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FGS











STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES


BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
Robert O. Vernon, Chief



REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54



WATER RESOURCES OF
NORTHEAST FLORIDA
(St. Johns River Basin and Adjacent Coastal Areas)






By
L. J. Snell and Warren Anderson
U. S. Geological Survey




Prepared by the
U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES



Tallahassee, Florida
1970







-- -7. S- "




C, FORIDA STATE BOARD
OF
CONSERVATION







CLAUDE R. KIRK, JR.
Governor


TOM ADAMS
Secretary of State




EARL FAIRCLOTH
Attorney General





BROWARD WILLIAMS
Treasurer


FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN
Superintendent of Public Instruction




FRED O. DICKINSON, JR.
Comptroller





DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGES
Director







LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Bureau of Geology
Tallahassee
February 25, 1970


Governor Claude R. Kirk, Chairman
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Governor Kirk:

The Bureau of Geology of the Division of Interior Resources,
Florida Department of Natural Resources, is publishing as its Report
of Investigations No. 54 a study, Water Resources of Northeast
Florida (St. Johns River Basin and Adjacent Coastal Areas). This
report was prepared as a part of the cooperative program between
the Bureau of Geology and the U.S. Geological Survey and is written
by L. J. Snell and Warren Anderson of the U.S.G.S.

The study is published at a time when the St. Johns Watershed
and coastal areas are being rapidly developed and urbanized, and it
will provide data on the amounts of ground and surface water that
will be available in the area and will be the basis for planning so far as
the quality and quantity of these waters are concerned. A summary
of these data indicates that there are adequate amounts of potable
water in the area to meet the needs for the immediate future. Certain
problems, such as the reduction of ground water recharge, the
reduction of the amount of water flowing from wells and contamina-
tion of water in some local areas, will probably accelerate the
declines in quality and quantity of water but adequate management
will reduce the severity of these problems.

Respectfully yours, ,


R. O. Vernon, Chief























































Completed manuscript received
February 25, 1970
Printed for the Florida Department of Natural Resources
Division of Interior Resources
Bureau of Geology
Designers Press of Orlando, Inc.
Orlando, Florida

iv 2







CONTENTS


Page
Abstract ...................................................... 1
Introduction .......................................... ........ .. 2
Purpose and scope .......................................... 2
Explanation of terms ........................................ 4
Hydrologic and geologic setting ................................. .. 6
Drainage .................................................. 9
W ater quality ............................................. 10
Floods ................... ........... ........... ........... 15
Low flow ................................................ 19
Flow duration ............................................ 23
Water use ......... ................ ............... .......... 24


Public supplies ....
Rural ...........
Irrigation ........
Self-supplied industry
Surface water ........
Upper St. Johns Riv
Jane Green and Woll
Econlockhatchee Ri
Deep Creek ......
Wekiva River .....
Oklawaha River basin ..
Lower St. Johns Riv
Dunns Creek .
Rice Creek ...
Black Creek ..
Coastal ba
Moultrie Creek
Tomoka Creek
Turkey Creek .
Fellsmere Cana
Canals near Ve:
Other small trial
Lakes ...
Ground water ........
Shallow aquifers...
Artesian aquifers ..
Summary of conditi
Duval County.
Clay County..
St. Johns Coun
Alachua Count
Putnam Count'
Flagler County
Marion County
Volusia Count
Lake County
Seminole Coun
Orange County
Brevard Count


.... ........... .......... ................ 25
....................................... 25
........................................ 31
ial ...................................... 31
. ..................................... 35
er basin ................................. 35
F Creeks ................................. 38
ier ...................................... 41
............................. ........ ,. 41
......................... ........ ....... 42
S................... ............... .... 42
er basin ................................ 44
.... .................................. 45
_.- 45
........................................45
........... :.............................. 46
sin .... .............................. 46
................... ...... .............. 47
.......... .............. ..... .......... 47
S...... ........... ..................... 48
1 .................................... 48
ro Beach ................................. 48
butary streams ............................ 49
....................................... 50
........................................ 54
.........................................54
.......... ............................ 59
ons ..................................... 65
......................... ............... .66
......................................... 67
Lty .......... .. .......................... 67
y ....................................... 68
y .... ......................... ................68
........................................... 69
.... ........ ... ....................... ..69
,. ................. ....... ... .......... 69
........ ............... ................... 70
ty ...................................... 70
........................................ 71
y ....... ............................... 71






Indian River County ................................... 69
Other counties ........................................ 69
Estimated quantity of water available ...................... 69
Summary of water availability, use and problems ..................... 71
References ................................................... 73
Figure ILLUSTRATIONS Page
Figure Page
1. Map of northeast Florida showing drainage system and
floodregions .............................................. 3
2. Geologic formations penetrated by water wells in
northeast Florida ............................................7
3. Diagram showing chloride concentration in St. Johns River
during periods of high and low flow .............................14
4. Flood-frequency curves for the main stem of the St.Johns
River ...................................................15
5. Flood-frequency curves for the main stem of the
Oklawaha River ............................................16
6. Flood-frequency curves for Region A, area 1 in
northeast Florida .......................................... 17
7. Flood-frequency curves for Region B, area 1 in
northeast Florida .......................................... 18
8. Flood-frequency curves for Region B, area 2 in
northeast Florida ...........................................19
9. Graph showing attenuation adjustment to mean annual flood
due to lake and swamp storage ................................ 20
10. Graphs showing variation of mean annual, 5-, 10-, and 30- year
flood stages with channel distance for main stem of St.Johns
River ................................................... 21
11. Graphs showing profiles of maximum stages on St. Johns River
forselected floods ..........................................22
12. Low-flow frequency curves for St.Johns River near Christmas ........ 23
13. Low-flow frequency curves for Econlockhatchee River near
Chuluota ....................................... ...........24
14. Curves showing the maximum periods during which discharge
was less than given amounts, St.Johns River at Palatka and
Jacksonville .............................................. 26
15. Flor-duration curves for streams in St. Johns River basin
above Lake Monroe .........................................27
16. Flow-duration curves for streams in St. Johns River basin
below Lake Monroe ....................................... .28
17. Graphs showing water source, purpose, and relation of
consumptive use to water withdrawal in northeast Florida ........... .36
18. Graph of relationship of drainage area to average discharge for
main stem of St.Johns River .................................. 37
19. Flow chart showing average flow of streams in northeast
Florida ..................................................38
20. Graph showing maximum, minimum, and median daily
dissolved solids equaled or exceeded 5 and 25 per cent
of the time, for St.Johns River near Cocoa ...................... .39









Figure Page
21. Graph showing maximum, minimum, and median daily
temperature for St.Johns River near Cocoa ...................... .40
22. Low-flow frequency curves for Wekiva River near Sanford ........... 43
23. Hydrographs of month-end elevations of Lake Apopka,
Lake Poinsett, and Orange Lake ...............................51
24. Stage-duration curve for Lake Kerr near Eureka .................. .52
25. Stage-duration curve for Lakes Dora, Eustis and Griffin,
in northeast Florida ........................................ 53
26. Stage-duration curve for Lake Louisa near Clermont ................ 54
27. Stage-duration curve for Kingsley Lake near Camp Blanding .......... 55
28. Two geologic sections through northeastern Florida ............... .56
29. Hydrographs of wells in water-table, shallow artesian, and
Floridan aquifers one mile east of Bithlo, Orange County,
Florida .................................................. 58
30. Map of northeast Florida showing altitude of top of Floridan
aquifer .................................................. 61
31. Map of northeast Florida showing piezometric surface of
Floridan aquifer as of July 1961 ..............................63
32. Graphs showing water level fluctuations in five wells that
penetrate the Floridan aquifer, and rainfall at Gainesville ............64
33. Maps of northeast Florida showing chloride concentration,
hardness, total dissolved solids, and sulfate concentration in
water in upper part of Floridan aquifer ............. Between 66 and 67
34. Section showing variation in chloride content of waters from
the Floridan aquifer with depth along a line between
Groveland and Daytona Beach ................................66


T


TABLES


able


Page


1. Water quality characteristics and their significance ................ .11
2. Suggested water quality tolerances for selected uses ............... .12
3. Observed extremes in quality of surface water in the
St. Johns River basin and coastal areas,
period 1952-65 ............... ....... ....... Between 16 and 17
4. Water used for public supplies, by counties, in St. Johns
River basin and adjacent coastal areas, 1965 ..................... .29
5. Water for rural use, by counties, in St. Johns River basin and
adjacent coastal areas, 1965 .................................. 30
6. Water used for irrigation, by counties, in St. Johns River basin and adjacent
coastal areas, 1965 ......................................... 32
7. Self-supplied industrial water, by counties, in St. Johns River
basin and adjacent coastal areas, 1965 .......................... .33
8. Water used for fuel-electric power, by counties, in St. Johns
River basin and adjacent coastal areas, 1965 ...................... 34
9. Drainage areas and observed extremes of discharge for other
small streams in the St. Johns River basis and coastal area ............49

vii




















































































































































I






WATER RESOURCES OF NORTHEAST FLORIDA
(St. Johns River Basin and Adjacent Coastal Areas)

by
L. J. Snell and Warren Anderson
U. S. Geological Survey


ABSTRACT

The St. Johns River basin and adjacent coastal basins, an
elongated area of approximately 11,200 square miles in northeast
Florida, comprise one-fifth the land area of Florida and contain
one-fourth its population.
Rapid industrial expansion and population growth in both the
present centers of population and the less densely populated rural
areas places increasing demands on water resources in the area.
Total water use is expected to quadruple by the year 2020.
Ground water from the Floridan aquifer, a limestone aquifer
which underlies the entire area, is the principal source of water for
all uses except cooling water used in the generation of electric
power and in some industrial processes. Some small municipalities
and rural domestic users obtain ground water from sand or sand
and shell aquifers that occur above the Floridan aquifer. Surface
water is used for irrigation in some areas and a few municipalities
obtain water from lakes.
Large supplies of good quality water may be obtained from
much of the Floridan aquifer, which ranges from about 500 feet to
more than 1,000 feet in thickness. The top of the limestone, which
is at or near land surface near the western divide, is more than 400
feet below land surface and sea level in the northern and southern
parts of the area. Wells drilled into the aquifer may yield more
than 5,000 gallons per minute. The quality of the deep aquifer
water varies from good in or near the recharge areas in the western
part of the area to poor along the St. Johns River and near the
coast where high concentrations of chloride and other constituents
render the artesian waters unsuitable for most uses. An exception
is the Jacksonville area where good quality water has been located
in formations at a depth of about 2,100 feet.
Moderate amounts of good quality water can be obtained
from the shallow sand and shell aquifers and from sand and shell-
beds in the Hawthorn Formation in the areas along the coast
where the water in the Floridan aquifer is of poor quality.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


The St. Johns River and its principal tributary, the Oklawaha
River, receive much of their flow from large perennial springs,
which are among Florida's many tourist attractions. Silver Springs,
near Ocala, discharges an average of 530 mgd (million gallons per
day) of good quality water; other smaller springs discharge waters
which vary in quality from good to highly saline.
The low relief of the area is typical of Florida; the fall in
more than 300 miles from the marshes at the source of the St.
Johns River to its mouth is only 25 feet. The river is affected by
tides for 161 miles upstream from its mouth. Numerous shallow
lakes occur in the Oklawaha River subbasin and others occur as
widened parts of the St. Johns River main stem. Waters in swampy
areas are highly colored from decayed vegetation but otherwise are
of good chemical quality. Springs contribute high carbonate waters
to streams throughout the basin and some saline water is added to
the main stem of the St. Johns River.
Ample quantities of good quality water are available to meet
the foreseeable water needs in the report area. Exclusive of saline
waters used for cooling in electric power generation, the water
withdrawn from surface and ground water sources is less than 10
per cent, and that consumed is less than 5 per cent of the esti-
mated available supply. The problems of water supply, therefore,
are essentially problems of distribution rather than availability
because most sources of readily available good quality water are in
the western parts of the report area and the centers of greatest
demand are presently along the Atlantic coast. Urbanization and
drainage of lands tend to reduce ground-water recharge; free flow-
ing wells and heavy industrial pumping without return of used
water to the aquifers reduce the ground water levels; excessive
pumping invites saline-water intrusion in some areas. Contamina-
tion of both surface and ground waters is a problem which must
be controlled to insure the quality of waters in the area.

INTRODUCTION
PURPOSE AND SCOPE

The rapidly expanding population and economic growth in
northeast Florida places increasing demands on its water resources.
Although water is abundant in most parts of the area covered by
this report and more than meets the demands at the present time,
the demand for water is expected to double by 1980 and to more
than quadruple by the year 2020, indicating a need for thorough
and continued evaluations, understanding, and proper management






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


of the water resources. Further, though water is generally abundant
in the area as a whole, the quality of the surface water in the
lower St. Johns River and of the artesian water in Brevard County
and some other areas, for example, is unacceptable for most uses.
Also, though the quality of water in the streams and aquifers in
much of the area is acceptable now, increased development with


Figure 1 Map of northeast Florida showing drainage system and flood regions





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


attendant disposal of waste and modification of the hydrologic
cycle portend increased problems relating to quality.
This report summarizes and appraises the water resources of the
St. Johns River basin and the adjacent narrow coastal strip of
northeast Florida (as shown in Figure 1). The area includes all or
major parts of Duval, Clay, St. Johns, Alachua, Putnam, Flagler,
Marion, Volusia, Lake, Seminole, Orange, Brevard, Osceola, and
Indian River counties, and small parts of Levy, Sumter, Polk, Okee-
chobee and St. Lucie counties. The area contains 11,200 square
miles, approximately, and has about one quarter (more than
1,500,000) of Florida's population. The report provides information
on the occurrence, availability, chemical quality, and use of surface
and underground waters as a guide for public and private agencies for
planning the most beneficial development of the water resources of
the area, to recognize areas of excess and deficient water, areas of
good and poor quality waters, and areas where further detailed
investigations are desirable. The population and economic expansion
creates the need for additional water supplies either from present
sources or from new sources. Sources should be investigated in order
to maintain acceptable water quality, to assure flood protection, and
to otherwise determine water availability to enhance the economic
and recreational aspects of the area.
The report was prepared under the general supervision of Clyde
S. Conover, District Chief, Water Resources Division, U. S. Geologi-
cal Survey, at the request of the Florida Board of Conservation,
Water Resources Division, as part of the statewide cooperation with
the Division of Geology to evaluate the water resources of Florida.
Reports and publications, including those from which the report
material has been extracted, are given in the list of references. The
efforts of the original investigators and the review provided by
colleagues are appreciated and gratefully acknowledged.

EXPLANATION OF TERMS

Knowledge of the water resources of the area has expanded
considerably since 1930. The period 1950-65 was used as the base
for comparative purposes in portions of this report. Rainfall, which is
the source of all fresh-water resources in the area, was close to the
long-term average during the 15-year period. However, The record of
long-term yearly rainfall indicates that wet and dry cycles in this
period were more severe than in earlier years.
Definitions are given herewith for a number of terms used in
this report.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


Surface water is water on the surface of the earth.
Ground water is water beneath the surface of the earth in zones
of saturation. It does not include "soil moisture" which normally is
not directly available for use by man.
Drainage basin is an area occupied by a drainage system into
which all surface waters within the area flow. The boundary between
two drainage basins is called a "drainage divide." The basin may
contain "noncontributing areas," which are areas in which water is
diverted for use, returned to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration,
or enters the ground at a rate sufficient to prevent or reduce surface
runoff.
Runoff is considered that part of precipitation that appears in
surface streams. However, runoff herein is considered essentially
synonomous with streamflow which is derived both from "overland
flow" and "base flow." In Florida "base flow", which is a major part
of the total flow in most streams, is essentially "ground-water run-
off" and is supplied from ground water emerging as springs or as
seepage, sometimes without regard to topographic divides.
Surface-water discharge is the rate of flow of a stream. It is
expressed as cubic feet per second (cfs) in this report.
Aquifer is a formation, group of formations, or part of a
formation that is water-bearing. It is often called a "ground-water
reservoir."
Recharge is water added to an aquifer by infiltration of precipi-
tation into the soil or rock, by seepage through the soil or sinkholes,
by seepage from streams, lakes and other surface water bodies, by
flow from one aquifer to another, and by introduction through or
into recharge wells and sinkholes. Recharge is generally expressed as
a rate of inches per year over an area.
Water table is the upper surface of a ground-water body under
atmospheric pressure, as indicated by the level of water in a well or
open hole that penetrates the top of the zone of saturation. The
water table is usually synonymous with the "shallow" or "non-
artesian" water level.
Artesian water is water under hydrostatic pressure confined in
an aquifer by relatively impervious materials, which rises in a well
above the top of the aquifer. Flowing wells occur where hydrostatic
pressure in the aquifer is great enough to raise the water above the
land surface.
Piezometric level is the level to which water rises under hydro-
static pressure in a tightly cased well that penetrates an artesian
aquifer. An artesian pressure surface is defined by the piezometric
'levels in a number of wells that penetrate the same confined aquifer.





