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 Water resources
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FGS











STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Randolph Hodges, Executive Director



DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
J.V. Sollohub, Director



BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
Robert O. Vernon, Chief



Report of Investigations No. 57


EVALUATION OF THE QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF THE
WATER RESOURCES OF VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA



By
Darwin D. Knochenmus and Michael E. Beard
U.S. Geological Survey



Prepared by
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
and the
BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS OF VOLUSIA COUNTY


TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
1971








DEPARTMENT
OF
NATURAL RESOURCES





REUBIN O'D. ASKEW
Governor


RICHARD (DICK) STONE
Secretary of State




THOMAS D. O'MALLEY
Treasurer




FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN
Commissioner of Education


ROBERT L. SHEVIN
Attorney General




FRED O. DICKINSON, JR.
Comptroller




DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGES
Executive Director










LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Bureau of Geology
Tallahassee
September 23, 1970


Honorable Reubin O'D. Askew, Chairman
Department of Natural Resources
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Governor Askew:


The Bureau of Geology, Division of Interior Resources, Department of
Natural Resources, is publishing as its Report of Investigations No. 57, an
"Evaluation of the Quantity and Quality of the Water Resources of Volusia
County, Florida." This report amplifies and refines some of the data already
issued covering the water resources of Volusia County, which were published as
Report of Investigations No. 21. The work in the report was accomplished as a
cooperative program between the Department of Natural Resources, the U. S.
Geological Survey and the Board of County Commissioners of Volusia County.
Volusia County is almost totally dependent upon the water which falls upon the
county and has a recharge area contained along the western portion and the
central portions of the county. Excellent water is produced in the areal recharge
and it is anticipated that this data will expand the existing knowledge of the
water resources to permit the development of a great capacity for existing
utilities and to offset and solve some of the problems now in the area.

Sincerely yours,



R. O. Vernon,Chief





















































Completed manuscript received
November 3, 1970
Printed for the Florida Department of Natural Resources
Division of Interior Resources
Bureau of Geology
by Designers Press
Orlando, Florida

Tallahassee
1971


iv




















CONTENTS


Page
.. 1
.. 3


Abstract ......................................

Introduction ...................................


Purpose and scope ...........

Acknowledgements ..........
Hydrologic System ..............
Physiography ...............

Hydrogeology ...............
Recharge to Floridan aquifer
Rainfall ...................
Water Resources ................

Surface Water ...............
Lakes ..................

Streams ................

Ground Water ...............


.............................. 3


........... .............. 5
..................... .. 5

................... ....... 5

............ ............. 8
. . . . .... . 10
........................ 13
........................ 15

........................ 16
........................ 16


.............................. 19

......................... .... 31


Clastic aquifer .............
Floridan aquifer ...........
Springs ..................

Water availability and use ........
Summary ........................
References cited ..................
Appendix .......................


......I
......I


......
......









ILLUSTRATIONS


Figure Page
1. Map of Volusia County Showing the location of
hydrologic data-collection sites .................... ........... 4
2. Physiographic features of Volusia County ........................ 6
3. Topographic map of Volusia County ............................ 7
4. Fence Diagram of hydrogeologic sections in Volusia
County .................................................. 8
5. Block diagram of part of Volusia County showing
the movement of water ..................................... 10
6. Hydrographs of water levels in wells at hydrologic
data sites 14,23, and 25 ..................................... 11
7. Monthly and annual rainfall at Daytona Beach
Airport and DeLand ...................................... 14
8. Hydrographs of daily stage for four lakes in
Volusia County ........................................... 16
9. Flow chart of streams in Volusia County ........................ 21
10. Water surface profiles of Deep Creek (Osteen) for
high and low discharges .................................... 22
11. Flow duration curves for major streams in Volusia
County .................... .............................. 24
12. Hydrographs of temperature, specific conductance,
streamflow, and rainfall for Deep Creek near
Osteen, 1965 ............................................. 27
13. Dissolved solids duration curve for Deep Creek
near Osteen ............................................. 28
14- Chemical analyses of selected composites of
samples from Deep Creek near Osteen showing
relative proportions of major mineral
constituents .............................................. 30
15. Volusia County showing contours on the
piozometric surface of the Floridan aquifer ...................... 34
16. Hydrographs of long-term records of ground-water
levels in the Floridan aquifer near Barberville
and Daytona Beach ....................................... 36
17. Total dissolved solids in ground water from upper
part of Floridan aquifer in Volusia County ...................... 38
18. Total hardness of ground water from upper part of
Floridan aquifer in Volusia County ............................ 39
19. Chloride content of ground water from upper part
of Floridan aquifer in Volusia County .......................... 41
20. Relation of chloride concentration to discharge at
Ponce de Leon Springs ...................................... 44
21. Graph of water use in Volusia County, 1950-1970 ................. 46
22. Map showing location of well fields ............................ 50








TABLES


Table Page
1. Comparison of chemical analyses of Lake Winne-
missett and Lake Dupont .................................... 18
2. Drainage areas, average flows, and low flows of
subbasins in Volusia County .................................. 20
3. Selected chemical characteristics of surface
waters in Volusia County .................................... 25
4. Comparison of ground water quality at various
depths in Volusia County .................................... 33
5. Chemical analyses of springs in Volusia County ................... 42
6. Water use in Volusia County ...............................48-49
7. Chemical analyses of public water supplies ....................... 53
8. Hydrologic data-collection sites in Volusia County
and vicinity .............................................. 57









EVALUATION OF THE QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF THE
WATER RESOURCES OF VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA

by
Darwin D. Knochenmus and Michael E. Beard


ABSTRACT

Volusia County includes about 1,200 square miles along the
central east coast of Florida. The population of the county increased
by 60 thousand people between 1955 and 1965. Water use in 1967
averaged about 25.9 mgd (million gallons per day), of which the
major use (15.8 mgd) was for public supply. In the 20-year interval,
1950 to 1970, the amount of water used for public supply, all of
which is ground water, will have more than doubled. On the average,
it is estimated that 300 mgd is available for man's use. Ninety-five
percent of the water used in Volusia County comes from the
Floridan aquifer.
The county receives most of its fresh water from rainfall, which
averages 52 inches per year. The unconsolidated sand of the plastic
aquifer absorbs much of the rainfall. Seepage from the clastic aquifer
is to streams and to the underlying Floridan aquifer.
Recharge to the Floridan aquifer occurs throughout the county
wherever the water table in the plastic 'aquifer is higher than the
piezometric surface in the Floridan aquifer. No area is a principal
recharge area, but parts of the ridges and the eastern part of the
Talbot terrace appear to have the greatest recharge per unit area.
In the central part of the county the plastic aquifer is full and
rejecting recharge through runoff and evapotranspiration. If the
piezometric surface were lowered in this area by withdrawing water
from the Floridan aquifer for use, this rejected recharge would be
decreased by the capture of water. This would increase the amount
of water available for use.
Of the few hundred lakes in the county, most occur along the
DeLand ridge, where there are about 120 larger than 5 acres. Many
of the ridge lakes, because of their size, purity, and small range in
surface level fluctuation have excellent recreational potentials. Water
in most lakes in the county has a low mineral content with mineral-
ization ranging from slightly less than 25 to 150 mg1l (milligrams per
liter).
Streamflow out of the county averages about 590 mgd. Flow
into the Atlantic Ocean is about 225 mgd and the St. Johns River






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


receives about 365 mgd. The average streamflow is many times larger
than the water use for the entire county, but is adequate as a water
supply because of the variation in flow. During low-flow periods,
streamflow averages less than 5 mgd. The mineralization of the water
in the streams is relatively low with the exception of the St. Johns
River and the estuarine sections of Tomoka River and Spruce Creek
along the Atlantic coast. Under average flow conditions, the mineral
content of the water is less than 200 mg/l, the pH about 6 and the
color about 300 platinum-cobalt units.

The productive Floridan aquifer underlies the entire county.
Movement of water in the aquifer is outward from the central part of
the county, west, north and south to the St. Johns River and east
toward the Atlantic Ocean. Water levels were slightly higher in 1966
than in 1955, but show no upward or downward trend except in
heavily pumped areas. In one such area near Daytona Beach, water
levels have declined more than 5 feet since 1955. Mineral content of
water from the Floridan aquifer ranges from 100 to 400 mg/l except
in the highly mineralized areas along the St. Johns River and the
Atlantic coast.

Most high capacity wells in the county withdraw water from the
Floridan aquifer for the public supply of areas near the Atlantic
Ocean and the St. Johns River. The relatively shallow presence of
saline water in these areas limits useful well depths to about 300 feet.
Such wells, however, generally yield 1,000 to 1,500 gallons per
minute. The depth to saline water in the undeveloped central part of
the county is as much as 1,450 feet; thus development of deeper
wells in that area should result in higher yields because of the greater
available thickness of fresh water in the aquifer. Such development
would also have the added desirable effect of capturing recharge
water that is currently rejected and lost to the area by runoff and
evapotranspiration.

The Floridan aquifer discharges water through large springs
along the St. Johns valley. Blue Springs, the ninth largest spring in
Florida, has an average flow of 105 mgd and Ponce de Leon Springs
has an average flow of 20 mgd. This large volume of water however,
is generally unsuitable for public supply. The chloride content of
Blue Springs is always greater than the 250 mg/l limit suggested by
the U. S. Health Service. During periods of high discharge, Ponce de
Leon Springs also exceeds the suggested chloride limit.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


INTRODUCTION

Volusia County, an area of 1,200 square miles, is located along
the central east coast of Florida, figure 1. In 1965, it ranked fif-
teenth in rate of growth of the state's 67 counties. The population in
1965 was 157,900, an increase from 1955 of about 60 thousand
(Florida Development Commission, 1965). The county's population
is expected to continue to increase, causing a commensurate increase
in water use. The greatest water use, at present, is along the coast
where nearly 60 percent of the population resides.

PURPOSE AND SCOPE

In 1960, a report on the ground-water resources of Volusia
County was published by the Florida Geological Survey (Wyrick,
1960). This report, based on an investigation made during the
mid-1950's, provided a base for an understanding of the complex
hydrologic system within the county but also raised a number of
pertinent questions. To further consider these questions and expand
the scope of the earlier study to include surface waters and attendant
drainage problems, a 3-year investigation of the water resources of
Volusia County was begun in August 1964 by the U. S. Geological
Survey in cooperation with the Board of County Commissioners of
Volusia County and the Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of
Natural Resources.
This investigation was intended to: (1) Define the primary areas
of recharge to the Floridan aquifer, including the rate and quantity
of downward movement of water from the plastic aquifer to the
Floridan aquifer and describe the hydrologic system in terms of the
effects of physiography, hydrogeology, and rainfall on the occur-
rence, quantity and movement of water; and (2) evaluate the sur-
face-water resources of the county with respect to quantity, quality,
drainage characteristics and surface drainage feasibility. The accom-
plishment of the above should provide a more comprehensive scien-
tific basis for optimum development of the county's water resources.
To accomplish these objectives, a series of test wells was.drilled
and hydrologic data from throughout the county were collected and
analyzed. Figure 1 shows the locations where hydrologic data were
collected on a periodic basis. Descriptions of the sites and types and
periods of record are given in table 8 in the Appendix. Miscellaneous
hydrologic data were collected at numerous other sites. During the
investigation climatic conditions varied from extremely wet to








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

1? .9saj


EXPLANATION
HYDROLOGIC DATA SITE
& STREAM
O WELL
O LAKE
o SPRING
I DATA SITE NUMBER
ON TABLE 8.

/[I


Figure 1. Map of Volusia County showing the location of hydrologic data-
collection sites.






-REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


extremely dry which permitted observation of the hydrologic system
under a wide range of conditions.
This report describes the hydrologic system with reference to
the movement of ground water from the plastic aquifer to the
Floridan aquifer. The two aquifer systems are described and the
influence of geologic faulting on the quality of water in the Florida
aquifer is discussed. Surface waters are discussed in terms of the
quantity and quality of water in lakes and streams. Water-use trends
are predicted for public supply, irrigation, industrial and rural uses.
Only minimal information about the St. Johns River is included in
this report as a more detailed description of the water resources of
the St. Johns is given by L. J. Snell and Warren Anderson (1970).
A report, discussing surface drainage characteristics has recently
been published as a result of this investigation (Knochenmus, 1968).
Conjunctive use should be made of that report and the current report
to provide the basis for optimum water resource development in
Volusia County.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Appreciation is extended to the many people of Volusia County
who supplied information for the investigation. Thanks are due
Thomas Well Drilling Company and Mr. Roger Brooks who supplied
information about wells and quality of water and to the city officials
who furnished information on municipal water use. Thanks are also
extended to county officials, who cooperated in all aspects of the
investigation.

HYDROLOGIC SYSTEM

The various environments on, above, or beneath the land
surface through which water moves constitute a hydrologic system,
and the circulation of water through these environments is known as
the hydrologic cycle. The ultimate source of water used by man is
rainfall, although water may move into any given political division,
such as a county, from outside its boundaries through streams or by
underground flow. In Volusia County most of the fresh water in the
hydrologic system has originated as rainfall on the County.

PHYSIOGRAPHY

The topography of Volusia County has been described by
Wyrick (1960). A generalized picture is of a succession of terraces







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


EXPLANATION
E KARST RIDGES

LI MARINE TERRACES
3 SHORELINE RIDGES
--PHYSIOGRAPHIC BOUNDARY'


Figure 2. Physiographic features of Volusia County.


"9o,


a






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


that begin at sea level and, progressing westward, rise steplike to an
altitude of 100 feet at DeLand, and then drop sharply to almost sea
level at the St. Johns River, figure 2.
A classification of the physiographic features into three divi-
sions; karst ridges, marine terraces, and ancient and present shoreline
ridges, was adapted from Puri and Vernon (1964).
Karst topography, as exemplified by the Crescent City and
DeLand ridges, is characterized by high local relief, sinkhole lakes
and ponds, dry depressions, and subsurface drainage. Near Deltona
the land is over 110 feet in altitude, whereas nearby, southeast of
Orange City, depressions dip to 10 feet above mean sea level. This
results in relief of about 100 feet on the DeLand ridge. The county
has about 120 lakes larger than five acres with 90 percent located
within the karst ridges. On the DeLand ridge most of the lakes are
along the eastern and southern edges whereas they occur over the
entire extent of the Crescent City ridge.
More water is cycled through the ground-water system from the
karst ridges, with their comparatively high relief and good subsurface
drainage, than from areas where surface drainage is better developed.
These ridges also act as reservoirs for the storage of surface and
ground water until it recharges the Floridan aquifer or evaporates.
The marine terraces are poorly drained flat surfaces covered
with forest vegetation and are commonly called "flat-woods". Three
terraces are shown on figure 2; Silver Bluff terrace at 10 foot
altitude, Pamlico terrace at 25 feet, and Talbot terrace at about 40
feet. Numerous swamps and cypress heads occupy shallow depres-
sions which had their origin on the ancient sea floor. A topographic
map of the county, figure 3, indicates a youthful surface, flat and
poorly drained. Surface drainage on marine terraces is in the first
stages of development. Knochenmus (1968) delineated the drainage
basins, mapped the runoff distribution and indicated feasibility of
drainage of the terraces in Volusia County.
Figure 3. Topographic map of Volusia County.
(In pocket)
Streams on the marine terraces generally flow north or south
parallel to the coastline. The beach ridges parallel to the coast (fig.
2), which formed during the building of the terraces, prevent the
streams from draining directly to the ocean. One stream system, by
taking a longer route to the ocean, can drain an area that would have
required many short streams. Many short streams flowing into the
ocean might have allowed salt water to move inland in numerous






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


places, whereas only Tomoka River and Spruce Creek now allow salt
water to move inland.
The third physiographic division, the shoreline ridge, encom-
passes a low ridge on the seaward edge of each of the three marine
terraces (fig. 2). Rima ridge is a low sand ridge rising 5 to 10 feet
above the Talbot terrace; the Atlantic Coastal ridge rises 10 to 15
feet above the Pamlico terrace; and the present Atlantic ridge rises
about 10 feet above the Silver Bluff terrace. Rima ridge and the
Atlantic Coastal ridge are ancient shoreline ridges whose depositional
history is similar to the deposition of the present Atlantic ridge.
The shoreline ridges act as reservoirs for the storage of ground
water. The water table beneath the ridges is higher than beneath the
adjacent terraces resulting in a more vigorous subsurface circulation
and recharge into the limestone in the areas of the ridges.

HYDROGEOLOGY

The geologic materials of Volusia County comprise two major
hydrogeologic units, the upper poorly consolidated plastic deposits
and the underlying thick sequence of limestone and dolomite,
commonly called the Floridan aquifer; both are shown in the fence
diagram of figure 4. Wyrick (1960, p. 25) discussed the two major
units in terms of the nonartesian and artesian aquifers.
Figure 4. Fence diagram of hydrogeologic sections in Volusia County.
(In pocket)
The plastic deposits are made up of poorly consolidated sand,
clay, and shell of Pleistocene to Miocene age. They occur as discon-
tinuous, lenticular, and interfingering beds (fig. 4). The material in
any given bed may grade from sand to clayey sand to clay, and the
shell beds may have a matrix of sand, clay, or both. In general the
surface material is fine sand which is underlain by clay lenses and
then by shell beds which in turn overlie the limestone except in a few
areas near the coast where clay lenses underlie the shell beds.
Under the eastern edge of the Talbot terrace, the sand appears
to thicken, and particularly under the Rima ridge the clay is thin or
missing (sites 13 and 22, fig. 4). In places the shell beds are as much
as 50 feet thick and are comprised of large shells.
Permeability is a measure of the ability of a geologic material to
transmit water in response to differences in hydraulic head, or gradi-
ent. The movement of ground water between the plastic deposits and
the Floridan aquifer is controlled by the permeability of the plastic






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


deposits and the head differential between the units. Because of the
lenticularity and discontinuity of the plastic deposits, the rate of
vertical movement of water ranges widely. On the basis of cuttings
from a few wells it appears that the variation in vertical permeability
is as great from site to site within the same physiographic division as
between sites within different physiographic divisions. For example,
low permeability beds occur at site 16 (fig. 4) on the north end of
DeLand ridge and at site 19 on the Talbot terrace, whereas higher
permeability beds were found at site 25 on the south end of DeLand
ridge and site 14 on the Talbot terrace. Where a confining bed of
relatively impermeable clay or sandy clay overlies the Floridan
aquifer, the water in the Floridan aquifer is confined. Locally, in
areas downgradient from a topographic high where there is an over-
lying confining bed, water in the shell bed and even in the sand
occurs under confined conditions. Such areas occur along Highway
44, on the east side of DeLand ridge and on the west side of Rima
ridge (sites 21 and 22, fig. 4).
The top of the Floridan aquifer dips eastward from its high
under the DeLand ridge, toward the coast at about 3 feet per mile.
Under the terraces the plastic deposits thicken from 65 feet on the
eastern flank of the DeLand ridge to 100 feet at the coast. Under the
DeLand ridge where the relief is much greater the plastic deposits are
50 to 100 feet thick.
Structually Volusia County is an uplifted fault block (fig. 4).
Wyrick (1960, fig. 4) mapped a north-south trending fault west of
DeLand and an east-west trending fault on the north edge of Lake
Monroe. An extention of a north-south trending fault, mapped by
Brown (1962, fig. 9) in Brevard County, cuts Volusia County 5 to 15
miles inland of the coast and completes the fault block.
Most of the water supplies in Volusia County are obtained from
the limestone and dolomitic limestones of the Floridan aquifer,
which in this area is composed of formations of middle and late
Eocene age. A hard, dense, irregular layer of dolomitic limestone acts
as a confining bed that divides the aquifer into an upper and lower
part (fig. 4). This layer is at depths of 150 feet under the DeLand
ridge and 250 feet near the coast. The Floridan aquifer is known to
be greater than 600 feet thick in the eastern part of the county,
based on data from a 700-foot test hole which did not fully pene-
trate the aquifer hydrologicc data site 18, fig. 1).
A schematic drawing of part of the hydrologic cycle for Volusia
County showing the movement of water to and from the surface, on






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


the surface, infiltrating the surface, and through the subsurface is
shown by figure 5.
Figure 5. Block diagram of part of Volusia County showing the movement
of water. (In pocket)
Water movement on and under each physiographic division
follows a somewhat characteristic path. The terraces are character-
ized by surface runoff and vertical movement of ground water
through the elastic deposits. The ridges are characterized by subsur-
face drainage and a vertical as well as horizontal component of move-
ment of ground water through the plastic deposits. The water moves
laterally through the Floridan aquifer under both the ridges and the
terraces but with a component of downward movement near areas of
recharge and a component upward movement near the discharge
areas (fig. 5).
Under the terraces (fig. 5), the water table is near the surface
with a relatively thin unsaturated zone available for storage of water
during a rise of the water table. Rain quickly saturates the porous
surface sand after which the water can no longer infiltrate and must
run off or evaporate. The water which has infiltrated moves down-
ward to the zone of saturation if not used by plants or retained as
soil moisture. As the water moves vertically through the plastic
deposits it may follow tortuous paths around discontinuous lenses of
less permeable material, and continue in its downward movement
into the Floridan aquifer. It then moves laterally toward the east
where it discharges to the coastal well fields or to the ocean.
As rain falls on the ridges (fig. 5) it infiltrates the sand, and
water which is not used by plants or to replenish soil moisture moves
down to the water table. The water table generally follows the con-
figuration of the land surface. After it reaches the water table, water
moves generally parallel to the slope of the water table to ponds or
lakes or to low-lying areas where some seeps to the surface to create
the swampy conditions adjacent to the ridges. Ground water moves
along the slope of the water table and also downward through the
plastic deposits to recharge the Floridan aquifer. The movement of
water in the Floridan aquifer under the DeLand ridge is westward
toward the St. Johns River. Under the low sand ridges movement of
water in the Floridan aquifer is eastward toward the coast.

RECHARGE TO FLORIDAN AQUIFER

A condition where water is confined in an aquifer by relatively
impermeable layers is called artesian. The poorly consolidated sedi-
ments of the plastic deposits are not highly pervious and tend to








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


retard the downward movement of water. Because water does leak

down into the Floridan aquifer, however, it is described as a semi-
confined artesian aquifer. At many locations there is no geologic
evidence of a confining layer and from water level fluctuations it
appears as though the Floridan aquifer is hydraulically connected to
the overlying plastic deposits. Hydrographs of water levels in wells at

hydrologic data sites 14, 23, and 25 are shown on figure 6. The
configuration and water level response to rainfall is very similar for



40
39

38 -----1-------- .'------- ---
37 b
36
5 HYDROLOGICC DATA SITE NO. 14
34
'33
S WELL OPEN TO PLASTIC AQUIFER
32 M WELL OPEN TO UPPER PART OF FLORIDAN AQUIFER ------"
D WELL OPEN TO LOWER PART OF FLORIDAN AQUIFER














77 D..- A IE I IZ f fi--"-- "
78










O" ..-. ,.o. ....... .. j ...._.__.
75 S
WU 74 _____
HYDROLOGIC DATA SITE NO 23







173 ___i--- --- ---- ----1 ----- ---- --- ---rs---- ------ ----- +--- --- ---
S WELL OPEN TO PLASTIC AQUIFER -
37


34 HYDROLOGIC DATA SITE NO.23











JAN M WELL OPEN TO UPPER PART OF FLORIDAN AQUFE APR MAY JIFERUNE
D WELL OPEN TO LOWER PART OF FLRIDAN AQUIFER



20 HYDROLOGIC DATA SITE NO. 25






1966
25
S WELL OPEN TO PLASTIC AQUIFER
Z3 WELL OPEN TO UPPER PART OF FLORIDAN AQUIFER .___
D WELL OPEN TO LOWER PART OF FORIDAN AQUIFER












Figure 6. Hydrographs of water levels in wells at hydrologic data sites 14,
23, and 25.HYDROLOGIC D SITE N
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT NOV DEC JAN FEB MARA
1966 1967



Figure 6. Hydrographs of water levels in wells at hydrologic data sites 14,
23, and 25.

the well in the clastic deposits and the well in the Floridan aquifer
(data site 14) which indicates a good hydraulic connection between






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


the two units. Hydrographs for wells at hydrologic data site 23
indicate a lesser degree of connection while at site 25 there appears
to be a good connection, with water moving downward into the
upper part of the Floridan aquifer. At site 25, water is also moving
upward into the upper part of the Floridan aquifer from below and,
therefore, water must be moving laterally through the upper part of
the aquifer.

