

Palm Beach County is divided into three physiographic
subdivisions; the coastal ridge, the sandy flatlands and the
Everglades (fig. 1). The coastal ridge parallels the coast and


Table I.-Geologic formations and characteristics in Palm Beach County.


Physical Characteristics


I 'leistih ene


l-'amlico Sand



Anastasia Formation


Miami Oolite

Fort Thompson
Formation

Pllhutrne jaloosahatchee Marl

Taemiami Formation

Miotcene
Hawthorn Formation


Tampa Limestone


Oligocene [swannee Limestone
[Ocala Group
Eocene
A von Park Limestone


Very fine to coarse, white to
black or red quartz sand. Man-
tles sandy flatlands and coastal
ridge.
Coquina, sand, calcareous sand-
stone and shell marl. Some zones
contain old mangrove-swamp or
salt-marsh deposits composed of
fine sand. silt. clay, and organic
material.
White to yellow, soft limestone.
Solution riddled.
Alternating marine, brackish.
and fresh-water marls. lime-
stones and sandstones.
Sandy marl, clay, silt, sand and
shell beds.
Creamy-white limestone, and
greenish-gray clay and marl.

Sandy. phosphatic marl. inter-
bedded with clay, shell marl. silt,
and sand.
White to tan, soft to hard
limestone.

Creamy, soft to hard limestone.
White to cream, porous and
cavernous to dense limestone.
White to cream foraminiferal
limestone.


Water Bearing Characteristics

Small yields to domestic wells



Important shallow aquifer. Fair
to good yields.




Shallow aquifer. Good yields.

Shallow aquiler. Fair yields.


Shallow aquifer. Fair yields.

Occasional fair yields in upper
few feet. Remainder forms
upper part of aquiclude.
Major part of aquiclude. Limited
artesian water.

Yields some artesian water.
Generally top of Floridan
aquifer.
Part of Floridan aquifer.
Major formation in Floridan
aquifer.
Major formation in Floridan
aquifer.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 67


extends inland 2 to 3 miles from the ocean. The Everglades
occupies much of the west and southwest two-thirds of the county.
The sandy flatlands lie between the coastal ridge and the
Everglades. The elevation of coastal ridge ranges from 25 to 40 feet
msl (mean sea level) and extends as much as 30 feet above the
adjacent sandy flatlands. The sandy flatlands range in natural
elevation from 10 to 15 feet msl adjacent to the coastal ridge. The
highest elevation in sandy flatlands area is about 25 feet msl at the
northern boundary of the county and there the area slopes to the
east and south. Elevations are least immediately west of the
coastal ridge and at the Broward County line. The Everglades is
virtually flat and ranges only from 16 feet in the north to 14 feet msl
at the Broward County boundary.

RAINFALL AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
Rainfall in the east section of Palm Beach County averages about
60 in per yr (inches per year). On the average, in 1 out of 3 years, the
average annual rainfall will either exceed 75 inches or will be less
than 47 inches. Slightly more than 70 percent of the rain normally
falls during May through October, the wet season. The climate is
semitropical and the average temperature is about 75oF.
The combination of evaporation and transpiration evapotrans-
piration from land surface with vegetative cover under optimum
moisture conditions (field capacity) equals the evaporation from
lakes. In Palm Beach County this is about 50 in per yr (Kohler,
Nordenson, and Baker, 1959). However, the actual evapotranspira-
tion rate is somewhat lower because the moisture conditions are
less than optimum during periods of low rainfall.
Water surplus the difference between average annual rainfall
and potential evaporation varies considerably across Palm
Beach County. The surplus is 4 in per yr at South Bay, 8 in per yr at
Belle Glade, 14 in per yr at Loxahatchee beyond the area of
investigation to 12 in per yr at West Palm Beach (Visher and
Hughes, 1969). In eastern Palm Beach County the lowest surplus is
8 in per yr in the Jupiter area and highest is 13 in per yr at Canal E-1
and West Palm Beach Canal. The greatest surplus water within
Florida, except for the west part of the panhandle of Florida,
occurs at the town of Loxahatchee.
The water surplus, as defined above, is the minimum quantity of
water available for outflow. For South Florida, the outflow
probably does not exceed the difference between rainfall and
potential evaporation by more than 3 inches. The surplus fluctuates
considerably in quantity from year to year because rainfall
fluctuates and potential evaporation remains stable.





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


HYDROLOGIC SETTING
SURFACE-WATER SYSTEM
Because of the very flat terrain, low elevations, and high rainfall
(55 to 63 inches annually), much of the land surface was under
water in the Everglades and sandy flatlands before an extensive
network of canals was dredged. Control structures, back pumps,
and storage facilities were built to help control seawater intrusion
and to maintain reasonably stable and acceptable water levels.
The selected range of water levels must satisfy a compromise
between irrigation, drainage, control of sea-water intrusion, and
conservation needs.
The major surface-water flow systems before land development
were the Allapattah Marsh, the Hungryland Slough, the
Loxahatchee Slough and the Hillsboro Lakes March (fig. 6). The
only outflow to the ocean in Palm Beach County was through the
Loxahatchee River (beyond the area of figure 6) and a small part of
Hillsboro Lakes Marsh in the southeast. All the other surface flow
moved to the south. These flow patterns were altered extensively
after the canals and levees were built.
The major reasons for constructing a canal and storage system
were to prevent flood damage, to control ground-water levels, to
distribute water for irrigation, and to store water. The major
components of the surface-water system in Palm Beach County
(fig. 7) include Lake Okeechobee, Conservation Area 1, Miami
Canal, North New River Canal, Hillsboro Canal, and the West Palm
Beach Canal. One of the most important control complexes is at the
S-5 structures located at the junction of West Palm Beach Canal,
Levee 8, Ocean Canal, and Conservation Area 1. Figure 7
illustrates the layout of the surface-water system in 1972. Only the
major canals are shown.
The largest unit water-control system in Palm Beach County is
owned and operated by the Lake Worth Drainage District
extending approximately between Canals E-1 and E-4 about 225 sq.
miles (see fig. 7). The primary objective of the District is to
maintain previously prescribed water-levels to protect crops and
to conserve water. The Central and Southern Florida Flood Control
District (CSFFCD) controls most of the other major canal
systems.
Each of the main canals flowing to the ocean has a control
structure near the coast. Some have gates with automatic controls
to release flood waters rapidly.
Water-management plans in many areas, particularly in the
lakes area in the extreme eastern part of the county, call for






8000'


Tequesra
kJupiter


Juno Beach




SRiviero Beach
S4* Palm beach in/le
West -
S Palm Beach
PALM BEACH



Lake Worth





Boynlon Inlet
Boynton Beach


Delray Beach






Boca Raton
B0 oca Rolon
0 Inlet
0 I1 Miles


Figure 6. Direction of surficial flow before canals and levees were constructed.


80'45'


260451 -


26030'-


I r I






8o'4' 3o'


Figure 7. Layout of current (1972) surface-water system.


8000o'







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 67


maintaining high water levels during dry periods and low water
levels when rainfall is high. This practice is the opposite of what
occurs in nature; however, this scheme can be implemented by
control operation.

WATER-LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS
The water-levels in the canals and lakes are influenced mainly by
(1) rainfall, (2) evapotranspiration, and (3) water-management
practices. Water-management practices, the most important of
the three, involve the many control structure operations by the
Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District, the Lake
Worth Drainage District, and other water-management agencies.
Included in this report are hydrographs and duration curves
showing fluctuations in water level and flow of several canals and
lakes in east Palm Beach County. Daily mean discharge
hydrographs are given in figures 8 and 9 for Canal M at S.R. 809
near Mangonia Park and El Rio Canal at Boca Raton, respectively.
The discharge hydrograph of Canal M shows a higher base or
sustained flow and broader peaks before March 1971. This
indicates rather stable and high water-level conditions in the


u,
Cr
u
3:
o
U,

-I
51


0 1 1 I 1 1 _____ 1 1 I 1
J F M A M J J A S 0 N D J F M A M J J A S O N D
1970 1971
Figure 8. Discharge hydrograph for Canal M near Mangonia Park.




80
S60 ..-

40

20
G 1


A S 0 N


Figure 9. Discharge hydrograph for El Rio Canal at Boca Raton.


JF M A M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J
1970 1971






16 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

Loxahatchee Slough area. The effects of the most intense part of
the 1970-71 drought, in terms of monthly rainfall, occurred during
the first part of May 1971 and is clearly illustrated by the sharp
decline in discharge. Rainfall increased sharply, although still
deficient in comparison to long-term averages, to produce the rises
shown in the summer of 1971. The water levels were still not high
enough to produce flows comparable to those of 1970. Flows may
have been altered by diversion of water to or from Levee 8. The
total flow past this station for the period shown in figure 8 was 45,200
ac-ft (acre-feet).
The flow hydrograph for the El Rio Canal reflects most of the
same overall rainfall conditions evident at the Canal M station.
However, the quantity of flow in May July 1970 was greater in the
El Rio Canal than in Canal M. The sharper peaks show the effect of
storm rainfall on the rather small, although undefined, watershed.
The volume of water in the El Rio Canal that passed the Boca Raton
station for the period shown in figure 9, Feb. 1970-Sept. 1971, was
10,900 ac-ft.
Hydrographs are given in figures 10-13 for Canal E-l, near
Greenacres City and Delray Beach, and Canal E-3 at Greenacres
City and Boca Raton. These and other hydrographs indicate that
the fluctuations of water-levels in the Lake Worth Drainage
District (fig. 7) are small. Changes, although minor, respond
closely to gate operations and rainfall intensity. Water-levels in the
canals are not affected by seasonal rainfall trends because of
diversions from Conservation Area 1 and control operation.