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Ground-water discharge is water that leaves an aquifer by any
means, including pumping, natural flow as springs or seepage to
streams, lakes, or canals, or by evapotranspiration.

HYDROLOGIC AND GEOLOGIC SETTING

The area covered in this report includes 11,200 square miles,
approximately, of which about 9,430 are in the St. Johns River basin
and the balance are in coastal basins between the St. Johns River and
the Atlantic Ocean. The area has a humid subtropical climate which
supports heavy growths of native pine and scrub oak in the generally
sandy and well-drained soils, and cypress in wet bottom lands. The
principal source of fresh water is rain on the area although some
ground water flows into the area through aquifers from the central.
highlands of Florida.
The St. Johns River basin and the adjacent coastal area receive
an average of about 28 bgd (billion gallons per day) of precipitation,
all of which occurs as rain. About 20 bgd renters the atmosphere
through the processes of evapotranspiration, about 3 bgd percolates
into the aquifers, and 6.5 bgd runs off through streams to the ocean.
Of the 3 bgd which percolates into the aquifers, more than half
emerges as springs to augment the surface flow, some is withdrawn
through wells, and the remainder emerges as off-shore submarine
springs, or underground flow to the Suwannee and Withlacoochee
River basins.
The St. Johns River is the largest river wholly in Florida and is
one of the few large northerly-flowing rivers in the United States. It
is affected by tides to Lake Monroe, 161 miles above its mouth. The
altitude of most of the area is less than 50 feet above mean sea level,
although altitudes along the western drainage divides generally range
from 75 to 200 feet and exceed 300 feet in the upper Oklawaha
River basin. Along headwater reaches of the St. Johns River in Indian
River County, more than 300 river miles from its mouth, the flood
plain is only 25 feet above sea level. The average slope of the St.
Johns River main stem is less than 0.1 ft. per mile in the 300 mile
length and less than 0.05 ft. per mile for the lower half of the river.
Relief is greater in the Oklawaha River subbasin. Low terraces which
parallel the coast, formed when the ocean stood at higher levels
during Pleistocene time, are the Silver Bluff, Pamlico, Talbot and
Penholoway terraces at altitudes approximately 8, 25, 42, and 70
feet above present sea level. Other, less readily recognizable terraces
are at higher altitudes.
The area is underlain by several water-bearing formations which








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54 7


vary as to water availability and quality. In descending order they are
the marine deposits of Pleistocene and Holocene (Recent) age; undif-
ferentiated deposits and the Hawthorn -Formation of Miocene age;





S Marine -\ Sand, coquina, shell, and sandy clay lenses. Supplies small to moderate
deposits : amounts of water to small diameter wells. Yields vary locally depending
0 0-150 ft. on permeability of deposits.

Undifferctiated Sand, shell, and silty clay. Generally low permeability. Yields
deposits .t-..- small supplies of water from sand and shell beds.
0-100 ft.

Hawthorn Sandy clay, sand, and sandy limestone; forms confining layer
S Formation for underlying limestones. Generally poor yield, except from
2 0-250 ft. .: shell and limestone beds.


Crystal River White to cream, clalky
Formation \ massive limestone. Generally yields large quantities
0- 20 ft. of water and is primary source in
-- --- most of area: tlie Williston Formation
Williston Tan to buffgranular generally more dense with lesser yields.
Formation \limestone.
S 0- 100 ft. _

Inglis Tan to buffgranu-
0 Formation lar limestone and
50-200 ft. \dolomites.





Avon Park White to reddish brown, hard, dense lime-
S Limestone \ stone, and dolomite, with porous and
clhalky zones. Yields large amounts of water
S 150-700 ft. thick \ from the porous zones in some areas.


L =
0 z





Buff to brown porous and white
S to brown massive limestone:gray
Lake City to tan dolomite.
Limestone Water yields vary; dense
100-500 ft. thick zones poorly permeable:
good yields in Duval
County.



Oldsmar Limestone Water generally
saline; untapped
800 ft. thick in most of area.

Figure 2. Geologic Formations penetrated by water wells in northeast Florida.

Figure 2 Geologic formations penetrated by water wells in northeast Florida






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


the Ocala Group1, consisting of the Crystal River, Williston and
Inglis Formations, the Avon Park Limestone and the Lake City Lime-
stone, all of Eocene age, which, with the hydraulically connected
limestone in tfie lower part of the Hawthorn Formation, compose the
Floridan aquifer; and the Oldsmar Limestone, also of Eocene age.
Figure 2 shows the geologic formations penetrated by water wells in
northeast Florida, with their general characteristics and approximate
thicknesses, which vary from one locality to another. The Floridan
aquifer which underlies all of the area, is the principal source of water.
The Oldsmar Limestone is generally untappedin the area.
The top of the Floridan aquifer is at or near the land surface in
central Marion County, Alachua County, and some other areas, and
is at a depth of more than 400 feet at the extreme ends of the basin,
in Duval and Indian River counties. The Floridan aquifer ranges in
thickness from about 500 to more than 1,000 feet. It is overlain by
sand, sandy clay, and shell deposits of Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene
and Holocene ages. These deposits have generally low to moderate
permeability and limited thickness and thus yield small to moderate
quantities of water to wells. Porous limestones of the Floridan
aquifer near the land surface in the highlands area, and permeable
surficial sands in Marion, Alachua, Lake, Orange, and other counties,
absorb much of the rainfall. On such areas recharge to the Floridan
aquifer may be, locally, in excess of 16 inches per year. Some of the
water later emerges as springs, seeps along streams, or from free-
flowing or pumped wells, perhaps many years and miles from the
time and place of its occurrence as rain. Most ground water in the
area flows through the Floridan aquifer in a generally easterly direc-
tion toward the Atlantic Ocean although, in Alachua and western
Marion counties, some ground water moves westward out of the St.
Johns River basin into the Withlacoochee and Suwannee River
basins. Many of Florida's large springs, including Silver Springs,
Alexander Springs, Blue Springs, Wekiva Springs, and others are in
the report area, some of which obtain their waters from relatively
local recharge. Some ground water is discharged from submarine
springs in the Atlantic Ocean.
In contrast to the areas of rapid ground-water recharge charac
terized by the absence of surface streams, are parts of Clay, Putnam,
Flagler and other counties that are underlain by deposits that have
low permeability and are characterized by numerous surface streams;
and swampland. Rainfall does not readily recharge the ground water
The geologic nomenclature used in this report conforms to that of the Florida Geological
Survey, and is not necessarily conformable to that of the U. S. Geological Survey.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


aquifers in such areas because both the deep and the shallow aquifers
are usually full so that water runs off in surface streams or is lost by
evapotranspiration. Surface runoff averages about 12 inches per year
in the entire area but ranges from zero in large parts of Alachua,
Marion, Lake and Orange counties to more than 20 inches in others.
Average evapotranspiration is estimated to be about 37 inches.
The report area contains a large supply of available water of
good quality and, also, large amounts of less desirable water. Under
good management the water needs of the area should be fulfilled to
the year 2020 and beyond. Distribution. of water to the localities of
concentrated demand, control practices to reduce or eliminate salt
water and other contamination in ground water and surface water,
and the competition or conflict of interest between domestic, recre-
ational, industrial, and agricultural needs, are water management
problems that will require resolution in the future.

DRAINAGE
The St. Johns River, the most prominent drainage feature of the
area (figure 1), has its source at an altitude of less than 25 feet in a
broad swampy area just west of Fort Pierce, in St. Lucie County,
about 300 river miles from its mouth at Mayport. From the head-
waters a marsh extends northward approximately 40 miles before a
natural channel becomes recognizable, upstream from Lake Hellen
Blazes. This area has been modified extensively by canals and dikes
and considerable interchange of water with the Lake Okeechobee
basin to the south and the coastal basins to the east occurs. From the
head of the channel the river flows generally northward for 250 miles
to Jacksonville where it turns eastward and flows an additional 23
miles to the Atlantic Ocean. The river passes through eight shallow
lakes, such as Lake Harney and Lake George; six other lakes are in
the flood plain. Downstream from Palatka the river averages more
than a mile in width. The total surface area of the main stem of the
river at low water exceeds 300 square miles, from which the average
loss by evaporation is approximately 530,000,000 gallons per day.
The St. Johns River is perennially tidal as far upstream as Lake
George (106 miles) and, under combined conditions of drought and
high tide, the tidal effects occur as far upstream as Lake Monroe
(161 miles). Approximately two-thirds of the drainage area in the St.
Johns River basin, including the Oklawaha River basin, lies west of
the main stem.
Drainage in the coastal strip between the St. Johns River basin
and the Atlantic Ocean is into lagoons, formed by barrier islands, and
to the ocean.





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


WATER QUALITY

The chemical quality of waters varies according to the materials
available for solution or suspension according to varying hydrologic i
conditions and to actions of man. Rain is not chemically pure but
contains low concentrations of carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen.
Water acts as a solvent and dissolves chemical constituents during
passage over the ground or through an aquifer; industrial and other
wastes, pesticides and fertilizers add contaminants to water. Sus-
pended sediment, which is a serious problem in some parts of the
United States, is not a serious problem in peninsular Florida. Dis-
solved minerals, water temperature, color, and salt water intrusion
are the natural and man-influenced water-quality phenomena that are
significant to use of water in the report area. Unless controlled, water
quality will deteriorate as the result of man's effects on water from
use of fertilizers and pesticides and the movement of the effluents
from industrial, municipal and domestic sources into water courses
and ground water aquifers.
The significance and effects of certain common dissolved or
suspended chemical constituents and properties of water are given in
Table 1. Some dissolved minerals are detrimental in extremely small
concentrations. Tolerance limits for drinking water have been sug-
gested by the U. S. Public Health Service, and limits for industrial
uses have been suggested by the American Water Works Association.
At the present time, quality of water standards are under detailed
study by the State of Florida and by the Federal Water Pollution
Control Administration. Table 2 lists suggested tolerances, or maxi-
mum allowable limits, for certain water uses.
The chemical character of the water in streams in the area
differs from stream to stream and varies seasonally and even daily in
individual streams due to natural causes and to development. The
water is generally low in mineral content if it is direct runoff or
seepage from nonartesian aquifers and generally high in dissolved
minerals if it was derived from the artesian aquifer. The chloride
content is sometimes high in the upper as well as lower reaches of the
St. Johns River, because of upward leaking saline water from the
artesian aquifer; also, salinity in the lower reaches is from the influx
of seawater as a result of tides. Near the mouth of the river the
salinity varies from brackish to that of seawater.
Wells that tap the Floridan aquifer in the upper reaches of the
St. Johns River basin discharge water which is high in chlorides but
nevertheless is used to irrigate citrus groves. The salty drainage water
from citrus groves is diluted during periods of high runoff. Figure 3






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


TABLE 1. WATER QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS AND
THEIR SIGNIFICANCE


Constituent or properties Significance

Dissolved solids A measure of the total amount of dissolved matter,
usually determined by evaporation. Excessive solids
interfere in most industrial processes and cause
foaming in boilers.

Silica Causes scale in boilers and deposits on turbine blades.

Sulfate Excessive amounts are cathartic and unpleasant to
taste. May cause boiler scale.

Nitrate High concentrations indicate pollution. Causes
methemoglobinemia in infants. Helps to prevent inter-
crystalline cracking of boiler steel.

Fluoride Over 1.5 mg/1 cause mottled tooth enamel, small
amounts (about 1.0 mg/1) prevent tooth decay.

pH Values below 7.0 indicate an acid water and a ten-
dency for the water to be corrosive.

Iron and Manganese On precipitation cause stains; unpleasant taste in
drinking water; scale deposits in water lines and
boilers; interferes in many processes such as dyeing
and paper manufacture.

Chloride Unpleasant taste in high concentrations. Increases
corrosive nature of water.

Sodium Large amounts injurious to humans with certain ill-
nesses and to soils and crops.

Hardness Due to calcium and magnesium salts causes excessive
soap consumption, scale in heat exchangers, boilers,
radiators, pipes, and interfered in manufacturing pro-
cesses. Less than 60 mg/l soft; 60-120 is moderately
hard; 120-200 is hard.

Alkalinity Causes foaming in boilers and carryover of solids with
steam, embrittlement of boiler steel.

Color Stains products in process use. May cause foaming in
boilers. Not desirable in drinking water.

Suspended solids Unsightly appearance in water. Causes deposits in
water lines, process equipment, and boilers.







12 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


TABLE 2 SUGGESTED WATER-QUALIrY, TOLERANCES FOR SELECTED
USES (maximum allowable limits in milligrams per liter)




S to
=E 2i > V 0

U s =au L 0


A\ir Conditioning .5 low 1

Baking 10 10 .2 low .2

Boiler feed water
0-150 PSI 20 80 80 3000-500 5 40
150-250PSI 10 40 40 2500-500 3 20
250-400 PSI 5 5 10 1500-100 0 5
Over 400 PSI 1 2 2 50 0 1

Brewing
Light beer 10 10 .1 500-1500 75-80 low .2 50
Dark beer 10 10 .1 500-1500 80-150 low .2 50

(Crbonated Beverages 2 10 200-250 0.1-.2 850 50-128 low 0.0.2

Confectionary .2 50-100 low .2

Dairy industry 0 180 0.1-.3 500 none -

Food Canning and Freezing 10 3/50-85 .2 850 30-250 none 1.0

Food Equipment washing 1 20 10 .2 850 none

Food Processing. general 10 10 10-250 .2 850 30-250 low

Ice 5 5 .2 300 30-50 10

laundering 50 .2

Plastics. clear, uncolored 2 2 .02 200

Paper and Pulp:
Kraft pulp 25 15 100 .2 300
Soda and sulfate 15 10 100 .1 200
High grade light papers 5 5 50 .1 200



1/American Water Works Association 1950 and Water Quality Criteria, McKee and Wolf 1963.
2/ P indicates that potable water, conforming to USPIIS standards, is necessary.
3/Peas 200-400, fruits and vegetables 100-200, legumes 25-75.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


A E U
z E E 0
S.0 0 E

u .e t- Other requirements
s=U U ^-i I 5 6". I ^ iES


0.2-1.0





1.0

1.0

1.0


No corrosiveness,
slime formation
P








P NaCI less than 275 mg/1
P NaCI less than 275 mg/1

P

P No corrosiveness,
slime formation
P

P

P

P

P
p'


200
100
40
20


50-68
50-68


8.0
8.4
9.0
9.6


6.5-7.0
6.5-7.0



7.0



7.5


100-200
200-500


10
10





17

8.6


60-100
60-100

250



30

400-600

250


i






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


i- 3 Od" 'w' RIVCR VCR
Al


I-. ,S pe t ow 0 t
Ji -11""rrrY a--.-- Penoa ot lo* floo ( JunR 1962 1

1. (7L) Dohrnaige, cubc feel per eco







r




L2"'~ "__Madified trl.am Lichilu, Anarsna, and lna (19681
@ @ 0 l 0 690 0 @
2 10 150 10 00





IS00 IO 100 50
MILES FROM MOUTr OF RIVER


Figure 3 Diagram showing chloride concentration in St. Johns River
during periods of high and low flow

shows the relation of the chloride concentration to water discharge
along a stretch of the St. Johns River during a period of high flow
and of low flow. The main stem data show the effects of saline
inflows, the dilution by fresh-water tributaries, and the effect of tidal
action in the lower reach,
Streams in the coastal area are generally more saline than
tributaries of the St. Johns River and water in the coastal lagoons is
too saline to be used for purposes other than cooling and recreation.
Color of surface waters is extremely variable throughout the
study area and normally ranges from zero to about 200 Hazen units.
After heavy rains when highly colored water is flushed into small
streams from swampy areas, the color reaches as high as 600 units.
Additional information on quality of surface water is given in
the sections of the report which follow, The quality of ground waters
j







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


s variable with depth and with location and is discussed in the
sectionn on ground water, Table 3 lists the observed extremes in
quality of surface water for some of the more important streams and
lakes in the report area.

FLOODS

Data on floods in the area were analyzed by Barnes and Golden
(1966) to determine the relation between flood magnitude, drainage
area, and the average frequency of occurrence. The flood-frequency
analysis shows that because of physiographic differences the area
must be delineated into two flood regions; "A," south of Lake
Poinsett, and "B," north of Lake Poinsett, and that region "B" must
be further divided into two hydrologic areas, area B-1 and area B-2.
These subdivisions are shown on figure 1.


30,000 .. ...




Q 20,000 ...



10000
:C7- 0





S 0


After Barnes and Golden (1966)
30 1 i 1-11 I ,.I.JI I _
700 1,000 2,000 3,000
DRAINAGE AREA, SQUARE MILES
Figure 4 Flood-frequency curves for the main stem
of the St. Johns River





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


SIq00 -






O
Wt -'(










700I I II I I I I I I I I
S7,000 --3 L VL




25000



1,000
difAfter Brne nd Golden (1966)
70 0 1 1 I 1 1 I I I I I I I
1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3.0C
DRAINAGE AREA, SQUARE MILES

Figure 5 Flood-frequency curves for the main steam of the Oklawaha River



Special analyses were required for the main stem of the St.
Johns and Oklawaha Rivers because their hydrologic characteristics
differ from those of the smaller streams in the area. Figures 4 and 5
are the flood frequency curves developed for the main stems of the
St. Johns and Oklawaha Rivers. Flood-frequency curves for region A,
area 1 (south of Lake Poinsett) are given in Figure 6; for region B,
area 1, north of Lake Poinsett in Figure 7; and for region B, area 2
(Black Creek basin) in Figure 8.