Water moves downward into the Floridan aquifer wherever the
water table in the plastic deposits is higher than the piezometric
surface. Piezometric surface, as used in this report, means the level to
which water will rise in tightly cased wells that penetrate the
Floridan aquifer. Ridges which rise above adjacent land are capable
of supporting a higher water table and this increased head results in
greater leakage from the plastic deposits to the Floridan aquifer,
assuming equal permeabilities and thicknesses of material. Where the
land surface is relatively low, the piezometric surface is near land
surface, which results in less recharge and greater surface runoff. In
stream valleys and at low altitude along the coast the wells which
penetrate the Floridan aquifer will flow. In these areas, where the
piezometric surface is above the land surface (see fig. 18, Wyrick,
1960), there is no recharge to the Floridan aquifer.
Earlier Wyrick (1960, p. 27 and fig. 14) had reached similar
conclusions when he stated that recharge to the Floridan aquifer
(artesian aquifer) occurs wherever the water table is higher than the
piezometric surface. Wyrick (1960, p. 27 and fig. 13) also indicated
that the principal area of recharge to the Floridan aquifer in Volusia
County was within the closed 40-foot contour along the eastern edge
of the DeLand ridge (Penholoway terrace) near DeLand. But the
40-foot contour of Wyrick's map also encloses the western part of
the Talbot terrace, where the piezometric surface is presently at
about the level of the water table and in many places rises above it.
There are areas outside the 40-foot contour where the hydraulic
gradient between the water table and piezometric surface is greater
and the permeability is as great, and which are thus better recharge
areas. No area in Volusia County can be considered the principal
recharge area. Visher and Wetterhall (1967) state that in Florida
most piezometric highs indicate areas of low permeability and low or
rejected recharge. Similar results were reported by Schneider (1964)
in his studies of the carbonate rock aquifer of central Israel.
Schneider noted that piezometric ridges appeared to coincide with
down-faulted blocks or structural basins, regarded as regions of lower
permeability than adjacent regions having lower piezometric levels.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


The data suggest that the piezometric high areas are not principal
recharge areas in Volusia County.
Under presea-t hydrologic conditions, the most productive
recharge areas are the eastern part of the Talbot terrace and the
ridges. There is a relatively good hydraulic connection between the
plastic deposits and Floridan aquifer under most of the Talbot
terrace, with a greater head between the two hydrogeologic units in
the eastern part of the terrace than in the western part, resulting in a
better recharge area in the former. The western part of the terrace
has good recharge potential, provided a sufficient head differential
were maintained, either by lowering the piezometric surface or by
raising the water table.
The ridges are good recharge areas mainly because of their
topographic relief. In general, the ridges have as good a hydraulic
connection as the terraces, however, along the eastern edge of the
DeLand ridge, in the area east of DeLand coinciding with the 40-foot
piezometric contour, the plastic deposits have lower permeability.
This area of lower permeability is reflected by the line of lakes whose
water surfaces stand relatively high above the piezometric surface.
The lake level at data site 29 (fig. 1) is as much as 18 feet above the
piezometric surface. A greater head compensates for an otherwise
lower recharge through the less permeable material. Lakes themselves
are probably no better points of recharge than the surrounding lake
basin. The lakes are shallow, 20 feet or less in depth, and their
bottoms are not incised into the aquifer, therefore, it is the material
between the lake bottom and the aquifer that controls the movement
of water to the aquifer.
Areas of little or no runoff as shown on a runoff distribution
map (Knochenmus, 1968) coincide generally with the areas of higher
recharge. Areas where the piezometric surface is at or above the
water table (discharge areas), exhibit the highest runoff.
RAINFALL

Local rainfall is the source of Volusia County's fresh-water.
The average (normal) annual rainfall on Volusia County for the
period 1931-60 was 52 inches, or about 3,000 mgd (million gallons
per day), based on records collected by the U. S. Weather Bureau at
Daytona Beach Airport and DeLand. Only a small part, about 10
percent, of this water is readily available for use by man. Average
annual rainfall of the two stations during the period of record ranged
from a maximum of 74 inches in 1953 to a minimum of 38 inches in
1954. This large annual variation in rainfall is shown on figure 7.









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


20




c 15




- 10
Li.
z



-15
I-
z
o

0:


rr \









J F M A M J J A S 0 N D J F M A M J J A S 0 N D
1965 1966


80

DeLond overage Daytona Beach overage
54.7 inches 49.9 inches






-J
-'40
U-










t o 0 0 U-)



Figure 7. Monthly and annual rainfall at Daytona Beach Airport and
DeLand.


The period of investigation included a year of dry conditions
(1965) and a year of slightly wetter than normal conditions (1966).
Although 1966 was an exception, the western part of the county
generally receives more rain than the eastern part. For the long term
record, the yearly average at DeLand is 4.8 inches more than at
Daytona Beach Airport. In 1965, DeLand received 6.5 inches more
rain than Daytona Beach Airport, but in 1966 DeLand received 5


C
m

CO
0







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


inches less than Daytona Beach Airport. The five summer months
(June-October) generally receive 65 percent of the annual rainfall.
The chemical quality of rain varies slightly with weather condi-
tions and with industrial and agricultural activities. Generally, rain
contains small amounts of dissolved mineral matter and atmospheric
gases. The mineral matter is derived from windborne salts picked up
from the open sea or from the land. If the salts are from the sea, the
chemical character of the rain is somewhat similar to a diluted sea
water with NaCl (sodium chloride) being the predominant consti-
tuent. In contrast, when the windborne salts originate from the land
the chemical character of rain becomes that of a CaHCO3-CaSO4
(calcium bicarbonate-calcium sulfate) type water.
The amount of dissolved mineral matter in rain varies with the
amount of rainfall. At the beginning of a storm the amount of wind-
borne dust is relatively great and the rain washes this dust from the
air resulting in higher concentrations of dissolved salts in the precipi-
tation. As the storm continues, the dust is removed from the air and
the remaining rainfall is lower in dissolved salts content.
The average dissolved mineral content of rainfall for Volusia
County is probably no more than 25 mg/1 (milligrams per liter). This
value is deduced from the dissolved solids content of several small
lakes which have small, closed drainage basins and whose source of
water is rainfall and seepage from the relatively insoluble surficial
deposits within the basin. Additionally the average dissolved mineral
content of rainfall at Ocala, in inland central Florida, and at various
sites along the west coast of central Florida is generally no more than
25 mg/1.
Rainfall is slightly acid because of the solution of atmospheric
CO2 (carbon dioxide) in water droplets, resulting in the formation of
H2 CO3 (carbonic acid). Also, industrial operations may add gases to
the atmosphere which can produce acids when dissolved in water.
The median pH value of the rainfall in Volusia County is about 6.

WATER RESOURCES

The quality and quantity of water in lakes, streams, and
aquifers dictates the usefulness of the water from that particular
source.
Water changes in chemical quality while moving through the
several environments that constitute the hydrologic cycle. Many of
these changes are significant and studies of them add to the under-
standing of the hydrologic system and permit a more comprehensive








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


evaluation of the water resources. Therefore, a discussion of the
chemical processes which affect water quality in Volusia County is
included in the discussions of lakes, streams and aquifers which
follow.

SURFACE WATER
LAKES

The numerous lakes of the County act as storage reservoirs for
water. Most of the 120 lakes larger than 5 acres are located on the
DeLand ridge where they occupy sink holes. The largest is Lake
Diaz with a surface area of 700 acres.
60 | | I I I I
LAKE WINNEMISSETT








I45 I
SLAKE HIRES
< 44 _

a 43


3
0

3
u.




3


LAKE WINONA

16 S^-- y.f -- -- --- -- -





19
LAKE DUPONT
18





A M J J A S 0 N D J F M A M J J A S 0 N D
1965 1966

Figure 8. Hydrographs of daily stage for four lakes in Volusia County.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. '57


Because of their size, purity and small range in surface level
fluctuation, a number of lakes on the DeLand ridge have excellent
recreational potentials. At the present time, however, they are used
mostly for irrigation water supplies. Most lakes are along the eastern
edge of the ridge where the highest water table occurs. Hydrographs
of four lakes are shown on figure 8. Lake Winona (site 27, fig. 1), at
the north end of the DeLand ridge, had a water level fluctuation of
2.3 feet during the period of this investigation. The level of the lake
is approximately 5 feet above the piezometric surface of the Floridan
aquifer. Lake Hires (site 28, fig. 1), four miles to the south had a
fluctuation during the period of 1.8 ft.; its surface is about 7 feet
above the piezometric surface. Six miles farther south, Lake
Winnemissett (site 29, fig. 1), one of the higher lakes on the ridge
had a fluctuation of 1.7 feet and its surface is approximately 18 feet
above the piezometric surface. At the south end of the ridge, Lake
Dupont (site 30, fig. 1) had the greatest fluctuation of the four lakes
(2.9 feet), and it is about at the level of the piezometric surface.
The lakes appear to be water table lakes and thus are related to
the piezometric surface in the same manner as the water table is
related to the piezometric surface. Lake Dupont has, as has the water
table in that area (site 25, fig. 6), a better hydraulic connection to
the Floridan aquifer than Lakes Winona, Hires and Winnemissett.
The greater fluctuations of the water surfaces in Lake Winona and
Dupont are probably due to greater fluctuations of the water table in
the area surrounding the lakes, which in turn are related to the
greater relief in the area.
Water in most lakes in the county has a low mineral content
with mineralization ranging from slightly less than 25 mg/1 to 150
mg/l. Many of the lakes are in closed drainage basins where urban
and agricultural development are minimal. Lake water in this
environment usually contains less than 50 mg/1 total dissolved solids
and is similar to the quality of rain water. In contrast, some lakes on
the ridge area in large actively farmed drainage basins contain water
with as much as 50 mg/l dissolved solids and of a different chemical
character than other lakes in the county. Table 1 shows chemical
analyses from Lake Dupont in a relatively undeveloped area and
Lake Winnemissett located in an area of considerable agricultural
activity (more than 50 percent of the basin is under cultivation).
Lake Winnemissett contains about five times the amount of dissolved
mineral matter as Lake Dupont. Pfischner (1968) has shown that the
dissolved solids content of lakes in southwest Orange County,
Florida, is generally related to the percentage of the lake basin
covered by citrus groves.











Table 1, Comparison of chemical analyses of Lake Winnemisaett and Lake Dupont.

Chemical analyses, in milligrams per liter


Lake Winnemissett near DeLand, Fla. (site 29, fig. 1)

5-11-65 0.0 0.00 18 6.3 10 1 7.5 1 8 61 120 1 0.0 10.9 128 71 64 230 6.4 1 5


Lake Dupont near Lake Helen, Fla. (site 30, fig. 1)

5-18-65 o 00 0.4 1.2 0.9 5.5 0.3 2 4.8 9.5 0.1 0.2 24 6 5 555 5.7 0







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


STREAMS

Important aspects in considering a stream as a potential water
supply are the quantity, quality, and associated variations in flow
and quality of its water, and the storage capabilities of the stream
channel. The average rate of flow of the two largest streams wholly
within the county, Deep Creek near Osteen (130 mgd) and Tomoka
River (100 mgd), is more than the predicted water use for the entire
county in 1980, but they are inadequate as a water supply because
their minimum flows are so small. Less than 5 million gallons per day
flows out of Volusia County in streams during dry periods.
From a water use viewpoint, storage facilities would be neces-
sary to insure a dependable surface-water supply during minimum
flow periods. Natural channel storage is small in the poorly defined
channels but large capacity storage reservoirs could be constructed
on the swampy flood plains of the streams. Such storage facilities
could be an earthen-diked reservoir, shallow in depth with a rela-
tively large surface area where evaporation would be at a maximum.
Water in the streams comes from direct runoff during rains,
flow out of swamps and seepage from ground water. Ground-water
seepage and swamp drainage supply base flow during the periods
between rains. During dry spells, when swamps desiccate, base flow is
supplied entirely by ground water. Most of the ground-water contri-
bution to base flow comes from the poorly consolidated plastic
deposits. Even in those areas of upward seepage from the Floridan
aquifer, particularly in the western part of the county such as Deep
Creek near Barberville and the other Deep Creek near Osteen, the
chemical quality of the stream water indicates that very little seepage
from the Floridan aquifer reaches the stream channels.
Water leaves the county in streams at an average rate of about
590 mgd. About 225 mgd flows into the Atlantic Ocean from
Tomoka River, Spruce Creek and smaller streams. St. Johns River
receives about 365 mgd from Deep Creek (Osteen), Middle Haw
Creek, Little Haw Creek, and Deep Creek (Barberville). Streamflow
data are given in table 2. The values of streamflow, except those for
Spruce Creek, are estimated from continuous discharge records or
from periodic discharge measurements. Based on the data in table 6,
over 20 times more water flows out of the county than is presently
used (see section on water use below) but the variation in flow limits
streamflow as a reliable source of water supply.
The magnitude of flow of the major streams is shown on figure
9. The highest rate of flow (average 130 mgd) of streams draining the
county is from Deep Creek basin (Osteen) a runoff of 17 inches






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Table 2. Dranage areas, average flows, and low flows of ubbasins in Volusia County.



Drainage area Average flow Low flow
Creek basin sq. mi. mgd mgd
Deep Creek (Osteen) 157 *130 0.4.
Tomoka River 121 **100 .4
Spruce Creek 96 50 .3
Cow Creek 28 50 0
Middle Haw 41 30 0
Little Haw 61 30 0
Deep Creek (Barberville) 39 25 0
Little Tomoka 15 10 0
All Others 225 -

* Includes flow of Cow Creek
** Includes flow of Little Tomoka
per year. Flow in the St. Johns River at DeLand averages 2,100
mgd far greater than that of any stream within the county.
Certain areas of the County, such as the DeLand, Crescent City,
Rima, and Atlantic Coastal ridges, have poorly developed surface
drainage systems. The runoff from these areas is from 0 to 6 inches
per year (Knochenmus, 1968).
Profiles of the water surface of Volusia County streams show
flat gradients in their upper reaches with steepening gradients down-
stream. Two profiles for Deep Creek (Osteen), one at high flow and
the other at low flow, during 1966 are given in figure 10. The fluctu-
ation of the water surface in the swampy headwaters was less than a
foot while the level fluctuated 40 feet near the mouth. Rain falling
on the swampy headwaters causes the water surface to rise about the
same as the depth of rainfall, whereas downstream the runoff is
collected into a definite channel and the water surface may rise many
times the depth of rainfall.
Stream flood plains in the county are largely flatswampy areas
and become inundated almost every year. The poorly incised
channels cannot transport the excess water during wet periods so
that water ponds in the swamps and inundates much of the area. The
floods on most streams were extremely high in 1964. The peak
discharges of Spruce Creek and Middle Haw Creek during the floods
of 1964 were determined from curves published by Barnes' and







REPORT OF


zeoo,


1JSoq,,


INVESTIGATION NO. 57

9 ^Jo,


r/-


EXPLANATION
Width of stream represents
average flow In million gallons per
FLOW SCALE
150 mgd
100 mgd
50 mgd


Figure 9. Flow chart of streams in Volusia County.


,?90.
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REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


Golden (1966) to be greater than 50-year floods, whereas the peak
discharges of Tomoka and Deep Creek (Osteen) were greater than
20-year floods.
Runoff characteristics of different streams can be compared by
analyzing their flow-duration curves, figure 11. Flow-duration curves
show the percent of time during which specified discharges are
equaled or exceeded. All the curves are similar in shape with the
exception of the lower end of the curve for Spruce Creek. The slopes
of all the curves are steep indicating little channel storage and
ground-water contribution. The high-discharge end represents mostly
overland flow (direct runoff) and the low-discharge end represents
ground-water seepage. The low end of the Middle Haw curve is very
steep, approaching the vertical, which indicates very little ground-
water seepage. The Middle Haw Creek basin is flat with a very
shallow stream channel; therefore, with a small lowering of the
ground-water level, the water-table falls below the stream bed. With
no ground-water seepage to sustain base flows, Middle Haw Creek
decreases from medium flow to zero flow very rapidly. Streams with
steeply sloped duration curves are characterized by maximum flows
100 times greater than median flow (50 percent line on duration
curve). Median flows for Spruce Creek, Middle Haw Creek, Tomoka
River and Deep Creek (Osteen) are 4.6, 18, 23, and 39 mgd
respectively. About 15 percent of the time Middle Haw Creek has no
flow whereas about 15 percent of the time Deep Creek has slightly
more than 3 mgd flow.
The water in streams in Volusia County has widely differing
chemical characteristics, depending on the source of the water. Some
streams, especially during low flow, receive discharge from the
Floridan aquifer by seepage and from flowing wells. In the lower
reaches of streams near the coast the chemical quality of the water
reflects mixing with highly saline ocean water.
The waters range from only slightly mineralized to ocean
salinity, from colorless to highly colored, and from acidic to basic.
Values of some of the more important water-quality constituents at
surface-water data sites (fig. 1) are listed in table 3.
Most streams in Volusia County are supplied by direct rainfall,
overland flow, and seepage from the plastic deposits. The quality of
the water varies not only because the quality of the rainfall varies,
but because most of the water has moved over or through the
ground, dissolving mineral matter and transporting it to the streams.
Mineral matter derived from the breakdown or weathering of
organic and inorganic materials, application of fertilizers, and






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


S-800
4001 k r,, I -- -_ -600

DEEP CREEK 400
NEAR OSTEEN
200C- \ 1I I I 300
TOMOKA RIVER
NEAR HOLLY HILL -200

80 C- ----r -
000



S80
40- A\ --- 60

MIDDLE HAW CREEK 40 o
NEAR BUNNELL
20 I I

SPRUCE CREEK
NEAR SAMSULA \ 20


--- 10-
6














Note: Curve for Spruce Creek computed _
4 --from records for bose period, 1952-66. ----
Curves for the other streams adjusted \
3 -- from the short-term period, 1965-66

S- I I I I I I I tI \
6



from the short-term period, 1965-66 .6
to the bose period.


I JI I IU ~


.1 .2 .5 1 2 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 95 98 99 99.5
PERCENT OF TIME INDICATED DISCHARGE WAS EQUALED OR EXCELLED
Figure 11. Flow duration curves for major streams in Volusia County.


1 .2
15
19-9


I i i 1 I


. . .1 1 1 N


1


9














Table 3. Selected chemical characteristics of surface waters in Volusia County.


Color Dissolved Solids Total Hardness Chloride Sulfate
Data Site,
Station Name (units) (mg/I) (as mg/1 CaCOs) (mg/l) (mg/1) (units)
(fig. ) Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min

Middle Haw Creek 1 360 180 35 22 12 6 21 8.0 4.0 0.0 5.4 4.4
Little Haw Creek 2 450 170 39 29 22 10 19 9.0 6.4 .0 6.2 5.1
Tomoka River 4 400 120 197 77 138 47 36 18 13 5.0 7.7 6.4
Deep Creek 5 800 30 790 43 307 18 305 12 9.2 .0 7.5 5.3
(Barberville)
Spruce Creek 6 400 40 437 55 310 42 74 20 9.6 4.0 8.5 6.0
St.Johns River 7 270 30 1,090 120 313 44 505 52 153 11 7.5 6.6
Deep Creek (Osteen) 10 260 75 88 28 50 11 21 6.5 21 3.6 7.3 6.2
Lake Winnemissett 29 5 0 129 120 71 63 24 18 61 56 6.5 6.4
Lake Dupont 30 5 0 24 24 9 6 9.5 9.5 4.8 4.0 5.7 5.7


.o




aI
02
pN





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


atmospheric fallout accumulates on the ground between periods of
rainfall. The amount of accumulation depends partly on the length
of the period between rainfalls. Thus, longer periods between rain-
falls allow greater amounts of mineral matter to accumulate. Hence,
the overland flow after periods of infrequent rainfall usually contains
greater amounts of dissolved mineral matter than flow during periods
of more frequent rain.
The amount of dissolved mineral matter in overland flow also
depends upon the duration of the storm. Initially, storm runoff
contains relatively large amounts of dissolved mineral matter because
the rain "washes" the surface of the ground and removes much of
the soluble mineral dusts. However, as the storm continues the
amount of readily soluble mineral dust decreases so that the overland
flow contains less dissolved mineral matter.

Variations in chemical quality for a stream whose source is
direct rainfall, overland flow and seepage from the shallow ground
water is exemplified by Deep Creek in southern Volusia County.
Data collected on this stream at a station near Osteen exhibits the
rainfall-discharge-mineral content relationship described. Figure 12
shows hydrographs of daily rainfall, discharge, specific conductance
(a measure of the ability of water to conduct an electric current,
which is a function of the amount and type of ions in the water and
thus can be used to estimate the dissolved solids content of the
water) and temperature of streamflow for Deep Creek. During
prolonged rainy periods following long dry periods (start of the rainy
season in June 1965), discharge increases in response to rainfall while
specific conductance increases initially with increased discharge but
decreases with continued rise in discharge. The hydrograph also
shows that the specific conductance is generally lower during periods
of frequent rainfall (July 5 to August 20) and higher during periods
of drought (May 1-25).

The dissolved solids duration curve in figure 13 shows that
although there is some variation in values for Deep Creek, the
minimum and maximum values are relatively low. The minimum
dissolved solids content observed during the 2-year period of record
is 28 mg/l while the maximum content is only 135 mg/1. The flat
curve suggests that most of the water comes from a single source and
the chemical quality shows that the water comes from the plastic
aquifer which is composed of slightly soluble materials. Very little
seepage from the Floridan aquifer reaches the creek, as indicated by
the relatively low dissolved solids content.