-J


z

L J F M A M J J A S 0 N D J F M A M J J A S
C Figure 10. Stage hydrograph for Canal E-1 near Greenacres City.


6 -
S14
J J F M A M J J A S 0 N O J F M A M J J A S
S1970 1971
Figure 11. Stage hydrograph for Canal E-1 near Delray Beach.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 67


1910 1971


S Figure 12. Stage hydrograph for Canal E-3 at Greenacres City.







9 J F M A M J J A S 0 N D J F M A M J J A S
1-




1970 1971

Figure 13. Stage hydrograph for Canal E-3 at Boca Raton.




About 80 percent of the time from November 1939 to September
1971, flow in the West Palm Beach Canal at West Palm Beach
ranged from 200 to 1,700 cfs (cubic feet per second). About 80
percent of the time in 1970 the flow ranged from 300 to 1,400 cfs and
at no time in 1971 did the flow exceed about 1,100 cfs. Flow duration
curves in figure 14 show these relationships. The curves reflect the
rainfall patterns and general water-level conditions in an east-west
band through the county. Flow durations may also change with
time due to changes in water-management practices.
The stage of Lake Ida ranged from 7.6 to 8.6 feet above sea level


5000
-Q
0 0 4000
I<
SIr 3000
-w

< uj 2000
I 0u
) U_
>-I-
-m 1000
0u


-- --/


'--~ l OCTOBER 1969-SEPTEMBER 1970
OCTOBER 1970-SEPTEMBER 197,1I
0.5 2 10 30 50 70 90 98 99.9 99.99
PERCENTAGE OF DAYS MEAN DAILY DISCHARGE EQUALED OR EXCEEDED


Figure 14. Flow-duration curves for West Palm Beach Canal at West Palm
Beach.






18 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

about 80 percent of the time. (fig. 15). The stage of Lake Clark
ranged more widely, from 7.0 to 8.9 feet 80 percent of the time (fig.
16). The operation of control structures below these lakes are the
principle cause of the water-level fluctuations and the differences
in the ranges.

TIDAL PATTERNS ALONG THE INTRACOASTAL WATERWAY
The Intracoastal Waterway in Palm Beach County is separated
from the ocean by a series of offshore islands from the Broward
County line to 4 miles north of Riviera Beach. North to the Jupiter
inlet, the waterway has been dredged about one mile inland. Inlets
provide tidal interchange between the waterway and the ocean.
Tidal interchange is through Jupiter, Palm Beach, Boynton, and
Boca Raton Inlets in Palm Beach County, and the Hillsboro Inlet in
Broward County. The inlets in Palm Beach County are shown in
figure 2.
Gaging stations record the tide level at four locations (fig. 2)
along the Intracoastal Waterway. All gages are referenced to
mean sea level, 1929 datum. Records from the Primary Tide Gage
at Miami Beach were used for correlation.


,o-------------------------------






00, 05 2 IO 30 50 70 90 98 99.9 99.99
PERCENTAGE OF DAYS MEAN WATER LEVELS EQUALED OR EXCEEDED
Figure 15. Stage-duration curve for Lake Ida.








001 05 2 10 30 50 70 90 98 99.9 99.99
PERCENTAGE OF DAYS MEAN WATER LEVEL EQUALED OR EXCEEDED


Figure 16. Stage-duration curve for Lake Clark.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 67 19


In the Intracoastal Waterway the range between the average
high and average low tides is approximately 2.7 ft or from -1.2 to 1.5
feet msl. Tidal peaks and troughs occasionally vary over 1 foot
from their averages. The greatest tidal fluctuations in the
waterway occur at the inlets. Dampening and lagging effects
reduce the tides away from the inlets. The dampening effects on
low tides is greater than on high tides because of a decrease in the
waterway's conveyance.
The effects of strong easterly winds on the tide patterns at three
stations along the waterway and Miami Beach are illustrated in
figure 17. The winds began on December 22, were strongest (40
mph) on December 23, and diminished on December 24 and 25. As
expected, the tides fluctuated with the wind. The tides on
December 23 were approximately 0.8 foot above normal.





3
-J
W





SV MIAMI BEACH DEL RAY BEACH
5U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC 02279520
0 SURVEY
-J -
m 21 22 23 24 25 21 22 23 24 25
DECEMBER 1971 DECEMBER 1971
z









0 U




21 22 23 24 25 21 22 23 24 25
DECEMBER 1971 DECEMBER 1971
-J

-J




-2 '

DECEMBER 1971 DECEMBER 1971


Figure 17. Hydrographs showing effects of
22-25, 1971 on tidal patterns.


strong easterly winds of December





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


GROUND-WATER SYSTEMS
NONARTESIAN AQUIFER
Throughout Palm Beach County the shallow geologic formations
make up an unconfined aquifer that contains fresh water. This
aquifer is estimated to be at least 250 feet thick at the coast and to
taper to less than 100 feet in places near the western part of the
county. Actual thickness of the shallow aquifer is yet to be
determined. The nonartesian aquifer extends downward to the top
of the confining bed which covers the Floridan aquifer.
In eastern Palm Beach County the shallow aquifer is composed
of the Pamlico Sand at the surface, the Anastasia Formation, and
the Caloosahatchee Marl and a very small amount of Miami Oolite.
These formations contain beds of sand, shell, limestone, sandstone,
and marl. The strata vary in thickness and permeability.
Permeable sections are generally thin and, in places, are isolated
lenses or stringers. Much of the limestone has been solution-riddled
and later filled with sand.
According to McCoy and Hardee (1970, p. 7) the Boca Raton area
is underlain by the northernmost extension of the Biscayne aquifer
of southeast Florida. Although the aquifer in this area is of
relatively low permeability compared to the same aquifer in
Broward and Dade County, it is several times more permeable
than the shallow aquifer in most of Palm Beach County.

RECHARGE AND DISCHARGE
The principal source of recharge to the shallow aquifer is local
rainfall. In the coastal area the shallow aquifer is replenished by
seepage principally from the Equalizing Canal E-4, Clear Lake,
C-17, lower reach of C-18, and the West Palm Beach Canal during
the dry seasons when control structures in the primary canals are
closed. Ground-water discharge is major during the rainy season
when control structures are open; then the water moves to the
nearest stream or canal and then to the ocean. A large quantity of
ground water is withdrawn by evapotranspiration. Pumping from
wells represents only a minor discharge from the system.



WATER-LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS
Fluctuations of the water-table reflect changes in the volume of
water in storage in the aquifer. Major fluctuations are caused by a
large net gain or loss of water by recharge or by discharge from the







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 67


aquifer. Atmospheric pressure changes cause minor fluctuations.
Tides also cause minor fluctuations near the coast.
Because water-level fluctuations are directly related to rainfall,
fluctuations can be expected to coincide with the seasonal rainfall
pattern. Long-term water-level records of water levels at
recording observation wells, PB 99 in West Palm Beach and PB 109
9 miles west of Lake Park are given in figures 18 and 19. These
water-level records indicate the annual cyclic fluctuations and
extremes. Both wells show no particular trends other than those
resulting from climatic changes. PB 99 represents conditions in a
well drained urban setting and PB 109 represents conditions in an
undeveloped area where the only major loss is evapotranspiration.
An extreme drought from October 1970 to May 1971 severely



Well PB 99






20
LLu




i ., I I i I I II' 'I I
1948 50 55 60 65 70 1971
Figure 18. Hydrograph of well PB 99 in eastern Palm Beach County.



Well PB 109
Lu20





95 16

1950 55 60 65 70 197a
Figure 19., Hydrograph of well PB 109 in northeastern Palm Beach County.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


S25 J A S O N D J F M A J
j FMAMJJ A SONDJFMAMJJASOND D


1970


1971


Figure 20. Monthly rainfall and accumulated monthly departures from average
for 1970 and 1971 at Palm Beach International Airport.

affected Palm Beach County as well as elsewhere in south Florida.
Levels were at record lows in three observation wells about 2 feet
lower than the low levels of an average dry season. The
accumulated rainfall departure from the 30-year average at Palm
Beach International Airport was deficient 15 inches from January


15




U,
w
r 10
10


-I
-J
L-
z 5

a:



0
15


j 10





r>
IZ
z o
W- 5



02 5





o -20

<0-2


"***AVERAGE (1931-60)
-MONTHLY



































-7--


I I I I I I I I I






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 67


1970 through April 1971. The total deficiency was about 25 inches,
starting from a 10-inch excess in May 1970. Much of the excess
rainfall in the early part of 1970 was lost to increased
evapotranspiration and outflow. The major effect of the drought
ended in May 1971 although the rainfall deficiencies generally
continued to increase until November. The drought virtually ended
in May because the total monthly rainfall averages increased from
less than 1 inch for the previous 4 months to over 5 inches for May -
November. A graph of the accumulated departure of rainfall from
average is given in figure 20.
During the 1970-71 drought ground-water levels had declined as
much as 5 feet in the Canal 18 area in the northeast part of the
county and about 2 feet in an area between Equalizing Canals E-1
and E-3. The aquifer in this area was supplemented with water by
the Lake Worth Drainage District's pumping from Conservation
Area 1, Hillsborough Canal, West Palm Beach Canal and
Equalizing Canal E-4. The configuration of the water table on
October 1, 1970, during a normal wet season, is shown in figure 21.
The effects of the drought on ground-water levels is shown by the
water-table configuration on April 30, 1971 (fig. 22), only a short
time before the drought ended in mid-May.

HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES
The shallow aquifer is the source of fresh ground-water in the
county. Most of the high-capacity supply wells in the coastal area
tap the aquifer at depths from 100 to 200 feet. Wherever possible the
wells are terminated in rock and finished by open-hole. Numerous
high-capacity wells are screened and gravel packed. Expected
yield of an 8-inch diameter well in the Boca Raton area is more than
1,000 gpm (gallons per minute). Wells in Delray Beach are
expected to yield about 600 gpm. Wells farther north probably yield
500 gpm or less and most require a longer length of screen than
those elsewhere. Wells in the interior part of the county generally
yield less than wells in the coastal part.
The permeability of the shallow aquifer decreases northward
and westward because of the increasing content of fine sand and
marly material. Data from aquifer tests in a few municipal well
fields were used to determine its transmissivity and specific yield.
Transmissivity is a measure of the rate water will move through a
unit width of aquifer under a unit hydraulic gradient; specific yield
is the ratio of the volume of water that will drain from a unit volume
of saturated aquifer. The specific capacity of a well, which is the
discharge per foot of drawdown (gpm/ft), is often used as an








24 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY





eo'83' 15'
MARTIN COUNTY I


EXPLANATION
-10-
WATER-LEVEL CONTOUR
CONTROL INTERVAL 2 FEET
DATUM IS MEAN SEA LEVEL

710





CANAConL MAr





26d 12

LOxAAt CHE








2s*d ; I


Figure 21. Water table contour map of eastern Palm Beach County on October
1. 1970, end of wet season.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 67


Figure 22. Water table contour map of eastern Palm Beach County on April 30,
1971, end of dry season.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


indication of the transmissivity of the aquifer (Bentall, 1963, p
331-336).
The highest transmissivity in the eastern part of the county is in
the Boca Raton area. A test there (McCoy and Hardee, 1970, p. 25)
indicates a transmissivity of 380,000 gpd/ft (gallons per day per
foot), a specific capacity L/ of 377 gpm/ft, and a storage
coefficient of 0.04. An aquifer test in the Delray Beach area
indicates a transmissivity of 140,000 gpd/ft, a specific capacity of 60
gpm/ft, and a storage coefficient of 0.36. At West Palm Beach an
aquifer test indicates the transmissivity to be less than 10,000
gpd/ft and the specific capacity 10 gpm/ft. However, other tests in
the Delray Beach to West Palm Beach area indicate the specific
capacity generally ranges from 40 to 60 gpm/ft which corresponds
to a transmissivity of 100,000 to 140,000 gpd/ft. From Riviera Beach
to Tequesta the specific capacity generally ranged from 5 to 20
gpm/ft, or a transmissivity of 10,000 to 50,000 gpd/ft. A test using a
48-foot well at the Pratt-Whitney Aircraft Research and
Development Center on State Road 710 showed a specific capacity
of 72 gpm/ft and indicates the aquifer has a transmissivity in
excess of 100,000 gpd/ft and a storage coefficient of 0.0013. A
146-foot well at the same location had a specific capacity of only 4
gpm/ft.
Generally, the ability of the aquifer to yield water to pumping
wells increases from north to south in the coastal area; however,
many local conditions will cause large changes in permeability
with depth and location.

SEA-WATER INTRUSION
Because water levels throughout most of the coastal area are
high, salt-water intrusion is not yet critical. Water-levels in the
Tequesta, Jupiter and Juno Beach areas are low and there,
intrusion has become critical.
To prevent salty water from advancing inland and con-
taminating the ground water in municipal well fields, the
ground-water levels must remain higher than mean sea level. The
head of fresh water above mean sea level necessary to suppress
salt-water is given in the Ghyben-Herzberg relation. For normal
densities of fresh water and sea water, 1 foot of fresh-water head is
required to suppress the sea water 40 feet below sea level. For
example, to keep the sea water at a depth of 200 feet in the vicinity

L_ Specific capacity is the yield of a well per foot of drawdown for a specific period
of time.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 67


of the coast line, a minimum of a 5-foot head (above msl) must be
maintained. The rate at which salt water will move horizontally is
dependent on the aquifer's hydraulic properties: thickness as well
as the water-table elevation and gradients. The wells that are the
deepest and nearest the coast are the first to be affected because of
the shape of the salt-water wedge. The most important and
controllable factor in controlling sea-water intrusion is the
elevation of the water-table in the vicinity of the coast. These levels
are principally influenced by well-field pumping, ground-water
outflow, rainfall, evapotranspiration, and drainage canals.

Northeast Palm Beach County
Decline in ground-water levels caused by increased pumping and
prolonged drought permitted sea water to advance into the aquifer
in the vicinity of the Loxahatchee River. Reduced flows in


Figure 23. Location of well fields and salinity-monitoring wells in northeast
Palm Beach County.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Loxahatchee River, due mainly to Canal 18 diversion from the
Loxahatchee Slough into the Southwest Fork (fig. 23) and
irrigation operations, have permitted sea water to advance up the
river. In the past, high flows effectively kept sea water in the
vicinity of the river's mouth. Sea water now extends several miles
upstream.
During the drought of 1970-71 and the dry season of 1971-72, it was
necessary to discontinue pumping at several wells in the Tequesta
and Juno Beach well fields because of increasing salt content in the
water. Before this time, the chloride content of the water from the
wells averaged less than 50 mg/1. However, when chloride
increased to more than 250 mg/1 in some wells, pumping was
discontinued.
Sea-water intrusion caused the old Jupiter municipal well field to
be abandoned several years ago. Use of many wells near the
Loxahatchee River estuary, Intracoastal Waterway, and the ocean
has also been discontinued.
To monitor sea-water intrusion several salinity monitoring wells
were drilled between the source of sea water and the well fields
(fig. 23). The depth and location of these wells and the changes in
the chloride content of water from them provide the necessary
information needed to predict the movement of the sea water.

Southeast Palm Beach County
Sea-water intrusion in the vicinity of the Boca Raton well field
has been monitored since 1963 by the U.S. Geological Survey. The
well field is located between the El Rio Canal and the ocean. The
sources of sea-water intrusion are the ocean, the Intracoastal
Waterway, and the uncontrolled tidal reach of the El Rio Canal.
The primary canals Hillsboro, El Rio, and Canal E-3 have
control structures that normally prevent salt water from moving
up the canals. However, salt water did move upstream above the
weir structure on the El Rio Canal during high tides in 1970.
When rainfall is about normal, sufficient flow over the control
causes the chloride content to be approximately the same on the
upstream as on the downstream side. Several times between
October 1970 and April 1971, high tides topped the weir, which
caused salt water to become trapped in the bottom of the controlled
reach of the canal.
During the prolonged drought of 1970-71, pumping in the Boca
Raton well field diverted the trapped salty water from the canal
into the aquifer and toward the pumping wells; this resulted in
temporarily curtailed use of several wells. Subsequent freshening
of the aquifer occurred after the rainy season of 1971 began.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 67


Pumping in the Boca Raton well field has caused the water table
to form a trough configuration centered through the producing
wells. The water table west of the wells is maintained rather stable
throughout the year because the El Rio Canal recharges the
aquifer. To the east a ground water ridge is centered between the
Intracoastal Waterway and the well field. The ridge is saddle
shaped near the well field. The configuration of the water table is
shown by water-level contours in figure 24 for May 12, 1972.


007'30" 8005' 006


Figure 24. Water table contours in Boca Raton area for May 12, 1972.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


FLORIDAN AQUIFER
The Floridan aquifer underlies all of Florida and parts of
adjoining states. In Palm Beach County its top is about 800 feet
below land surface along the southeast shore of Lake Okeechobee
and about 1,000 feet in the Boca Raton area. It is composed
primarily of permeable limestone that dips eastward and
southward. The aquifer is separated from the shallow aquifer by
several hundred feet of impermeable clay and silt. The water flows
southeastward across Palm Beach County and is the aquifer
recharged in central Florida. The water level in wells penetrating
the aquifer is between 40 and 55 feet above mean sea level (Healy,
1970). Wells penetrating the Floridan aquifer will flow under
artesian pressure (Vernon, 1969).
In Palm Beach County the water from Floridan aquifer has been
used mainly for cooling purposes. It is too highly mineralized for
almost any other use. Data obtained by Schroeder and others
(1954) and Shampine (1965) showed the chloride content to be
greater than 1,000 mg/1 in most of the county and the dissolved
solids to be in excess of 3,000 mg/1. The water also is sufficiently
corrosive to prevent its general use as a source for industrial
cooling. Chemical analyses of water samples collected from
artesian wells near Lake Okeechobee are given in table 2.
The main emphasis for present and future use of the aquifer is for
waste-water disposal or storage of surplus fresh water. An
industrial waste-disposal well drilled near Belle Glade to a depth of
1,705 feet has been in operation since 1965. A few sewage-disposal
wells are in operation in Dade County. These wells are about 3,000
feet deep. Also, the upper part of the Floridan aquifer is a large
source of brackish water (Meyer, 1971).