Drainage basins that contain lakes and swamps have lower flood
peaks than otherwise equivalent basins because of the temporary
storage of flood runoff. Discharge records from streams draining
lakes and swampsin central Florida have been analyzed to determine
the effect of storage on the attenuation of flood peaks. This'effect







TABLE 3. OBSERVED EXTREMES IN QUALITY OF SURFACE WATER IN ST. JOHNS RIVER BASIN AND COASTAL AREAS, PERIOD 1952-65.
(chemical constituents in milligrams per liter. Analyses by USGS)


.c-:siuter Spurnss near Astor
3ilui r-rnnig near Orange City
L:c. Lae near Cocoa
Cr-uz Creek at Melbourne
re e Creek near Osteen
Eciniockhatchee River near Bithlo
Ecmniockhatchee River near Chuluota
Ellis Canal near Indian River City
Ficlsmere Canal near Fellsmere
Junc Green Creek near Deer Park
Johns Like at Oakland
kingsiey Lake near Camp Blanding
Lake Apopka at Winter Garden
Lakc Geneva near Keystone Heights
L.La Lochloosa near Lochloosa
Liake Xraitland at Winter Park
Little Ecunlockhatchee River near Union Park.
%loulitre Creek near St. Augustine
Newnans Lake near Gainesville
'rith Fork Black Creek near Highland
North Fork Black Creek near Alddleburg
Ok!laaha River near Orange Springs
Orange Lake near Boardman.
Ponce De Leon Springs near De Land
uit Springs near Lake Kerr
Silve4 Springs near Ocala
Sutui Fork Black Creek near Penney Farms
St. Johns River at Christmas
ST. Johns River near Cocoa
St. Johns River near De Land
St. Johns River near Geneva
St Johns River acJacksonville
St. Johns River near Melbourne
romoka River near Holly Hill


Result from one sampling only during period.
'= mbincd uldium and potassium.


1 1 1 T T 1 r r r s- x -_ __ __


10 -12
8.5- 8.6
1.9-13
.5-20
.4- 6.6
.0- 8.9
1.7-12
7.4-14
5.0-19
.4-19
.0- 1.6
.3- 1.9
5.1-15
.0- 2.5
.0- 5.7
.0- .9
.3-11
7.0-23
.1- 3.0
.8-33
1.1-11
5.5-12
2.3- 4.3
5.6- 7.4
10 -12
10 -11
1.4-18
.2-11
.0-16
1.0-11
.8-30
.7- 4.7
.3-20
2.5- 7.3


0.00
.00-.01
.08,22
.00-.55
.08-97
.02-50
.00,.60
.00,71
.00-50
.01-.50
.01-.18
.01-.03
.01-.27
.00-.02
.06,.56
.00-.04
-01-.77
.00-.60
.14-.65
.02-25
.00-28
.00-.75
.16,23
.00-.01
.00-.05
.00.02
.027.58
.00,43
.00.83
.00-.20
.00-.28
.00-.13
.00-.26
.16-.32


40 49
57 60
8.0- 19
25 -168
4.4- 21
2.6- 26
3.6- 51
120 -209
36 -101
3.8- 19
7.2- 8.0
2.2- 3.4
28 38
.8- 2.0
8.0- 15
18 24
5.4- 16
1.4- 96
3.2- 5.6
2.4- 59
.8- 28
38 69
6.0- 6.8
25 50
452 -200
67 73
1.0- 34
7.5-162
8.4-136
16 84
7.5-146
27 -225
7.1- 62
15 42


nz


Dissolved solids Hardness as CaCQ3


Calcium, Non-
magnesium carbonate


I + I I 4 .1 .. .1 1 _ I_ I I I


15 18
20 26
3.8- 11
5.3- 31
.0- 4.4
.2- 2.7
1.0- 14
27 49
5.4- 16
.2- 4.1
2.9- 6.1
.7- 1.0
8.8- 13
.7- 1.3
1.7- 3.3
4.9- 6.8
.6- 4.8
1.5- 28
.9- 1.7
.0- 6.1
.0- 3.9
2.9- 18
1.2- 1.9
6.8- 18
44 -110
8.0- 9.8
.1- 3.2
2.2- 77
1.5- 56
7.0- 41
3.0-105
10 -633
1.1- 11
1.6- 4.0


100 121 3.0- 3.3
215 240 7.7- 9.0
29 85
**1t7 -119
4.1- 12 .2- 1.4
1.8- 15 .2- 1.6
*** .7-112
***270 -409
***19 83
.7- 12 .1- 1.2
10 20 6.0- 8.0
4.7- 6.2 .2- .6
8.4- 23 3.3- 13
5.6- 6.4 .0- 1.0
5.8- 7.8 .1- 1.0

9.3- 14 3.7- 5.2
5.2- 16 .2- 2.4
8.7- 128 .3- 3.8
3.8- 9.0 .0- 1.0
4.2- 72 .0- 1.8
3.2- 20 .0- 1.9
16 53 .0- 2.0


4.6- 4.7
33 135
878 -1,620
5.4- 5.7
1.8- 7.2
11 606
12 454
43 312
1t*17


.1- .8
2.0- 5.6
18 58
.5
.0- .7
.6- 15
.0- 14
.6- 12
-644


92 97
128 -160
12 24
62 -279
9 34
8 83
10 -112
126 -274
96 -214
4 34
7 13
4 8
104 -186
1 4
29 50

52 72
9 51
11 -234
4 21
0 36
1 25
70 -158
18 21
122 -138
67 90
200 -202
4 90
21 -138
5.2-136
31 -152
20 -116


71 -5,520 2.6-200 60 -112
4.8- 62 .8- 2.5 17 -128
10 18 .0- .8 39 -134


52 61
37 80
9.0- 32
15 77
.3.6- 21
0 6.4
1.0- 58
199 278
23 57
0 18
26 42
2.9- 5.6
15 20
3.0- 6.8
3.2- 12

24 31
1.2- 6.8
.2- 132'
1.2- 3.2
4.0- 199
.8- 96
22 102
.8- 3.0
15 36
368 626
38 52
0 22
2 364
2.5- 156
14 166
6.8- 402
28 -1,320
0 30
4.0- 13


169 232
245 560
54 165
38 300
6.5- 44
3.0- 23
8.0- 179
315 -1,150
46 270
6.5- 36
18 24
8.0- 10
16 25
8.5- 10
10 16

15 20
9.5- 20
14 242
2.5- 14
3.8- 12
3.5- 12
28 96
7.0- 10
66 240
1,550 -2,900
7.0- 9.0
3.0- 13
20 -1,150
21 900
88 570
30 -1,210
128 -9,720
14 140
18 30


0.1-0.2
.1- .2


.1- .4
.1- .4
.0- .8
.2- .6
.4
.2- .6
.1- .2
.1- .3
.0- .1
.4- .6
.0- .1
.2- .3

.1- .5
.0- .4
.0- .6
.2- .3
.0- .4
.1- .4
.1- .8
.1- .3
.1- .2
.0- .2
.2- .3
.0- .4
.0- .5
.0- .7
.0- .4
.1- .7
.3- .7
.0-1.2
.1- .4


0.0- 3.0
.8- 1.3 *0.80
.1- 1.3
.0- 1.8
.0- 1.7
.0- 1.3
.0-14
.4- 3.6
.0- 2.0
.0- 2.8
.0- 1.4
.0- .1
.9- 3.7
.0- .2
.0- 1.0 .00-1.1

.0- 2.8
.0- .8*1.0
.0- 1.8
.0- 4.4 .00- .10
.0- 3.6 .00- .50
.1- 1.7 .00- .50
.0- 1.2
.2- 1.3
.1- 5.0 .14- .25
.3- 5.7


1.2- 2.0
.0- 3.4
.0- 6.4
.0- 5.6
.0- 2.2
.0- 5.6
.1-11
.0- 1.2
.0- .3


F'-


Calculated


Residue


-o
my y
S _
0||


352- 502
553- 835




32- 163


436- 525
563- 920
152- 320
131- 808
28- 86
16- 108
31- 468
1,380- 1,640
193- 524
29- 96
77- 111
20- 32
149- 229
26- 28
44- 84

104- 131
35- 75


45
316
170


33- 42
221- 558
3,110- 3,710
233- 259
12- 118
57- 2,350
67 1,760
213- 1,090
760- 1,570
394-17,700
50- 258
77- 181


114-
22-
206-
26-
49-

128-
69-
68-
53-
54-
59-
223-
49-
242-


3,110- 4,030
252- 254
3- 156
188- 2,830
103- 2,320
628- 1,440
1,080- 2,730
360-18,700
188- 546


146
37
285
34
91

154
146
820
76
336
184
441
66
532


164- 192
212- 280
36- 93
84- 462
14- 66
8- 74
13- 162
410- 690
112- 284
18- 54
30- 44
10- 12
106- 150
8- 8
29- 51

65- 88
16- 48
15- 354
12- 21
8- 157
8- 86
38- 222
20- 25
128- 195
777- 876
200- 220
3- 98
28- 720
16- 570
69- 378
31- 796
109-3,170
23- 200
47- 122


88- 502
106- 166
24- 73
33- 248
6- 29
0- 19
5- 74
308- 500
34- 108
3- 28
20- 38
3- 5
0-- 25
4- 7
5- 12

22- 32
4- 20
0- 194
4- 9
0- 146
6- 68
30- 130
4- 8
24- 221
780- 811
34- 56
0- 30
11- 672
9- 494
40- 312
14- 752
45-3,080
5- 94
9- 18


813- 988
480- 2,490
229- 646
261- 1,410
42- 225
24- 197
55- 873
1,840- 4,410
331- 1,180
57- 261
150- 202
36- 57
333- 385
52- 56
83- 142

195- 230
58- 146
64- 1,390
49- 86
35- 581
38- 279
301- 663
61- 83
329- 1,000
5,380- 9,500
352- 430
18- 228
110- 4,800
40- 3,500
350- 2,220
152- 4,230
618-30,000
91- 696
122- 292


7.3-7.8
7.5-7.6
6.2-6.8
7.0-8.1
6.2-7.3
5.7-7.8
6.2-7.6
7.1-7.9
7.3-7.9
5.5-7.2
5.8-6.5
5.9-6.6
7.0-7.9
5.1-5.6
6.6-6.8

6.6-7.6
5.6-8.0
5.7-8.1
5.3-6.6
4.1-7.1
4.7-6.8
6.8-8.3
6.3-6.5
7.7.-7.9
7.3-7.7
7.7-8.0
5.3-7.5
6.3-7.5
6.4-7.9
6.6-7.6
6.5-7.4
6.8-7.3
6.2-7.4
6.9-7.4


0- 5
2- 5
80-180
30-280
80-260
35-400
40-600
35-160
50-300
25-360
25- 80
5- 8
20- 45
0- 10
15- 75

5- 10
20-400
5-560
50-110
5-280
5-340
5-400
50- 80
0- 5
2- 5
0- 5
10-360
45-220
30-280
12-240
35-300
10-120
45-280
180-240


72-73
73-7.4



50-88





50-87

56-82

60-88
59-85



12-78
55-88
10-80
48-75


59-83
63-74
72-75
73-74
50-80

46-95
51-86


.30- .50





.00-.32


i i i i i i i


I I I I I I I I I I I I


Dissolved solids


Hardness as CaCO3


u2
'F3


u
PE S "m
O
2 ~O
r; z
Lr, Zv





REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


30,000 II I 1


20,000

Use in conjunction with Figure 9.
z

o, 1000






a Not pplicble to min stem of
t 7J000ohns or Okl-w-h Rivers

w 5.000 .-- -



S3,000







.After Barnes and Golden (1986)-
i-










700 1 1 1 1 1 I I I
,0 0 20 30 50 70 00 200 300




DRAINAGE AREA, SQUARE MILES

Figure 6 Flood-frequency curves for Region A, area 1 in northeast Florida



was found to be significant only if the lakes and swamps covered as
much as three per cent of the total drainage basin. Figure 9 supplies
the values for reduction in the mean annual flood discharge for
drainage areas containing a significant percentage area of lakes and
swamps. The adjustment factor for attenuation is applicable to main stem of
St. Johns or Oklawaha Rivers
1,000







streams of each of the three area in figure Barnes 6, 7, and Golden (1966)with the








exception of mainstem streams. Large parts of the area, including
sink-hole areas from which there is no flow, and areas where canals
700
10 20 30 50 70 100 200 300
DRAINAGE AREA, SQUARE MILES
Figure 6 Flood-frequency curves for Region A, area 1 in northeast Florida







was found to be significonstructed, are not subject to regional flood analysis.
much as three per cent of the total drainage basin. Figure 9 supplies



the values for reduction in applying these flood-frequency analyses to
drainage areas containing a significant percentage area of control structures and
swamps. The adjustment factor for attenuation is applicable to
streams of each of the three area in figures 6, 7, and 8, with the
exception of mainsterm; streams. Large parts of the area, including
sink-hole areas from which there is no flow, and areas where canals
and dikes are constructed, are not subject to regional flood analysis.
Caution should be used in applying these flood-frequency analyses to
parts of the area because the installation of control structures on





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


20,000






2,000


3,000




1,000

700

500


300 .

200

150 I I I I -I ,1,
10 20 30 50 70 100 200 300 500
DRAINAGE AREA, SQUARE MILES
Figure 7 Flood-frequency curves for Region B, area 1 in northeast Florida


natural drainage-ways and canals, and urbanization, modify the rela-
tion.
Peak flood stages are more significant than peak flood dis-
charges. Much of the flood plain is under cultivation and extensive
crop and other damage is caused by extended periods of inundation
rather than by high discharge. A stage-frequency analysis for the St.
Johns River in the 158 mile reach between State Highway 60,.in
Indian River County, and DeLand is presented in figure 10. The
profiles of three significant floods that occurred since 1950 are
shown in Figure 11. Comparison of the profiles in figure 11 with the
stage-frequency analysis in figure 10 shows, for example, that the
recurrence interval of the flood of October 1953 on Lake Poinsett is
about 30 years whereas that for. October 1956 is about 8 years.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 54


10 20 30 50 70 100 200 300
DRAINAGE AREA, SQUARE MILES
Figure 8 Flood-frequency curves for Region B, area 2 in northeast
Florida

LOW FLOW

Low-flow characteristics of a stream determine whether it can
be used for a specific purpose without artificial storage. Figures 12
and 13 provide low-flow frequency curves for the .St. Johns River
near Christmas and Econlockhatchee' River near Chuluota.
Although:,the storage capacity pf the main stem of the St. Johns
River is great, water in storage may be depleted by outflow and by
evaporation during droughts as is. illustrated.. by comparing, the
minimum flow at the Christmas station with that of its tributary, the






20 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

Econlockhatchee River. Although the drainage area of the St. Johns
River near Christmas is more than six times that of the Econlock-
hatchee River near Chuluota, during the spring of 1939 the St. Johns
River stopped flowing on three separate occasions while the flow of
the Econlockhatchee River did not fall below 9 cfs. Figures 12 and
13 indicate that a condition wherein the minimum 7-day flow of the
St. Johns River will be less than that of the Econlockhatchee River
will average not more than once in almost 30 years.
Flow of the St. Johns River in the reach downstream from Lake
George reverses with each tidal change except under conditions of
high freshwater inflow or strong winds which offset the tidal influ-
ence. About 75 per cent of the time the net flow is toward the ocean


but at other times the net flow
days. The maximum number of
likely to be equal to, or less than,


is upstream for several consecutive
days during which the net flow is
a specific amount at Palatka and at


1.0 -



0.5




0.2



0.1o



0.05




0.02

From Barnes and Golden, 1966

Si 1 1 i1 1 i I


2


5 10 20


50 1C


W0


PERCENTAGE OF DRAINAGE AREA COVERED BY LAKES
Figure 9 Graph showing attenuation adjustment to mean annual flood
due to lake and swamp storage







St Johns River headwaters near Vero Beach
I I I
St. Johns River headwaters near Kenansvlle

St. Johns River near Melbourne

Lake Washington

'I Lake Poinsett


After Pride, 1958
280 260 240 220 200 180 160 140
MILES FROM MOUTH OF RIVER
Figure 10 Graphs showing variation of mean annual, 5-, 10-, and 30- year flood
stages with channel distance for main steam of St. Johns River








3 5 1 --------- ~T ---- 1 ----- 1
St. Johns River headwaters near Vero Beach
St Johns River headwaters near Ken
Crest-stage gage No.1
30 Crest-stage gage No.2 -
SCrest-stage gage No.3
St. Johns River near Mel
I I ILake Washington
25 Crest-stage gag
Lake Poai


onsville


-:


bourne

ie No.
$sett
Crest

I


t-stage gage No. 8
St. Johns River near Christmas
SCrest stage gage No. 9
St. Johns River above Lake Harney near Geneva
St. Johns River near Sanford
St. Johns River
near DeLand


September -October 1960
--- October 1956
......... October 1953
0\ ___ l l ------------------------


280 260 240


220 200 180
MILES FROM MOUTH OF RIVER


120 100


Figure 11 Graphs showing profiles of maximum stages on St. Johns River for selected floods


_j
U

,J
w
4

U


a 2
w
0
<
I- 15

.-
W


5


tJ I

4


300


1


t"


~---- "-"


I


lansville


--`-~ ---~ -~


-- 3 --~rr 1


I


K







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


facksonville are shown in Figure 14. The periods of upstream, or
negative, net flow usually occur during periods of low fresh-water
flow, high evaporation rates, and increasing tidal range.