40




o
P: 30




20
ao
0

S 250
IN 200

z' 150

4 10



z 1000



10






2 1
s '




I 3


JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC
1965


AA A ^^ A^~ AV /VA^ V^ "~X











150


S100
w
a. 80

60
S50

BS
40
0 30

w
0 20
Cn
U,


Im


I I-I I I I I II I I I II


0.050.1 0.2 0.5


2 5


Record used: October 1964 to September 1966 (721 days)




, , ,,i


50 60 70 80


90 95 98 99
90 95 98 99


10 20 30 40


PERCENT OF TIME DISSOLVED SOLIDS EQUALED OR EXCEEDED VALUE INDICATED


I I II I _I I I I I I I I






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


Stream temperature is closely related to air temperature and
subject to seasonal variation. Stream temperatures may rise or fall
after precipitation depending upon the relative temperatures of the
streams and of the precipitation; during the warm seasons stream
temperatures usually decrease after a rainfall because of the cooling
effect of the rain. This relationship is shown on figure 12. The
average temperature for Deep Creek during this study was 23C
(73 'F).


Color and acidity increase after rainfall because rain flushes
highly colored and acidic organic materials from the surface. Color is
highest during the warm seasons and lowest during the spring
drought period. Three analyses of water from Deep Creek having
low, medium, and high concentrations of dissolved solids are shown
in milliequivalents per liter in figure 14. In an analysis expressed in
milliequivalents per liter, unit concentrations of all ions are
chemically equivalent. Figure 14 shows that the relative proportions
of the constituents remain the same in each of the analyses and that
the only major change in chemical quality is in the total amount of
dissolved mineral matter.


The quality of the water in streams that intercept significant
seepage from the Floridan aquifer reflects the influence of the lime-
stone of that aquifer and, in some cases, the influence of saline water
discharged from the deeper part of the aquifer. The St. Johns River
apparently receives discharge from the part of the Floridan aquifer
which contains salt water. This discharge results in high concentra-
tion of dissolved solids in the river except during periods of high
flow. The average dissolved solids content for the St. Johns River
near DeLand is about 700 mg/1 and ranges from 120 mg/1 to 1,090
mg/1. The water is highly colored and ranges from slightly acidic to
slightly basic.


Middle Haw and Little Haw Creeks exhibit chemical
characteristics similar to that of Deep Creek near Osteen. These
streams are slightly mineralized, highly colored, and slightly acidic.
During low flows Deep Creek near Barberville, and to some extent
Spruce Creek, exhibit chemical characteristics similar to the St.
Johns River. These streams are moderately mineralized, slightly
colored, and range from slightly acidic to slightly basic.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


July 1-10,
1966


30

1.5


1.4


1.3


1.2





1I0


.9


Feb. 11-20,
1966


Figure 14. Chemical analyses of selected composites of samples from Deep
Creek near Osteen showing relative proportions of major mineral
constituents.


Dec. 1-10,
1965






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


GROUND WATER

A description of the aquifers and their hydraulic characteristics
has been presented by Wyrick (1960). During the present investiga-
tion of the aquifer systems emphasis was on the determination of the
rate and quantity of vertical movement of water (recharge) from the
plastic aquifer to the Floridan aquifer.
The hydrogeologic units as described previously are differen-
tiated on the basis of their composition and their prime function in
the hydrologic system. The poorly consolidated sediments of the
plastic aquifer (Wyrick's nonartesian aquifer) functions primarily as a
subsurface reservoir that stores water until some of it leaks into the
Floridan aquifer (Wyrick's artesian aquifer).
The limestones and dolomites underlying the plastic aquifer
constitute a much larger reservoir as the thickness of the Floridan
aquifer is greater than 600 feet compared to about 75 feet for the
plastic aquifer. The Floridan aquifer readily transmits water and is a
major water supply source (Wyrick, 1960, p. 25).

CLASTIC AQUIFER

The plastic aquifer is composed of poorly consolidated sand,
shell and clay. The clay in some areas functions as an aquitard (a less
pervious formation) in separating the sand from the shell and in
other areas in separating the clastics from the limestone (fig. 4). The
sand is predominantly fine grained and has a porosity of about 35
percent. It has a coefficient of storage, based on the coefficient of
storage of similar material, of about 0.25 or approximately equal to
the specific yield. The shell beds, which have a sand matrix contain
large quantities of water but they are seldom utilized for a water
supply because sand free water can be obtained only if a well screen
is employed. In the vicinity of Oak Hill where the Floridan aquifer
water is not potable -because it contains 400-2400 mg/1 chloride,
potable water is obtained from shell beds for domestic use.
The present (1969) use of water from the plastic aquifer is small
compared to the amount of water it has in storage. From an average
storage coefficient and saturated thickness, the aquifer is estimated
to contain 3 x 1012 gallons of fresh water. To this large volume of
water, it is estimated that an average of 400 million gallons are added
daily from rainfall for subsequent recharge to the Floridan aquifer.
The plastic aquifer will continue to function primarily as a storage
reservoir for recharge to the Florida aquifer until techniques of






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


well-screen installation and well development in fine sand and shell
beds come into common usage locally.
Fluctuations of the water table in the plastic aquifer were
recorded in several shallow wells. The hydrographs of three of these
wells open in the sand show a maximum fluctuation of 5 to 5.5 feet
(fig. 6). The water table responds to rainfall and the closer the water
table is to the land surface the more responsive it is to rainfall. This is
shown by the degree of unevenness of the plastic aquifer hydrographs
in figure 6. At site 14, where the water table fluctuates between 1
and 6 feet below the land surface, the hydrograph is most uneven,
whereas at site 25, where the water table is between 12 and 17 feet
below the land surface, the hydrograph is the smoothest.
Water in the plastic aquifer is less mineralized than that in the
Floridan aquifer (table 4) because of the lower solubility of the sand.
The mineral content of water from shallow wells in the sand ranges
from 25 to 50 mg/1 and is higher in the shell beds due to the higher
solubility of the shells. The principal dissolved mineral constituents
in water from the plastic aquifer are sodium, chloride, calcium and
bicarbonate.
FLORIDAN AQUIFER

The hydraulic characteristics of the Floridan (artesian) aquifer,
as reported by Wyrick (1960) are coefficients of transmissibilityl
that range from 28,000 to 370,000 gallons per day per foot and a
storage coefficient2 of about 0.0007. Water level measurements
made during the present investigation were used to construct a map
showing the configuration of the aquifer's piezometric surface in
November 1966, figure 15.The 1966 map is in general similar to the
1955 piezometric map (Wyrick, 1960, fig. 13) but there are some
significant differences. The greatest difference is the portrayal on the
1966 map of a large piezometric low which is less than 10 feet above
mean sea level and extends northeast from Blue Springs to DeLand.
This piezometric low is a cone of depression that is caused in part by
the discharge of Blue Springs. The cone of depression is elongate to
the northeast of the spring. The elongation is caused by a preferred
direction of permeability (fig. 15), probably a result of faulting.
Additional asymmetry resulted when the natural cone coalesced with
the cone of depression of DeLand's municipal wells.
I The rate of flow of water (in common U. S. Geological Survey units) in gallons per day,
at prevailing temperature, through a vertical strip of aquifer one foot wide and having a
height equal to the thickness of the aquifer, under a unit hydraulic gradient.
2 The volume of water released from or taken into storage per unit volume of aquifer per
unit change in head.










Table 4. Comparison of ground water quality at various depths in Volusia County.

Chemical analyses in milligrams per liter


Dissolved Hardness
Solids as CaCO3


V S
?: E CO a g v
o wi s | 00 I
a Number2 O 6 0 2 3

16 290534N- 19 4-21-66 1.3 0.03 6.2 1.3 6.2 0.0 24 0.0 11 0.0 0.1 28 21 2 88 6.7 5
0811750.3

16 290534N- 114 4-21-66 13 .33 63 2.8 7.2 1.3 214 .0 10 .1 .0 202 169 0 370 7.6 5
0811750.1

16 290534N- 260 4-21-66 12 .25 66 9.1 6.6 .4 242 .0 10 .0 .1 223 202 4 360 7.8 5
0811750.2

17 290432N- 7 6-13-66 6.5 .39 6.1 1.9 6.8 .7 5 2.4 20 .2 48 23 19 76 5.2 140
0811449.4

17 290432N- 84 4-18-66 13 2.08 78 1.9 9.1 .7 244 3.6 10 .1 .1 237 203 3 405 7.8 5
0811449.1

17 290432N- 310 4-21-66 15 .90 75 5.6 14 1.6 266 4.4 17 .2 .0 264 210 0 480 7.9 15
0811449.2

1 Number refers to site location on figure 1.
2 Well number refers to latitude and longitude (290534N0811750.3 = lat.
29 '05'34" north, long. 81'17'50", well no. 3).








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


*o. ato, .e
a g jC


EXPLANATION CO Tft
-40-
PIEZOMETRIC CONTOUR
Shaws altitude of the piezometric
surface of the Floridan aquifer,
November 1966.
Contour interval: 5 Feet
Datum: Mean Sea Level


JOINT OR PROBABLE


0 I 2 3 4 5 MILES


Figure 15. Volusia County showing contours on the
the Floridan aquifer.


piezometric surface of


34



ZoA


Jo,I


-lJa


fab






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


Rainfall in Volusia County was slightly above normal in 1966.
Thus water levels, except where influenced by increased pumpage,
were a little higher in 1966 than they were in 1955, although the
trend for the last 20 years shows a slight decline (1-2 feet) of water
level, as represented by the hydrograph of the Barberville well in
figure 16. Along the east coast, where pumpage is increasing, water
levels have declined about 6 feet as shown by a 10-year hydrograph
of a well near Daytona Beach well field (fig. 16).
The apparent reduction in the size of the area enclosed by the
40-foot contour between 1955 and 1966 and its slight shift to the
west is a result of more data being available for the 1966 map.
Another significant feature of the new map (fig. 15) is the piezo-
metric low around the New Smyrna Beach well field. This low has
probably developed since 1955 as a result of increased pumpage.
The volume of fresh water in the Floridan aquifer in Volusia
County is estimated at 16 x 1012 gallons. Not all of this water is
available for use and only 400 million gallons of the total in the
aquifer are estimated to be exchanged daily under present hydrologic
conditions.
Chemical data were collected at sites consisting of groups of
three wells. Each group of wells tap the water table in the plastic
aquifer, the upper part of the Floridan aquifer, and a lower part of
the Floridan aquifer. Water levels at these selected sites were succes-
sively lower with increasing well depth, suggesting a downward move-
ment of water. Table 4 gives water quality at various depths from
near the surface to well within the limestone of the Floridan aquifer.
As water moves through the subsurface it undergoes changes in
chemical quality. Rain water which enters the ground begins to
dissolve mineral matter and gases from the soil. The amount of
mineral matter dissolved depends on the chemical composition of the
soil and on the chemical nature of the water. Gases dissolved from
the soil include relatively large amounts of carbon dioxide, which in
turn produces carbonic acid, an agent that greatly increases the
ability of water to dissolve some types of minerals, particularly
carbonate minerals.
The soil of the county consists primarily of quartz sand with
lesser amounts of clay and shells. The sand and clay contribute small
amounts of silica (SiO2) to the water and bring about only minor
changes in chemical quality; however, the shell beds add significant
amounts of calcium and bicarbonate to the water. As the water
moves down into the limestone, which underlies the plastic deposits,











14
SU15
S 161






Is
6.




s 15
5 I-
|-8 -, Is

It


pg w 19

II 20
w 21

3 a 22
E;


~ BARBERVILLE 46 d
,mm


_""-- "- b 43n
45 J




z
4 c !
w

DAYTONA BEACH 14 >


-a
----------------------______ ---------___________ UJ C
--_- - II P


----------------------------------__ .---- -----------
lo






6W
----------------- _
9_j





1950 1955 1960 1965






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


still more calcium and bicarbonate are added to the water. By the
process of solution the ground water becomes a calcium bicarbonate
type water.
Increases in mineral content relate to direction of water flow,
allowing greater opportunity for dissolution of the aquifer minerals
in the down gradient direction. Chemical quality factors which
reflect the solution process can be plotted really and their distribu-
tion may be used to show relative direction of water movement in
the aquifer.
Chloride content of ground water is an important quality factor
in Volusia County. Rainwater, which is low in chloride, recharges the
ground-water system and displaces the high chloride water that lies at
depth in the aquifer. The zone of diffusion between the fresh and
saline water moves up and down in relation to the head of fresh
water above the zone. This movement causes variations in the quality
of water withdrawn from wells that penetrate the zone of diffusion.
The chemical quality of water in the upper part of the Floridan
aquifer is of particular importance because most of the water used in
the county is withdrawn from this zone. Some of the more impor-
tant factors that affect ground-water usability in Volusia County are
total dissolved solids, total hardness, and chloride content.
The total dissolved solids content of water in the upper part of
the Floridan aquifer is shown in figure 17. The dissolved solids values
range from less than 100 mg/1 to several thousand mg/l and represent
water ranging from a calcium bicarbonate type to waters of a sodium
chloride type. Water containing low dissolved solids is found in the
central part of the county and is principally calcium bicarbonate
type water. Here, the low dissolved solids values are probably due to
recharge from the ridges and terraces in the central part of the
county. Higher dissolved solids values occur along the St. Johns River
and along the Atlantic coast, where principally sodium chloride type
waters are discharged from the lower parts of the aquifer.
Total hardness of water from the upper part of the Floridan
aquifer in Volusia County is shown in figure 18. The distribution of
the total hardness values is similar to that of the dissolved solids. In
the interior of the county this similarity occurs because the solution
of limestone accounts for nearly all of the dissolved mineral matter
in the water as well as for the property of hardness. The water
discharged along the coast and the St. Johns River is higher in both
hardness and sodium chloride and this accounts for the increased
dissolved solids in these areas.








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


U. "
r9 4Psa


Jo.


ots


1g.~


DISSOLVED SOLIDS IN
MILLIGRAMS PER LITER
C 0-250
E 250-500
3 500-1000
0 MORE THAN 1000
WELL
- FAULT
--- JOINT OR PROBABLE F


0 2 3 4 MILES


Figure 17. Total dissolved solids in ground water
Floridan aquifer in Volusia County.


from upper part of
from upper part of


38


JA.


4.j


- -


-- '___________







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


-o,


EXPLANATION
TOTAL HARDNESS IN
MILLIGRAMS PER LITER
0 0-125
E 125-250
(3 250-325
[f GREATER THAN 325

WELL
seo FAULT
o' JOINT OR PROBABLE FAU


Figure 18. Total hardness of ground water from upper part of Floridan
aquifer in Volusia County.


.eo






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Chloride content of water from the upper part of the Floridan
aquifer in the county is shown in figure 19. Chloride in the county's
ground water is derived from rainfall and from the saline water that
is present at depth in the aquifer. In areas of recharge the chloride is
derived from rainfall and concentrations are generally less than 25
mg/l. In areas of discharge, along the St. Johns River valley and the
Atlantic coast, saline water permeates the entire thickness of the
aquifer and chloride concentrations may reach several thousand
milligrams per liter.
The dissolved solids, hardness, and chloride maps show similar
east-west indentations of more highly mineralized water (figs. 17, 18,
19). The indentations, or reentrants are parallel to either faults or
joint systems. Highly mineralized water from deep in the aquifer may
move into the upper part of the aquifer along fault planes or joint
systems. The reentrant at Ponce de Leon Springs is aligned with the
reentrant at Spruce Creek along the east coast; both are probably
situated along a fault. Another reentrant extends into the DeLand
ridge between DeLand and Orange City.
Wyrick (1960) estimated the depth to saline water (greater than
1,000 mg/1 of chloride) in the aquifer in the center of the county to
be about 750 feet. From a deep well drilled in 1969, data were
obtained which showed that the depth to saline water is 1450 feet.
This apparent change in depth is a result of new data rather than an
actual change in the depth to saline water. The saline-fresh water
zone of diffusion can shift up and down though, as a result of
changes in the hydraulic heads in the upper and lower parts of the
aquifer. This movement produces changes in the ground-water
quality for parts of the aquifer near this zone. For example, lowering
the hydraulic head in the upper part of the aquifer could result in
upward movement of water from the lower part of the aquifer. This
movement may in turn result in increased salt content of wells
located near the zone of diffusion. This process is generally called
salt-water encroachment and is described in detail by Wyrick (1960,
p. 41-48).
The chloride content of ground water in the upper part of the
Floridan aquifer was measured during the mid 1950's and again in
the mid 1960's. A comparison of these two periods shows that
during the drought conditions of the mid 1950's, the chloride
content of the ground water was higher than during the relatively
wet conditions of the mid 1960's. The most probable source for the
higher chlorides was from recharge water which contained a higher
chloride content. The volume of soluble airborne chloride salts is









REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57



s" ^Jo '


/


EXPLANATION

CHLORIDE CONTENT IN
MILLIGRAMS PER LITER
M 0-25
] 25-250
s 250-1000
fn MORE THAN 100

WELL
- FAULT
- JOINT OR PROBABLE F


0 I 2 3 4 5 MILES
I-|-|I i i


Figure 19. Chloride content of ground water from upper part of Floridan
aquifer in Volusia County.


ego
eo,


"'90,
3o.


/0'











#9do


m











Table 5, Chemical analyses of springs in Volusla County,
Chemical analyses in milligrams per liter


Ponce de Leon Springs near DeLand, Fla. (site 31, fig. 1)
10-21-64 6.9 0.01 48 18 135 5.6 128 6 1240 0.1 5.0 558 195 90 1,000 7.7 2
5- 8-67 7.0 .01 S9 6.81 83 2.01 122 1 0 60 .2 2.6 124222 1126 26 415 7.7 0 29.5

Blue Springs near Orange City, Fla. (site 32, fig. 1)

5-26-66 8.8 0.00 70 36 1301 10 149 78 550 01 0.6 1,130 322 200 2120 7.2 0 156
5- 9-67 8.6 .00 57 1 26 215 7.7 160 52 388 .2 .8 876 835 250 119 1,520 7.6 0 155

Green Springs near Osteen, Fla. (site 33, fig. 1)

2-12-65 740 I- 2,500l -






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


probably constant during wet and dry periods, but during wet
periods the chloride concentration in precipitation and surface water
is less due to the dilution effect.
SPRINGS

Springs along the flanks of the DeLand ridge discharge water
which has infiltrated the ridge (fig. 15). Blue Springs, the ninth
largest spring in Florida (U. S. Geological Survey, 1964, p. 508), is a
first magnitude spring with an average flow of 105 mgd. Another
large spring is Ponce de Leon Springs which has an average flow of 20
mgd. Both springs are on the western edge of the DeLand ridge.
Green Springs, a relatively small spring, discharges water from the
south end of DeLand ridge at an average flow of 0.5 mgd. The flow
from just these three springs is almost 10 times the amount of water
presently withdrawn for public supplies in the county, but high
chlorides in their water (table 5) make it undesirable for public
supply.
Ponce de Leon Springs exhibits an unusual relationship between
the discharge and dissolved mineral content of its waters. The
dissolved mineral content of most springs decreases with increasing
discharge; but for Ponce de Leon Springs, the chloride content,
which is a major mineral constituent, increases with increasing
discharge, figure 20.The scatter of the points is probably due to the
variable control on the head of the spring. The outlet structure
(control), which forms the spring into a swimming pool, is manipu-
lated frequently to adjust the water level. During periods of low
water levels, when the chloride concentrations increase in the surface
and ground waters, chloride concentration in Ponce de Leon Springs
reach lows of 60 mg/l, which is well below the maximum limit of
250 mg/1 recommended by the U. S. Public Health Service (1962).
The phenomenon of high discharge and high chloride concentra-
tion is not fully understood but one explanation is that during
periods of greater recharge the increased fresh-water head causes the
zone of diffusion to be suppressed under the DeLand ridge. As the
zone of diffusion is suppressed, fresh water displaces the water with
greater chlorides in the zone of diffusion, which is then discharged
through the springs.

WATER AVAILABILITY AND USE

The availability of water in Volusia County depends on how
and where water is removed from the hydrologic system. The







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


0)










Lo w

U)
-J
z
0


-J
0 -j
-j
(9

z
0
-1
-J


w
(9

Ir
_Q
C.)
5


_I 1 a


o 0
o 0

1311i1 83d SI/VI9177m1N 30110-HO


to
o


Figure 20. Relation of chloride concentration to discharge at Ponce de
Leon Springs.

hydrogeologic conditions in the central part of the county are such
that the aquifer is full and rejecting recharge. If the piezometric
surface were lowered in this area by withdrawing water from the
Floridan aquifer for use, recharge would increase from capture of
water from evapotranspiration and runoff. The increase in recharge
would increase the amount of water available.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


In Volusia County the difference between precipitation and
evapotranspiration depends on the hydrogeologic conditions and is in
the form of runoff and/or ground-water discharge. If average condi-
tions for the whole county are used, an estimate of this difference
can be made. Average annual rainfall over the county is 52 inches
(3,000 mgd) and average evapotranspiration is estimated at 35 inches
(2,000 mgd) based on values used by other investigators for similar
areas. Kohler and others (1959, pl. 2) estimated the average annual
lake evaporation in this part of central Florida to be about 46 inches.
Evapotranspiration from the Green Swamp area in central Florida
was estimated by Pride and others (1966, table 18) to be about 37
inches. In Orange County, Lichtler and others (1968, p. 145)
estimated that evapotranspiration is 70 percent (36 inches) of
rainfall. In Volusia County the difference of 17 inches between
precipitation and evapotranspiration is accounted for by surface
runoff and ground-water drainage. The average annual surface runoff
as determined in this investigation is 10 inches (590 mgd) which
leaves 7 inches (410 mgd) as an estimation of ground-water dis-
charge. The amount of water used presently from the ground-water
system is about 26 mgd or just less than 0.5 inch of water over the
entire county.
Most large production wells are used for public water supplies
and as such are drilled relatively near the centers of population along
the Atlantic Coast and St. Johns River. Because the depth to saline
water is shallower in these areas than in the central part of the
county, wells are generally not over 300 feet deep. These large
diameter public supply wells (8-12 inch) will generally yield 1,000 to
1,500 gallons per minute. As well fields are developed nearer the
central part of the county, well yields should increase somewhat due
to the greater thickness of fresh-water-saturated aquifer there.
An estimate of the amount of readily available water through-
out the whole county is 300 mgd. This 300 mgd (equal to 5 inches of
water over the county) would be available from a slight decrease in
evapotranspiration, a result of lowering the water table; a slight
decrease in runoff, a result of greater infiltration; and a slight
decrease in natural ground-water discharge, a result of a lower gradi-
ent on the piezometric surface. Under the hydrogeologic conditions
in Volusia County, one way of increasing the amount of available
water is to use it.
The major uses of water are for public supply, rural supply,
irrigation, and industry. Water for recreation is also a major use but is
not so considered herein. In this report water is considered used
when it is removed from an aquifer or surface-water body.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


20


1950


1960


1970


Figure 21. Graph of water use in Volusia County, 1950-1970.

Of the 25.91 mgd used in Volusia County in 1967, 15.8 mgd or
60 percent Was used for public supply. Water use from 1950 to 1967
and extrapolated to 1970 is shown in figure 21. In the 20-year inter-
val the amount of water used for public supply will more than
double, the amount of water for irrigation will increase more than
four times whereas water for rural and industrial uses will increase
but slightly.