WATER QUALITY
SHALLOW AQUIFER
The quality of the ground-water in the shallow aquifer of Palm
Beach County is highly variable; but often can be related to the
permeability of the aquifer. Usually when permeability is high the
quality of water is good. The reason is that the quantity of water
moving through the aquifer is great enough to flush out any
mineralized water that may be present.
As mentioned previously, by far the greatest source of the fresh
water in the shallow aquifer is rainfall. The rainfall enters the
saturated zone by infiltration through the soil zone or beds and






Table 2.-Chemical analyses of water from selected wells in central and western Palm Beach County.
(Results in milligrams per liter except as noted)



Date X -
Test Well of E o
Collection C q |
> S
-H

263320N0804240 6.5-42 16 1.130 698 24.0 360 0.15 172 55 7.6 576 144 35 0.05 655
(GS 2) 8 30 1.500 828 24.0 149 69 80 770 36 115 .05 656
9 50 1,890 1,040 24.0 197 78 107 924 12 195 812
263910N0804515 6-11-42 19 1,860 1.350 24.0 220 .05 292 88 31 538 628 45 .02 1.090
(GS 3) 11 35 1,970 1,300 24.0 .190 102 127 684 406 133 .00 894
11 50 1.660 942 25.0 102 68 168 686 101 165 .00 534
263345N0803110 6-19-42 14 1.030 548 23.0 280 .10 100 34 69 480 17 91 .02 390
(GS 6) 24 55 1.200 637 23.0 280 .80 88 44 106 563 4.1 117 .02 400
261045N0802340 6-25-42 50 6.150 3.600 24.0 80 71 1.220 1.100 304 1.380 492
(GS 7)
264055N0801220 6.29-42 5 398 7.0
(GS 8) 30 35 1.500 24.0 143 17 175 473 13 258 427
30 44 1,630 869 24.0 288
30 51 1.320 24.0 218
0
262235N0802215 8.4-42. 14 596 340 24.0 220 .05 89 13 27 322 11 41 .02 276
(GS 11) 5 50 11.900 7.210 24.0 .70 .10 218 166 2,300 836 716 3.400 1.230
262440N0801720 8-13.42 30 950 496 24.0 60 160 9.4 22 470 9.9 63 .02 439
(CS 12) 14 50 776 387 25.0 40 .03 121 6.6 23 390 9.5 35 .02 330
265440N0803620 8.13.43 23 3.380 2.210 24.0 380 7.1 .09 188 192 378 1.470 400 325 .34 1.260
(GS 24) 13 30 4,790 3.090 23.0 380 7.1 .00 157 200 758 1.640 326 840 1.210
14 43 6,420 4.030 23.0 310 7.2 .04 232 95 1,220 1,780 254 1.350 970
16 60 3,150 1,910 55 7.2 .08 154 123 404 1.050 270 445 890
I C.









Table 2,--Chemileal analysles of water from selected wells In central and western Palm Beach County,
(Results in milligrams per liter except as noted)



Date =
Test Well of E
Collection I f 2 .& C ^ g

(A C "a P. a i E


264830NO803900
SGS 25)

265300N0804405
(GS 26)



264210N0805000
(GS 27



Artesian Well
264200N0803900


8-20-43
20
21
23
23

8-25-43
25
25
25
25


9-18.65 1320
12-11-65 1705


2,460
3,060
4,540

4,420
4,300
4.540
4,870
4,730

697
583
1.610
1,410
5,610


1,530
4,390

2,870

2,780
2,960


305
922

3,500


1,820
4,875


124 197
10: 1,360


199

180
152


22
44

98


343

646
685


25
209

1.010


1,120
1,160

1,050

1,310
640
852

358
292
564
460
882


215
1,890
780

760
830
910
960
910

33
36
215
198
1,180


690
2,210


1,030
932

1,850

1,180
1,080


250 0
400 1

815


600
1.120






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 67


banks of canals and lakes. As rainfall infiltrates the surface and
moves through the geologic materials it dissolves minerals and
undergoes other chemical changes. For example, the water
filtering through organic muck usually has color and iron added to
it, whereas water flowing through limestone acquires bicarbonate,
calcium, magnesium, and other constituents. Sand may also act as
a filter to trap sediments or undissolved material.
Ground water of best quality in Palm Beach County is along the
coastal ridge and of poorest quality is in the Everglades. The sandy
flatlands contain water of transitional quality. A list of the most
common parameters in the U.S. Public Health Service Drinking
Water Standards (1962) and their recommended limits are given
below:


Substance or Property
Arsenic (As)
Chloride (Cl)
Color
Iron (Fe)
Nitrate (NO3)
Sulfate (SO3)
Dissolved solids
Fluoride (F)
Phenols
Zinc (Zn)
Copper (Cu)
Manganese (Mn)


Concentration (mg/1,
except as noted)
0.01
250
15 Hazen units
0.3
45
250
500
1.0
0.001
5.0
1.0
0.05


The practical limits of some chemical constituents and
properties are based mainly on esthetic considerations. The levels
of hardness, as classified by the U.S. Geological Survey, are as
follows:


Hardness as CaCO3 (mg/1)
0-60
61-120
121-180
over 180


Characteristics

soft
moderately hard
hard
very hard


EAST PALM BEACH COUNTY
The dissolved solids and hardness in water from the shallow
aquifer tend to increase westward. Figure 25 shows dissolved







34 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


solids, total hardness, and color content in water from selected
wells that tap the shallow aquifer in east Palm Beach County.
Additional analyses are given in table 3 for water from some of the
wells plotted on figure 3. The analyses shown on figure 25 are for
water from wells 75 to 125 feet deep.


10' 15'
MARTIN COUNTY I
-- EXPLANATION -
DISSOLVED SOLIDS
400
272y 50 COLOR
HARDNESS PLATINUM-COBALT UNITS
GROUND-WATER SAMPLING SITE
NUMBERS AROUND SAMPLING SITE INDICATES CaNAL i8
CONCENTRATIONS MILLIGRAMS PER LITER --


~ BROWARD COUNTY .... .... I

Figure 25. Areal distribution of selected constituents in and properties of
ground water.




Table 3.-Chemical analyses of water from selected wells in east Palm Beach County.
(Results in milligrams per liter except as noted)
hosphorus Dissolved
SPOs solids
Stationor Date 8 .5 I ^ 4 s o
Site number of Uio a .
Collection || U 8 | |


2640o54Nr 8o o957
PB 572 123-70 704 7.7 22.0 30 15 104 4.6 2.2 33 1.6 344 2.8 56 0.4 0.00 282 281 0 398 389 0.0009 100

264055NO801012
PB 573 12.3-70 712 7.5 25.0 40 14 112 5.0 2.4 35 1.6 356 4.0 58 .4 .05 292 303 11 415 408 .01 137
264104N0801020
PB 574 12-3-70 920 7.7 25.0 30 14 118 6.4 2.6 63 3.6 364 8.0 115 .4 .00 299 324 26 519 510 .01 200
264124NO801029
PB 575 12.3-70 1.130 7.7 24.0 30 14 1:34 7.0 3.2 84 2.4 396 12 160 .5 3.6 325 367 43 635 628 .49 75
261432N0800959
PB 576 12-3-70 920 7.6 25.0 .20 14 120 5.8 2.8 61 2.2 380 .8 110 .3 .05 312 327 15 522 504 .009 56
264225N0800931
PB 577 12-3-70 686 8.4 25.0 25 15 104 8.0 2.0 30 12 323 23 50 .4 .6 271 295 24 430 410 124
262222N0800729
PB 578 12-17-70 421 8.2 24.0 20 12 68 1.5 .24 15 .8 208 4.0 28 .3 .05 171 176 6 245 232 .009 125
262148N0801021
PB 579 12-15-70 691 7.7 23.0 45 13 118 3.0 1.3 20 1.2 368 .8 36 .9 .02 302 309 7 383 375 .006 106

262455NO801250
PB2580 12-16-70 691 7.8 23.0 80 12 112 3.0 1.5 25 1.6 340 8.4 54 0.4 0.05 279 29 15 396 385 0.009 105

262600N0801114
PB 581 12-16-70 594 8.0 24.0 50 14 96 2.6 1.1 22 1.6 300 .8 39 .4 .00 246 252 7 334 326 .70 105

262720N0800753
PB 582 12-16-70 518 7.7 24.0 30 12 81 3.3 1.1 22 .6 256 .8 38 .4 .2 210 217 7 294 286 .009 100
263218N0800724
PB 583 12 16-70 540 8.1 24.0 45 13 86 2.8 1.3 17 1.0 282 8.0 30 .4 .05 231 228 0 308 299 .006 100

26363150800653
PB 584 12-17-70 583 7.8 24.5 40 13 86 3.4 1.4 27 1.0 276 .8 45 .3 .05 226 230 4 328 314 .009 111








Table 3,-Chemical analyses of water from selected wells in east Palm Beach County, (Continued)


263701NO800951
PB 585

263131N0801222
PB 586

263530NO801223
PB 587

264227N0801143
PB 588

264653N0800653
PB 589

26&830N0801153
PB 590

265609N0800942
PB 591

265300N080070
PB 593

262742N0800431
PB 601

263636N0800357
PB 602

264848N0800501
PB 603

261659N0800401
PB 604


7.8 25.0 50

8.2 17.0 120

8.4 18.0 60

8.2 24.0 15

8.6 20.0 25

8.3 24.0 20

8.6 24.0 50

8.2 24.5 20


6.4 26.5 70

6.5 10

6.5 40

6.4 10


102 3.8

W6 3.4

108 2.2

140 14

104 4.2

92 3.8

104 2.8

84 2.2

81 2.3


72 2.1

92 5.9

72 1.6


324 .8

303 .8

333 27

428 26

302 0

268 8


322 0

268 .8

268 37


206 30

310 8.5


252 2.8


54

52

42

260

44

66

31

26

8.0

24


66


18


691

648

702


1,560

686


612

642

497


585

423

670

425


12-17.70

12-29-70

12-29.70

12.29.70

12-29-70


12-30-70

12-30-70

12-30-70

7-26-71

523-71

5-26-71


5-26-71


378 366

374 347

414 407

844 835

378 362

380 354

400 356

286 275

311 297

264 250

407 387

255 242


.009

.009

2.8

0.003


.003

.03

.003

.03

.000


.000

.000

.000






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 67


Figure 26 shows dissolved solids content in water from
successively greater depths in east Palm Beach County. Analyses
of water from four depth ranges (50-foot intervals) are used to
illustrate quality changes with depth. The analyses used to develop
these lines of equal concentration include not only the analyses
made by the Geological Survey but also those made by private
laboratories, and by local and State agencies. Most evident is the
uniformity of water quality in a southerly direction and the
increase in mineral content westward. The lines of equal
concentration tend to be displaced eastward with increasing depth
in the aquifer which means the mineral content generally
increases with depth. However, the 300 mg/1 concentration line is
in about the same position for both 101-150-and 151-200-foot depth
ranges. The maps are generalized and do not take into account the
near coastal area affected by sea-water contamination.
The graphs of specific conductance versus depth in figure 27
indicate changes in dissolved-solids content of the water with
depth. The top of the wedge has a zone of diffusion between the salt
and fresh water; therefore, the transition is not abrupt. At depths


CONCENTRATIONS, MILLIGRAMS PER LITER






S00

V 0









0-SO 5l-100 9 'MILES 101-150 151-200
DEPTH RANGE,FEET
Figure 26. Dissolved solid concentrations in ground-water at various depths in
east Palm Beach County.