FLOW DURATION

The per cent of time that specific discharges are likely to be
equaled or exceeded is shown in Figures 15 and 16 for locations on
the St. Johns River near Melbourne, Christmas, and DeLand and for
some tributaries. The flat slopes of these curves at high discharge
rates reflect the effects of storage of water in lakes and on the flood
plain. During extreme droughts, however, the flood plain becomes
dry and the drainage of water stored in lakes is greatly reduced.
Under these drought conditions, river flow decreases rapidly as
indicated by the steeper slopes of the lower parts of the curves for
the stations at Christmas and Melbourne. At DeLand, the rapid
recession of the flow-duration curve is the result of backwater from
tides and wind effect during periods of reduced fresh-water flow.

3000

2000 -
Drainage area: 1512 sq. mi.
Average flow: 1331 cfs
1000


500



200
w '





L50 I I I I
a-0





20 I I I I I I
Example: For a 10-year recurrence interval the 7-day 0 ^, S.?'
minimum flow is 22.5 cfs and the )-year minimum flow "a ,
10 is 415 cfs --"
From Lichtler, Anderson, and Joyner, 1968
1.05 1.1 1.2 1.5 2 3 4 5 7 10 15 20 30
RECURRENCE INTERVAL, YEARS
Figure 12 Low-flow'frequency curves,for St. Johns River near Christmas






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


2011



Drainoge area: 241 sq. mi.
Average flow: 280 ofs

10
From Lieh ier, Anderson, and Joyner, I 68
LO 1.05 .L 1.2 1.5 2 3 4 5 7 10 15 20 30
RECURRENCE INTERVAL, YEARS
Figure 13 Low-flow frequency curves for Econlockhatchee River near
Chuluota


WATER USE


A survey of water use was made by the U. S. Geological Survey
in 1965 and these data are used in this report. Water withdrawal and


500





300



200


z
o
0
U
(n

a. 100
i-
LLt

o 70

U

o





REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


water use are listed by counties, source, and purpose. The sources
considered are ground water, fresh surface water, and saline surface
water. The classifications in which all water uses are included are
public supply, which includes some publicly supplied industrial
water; rural domestic and stock-water; irrigation; self-supplied in-
dustrial; and fuel-electric power.
Water use may be classed as withdrawal use and nonwithdrawal
use. Withdrawal use requires that water be pumped or otherwise
diverted from the ground water or surface water sources whether for
consumptive or non-consumptive use. Nonwithdrawal use includes
water used for waste disposal or dilution, navigation, fish and wildlife
propagation and recreation and is not removed from the flow system;
however, it may be made unfit for other uses. As nonwithdrawal use
does not deplete the supply, data on that use is not included herein.
Water consumed is water evaporated or incorporated into the
product through vegetative growth or through processing; non-
consumptive use is water used in industrial processing and cooling
that is returned to the water source, although usually altered in
quality or temperature. In the context of this report, water extracted
from the artesian aquifer is not classified as consumptive use in the
broad term of the water budget in the basin. However, in a real sense,
water extracted from the artesian aquifer is consumed as far as the
aquifer system is concerned because the water is not returned to the
aquifer in most parts of the area.

PUBLIC SUPPLIES

Water for public supply includes that furnished by both public
and private utilities for all uses including domestic, fire fighting,
street flushing, irrigation of lawns and parks, commerce and industry
served by the utility, and leakage in the system. The population
served from public supplies in the report area in 1965 is estimated as
1,220,000. A total of 178 mgd was withdrawn for public supply (an
averagee use of 140 gpd per person), of which 53.5 mgd, or 30 per
cent, was consumed. Most of the water withdrawn was from wells
mnd only 5.4 mgd, or 3.0 per cent, was from streams or lakes. Table 4
'ists water-use data for public supply, by counties, and the popula-
iion served.
RURAL

Self-supplied water for domestic and small scale livestock and
gardening uses not included under irrigation are included in this
category. An estimated 23.6 mgd was withdrawn of which 18.8 mgd




























After Anderson, 1967
1 1 I 1 1 1
5 7 10


20 30 50 70 100 200 300 500 700 1000


MAXIMUM NUMBER OF CONSECUTIVE
MEAN DAILY DISCHARGE WAS LESS THAN


DAYS ON WHICH
INDICATED, 1954-1965


Figure 14 Curves showing the maximum periods during which discharge was
less than given amounts, St. Johns River at Palatka and Jacksonville


20



10



0



-10


-20
3





.01I


.I U.Z U5 I 5


IU 1 U


0 3 43 50 60 70 80


PERCENT OF TIME
Figure 15 Flow-duration curves for streams in St. Johns River basin above
Lake Monroe


7,100 -





700
50- -



20 Johns River near Christms



20 -( St. Johns River near ChMelbourne
(October 1934 to Sepltember 1965).
10 () St. Johns River near Melbourne

3 -) Econlockhatchee River near Chuluotao
(October 1935 to September 1965).- -
2- Jane Green Creek near Deer Pork
(October 1954 to September 1965).
0.7 -- Wolf Creek near Deer Park --
.5- (October 1956 to September 1965).- -

.2 .. -
0. ..10 -------


98 VV 9.0


MW.


99.V9


9U 9o








































PERCENT OF TIME
Figure 16 Flow-duration curves for streams in St. Johns River basin
below Lake Monroe








TABLE 4- WATER USED FOR PUBLIC SUPPLIES BY COUNTIES, IN ST. JOHNS RIVER BASIN,
AND ADJACENT COASTAL AREAS, 1965.

POPULATION SERVED WATER WITHDRAWN INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL
Ground Surface All Ground Surface All Per (from public supplies) WATER
COUNTY water water water water water uses capital Air cond. Other All Uses CONSUMED
(thousands) (thousands) (thousands) (mgd) (mgd) (mgd) (gpd) (mgd) (mgd) (mgd) (mgd)
*Alachua 68.4 0 68.4 8.1 0 8.1 118 0.05 0.95 1.0 3.5
Brevard 107.7 40.0 147.7 20.9 3.6 24.5 166 4.0 3.7 7.7 12.0
Clay 11.2 0 11.2 1.0 0 1.0 89 0 .1 .1 .4
Duval 498.7 0 498.7 60.0 0 60.0 120 2.5 2.6 5.1 12
Flagler 2.8 0 2.8 .2 0 .2 70 0 .02 .02 .1
Indian River 12.5 0 12.5 1.5 0 1.5 120 0 .3 .3 .3
*Lake 44.2 0 44.2 8.0 0 8.0 181 .1 1.9 2.0 5.0
Levy 1.6 0 1.6 .2 0 .2 125 0 .04 .04 .06
Marion 20.4 0 20.4 3.6 0 3.6 176 .1 .6 .7 1.0
Okeechobee Negligible
Orange 250.0 0 250.0 47.0 0 47.0 188 .1 4.7 4.8 9.6
Osceola Negligible
Polk Negligible
Putnam 14.0 0 14.0 2.0 0 2.0 143 0 .2 .2 1.0
St. Johns 9.0 13.0 22.0 1.2 1.8 3.0 136 .2 .1 .3 .15
* St. Lucie 20.0 0 20.0 2.2 0 2.2 110 .03 .07 .1 .4
Seminole 33.1 0 83.1 4.2 0 4.2 127 .08 .57 .6 2.0
Volusia 126.2 0 126.2 13.0 0 '13.0 103 .4 1.6 2.0 6.0
Entire area 1,219.8 53.0 1,272.8 173.1 5.4 178.5 140 7.51 17.45 24.96

* Indicates that figures listed are for portion of the county within the St. Johns basin, not for the total county.







TABLE 5 WATER FOR RURAL USE, DY COUNTIES, IN ST, JOHNS RIVER BASIN AND ADJACENT
COASTAL AREAS, 1965,

DOMESTIC USE (MGD) LIVESTOCK USE (MGD) DOMESTIC AND LIVESTOCK (MGD)
WATER WITHDRAWN WATER WITHDRAWN WATER WITHDRAWN
Ground Surface WATER Ground Surface WATER Ground Surface ALL WATER
water water CONSUMED water water CONSUMED Water water WATER CONSUMED

Alachua 0.4 0 0.4 0.6 0.1 0.6 1.0 0.1 1.1 1.0
Brevard 4.0 0 2.8 .3 .1 .4 4.3 .1 4.4 3.2
Clay .6 0 .5 .3 0 .3 .9 0 .9 .8
Duval .1 0 .1 .2 0 .2 .3 0 .3 .3
Flagler .1 0 .1 .2 0 .2 .3 0 .3 .3
Indian River 1.0 0 .8 .2 .1 .3 1.2 .1 1.3 1.1
Lake 1.4 0 1.2 .1 .2 .2 1.5 .2 1.7 1.4
*Levy .1 0 .1 e e e .1 e .1 .1
Marion 1.8 0 1.6 .8 .1 .9 2.6 .1 2.7 2.5
Okeechobee .1 0 e .1 .1 .2 ,2 ,1 .3 .2
Orange 2.4 0 1.7 .3 .1 .4 2.7 .1 2.8 2.1
*Osceola .2 0 .1 .3 .2 .4 .5 .2 .7 .5
*Polk .1 0 .1 .2 .1 .2 .3 .1 .4 .3
Putnam .9 0 .6 .2 e .2 1.1 e 1.1 .8
St. Johns .6 0 .3 .1 e e .7 e .7 .3
*St. Lucie .6 0 .3 e .1 .1 .6 .1 .7 .4
Seminole 1.8 e 1.6 .1 .1 .2 1.9 .1 2.0 1.8
Volusia 1.7 0 1.4 .2 .2 .3 1.9 .2 2.1 1.7
Entire area 17.9 e 13.7 4.2 1.5 5.1 22.1 1.5 23.6 18.8
* Indicates that figures listed are for portion of the county within the St. Johns basin, not for the total county.
e Less than 0.05 mgd.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


was consumed in serving the rural population. A total of 22.1 mgd
was from ground water and 1.5 mgd from surface water. Water for
rural use, by counties, is tabulated in Table 5.

IRRIGATION

Water withdrawn for irrigation was determined to be 351 mgd,
or 394,000 acre-feet, in 1965, applied on 232,000 acres. Of that
total, 200 mgd was withdrawn from ground water and 150 mgd from
surface water sources. Of the water withdrawn for irrigation, an
estimated 172 mgd, or 49 per cent, was consumed. Water used for
sprinkler irrigation is mostly lost through evapotranspiration in this
climatic region although in conventional irrigation systems the return
flow and losses to streams or to ground water are considerable. The
large consumptive use in irrigation indicates a relatively inefficient
use of water as compared to industrial use. Water used for irrigation
is tabulated inTable 6.

SELF-SUPPLIED INDUSTRIAL

Industry in the area is increasing rapidly. Some industrial uses
have high withdrawal requirements but consume little water since
most is used for cooling and processing without being evaporated or
incorporated into a product. The withdrawal was 172 mgd in 1965
of which 7.7 mgd, or 4.5 per cent was consumed. By source of water,
117 mgd was from wells and 55.0 mgd from surface sources, of
which 1.0 mgd was saline surface water. Fuel-electric power genera-
tion is not included in the above industrial use. A total of 1,997 mgd
was withdrawn for fuel-electric power cooling water, of which only
9.4 mgd, or less than half of one per cent, was consumed. Most of
the fuel-electric cooling water is saline surface water. Table 7 lists the
self-supplied industrial water use, and Table 8, the water used for
fuel-electric power production in 1965, by counties.
Figure 17 shows the water-use distribution by source and pur-
pose and a comparison of water withdrawn and water consumed. The
pie-charts show the portions obtained from ground water, surface
water, and saline waters and the consumptive use of water for public
supply, rural, irrigation, industrial, and fuel-electric power uses. The
bar chart in the figure shows the consumptive use as compared to
total use, or withdrawal, and the water source.
Although industrial and fuel-electric power withdrawals are
great, the consumptive use is relatively small. Re-use, or recirculation
of water could be a means of lowering withdrawal demands. About








TABLE 6 WATER USED FOR IRRIGATION, BY COUNTIES, IN ST. JOHNS RIVER BASIN AND ADJACENT
COASTAL AREAS,

COUNTIES ACRES WATER WITHDRAWN CONSUMED WATER WITHDRAWN CONSUMED
IRRIGATED Surface Growud Surface Ground
Water Water Total Water Water Total
Ac/ft Ac/ft Ac/ft Ac/ft mgd mgd mgd mgd

* Alachua 2,270 400 1,300 1,700 1,100 0.4 1.2 1.6 1.0
Brevard 24,000 5,100 56,500 61,600 39,400 4.5 50.4 54.9 35.2
Clay 3,000 0 5,600 5,600 4,500 0 5.0 5.0 4.0
* Duval 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Flagler 6,500 0 3,900 3,900 1,600 0 3.5 3.5 1.4
Indian River 50,600 44,000 29,300 70,300 29,000 36.6 26.2 62.8 25.9
* Lake 20,000 13,500 15,700 29,200 10,600 12.1 14.0 26.1 9.5
SLevy 100 0 200 200 200 0 .2 .2 .2
* Marion 14,400 3,400 16,100 19,500 5,400 3.0 14.4 17.4 4.8
* Okeechobee 4,000 7,200 1,100 8,300 3,600 6.4 1.0 7.4 3.2
* Orange 18,900 15,900 13,600 29,500 13,200 11.9 12.1 24.0 11.8
* Osceola 1,200 1,100 1,100 2,200 1,100 1.0 1.0 2.0 1.0
* Polk *9,200 *1,000 *14,900 *15,900 8,000 .9 13.6 14.5 7.1
Putnam 13,000 1,700 13,000 14,700 7,500 1.5 11.6 13.1 6.7
St. Johns 22,000 0 15,600 15,600 7,000 0 13.9 13.9 6.2
* St. Lucie 29,220 73,000 24,000 97,000 49,000 65.0 21.4 86.4 43.7
Seminole 10,000 6,600 5,400 12,000 5,400 5.9 4.8 10.7 4.8
Volusia 3,700 1,300 6,900 8,200 6,000 1.2 6.2 7.4 5.4
Totals- 232,090 171,200 223,200 394,400 192,600 150.4 200.5 350.9 171.5


* Indicates that figures listed are for portion of the county
for the total county.
* From SCS report.


within the St. Johns basin, not







TABLE 7 SELF-SUPPLIED INDUSTRIAL WATER, BY COUNTIES, IN
COASTAL AREAS, 1965.


ST. JOHNS RIVER BASIN AND ADJACENT


WATER WITHDRAWN, MILLION GALLONS PER DAY U
USED FOR
COUNTIES Ground Water Surface Water All Water AIR COND. CONSUMED
Fresh Saline Fresh Saline Fresh Saline (mgd) Fresh (mgd)

*Alachua 11.7 0 0 0 11.7 0 9.4 2.7
Brevard 1.0 0 0 0 1.0 0 0 .1
Clay 1.5 0 0 0 1.5 0 0 .2
* Duval 47.0 0 0 1.0 47.0 1.0 2.5 2.0
Flagler 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Indian River 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
*Lake 15.4 0 0 0 15.4 0 0 .8
*Levy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
*Marion 4.5 0 0 0 4.5 0 0 .2
*Okeechobee 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
*Orange 4.8 0 0 0 4.8 0 .2 .2
*Osceola 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
*Polk 27.0 0 0 0 27.0 0 0 .7
Putnam 3.0 0 54.0 0 57.0 0 0 .5
St.Johns 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
* St. Lucie .3 0 0 0 .3 0 .1 .1
Seminole 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Volusia .4 .2 0 0 .4 .2 0 .2
Totals 116.6 .2 54.0 1.0 170.6 1.2 12.2 7.7


* Indicates that figures listed are for portion of
not for the total county.


the county within the St. Johns basin,













TABLE 8 WATER USED FOR FUEL-ELECTRIC POWER, BY COUNTIES, IN ST. JOHNS RIVER BASIN AND
ADJACENT COASTAL AREAS, 1965.