1 Does not include cooling water used in electrical generating.





REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


Ninety-five percent of the water used in Volusia County comes
from ground water and all but a fraction of a percent of this comes
from the Floridan aquifer. In 1967, 24.5 mgd was withdrawn from
the Floridan aquifer, all of which was recharged by rainfall on
Volusia County. The amount of water used for cooling in generating
electricity has not been included in the water use figures but is
shown in table 5. It is withdrawn from the Atlantic Ocean and the
St. Johns River to cool the generating plants and then returned to
the same sources.
Water is not uniformly available throughout the county. More
water is available in the central part of the county where the runoff
is greatest and the fresh-water part of the aquifer is thickest. The
water quality maps (figs. 17, 18, 19) show that fresh water is unavail-
able from the Floridan aquifer along the Atlantic Coast and St. Johns
River.
Water data for the public supplies, rural supply, irrigation and
industry are given in table 6. To diminish the possibility of salt-water
encroachment from the ocean that is induced by increased pumpage,
Daytona Beach, the largest water user in the county is constructing
new well fields to the west of the city and abandoning well fields
nearer the ocean. The location of the major well fields in the county
are shown on figure 22. Chemical analyses of public water supplies
are given in table 7.

SUMMARY

Most of the fresh water in Volusia County comes from the
average yearly 52 inches of rain that falls on the county. The natural
topography helps retain much of this water within the county. Karst
and shoreline ridges with their high rates of infiltration allow little or
no runoff. Although marine terraces have the highest runoff, their
streams do not have deeply incised channels and the water table
remains near the surface. Low sand ridges at the escarpment of each
terrace prevent streams from flowing directly to the ocean.
The two major hydrogeologic units are the plastic aquifer and
the underlying Floridan aquifer. The plastic aquifer is important as a
reservoir in which local rainfall is stored until it moves downward to
recharge the Floridan aquifer or is lost to evapotranspiration and
streamflow. The plastic aquifer comprised of sand, clay and shell has
a porosity of about 35 percent and a coefficient of storage of about
0.25. The infiltration capacity of the surficial sand is large, and it
absorbs much of the rainfall except in areas where the water table is









PIUMPAGE MGD (million gallons per day)
Population Depth of Annual
City Served Ownership Source of Well Wells walls variation Yearly Average
(1967) _Supply Fields (feet) (1967)


Breezewood Park1

Daytona Beach





DeBarry


DeLand




DeLand

Deltona


Edgewater





Holly Hill




Lake Beresford
Water Assoc.


250

60,000


650


18,800




2,200

3,700


3,700




11,500




360


Private

Municipal


Private


Municipal




Private

Private


Municipal





Municipal




Private


Floridan
aquifer
Floridan
aquifer




Floridan
aquifer

Floridan
aquifer



Floridan
aquifer
Floridan
aquifer

Floridan
aquifer



Floridan
aquifer



Floridan
aquifer


a




2


300-350






250








225




200


0.01..04

4..39.6


.03-.1


1.2-4.2






.2-4


15-1.2




.02-.04


1967

1933
1950
1951
1952
1955

1966
1967

1963
1964
1965
1966
1967

1967

1966
1967

1963
1964
1965
1966
1967

1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1965
1966
1967


0,02

1,4
5.5
5,7
4.1
4.0

.05
.06

2.1
2.0
2.0
1.8
1.9

.2

.6
1.0

.15
.20
.20
.23
.30

.46
.37
.45
.57
.51
.02
.02
.03


1954
1955
1956
1958
1962




















1959
1960
1961
1962
1968


1963
1964
1965
1966
1967


.47 1964
.46 1965
.52 1966
.62 1967
.72


6,0
5,7
6,.
6.0
7.0




















.64
.68
.69
.72


Table 6, Water use In Voluila County,


PUBLIC SUPPLY





Orange City




Lake Helen



New Smyrna
Beach



Ormond Beach





Port Orange


3,250




1,500



16,500




24,000





6,000


Private




Municipal



Municipal




Municipal


Floridan
aquifer



Floridan
aquifer


Floridan
aquifer



Floridan
aquifer


Municipal Floridan
aquifer


RURAL SUPPLY 2
WATER USE (MGD)
Year Population Ground Water Surface Water

1956 30,000 1.8 0.2
1965 32,000 2.1 .2

1967 25,000 2.0 .2


1 Unincorporated.
2 Includes all people using private domestic wells or
obtaining water from small systems supplying less than
100 people.
3 Water used in electrical generating.


460



200


200-220


2 5


.04-.12



1.2-4.0




1.4-2.8





.38-.85


1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1968
1964
1967

1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956

1953
1954
1955
1956
1957


.19 1965 .15
.23 1966 .23
.25 1967 .23
.21
.17
.06
.07
.07

1.5
1.7
1.7
1.8
2.0
.64 1957 1.0 1965
.68 1958 1.5 1966
.72 1962 1.5 1967
.83 1963 1.7
.95 1964 1.5

.15 1958 .27 1963
.19 1959 .29 1964
.21 1960 .29 1965
.21 1961 .31 1966
.28 1962 .82 1967


0









rz





.o
".


IRRIGATION
I WATER USE (MGD) ACRES
Year Ground Water Surface Water Citrus Truck Fern Other


1965 5.5 1.1 1,500 500 1,400 300

1967 6.1 1.1 1,500 500 1,600 300

INDUSTRIAL
GROUND WATER (MGD) SURFACE WATER3 (MGD)
Year Fresh Saline Fresh Saline
1965 0.4 0.2 144

1967 .5 .2 144 16


I


I









REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


at the surface. The shell beds contain a relatively large amount of
water and in places along the coast are a source for domestic water
supplies. Dissolved solids concentration of the water in the plastic
aquifer is lowest in the sand beds and higher in the shell beds.
The Floridan aquifer, comprised of limestone and dolomitic
limestone, underlies all of Volusia C6unty. It is a semiconfined
artesian aquifer and the principal source of water supply in the
county. A hard, dense, dolomitic zone divides the aquifer into an
upper and lower part. Geologic structure appears to be a major factor
in the hydrogeologic system of the Floridan aquifer. Faults form a
fault-block that encloses the piezometric high in the center of the
county. Zones of highly mineralized water occur along fault planes
or joint systems. Water levels in the upper part of the aquifer along
the coast have declined about 5 feet since 1955. This is attributed to
increased pumping for the rapidly growing east coast area. Other
areas, where pumping has not greatly increased, exhibit stable levels.
Water in the upper part of the Floridan aquifer is of good chemical
quality in most of the interior of the county. It is principally calcium
bicarbonate type water but there is also some sodium chloride type
water in this area. Aquifer chlorides as low as 10 mg/1 and hardness
of 100 mg/1 are found in the interior. However, highly saline water is
found at depth in the aquifer and in the discharge areas along the
coast and the St. Johns Valley.
Recharge to the Floridan aquifer occurs throughout much of
Volusia County. Some recharge generally occurs wherever the water
table is higher than the piezometric surface. However, areas of
piezometric highs should not be considered principal recharge areas
in Volusia County. Such a high occurs in the western part of the
Talbot terrace where the piezometric surface is near or above the
water table most of the time, a condition which prevents recharge to
the Floridan aquifer. Areas where the water table is higher than the
piezometric surface such as parts of the karst ridge and the eastern
part of the Talbot terrace are areas of greater recharge.
Most of the lakes in Volusia County are on the DeLand ridge,
where there are about 120 larger than 5 acres. These lakes, with a
few exceptions, are generally shallow (less than 20 feet) and have a
small seasonal fluctuation (less than 3 feet). Lakes which are
surrounded by agricultural or residential land are more highly
mineralized than lakes isolated from human activity.
Streamflow from the county averages about 590 mgd. This is
over 20 times the daily water use, however, the minimum flow
during the spring dry season is less than 5 mgd. Volusia County






52 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

streams have very little channel storage and the potential of using
streams for a water supply is slight due to their flow characteristics.
Most of the streams are slightly mineralized, highly colored and
slightly acid. The flow of the St. Johns River is about 80 times
greater than the amount of water used daily in the county. However,
the water is of poor chemical quality and generally unsuitable for
most uses. At times, during low flow, some streams are affected by
discharge from the Floridan aquifer and exhibit chemical quality
similar to the ground water.
It is estimated that 300 mgd on an average throughout the
county is readily available for use. This water could be obtained by
lowering the piezometric surface through pumping in the central part
of the county which would decrease evaporation, runoff, and natural
ground-water discharge and increase infiltration.
Total water use in Volusia County in 1967 was 26 mgd, of
which 95 percent was derived from the Floridan aquifer.








Table 7. Chemical analyses of public water supplies.1
Chemical analyses, in milligrams per liter
Cal- Magne- Potas- Bicar- Fluo- Ni-
Silica Iron cium sium Sodium sium bonate Sulfate Chloride ride trate Dissolved Total
City Date (SiO2) (Fe) (Ca) (Mg) (Na) (K) (HCOg) (804) (Cl) (F) (NOS) Solids Hardness pH
Daytona Beach 19572 21 14 104 5 253 353 0 32 315 280
1965 2 .2 101 9 276 46 286 7.2
DeLand 19234 16 .07 39 6.8 7.53 140 9.0 12 4.3 164 125
(Municipal) 19624 8.2 .01 46 6.6 9.5 1.8 156 12 16 0.2 .0 177 142 8.0
DeLand 19654 7.3 .00 39 6.0 6.7 .8 136 13 11 .2 .0 151 122 7.7
'(Private)
Deltona 19654 .1 50 5 128 5 28 .5 238 146 7.4
Holly Hill 1952 94 18 333 347 4 67 484 310
1966 23 .02 101 12 356 5 74 .4 1 508 308 7.2
Lake Beresford 1965 10 .06 39 4 12 .9 110 15 24 .1 5 188 114 7.4
Water Assoc. 1967 .03 43 5 122 25 45 215 130 7.4
Orange City 1964 .3 68 8 217 10 242 206 7.0
Lake Helen 1950 0 58 4 195 0 10 .1 210 160 7.4
1958 .02 59 6 180 3 13 .05 203 174 7.5
New Smyrna 1950 1.1 116 8 8 381 0 60 .2 465 324 7.4
Beach 1961 .15 31 6 331 10 79 .15 488 196 7.9
Ormond Beach 1958 .3 0 104 16 95 342 8 149 675 324 7.3
19624 19 .05 107 21 90 2.2 322 9.6 200 .3 .1 608 354 8.0

1 Untreated water.
2 Airport well field.
3 Includes potassium.
4 Analyses by U. S. Geological Survey.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


REFERENCES CITED
Barnes, H. H., Jr.
1966 (and Golden, H. G.) Magnitude and frequency of floods in the
United States: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1674, 409 p.
Brown, D. W.
1962 (and Kenner, W. E., and Crooks, J. W., and Foster, J. B.) Water
resources of Brevard County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Rept. Inv.
28, 104 p.
Florida Development
Commission
1965 Population of Florida: Fla. Development Comm., Tallahassee,
Florida, 19 p.


Knochenmus
1968

Kohler, M. A
1959

Lichtler, W.
1968

Pfischner, F.
1968


Pride, R. W.
1966

Puri, H. S.
1964


,D. D.
Surface drainage characteristics of Volusia County: Fla. Geol.
Survey Map Series 30.

(and Norderson, T. J., and Baker, D. R.) Evaporation maps for the
United States: U. S. Weather Bureau Tech. Paper 37, 13 p.
F.
(and Anderson, Warren, and Joyner, B. F.) Water resources of
Orange County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 50, 150 p.
L.
Relation between land use and chemical characteristics of lakes in
southwestern Orange County: U. S. Geological Survey Prof. Paper
600-B, p. B190 B194.

(and Meyer, F. W., and Cherry, R. N.) Hydrology of Green Swamp
area in central Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 42, 137 p.

(and Vernon, R. O.) Summary of the geology of Florida and a
guidebook to the classic exposures: Fla. Geol. Survey Spec. Pub. 5,
312 p.


Schneider, Robert
1964 Cenomanian-Turonian aquifer of central Israel Its development
and possible use as a storage reservoir: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-
Supply Paper 1608-F, 20 p.


Snell, L.J.
1970


(and Anderson, Warren) Water resources of Northeast Florida: Fla.
Dept. Nat. Res., Bur. Geology Rept. Inv. 54.


U. S. Dept. Health,
Education and Welfare
1962 Public Health Service drinking water standards: Pub. No. 956, p.
33.
U. S. Geological Survey
1964 Surface water records of Florida: Streams, No. 1, p. 508.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Visher, F. N.
1967 (and Wetterhall, W. S.) Effect of filled cavities on the hydrology of
the limestone terrain in Florida: In Abstracts of papers submitted
for the meeting in Tallahassee, Florida, March 30-31 and April 1,
1967: Southeastern Sec., Geol. Soc. America.
Wyrick, G. G.
1960 The ground-water resources of Volusia County, Florida: Fla. Geol.
Survey Rept. Inv. 22, 65 p.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


APPENDIX

The following table lists sites where hydrologic data on lakes,
streams, aquifers and springs were collected. Data were collected at
some sites prior to the investigation and constitute a long record of
hydrologic information whereas other sites were established during
the investigation. The location, type, frequency and period of record
for each site are given in the table.


Table 8. Hydrologic data-collection sites in Volusia County and vicinity.


Frequency of record: r, Continuous; p, Periodic; d,
number of analyses.


Daily (10) Total


STREAMS


Site
No. on
figure 1


Location


Middle Haw Creek at Relay
station, near Bunnell
Little Haw Creek, at State
Hwy. 11, near Bunnell
Little Tomoka River near
Ormond Beach
Tomoka River near Holly
Hill
Deep Creek near Barberville

Spruce Creek near Samsula

St. Johns River near DeLand

St. Johns River near Sanford

Deep Creek diversion canal
near Osteen
Deep Creek near Osteen


Cow Creek near Maytown

St.Johns River, above Lake
Harney, near Geneva


Type and
frequency
of record


Dr
A(10)
Dp
A(12)
Dp
A(9)
Dr
A(12)
Dp
A(13)
Dr
A(11)
Dr
A(47)
Sr, Dp
A(13)
Sd
A(9)
Dr
Pd
A(69)
Dp
A(8)
Sr, Dp
A(13)


Period of record

October 1964 to September 1966
1964-66
1964-66
1964-67
1943, 1945-46, 1956, 1962-67
1964-66
October 1964 to September 1967
1964-67
1964-67
1964-67
May 1951 to September 1967
1964-67
October 1933 to September 1967
1948-49, 1954, 1962, 1966-67
July 1941 to September 1967
1954, 1962, 1965-67
October 1964 to September 1966
1964-66
October 1964 to September 1966

1964-66
1964-66
1964-66
July 1941 to September 1967
1957-58, 1962, 1966-67


Type of record:


D, Discharge and stage; A, Standard chemical
analysis; S, Stage; P, Partial chemical analysis.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


WELLS


Site
No. on
figure 1

13

14





15

16





17






18

19

20




21





22





23


Location

290842N0810846.11

290655N0811112.1

290655N0811112.2

290655N0811112.3

290541N0811329.1

290534N0811750.1

290534N0811750.2

290534N0811750.3

290432N0811449.1

290432N0811449.2

290432N0811449.3

290432N0811449.4
290251N0810014.1

290142N0811059.1

290138N0812032.1

290138N0812032.2


290106N0811321.1

290106N0811321.2

290106N0811321.3

290107N0810620.1

290107N0810620.2

290107N0810620.3

285904N0811526.1

285904N0811526.2

285904N0811526.3


Depth
feet

100

95

304

18

351

114

260

19

84

310

47

7
700

91

62

500


92

340

47

111

21

282

222

22

325


Type and
frequency
of record

Sp
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr.
A(1)
Sr
Sp
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
A(1)
Sp
A(6)
Sp
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
Sp
A(6)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)


Period of record

1965-67
1966
January 1966 to December 1967
1966
January 1966 to December 1967
1966
January 1966 to December 1967
1966
May 1955 to May 1965
1965-67
April 1966 to December 1967
1966
April 1966 to December 1967
1966
April 1966 to December 1967
1966
January 1966 to August 1967
1966
January 1966 to August 1967
1966
January 1966 to August 1967
1966
1966
1965-67
1965-66
1965-67
1966
April 1966 to June 1967
1966
April 1966 to June 1967
1967
1965-66
January 1966 to December 1967
1966
January 1966 to December 1967
1966
January 1966 to December 1967
1966
January 1966 to December 1967
1966
January 1966 to December 1967
1966
January 1966 to December 1967
1966
January 1966 to December 1967
1966
January 1966 to December 1967
1966
January 1966 to December 1967
1966


1 Wel number refers to latitude and longitude (290842N0810846.1 =
lat. 29 08'42" north, long. 81 08'46", well no. 1.)


.. ., .









285655

285655

285655


REPORT OF INVESTIGATION


N0811656.1 171 Sr
A(1)
N0811656.2 32 Sr
A(1)
iN0811656.3 70 Sr


285643N0811226.1

285643N0811226.2

285643N0811226.3

285221N0810950.1

285221N0810950.2

291130N0810417.2


97

37

202

222

92

500


Ati)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sp
Pp


N NO. 57 59


January 1966 to August 1967
1966
January 1966 to August 1967
1966
January 1966 to August 1967
1966
April 1966 to December 1967
1966
April 1966 to December 1967
1966
April 1966 to December 1967
1966
April 1966 to June 1967
1966
April 1966 to June 1967
1966
1955-67
1955-67


LAKES

Site Type and
No. on frequency
figure 1 Location of record Period of Record

27 Lake Winona near Sr March 1965 to September 1967
DeLand A(3) 1965-67
28 Lake Hires near Sr March 1965 to September 1966
DeLand A(2) 1965-66
29 Lake Winnemissett near Sr March 1965 to September 1967
DeLand A(4) 1965-67
30 Lake Dupont near Lake Sr March 1965 to September 1966
Helen A(2) 1965-66



SPRINGS

31 Ponce de Leon Springs Dp 1929, 1932, 1946, 1956, 1960
near DeLand 1964-67
A(4) 1923,1946,1964,1967
P (8) 1965-67
32 Blue Springs near Dp 1932-67
Orange City A(3) 1964-67
P(10)
33 Green Springs hear Dp 1932, 1960, 1965, 1966
Osteen P(1)


Pp


----------------------------------! ------- 1 -















LAKE "g3o
GEORG0E / 30





or /

.4i,,,, i /






BEACH



00,
DAYTONA
.BEACH
--Z









CITY

















SEXPLANATION





E 25-50
50-75 0
75-100
ABOVE 100

30 0 I 2 3 4 5 MILES




oP JO / #e
o oO O


Figure 3. Topographic map of Volusia County.











LUAGSER CO.,
VOLUSIA CO.


BEACH





VOLUSIA C.
BREVARD CO.
i


0 5 10 MILES
I I I I I I


- 50'
- SEA LEVEL
- 50'
- 100'
- 150'
- 200'
- 250'


-50'
- SEA LEVEL
- 50'
-100'
-150'
- 200'
- 250'


- PROBABLE FAULT


5 MILES
..Jaggerated
exaggerated


EXPLANATION

S SAND

PLASTIC CLA
AQUIFER -- LA
S50 SHELL
- SEA LEVEL
50 FLORIDANJ LIMESTONE
-1001 AQUIFER DOLOMITIC
-5 LIMESTONE
- 150'
22 TEST WELL. REFER TO
- 200' FIGURE I AND TABLE 8.
- 250' SEA LEVEL


Figure 4. Fence diagram of hydrogeologic sections in Volusia County.


50 -20
SEA LEVEL -
50' -
100' -
150'-
200' -
250-


S0,0


O~25


0

Vertical


I 2

scale


3 4
grI e
greatly
















S | DeLand Talbot
metric Ridge Terrace
rfoce (FLORIDAN AQUIFER)
I


St Johns
River


Block diagram of part of Volusia County
showing the movement of water.


Al


K


I'


IMSL




Evaluation of the quantity and quality of the water resources of Volusia County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 57 )
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 Material Information
Title: Evaluation of the quantity and quality of the water resources of Volusia County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 57 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Report of investigations 57 )
Physical Description: vii, 59 p. : illus., maps (part col., 3 in pocket) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Knochenmus, Darwin D
Beard, Michael E., 1940-
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
Volusia County (Fla.) -- Board of County Commissioners
Publisher: Bureau of Geology
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1971
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Water-supply -- Florida -- Volusia County   ( lcsh )
Groundwater -- Florida -- Volusia County   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Darwin D. Knochenmus and Michael E. Beard.
General Note: Part of illustrative matter fold. in pocket.
General Note: "Prepared by U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Natural Resources, Division of Interior Resources, Bureau of Geology, and the Board of County Commissioners of Volusia County.
General Note: "References cited": p.55-56.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000843256
oclc - 00380528
notis - AED9245
lccn - 73635995
System ID: UF00001244:00001

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Transmittal letter
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Abstract
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Hydrologic system
        Page 6
        Page 5
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Water resources
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 15
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Summary
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 47
    References
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Appendix
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Copyright
        Copyright
Full Text








STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Randolph Hodges, Executive Director



DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
J.V. Sollohub, Director



BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
Robert 0. Vernon, Chief



Report of Investigations No. 57


EVALUATION OF THE QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF THE
WATER RESOURCES OF VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA



By
Darwin D. Knochenmus and Michael E. Beard
U.S. Geological Survey



Prepared by
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
and the
BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS OF VOLUSIA COUNTY


TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
1971








DEPARTMENT
OF
NATURAL RESOURCES





REUBIN O'D. ASKEW
Governor


RICHARD (DICK) STONE
Secretary of State




THOMAS D. O'MALLEY
Treasurer




FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN
Commissioner of Education


ROBERT L. SHEVIN
Attorney General




FRED 0. DICKINSON, JR.
Comptroller




DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGES
Executive Director










LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Bureau of Geology
Tallahassee
September 23, 1970


Honorable Reubin O'D. Askew, Chairman
Department of Natural Resources
Tallahassee, Florida


Dear Governor Askew:


The Bureau of Geology, Division of Interior Resources, Department of
Natural Resources, is publishing as its Report of Investigations No. 57, an
"Evaluation of the Quantity and Quality of the Water Resources of Volusia
County, Florida." This report amplifies and refines some of the data already
issued covering the water resources of Volusia County, which were published as
Report of Investigations No. 21. The work in the report was accomplished as a
cooperative program between the Department of Natural Resources, the U. S.
Geological Survey and the Board of County Commissioners of Volusia County.
Volusia County is almost totally dependent upon the water which falls upon the
county and has a recharge area contained along the western portion and the
central portions of the county. Excellent water is produced in the areal recharge
and it is anticipated that this data will expand the existing knowledge of the
water resources to permit the development of a great capacity for existing
utilities and to offset and solve some of the problems now in the area.

Sincerely yours,



R. 0. Vernon,Chief





















































Completed manuscript received
November 3, 1970
Printed for the Florida Department of Natural Resources
Division of Interior Resources
Bureau of Geology
by Designers Press
Orlando, Florida

Tallahassee
1971


iv



















CONTENTS


Page
.. 1
.. 3


Abstract ......................................
Introduction ...................................


Purpose and scope ...........

Acknowledgements ..........
Hydrologic System ..............
Physiography ...............

Hydrogeology ...............
Recharge to Floridan aquifer
Rainfall ...................
Water Resources ................
Surface Water ...............
Lakes ..................
Streams ................
Ground Water ...............


.............................. 3


......................... 5
..................... .. 5
................... ....... 5

............ ............. 8
. . . . . .. . 10
........................ 13
........................ 15
........................ 16
........................ 16


.............................. 19
......................... .... 31


Clastic aquifer .............
Floridan aquifer ...........
Springs ..................
Water availability and use ........
Summary ........................
References cited ..................
Appendix .......................