38 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


above the transition zone the quality fluctuates slightly, and
improves in some zones, with depth. The approximate top of the
zone of diffusion is indicated by dashed lines on the graphs.


CENTRAL AND WEST PALM BEACH COUNTY
Considerable test drilling and water analysis was done in the
early 1940's to locate a potable ground-water supply in the
Everglades area of Palm Beach County. The sample analyses have
been published (Parker and others, 1955) and some of them are
again listed in table 2; well locations are shown on figure 28.
EXPLANATION
FRESH WATER
SALTY WATER
P -61S Tequet*o
TEST WELL -Jupile"
so -100 --- '--'
P19',98 0 o 0o
100 Juno Beoch


S-PB-632
m 200 0 00 P 32 00



West 1200


S00 300
P0 00 a 0,
.Lake Worth 0

Boynn


3O0 ..O


C I P 6 0 Calm ,C A Ch 2 0 0 -
,AOIO o No-
20 PM 151



8o i0 0 L 0
TR CECIFTIC C E CTANC


-o AT 20 CENICTOIMOR AT ADE CENTI 0ADE



0 4Mil

Figure 27. Areal distribution of changes in specific conductance of water with
depth for selected test wells in east Palm Beach County.
Boca RoNon AICROMMOS AT 2CG CENTI 8A8E



0 4 Miles
Figure 27. Real distribution of changes in specific conductance of water with
depth for selected test wells in east Palm Beach County.





80o45' 30' 15' 80o00


Figure 28. Location of selected test wells in central and western Palm Beach County.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


\ WEST
SPALM
BEACH





WELLS LESS THAN 20 FEET DEEP


EXPLANATION

CHLORIDE,
MILLIGRAMS PER LITER


LESS THAN 30


31-50


51-100


101-200


201-500


MORE THAN 500


WELLS 20 TO 50 FEET DEEP






47$-.--





WELLS 51 TO 100 FEET DEEP


0 20 Miles


Figure 29. Chloride concentrations in ground water at various depths in the
Everglades.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 67


To illustrate the areal distribution of the ground-water's chloride
content, lines of equal concentrations for three depth ranges are
shown in figure 29 (Parker and others, 1955, p. 818-822). The water
at depth is mineralized while at shallow depths it is fresh, or at least
its dissolved solids content is less than that of the mineralized
water. Water in the deeper ranges may be residual sea water, that
has not been flushed from the ground-water system. Poor flushing
action is caused by very low hydraulic gradients and strata of low
permeability.

SURFACE WATER
The mineral content of water in the canals varies with discharge
and water levels. When the discharge or water levels are high
much of the water is surface runoff from inland areas. It is highly
colored but contains only a small amount of dissolved solids. When
the discharge or water levels are low much of the canal water is
derived from ground-water inflow and the dissolved solids content
increases. The specific conductance, an indication of dissolved
solids, is listed on figure 30 for four suites of samples, March 1970 -
September 1971. As expected the highest conductance almost
always occurred in March 1971, during the 1970-71 drought. The
lowest value most often occurred in March 1970 because rainfall
was abnormally high at this time. Another reason for variation in
dissolved solid content is the changes in flow patterns because by
changes in operation of numerous pump stations and control
structures. The water quality is relatively unchanged in large
lakes, marshes, and conservation areas.
The dissolved solids content is lower in surface water than it is in
water in the shallow aquifer, particularly, bicarbonate, silica,
calcium, and hardness. However, the color and the bacterial
content are usually lower in the ground water. For tidal sections of
canals (below salt-water barriers) sea-water dominates and the
water is high in chloride and dissolved solids. Chemical analyses of
water from selected canals and lakes in east Palm Beach County
are listed in table 4. Locations of the sampling sites are shown in
figure 2.
The concentration of nutrients normally was higher in
September, corresponding with the wet season, and lower in
March, the dry season. This can usually be attributed to runoff
carrying nutrients absorbed from fertilizers being used in the
agricultural area. The concentrations were lowest in canals
immediately downstream from the Loxahatchee Slough and
highest in Canal 17 where sewage is present. The concentrations of






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


80530'


Figure 30. Areal distribution of specific conductance of waters from selected
lakes and canals from March 1970 to September 1971.


o8000o'







Table 4.-Chemical analyses of water samples from selected canals and lakes in east Palm Beach County
(Results in milligrams per liter except as noted)


02277700 1 3-18-70 250 7.0 21.0 50 4.3 1.6 0.12 0.01 33 2.4 0.20 14 1.0 96 10 24 0.2 0.02 0.009


02277950 2 3-17-70

3 3-17-70
02277900 4 3-17-70
5-1-70

5 3-18-70
8-11-70
02279000 6 3-17-70
5-1-70

02281569 7 3-17-70
5-1-70
02281582 8 3-16-70
5-1-70
02281600 9 3-16-70
5-1-70

02279500 10 3-16-70

11 3-16-70

02281625 12 3-16-70
5.1-70

02281513 13 3-18-70
5-1-70
02281419 14 3-18-70
5-1-70


7.2 50

7.0 19.0 20
7.0 20.0 30
7.6 27.0 25

7.3 100
8.1 29.0 80
7.1 100
8.8 28.5 60

7.3 19.0 70
7.8 29.0 50
7.2 21.0 60
7.8 28.5 50
7.2 20.0 80
7.2 29.5 60

7.1 20.0 90

7.2 20.5 70

7.0 18.0 100
8.5 25.0 60

7.1 60
7.4 27.0 60
7.0 19.0 60


67 5.8

90 .7
2.2 .9
38 .4

23 8.4
28 7.9
19 4.8
28 8.4

16 3.5
17 7.4
18 2.4
16 4.9
36 3.4
32 2.4

27 3.6

26 4.2

9.3 7.3
14 6.5

5.9
20 3.9
4.2


550 8.6 27.0 40 15 5.3


.12 .01 64 3.2 .82 22

.06 .00 22 3.5 .30 17
.04 .01 25 3.8 .23 18
17 2.2 .15 12

.20 .01 60 9.1 .52 48
.35 .02 68 5.7 .42 31
.19 .01 55 3.8 .43 21
61 6.8 33

.13 .00 61 7.3' .76 37
61 7.0 36
.06 .02 57 4.8 .57 18
65 7.0 38
.07 .00 51 6.7 .53 26
60 3.2 18

.13 .01 51 4.3 .50 19

.13 .01 53 5.3 .52 21

.26 .00 54 2.8 .38 14
70 2.5 .48 16

.14 .01 68 3.8 15
70 4.9 27
.17 .02 64 3.2 16
61 8.5 .62 44


1.4 187 15 37

1.6 68 15 25

1.7 80 9.2 29
1.4 56 2.8 19

2.5 188 42 75
2.8 198 31 51
2.1 145 21 36
2.2 160 30 50

3.2 171 38 56
2.4 178 31 54
7.5 143 31 30
3.1 192 31 55
11 121 37 42
3.4 160 21 28

6.3 132 27 29

7.7 136 30 34

1.1 148 16 24
.4 182 7.2 28

3.1 187 21 27
3.3 200 22 40

2.5 181 13 27
2.5 170 34 66


18 0.23 .25

14 .033

.00 .003 .009
.00 .009 .016

9.2 .036 .046
.00 .046 .059
.5 .12 .14
.2 .079 .082

.6 .23 .28
.1 .13 .14

4.1 .52 .55
.00 .18 .19
4.4 .85 .91
.00 .11 .13

1.6 .59 .59

3.2 .59 .59

.2 .13 .13
.00 .030 .030

.5 .27 .29
.05 .16 .18

.2 .27 .27
.00 .023 .040


Co












0s
I-









Table 4.--Chemical analyses of water samples from selected canals and lakes in east Palm Beach County
(Results in milligrams per liter except as noted)





Collection pi
Staloi" si of II-


02281425 15 3-16-70
5-1-70

16 8-11-70
17 8-11-70
18 8-11-70

19 8-11-70
20 8-11-70
21 8-12-70

22 8-12-70
23 8-12-70
02281532 34 5-1-70
02281544 35 5-1-70
02281295 4-28-70
8-6-70


7.0 21.0 100 5.7
7.3 27.0 120 17 14
8.1 28.0 50 42 9.1
8.0 28.0 40 62 6.7
8.0 28.0 70 35 8.0

8.1 28.0 70 30 7.9
8.6 29.0 80 33 8.0
8.0 29.0 60 11 4.0

7.9 30.0 60 18 5.0
8.3 29.0 160 10 16
8.1 26.0 50 13 1.2
7.9 25.0 50 13 4.0
6.3 30.0 55 23 19
7.5 31.0 50 4.9 2.0,


0.11 0.02 67 6.3
54 13


.23 .01 68
.22 .01 60
.28 .03 69

.30 .02 69
.32 .02 69
.13 .01 57


4.6 0.08
3.1 .50
5.4 .49

5.4 .45
5.6 .42
3.4 .47


28 11 189 26 49
77 3.7 207 19 111

33 2.2 188 18 54
19 1.6 166 14 31
29 2.8 196 30 46

30 2.8 199 31 48
31 2.8 178 32 50
18 3.6 173 16 28


.17 .03 59 4.9 .57 22 7.6 173 26 35
.22 .03 70 19 1.5 109 5.5 265 49 154
55 3.5 .74 19 2.8 170 18 28
31 2.6 .25 19 2.9 82 19 28
.07 .00 40 1.0 .03 7.8 .4 12 0 14
.38 .09 7.1 1.4 .09 9.4 .1 21 2 15