COOLING WATER OTHER WATER
SELF SUPPLIES (mgd) PUBLIC SELF SUPPLIES (mgd) PUBLIC
COUNTIES Surface Water Ground Water SUPPLY Surface Water Ground Water SUPPLY ALL WATER
Fresh Saline Fresh aline (md) Fresh Saline Fresh Saline (mgd) SUPPLIED CONSUMED
Alachua 0 0 0 0 1.0 0 0 0 0 0 1.0 0.4
Brevard 0 785 0 0 0 0 0 .2 0 .1 785.3 4.8
Duval 0 553 0 0 .7 0 0 .1 0 0 553.8 0
Indian River 0 75 0 0 0 0 0 e 0 0 75.0 .2
Levy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 e 0 0 e .1
Orange 95 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 e 95.0 .1
Osceola 0 0 .2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .2 0
Putnam 130 0 0 0 0 0 0 .1 0 0 130.0 .7
St. Lucie 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 e 6.0 .2
Volusia 350 0 0 0 0 0 0 .2 0 0 350.2 2.9
Totals 575 1,419 .2 0 1.7 0 0 .6 0 .1 1,996.6 9.4


e Less than 0.05 mgd.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


half of the water withdrawn for irrigation is consumed and more
than two-thirds of the water for public use is returned to the surface
or ground water sources. Quantities for parts of counties within the
St. Johns River basin and adjacent coastal area are either from actual
data obtained from the users or estimated on the basis of land area
and land use.


SURFACE WATER

For convenience in the discussion of the surface water features,
the area is divided into four sub-areas: the upper St. Johns River
basin upstream from the mouth of the Oklawaha River; the Okla-
waha River basin; the lower St. Johns River basin, below the mouth
of the Oklawaha River; and the narrow coastal strip between the St.
Johns River basin and the Atlantic Ocean.


UPPER ST. JOHNS RIVER BASIN

The relation of the average discharge to drainage area along the
main stem of the St. Johns River is shown inFigure 18. As indicated
by the solid part of the plot, the unit runoff in the upstream reaches
is very uniform. The downward extension of the plot suggests that
the computed drainage area upstream of Melbourne is too small or
that considerable water is diverted from the basin in this area. The
likelihood of some diversion is substantiated by the higher unit
runoff in the coastal basins immediately to the east of this area south
of Melbourne (see section on coastal areas). Diking and canalization
in the area upstream of Melbourne complicates delineation of the
drainage divide for the St. Johns River.
The relation between average discharge and drainage area down-
stream from DeLand is based on estimates of the average flow at
Palatka and at Jacksonville. The accuracy of net flow determinations
at Jacksonville is questionable as records are adequate only to evalu-
ate the upstream and downstream volumes of tidal flow. The average
discharge of the St. Johns River above the mouth of the Oklawaha
River is estimated as 4,000 cfs on the basis of 3,270 cfs discharge at
the gaging station near DeLand, which has 86 per cent of the
drainage area. The increase in average flow of the main stem as it is
successively joined by its tributaries is indicated by the flow chart (as
shown in Figure 19).






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


53.5 MGD


RAWN WATER CONSUMPTION, BY PURPOSE OR
MGD .f- ] USE CLASSIFICATION. TOTAL 261 MGD.


- GROUND WATER

D SURFACE WATER

0 CONSUMPTIVE USE


0 -,-- "- -//

ISOl















PUBLIC SUPPLY RURAL USE IRRIGATION INDUSTRIAL FUEL-ELECTRIC
(SELF-SUPPLIED) POWER (COOLING)
Figure 17 Graphs showing water source, purpose, and relation of
consumptive use to water withdrawal in northeast Florida








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


Average discharge increases quite uniformly with drainage area
in the reach downstream from Jane Green Creek. The average dis-
charge in the St. Johns River near Cocoa, with 1,331 square miles
drainage area, is 1,210 cfs or 0.91 cfs per square mile; however,
minimum flows approach zero.
Figure 20 shows the maximum, minimum and median concen-
tration of dissolved solids, and the concentration equaled or ex-
ceeded 5 and 25 per cent of the time, for the St. Johns River near
Cocoa. Also shown are the calcium, sodium, sulfate, and chloride
proportions of the total dissolved solids, and the corresponding
hardness as calcium carbonate. The water temperature varies daily
and seasonally (as shown in Figure 21). Information on the water
temperature is valuable in planning the use of the water for industrial
cooling and for evaluating the suitability of the water for fish and


IOpOO
1,000



8,000


w 7,000
-j

w
S6,000

U)
S5,000
W
o:
w 4,000


? 3,00C


2,000


2.00C


0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000
AVERAGE DISCHARGE, CUBIC FEET PER SECOND
Figure 18 Graph of relationship of drainage area to average discharge
for main stem of St. Johns River


ATLANTIC OCEAN-
JACKSONVILLE

/










I
/
/














PEAR DL LAND

-NEAR SANFORD (OUTLET OF LAKE MONROE)
NEAR SANFORD (INLET OF LAKE MONROE)

E NEAR CHRISTMAS
NEAR COCOA
N L







NEAR MELBOURNE
//









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


other aquatic life. It is interesting to note that the maximum daily
temperature, which occurs in August, is nearly 350C (95"F).

JANE GREEN AND WOLF CREEKS

Jane Green Creek drains 260 square miles in the upper St. Johns
River basin. The average flow of 1.38 cfs per square mile of drainage

82I 81a O










I" &%UQ UtlO NE


FLOW SCALE

1000





5000
300
ioo



200
-^- Bain divid
- Sub-boae dlid*
e 2


0


OK EEC


tU t
'ItHCt


80


Figure 19 Flow chart showing average flow of streams in northeast Florida


%
b,
r
















VALUE EQUALED OR EXCEEDEDIS PERCENT


II OF THE TIME DURING THE MONTH


I I i;


Note: AOiliary scaOl s
of rfght are aoroximate.


I .... .. .. I t 1' I ,i t.


--- VALUE EQUALED OR EXCEEDED 25 PERCENT
OF THE TIME DURING THE MONTH
MAXFMUMJ--. V *1--- --





1000



S RECORD USED: OCT 95 TO EP 1962
500- ----- -


f0.
il
0
co
C,
I


.j




-sJ
0

o
-j


o
0
w,
wn
P


OCT. NOV. DEC JAN. FEB. MARL APR.


MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT .


After MocKichan. 1967 MEDIAN -


I _______ I MIWNIMIUM4


0


180' 5
I SO, IS
500 1|40

q 1130


o40 400 2

riG
120

0300;3
,:00. ^90


-gZOG' 70

60 60.


40 100- 5
40
20
3C
0
05 20S


800
111400

1000 70

900
sWq


700 Sco
600


S 00








200
z zoo


220



ISO

ISO
200







10

o

4 0


20


Figure 20 Graph showing maximum, minimum, and median daily dissolved
solids equaled or exceeded 5 and 25 per cent of the time, for St.
Johns River near Cocoa


Ir I


I I I k [ II[ II'


-"


I


bW1v































DEC. JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY
Figure 21 Graph showing maximum, minimum, and median daily temperature
for St. Johns River near Cocoa






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


area is the second highest of the gaged tributaries and probably is a
result of the relative steepness of the basin slope coupled with low
soil permeabilities that impede infiltration. The maximum observed
discharge of 18,400 cfs is equal to 73 cfs per square mile. The creek
has been dry for long periods, such as 116 days in 1956. The
recurrence interval of a discharge of 18,400 cfs is 48 years (Barnes
and Golden). The flow duration curve for Jane Green Creek (fig. 15)
shows it to be dry about 8 per cent of the time.
The unit runoff for Jane Green Creek is exceeded by that for
Wolf Creek which averages 1.49 cfs per square mile. The maximum
runoff from the 31 square mile area of Wolf Creek near Deer Park is
293 cfs per square mile. Water quality in both streams is generally
good except for high color values at times. Specific conductivity
varies inversely with discharge from about 50 to 400 micromhos.
Hardness and chloride are low.
ECONLOCKHATCHEE RIVER

The Econlockhatchee River drains 260 square miles of the
western slope of the St. Johns River basin between Orlando and
Bithlo. The headwaters are an elongated swamp from which drainage
is slow and evaporation and transpiration losses are high. Some of the
topographically delineated drainage basin of its largest tributary, the
Little Econlockhatchee River, are karst areas that contribute no
runoff. The unit runoff is 1.16 cfs per square mile. The maximum
recorded discharge at Chuluota is 11,000 cfs which is equivalent to
46 cfs per square mile. The recurrence interval of a flood of this
magnitude exceeds 50 years. The channel of the Econlockhatchee
River is well developed in its lower reach. In this reach the channel is
incised into the water-table aquifer so that the river derives some
base flow from the shallow aquifer during even the most severe
droughts. Further, some low flow augmentation (11 cfs in 1963) is
derived from effluent from the Orlando sewage plant. Figure 13
shows the frequency at which the minimum average flows for
selected durations are likely to recur.
Chemical quality of the water is generally within acceptable
limits with moderate hardness but with fairly high color during high
flows.
DEEP CREEK
Deep Creek drains about 160 square miles in Volusia County.
Discharge varies from no flow at times to maximum flows that
exceed 2,600 cfs. Water quality is good except for fairly high color at
all times.





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


WEKIVA RIVER

The Wekiva River drains about 200 square miles from State
Highway 46, much of which is karst terrain from which no surface
flow occurs. Much of the rainfall infiltrates downward to recharge
the Floridan aquifer and emerges in the basin from Rock and Wekiva
springs. The remainder of the basin includes many swamps and lakes,
most of which drain to the Wekiva River by way of its tributary, the
Little Wekiva River.
The combined surface runoff and spring inflow provide an
average yield of 1.39 cfs per square mile, or 278 cfs, at State
Highway 46. The effect of infiltration of rainfall to ground-water
storage and subsequent return to the stream through large springs is
so pronounced that the average discharge is less than three times the
minimum discharge. Low-flow frequency curves are shown in Figure
22. The flow-duration curve (figure 16) shows that at least 100 cfs
(65 mgd) is available at State Highway. 46 near Sanford at all times.
The water has an average hardness of about 110 mg/1
(milligrams per liter). Specific conductance varies only about 15 per
cent from an average of about 260 micromhos.
OKLAWAHA RIVER BASIN
The Oklawaha River, the largest tributary of the St. Johns
River, has a drainage area of 2,870 square miles. It comprises about
one-third of the drainage basin and contributes about one-quarter of
the surface water outflow from the St. Johns River basin. The average
discharge of about 2,050 cfs is equivalent to 0.72 cfs per square mile.
The relatively low unit runoff is the result of a large noncontributing
area, the flow of ground water out of the basin, high evaporation
losses from the large lakes in the upper reaches and
evapotranspiration losses from the swamps in the lower reaches.
Variation in the flow of the Oklawaha River near its mouth is
small because of the attenuating effects of temporary storage of
water in the ground and in lakes that is subsequently released at
relatively uniform rates, as, for example, from Silver Springs. The
maximum observed discharge is only 4.3 times the average flow and
the average flow is only 2.9 times the minimum discharge. The
dependable flow of this river is at least 450 mgd, or 697 cfs.
Average yield from the basin above Silver Springs is 420 cfs,
only 0.39 cfs per square mile. Yield from the Orange Creek basin is
188 cfs or only 0.17 cfs per square mile. That subbasin, however,
includes Paynes Prairie, a non-contributing area of 675 square miles
in parts of Alachua, Levy, and Marion counties. The remainder of the






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


500





365 days
S273 days Average flow: 278 cfs
o 400 183 days
o 120 days Example: For a 10-year recurrence interval
S/ 60 days the I -day minimum flow is 139 cfs and the
S30 days 365-days minimum flow is 221 cfs
a.
I.

300






0 200 ----




I day
From Lichtler, Anderson, and Joyner, 1968
100 I-- I I I _I -- -- -
1.01 1.1 1.2 1.5 2 3 4 5 7 10 20 30
RECURRENCE INTERVAL, YEARS


Figure 22 Low-flow frequency curves for Wekiva River near Sanford

Oklawaha River basin has an average yield of 1,450 cfs or 2.2 cfs per
square mile. This high yield results from the emergence of previously
infiltrated water as springs in this part of the basin, including Silver
Springs with an average flow of 530 million gallons per day of good
quality water.
Water in the Oklawaha River basin is generally of good quality
except near the mouth where springs and seepage from the Floridan
aquifer and discharge from deep artesian wells contribute more
highly mineralized water to the stream. Numerous lakes in the Lake






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Louisa and Lake Minnehaha vicinity contain water of excellent
quality, with total dissolved solids averaging only 25 to 40 mg/1.
Palatlakaha Creek contains water of similar quality. Lake Apopka
and Lake Dora have total dissolved solids above 200 mg/1, with
calcium carbonate hardness of 100-160 mg/1, which is probably due
partly to large inflows from the artesian aquifer through springs.
Lakes Eustis, Harris, and Griffin have about half the dissolved solid
concentration as that of Lakes Apopka and Dora. Silver Springs-
contributes a large flow of high carbonate water which again raises
the total dissolved solids to more than 200 mg/1. Other constituents
in water from Silver Springs are low. Chloride and other chemical
constituents are low throughout the basin. Spring discharges are clear
and all lakes and streams are low in color except in the extreme
headwaters, where color reaches more than 200 units in small creeks
and lakes. Contamination from fertilizers and pesticides, especially
from the intensively farmed citrus groves and muck farms, has
contributed to the dissolved chemical constituents in the basin
waters. Water in the Orange Creek basin contains an average of about
70 mg/1 of dissolved solids; it is generally good for all purposes but
color and iron are sometimes objectionable in Newnans Lake and
Camps Canal.

LOWER ST. JOHNS RIVER BASIN

The average discharge of the St. Johns River at its mouth is
estimated at 8,300 cfs. Reversal of flow by tidal action causes
upstream and downstream flow at Jacksonville to reach 130,000 cfs.
The capacity of the main stem of the St. Johns River to store
water is tremendous owing to: (1) the great width of channel in the
reach between Palatka and Jacksonville, (2) its low gradients, (3)
several large lakes upstream from Palatka, and (4) the low flood plain
which in places is more than ten miles wide. Storm water is held in
storage for long periods before being discharged to the sea.
The recorded range in stage along the main stem varies from 5.9
feet at State Highway 60, in Indian River County, to 11.0 feet at
State Highway 46, near Lake Harney. The range in stage of 7.1 feet
at Jacksonville is partly the effect of wind and tide. The greatest
ranges occur in the reach between Lake Washington and Lake
Harney.
Water quality in the main stem is generally poor during low
water and fair during high water, as indicated by the graph in figure 3
which shows the chloride concentration below Lake Harney to
exceed 200 mg/1 most of the time. The water is also very hard and







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


color exceeds 200 units at times. Serious pollution from industrial
wastes and urban centers is presently under investigation by several
agencies.
The principal tributaries to the lower St. Johns River are Dunns
Creek, Rice Creek, and Black Creek. Their flow characteristics and
general chemical quality are discussed below.

DUNNS CREEK

Dunns Creek is the second largest of the St. Johns River
tributaries. Its drainage basin includes about 400 square miles of low
swamps, a hundred square miles of karst terrain with no surface
runoff and about 30 square miles of lakes on the east side of the St.
Johns River. Little Haw Creek and Middle Haw Creek, 2 tributaries
of Dunns Creek, have average flows of 90 cfs and 60 cfs, equal to
0.75 and 1.50 cfs per square mile. The prorated yield from the total
gaged area is 0.94 cfs per square mile, or an average runoff of about
500 cfs for this basin. The yield from Little Haw Creek basin is low
because about half of its drainage area has no surface runoff. The
maximum recorded discharge of 27 cfs per square mile from the part
of Little Haw Creek basin drained by streams is indicative of the flat
slopes and the storage capacity of the swamps in this basin. Middle
Haw Creek has a maximum recorded flow of 60 cfs per square mile,
and in most years the flow declines to insignificant amounts or
ceases. Flow in Dunns Creek is subject to twice daily reversal at
Crescent Lake because of tide induced backwater from the St. Johns
River.
Except for high color, water quality in Dunns Creek basin varies
from excellent in the upper reaches of Haw Creek to poor in and
downstream from Crescent Lake. Specific conductance in Crescent
Lake exceeds 1000 micromhos and chloride concentration exceeds
200 mg/1 much of the time. In the upper reaches, Lake Disston and
Little Haw Creek have specific conductances of only 70 micromhos
and chloride concentration less than 20 mg/1; color, however,
reaches 165 units. Middle Haw Creek is high in color with up to 700
units at times although its chemical quality is excellent.

RICE CREEK

Rice Creek drains 354 square miles north and west of Palatka.
The average flow for six years of record is 404 cfs, or 1.14 cfs per
square mile. The estimated yield from 174 square miles of the upper
basin is 0.30 cfs per square mile, which indicates runoff of 1.95 cfs





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


per square mile from the swampy area in the lower basin. Water from
wells penetrating the Floridan aquifer in the Etonia Creek basin
contributes to the base flow. The maximum observed discharge of
about 7,000 cfs, or 20 cfs per square mile, is low and probably
results from the storage of storm runoff in swamps and lakes. The
lower reaches of Rice Creek are affected by tidal backwater from the
St. Johns River. As much as 100 million cubic feet of water per day
may enter the creek from the St. Johns River as a result of rising
tide.
The water quality in the upper reaches of Rice Creek and of
Etonia Creek is good, with low to moderate concentrations of all
chemical constituents. Total dissolved solids and chloride content
increase in the lower reaches of Rice Creek but are within acceptable
tolerances. Serious industrial pollution occurs in lower Rice Creek,
which affects St. Johns River upstream as well as downstream
because of tidal action.