......I
......I


......
......









ILLUSTRATIONS


Figure Page
1. Map of Volusia County Showing the location of
hydrologic data-collection sites ................................ 4
2. Physiographic features of Volusia County ........................ 6
3. Topographic map of Volusia County ............................ 7
4. Fence Diagram of hydrogeologic sections in Volusia
County ................................................... 8
5. Block diagram of part of Volusia County showing
the movement of water ..................................... 10
6. Hydrographs of water levels in wells at hydrologic
data sites 14,23, and 25 ..................................... 11
7. Monthly and annual rainfall at Daytona Beach
Airport and DeLand ...................................... 14
8. Hydrographs of daily stage for four lakes in
Volusia County ........................................... 16
9. Flow chart of streams in Volusia County ........................ 21
10. Water surface profiles of Deep Creek (Osteen) for
high and low discharges ..................................... 22
11. Flow duration curves for major streams in Volusia
County ................................................... 24
12. Hydrographs of temperature, specific conductance,
streamflow, and rainfall for Deep Creek near
Osteen, 1965 ............................................. 27
13. Dissolved solids duration curve for Deep Creek
near Osteen .............................................. 28
14. Chemical analyses of selected composites of
samples from Deep Creek near Osteen showing
relative proportions of major mineral
constituents .............................................. 30
15. Volusia County showing contours on the
piozometric surface of the Floridan aquifer ...................... 34
16. Hydrographs of long-term records of ground-water
levels in the Floridan aquifer near Barberville
and Daytona Beach ........................................ 36
17. Total dissolved solids in ground water from upper
part of Floridan aquifer in Volusia County ...................... 38
18. Total hardness of ground water from upper part of
Floridan aquifer in Volusia County ............................ 39
19. Chloride content of ground water from upper part
of Floridan aquifer in Volusia County .......................... 41
20. Relation of chloride concentration to discharge at
Ponce de Leon Springs ...................................... 44
21. Graph of water use in Volusia County, 1950-1970 ................. 46
22. Map showing location of well fields ............................ 50








TABLES


Table Page
1. Comparison of chemical analyses of Lake Winne-
missett and Lake Dupont .................................... 18
2. Drainage areas, average flows, and low flows of
subbasins in Volusia County .................................. 20
3. Selected chemical characteristics of surface
waters in Volusia County .................................... 25
4. Comparison of ground water quality at various
depths in Volusia County .................................... 33
5. Chemical analyses of springs in Volusia County ................... 42
6. Water use in Volusia County ............................... 48-49
7. Chemical analyses of public water supplies ....................... 53
8. Hydrologic data-collection sites in Volusia County
and vicinity .............................................. 57









EVALUATION OF THE QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF THE
WATER RESOURCES OF VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA

by
Darwin D. Knochenmus and Michael E. Beard


ABSTRACT

Volusia County includes about 1,200 square miles along the
central east coast of Florida. The population of the county increased
by 60 thousand people between 1955 and 1965. Water use in 1967
averaged about 25.9 mgd (million gallons per day), of which the
major use (15.8 mgd) was for public supply. In the 20-year interval,
1950 to 1970, the amount of water used for public supply, all of
which is ground water, will have more than doubled. On the average,
it is estimated that 300 mgd is available for man's use. Ninety-five
percent of the water used in Volusia County comes from the
Floridan aquifer.
The county receives most of its fresh water from rainfall, which
averages 52 inches per year. The unconsolidated sand of the clastic
aquifer absorbs much of the rainfall. Seepage from the clastic aquifer
is to streams and to the underlying Floridan aquifer.
Recharge to the Floridan aquifer occurs throughout the county
wherever the water table in the clastic 'aquifer is higher than the
piezometric surface in the Floridan aquifer. No area is a principal
recharge area, but parts of the ridges and the eastern part of the
Talbot terrace appear to have the greatest recharge per unit area.
In the central part of the county the clastic aquifer is full and
rejecting recharge through runoff and evapotranspiration. If the
piezometric surface were lowered in this area by withdrawing water
from the Floridan aquifer for use, this rejected recharge would be
decreased by the capture of water. This would increase the amount
of water available for use.
Of the few hundred lakes in the county, most occur along the
DeLand ridge, where there are about 120 larger than 5 acres. Many
of the ridge lakes, because of their size, purity, and small range in
surface level fluctuation have excellent recreational potentials. Water
in most lakes in the county has a low mineral content with mineral-
ization ranging from slightly less than 25 to 150 mg/1l (milligrams per
liter).
Streamflow out of the county averages about 590 mgd. Flow
into the Atlantic Ocean is about 225 mgd and the St. Johns River






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


receives about 365 mgd. The average streamflow is many times larger
than the water use for the entire county, but is adequate as a water
supply because of the variation in flow. During low-flow periods,
streamflow averages less than 5 mgd. The mineralization of the water
in the streams is relatively low with the exception of the St. Johns
River and the estuarine sections of Tomoka River and Spruce Creek
along the Atlantic coast. Under average flow conditions, the mineral
content of the water is less than 200 mg/1, the pH about 6 and the
color about 300 platinum-cobalt units.

The productive Floridan aquifer underlies the entire county.
Movement of water in the aquifer is outward from the central part of
the county, west, north and south to the St. Johns River and east
toward the Atlantic Ocean. Water levels were slightly higher in 1966
than in 1955, but show no upward or downward trend except in
heavily pumped areas. In one such area near Daytona Beach, water
levels have declined more than 5 feet since 1955. Mineral content of
water from the Floridan aquifer ranges from 100 to 400 mg/l except
in the highly mineralized areas along the St. Johns River and the
Atlantic coast.

Most high capacity wells in the county withdraw water from the
Floridan aquifer for the public supply of areas near the Atlantic
Ocean and the St. Johns River. The relatively shallow presence of
saline water in these areas limits useful well depths to about 300 feet.
Such wells, however, generally yield 1,000 to 1,500 gallons per
minute. The depth to saline water in the undeveloped central part of
the county is as much as 1,450 feet; thus development of deeper
wells in that area should result in higher yields because of the greater
available thickness of fresh water in the aquifer. Such development
would also have the added desirable effect of capturing recharge
water that is currently rejected and lost to the area by runoff and
evapotranspiration.

The Floridan aquifer discharges water through large springs
along the St. Johns valley. Blue Springs, the ninth largest spring in
Florida, has an average flow of 105 mgd and Ponce de Leon Springs
has an average flow of 20 mgd. This large volume of water however,
is generally unsuitable for public supply. The chloride content of
Blue Springs is always greater than the 250 mg/l limit suggested by
the U. S. Health Service. During periods of high discharge, Ponce de
Leon Springs also exceeds the suggested chloride limit.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


INTRODUCTION

Volusia County, an area of 1,200 square miles, is located along
the central east coast of Florida, figure 1. In 1965, it ranked fif-
teenth in rate of growth of the state's 67 counties. The population in
1965 was 157,900, an increase from 1955 of about 60 thousand
(Florida Development Commission, 1965). The county's population
is expected to continue to increase, causing a commensurate increase
in water use. The greatest water use, at present, is along the coast
where nearly 60 percent of the population resides.

PURPOSE AND SCOPE

In 1960, a report on the ground-water resources of Volusia
County was published by the Florida Geological Survey (Wyrick,
1960). This report, based on an investigation made during the
mid-1950's, provided a base for an understanding of the complex
hydrologic system within the county but also raised a number of
pertinent questions. To further consider these questions and expand
the scope of the earlier study to include surface waters and attendant
drainage problems, a 3-year investigation of the water resources of
Volusia County was begun in August 1964 by the U. S. Geological
Survey in cooperation with the Board of County Commissioners of
Volusia County and the Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of
Natural Resources.
This investigation was intended to: (1) Define the primary areas
of recharge to the Floridan aquifer, including the rate and quantity
of downward movement of water from the clastic aquifer to the
Floridan aquifer and describe the hydrologic system in terms of the
effects of physiography, hydrogeology, and rainfall on the occur-
rence, quantity and movement of water; and (2) evaluate the sur-
face-water resources of the county with respect to quantity, quality,
drainage characteristics and surface drainage feasibility. The accom-
plishment of the above should provide a more comprehensive scien-
tific basis for optimum development of the county's water resources.
To accomplish these objectives, a series of test wells was.drilled
and hydrologic data from throughout the county were collected and
analyzed. Figure 1 shows the locations where hydrologic data were
collected on a periodic basis. Descriptions of the sites and types and
periods of record are given in table 8 in the Appendix. Miscellaneous
hydrologic data were collected at numerous other sites. During the
investigation climatic conditions varied from extremely wet to








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

1? .2a,


EXPLANATION
HYDROLOGIC DATA SITE
& STREAM
0 WELL
O LAKE
o SPRING
I DATA SITE NUMBER
ON TABLE 8.

[ I


Figure 1. Map of Volusia County showing the location of hydrologic data-
collection sites.






-REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


extremely dry which permitted observation of the hydrologic system
under a wide range of conditions.
This report describes the hydrologic system with reference to
the movement of ground water from the clastic aquifer to the
Floridan aquifer. The two aquifer systems are described and the
influence of geologic faulting on the quality of water in the Florida
aquifer is discussed. Surface waters are discussed in terms of the
quantity and quality of water in lakes and streams. Water-use trends
are predicted for public supply, irrigation, industrial and rural uses.
Only minimal information about the St. Johns River is included in
this report as a more detailed description of the water resources of
the St. Johns is given by L. J. Snell and Warren Anderson (1970).
A report, discussing surface drainage characteristics has recently
been published as a result of this investigation (Knochenmus, 1968).
Conjunctive use should be made of that report and the current report
to provide the basis for optimum water resource development in
Volusia County.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Appreciation is extended to the many people of Volusia County
who supplied information for the investigation. Thanks are due
Thomas Well Drilling Company and Mr. Roger Brooks who supplied
information about wells and quality of water and to the city officials
who furnished information on municipal water use. Thanks are also
extended to county officials, who cooperated in all aspects of the
investigation.

HYDROLOGIC SYSTEM

The various environments on, above, or beneath the land
surface through which water moves constitute a hydrologic system,
and the circulation of water through these environments is known as
the hydrologic cycle. The ultimate source of water used by man is
rainfall, although water may move into any given political division,
such as a county, from outside its boundaries through streams or by
underground flow. In Volusia County most of the fresh water in the
hydrologic system has originated as rainfall on the County.

PHYSIOGRAPHY

The topography of Volusia County has been described by
Wyrick (1960). A generalized picture is of a succession of terraces







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


EXPLANATION
E KARST RIDGES

L' MARINE TERRACES

3 SHORELINE RIDGES

--PHYSIOGRAPHIC BOUNDARY'


Figure 2. Physiographic features of Volusia County.


9o,


a






-REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


extremely dry which permitted observation of the hydrologic system
under a wide range of conditions.
This report describes the hydrologic system with reference to
the movement of ground water from the clastic aquifer to the
Floridan aquifer. The two aquifer systems are described and the
influence of geologic faulting on the quality of water in the Florida
aquifer is discussed. Surface waters are discussed in terms of the
quantity and quality of water in lakes and streams. Water-use trends
are predicted for public supply, irrigation, industrial and rural uses.
Only minimal information about the St. Johns River is included in
this report as a more detailed description of the water resources of
the St. Johns is given by L. J. Snell and Warren Anderson (1970).
A report, discussing surface drainage characteristics has recently
been published as a result of this investigation (Knochenmus, 1968).
Conjunctive use should be made of that report and the current report
to provide the basis for optimum water resource development in
Volusia County.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Appreciation is extended to the many people of Volusia County
who supplied information for the investigation. Thanks are due
Thomas Well Drilling Company and Mr. Roger Brooks who supplied
information about wells and quality of water and to the city officials
who furnished information on municipal water use. Thanks are also
extended to county officials, who cooperated in all aspects of the
investigation.

HYDROLOGIC SYSTEM

The various environments on, above, or beneath the land
surface through which water moves constitute a hydrologic system,
and the circulation of water through these environments is known as
the hydrologic cycle. The ultimate source of water used by man is
rainfall, although water may move into any given political division,
such as a county, from outside its boundaries through streams or by
underground flow. In Volusia County most of the fresh water in the
hydrologic system has originated as rainfall on the County.

PHYSIOGRAPHY

The topography of Volusia County has been described by
Wyrick (1960). A generalized picture is of a succession of terraces






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


that begin at sea level and, progressing westward, rise steplike to an
altitude of 100 feet at DeLand, and then drop sharply to almost sea
level at the St. Johns River, figure 2.
A classification of the physiographic features into three divi-
sions; karst ridges, marine terraces, and ancient and present shoreline
ridges, was adapted from Puri and Vernon (1964).
Karst topography, as exemplified by the Crescent City and
DeLand ridges, is characterized by high local relief, sinkhole lakes
and ponds, dry depressions, and subsurface drainage. Near Deltona
the land is over 110 feet in altitude, whereas nearby, southeast of
Orange City, depressions dip to 10 feet above mean sea level. This
results in relief of about 100 feet on the DeLand ridge. The county
has about 120 lakes larger than five acres with 90 percent located
within the karst ridges. On the DeLand ridge most of the lakes are
along the eastern and southern edges whereas they occur over the
entire extent of the Crescent City ridge.
More water is cycled through the ground-water system from the
karst ridges, with their comparatively high relief and good subsurface
drainage, than from areas where surface drainage is better developed.
These ridges also act as reservoirs for the storage of surface and
ground water until it recharges the Floridan aquifer or evaporates.
The marine terraces are poorly drained flat surfaces covered
with forest vegetation and are commonly called "flat-woods". Three
terraces are shown on figure 2; Silver Bluff terrace at 10 foot
altitude, Pamlico terrace at 25 feet, and Talbot terrace at about 40
feet. Numerous swamps and cypress heads occupy shallow depres-
sions which had their origin on the ancient sea floor. A topographic
map of the county, figure 3, indicates a youthful surface, flat and
poorly drained. Surface drainage on marine terraces is in the first
stages of development. Knochenmus (1968) delineated the drainage
basins, mapped the runoff distribution and indicated feasibility of
drainage of the terraces in Volusia County.
Figure 3. Topographic map of Volusia County.
(In pocket)
Streams on the marine terraces generally flow north or south
parallel to the coastline. The beach ridges parallel to the coast (fig.
2), which formed during the building of the terraces, prevent the
streams from draining directly to the ocean. One stream system, by
taking a longer route to the ocean, can drain an area that would have
required many short streams. Many short streams flowing into the
ocean might have allowed salt water to move inland in numerous






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


places, whereas only Tomoka River and Spruce Creek now allow salt
water to move inland.
The third physiographic division, the shoreline ridge, encom-
passes a low ridge on the seaward edge of each of the three marine
terraces (fig. 2). Rima ridge is a low sand ridge rising 5 to 10 feet
above the Talbot terrace; the Atlantic Coastal ridge rises 10 to 15
feet above the Pamlico terrace; and the present Atlantic ridge rises
about 10 feet above the Silver Bluff terrace. Rima ridge and the
Atlantic Coastal ridge are ancient shoreline ridges whose depositional
history is similar to the deposition of the present Atlantic ridge.
The shoreline ridges act as reservoirs for the storage of ground
water. The water table beneath the ridges is higher than beneath the
adjacent terraces resulting in a more vigorous subsurface circulation
and recharge into the limestone in the areas of the ridges.

HYDROGEOLOGY

The geologic materials of Volusia County comprise two major
hydrogeologic units, the upper poorly consolidated clastic deposits
and the underlying thick sequence of limestone and dolomite,
commonly called the Floridan aquifer; both are shown in the fence
diagram of figure 4. Wyrick (1960, p. 25) discussed the two major
units in terms of the nonartesian and artesian aquifers.
Figure 4. Fence diagram of hydrogeologic sections in Volusia County.
(In pocket)
The clastic deposits are made up of poorly consolidated sand,
clay, and shell of Pleistocene to Miocene age. They occur as discon-
tinuous, lenticular, and interfingering beds (fig. 4). The material in
any given bed may grade from sand to clayey sand to clay, and the
shell beds may have a matrix of sand, clay, or both. In general the
surface material is fine sand which is underlain by clay lenses and
then by shell beds which in turn overlie the limestone except in a few
areas near the coast where clay lenses underlie the shell beds.
Under the eastern edge of the Talbot terrace, the sand appears
to thicken, and particularly under the Rima ridge the clay is thin or
missing (sites 13 and 22, fig. 4). In places the shell beds are as much
as 50 feet thick and are comprised of large shells.
Permeability is a measure of the ability of a geologic material to
transmit water in response to differences in hydraulic head, or gradi-
ent. The movement of ground water between the clastic deposits and
the Floridan aquifer is controlled by the permeability of the clastic






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


deposits and the head differential between the units. Because of the
lenticularity and discontinuity of the clastic deposits, the rate of
vertical movement of water ranges widely. On the basis of cuttings
from a few wells it appears that the variation in vertical permeability
is as great from site to site within the same physiographic division as
between sites within different physiographic divisions. For example,
low permeability beds occur at site 16 (fig. 4) on the north end of
DeLand ridge and at site 19 on the Talbot terrace, whereas higher
permeability beds were found at site 25 on the south end of DeLand
ridge and site 14 on the Talbot terrace. Where a confining bed of
relatively impermeable clay or sandy clay overlies the Floridan
aquifer, the water in the Floridan aquifer is confined. Locally, in
areas downgradient from a topographic high where there is an over-
lying confining bed, water in the shell bed and even in the sand
occurs under confined conditions. Such areas occur along Highway
44, on the east side of DeLand ridge and on the west side of Rima
ridge (sites 21 and 22, fig. 4).
The top of the Floridan aquifer dips eastward from its high
under the DeLand ridge, toward the coast at about 3 feet per mile.
Under the terraces the clastic deposits thicken from 65 feet on the
eastern flank of the DeLand ridge to 100 feet at the coast. Under the
DeLand ridge where the relief is much greater the clastic deposits are
50 to 100 feet thick.
Structually Volusia County is an uplifted fault block (fig. 4).
Wyrick (1960, fig. 4) mapped a north-south trending fault west of
DeLand and an east-west trending fault on the north edge of Lake
Monroe. An extention of a north-south trending fault, mapped by
Brown (1962, fig. 9) in Brevard County, cuts Volusia County 5 to 15
miles inland of the coast and completes the fault block.
Most of the water supplies in Volusia County are obtained from
the limestone and dolomitic limestones of the Floridan aquifer,
which in this area is composed of formations of middle and late
Eocene age. A hard, dense, irregular layer of dolomitic limestone acts
as a confining bed that divides the aquifer into an upper and lower
part (fig. 4). This layer is at depths of 150 feet under the DeLand
ridge and 250 feet near the coast. The Floridan aquifer is known to
be greater than 600 feet thick in the eastern part of the county,
based on data from a 700-foot test hole which did not fully pene-
trate the aquifer hydrologicc data site 18, fig. 1).
A schematic drawing of part of the hydrologic cycle for Volusia
County showing the movement of water to and from the surface, on






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


the surface, infiltrating the surface, and through the subsurface is
shown by figure 5.
Figure 5. Block diagram of part of Volusia County showing the movement
of water. (In pocket)
Water movement on and under each physiographic division
follows a somewhat characteristic path. The terraces are character-
ized by surface runoff and vertical movement of ground water
through the plastic deposits. The ridges are characterized by subsur-
face drainage and a vertical as well as horizontal component of move-
ment of ground water through the clastic deposits. The water moves
laterally through the Floridan aquifer under both the ridges and the
terraces but with a component of downward movement near areas of
recharge and a component upward movement near the discharge
areas (fig. 5).
Under the terraces (fig. 5), the water table is near the surface
with a relatively thin unsaturated zone available for storage of water
during a rise of the water table. Rain quickly saturates the porous
surface sand after which the water can no longer infiltrate and must
run off or evaporate. The water which has infiltrated moves down-
ward to the zone of saturation if not used by plants or retained as
soil moisture. As the water moves vertically through the clastic
deposits it may follow tortuous paths around discontinuous lenses of
less permeable material, and continue in its downward movement
into the Floridan aquifer. It then moves laterally toward the east
where it discharges to the coastal well fields or to the ocean.
As rain falls on the ridges (fig. 5) it infiltrates the sand, and
water which is not used by plants or to replenish soil moisture moves
down to the water table. The water table generally follows the con-
figuration of the land surface. After it reaches the water table, water
moves generally parallel to the slope of the water table to ponds or
lakes or to low-lying areas where some seeps to the surface to create
the swampy conditions adjacent to the ridges. Ground water moves
along the slope of the water table and also downward through the
plastic deposits to recharge the Floridan aquifer. The movement of
water in the Floridan aquifer under the DeLand ridge is westward
toward the St. Johns River. Under the low sand ridges movement of
water in the Floridan aquifer is eastward toward the coast.

RECHARGE TO FLORIDAN AQUIFER

A condition where water is confined in an aquifer by relatively
impermeable layers is called artesian. The poorly consolidated sedi-
ments of the plastic deposits are not highly pervious and tend to







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


retard the downward movement of water. Because water does leak
down into the Floridan aquifer, however, it is described as a semi-
confined artesian aquifer. At many locations there is no geologic
evidence of a confining layer and from water level fluctuations it
appears as though the Floridan aquifer is hydraulically connected to
the overlying clastic deposits. Hydrographs of water levels in wells at
hydrologic data sites 14, 23, and 25 are shown on figure 6. The
configuration and water level response to rainfall is very similar for




39 'l'


M HYDROLOGIC DATA SITE NO 14


S WELL OPEN TO ELASTIC AQUIFER
32 --M WELL OPEN TO UPPER PART OF FLORIDAN AQUIFER----- -
31 D WELL OPEN TO LOWER PART OF FLORIDAN AQUIFER




75 S
HYDROLOGIC DATA SITE NO 23
'-S WELL OPEN TO ELASTIC AQUIFER I-
37

3 _. ..HR.....L.OG A I C EoRo DATA SITE NO. 23
AM W E. OPEN TO UPPER PART OF FLORIDAN AQUIFER j j T O A A AU
J133
- 24 w -.-o-----.-- i E R P,--- oP---- R,- AN---u-- .---- I ---- --- i--- I--- --- [ --- -- --- ( -- --
-- D WELL OPEN TO LOWER PART OF FLORIDAN AQUIFER "




25 ------
04 ____ ---- -- ---- --- --- --- -- -- rI.- --- --- --- --- --- --
S WELL OPEN TO ELASTIC AQUIFER I I f ______1_____
Z3 M WELL OPEN TO UPPER PART OF FLORIDAN AQUIFER I .---- I _
D WELL OPEN TO LOWER PART OF FLORIDAN AQUIFER -- .. .. _____ _____ _____
D o i ..... F I- I -- -"--. _"


08 HYDROLOGIC DATA SITE NO. 25 _.___

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT I NOV DEC JJAN FEB M APR MAY JUNE
1966 1967



Figure 6. Hydrographs of water levels in wells at hydrologic data sites 14,
23, and 25.

the well in the clastic deposits and the well in the Floridan aquifer
(data site 14) which indicates a good hydraulic connection between






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


the two units. Hydrographs for wells at hydrologic data site 23
indicate a lesser degree of connection while at site 25 there appears
to be a good connection, with water moving downward into the
upper part of the Floridan aquifer. At site 25, water is also moving
upward into the upper part of the Floridan aquifer from below and,
therefore, water must be moving laterally through the upper part of
the aquifer.