0.6 0.6 1.2 1.2 155
.7 .00 .11 .11 170

.4 3.2 .82 .82 154
.2 .2 .000 .11 136
.4 .3 .009 .10 161

.4 .00 .046 .059 163
.3 .5 .10 .12 159
.3 .09 .18 .23 142

.3 .02 .52 .59 142

.7 .07 .18 .20 224
.3 .00 .11 .14 139

.2 .05 .62 .62 67
.0 .05 .013 .013 10
.2 .00 .000 .007 17






Table 4.-Chemical analyses of water samples from selected canals and lakes in east Palm Beach County. (Continued)

Harness Dissolved
as Solids
CaCO3 U z .
Date -2-) T 2
Station Site of E 0 r Z
Collection -3 S
..____-___ __- .- .. ,r A -^ .
UP___ V___5 15 -g 1 -r M, P 9:3


02277700 1 3-18-70
02277950 2 3-17-70
3 3-17-70
02277900 4 3-17-70
5-1-70
5 3-18-70
5-1-70
02270000 6 3-17-70
5-1-70
02281569 7 3-17-70
5-1-70
8 3-16-70
5-1-70
02281600 9 3-16-70
5-1-70
02279500 10 3-16-70
11 3-16-70
02281625 12 3-16-70
5-1-70
02281513 13 3-18-70
5.1-70


93 14
174 20
70 15
79 13
52 6.0
208 54
194 32
153 34
180 29
183 43
181 36
162 45
191 34
155 56
163 32
145 37
155 43
147 26
186 15
185 32
195 31


134
243
119
127
83
351
296
218
284
319
289
241
300
260
215
215
239
195
233
239
272


0.20 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.07 1.3 0.05 0.52 0.003
.30 .03 .02 .00 .00 0.08 0.00 .09 0.05 1.5 1.0 .59 .036
.40 .03 .00 .00 .00 .00 1.8 .00 .05 .02 .6 .09 .49 .003
.10 .03 .00 .01 .00 .00 1.1 .00 .09 .00 1.0 .09 .57 .003
.05 .32 .003
.50 .02 .00 .00 .00 .00 .08 .00 .09 .02 2.8 .37 1.0 .054
.02 .05 .01 .00 .00 .01 .003
.50 .04 .00 .01 .00 .00 2.2 .00 .09 .02 2.0 .22 .54 .000
.05 .03 .036
.30 .03 .02 .01 .00 .00 .80 .00 .10 .04 1.5 .15 1.20 .030
.06 .85 .030
.20 .02 .02 .01 .00 .00 .96 .00 .09 .02 1.4 .11 .88 .1
.05 .10 .003
.40 .02 .02 .01 .00 .00 2.2 .00 .05 .04 1.6 .85 1.1 .2
.09 1.3 .006
.30 .03 .00 .01 .00 .00 .48 .00 .04 .02 .1.8 .54 1.1 .1
.40 .03 .00 .01 .01 .00 2.5 .00 .05 .05 1.5 .03 1.1 .2
.40 .02 .02 .01 .00 .00 2.6 .00 .08 .03' 2.2 .05 .74 .1
.06 .43 .012
.02 ,01 .00 .00 .06 .1
.05 .69 .006


0


0



III
in




0
t4
z
0











Table 4.-Chemical analyses of water samples from selected canals and lakes in east Palm Beach County. (Continued)


Hardness Dissolved
as Solids
Dlleio CU'3. C01 2 s
Station Site of E
Collect S 8 Al r. 0 V I2 1 _
una ,,I'd E
aaa ae 1 1'1 B 5 1 SI E B IS


221
314
293 _
395


02281425 14 3.18-70
5-1-70
02281425 15 3.16-70
5-1-70

16 8.11.70
17 8-11-70
18 8-11-70
19 8-11-70
20 8-11-70
21 8-11-70
22 8-11-70
23 8-12-70
02281532 34 5-1-70
02281544 35 5-1-70
02281295 4-28-70
8-6-70


.02 .01 .01 .00

0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00


300 0.06 .05 .01 .00 .00 0.00
219 .02 .12 .01 .00 .00 .00
290 .08 .09 .00 .01 .00 .01
293 .12 .03 .00 .00 .01 .02
298 .02 .04 .01 .00 .00 .00
217 .11 .07 .01 .00 .00 .(00
247 .06 .12 .00 .00 .00 .01
560 .04 .04 .01 .01 .00 .02
213
149
35 .00 .00 .01 .00 .00
45 .18 .00 .03 .01 .00


.03 .015
.07 .78 .015
0.06 0.61
0.36 1.6 0.033
.003
.000
.003
.003
.000
.24 .33 .033
.50 .27 .015
.10 1.4 .036
.07 .78 .015
.26 .79 .030
.23 .70 .009
.05 .73 .003









REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 67 47







8o'3o' 15' sd'oo'
MARTIN COUNTY I __ ___ Tequesto I
706- Jupiter Inlet
EXPLANATION Jupiter
SEPTEMBER 1970 MARCH 1971
SEPTEMBER 1971 MARCH 1972
SURFACE-WATER SAMPLING SITE AND
DATE OF SAMPLE C6NlL /8
NUMBERS ARE CONCENTRATIONS OF
INORGANIC NITROGEN,MILLIGRAMS PER LITER Juno Beoch
POSITION OF NUMBER INDICATES (71
-DATE OF SAMPLING




Riviera Beach
C4N4dL M 0. 0 5 Polm Beech
0.\ Inlet
26"45
M g nioi \ West
Palm Beach
--t) PALM
BEACH
OCEAN CANAL WEST PHLM BEACH CO.4 .85 I4 0.32

0.0 0. take

S 0.95 M Lake Worth

S0.21 1 T \
0.'0 4
Lake
Osborne


.42 .22 non in0.16t
Conservation Areo oynon
No. I Boynton
No. I ^1 \ Beach

2603d-


Figure 31. Areal distribution of inorganic nitrogen in waters from selected lakes
and canals from September 1970 to March 1972.









48 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


MARTIN COUNTY I
EXPLANATION
SEPTEMBER 1970 MARCH 1971
SEPTEMBER 1971 MARCH 1972
SURFACE-WATER SAMPLING SITE
DATE OF SAMPLE
NUMBERS ARE CONCENTRATIONS OF
TOTAL ORTHO PLUS ACID HYDROLYZABLE PHOSPHORUS
(PO4-P), MILLIGRAMS PER LITER
POSITION OF NUMBER INDICATES DATE OF SAMPLE






SC A L


Conservation Area
No. I


Figure 32. Areal distribution of phosphorus in waters from selected lakes and
canals from September 1970 to March 1972.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 67 49


nitrogen are shown in figure 31 and of phosphorus, in figure 32.
The concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus in four
sets of samples that were collected at 6-month intervals September
1970 and March 1972 represent an average value from analysis of
four to six samples collected during a 24-hour period. The sample
collected in March 1972 is from a single sample. The inorganic
nitrogen in figure 31 is the total of the individual concentrations of
ammonia, nitrite and nitrate.
To illustrate the daily fluctuations of inorganic nitrogen and
phosphorus concentrations, results from the analyses of samples
from selected sites are shown graphically in figures 33 and 34. No
diurnal pattern is noted.
The major nutrients (phosphorus, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate)
are significant in that they are essential to plant growth. An
abundance will stimulate plant growth provided other essential
elements are present. In many areas plant growth in the canals has
been so profuse that the canals have become eyesores, nearly
useless for recreation, and require frequent and costly mainte-
nance.


EXPLANATION
---SEPTEMBER 15-16.1970
----MARCH 1-2, 1971
- SEPTEMBER 20-21.1971
CONCENTRATION,
MILLIGRAMS PER LITER
MPLI SITE
SAMPLING SITE


00 0 0 00
00 0 0 0
O 4Miles s V 0 M
0 0
TIME,HOURS

Figure 33. Inorganic nitrogen fluctuations for three 24-hour periods in 1970 and
1971 for selected canals and lakes.







50 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

The daily fluctuations of dissolved oxygen concentrations are
given in figure 35. The determinations were made at the same time
the nutrient samples were collected, that is, September 1970,
March and September 1971 plus samples collected in August 1970.
The patterns generally show that dissolved oxygen is highest
during late afternoon and lowest about sunrise. This pattern is
attributed to the respiration cycle of aquatic plants. In water from
nearly every site, dissolved oxygen was highest in March 1971. The
water was slightly cooler than when sampled at other times;
therefore, the concentration at the point of saturation was about 10
percent higher.
Coliform bacteria, indicators of pollution, correspond to the
patterns of nutrient concentrations, that is, they are highest in
Canal 17 and lowest in canals immediately downstream from the
Loxahatchee Slough (figs. 36 and 37). The high concentrations in
Canal 17 are caused mainly by sewage. The low concentrations are
a reflection of the relatively uninhabited slough area.


EXPLANATION
-- -SEPTEMBER 15-16.1970
--MARCH 1-2, 1971
SEPTEMBER 20-21.1971 -'- ~ /to
CONCENTRATION, 02. .)
MILLIGRAMS PER LITER 4J _
SAMPLING SITE o. 00-
!Juno Boeach
0..