BLACK CREEK
Black Creek drains 474 square miles of the eastern slope of Trail
Ridge west of the St. Johns River. The creek bed slopes an average of
10 feet per mile which results in high flow per unit area despite some
attenuation by lakes and swamps. The maximum observed discharge
of 13,900 cfs for the South Fork is 104 cfs per square mile and for
the North Fork is 12,600 cfs, 72 cfs per square mile.
The South Fork contributes 44 per cent and the North Fork
contributes 39 per cent of the 515 cfs total average flow from Black
Creek and small tributaries below the confluence of the North and
South Forks contribute the remainder. Average runoff ranges from
0.37 cfs per square mile from the upper Yellow Water Creek basin to
1.48 cfs per square mile from part of the upper North Fork. Average
runoff from the entire basin is 1.08 inches.
The concentration of dissolved solids in the upper reaches of
North Fork Black Creek averages about 30 mg/1 and increases
downstream to about 130 mg/1, but has reached more than 300
mg/1. The average concentration of dissolved solids in the South
Fork Black Creek is about the same as in North Fork, but with a
greater upper range and with considerable organic matter. Except for
some objectionable color and iron at times, water from South Fork
Black Creek is suitable for all uses.

COASTAL BASINS

The streams draining the coastal area have relatively small







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


drainage basins. The largest, Tomoka River, drains only 152 square
miles. The coastal lagoons (Tolomato, or North River, Matazas River,
Halifax River and Indian River) are connected with artificial channels
where required to establish continuity of the Intracoastal waterway,
and Pablo Creek is connected to Tolomato River to form a section of
the waterway east of Jacksonville, thus changing the drainage pattern
in that area. Water draining from the coastal area into the lagoons
reaches the ocean through five inlets that connect the coastal lagoons
to the ocean.
Information on the more important coastal streams and canals
is given below. Flow and quality of water are variable as drainage is
both natural and by drains from intensely farmed agricultural areas
which at times utilize highly mineralized artesian water for irrigation.

MOULTRIE CREEK

Moultrie Creek drains 23 square miles of ridges and swamps on
the eastern slope of the coastal ridge. The channel cuts through
several of the sand ridges which permits drainage to a coastal lagoon,
known as Matanzas River.
The average discharge of Moultrie Creek is 24 cfs or about 1 cfs
per square mile. The maximum observed discharge of 1,450 cfs, or
62 cfs per square mile, is fairly low and reflects the attenuating
effects of storage in the swamps feeding the creek and percolation
into the surficial sandy material. The minimum discharge is 0.1 cfs.
The water quality varies inversely with discharge and although
low in most chemical constituents is moderately hard to very hard;
color is high during periods of high discharge when decayed vegeta-
tion is flushed from swampy areas.

TOMOKA RIVER

Tomoka River drains a swampy area south and west of Daytona
Beach similar to the area drained by Moultrie Creek. The average
discharge from the basin is estimated to be 155 cfs, or 1 cfs per
square mile. The maximum observed discharge is 2,170 cfs, or 28 cfs
per square mile, at the gaging station and indicates that the peak flow
is attenuated by swamp storage and probably some percolation into
the surficial sediments. The minimum recorded flow is 0.6 cfs.
Quality of water is generally good except for color values that
at times exceeds 400 units in Little Tomoka River, and about 200
units in Tomoka River near Holly Hill. The water is generally soft
but during low flows is moderately hard.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


TURKEY CREEK

Turkey Creek drains 95.5 square miles above the gaging station
southwest of Melbourne. The entire drainage basin is gridded by an
extensive system of canals. Some interconnection by gravity flow
exists and considerable, but unevaluated, amounts of water are
diverted by pumping into the Turkey Creek basin from the St. Johns
River basin.
The average flow at the gaging station is 135 cfs, or 1.42 cfs per
square mile; considerably greater than that from the undeveloped
basins to the north. This higher yield is caused partly by increased
drainage of the water-table aquifer by the canals and partly by
pumpage from the St. Johns basin. The maximum discharge of 2,798
cfs, or 29 cfs per square mile, is low despite the improved channels of
flow. The high minimum flow of 15 cfs is the result of inflow from
the water-table aquifer.
Water in Turkey Creek is considered hard and specific conduc-
tivity varies from about 50 micromhos during high flows to more
than 1,500 during low flows. Chloride concentration exceeds 250
mg/I much of the time.

FELLSMERE CANAL

This canal drains 78.4 square miles above the gaging station into
Sebastian Creek between Melbourne and Vero Beach. A complete
system of irrigation and drainage canals with dikes and pumps has
been constructed in the area drained. Considerable interconnection
exists with the St. Johns River and with the parallel Big 40 Canal to
the north.
The average flow in the canal is 131 cfs, or 1.67 cfs per square
mile. This relatively high yield results from causes similar to those
mentioned for Turkey Creek; and, in addition, the basin contains
numerous flowing wells. As with Turkey Creek the high base flow of
18 cfs is the result of drainage from the water table aquifer and flow
from artesian wells. The maximum flow of record is 1,880 cfs, or 24
cfs per square mile.
Water in the canal is hard and average chloride concentration
exceeds 100 mg/1 in the eastern end. The water is suitable for most
uses although color at times is objectionable.

CANALS NEAR VERO BEACH

Three canals, North Canal, Main Canal, and South Canal, drain








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


an area of topographically undetermined size west of Vero Beach.
The canals are the primary outlets of the drainage and irrigation
system in the area derived in part from return flow from artesian
wells. The flows are completely controlled by dams and pumps and
empty into Indian River between Sebastian and Fort Pierce Inlets.
The average flows from the canals are as follows: North Canal,
27.6 cfs; Main Canal, 75.8 cfs; and South Canal, 38.2 cfs. The
respective maximum flows resulting from the storm of September
23, 1960 are 1,790, 1,900 and 1,930 cfs. The minimums are 2.6 cfs,
1.2, and 2.0 cfs.
Quality of the water is comparable to that in Fellsmere Canal,
and is affected by return irrigation drainage waters and flow from
artesian wells which add dissolved minerals to the water in the canals.
Indian River, Banana River, and other lagoons along the coast
contain water that is brackish or approaches seawater in quality. The
chloride concentration, which at times has exceeded that of sea-
water, becomes as low as 5,000 mg/1 during periods of high runoff.

OTHER SMALL STREAMS

Some data have been collected on many other streams as shown
in table 9.

TABLE 9. DRAINAGE AREAS AND OBSERVED EXTREMES OF DIS-
CHARGE FOR OTHER SMALL STREAMS IN THE ST.
JOHNS RIVER BASIN AND COASTAL AREA.


Drainage area, Discharge, CFS
Name of Stream square miles Maximum Minimum

Taylor Creek near Cocoa 55.2 3,000 0
Jim Creek near Christmas 22.7 3,750 0
Deep Creek near Osteen 120 *2,630 0.09
Deep Creek near Barberville 23 492 0.06
Big Davis Creek at Bayard 13.6 780 0.59
Durbin Creek near Durbin 36.7 4,140 0
3rtega River near Jacksonville 27.8 1,670 0.2
Pottsburg Creek near South Jacksonville 9.89 1,490 0.16
rout River at Dinsmore 19.9 646 -
'edar Creek near Panama Park 12 0
Dunn Creek near Eastport 4.86 720 0
Spruce Creek near Samsula 32 1,610 0
crane Creek at Melbourne 12.6 665 1.8


'Mnimrlm dnilv







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


LAKES

A large part of the "lake country" of Florida is within the area
of this report. The chain of interconnected lakes in the Oklawaha
River basin, including Apopka, Harris, Eustis, Griffin, and others, are
important recreational assets and, through their temperature mod-
erating effect during short periods of extreme cold, are a great
benefit to the citrus industry. The large, shallow lakes along the main
stem of the St. Johns River, such as Lakes George, Harney, Monroe,
and others, are a distinct feature of the basin although they may be
considered only wide reaches of the channel.
The interconnection of lakes by improved or artificial channels
is a continuous development that modifies drainage divides and flow
patterns to some degree. Controlled storage of water in some lakes
for recreation and the drainage of swamps and some shallow lakes to
develop land for urban and agricultural purposes change the basin
runoff characteristics.
Water-stage data have been collected for 56 lakes in the area.
Data range from a few spot observations to as much as 45 years of
record.
Lake altitudes range from half a foot below sea level along the
St. Johns River during droughts to almost 178 feet above sea level
for Kingsley Lake during flood periods. Fluctuations in stage range
from less than 2 feet for Sand Hill Lake to more than 32 feet for
Pebble Lake.
Lakes in the area range in size from less than one acre for some
sinkhole lakes to about 70 square miles for Lake George. Lake
Apopka, with 47.9 square miles, is the largest lake that is not a part
of the main stem of the St. Johns River. Seven other lakes exceed 10
square miles in area.
Figure 23 shows hydrographs of Lake Apopka, Lake Poinsett,
and Orange Lake, each lake being in a different hydrologic setting.
Lake Apopka is located where the piezometric surface is higher than
the lake surface on the south side but lower on the north side;
however, the formations below the lake bottom restrict the upward
or downward movement of water so that the lake level is largely
independent of changes in artesian pressure. Regulation of outflow
by the control structure in Apopka-Beauclair Canal tends to limit the
fluctuations of the lake level. Lake Poinsett is a widening of the main
stem of the St. Johns River and fluctuates with river stages. The river
is capable of transporting large volumes of water in a short time,
which results in abrupt changes and a considerable range in stage.
Lakes Washington, Monroe, Harney, George, and other main stem











REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


SS961








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lakes react similarly. The connection between Orange Lake and the
Floridan aquifer is fairly good so that the lake tends to fluctuate,

except as affected by surface flow, with the same range and patterns
as the piezometric surface.
Figures 24, 25, 26, and 27 are stage-duration curves for selected
lakes in the area and show the percent of time that specific


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BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


> 27



26


_0

Fr 24 d


ul 2
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hoxv, ____ ____d c ____su ______ ofeet_ ____o ____t h
, 22
hr Weekly averages, April 1936 to December



' 20




0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Figure 24 Stage-duration durve for Lake Kerr near Eureka


elevations were equaled or exceeded. Stage-duration curves do not,
however, indicate the chronological sequence of events or the length
of time that the lake may have remained at or above specific levels.
The quality of water in lakes, such as those along the St. Johns
and Oklawaha Rivers, tends to be similar to that in the stream system
of which they are a part. Lakes without surface outlets, and sinkhole
type lakes, have good quality water because the water movement is
generally downward from surface runoff containing little mineraliza-
tion. However, man's use of fertilizers and pesticides, some of which
are subsequently carried by surface and subsurface waters draining
into lakes, are adding chemical constituents which are deleterious to
the water quality.
LI 22 -- -- --- -- -- --- ----1--- --
-jWel vrgs pil13 oDcme s
o4


























the water quality.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


65

Lake Dora Daily averages July 1942 to September 1964
64


63 -


62


SLake Eustis Daily averages July 1956 to September 1964
61 Day- ---u5 e






59 -


58

Lake Griffin Daily averages June 1955 to September 1964
57 -


tz = i I


0 10 20 30 40 50 60
PERCENT OF TIME


80 90 100


Figure 25 Stage-duration curve for Lakes Dora, Eustis and Griffin,
in northeast Florida


Although lake water is used for the irrigation of residential areas
md adjacent citrus groves, the primary use of lakes is for recreation
md for home sites both for the tourist industry and for permanent
residents. A few lakes are used as a source of municipal supply, such
as Lake Washington for the city of Melbourne, however, ground
water is the more dependable supply in the report area. The acceler-
ating development of lake property for residential use and the
esthetic and recreational values of lakes at optimum levels make
control of levels within a limited range desirable.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


100


99


98


97


96


95


94
Daily averages, March 1957 to September 1964
0__


92L
0


10 20 30 40 50 60
PERCENT OF TIME


80 90 100


Figure 26 Stage-duration curve for Lake Louisa near Clermont



GROUND WATER

The largest and most important source of potable water in the
St. Johns River basin is ground water in artesian and overlying
shallow aquifers.

SHALLOW AQUIFERS

Ground water in shallow aquifers includes water in the zone of
saturation under water-table conditions as well as water in shallow
artesian aquifers below the water-table aquifer and above the Flo-
ridan aquifer. The water-table aquifer consists mainly of sand and
clayey sand of Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene and Holocene ages and
the shallow artesian aquifers occur in limestone layers and shell beds








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


179


S178
W'


x -J


. 176


C w 175
0

I-W


173-


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
PERCENT OF TIME
Figure 27 Stage-duration curve for Kingsley Lake near Camp Blanding


in the Hawthorn Formation and occasionally in sand beds within the
more recent formations where clayey lenses create local artesian
conditions.

The thickness of the water-table aquifer, or materials overlying
the Floridan aquifer, ranges from less than a foot in parts of Marion
and Alachua counties to more than 400 feet in Indian River and St.
Lucie counties. Permeability varies from relatively high to very low,
with the thicker more permeable zone in the eastern part of the
report area. The two geologic sections in Figure 28 show the relative
thickness of the shallow deposits.

Considerable water for both domestic and municipal uses has
been obtained from the sandy shallow aquifer in Indian River and
Brevard counties. The cities of Titusville, Eau Gallie, and Melbourne
pumped several million gallons per day from the shallow aquifers
prior to their use of supplies more recently developed from artesian
or surface sources. Moderate supplies may be obtained under con-
trolled pumping in the coastal ridge area in Brevard County and
,other counties and lesser supplies are available on the barrier islands,








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


while shallow ground-water reservoirs supply low capacity domestic
wells. In eastern St. Johns and Flagler counties, in Seminole County,
western Clay County, and southeastern Alachua County moderate
supplies are obtained for domestic use from wells that draw water



4 I A

s od 300-
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od- T T--- _- ---0 5C--O--~~~~~. *5'-.,
3od -o


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d 600,


0d m "EYE. AD LAKE CITO I 00'
VERT ICAL SCALE GREATLY
7-













C A OSC LA ST A E





Figure 28 Two geologic sections through northeastern Florida



from sand or coquina aquifers and from permeable Miocene age

limestone beds. In Duval County, wells 40 to 150 feet deep supply
water to many users. Wells range from 1A-inch sand points to wells 24
inches in diameter which yield in excess of 100 gpm (gallons per

minute). Supplies from wells in the shallow aquifers are often limited
by the seasonal fluctuations of the water-table or by insufficient depth
of the well; however, shallow wells are a valuable source of water in
of the well; however, shallow wells are a valuable source of water in








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


areas where the depth to artesian water, or the quality of the artesian
water, does not justify its use.

The chemical quality of shallow waters is generally good, al-
though higher in iron and color it is lower in other constituents than
water from the underlying artesian aquifers. This is especially true in
areas of Orange and Seminole counties underlain by quartz sands
where total hardness under 10 mg/1 is common. Chloride is low
except in some areas where the water-table aquifers have become
contaminated by intrusion of salt water from Indian River or the
Atlantic Ocean, or where the piezometric surface of the artesian
aquifer is higher than the water table so that relatively saline ground
water can move upward into the water-table aquifer. Such conditions
occur naturally in years of low rainfall, as in 1956, or are artificially
induced by heavy pumping, both of which lower the head of the
shallow water table permitting upward and landward migration of
salt water. Temperatures of shallow ground water range from about
19 to 270 C., with seasonal variation, in contrast to the nearly
constant temperature of water from the upper part of the Floridan
aquifer, which is most commonly 220-240C (72-750F) in the report
area.

(The shallow aquifers are recharged directly by local rainfall and
by percolation from surface-water bodies. The water moves by grav-
ity from a higher to a lower level at a rate dependent on the
permeability of deposits and the slope of the water table. The water
table in shallow aquifers generally follows the topography but with
less relief, and is generally from 10 to 40 feet below land surface on
high ground and at or near land surface at lakes and swamps)Annual
water-level fluctuation ranges from about five to twenty feet on high
ground to practically none in low or swamp areas, but extremes over
longer periods between years of excess rainfall and drought may be
considerable greater. Figure 29 shows the fluctuation in water level
in a water-table well near Bithlo, Orange County, and its relation to
rainfall and to fluctuations of water level in a nearby well in a
secondary artesian aquifer and in a Floridan aquifer well; and shows
the more rapid response of the shallow water table to rainfall.

Discharge from the shallow aquifers in the report area is by (1)
natural seepage into streams, lakes and the ocean, (2) downward
movement into the Floridan aquifer, (3) loss by evapotranspiration,
and (4) pumpage for irrigation, domestic, and industrial uses. In
much of the Oklawaha River basin, mostly in Lake, Marion, Alachua,









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


RAINFALL AT ORLANDO




S15 9 60- -9 --96 19 9 -------
J
-1
U. 5



1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966


Figure 29 Hydrographs of wells in water-table, shallow artesian, and Floridan
aquifers one mile east of Bithlo, Orange County, Florida


-30








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


and Putnam counties, the discharge from the shallow aquifer is
primarily as downward movement into the Floridan aquifer except
for water lost through evapotranspiration. In most of this area little
water is pumped from the shallow aquifer and surface runoff is
negligible. The water table usually fluctuates closely with rainfall as
indicated by the hydrograph in figure 29 of the shallow well near
Bithlo. Where the water-table aquifer is directly or partially con-
nected to the artesian aquifer, water levels fluctuate similarly to the
piezometric surface of the artesian water. Water moves downward
into the artesian aquifer through materials of low to moderate
permeability in areas where the head in the shallow water aquifer is
higher. Where artesian pressure is higher the movement may be
upward into the shallow aquifer.