Water moves downward into the Floridan aquifer wherever the
water table in the clastic deposits is higher than the piezometric
surface. Piezometric surface, as used in this report, means the level to
which water will rise in tightly cased wells that penetrate the
Floridan aquifer. Ridges which rise above adjacent land are capable
of supporting a higher water table and this increased head results in
greater leakage from the clastic deposits to the Floridan aquifer,
assuming equal permeabilities and thicknesses of material. Where the
land surface is relatively low, the piezometric surface is near land
surface, which results in less recharge and greater surface runoff. In
stream valleys and at low altitude along the coast the wells which
penetrate the Floridan aquifer will flow. In these areas, where the
piezometric surface is above the land surface (see fig. 18, Wyrick,
1960), there is no recharge to the Floridan aquifer.
Earlier Wyrick (1960, p. 27 and fig. 14) had reached similar
conclusions when he stated that recharge to the Floridan aquifer
(artesian aquifer) occurs wherever the water table is higher than the
piezometric surface. Wyrick (1960, p. 27 and fig. 13) also indicated
that the principal area of recharge to the Floridan aquifer in Volusia
County was within the closed 40-foot contour along the eastern edge
of the DeLand ridge (Penholoway terrace) near DeLand. But the
40-foot contour of Wyrick's map also encloses the western part of
the Talbot terrace, where the piezometric surface is presently at
about the level of the water table and in many places rises above it.
There are areas outside the 40-foot contour where the hydraulic
gradient between the water table and piezometric surface is greater
and the permeability is as great, and which are thus better recharge
areas. No area in Volusia County can be considered the principal
recharge area. Visher and Wetterhall (1967) state that in Florida
most piezometric highs indicate areas of low permeability and low or
rejected recharge. Similar results were reported by Schneider (1964)
in his studies of the carbonate rock aquifer of central Israel.
Schneider noted that piezometric ridges appeared to coincide with
down-faulted blocks or structural basins, regarded as regions of lower
permeability than adjacent regions having lower piezometric levels.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


The data suggest that the piezometric high areas are not principal
recharge areas in Volusia County.
Under prese-it hydrologic conditions, the most productive
recharge areas are the eastern part of the Talbot terrace and the
ridges. There is a relatively good hydraulic connection between the
clastic deposits and Floridan aquifer under most of the Talbot
terrace, with a greater head between the two hydrogeologic units in
the eastern part of the terrace than in the western part, resulting in a
better recharge area in the former. The western part of the terrace
has good recharge potential, provided a sufficient head differential
were maintained, either by lowering the piezometric surface or by
raising the water table.
The ridges are good recharge areas mainly because of their
topographic relief. In general, the ridges have as good a hydraulic
connection as the terraces, however, along the eastern edge of the
DeLand ridge, in the area east of DeLand coinciding with the 40-foot
piezometric contour, the clastic deposits have lower permeability.
This area of lower permeability is reflected by the line of lakes whose
water surfaces stand relatively high above the piezometric surface.
The lake level at data site 29 (fig. 1) is as much as 18 feet above the
piezometric surface. A greater head compensates for an otherwise
lower recharge through the less permeable material. Lakes themselves
are probably no better points of recharge than the surrounding lake
basin. The lakes are shallow, 20 feet or less in depth, and their
bottoms are not incised into the aquifer, therefore, it is the material
between the lake bottom and the aquifer that controls the movement
of water to the aquifer.
Areas of little or no runoff as shown on a runoff distribution
map (Knochenmus, 1968) coincide generally with the areas of higher
recharge. Areas where the piezometric surface is at or above the
water table (discharge areas), exhibit the highest runoff.
RAINFALL

Local rainfall is the source of Volusia County's fresh-water.
The average (normal) annual rainfall on Volusia County for the
period 1931-60 was 52 inches, or about 3,000 mgd (million gallons
per day), based on records collected by the U. S. Weather Bureau at
Daytona Beach Airport and DeLand. Only a small part, about 10
percent, of this water is readily available for use by man. Average
annual rainfall of the two stations during the period of record ranged
from a maximum of 74 inches in 1953 to a minimum of 38 inches in
1954. This large annual variation in rainfall is shown on figure 7.









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


20




Is
cr 15




-J 10

Li.
z
-5
Cr


5
I-
z
0


0


rr \

N _\\-







J F M A M J J A S 0 N D J F M A M J J A S 0 N D
1965 1966


80

DeLond overage Daytona Beach overage
54.7 inches 49.9 inches








U-










t o 0 0 U-)



Figure 7. Monthly and annual rainfall at Daytona Beach Airport and
DeLand.

The period of investigation included a year of dry conditions
(1965) and a year of slightly wetter than normal conditions (1966).
Although 1966 was an exception, the western part of the county
generally receives more rain than the eastern part. For the long term
record, the yearly average at DeLand is 4.8 inches more than at
Daytona Beach Airport. In 1965, DeLand received 6.5 inches more
rain than Daytona Beach Airport, but in 1966 DeLand received 5


C
0J
m
C
0







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


inches less than Daytona Beach Airport. The five summer months
(June-October) generally receive 65 percent of the annual rainfall.
The chemical quality of rain varies slightly with weather condi-
tions and with industrial and agricultural activities. Generally, rain
contains small amounts of dissolved mineral matter and atmospheric
gases. The mineral matter is derived from windborne salts picked up
from the open sea or from the land. If the salts are from the sea, the
chemical character of the rain is somewhat similar to a diluted sea
water with NaCl (sodium chloride) being the predominant consti-
tuent. In contrast, when the windborne salts originate from the land
the chemical character of rain becomes that of a CaHCO3-CaSO4
(calcium bicarbonate-calcium sulfate) type water.
The amount of dissolved mineral matter in rain varies with the
amount of rainfall. At the beginning of a storm the amount of wind-
borne dust is relatively great and the rain washes this dust from the
air resulting in higher concentrations of dissolved salts in the precipi-
tation. As the storm continues, the dust is removed from the air and
the remaining rainfall is lower in dissolved salts content.
The average dissolved mineral content of rainfall for Volusia
County is probably no more than 25 mg/1 (milligrams per liter). This
value is deduced from the dissolved solids content of several small
lakes which have small, closed drainage basins and whose source of
water is rainfall and seepage from the relatively insoluble surficial
deposits within the basin. Additionally the average dissolved mineral
content of rainfall at Ocala, in inland central Florida, and at various
sites along the west coast of central Florida is generally no more than
25 mg/1.
Rainfall is slightly acid because of the solution of atmospheric
CO2 (carbon dioxide) in water droplets, resulting in the formation of
H2 CO3 (carbonic acid). Also, industrial operations may add gases to
the atmosphere which can produce acids when dissolved in water.
The median pH value of the rainfall in Volusia County is about 6.

WATER RESOURCES

The quality and quantity of water in lakes, streams, and
aquifers dictates the usefulness of the water from that particular
source.
Water changes in chemical quality while moving through the
several environments that constitute the hydrologic cycle. Many of
these changes are significant and studies of them add to the under-
standing of the hydrologic system and permit a more comprehensive







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


evaluation of the water resources. Therefore, a discussion of the
chemical processes which affect water quality in Volusia County is
included in the discussions of lakes, streams and aquifers which
follow.

SURFACE WATER
LAKES

The numerous lakes of the County act as storage reservoirs for
water. Most of the 120 lakes larger than 5 acres are located on the
DeLand ridge where they occupy sink holes. The largest is Lake
Diaz with a surface area of 700 acres.

LAKE WINNEMISSETT








I I
LAKE HIRES

< 43 _
a 43


W

3
0


a.
3




4J
-t*


LAKE WINONA

16 S^-- y.f -- -- --- -- -






LAKE DUPONT






A M J J A S 0 N D J F M A M J J A S 0 N D
1965 1966

Figure 8. Hydrographs of daily stage for four lakes in Volusia County.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. '57


Because of their size, purity and small range in surface level
fluctuation, a number of lakes on the DeLand ridge have excellent
recreational potentials. At the present time, however, they are used
mostly for irrigation water supplies. Most lakes are along the eastern
edge of the ridge where the highest water table occurs. Hydrographs
of four lakes are shown on figure 8. Lake Winona (site 27, fig. 1), at
the north end of the DeLand ridge, had a water level fluctuation of
2.3 feet during the period of this investigation. The level of the lake
is approximately 5 feet above the piezometric surface of the Floridan
aquifer. Lake Hires (site 28, fig. 1), four miles to the south had a
fluctuation during the period of 1.8 ft.; its surface is about 7 feet
above the piezometric surface. Six miles farther south, Lake
Winnemissett (site 29, fig. 1), one of the higher lakes on the ridge
had a fluctuation of 1.7 feet and its surface is approximately 18 feet
above the piezometric surface. At the south end of the ridge, Lake
Dupont (site 30, fig. 1) had the greatest fluctuation of the four lakes
(2.9 feet), and it is about at the level of the piezometric surface.
The lakes appear to be water table lakes and thus are related to
the piezometric surface in the same manner as the water table is
related to the piezometric surface. Lake Dupont has, as has the water
table in that area (site 25, fig. 6), a better hydraulic connection to
the Floridan aquifer than Lakes Winona, Hires and Winnemissett.
The greater fluctuations of the water surfaces in Lake Winona and
Dupont are probably due to greater fluctuations of the water table in
the area surrounding the lakes, which in turn are related to the
greater relief in the area.
Water in most lakes in the county has a low mineral content
with mineralization ranging from slightly less than 25 mg/1 to 150
mg/l. Many of the lakes are in closed drainage basins where urban
and agricultural development are minimal. Lake water in this
environment usually contains less than 50 mg/1 total dissolved solids
and is similar to the quality of rain water. In contrast, some lakes on
the ridge area in large actively farmed drainage basins contain water
with as much as 50 mg/l dissolved solids and of a different chemical
character than other lakes in the county. Table 1 shows chemical
analyses from Lake Dupont in a relatively undeveloped area and
Lake Winnemissett located in an area of considerable agricultural
activity (more than 50 percent of the basin is under cultivation).
Lake Winnemissett contains about five times the amount of dissolved
mineral matter as Lake Dupont. Pfischner (1968) has shown that the
dissolved solids content of lakes in southwest Orange County,
Florida, is generally related to the percentage of the lake basin
covered by citrus groves.











Table 1, Comparison of chemical analyses of Lake Winnemisaett and Lake Dupont.

Chemical analyses, in milligrams per liter


Lake Winnemissett near DeLand, Fla. (site 29, fig. 1)

5-11-65 0.0 0.00 18 6.3 10 7.5 8 | 61 20 0.0 0.9 128 71 64 230 6.4 5


Lake Dupont near Lake Helen, Fla. (site 30, fig. 1)

5-18-65 00 0.04 1.2 0.9 5.5 0.3 2 4.8 9.5 0.1 0.2 24 6 5 555 5.7 0







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


STREAMS

Important aspects in considering a stream as a potential water
supply are the quantity, quality, and associated variations in flow
and quality of its water, and the storage capabilities of the stream
channel. The average rate of flow of the two largest streams wholly
within the county, Deep Creek near Osteen (130 mgd) and Tomoka
River (100 mgd), is more than the predicted water use for the entire
county in 1980, but they are inadequate as a water supply because
their minimum flows are so small. Less than 5 million gallons per day
flows out of Volusia County in streams during dry periods.
From a water use viewpoint, storage facilities would be neces-
sary to insure a dependable surface-water supply during minimum
flow periods. Natural channel storage is small in the poorly defined
channels but large capacity storage reservoirs could be constructed
on the swampy flood plains of the streams. Such storage facilities
could be an earthen-diked reservoir, shallow in depth with a rela-
tively large surface area where evaporation would be at a maximum.
Water in the streams comes from direct runoff during rains,
flow out of swamps and seepage from ground water. Ground-water
seepage and swamp drainage supply base flow during the periods
between rains. During dry spells, when swamps desiccate, base flow is
supplied entirely by ground water. Most of the ground-water contri-
bution to base flow comes from the poorly consolidated clastic
deposits. Even in those areas of upward seepage from the Floridan
aquifer, particularly in the western part of the county such as Deep
Creek near Barberville and the other Deep Creek near Osteen, the
chemical quality of the stream water indicates that very little seepage
from the Floridan aquifer reaches the stream channels.
Water leaves the county in streams at an average rate of about
590 mgd. About 225 mgd flows into the Atlantic Ocean from
Tomoka River, Spruce Creek and smaller streams. St. Johns River
receives about 365 mgd from Deep Creek (Osteen), Middle Haw
Creek, Little Haw Creek, and Deep Creek (Barberville). Streamflow
data are given in table 2. The values of streamflow, except those for
Spruce Creek, are estimated from continuous discharge records or
from periodic discharge measurements. Based on the data in table 6,
over 20 times more water flows out of the county than is presently
used (see section on water use below) but the variation in flow limits
streamflow as a reliable source of water supply.
The magnitude of flow of the major streams is shown on figure
9. The highest rate of flow (average 130 mgd) of streams draining the
county is from Deep Creek basin (Osteen) a runoff of 17 inches






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Table 2. Drainage areas, average flows, and low flows of subbasins in Volusia County.



Drainage area Average flow Low flow
Creek basin sq. mi. mgd mgd
Deep Creek (Osteen) 157 *130 0.4.
Tomoka River 121 **100 .4
Spruce Creek 96 50 .3
Cow Creek 28 50 0
Middle Haw 41 30 0
Little Haw 61 30 0
Deep Creek (Barberville) 39 25 0
Little Tomoka 15 10 0
All Others 225 -

* Includes flow of Cow Creek
** Includes flow of Little Tomoka
per year. Flow in the St. Johns River at DeLand averages 2,100
mgd far greater than that of any stream within the county.
Certain areas of the County, such as the DeLand, Crescent City,
Rima, and Atlantic Coastal ridges, have poorly developed surface
drainage systems. The runoff from these areas is from 0 to 6 inches
per year (Knochenmus, 1968).
Profiles of the water surface of Volusia County streams show
flat gradients in their upper reaches with steepening gradients down-
stream. Two profiles for Deep Creek (Osteen), one at high flow and
the other at low flow, during 1966 are given in figure 10. The fluctu-
ation of the water surface in the swampy headwaters was less than a
foot while the level fluctuated 40 feet near the mouth. Rain falling
on the swampy headwaters causes the water surface to rise about the
same as the depth of rainfall, whereas downstream the runoff is
collected into a definite channel and the water surface may rise many
times the depth of rainfall.
Stream flood plains in the county are largely flat swampy areas
and become inundated almost every year. The poorly incised
channels cannot transport the excess water during wet periods so
that water ponds in the swamps and inundates much of the area. The
floods on most streams were extremely high in 1964. The peak
discharges of Spruce Creek and Middle Haw Creek during the floods
of 1964 were determined from curves published by Barnes- and







REPORT OF


egoo


1JSq,


INVESTIGATION NO. 57

ao, f0


r/-


EXPLANATION
Width of stream represents
average flow In million gallons per
FLOW SCALE
150 mgd
100 mgd
50 mgd


Figure 9. Flow chart of streams in Volusia County.


, o90,









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


//
//








I\-
I/
0





VII I
!/ -g

1/










0 O 00
IIL
II

'I

II


If
II

13A31 V3S NV3W 3AOBV 133.- '30ni1IV
Figume 10. Water surface profiles of Deep Creek (Osteen) for high and low
dharges.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


Golden (1966) to be greater than 50-year floods, whereas the peak
discharges of Tomoka and Deep Creek (Osteen) were greater than
20-year floods.
Runoff characteristics of different streams can be compared by
analyzing their flow-duration curves, figure 11. Flow-duration curves
show the percent of time during which specified discharges are
equaled or exceeded. All the curves are similar in shape with the
exception of the lower end of the curve for Spruce Creek. The slopes
of all the curves are steep indicating little channel storage and
ground-water contribution. The high-discharge end represents mostly
overland flow (direct runoff) and the low-discharge end represents
ground-water seepage. The low end of the Middle Haw curve is very
steep, approaching the vertical, which indicates very little ground-
water seepage. The Middle Haw Creek basin is flat with a very
shallow stream channel; therefore, with a small lowering of the
ground-water level, the water-table falls below the stream bed. With
no ground-water seepage to sustain base flows, Middle Haw Creek
decreases from medium flow to zero flow very rapidly. Streams with
steeply sloped duration curves are characterized by maximum flows
100 times greater than median flow (50 percent line on duration
curve). Median flows for Spruce Creek, Middle Haw Creek, Tomoka
River and Deep Creek (Osteen) are 4.6, 18, 23, and 39 mgd
respectively. About 15 percent of the time Middle Haw Creek has no
flow whereas about 15 percent of the time Deep Creek has slightly
more than 3 mgd flow.
The water in streams in Volusia County has widely differing
chemical characteristics, depending on the source of the water. Some
streams, especially during low flow, receive discharge from the
Floridan aquifer by seepage and from flowing wells. In the lower
reaches of streams near the coast the chemical quality of the water
reflects mixing with highly saline ocean water.
The waters range from only slightly mineralized to ocean
salinity, from colorless to highly colored, and from acidic to basic.
Values of some of the more important water-quality constituents at
surface-water data sites (fig. 1) are listed in table 3.
Most streams in Volusia County are supplied by direct rainfall,
overland flow, and seepage from the clastic deposits. The quality of
the water varies not only because the quality of the rainfall varies,
but because most of the water has moved over or through the
ground, dissolving mineral matter and transporting it to the streams.
Mineral matter derived from the breakdown or weathering of
organic and inorganic materials, application of fertilizers, and






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


40 -800
400 --- 600


DEEP CREEK 400
NEAR OSTEEN
2 --- 0-/ I-I I I 300
TOMOKA RIVER
/NEAR HOLLY HILL 200
100



S\ 80
.40 -- A\ -60


MIDDLE HAW CREEK 40
NEAR BUNNELL

SPRUCE CREEK
NEAR SAMSULA \ 20
\ --------- 10









Note: Curve for Spruce Creek compute____
4 -- --from records for bse period, 1952-6








3 -- from the short-term period, 1965 -66
--- __- 2





Note: Curve for Spruce Creek computed .8
.4 from records for bose period, 1952-66.- ----.6
Curves for the other streams adjusted
from the short-term period, 1965-66 -
to the base period. | -
7 I 1 1 I I1 I I 1,1 \2


I I I I ~


.1 .2 .5 1 2 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 95 98 99 99.5
PERCENT OF TIME INDICATED DISCHARGE WAS EQUALED OR EXCELLED
Figure 11. Flow duration curves for major streams in Volusia County.


1 .2
15
19-9


. . .1 1 1 N


1


9







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


inches less than Daytona Beach Airport. The five summer months
(June-October) generally receive 65 percent of the annual rainfall.
The chemical quality of rain varies slightly with weather condi-
tions and with industrial and agricultural activities. Generally, rain
contains small amounts of dissolved mineral matter and atmospheric
gases. The mineral matter is derived from windborne salts picked up
from the open sea or from the land. If the salts are from the sea, the
chemical character of the rain is somewhat similar to a diluted sea
water with NaCl (sodium chloride) being the predominant consti-
tuent. In contrast, when the windborne salts originate from the land
the chemical character of rain becomes that of a CaHCO3-CaSO4
(calcium bicarbonate-calcium sulfate) type water.
The amount of dissolved mineral matter in rain varies with the
amount of rainfall. At the beginning of a storm the amount of wind-
borne dust is relatively great and the rain washes this dust from the
air resulting in higher concentrations of dissolved salts in the precipi-
tation. As the storm continues, the dust is removed from the air and
the remaining rainfall is lower in dissolved salts content.
The average dissolved mineral content of rainfall for Volusia
County is probably no more than 25 mg/1 (milligrams per liter). This
value is deduced from the dissolved solids content of several small
lakes which have small, closed drainage basins and whose source of
water is rainfall and seepage from the relatively insoluble surficial
deposits within the basin. Additionally the average dissolved mineral
content of rainfall at Ocala, in inland central Florida, and at various
sites along the west coast of central Florida is generally no more than
25 mg/1.
Rainfall is slightly acid because of the solution of atmospheric
CO2 (carbon dioxide) in water droplets, resulting in the formation of
H2 CO3 (carbonic acid). Also, industrial operations may add gases to
the atmosphere which can produce acids when dissolved in water.
The median pH value of the rainfall in Volusia County is about 6.

WATER RESOURCES

The quality and quantity of water in lakes, streams, and
aquifers dictates the usefulness of the water from that particular
source.
Water changes in chemical quality while moving through the
several environments that constitute the hydrologic cycle. Many of
these changes are significant and studies of them add to the under-
standing of the hydrologic system and permit a more comprehensive











Table 3. Selected chemical characteristics of surface waters in Volusia County.


Color Dissolved Solids Total Hardness Chloride Sulfate pH
Station Name Data (units) (mg/I) (as mg/1 CaCOs) (mg/l) (mg/1) (units)
(fig. 1) Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min
Middle Haw Creek 1 360 180 35 22 12 6 21 8.0 4.0 0.0 5.4 4.4
Little Haw Creek 2 450 170 39 29 22 10 19 9.0 6.4 .0 6.2 5.1
Tomoka River 4 400 120 197 77 138 47 36 18 13 5.0 7.7 6.4
Deep Creek 5 800 30 790 43 307 18 305 12 9.2 .0 7.5 5.3
(Barberville)
Spruce Creek 6 400 40 437 55 310 42 74 20 9.6 4.0 8.5 6.0
St.Johns River 7 270 30 1,090 120 313 44 505 52 153 11 7.5 6.6
Deep Creek (Osteen) 10 260 75 88 28 50 11 21 6.5 21 3.6 7.3 6.2
Lake Winnemissett 29 5 0 129 120 71 63 24 18 61 56 6.5 6.4
Lake Dupont 30 5 0 24 24 9 6 9.5 9.5 4.8 4.0 5.7 5.7


0


co
lI
N'1



!
S.0



2
0
0






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


atmospheric fallout accumulates on the ground between periods of
rainfall. The amount of accumulation depends partly on the length
of the period between rainfalls. Thus, longer periods between rain-
falls allow greater amounts of mineral matter to accumulate. Hence,
the overland flow after periods of infrequent rainfall usually contains
greater amounts of dissolved mineral matter than flow during periods
of more frequent rain.
The amount of dissolved mineral matter in overland flow also
depends upon the duration of the storm. Initially, storm runoff
contains relatively large amounts of dissolved mineral matter because
the rain "washes" the surface of the ground and removes much of
the soluble mineral dusts. However, as the storm continues the
amount of readily soluble mineral dust decreases so that the overland
flow contains less dissolved mineral matter.

Variations in chemical quality for a stream whose source is
direct rainfall, overland flow and seepage from the shallow ground
water is exemplified by Deep Creek in southern Volusia County.
Data collected on this stream at a station near Osteen exhibits the
rainfall-discharge-mineral content relationship described. Figure 12
shows hydrographs of daily rainfall, discharge, specific conductance
(a measure of the ability of water to conduct an electric current,
which is a function of the amount and type of ions in the water and
thus can be used to estimate the dissolved solids content of the
water) and temperature of streamflow for Deep Creek. During
prolonged rainy periods following long dry periods (start of the rainy
season in June 1965), discharge increases in response to rainfall while
specific conductance increases initially with increased discharge but
decreases with continued rise in discharge. The hydrograph also
shows that the specific conductance is generally lower during periods
of frequent rainfall (July 5 to August 20) and higher during periods
of drought (May 1-25).