0106

02 .0-






0. .0 0



00 lV4 l h


TIME, HOURS

Figure 34. Total ortho plus acid hydrolyzable phosphorus (P04-P) fluctuations
for three 24-hour periods in 1970 and 1971 for selected canals and
lakes.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 67 51


The highest concentrations of any pesticide in surface-water
samples collected at several sites in eastern Palm Beach County
was 1.9 /g/1 (micrograms per liter) for the herbicide Silvex. This
was found in Canal 17, immediately above the salinity barrier. The
total pesticide concentration in water from the other sites was, or
very near, 0.00/g/1. The absence of pesticides in surface water is
attributed to their insolubility. Not being very soluble in water,
they tend to settle and accumulate in the sediments. Analyses of
sediment samples from the Loxahatchee River revealed pesticide
concentrations ranging from 2 to 141 pg/kg (microgram per
kilogram).








EXPLANATION
A
SAMPLING SITE
DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTENT
MILLIGRAMS PER LITER 10.0
AUGUST 12-13, 1970
--- SEPTEMBER 15-16,1970 .--
----MARCH 1-2, 1971 4.0
---SEPTEMBER 20-21,1971 8.0
8.0 0

6.0 6.0



2.0 4EEEEa 00~











0000 -000 ~ ~
0.Cm0 4.01


TIME, HOURS TIME, HOURS


Figure 35. Dissolved oxygen fluctuations of water for four 24-hour periods in
1970 and 1971 at selected canals and lakes.









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


'T 15'
MARTIN COUNTY I


MARCH 1970 AUGUST 1970'
SEPTEMBER 1970 NOVEMBER 1971
SURFACE-WATER SAMPLING SITE AND
DATE OF SAMPLE
NUMBERS ARC TOTAL COLIFORM ORGANISMS
THOUSANDS PER 100 MILLILITERS
POSITION OF NUMBER INDICATES
DATE OF SAMPLE


J i 4
*fj.-v ~ ~ ~ ,rA. A'< .- AL^ M Re


Conservution Artde
No I


No. 2o


CANAN, 16
CtvA: '


* (N


*4t


Figure 36. Areal distribution of concentrations of total coliform organisms in
waters of selected lakes and canals for four samplings in 1970 and
1971.


24.


-- *- C"--.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 67 53





o030' 15' 80"oo'
_MARTIN COUNTY ] -_" Tequesa
0 _V___ --'--- -IEf
MARCH 1970 AUGUST 1970 J" u;er
SEPTEMBER 1970 NOVEMBER 1971
SURFACE-WATER SAMPLING SITE AND 1
DATE OF SAMPLE CIN ,g a I
NUMBERS ARE FECAL COLIFORM ORGANISMS -
THOUSANDS PER 100 MILLILITERS uno Bcoch
POSITION OF NUMBER INDICATES
S DATE OF SAMPLE




SRiviero Buoch
S-.- .1 0.9 u ar! C,,lch







It 4 '
2645 V"t ..- -' 1






o 2a i : em Bnch







k\ J1 -,- --II ... It, Inlet
I | -II i ACH







C onset vooa Rol\on



















waters of selected lakes and canals for four samplings in 1970 and

1971.
Boynt'on 7t>
\No Beoch










-ervoion Are\ 0 flo "Roc
a.\' I ^ ~ I Moron





Figure 37. Areal distribution of concentrations of fecal coliform organisms in
waters of selected lakes and canals for four samplings in 1970 and
1971.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


For water from selected sampling sites shown in figure 2 the
organic carbon concentrations ranged from 13 to 48 mg/1 and
inorganic carbon ranged from 31 to 46 mg/1. Recently, dissolved
carbon has been used as an indicator of pollution. The extremes of
concentrations mentioned above can be considered near normal
for this area.


WATER USE
During 1970 on the average, almost 500 million gallons of fresh
water was withdrawn from lakes, canals, and wells each day for
agriculture, public supply, industry, and private supplies. Electric
power generation used approximately 564 mgd (million gallons per
day) of sea water for cooling purposes.


AGRICULTURE
The largest demand for water in the county is for irrigation. In
1970 the demand was estimated at 460,000 acre-feet, or an average
of 410 mgd. Of this amount, 268 mgd is considered lost by
evapotranspiration. About 431,000 acres were irrigated during
1970. The crop acreage distribution is as follows: sugar cane,
183,000 acres; pasture, 127,000 acres; truck crops, 101,000 acres;
and citrus 20,000 acres. Most of these acreages were irrigated by
pumping from canals or wells into controlled ditches which serve to
raise the water level to the plant roots or to spread water on the
surface between crop rows. Specialized growers, such as flower
farmers, use spray irrigation.


PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY
Palm Beach County had a permanent population of 345,000 in 1970
and an additional average transient population for that year of
42,000. The Palm Beach County Area Planning Board lists 210
municipal and private water systems. These systems pumped on
the average about 75 mgd during 1970.
Ten of the major municipally owned and one private water utility
pumped, on the average, 55 mgd during 1970 to supply a population
of 247,000 and the associated commercial and industrial users. Of
the 11 major suppliers listed in table 5, West Palm Beach, Belle
Glade and Pahokee use surface water. The other cities and public
supplies obtain water from the shallow aquifer.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 67 55

CITY OF WEST PALM BEACH
In 1970 the West Palm Beach water system, the largest in the
county, pumped 17 mgd on the average to serve a population of
66,000. The system has a capacity of 36 mgd, ground storage of 14
million gallons, and an elevated storage of 5 million gallons.
Pumpage from 1950 to 1971 (fig. 38). Pumpage increased slightly
from 1967 to 1971 (fig. 39). The relation between pumpage and
rainfall is direct. The demand for water increases during dry
periods and decreases during wet periods. This is because the
demand for water to irrigate lawns and shrubs is larger during dry
periods.
The immediate source of water for the West Palm Beach system
is Clear Lake. Clear Lake connects to Lake Mangonia, which is
replenished by flow from Canal M. Canal M drains an extensive
water catchment area west of Military Trail. Canal M is tied to the
Levee 8 Canal and during extreme drought water from Lake
Okeechobee can be moved through the canals to supply water to the
treatment plant.

CITY OF BOCA RATON
The second largest municipal water system and the largest using
ground-water is at Boca Raton. This system serves one of the
fastest growing populations in the county. During 1970 pumpage
from the city's wells was 10.8 mgd to supply a population of 36,000.
Monthly pumpage and rainfall for 1967-71 are shown in figure 40



Table 5.-Major Public Water Supplies in Palm Beach County
Haled
Number Capacity Population Plumpage mgd Sewage mgd
Supplier ol wells mgd served 1970 1970 1971 1970 1971
City ol Belle Glade 1 6.0 18.500 2.71 3.02 0.98 1.10
City of Boca Raton 25 37.0 35.000 10.81 11.01 2.17 2.20
City of Boynton Beach 10 12.0 19.000 3.59 4.40 1.50 1.60
City of Delray Beach 20 16.4 20,000 5.40 5.18 2.30 2.50.,
City of Lake Worth 11 16.0 26,000 4.30 5.30 2.67 :.:3 1' .;2
Town of Lantana 4 3.0 7.000 1.34 1.36 0.72 al.0
North Palm Beach Util. Inc. 16 7.0 16,900 3.78 4.13 1.80 2.37
Town of Pahokee 1.9 10.000 0.63 0.64 0.55 0.70
City of Palm Beach Gardens 5 4.0 6,000 1.62 1.95 0.75 a0.8
City of Riviera Beach 18 14.0 23.000 3.66 4.59 1.80 2.00
City of West Palm Beach I 36.0 66.000 17.01 .18.01 12.00 11.80
Notes: Population served includes seasonal residents, tourists, and migrants.
I Surface water supply.
a estimated
2 Includes Palm Beach
3 Includes sewage from Lantana, Atlantis. Palm Beach Junior College, and Palm Springs
4 Lake Worth only







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


-80
RAINFALL-,


--60
z -- --- 50 o
1950 55 60 65 70 1975
40 K

1950 55 60 65 70 1975


Figure 38. Yearly municipal pumpage and rainfall at West Palm Beach.


Figure 39. Monthly
1967-71.


municipal pumpage and rainfall at West Palm Beach,






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 67 57

500o l l lliI II Im 11;IIII I il H l H lH m ill m

400

Sr-PUMPAGE
z 300 --? _-
-J
-J
J 200 i 6|--- U ------------16
< RAINFALL w
-- 12
t u)
A z
100 -- 8-
Li -J
V <-J

I I I I II 1 11 o1
1967 1968 1969 1970 1971
Figure 40. Monthly municipal pumpage and rainfall at Boca Raton, 1967-71.


which indicates more than a 50 percent increase in water
withdrawals during the 5-year period. The large increase in
demand for water during dry periods is evident.
The water plant is supplied by 25 wells adjacent to the El Rio
Canal. The system has a capacity of 37 mgd. An additional
water-treatment plant with a rated capacity of 25 mgd, and a
sewage treatment plant are scheduled for completion during 1973.
More wells are being drilled 1.5 miles west of the present well field
along Canal E-3 to supply the new plant.



WASTE WATER
On the average the amount of waste water collected by the eleven
suppliers listed in table 5 was 27.2 mgd in 1970. Of this amount, 24
mgd was discharged into the ocean or estuaries. The remainder
was discharged into fresh-water canals.
Four cities in Palm Beach County discharge sewage to the
oceans through outfall systems. They are for the cities of Boca
Raton, Delray Beach, Lake Worth and Palm Beach. The
discharges for each of the four sites range from 2.2 to 3.5 mgd and
have a total average discharge of 11.7 mgd (1970). They discharge
into 90 feet of water from conduits extending slightly over 1 mile
into the ocean. The sewage is chlorinated only, with the exception
of sewage discharged by Boca Raton. These wastes are given
primary treatment.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


INDUSTRIAL USE
The industrial use of fresh water in Palm Beach County in 1970
averaged about 45 mgd. Public supplies provided 16 mgd, and
self-supplied industry pumped another 29 mgd. About 564 mgd of
saline water was used in the generation of electric power.