The dissolved solids duration curve in figure 13 shows that
although there is some variation in values for Deep Creek, the
minimum and maximum values are relatively low. The minimum
dissolved solids content observed during the 2-year period of record
is 28 mg/l while the maximum content is only 135 mg/1. The flat
curve suggests that most of the water comes from a single source and
the chemical quality shows that the water comes from the clastic
aquifer which is composed of slightly soluble materials. Very little
seepage from the Floridan aquifer reaches the creek, as indicated by
the relatively low dissolved solids content.








40

30
I z


~ I- w
0
ao
0
|50 d 5



3 150





8 10



O0








(. a

Iz

I 0 3
o 3
-J


JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC
1965


AA A ^^ A^~ AV /VA^ V^ "~X











150


100
w
a. 80

S60


40
-j
0 30


o 20


I0


-I -I- 1 I I I I II1 I I I


0.050.1 0.2 0.5


2 5


Record used: October 1964 to September 1966 (721 days)




, , ,,i


50 60 70 80


90 95 98 99


10 20 30 40


PERCENT OF TIME DISSOLVED SOLIDS EQUALED OR EXCEEDED, VALUE INDICATED


I I I I I I I I I I I I I






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


Stream temperature is closely related to air temperature and
subject to seasonal variation. Stream temperatures may rise or fall
after precipitation depending upon the relative temperatures of the
streams and of the precipitation; during the warm seasons stream
temperatures usually decrease after a rainfall because of the cooling
effect of the rain. This relationship is shown on figure 12. The
average temperature for Deep Creek during this study was 23C
(73 'F).


Color and acidity increase after rainfall because rain flushes
highly colored and acidic organic materials from the surface. Color is
highest during the warm seasons and lowest during the spring
drought period. Three analyses of water from Deep Creek having
low, medium, and high concentrations of dissolved solids are shown
in milliequivalents per liter in figure 14. In an analysis expressed in
milliequivalents per liter, unit concentrations of all ions are
chemically equivalent. Figure 14 shows that the relative proportions
of the constituents remain the same in each of the analyses and that
the only major change in chemical quality is in the total amount of
dissolved mineral matter.


The quality of the water in streams that intercept significant
seepage from the Floridan aquifer reflects the influence of the lime-
stone of that aquifer and, in some cases, the influence of saline water
discharged from the deeper part of the aquifer. The St. Johns River
apparently receives discharge from the part of the Floridan aquifer
which contains salt water. This discharge results in high concentra-
tion of dissolved solids in the river except during periods of high
flow. The average dissolved solids content for the St. Johns River
near DeLand is about 700 mg/1 and ranges from 120 mg/1 to 1,090
mg/1. The water is highly colored and ranges from slightly acidic to
slightly basic.


Middle Haw and Little Haw Creeks exhibit chemical
characteristics similar to that of Deep Creek near Osteen. These
streams are slightly mineralized, highly colored, and slightly acidic.
During low flows Deep Creek near Barberville, and to some extent
Spruce Creek, exhibit chemical characteristics similar to the St.
Johns River. These streams are moderately mineralized, slightly
colored, and range from slightly acidic to slightly basic.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


July I- 10,
1966


30

1.5


1.4


1.3


1.2


1.1


90

.9


Feb. 11-20,
1966


Figure 14. Chemical analyses of selected composites of samples from Deep
Creek near Osteen showing relative proportions of major mineral
constituents.


Dec. 1-10,
1965






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


GROUND WATER

A description of the aquifers and their hydraulic characteristics
has been presented by Wyrick (1960). During the present investiga-
tion of the aquifer systems emphasis was on the determination of the
rate and quantity of vertical movement of water (recharge) from the
clastic aquifer to the Floridan aquifer.
The hydrogeologic units as described previously are differen-
tiated on the basis of their composition and their prime function in
the hydrologic system. The poorly consolidated sediments of the
plastic aquifer (Wyrick's nonartesian aquifer) functions primarily as a
subsurface reservoir that stores water until some of it leaks into the
Floridan aquifer (Wyrick's artesian aquifer).
The limestones and dolomites underlying the clastic aquifer
constitute a much larger reservoir as the thickness of the Floridan
aquifer is greater than 600 feet compared to about 75 feet for the
clastic aquifer. The Floridan aquifer readily transmits water and is a
major water supply source (Wyrick, 1960, p. 25).

CLASTIC AQUIFER

The clastic aquifer is composed of poorly consolidated sand,
shell and clay. The clay in some areas functions as an aquitard (a less
pervious formation) in separating the sand from the shell and in
other areas in separating the clastics from the limestone (fig. 4). The
sand is predominantly fine grained and has a porosity of about 35
percent. It has a coefficient of storage, based on the coefficient of
storage of similar material, of about 0.25 or approximately equal to
the specific yield. The shell beds, which have a sand matrix contain
large quantities of water but they are seldom utilized for a water
supply because sand free water can be obtained only if a well screen
is employed. In the vicinity of Oak Hill where the Floridan aquifer
water is not potable -because it contains 400-2400 mg/1 chloride,
potable water is obtained from shell beds for domestic use.
The present (1969) use of water from the clastic aquifer is small
compared to the amount of water it has in storage. From an average
storage coefficient and saturated thickness, the aquifer is estimated
to contain 3 x 1012 gallons of fresh water. To this large volume of
water, it is estimated that an average of 400 million gallons are added
daily from rainfall for subsequent recharge to the Floridan aquifer.
The clastic aquifer will continue to function primarily as a storage
reservoir for recharge to the Florida aquifer until techniques of






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


well-screen installation and well development in fine sand and shell
beds come into common usage locally.
Fluctuations of the water table in the clastic aquifer were
recorded in several shallow wells. The hydrographs of three of these
wells open in the sand show a maximum fluctuation of 5 to 5.5 feet
(fig. 6). The water table responds to rainfall and the closer the water
table is to the land surface the more responsive it is to rainfall. This is
shown by the degree of unevenness of the clastic aquifer hydrographs
in figure 6. At site 14, where the water table fluctuates between 1
and 6 feet below the land surface, the hydrograph is most uneven,
whereas at site 25, where the water table is between 12 and 17 feet
below the land surface, the hydrograph is the smoothest.
Water in the clastic aquifer is less mineralized than that in the
Floridan aquifer (table 4) because of the lower solubility of the sand.
The mineral content of water from shallow wells in the sand ranges
from 25 to 50 mg/1 and is higher in the shell beds due to the higher
solubility of the shells. The principal dissolved mineral constituents
in water from the clastic aquifer are sodium, chloride, calcium and
bicarbonate.
FLORIDAN AQUIFER

The hydraulic characteristics of the Floridan (artesian) aquifer,
as reported by Wyrick (1960) are coefficients of transmissibilityl
that range from 28,000 to 370,000 gallons per day per foot and a
storage coefficient2 of about 0.0007. Water level measurements
made during the present investigation were used to construct a map
showing the configuration of the aquifer's piezometric surface in
November 1966, figure 15.The 1966 map is in general similar to the
1955 piezometric map (Wyrick, 1960, fig. 13) but there are some
significant differences. The greatest difference is the portrayal on the
1966 map of a large piezometric low which is less than 10 feet above
mean sea level and extends northeast from Blue Springs to DeLand.
This piezometric low is a cone of depression that is caused in part by
the discharge of Blue Springs. The cone of depression is elongate to
the northeast of the spring. The elongation is caused by a preferred
direction of permeability (fig. 15), probably a result of faulting.
Additional asymmetry resulted when the natural cone coalesced with
the cone of depression of DeLand's municipal wells.
1 The rate of flow of water (in common U. S. Geological Survey units) in gallons per day,
at prevailing temperature, through a vertical strip of aquifer one foot wide and having a
height equal to the thickness of the aquifer, under a unit hydraulic gradient.
2 The volume of water released from or taken into storage per unit volume of aquifer per
unit change in head.









Table 4. Comparison of ground water quality at various depths in Volusia County.

Chemical analyses in milligrams per liter


Dissolved Hardness
Solids as CaCO3 W




o wi s | 00 I
Well "0--. "8 ; z ao
a Number2 O iz 0 ZU C |

16 290534N- 19 4-21-66 1.3 0.03 6.2 1.3 6.2 0.0 24 0.0 11 0.0 0.1 28 21 2 88 6.7 5
0811750.3

16 290534N- 114 4-21-66 13 .33 63 2.8 7.2 1.3 214 .0 10 .1 .0 202 169 0 370 7.6 5
0811750.1

16 290534N- 260 4-21-66 12 .25 66 9.1 6.6 .4 242 .0 10 .0 .1 223 202 4 360 7.8 5
0811750.2

17 290432N- 7 6-13-66 6.5 .39 6.1 1.9 6.8 .7 5 2.4 20 .2 48 23 19 76 5.2 140
0811449.4

17 290432N- 84 4-18-66 13 2.08 78 1.9 9.1 .7 244 3.6 10 .1 .1 237 203 3 405 7.8 5
0811449.1

17 290432N- 310 4-21-66 15 .90 75 5.6 14 1.6 266 4.4 17 .2 .0 264 210 0 480 7.9 15
0811449.2

1 Number refers to site location on figure 1.
2 Well number refers to latitude and longitude (290534N0811750.3 = lat.
29 '05'34" north, long. 81'1 7'50", well no. 3).








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


*____a-to,


EXPLANATION COLUTiy
-40-
PIEZOMETRIC CONTOUR
Shaws altitude of the piezometric
surface of the Floridan aquifer,
November 1966.
Contour interval: 5 Feet
Datum: Mean Sea Level


JOINT OR PROBABLE


0 I 2 3 4 5 MILES


Figure 15. Volusia County showing contours on the
the Floridan aquifer.


piezometric surface of


34


ZA.

















w3


<&Jo,


-ja


Ia






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


Rainfall in Volusia County was slightly above normal in 1966.
Thus water levels, except where influenced by increased pumpage,
were a little higher in 1966 than they were in 1955, although the
trend for the last 20 years shows a slight decline (1-2 feet) of water
level, as represented by the hydrograph of the Barberville well in
figure 16. Along the east coast, where pumpage is increasing, water
levels have declined about 6 feet as shown by a 10-year hydrograph
of a well near Daytona Beach well field (fig. 16).
The apparent reduction in the size of the area enclosed by the
40-foot contour between 1955 and 1966 and its slight shift to the
west is a result of more data being available for the 1966 map.
Another significant feature of the new map (fig. 15) is the piezo-
metric low around the New Smyrna Beach well field. This low has
probably developed since 1955 as a result of increased pumpage.
The volume of fresh water in the Floridan aquifer in Volusia
County is estimated at 16 x 1012 gallons. Not all of this water is
available for use and only 400 million gallons of the total in the
aquifer are estimated to be exchanged daily under present hydrologic
conditions.
Chemical data were collected at sites consisting of groups of
three wells. Each group of wells tap the water table in the clastic
aquifer, the upper part of the Floridan aquifer, and a lower part of
the Floridan aquifer. Water levels at these selected sites were succes-
sively lower with increasing well depth, suggesting a downward move-
ment of water. Table 4 gives water quality at various depths from
near the surface to well within the limestone of the Floridan aquifer.
As water moves through the subsurface it undergoes changes in
chemical quality. Rain water which enters the ground begins to
dissolve mineral matter and gases from the soil. The amount of
mineral matter dissolved depends on the chemical composition of the
soil and on the chemical nature of the water. Gases dissolved from
the soil include relatively large amounts of carbon dioxide, which in
turn produces carbonic acid, an agent that greatly increases the
ability of water to dissolve some types of minerals, particularly
carbonate minerals.
The soil of the county consists primarily of quartz sand with
lesser amounts of clay and shells. The sand and clay contribute small
amounts of silica (SiO2) to the water and bring about only minor
changes in chemical quality; however, the shell beds add significant
amounts of calcium and bicarbonate to the water. As the water
moves down into the limestone, which underlies the clastic deposits,











14
SU 15





2
s <
16



w is
S.






W 15







qg
5w 21

3 22


. ~ BARBERVILLE 46




-""21 43

4 c!


DAYTONA BEACH 14 >

130




'lo
-9

-i
7

1950 1955 1960 1965
------------------------------------------ 1951701






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


still more calcium and bicarbonate are added to the water. By the
process of solution the ground water becomes a calcium bicarbonate
type water.
Increases in mineral content relate to direction of water flow,
allowing greater opportunity for dissolution of the aquifer minerals
in the down gradient direction. Chemical quality factors which
reflect the solution process can be plotted really and their distribu-
tion may be used to show relative direction of water movement in
the aquifer.
Chloride content of ground water is an important quality factor
in Volusia County. Rainwater, which is low in chloride, recharges the
ground-water system and displaces the high chloride water that lies at
depth in the aquifer. The zone of diffusion between the fresh and
saline water moves up and down in relation to the head of fresh
water above the zone. This movement causes variations in the quality
of water withdrawn from wells that penetrate the zone of diffusion.
The chemical quality of water in the upper part of the Floridan
aquifer is of particular importance because most of the water used in
the county is withdrawn from this zone. Some of the more impor-
tant factors that affect ground-water usability in Volusia County are
total dissolved solids, total hardness, and chloride content.
The total dissolved solids content of water in the upper part of
the Floridan aquifer is shown in figure 17. The dissolved solids values
range from less than 100 mg/1 to several thousand mg/l and represent
water ranging from a calcium bicarbonate type to waters of a sodium
chloride type. Water containing low dissolved solids is found in the
central part of the county and is principally calcium bicarbonate
type water. Here, the low dissolved solids values are probably due to
recharge from the ridges and terraces in the central part of the
county. Higher dissolved solids values occur along the St. Johns River
and along the Atlantic coast, where principally sodium chloride type
waters are discharged from the lower parts of the aquifer.
Total hardness of water from the upper part of the Floridan
aquifer in Volusia County is shown in figure 18. The distribution of
the total hardness values is similar to that of the dissolved solids. In
the interior of the county this similarity occurs because the solution
of limestone accounts for nearly all of the dissolved mineral matter
in the water as well as for the property of hardness. The water
discharged along the coast and the St. Johns River is higher in both
hardness and sodium chloride and this accounts for the increased
dissolved solids in these areas.








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


U.
~9o 4
Jo,


10.o


ots~



1g.
oIv


DISSOLVED SOLIDS IN
MILLIGRAMS PER LITER
C3 0-250
E 250-500
3 500-1000
0 MORE THAN 1000

WELL
- FAULT
- -- JOINT OR PROBABLE F


0 I 2 3 4 5 MILES


Figure 17. Total dissolved solids in ground water
Floridan aquifer in Volusia County.


from upper part of


38


JA


4.j


-- '___________







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


Jo-*o,


EXPLANATION
TOTAL HARDNESS IN
MILLIGRAMS PER LITER
0 0-125
E 125-250
(3 250-325
[f GREATER THAN 325

WELL
aeo ---- FAULT
S- -- JOINT OR PROBABLE FAU


Figure 18. Total hardness of ground water from upper part of Floridan
aquifer in Volusia County.


.eo






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Chloride content of water from the upper part of the Floridan
aquifer in the county is shown in figure 19. Chloride in the county's
ground water is derived from rainfall and from the saline water that
is present at depth in the aquifer. In areas of recharge the chloride is
derived from rainfall and concentrations are generally less than 25
mg/l. In areas of discharge, along the St. Johns River valley and the
Atlantic coast, saline water permeates the entire thickness of the
aquifer and chloride concentrations may reach several thousand
milligrams per liter.
The dissolved solids, hardness, and chloride maps show similar
east-west indentations of more highly mineralized water (figs. 17, 18,
19). The indentations, or reentrants are parallel to either faults or
joint systems. Highly mineralized water from deep in the aquifer may
move into the upper part of the aquifer along fault planes or joint
systems. The reentrant at Ponce de Leon Springs is aligned with the
reentrant at Spruce Creek along the east coast; both are probably
situated along a fault. Another reentrant extends into the DeLand
ridge between DeLand and Orange City.
Wyrick (1960) estimated the depth to saline water (greater than
1,000 mg/1 of chloride) in the aquifer in the center of the county to
be about 750 feet. From a deep well drilled in 1969, data were
obtained which showed that the depth to saline water is 1450 feet.
This apparent change in depth is a result of new data rather than an
actual change in the depth to saline water. The saline-fresh water
zone of diffusion can shift up and down though, as a result of
changes in the hydraulic heads in the upper and lower parts of the
aquifer. This movement produces changes in the ground-water
quality for parts of the aquifer near this zone. For example, lowering
the hydraulic head in the upper part of the aquifer could result in
upward movement of water from the lower part of the aquifer. This
movement may in turn result in increased salt content of wells
located near the zone of diffusion. This process is generally called
salt-water encroachment and is described in detail by Wyrick (1960,
p. 41-48).
The chloride content of ground water in the upper part of the
Floridan aquifer was measured during the mid 1950's and again in
the mid 1960's. A comparison of these two periods shows that
during the drought conditions of the mid 1950's, the chloride
content of the ground water was higher than during the relatively
wet conditions of the mid 1960's. The most probable source for the
higher chlorides was from recharge water which contained a higher
chloride content. The volume of soluble airborne chloride salts is









REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57



-9 ^o ,


/


EX PLAN AT ION
CHLORIDE CONTENT IN
MILLIGRAMS PER LITER
M 0-25
E] 25- 250
250-1000
f~J MORE THAN 1000

WELL
- FAULT
- JOINT OR PROBABLE F


0 I 2 3 4 5 MILES


Figure 19. Chloride content of ground water from upper part of Floridan
aquifer in Volusia County.


ego
eo,


"'90,
3o.


b














/0'










9000
J


Oo,


m










Table 5,. Chemical analyses of springs In Volusia County,
Chemical analyses in milligrams per liter


Ponce de Leon Springs near DeLand, Fla. (site 31, fig. 1)
10-21-64 6.9 0.01 48 18 135 5.6 128 86 240 0.1 5.0 558 195 90 1,000 7.7 1 I
5-. 867 7.0 .01 S9 6.81 3 2.0 122 10 60 .2 2.6 242 221 126 26 415 7.7 0 29.5
Blue Springs near Orange City, Fla. (site 32, fig. 1)
5-26-66 8.8 0.00 70 36 301 10 149 78 550 0.1 0.6 1,130 322 200 2,120 7.2 0 156
5- 9-67 8.6 .00 57 26 215 7.7 160 52 388 .2 .8 876 835 250 119 1,520 7.6 0 155
Green Springs near Osteen, Fla. (site 33, fig. 1)

2-12-65 740 - 2,500 -I






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


probably constant during wet and dry periods, but during wet
periods the chloride concentration in precipitation and surface water
is less due to the dilution effect.
SPRINGS

Springs along the flanks of the DeLand ridge discharge water
which has infiltrated the ridge (fig. 15). Blue Springs, the ninth
largest spring in Florida (U. S. Geological Survey, 1964, p. 508), is a
first magnitude spring with an average flow of 105 mgd. Another
large spring is Ponce de Leon Springs which has an average flow of 20
mgd. Both springs are on the western edge of the DeLand ridge.
Green Springs, a relatively small spring, discharges water from the
south end of DeLand ridge at an average flow of 0.5 mgd. The flow
from just these three springs is almost 10 times the amount of water
presently withdrawn for public supplies in the county, but high
chlorides in their water (table 5) make it undesirable for public
supply.
Ponce de Leon Springs exhibits an unusual relationship between
the discharge and dissolved mineral content of its waters. The
dissolved mineral content of most springs decreases with increasing
discharge; but for Ponce de Leon Springs, the chloride content,
which is a major mineral constituent, increases with increasing
discharge, figure 20. The scatter of the points is probably due to the
variable control on the head of the spring. The outlet structure
(control), which forms the spring into a swimming pool, is manipu-
lated frequently to adjust the water level. During periods of low
water levels, when the chloride concentrations increase in the surface
and ground waters, chloride concentration in Ponce de Leon Springs
reach lows of 60 mg/l, which is well below the maximum limit of
250 mg/1 recommended by the U. S. Public Health Service (1962).
The phenomenon of high discharge and high chloride concentra-
tion is not fully understood but one explanation is that during
periods of greater recharge the increased fresh-water head causes the
zone of diffusion to be suppressed under the DeLand ridge. As the
zone of diffusion is suppressed, fresh water displaces the water with
greater chlorides in the zone of diffusion, which is then discharged
through the springs.

WATER AVAILABILITY AND USE

The availability of water in Volusia County depends on how
and where water is removed from the hydrologic system. The







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


0)











M

_______________ ______________ __________________ 10) W
<
Cd 0
U)
z
0
-J1
-J
(.9

z
0

-J

Ld

(9
Ir
_M
C.


_____I 1 a


0 0
o 0
311i1 83d SI/V1I91771N 3110-7HO


Ito


Figure 20. Relation of chloride concentration to discharge at Ponce de
Leon Springs.

hydrogeologic conditions in the central part of the county are such
that the aquifer is full and rejecting recharge. If the piezometric
surface were lowered in this area by withdrawing water from the
Floridan aquifer for use, recharge would increase from capture of
water from evapotranspiration and runoff. The increase in recharge
would increase the amount of water available.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


In Volusia County the difference between precipitation and
evapotranspiration depends on the hydrogeologic conditions and is in
the form of runoff and/or ground-water discharge. If average condi-
tions for the whole county are used, an estimate of this difference
can be made. Average annual rainfall over the county is 52 inches
(3,000 mgd) and average evapotranspiration is estimated at 35 inches
(2,000 mgd) based on values used by other investigators for similar
areas. Kohler and others (1959, pl. 2) estimated the average annual
lake evaporation in this part of central Florida to be about 46 inches.
Evapotranspiration from the Green Swamp area in central Florida
was estimated by Pride and others (1966, table 18) to be about 37
inches. In Orange County, Lichtler and others (1968, p. 145)
estimated that evapotranspiration is 70 percent (36 inches) of
rainfall. In Volusia County the difference of 17 inches between
precipitation and evapotranspiration is accounted for by surface
runoff and ground-water drainage. The average annual surface runoff
as determined in this investigation is 10 inches (590 mgd) which
leaves 7 inches (410 mgd) as an estimation of ground-water dis-
charge. The amount of water used presently from the ground-water
system is about 26 mgd or just less than 0.5 inch of water over the
entire county.
Most large production wells are used for public water supplies
and as such are drilled relatively near the centers of population along
the Atlantic Coast and St. Johns River. Because the depth to saline
water is shallower in these areas than in the central part of the
county, wells are generally not over 300 feet deep. These large
diameter public supply wells (8-12 inch) will generally yield 1,000 to
1,500 gallons per minute. As well fields are developed nearer the
central part of the county, well yields should increase somewhat due
to the greater thickness of fresh-water-saturated aquifer there.
An estimate of the amount of readily available water through-
out the whole county is 300 mgd. This 300 mgd (equal to 5 inches of
water over the county) would be available from a slight decrease in
evapotranspiration, a result of lowering the water table; a slight
decrease in runoff, a result of greater infiltration; and a slight
decrease in natural ground-water discharge, a result of a lower gradi-
ent on the piezometric surface. Under the hydrogeologic conditions
in Volusia County, one way of increasing the amount of available
water is to use it.
The major uses of water are for public supply, rural supply,
irrigation, and industry. Water for recreation is also a major use but is
not so considered herein. In this report water is considered used
when it is removed from an aquifer or surface-water body.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


20


1950


1960


1970


Figure 21. Graph of water use in Volusia County, 1950-1970.

Of the 25.91 mgd used in Volusia County in 1967, 15.8 mgd or
60 percent Was used for public supply. Water use from 1950 to 1967
and extrapolated to 1970 is shown in figure 21. In the 20-year inter-
val the amount of water used for public supply will more than
double, the amount of water for irrigation will increase more than
four times whereas water for rural and industrial uses will increase
but slightly.


1 Does not include cooling water used in electrical generating.





REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


Ninety-five percent of the water used in Volusia County comes
from ground water and all but a fraction of a percent of this comes
from the Floridan aquifer. In 1967, 24.5 mgd was withdrawn from
the Floridan aquifer, all of which was recharged by rainfall on
Volusia County. The amount of water used for cooling in generating
electricity has not been included in the water use figures but is
shown in table 5. It is withdrawn from the Atlantic Ocean and the
St. Johns River to cool the generating plants and then returned to
the same sources.
Water is not uniformly available throughout the county. More
water is available in the central part of the county where the runoff
is greatest and the fresh-water part of the aquifer is thickest. The
water quality maps (figs. 17, 18, 19) show that fresh water is unavail-
able from the Floridan aquifer along the Atlantic Coast and St. Johns
River.
Water data for the public supplies, rural supply, irrigation and
industry are given in table 6. To diminish the possibility of salt-water
encroachment from the ocean that is induced by increased pumpage,
Daytona Beach, the largest water user in the county is constructing
new well fields to the west of the city and abandoning well fields
nearer the ocean. The location of the major well fields in the county
are shown on figure 22. Chemical analyses of public water supplies
are given in table 7.

SUMMARY

Most of the fresh water in Volusia County comes from the
average yearly 52 inches of rain that falls on the county. The natural
topography helps retain much of this water within the county. Karst
and shoreline ridges with their high rates of infiltration allow little or
no runoff. Although marine terraces have the highest runoff, their
streams do not have deeply incised channels and the water table
remains near the surface. Low sand ridges at the escarpment of each
terrace prevent streams from flowing directly to the ocean.
The two major hydrogeologic units are the clastic aquifer and
the underlying Floridan aquifer. The clastic aquifer is important as a
reservoir in which local rainfall is stored until it moves downward to
recharge the Floridan aquifer or is lost to evapotranspiration and
streamflow. The clastic aquifer comprised of sand, clay and shell has
a porosity of about 35 percent and a coefficient of storage of about
0.25. The infiltration capacity of the surficial sand is large, and it
absorbs much of the rainfall except in areas where the water table is










,PUMPAGE MGD (million gallons per day)
City Served Ownership Source of Well Wellh wells variation Yearly Average
(1967) Supply Fields (feet) (1967)


Breaeewood Park1

Daytona Beach





DeBarry


DeLand




DeLand

Deltona


Edgewater




Holly Hill




Lake Beresford
Water Assoc.


250

60,000


Private Floridan
aquifer
Municipal Floridan
aquifer



Private Floridan
aquifer

Municipal Floridan
aquifer



Private Floridan
aquifer
Private Floridan
aquifer

Municipal Floridan
aquifer



Municipal Floridan
aquifer



Private Floridan
aquifer


1

26





1


6




2

8


2




5




2


0.01..04

4.3*9.6


.03-.1


1.2-4.2






.2-4


300-350






250








225




200


1967 0.02

1933 1.4 1954 4.7 1963 6,0
1950 3.5 1955 4.7 1964 5.7
1951 3.7 1956 4.8 1965 6.3
1952 4.1 1958 5.5 1966 6.0
1953 4.0 1962 5.9 1967 7.0

1966 .05
1967 .06

1963 2.1
1964 2.0
1965 2.0
1966 1.8
1967 1.9

1967 .2

1966 .6
1967 1.0

1963 .15
1964 .20
1965 .20
1966 .23
1967 .30

1954 .46 1959 .47 1964 .64
1955 .37 1960 .46 1965 .68
1956 .45 1961 .52 1966 .69
1957 .57 1962 .62 1967 .72
1958 .51 1963 .72
1965 .02
1966 .02
1967 .03


650


18,800




2,200

3,700


3,700




11,500




360


15-1.2




.02-.04


Table 6, Water uW In Volunla County,


PUBLIC SUPPLY




Orange City "




Lake Helen


New Smyrna
Beach



Ormond Beach




Port Orange


3,250




1,500


16,500




24,000




6,000


Private




Municipal


Municipal




Municipal


Floridan
aquifer



Floridan
aquifer


Floridan
aquifer



Floridan
aquifer


Municipal Floridan
aquifer


RURAL SUPPLY 2
WATER USE (MGD)
Year Population Ground Water Surface Water

1956 30,000 1.8 0.2
1965 32,000 2.1 .2

1967 25,000 2.0 .2


1 Unincorporated.
2 Includes all people using private domestic wells or
obtaining water from small systems supplying less than
100 people.
3 Water used in electrical generating.


460


200


200-220


2 5


.04-.12


1.2-4.0




1.4-2.8




.38-.85


1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1963
1964
1967

1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956

1953
1954
1955
1956
1957


.19 1965 .15
.23 1966 .23
.25 1967 .23
.21
.17
.06
.07
.07

1.5
1.7
1.7
1.8
2.0
.64 1957 1.0 1965
.68 1958 1.5 1966
.72 1962 1.5 1967
.83 1963 1.7
.95 1964 1.5

.15 1958 .27 1963
.19 1959 .29 1964
.21 1960 .29 1965
.21 1961 .31 1966
.23 1962 .32 1967


0

0
8


0
0
1V







z

z
0.
".4U


IRRIGATION
I WATER USE (MGD) ACRES
Year Ground Water Surface Water Citrus Truck Fern Other


1965 5.5 1.1 1,500 500 1,400 300
1967 6.1 1.1 1,500 500 1,600 300

INDUSTRIAL
GROUND WATER (MGD) SURFACE WATER3 (MGD)
Year Fresh Saline Fresh Saline
1965 0.4 0.2 144

1967 .5 .2 144 16









REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


at the surface. The shell beds contain a relatively large amount of
water and in places along the coast are a source for domestic water
supplies. Dissolved solids concentration of the water in the clastic
aquifer is lowest in the sand beds and higher in the shell beds.
The Floridan aquifer, comprised of limestone and dolomitic
limestone, underlies all of Volusia C6unty. It is a semiconfined
artesian aquifer and the principal source of water supply in the
county. A hard, dense, dolomitic zone divides the aquifer into an
upper and lower part. Geologic structure appears to be a major factor
in the hydrogeologic system of the Floridan aquifer. Faults form a
fault-block that encloses the piezometric high in the center of the
county. Zones of highly mineralized water occur along fault planes
or joint systems. Water levels in the upper part of the aquifer along
the coast have declined about 5 feet since 1955. This is attributed to
increased pumping for the rapidly growing east coast area. Other
areas, where pumping has not greatly increased, exhibit stable levels.
Water in the upper part of the Floridan aquifer is of good chemical
quality in most of the interior of the county. It is principally calcium
bicarbonate type water but there is also some sodium chloride type
water in this area. Aquifer chlorides as low as 10 mg/1 and hardness
of 100 mg/1 are found in the interior. However, highly saline water is
found at depth in the aquifer and in the discharge areas along the
coast and the St. Johns Valley.
Recharge to the Floridan aquifer occurs throughout much of
Volusia County. Some recharge generally occurs wherever the water
table is higher than the piezometric surface. However, areas of
piezometric highs should not be considered principal recharge areas
in Volusia County. Such a high occurs in the -western part of the
Talbot terrace where the piezometric surface is near or above the
water table most of the time, a condition which prevents recharge to
the Floridan aquifer. Areas where the water table is higher than the
piezometric surface such as parts of the karst ridge and the eastern
part of the Talbot terrace are areas of greater recharge.
Most of the lakes in Volusia County are on the DeLand ridge,
where there are about 120 larger than 5 acres. These lakes, with a
few exceptions, are generally shallow (less than 20 feet) and have a
small seasonal fluctuation (less than 3 feet). Lakes which are
surrounded by agricultural or residential land are more highly
mineralized than lakes isolated from human activity.
Streamflow from the county averages about 590 mgd. This is
over 20 times the daily water use, however, the minimum flow
during the spring dry season is less than 5 mgd. Volusia County






52 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

streams have very little channel storage and the potential of using
streams for a water supply is slight due to their flow characteristics.
Most of the streams are slightly mineralized, highly colored and
slightly acid. The flow of the St. Johns River is about 80 times
greater than the amount of water used daily in the county. However,
the water is of poor chemical quality and generally unsuitable for
most uses. At times, during low flow, some streams are affected by
discharge from the Floridan aquifer and exhibit chemical quality
similar to the ground water.
It is estimated that 300 mgd on an average throughout the
county is readily available for use. This water could be obtained by
lowering the piezometric surface through pumping in the central part
of the county which would decrease evaporation, runoff, and natural
ground-water discharge and increase infiltration.
Total water use in Volusia County in 1967 was 26 mgd, of
which 95 percent was derived from the Floridan aquifer.








Table 7. Chemical analyses of public water supplies.1
Chemical analyses, in milligrams per liter
Cal- Magne- Potas- Bicar- Fluo- Ni-
Silica Iron cium sium Sodium sium bonate Sulfate Chloride ride trate Dissolved Total
City Date (SiO2) (Fe) (Ca) (Mg) (Na) (K) (HCOg) (S04) (Cl) (F) (NOS) Solids Hardness pH
Daytona Beach 19572 21 14 104 5 253 353 0 32 315 280
19652 .2 101 9 276 46 286 7.2
DeLand 19234 16 .07 39 6.8 7.53 140 9.0 12 4.3 164 125
(Municipal) 19624 8.2 .01 46 6.6 9.5 1.8 156 12 16 0.2 .0 177 142 8.0
DeLand 19654 7.3 .00 39 6.0 6.7 .8 136 13 11 .2 .0 151 122 7.7
'(Private)
Deltona 19654 .1 50 5 128 5 28 .5 238 146 7.4
Holly Hill 1952 94 18 333 347 4 67 484 310
1966 23 .02 101 12 356 5 74 .4 1 508 308 7.2
Lake Beresford 1965 10 .06 39 4 12 .9 110 15 24 .1 5 188 114 7.4
Water Assoc. 1967 .03 43 5 122 25 45 215 130 7.4
Orange City 1964 .3 68 8 217 10 242 206 7.0
Lake Helen 1950 0 58 4 195 0 10 .1 210 160 7.4
1958 .02 59 6 180 3 13 .05 203 174 7.5
New Smyrna 1950 1.1 116 8 381 0 60 .2 465 324 7.4
Beach 1961 .15 31 6 331 10 79 .15 488 196 7.9
Ormond Beach 1958 .3 0 104 16 95 342 8 149 675 324 7.3
19624 19 .05 107 21 90 2.2 322 9.6 200 .3 .1 608 354 8.0

1 Untreated water.
2 Airport well field.
3 Includes potassium.
4 Analyses by U. S. Geological Survey.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


Ninety-five percent of the water used in Volusia County comes
from ground water and all but a fraction of a percent of this comes
from the Floridan aquifer. In 1967, 24.5 mgd was withdrawn from
the Floridan aquifer, all of which was recharged by rainfall on
Volusia County. The amount of water used for cooling in generating
electricity has not been included in the water use figures but is
shown in table 5. It is withdrawn from the Atlantic Ocean and the
St. Johns River to cool the generating plants and then returned to
the same sources.
Water is not uniformly available throughout the county. More
water is available in the central part of the county where the runoff
is greatest and the fresh-water part of the aquifer is thickest. The
water quality maps (figs. 17, 18, 19) show that fresh water is unavail-
able from the Floridan aquifer along the Atlantic Coast and St. Johns
River.
Water data for the public supplies, rural supply, irrigation and
industry are given in table 6. To diminish the possibility of salt-water
encroachment from the ocean that is induced by increased pumpage,
Daytona Beach, the largest water user in the county is constructing
new well fields to the west of the city and abandoning well fields
nearer the ocean. The location of the major well fields in the county
are shown on figure 22. Chemical analyses of public water supplies
are given in table 7.

SUMMARY

Most of the fresh water in Volusia County comes from the
average yearly 52 inches of rain that falls on the county. The natural
topography helps retain much of this water within the county. Karst
and shoreline ridges with their high rates of infiltration allow little or
no runoff. Although marine terraces have the highest runoff, their
streams do not have deeply incised channels and the water table
remains near the surface. Low sand ridges at the escarpment of each
terrace prevent streams from flowing directly to the ocean.
The two major hydrogeologic units are the clastic aquifer and
the underlying Floridan aquifer. The clastic aquifer is important as a
reservoir in which local rainfall is stored until it moves downward to
recharge the Floridan aquifer or is lost to evapotranspiration and
streamflow. The clastic aquifer comprised of sand, clay and shell has
a porosity of about 35 percent and a coefficient of storage of about
0.25. The infiltration capacity of the surficial sand is large, and it
absorbs much of the rainfall except in areas where the water table is







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


REFERENCES CITED
Barnes, H. H., Jr.
1966 (and Golden, H. G.) Magnitude and frequency of floods in the
United States: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1674, 409 p.
Brown, D. W.
1962 (and Kenner, W. E., and Crooks, J. W., and Foster, J. B.) Water
resources of Brevard County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Rept. Inv.
28, 104 p.
Florida Development
Commission
1965 Population of Florida: Fla. Development Comm., Tallahassee,
Florida, 19 p.


Knochenmus
1968

Kohler, M. A
1959

Lichtler, W.
1968

Pfischner, F.
1968


Pride, R. W.
1966

Puri, H. S.
1964


,D. D.
Surface drainage characteristics of Volusia County: Fla. Geol.
Survey Map Series 30.

(and Norderson, T. J., and Baker, D. R.) Evaporation maps for the
United States: U. S. Weather Bureau Tech. Paper 37, 13 p.
F.
(and Anderson, Warren, and Joyner, B. F.) Water resources of
Orange County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 50, 150 p.
L.
Relation between land use and chemical characteristics of lakes in
southwestern Orange County: U. S. Geological Survey Prof. Paper
600-B, p. B190 B194.

(and Meyer, F. W., and Cherry, R. N.) Hydrology of Green Swamp
area in central Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 42, 137 p.

(and Vernon, R. 0.) Summary of the geology of Florida and a
guidebook to the classic exposures: Fla. Geol. Survey Spec. Pub. 5,
312 p.


Schneider, Robert
1964 Cenomanian-Turonian aquifer of central Israel Its development
and possible use as a storage reservoir: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-
Supply Paper 1608-F, 20 p.


Snell, L.J.
1970


(and Anderson, Warren) Water resources of Northeast Florida: Fla.
Dept. Nat. Res., Bur. Geology Rept. Inv. 54.


U. S. Dept. Health,
Education and Welfare
1962 Public Health Service drinking water standards: Pub. No. 956, p.
33.
U. S. Geological Survey
1964 Surface water records of Florida: Streams, No. 1, p. 508.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Visher, F. N.
1967 (and Wetterhall, W. S.) Effect of filled cavities on the hydrology of
the limestone terrain in Florida: In Abstracts of papers submitted
for the meeting in Tallahassee, Florida, March 30-31 and April 1,
1967: Southeastern Sec., Geol. Soc. America.
Wyrick, G. G.
1960 The ground-water resources of Volusia County, Florida: Fla. Geol.
Survey Rept. Inv. 22, 65 p.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 57


APPENDIX

The following table lists sites where hydrologic data on lakes,
streams, aquifers and springs were collected. Data were collected at
some sites prior to the investigation and constitute a long record of
hydrologic information whereas other sites were established during
the investigation. The location, type, frequency and period of record
for each site are given in the table.


Table 8. Hydrologic data-collection sites in Volusia County and vicinity.


Frequency of record: r, Continuous; p, Periodic; d,
number of analyses.


Daily (10) Total


STREAMS


Site
No. on
figure 1


Location


Middle Haw Creek at Relay
station, near Bunnell
Little Haw Creek, at State
Hwy. 11, near Bunnell
Little Tomoka River near
Ormond Beach
Tomoka River near Holly
Hill
Deep Creek near Barberville

Spruce Creek near Samsula

St. Johns River near DeLand

St. Johns River near Sanford

Deep Creek diversion canal
near Osteen
Deep Creek near Osteen


Cow Creek near Maytown

St. Johns River, above Lake
Harney, near Geneva


Type and
frequency
of record


Dr
A(10)
Dp
A(12)
Dp
A(9)
Dr
A(12)
Dp
A(13)
Dr
A(ll1)
Dr
A(47)
Sr, Dp
A(13)
Sd
A(9)
Dr
Pd
A(69)
Dp
A(8)
Sr, Dp
A(13)


Period of record

October 1964 to September 1966
1964-66
1964-66
1964-67
1943, 1945-46, 1956, 1962-67
1964-66
October 1964 to September 1967
1964-67
1964-67
1964-67
May 1951 to September 1967
1964-67
October 1933 to September 1967
1948-49, 1954, 1962, 1966-67
July 1941 to September 1967
1954, 1962, 1965-67
October 1964 to September 1966
1964-66
October 1964 to September 1966

1964-66
1964-66
1964-66
July 1941 to September 1967
1957-58, 1962, 1966-67


Type of record:


D, Discharge and stage; A, Standard chemical
analysis; S, Stage; P, Partial chemical analysis.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


WELLS


Site
No. on
figure 1

13

14





15

16





17






18

19

20




21





22





23


Location

290842N0810846.11

290655N0811112.1

290655N0811112.2

290655N0811112.3

290541N0811329.1

290534N0811750.1

290534N0811750.2

290534N0811750.3

290432N0811449.1

290432N0811449.2

290432N0811449.3

290432N0811449.4
290251N0810014.1

290142N0811059.1

290138N0812032.1

290138N0812032.2


290106N0811321.1

290106N0811321.2

290106N0811321.3

290107N0810620.1

290107N0810620.2

290107N0810620.3

285904N0811526.1

285904N0811526.2

285904N0811526.3


Depth
feet

100

95

304

18

351

114

260

19

84

310

47

7
700

91

62

500


92

340

47

111

21

282

222

22

325


Type and
frequency
of record

Sp
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr.
A(1)
Sr
Sp
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
A(1)
Sp
A(6)
Sp
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
Sp
A(6)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)


Period of record

1965-67
1966
January 1966 to December 1967
1966
January 1966 to December 1967
1966
January 1966 to December 1967
1966
May 1955 to May 1965
1965-67
April 1966 to December 1967
1966
April 1966 to December 1967
1966
April 1966 to December 1967
1966
January 1966 to August 1967
1966
January 1966 to August 1967
1966
January 1966 to August 1967
1966 -
1966
1965-67
1965-66
1965-67
1966
April 1966 to June 1967
1966
April 1966 to June 1967
1967
1965-66
January 1966 to December 1967
1966
January 1966 to December 1967
1966
January 1966 to December 1967
1966
January 1966 to December 1967
1966
January 1966 to December 1967
1966
January 1966 to December 1967
1966
January 1966 to December 1967
1966
January 1966 to December 1967
1966
January 1966 to December 1967
1966


1 Well number refers to latitude and longitude (290842N0810846.1 =
lat. 29 08'42" north, long. 81 08'46", well no. 1.)


.. ., .









285655

285655

285655


REPORT OF INVESTIGATION:

N0811656.1 171 Sr
A(1)
N0811656.2 32 Sr
A(1)
iN0811656.3 70 Sr


285643N0811226.1

285643N0811226.2

285643N0811226.3

285221N0810950.1

285221N0810950.2

291130N0810417.2


97

37

202

222

92

500


A(i)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sr
A(1)
Sp
Pp


N NO. 57 5S


January 1966 to August 1967
1966
January 1966 to August 1967
1966
January 1966 to August 1967
1966
April 1966 to December 1967
1966
April 1966 to December 1967
1966
April 1966 to December 1967
1966
April 1966 to June 1967
1966
April 1966 to June 1967
1966
1955-67
1955-67


LAKES

Site Type and
No. on frequency
figure 1 Location of record Period of Record

27 Lake Winona near Sr March 1965 to September 1967
DeLand A(3) 1965-67
28 Lake Hires near Sr March 1965 to September 1966
DeLand A(2) 1965-66
29 Lake Winnemissett near Sr March 1965 to September 1967
DeLand A(4) 1965-67
30 Lake Dupont near Lake Sr March 1965 to September 1966
Helen A(2) 1965-66



SPRINGS

31 Ponce de Leon Springs Dp 1929, 1932, 1946, 1956, 1960
near DeLand 1964-67
A(4) 1923, 1946, 1964, 1967
P (8) 1965-67
32 Blue Springs near Dp 1932-67
Orange City A(3) 1964-67
P(10)
33 Green Springs hear Dp 1932, 1960, 1965, 1966
Osteen P(1)


Pp


----------------------------------! ------- 1 -









5 ''
IV J) ) c


PLJ rN~M
..-COUN'rY


LAKE "go
GEORG0E / 30




ro /
8 i~~.,,g ,





000
rORMOND
BEACH



DAYTONA
BEACH





IZ'
~ /0,





500

EXPLNATOANG
ALTITDE O LAN SURFACE
NENW
SMYRNA o '
a BEACH 0

OnO

cou h,









E 25-50
S50-75 00s
seo
75-000


,I ,' I ,I I I
COUNTY ,,

ALTITUDE OF LAND SURFACE '~







*F ABOVE 100

0 2 45 MILES




0 7 0


Figure 3. Topographic map of Volusia County.











VOLUAGER CO.
VOLUSIAFCO.


BEACH





VOLUSIA CO.
BREVARD CO.

i


0 5 10 MILES
1 LULJJ


- 50'
- SEA LEVEL
- 50'
- 100'
- 150
- 200'
- 250'


- 50'
- SEA LEVEL
- 50'
- 100'
-150'
- 200'
- 250'


-- PROBABLE FAULT


5 MILES

exaggerated


EXPLANATION

SAND

PLASTIC CLAY
AQUIFER --- CLA
S50 SHELL
- SEA LEVEL
-50 FLORIDAN LIMESTONE
-1001 AQUIFER DOLOMITIC
-5 LIMESTONE
- 150'
22 TEST WELL. REFER TO
- 200' FIGURE I AND TABLE 8.
- 250' SEA LEVEL


Figure 4. Fence diagram of hydrogeologic sections in Volusia County.


50 -20
SEA LEVEL -

50' -

150d-
200' -
25d -


0,0


O~25


0

Vertical


I 2

scale


3 4
Greatly
greatly















I |DeLand Talbot
metric Ridge Terrace
rfoce (FLORIDAN AQUIFER)
I


St Johns
River


Block diagram of part of Volusia County
showing the movement of water.


Al


K'


'I


MSL










FLRD GEOLIOWC( ICA SURflViEWY~


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