EFFECTS OF SOLID WASTES
LANDFILL ON GROUND WATER
Effect of operation of the Cross-State dump, west of West Palm
Beach, on the ground-water's quality has been minimal in the
75-200-foot zone tapped by most producing wells in the vicinity.
However, the water at very shallow depth and beneath and
immediately adjacent to the dump is somewhat adversely
affected. The water contaminated by the dump is expected to stay
near the top of the saturated zone and move toward the perimeter
canals. Also, sandy materials will act as a filter to remove some of
the contaminants as the ground-water flows away from the dump.

OTHER U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY STUDIES
IN PALM BEACH COUNTY
The U.S. Geological Survey has undertaken or is monitoring
several water-resources studies in Palm Beach County that are
funded outside the County cooperative program. The programs are
briefly described below.
In cooperation with the CSFFCD (Central and Southern Florida
Flood Control District) and the Florida Department of Natural
Resources, the Geological Survey is investigating the hydrology
and water quality of the Loxahatchee River. Data being collected
are continuous stage and discharge of the river near State Road
706, and periodic water-quality determinations including such
parameters as pesticides, nutrients, dissolved oxygen, and
salinity.
The Geological Survey is also cooperating with the Florida State
Department of Transportation to determine the probable
magnitude and frequency of floods on a small urban watershed in
the city of Delray Beach. In the 50-acre area being investigated,
streamflow and rainfall measurement stations have been
constructed, and data are collected on a continuous basis.
The chemical, physical and biologic properties of the water in
Lake Okeechobee were investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey
in cooperation with the CSFFCD (Joyner, B.F., 1971). Of the 17






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 67


sampling points on the lake, seven were in Palm Beach County. The
data obtained and evaluated during the investigation suggest that
the lake is in early eutrophic condition not significantly different
from other water bodies in southern Florida. For the current
investigation the water-quality data for Lake Okeechobee provide
a base for determining water quality in its effluent canals.
Deep-well disposal of waste waters at Belle Glade is being
monitored by the Geological Survey in cooperation with other
governmental and private interests. The disposal well and a
monitoring well are approximately 1,700 feet deep. Industrial
waste (essentially 1 percent acetic acid) is being injected into the
lower part of the Floridan aquifer (Garcia-Bengochea and Vernon,
1969). The water's chloride content is more than 2,000 mg/1 at this
depth.


SUMMARY
Palm Beach County, in southeast Florida, is characterized by
flat and low-lying terrain and receives about 60 inches per year
rainfall. The flat topography and high rainfall naturally cause
drainage problems. An elaborate network of canals and control
structures control water-levels in the eastern part of the county.
Fresh ground-water is obtained entirely from the shallow,
nonartesian aquifer. The shallow aquifer is about 250 feet thick
near the coast and thins westward. The Floridan aquifer system
contains brackish to saline water under sufficient head to cause the
water level to raise 40-55 feet above mean sea level. The top of this
artesian aquifer is about 900 feet below land surface. Although the
shallow aquifer contains a large volume of fresh water, the amount
of regulatable storage capacity is only a very small fraction of the
total value. Water-levels must be maintained sufficiently low to
prevent flooding. In newly developed areas, water-levels should be
kept as high as possible to maintain maximum ground water
storage. Hydraulic connection between the surface-water and
ground-water system causes water-levels in the two systems to
fluctuate similarly.
Surface waters typically have low concentrations of dissolved
solids, 200-350 mg/1, but have high color, normally 50-80 units, and
coliform bacteria contamination. The ground-water quality varies
with location and depth, but progressively deteriorates westward
from the coast. High chloride, color, odor, iron, and hardness are
the problem parameters. Neither the ground-water nor the
surface-water is contaminated significantly by pesticides or by






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


nutrients. In 1971 problems of sea-water encroachment were acute
in Tequesta, Juno Beach and Boca Raton well fields. As water
withdrawals from coastal well fields continue to increase,
sea-water encroachment into the shallow aquifer will continue to
cause problems.
Ground-water at shallow depths under a relatively small area
adjacent to the solid-waste disposal dump west of West Palm
Beach has been contaminated. Domestic wells in the area have not
been affected.
The greatest use of fresh water is for irrigation, slightly over 410
mgd. Industrial and domestic users withdraw about 90 mgd.
In order to avoid creating hydrologic problems such as in
Tequesta and Boca Raton, future municipal well field expansion
should be preceded by a program of test drilling and aquifer
evaluation. Adequate quantities of water for future expansion are
available.



EXPLANATION OF TERMS
Artesian water level in an artesian well stands above the top of
the artesian water body it taps.
Aquifer a formation, group of formations, or part of a formation
that contains sufficient saturated, permeable material
to yield significant quantities of water to wells and
springs.
Duration curve a cumulative frequency curve that shows the
percentage of time that specified magnitudes are
equaled or exceeded.

Ghyben-Herzberg relation z = Pf hf
Ps-Pf

where z depth to salt-water wedge from sea-level
datum.
hf =head of fresh water above sea-level datum.
Pf= density of fresh water.
Ps= density of salt water.
Hydraulic gradient the change in static head per unit distance in
a given direction.
Hydrograph a graph of stage or discharge against time.
Nonartesian or "shallow" under pressure not greater than
atmospheric.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 67


Permeability the measure of the relative ease with which a
porous medium can transmit a liquid under a potential
gradient.
Salt-water wedge the wedge shape of salty water extending
inland from the coast with the leading edge at the base of
the aquifer.
Sea-water intrusion sea water entering or penetrating inland
aquifers.
Specific capacity is th e yield of a well per foot of drawdown for a
specific period of time.
Specific yield the ratio of the volume of water which the rock or
soil, after being saturated, will yield by gravity to the
volume of the rock or soil.
Transmissivity the rate at which water of the prevailing
kinematic viscosity is transmitted through a unit width
of the aquifer under a unit hydraulic gradient.
Water table the surface in an unconfined water body at which the
pressure is atmospheric. It is defined by the levels at
which water stands in wells that penetrate the water
body just far enough to hold standing water.

























































































































f







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 67


SELECTED REFERENCES
Bentall, Ray, compiler
1963 Methods of determining permeability, transmissibility, and drawdown:
U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1536-I, p. 243-341.
Black, A.P., and Brown, Eugene
1951 Chemical character of Florida's waters: Florida State Board Conserv.,
Div. Water Survey and Research, Paper 6, 119 p.
Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
1968 Water quality criteria: National Technical Advisory Committee Adm.
Rept. 234 p.
Florida Bureau Sanitary.Engineering
1968 Some physical and chemical characteristics of selected Florida waters:
supp. 2, p. 36-37.
Garcia-Bengochea, J.I., and Vernon, R.O.
1969 Deep well disposal of wastewaters in saline aquifers of south Florida (abs):
Am. Geophys. Union Trans. v. 50, no. 4, p. 151.
Healy, H.G.
1970 Water levels in artesian and nonartesian aquifers of Florida, 1965-66:
Florida Dept. Nat. Resources, Bur. Geology Inf. Circ. 61, 55 p. plus
appendix.
Joyner, B.F.
1971 Appraisal of chemical and biological conditions of Lake Okeechobee,
Florida, 1969-70: U.S. Geol. Survey openfile rept., 90 p. plus appendix.
Kohler, M.A., Nordenson, T.J., and Baker, D.R.
1959 Evaporation maps for the United States: U.S. Weather Bur. Tech Paper 37,
13 p.
Lohman, S.W., and others
1972 Definitions of selected ground-water terms Revisions and conceptual
refinements: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1988, 21 p.
McCoy, H.J., and Hardee, Jack
1970 Ground-water resources of the lower Hillsboro Canal area, southeastern
Florida: Florida Dept. Nat. Resources, Bur. Geology Rept. Inv. 55, 44 p.
Meyer, F.W.
1971 Saline artesian waters a supplement: Am. Water Works Assoc. Jour. v. 63,
no. 2, p. 65-71.
Parker, G.G., Ferguson, G.E., Love, S.K., and others
1955 Water resources of southeastern Florida: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply
Paper 1255, 965 p.
Parker, G.G., and Hoy, N.D.
1943 Further studies of geological relationships affecting soil and water
conservation and usein theEverglades, Partl: Florida Soil Sci. Soc., v. 5-A,
p. 33-55.
Schroeder, M.C., Milliken, D.L., and Love, S.K.
1954 Water resources of Palm Beach County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey
Rept. Inv. 13, 63 p.
Shampine, W.J.
1965 Chloride concentration in water from the upperpart oftheFloridan aquifer
in Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Map Ser. 12, 1 sheet.
Stewart, J.W., and Hanan, R.V.
1970 Hydrologic factors affecting the utilization of land for sanitary landfills in
northern Hillsborough County, Florida: Florida Dept. Nat. Resources, Bur.
Geology Map Ser. 39, 1 sheet.








64 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

Stringfield, V.T.
1966 Artesian water in Tertiary limestone in the Southeastern States: U.S. Geol.
Survey Prof. Paper 517, 226 p.
U.S. Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare
1962 Drinking water standards: Public Health Service Pub. 956.
Vernon, R.O.
1969 The geology and hydrology associated with a zone. qf high permeability
(boulder zone) in Florida (abs): Mining Eng. v. 20, no. 12, p. 58.
Vernon. R.O., and Puri, H.S.
1964 Geologic map of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Map Ser. 18.
Visher. F.N., and Hughes, G.H.
1969 The difference between rainfall and potential evaporation in Florida:
Florida Dept. Nat. Resources Bur. Geology Map Ser. 32, 1 sheet.












R returned Due
Returned Due


6197fT1iu 81977


tT 03 199 SEP ?0 1990


Due


IN


Returned