Much shallow ground water is pumped from small capacity
wells for domestic and livestock uses in the report area. Where
artesian water is of poor quality, especially in Brevard and Indian
River counties, shallow water may economically meet increased
needs. Since permeability and physical conditions are extremely
variable, the shallow aquifer should be thoroughly investigated to
determine local aquifer characteristics prior to the development of
well fields to supply large quantities of water.


ARTESIAN AQUIFERS

The entire report area is underlain by the Floridan aquifer, one
of the most prolific and most studied sources of ground water. The
Floridan aquifer includes the hydraulically connected permeable
limestone and shell beds of the Hawthorn Formation of Miocene age,
the Ocala Group consisting of the Crystal River, Williston, and Inglis
Formations, and the underlying Avon Park and Lake City Lime-
stones, all of Eocene age. The Ocala Group, which is generally the
most productive unit, is not uniform throughout the area and is thin,
or entirely absent, in parts of Seminole, Orange, Volusia, Marion,
Lake and Osceola counties, where the Hawthorn Formation, or
undifferentiated deposits of Miocene and younger age, lie uncon-
formably on limestones older than the Ocala Group. In most areas,
however, the Ocala Group is from 50 to 200 feet thick and has
relatively good permeability because of many cavities and solution
channels. Some cavities are now filled with sand and clay so that the
permeability has been reduced. The Oldsmar Limestone which under-





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


lies the Lake City Limestone, generally yields saline water and is not
generally considered as part of the Floridan aquifer.

The uplifted backbone of peninsular Florida is in general both .
surface water and a ground water divide although locally the divides
may not coincide by several miles. Two geologic sections across parts
of the St. Johns River basin, shown on figure 28, portray somewhat
similar geologic patterns. In general, good quality ground water is
more easily obtained where the water-producing formations are
higher in altitude and in or near recharge areas. These are mostly
west of the St. Johns River except in central Volusia County. In the
northern and southern parts of the area, the prolific water-bearing
formations are generally lower in altitude, greater in depth, more
costly to exploit, and more liable to saline contamination.
Wells drilled into the Floridan aquifer are cased into the upper
limestone bed below which an open hole is drilled to a sufficient
depth so that the well will produce water in adequate quantity.
Figure 30 shows the configuration of the top of the Floridan aquifer
as compiled from recent published and unpublished reports. The
approximate depth to limestone and the length of casing required
may be roughly estimated from figure 30 if the land surface altitude
at the desired location is known. Locally small filled depressions in
fault and sinkhole areas are not uncommon and the top of the
aquifer may differ considerably from that shown.

The height at which water stands in a tightly cased well pene-
trating an artesian aquifer is called the piezometric level. Figure 31
shows the piezometric surface of the principal artesian aquifer in the
St. Johns River basin and adjacent coastal area and the areas of
artesian flow as of July 1961. The piezometric surface fluctuates in
response to recharge to and discharge from the aquifer. In locations
where heavy withdrawal exceeds recharge to the aquifer, the water
levels will progressively decline so that upward movement of saline
water may result; therefore, new well fields and wider spacing of
wells become necessary. The hydrographs of water levels in five wells
in the Floridan aquifer are shown inFigure 321 The long-term, as well
as seasonal, changes in the piezometric level at different locations in
the report area are shown. A graph of annual precipitation at Gaines-
ville in Alachua County which is near a principal recharge area, is
included for comparison of annual variations. The well in Marion
County near Silver Springs, and the one in Volusia County near
Barberville show that the piezometric surface in areas unaffected by
large man-made withdrawals respond to below average and above











REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


* I I


0 10 20 30 40 50 MILES
! ,! i i i


CUGUSTINE


O
0
7^
*V


EXPLANATION

-280 U
D
Inferred fault
-50----.
Structural contours showing altitude
of the top of the Floridan aquifer, in
feet above or below mean sea level.
Dashed where approximated.


PIERCE
ST. LUCIE
Figure 2-8. Altitude of the Top of the Floridan Aquifer ST L E

82 810 ---- 800
- i I I I I I
:rcm Bermes, Leve, Lichtler, Faulkner, Vernon, Wyrick.

Figure 30 Map of northeast Florida showing altitude of top of Floridan aquifer


average rainfall, but maintain their levels over a long period of years.

The water level in the well in Duval County has a net decline as a

result of large increases in pumping at Jacksonville. The water level in

the well in Putnam County is affected by pumping in the Palatka


820


VERO


_ 1


2,

r

Z







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


area which increased in the mid 1950's. Decline of water level first
became appreciable in the late 1950's but then stabilized, perhaps
due to salvage of natural discharge or because of increased natural
recharge. The slow decline of water level in the well in southwestern
Brevard County is probably caused by increasing reclamation and
development of lands for agriculture and increasing pumpage for
irrigation.
Recharge to the artesian aquifer is almost entirely from rainfall
within the St. Johns River basin and occurs where rainwater perco-
lates through relatively thin surficial deposits in the highlands area in
Alachua, Marion, Lake, Polk and other counties. Recharge also takes
place through sinkholes and lakes connected to the aquifer, and
through the relatively thick and less permeable surficial deposits
where the water table stands at a level higher than the piezometric
level, as in parts of Seminole, Volusia and Orange counties. Some
recharge also occurs in the coastal ridge area. There is no recharge to
the artesian aquifer in Indian River County, in most of Brevard
County, or in large areas of Duval, St. Johns, and Flagler counties.
Movement of water into the basin is shown by the slope of the
piezometric surface in Polk, Lake, and Highlands counties. Flow is in
the direction of lower water levels, generally at right angle to the
piezometric contours. Movement of water out of the basin to the
west occurs in western Alachua and Marion counties.
Artesian heads may not be uniform throughout the entire
thickness of the aquifer because the more permeable zones are
separated by less permeable zones. Leakage or movement in one zone
may occur without appreciably affecting the head in another higher
or lower zone in the aquifer. In parts of Volusia County, eastern
Orange, Brevard, and Seminole counties, and other areas, upward
movement and discharge from the upper part of the aquifer has
reduced the pressure head in that part of the aquifer. Saline water
and fresh water move upward or downward through fractures or
uncased holes from one zone to another in response to differences in
head. Upward movement also occurs along faults or fractures as
along Haw Creek and the St. Johns River. In areas where Floridar
aquifer water moves upward to the water table and to land surface
much water is lost to unproductive evapotranspiration and no re-
charge takes place. Under these conditions pumping water for benefi-
cial use from the ground-water aquifer tends to lower the water table
and to reduce that loss. Lowering of the water-table would increase
recharge in areas where the gound-water reservoir is filled and poten-
tial recharge is rejected.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54 63

| | .-


800


30 -


















29'-


'p


7-
rTONA -A
EACH <


-30


















-29


EXPLANATION

Area where piezomelric
-28 surface is above land surface

-10-
Piezometric contour
Shows altitude to
which water will rise in wells

Contour interval 10 feet
Datum is mean sea level

Basin divide

Sub-basin divide


From Healy (1962)
82


o s C\E C
r-r




N D N7 AN
.RIVIVER VE
BE.

OK EE CH 0 E


ST LUCI E

0 10 20 30 40 50 MILES __


81
, l


80
I 4 I I


Figure 31 Map of northeast Florida showing piezometric surface of
Floridan aquifer as of July 1961


The chemical quality of water in the Floridan aquifer varies

laterally and with depth throughout the report area. Water in the

upper 200 feet of the aquifer is generally of better quality than water

in lower zones. It contains less than 10 mg/1 of chloride and 200

2


0


.7-


82 810


, o


i I I I I I I






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


-10
VOLUSIA 29 107 FT DEEP

-2015
-20


tp. It~


-Figure 32 Graphs showing water level fluctuations in five wells that penetrate
the Floridan aquifer, and rainfall at Gainesville


o 0 to 0 0 o
_ _T _> _> _1 _







f- I l II


ck





c<1

;i I~i V

'--A

c A-
I ~


H a


AY TONA
BEACH


K E


EXPLANATION

DISSOLVED SOLIDS.
*;LLIGR.A-MS PER LITER
SLes rhan 250
I 250-500
3 500-1000
3 More than 1000

Basin Boundary

Area Boundary


F-m


S CEoI


O K EEC


O IC 20 30 40 50 MILES
S I i 965


EXPLANATION O

SULFATE CONCENTRATION,
MILLIGRAMS PER LITER
El Less than 50

VE 50-100
BEACH 100-250

FT More than 250
PIERCE
Basin Boundary

Area Boundary

t


S COKE 0 L









0 K E E Ct


Li
EXPLANATION o s CE L

CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION,
MILLIGRAMS PER LITER
D Less than 50

VERO 50-250
BECH 250-1000

F More than 1000 OKE EC
PIERCtE
E Basin Boundary

SL Area Boundary


EXPLANATION o

HARDNESS, MILLIGRAMS PER LITER
Li Less than 60 (soft)
60-120 (moderately hard)
VERO 120-180 (hard)
B More than 180 (very hard)
FOOK EEC
FORT
PIERCE Basin Boundary

ST LUCI E Area Boundary

L--- I


Figure 33. Maps of Northeast Florida showing chloride concentration, hardness, total dissolved solids, and sulfate concentration in water in upper part of Floridan aquifer.


T AUGUSTINE


AYTONA
BEACH


T AUGUSTIE


DAYTONA
BEACH


-'X

7--


DAYTONA
BEACH


0



Z-


0 R N


T r
.... I


IILLE


PLLE


ST AJGUSTINE


T AUGUSTINE


UVS-I







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


mg/1 dissolved solids in and near recharge areas. Water from the
deeper zones is generally more saline because saline water in the
deeper zones, perhaps remaining since ancient times, has not yet
been completely flushed away. Artesian water in Indian River
County, the eastern part of Brevard County except under the coastal
ridge, and much of Flagler and St. Johns counties contains certain
dissolved minerals in concentrations that exceed U. S. Public Health
Service standards for water for domestic use. However, the water is
used for irrigation of citrus groves and for stock water. Wells in the
City of Cocoa well field, in southeastern Orange County, yield water
containing between 40 and 300 mg/1 of chloride from zones about
250 to 800 feet deep. The water utility operators are able to control
the salinity of the composite water by controlled pumping and
mixing of water from various wells within the well field. A multi-
zoned salinity monitoring well in the Cocoa well field, from which
samples are obtained from five levels, yields water containing more
than 600 mg/1 chloride from a depth of more than 1,350 feet and 40
to 90 mg/1 chloride from depths of less than 1,200 feet below land
surface.
The chemical quality of artesian water differs from place to
place depending largely on distance from the recharge area as well as
depth in the aquifer. Figure 33 shows the generalized concentration
of chloride, hardness, dissolved solids, and sulfate in the upper part
of the Floridan aquifer in the report area. Figure 34 shows variations
in chloride content of waters from the Floridan aquifer with depth
above an east-west line between Groveland and Daytona Beach.
Detailed information on the chemical quality of water is available in
several reports listed in the references based on analyses of water
from hundreds of wells in many locations and to different depths in
the area. A general rule is that chemical quality of water in the
Floridan aquifer deteriorates as water moves away from recharge
areas and to greater depths.

SUMMARY OF CONDITIONS

Ground water in the St. Johns River basin and coastal areas is
abundant but the depth to, and the quality of, the water differ from
place to place. Summaries by county are given in order to more
closely identify the water availability and problems within the indi-
vidual counties.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Piezometric Surface


2od

SEA


20od

4od


60d


Indicates
chloride in mg


Line repr
140d 20
140d 20 opproximi
1000 mg
16od -


2oodl


I







esenting

/I chloride /
/
I
I


/
I


10 1271i




0 10 20 miles
I I I


240dL 1-23000 After Pride, Meyer, and Cherry (1966)
Figure 34 Section showing variation in chloride content of waters from
the Floridan aquifer with depth along a line between Grove-
land and Daytona Beach

DUVAL COUNTY

The Floridan aquifer is about 1,000 feet thick and is the
principal source of water in Duval County; the altitude of the top of
the aquifer from south to north varies from 300 to 550 feet below
msl (mean sea level). It is overlain by the relatively impermeable clay,
sand and sandy clay of the Hawthorn Formation and the silty clay,
shell, and sand of more recent deposits. Recharge is from counties to


2 'AYTONA
3 BEACHH


6

GROVELAND

TAMPA

Sampling Location







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


the west and south; deeper zones produce a greater supply, artesian
flow occurs in most of the county. The natural artesian flow of small
wells is as much as 500 gpm and of large wells is as much as 2,000
gpm; the capacity of large pumped wells can exceed 5,000 gpm.
Large withdrawals by more than a hundred municipal and other
supply wells in the Jacksonville area have depressed the piezometric
surface more than 30 feet in the past three decades. Water in the
'county is generally suitable for domestic use; chloride content varies
from less than 10 mg/1 in the southwest to 40 mg/1 in the northeast.
Most rural wells are constructed by jetting or driving a 2- to 4- inch
casing to the top of limestone and then drilling a few feet into the
limestone. Lowering of the piezometric level in the county by
increased pumping will increase salt water intrusion problems in
some areas, as has been experienced in the Hastings area. A good
water-bearing zone between 1,900 and 2,050 feet below land surface,
with a chloride concentration of 14 mg/1, has recently been located
by a test well near Jacksonville.

CLAY COUNTY

The top of the Floridan aquifer varies in altitude from approxi-
mately mean sea level in the southwest to 300'feet below msl in the
northeast. The piezometric level is about 90 feet above msl in the
southwest corner of the county and decreases to about 30 feet above
msl along the St. Johns River. Artesian flow occurs near the St.
Johns River and in the Black Creek basin. The piezometric levels
declined from the mid-1940's to mid-1950's, but appear to have
stabilized since. Specific capacities of wells range from 2 to 60 gpm
per ft. (gallons per minute per foot of drawdown) in the eastern and
northern part to 22 to 300 gpm per ft. in the western part. The
Floridan aquifer is the most productive aquifer but many small wells
obtain water from secondary artesian aquifers in the Hawthorn
Formation for domestic and stock water. Chemical quality of water
is generally good except for hardness which is in excess of 200 mg/1
from both the Floridan and secondary aquifers in the southeastern
part of the county.
ST. JOHNS COUNTY

The major source of water is the Floridan aquifer. Although
some recharge occurs in the central part of the county most of the
water in the aquifer is derived from underflow from neighboring
counties to the west. The piezometric level decreases from about 45
feet above msl in the north to 20 feet above msl in the south;







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


artesian flow occurs in the western and eastern parts of the county.
The top of the aquifer ranges from about 100 feet below msl in the
south to 300 feet below msl in the north. The upper 50 to 200 feet
of the aquifer is the most productive. Quality of water in the upper
200 feet is generally good, with less than 250 mg/1 of chloride in the
northern part of the county; however, chloride content is several
thousand milligrams per liter in some wells along the coast south of
St. Augustine. The shallow aquifers contain water of better quality
and supply domestic needs in coastal areas from wells 20 to 150 feet
deep.

ALACHUA COUNTY

The Floridan aquifer is the main water source in Alachua
County although shallow wells and wells tapping shallow. artesian
aquifers are also used extensively. Recharge to the Floridan aquifer
occurs in most of the county. The aquifer is more than 700 feet
thick and the limestones are at or near land surface in the southern
part of the county. Specific capacity of wells range from 2 to 700
gpm per ft of drawdown and pumping rates ranged up to 5,000 gpm;
most of the lower capacity wells are in the eastern part of the
county. Large capacity wells are generally 200 to 800 feet deep.
There is some artesian flow in low areas in the southeastern part of
the county. Hundreds of millions of gallons per day of additional
water can be withdrawn by pumping without depleting the county's
water resources. Water quality is generally good except for hardness
in excess of 200 mg/1 in the southern part of the county.

PUTNAM COUNTY

The Ocala Group in the Floridan aquifer is the principal source
of water in Putnam County. The altitude of the top of the Ocala
Group ranges generally from about 25 feet below msl in the western
part to 170 feet below msl in the eastern part. The overlying
Hawthorn Formation is relatively impervious but discontinuous.
Artesian flow occurs in lowlands along the St. Johns River and
nearby tributary streams, but pressures have declined recently. The
best producing zone is the upper 50 to 200 feet, and some wells in
the county yield in excess of 5,000 gpm. Water quality is generally
good in the upper 200 feet of the aquifer except in small areas along
the St. Johns River and northwest of Lake George, where total
hardness may exceed 250 mg/1 and chloride content is over 500
mg/1.





REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


FLAGLER COUNTY

The Floridan aquifer is the major source of water for irrigation,
industry and public supply. Its top ranges from 50 to 150 feet below
msl and slopes from south to north. The piezometric level is only 15
to 20 feet above msl, but there is artesian flow in the vicinity of
Crescent Lake and the Atlantic coast. Some wells 150 to 450 feet
deep yield more than 200 gpm, principally from the Ocala Group
and the Avon Park Limestone. Artesian water is highly mineralized in
the central and northeastern parts of the county except 'n or near
small local recharge areas. Chloride and hardness exceed 1,000 mg/1
in artesian waters in the Haw Creek basin and in the northeast, so
that domestic supplies in these areas are from the shallow aquifers
generally less than 70 feet deep. However, many shallow wells in the
Haw Creek basin yield brackish water which in part is derived from
upward leaking saline water from the underlying Floridan aquifer.

MARION COUNTY

The Floridan aquifer is near land surface in the central part of
the county but the depth to its upper surface varies considerably.
Localized depressions in the buried surface of the aquifer extend to
300 feet below msl in the eastern part of the county, probably the
result of sinkholes and collapsed caverns. The county is an area of
major recharge to the artesian aquifer; recharge is estimated at about
12 to 18 inches per year. Silver Springs is a major fresh water
discharge point (530 mgd average) whereas Salt Springs is a large
highly saline spring (52 mgd). Wells in lowlands along the St. Johns
and Oklawaha Rivers have artesian flow. In general, the upper part of
the Floridan aquifer yields supplies of water adequate for existing
and foreseeable future needs and hundreds of millions of gallons per
day are available for development and use. Water quality is good
throughout the county except near Lake George. No serious water
supply problems are anticipated in the near future. Because of
adequate recharge the piezometric level has not yet been seriously
affected by pumping.
VOLUSIA COUNTY

The top of the Floridan aquifer ranges from sea level to 50 feet
below msl in the west-central part and slopes to 150 feet below msl
in the southeastern part of the county. It is overlain by sand, shell,
and clay. The water table is higher than the piezometric level in






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


much of the county so that the Floridan aquifer is recharged by
water percolating through the overlying beds. The aquifer is more
than 500 feet thick and furnishes most of the water used in the
county. Wells are generally 125 to 180 feet deep. The chemical
quality of the water is the best of any of the counties along the coast
east of the St. Johns River. Chloride concentrations are generally
under 50 mg/l; however, hardness is in the 200-400 mg/1 range. As
in all coastal areas an increase in salinity is probable if increased
pumping lowers the water levels excessively.


LAKE COUNTY

The altitude of the top of the Floridan aquifer ranges from near
sea level in the central part to about 100 feet below msl in the
northeastern part. Water of good quality is available in large quanti-
ties in most of the county. Good recharge occurs through the
relatively thin and porous deposits overlying the limestone, and
piezometric levels are relatively high. Artesian flow occurs in the St.
Johns River lowlands and near Lake Griffin. In places, old sinkholes
and depressions in the limestone are filled with Miocene or more
recent sand and sandy clay deposits to considerable depth. Although
water quality is generally good it is poor near the St. Johns River.


SEMINOLE COUNTY

The altitude of the top of the Floridan aquifer is at sea level in
the western part and 50 to 100 feet below msl elsewhere in the
county. Most wells tap the Ocala Group or the Avon Park Limestone
at depths of 90 to 250 feet and yield up to 500 gpm. The underlying
Lake City Limestone is an even more productive unit. The piezo-
metric level ranges from 15 to 50 feet above msl and artesian flow
occurs in lowlands along the St. Johns, Wekiva and Econlockhatchee
rivers. The piezometric level has declined 4 to 10 feet in the past 50
years. Recharge takes place in upland areas of the county and in
Orange County. The chemical quality of the Floridan aquifer water is
generally good in the western part and in the hilly upland areas. Both
chloride and total dissolved solids increase to more than 1,000 mg/1
toward the St. Johns River lowland areas. Throughout most of the
county the chloride content of water from the Floridan aquifer
generally increases slightly with depth and shows seasonal variations






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


as well as an average small increase over long periods of time. Water
from surficial sand aquifers is of good quality except for excessive
iron.

ORANGE COUNTY

Most water used in the county is obtained from the very
productive Floridan aquifer which is more than 1,300 feet thick. The
top of the aquifer ranges in altitude from 50 feet above msl in the
western part to 300 feet below msl in the southeastern corner.
Recharge is mostly from rainfall in the county but some water
migrates into Orange County from Lake and Polk counties. Artesian
flow occurs in lowlands along the St. Johns and Wekiva River and in
other low areas. In most of the county, yields in excess of 4,000 gpm
are obtained from large wells at depths generally less than 600 feet,
although some wells are more than a thousand feet deep. Chemical
quality is generally good with less than 150 mg/1 dissolved solids;
however, all dissolved constituents increase toward the St. Johns
River.

BREVARD COUNTY

The piezometric level of the Floridan aquifer is above land
surface in most of the county. The altitude of the top of the
Floridan aquifer ranges from about 75 feet below msl in the north-
west to more than 300 feet below msl in the southeast. The aquifer is
about 1,000 feet thick. The principal source of replenishment is
recharge in Orange County. Ground water moves generally toward
the northeast and leaks upward into the shallow aquifers and dis-
charges to submarine springs off the coast. Except in small areas west
of Titusville the artesian water is highly mineralized but none the less
is used for stock water and citrus irrigation. Well yields are generally
high; wells 8 inches in diameter and from 120 to 600 feet deep yield
more than 1,000 gpm. Because the Floridan aquifer water is highly
mineralized, water from shallow aquifers is pumped for domestic and
commercial uses. Existing small diameter domestic wells drilled into
the shallow aquifers yield as much as 30 gpm of good quality water
from the sands of the coastal ridge and from limestone or shell lenses
in the Hawthorn Formation. The potential of these shallow aquifers
to meet or supplement future water demands is not known. After an
evaluation is available the results may indicate that increased impor-
tation of water from neighboring counties may be necessary to meet
demands for potable water.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


INDIAN RIVER COUNTY

The principal source of water is the upper part of the Floridan
aquifer, the top of which ranges from about 200 feet below msl in
the northwest to 400 feet below msl in the southeast part of the
county. Recharge from Polk and Osceola counties is the principal
source of replenishment. The piezometric level ranges from a high of
about 50 feet above msl in the west to 25 feet above msl along the
coast, except for some slight variation in the southeast. Flowing wells
occur throughout the county even through the piezometric surface
has declined a few feet in recent years, probably as a result of
extensive pumping for irrigation. Artesian water from the Floridan
aquifer is highly mineralized and generally contains more than 500
mg/1 of chloride. Water from the coastal ridge sands or from some
shallow secondary artesian aquifers is used for domestic and munici-
pal supplies but upward leakage of poor quality water from the
underlying Floridan aquifer is a problem.

OTHER COUNTIES

The above summaries by county do not include discussions of
parts of other counties which are within the area of this report.
Information for parts of Levy, Osceola, Polk, St. Lucie, and other
counties may be obtained from the figures showing the altitude of
the top of the Floridan aquifer, the piezometric level, the chemical
constituents and other generalized data, as well as the information
given for adjacent counties and from published reports.

ESTIMATED QUANTITY OF WATER AVAILABLE

Water use varies with water availability and in many respects
follows the law of supply and demand. In general, population con-
centrations, agricultural development and industrial expansion occur
where water of good quality is available at reasonable cost.
The St. Johns River basin and the adjacent coastal area is
blessed with a large supply of fresh water in most of the area, and a
practically unlimited supply of brackish or salty water in lagoons and
in the Atlantic Ocean. Although fresh water is plentiful at this time,
future large-scale water needs in heavily populated coastal areas may
of necessity be met by importation of water from the west and by
desalinization of brackish water.
Good quality water is available in large quantity in the report
area from the Floridan aquifer and from shallow aquifers. Surface






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


sources are also plentiful but, owing to high mineralization or con-
tamination in some areas are utilized mainly for agricultural and
industrial use. The City of Melbourne, in Brevard County, and St.
Augustine, in St. Johns County, use some surface waters for public
supply. Although much of the water discharged to the sea by streams
is at present largely unfit for public supplies, it contains far lower
concentrations of dissolved minerals than does sea water.
Under present-day (1968) conditions the estimated total dis-
charge through streams and from springs in the report area to the
ocean exceeds 10,000 cfs, or 6,500 mgd. This volume of water is
sufficient to supply 43 million people at the rate of 150 gpd (gallons
per day) per person, or for about 4 million people if agricultural and
industrial use is included, at present day rates of use if total con-
sumption of the water is assumed. However, because only a small
percentage of water used is actually consumed or rendered unfit for
subsequent uses due to some kind of pollution, much larger popula-
tions can be supplied simply by reusing the available water many
times. Even more people could be accommodated if more efficient
use is made of the water supply and some reduction of evapotranspir-
ation is accomplished, thus making more water available for man's
use.
Ground water is the most readily available and is the traditional
source of most water for public, rural, industrial, and irrigation
supply in the area. The amount of ground water available perennially
is large and can be only approximated on the basis that water
naturally discharged or withdrawn from the aquifers should not
exceed potential recharge. Withdrawals over a period of years in
excess of potential recharge will lower the water levels and result in
increased cost of withdrawal and at places will permit salt water
intrusion. However, additional withdrawals will tend to reduce
evapotranspiration, runoff, and submarine spring discharge, thus
tending to increase recharge and thereby increase the usable supply.
An estimate of the recharge in the approximately 4,000 square miles
of the area in which recharge is known, or presumed, to occur is
3,000 mgd, a quantity that would supply a population of about 18
million persons at the rate of 150 gpd (gallons per day). In Marion
County alone, more than a billion gallons per day of ground and
surface water are perennially available for withdrawal under present-
day conditions of recharge. However, increased urban and industrial
development, with accompanying impermeable buildings, streets,
parking areas, and highways will reduce the area of natural recharge
so that artificial recharge might be necessary to maintain water levels
in some areas.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Springs are an excellent source of good water which are still
unused except for maintenance of stream flow and for recreational
purposes. Silver Springs in Marion County has an average flow of
530,000,000 gallons per day, which is greater than the total quantity
of water used in the St. Johns River basin and coastal areas for
public, rural, and industrial use in 1965. Other smaller springs which
discharge good quality water are excellent sources for increased
development and use. Large-scale development of ground water
upgradient from springs, may, however, affect their flow.
Direct withdrawal of water from streams for use as cooling
water for thermal-electric power, and for industry and irrigation, is
increasing. Some streams, however, including the lower reaches of
the St. Johns River, are sometimes highly mineralized from the
upstream movement of sea water by tidal action; upper reaches are
affected by highly mineralized springs and flowing wells.
SUMMARY OF WATER AVAILABILITY, USE AND PROBLEMS
Water in the St. Johns River basin and adjacent coastal area is
available in large quantity. The supplies of best quality are from the
Floridan aquifer and are largely in the western part of the basin in
contrast to much of the concentration of population which is along
the coast in the eastern part of the area. Industrial and population
growth is increasing in inland areas as indicated by the growth in the
vicinity of Orlando. Future industrial growth will undoubtedly occur
near the inland water-rich areas. The total water withdrawal, exclu-
sive of water for fuel-electric cooling water, was 725 mgd in 1965
and less than 10 per cent of the estimated 8,000 mgd difference
between rainfall and evapotranspiration over the area; water con-
sumed was 261 mgd, only 3.3 per cent of that total but 36 per cent
of that withdrawn. The area is in a very favorable position in so far as
water supplies are concerned.
The problems in the field of water supply are the continuing
ones of having water of good quality at the right place at the right
time. The location of industries and their accompanying urban
populations in the inland counties would tend to resolve part of that
problem. The establishment of forest, water and wildlife conserva-
tion preserves, and zoning, may assure that some inland ground-water
recharge areas are maintained to counter the loss that may result
from the urbanization. Artificial recharge of ground water can also
increase available water supplies through the salvaging of water
otherwise removed from an area by unbeneficial evapotranspiration
or surface runoff to the sea. Any management plan must be based on
data that can predict the effects on the system, as withdrawals at any





REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


point in the system will be compensated for by reduced runoff,
evapotranspiration, or spring flow.
The conveyance of good quality water from the "have" to
"have not" areas requires management and cooperation between
counties or other political units. The hydrologic problems will re-
quire evaluation but the engineering is uncomplicated and costs are
appreciable. Although conflicts of interest would arise in the event
that it became necessary, it is of interest that the Oklawaha River
below Silver Springs can supply all the fresh-water requirements for
the entire report area at the use rate determined in 1965. Convey-
ance of water from interior ground-water or surface-water sources to
the coastal cities would assure good quality water without the
constant threat of saline contamination in well fields near the coast.
Controlled pumping for public supply or other beneficial use from
wells in selected areas where artesian and shallow aquifers are filled
can reduce nonbeneficial evapotranspiration and increase recharge to
the aquifers.
Development of water in conformance to the environment and
the control and management of the water in the areas are the
long-range needs, with conservation of water for the most beneficial
uses as the aim of long-range planning. The expansion of industries
and agriculture and the increasing population near industrial centers
and along the coast are accompanied by ever-increasing demands for
supplies of good quality water. Recreational, conservation, waste
disposal, and pollution dilution needs must also be met. Economic
factors will ordinarily relieve possible agricultural and industrial use
conflicts; social and health requirements can be adjusted through
political means. Long-range planning based on complete knowledge
of the availability of good quality water is the present need.
The areas of abundant water of good quality are mostly west of
the St. Johns River and north of Osceola County, as in parts of
Marion, Lake, Alachua, Seminole, Orange, Putnam, and Clay coun-
ties. In some of the coastal area, however, as in much of Brevard,
Indian River, and parts of St. Johns, Flagler and other counties the
chemical quality of otherwise ample ground water precludes its use
for public supplies without expensive treatment; and, surface waters
are deficient or too saline for economical use. Duval County has been
able to develop suitable ground water and is continuing intensive
investigations to further the knowledge of its water resources. Volu-
sia and Orange counties likewise have intensive investigations under
way. Investigations are needed in several other areas to better under-
stand water movement, quality, and availability to meet the expand-
ing needs of the future.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


REFERENCES

Barnes, H. H., Jr., and Golden, H. G.
1966 Magnitude and Frequency of Floods in the United States: U. S.
Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1674.
Barracough, J. T.
1962 Ground-water Resources of Seminole County, Florida: Florida
Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 27.
Bermes, B.J.
1958 Interim report on geology and ground-water resources in Indian
River County, Florida: Florida Geol. Surv. Inf. Circ. 18.
Bermes, B. J., Leve, G. W., and Tarver, G. R.
1963 Geology and ground-water resources of Flagler, Putnam, and St.
Johns Counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Surv. Rept. Inv. 32.
Brown, D. W., Kenner, W. E., and Brown, Eugene
1962 Water resources of Brevard County, Florida: Florida Geol. Surv.
Rept. Inv. 28.
Clark, W. E., Musgrove, R. H., Menke, C. G., and Cagle, J. W., Jr.
1964 Water resources of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union Counties,
Florida: Florida Geol. Surv. Rept. Inv. 35.
Ferguson, G. E., Lingham, C. W., Love, S. J., and Vernon, R. O.
1947 Springs of Florida: Florida Geol. Surv. Bull. 31.
Healy, Henry G.
1962 Piezometric surfaces and areas of flow of the Floridan aquifer in
Florida: Florida Geol. Surv. Map Series 4.
Leve, G. W.
1966 Ground water in Duval and Nassau Counties, Florida: Florida
Geol. Surv. Rept. Inv. 43.
Lichtler, W. F., Anderson, Warren, and Joyner, B. F.
1964 Interim report on the water resources of Orange County, Florida:
Florida GeoL Surv. Inf. Circ. 41.

1968 Water resources of Orange County, Florida: Florida Geol. Surv.
Rept. Inv. 50.
MacKiehan, K. A.
1967 Temperature and chemical characteristics of the St. Johns River
near Cocoa, Florida: Florida Geol. Surv. Map Series 25.
Pride, R. W., Meyer, F. W., and Cherry, R. N.
1966 Hydrology of Green Swamp area in Central Florida: Florida Geol.
Surv. Rept. Inv. 42.
Pride, R. W.
1958 Floods in Florida, magnitude and frequency: U. S. Geol. Survey
open-file report.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


Shampine, W. J.
1965 Chloride concentration in water from the upper part of the
Floridan aquifer in Florida: Florida Geol. Surv. Map Series 12.

1965 Hardness of water from the upper part of the Floridan aquifer in
Florida: Florida Geol. Surv. Map Series 13.

1965 Dissolved solids in water from the upper part of the Floridan
aquifer in Florida: Florida Geol. Surv. Map Series 14.

1965 Sulfate Concentration in water from the upper part of the Flo-
ridan aquifer in Florida: Florida Geol. Surv. Map Series 15.
Stewart, 11. G.
1966 Ground-water resources of Polk County, Florida: Florida Geol.
Surv. Rept. Inv. 44.
Stringfield, V. T.
1966 Artesian water in Tertiary Limestone in the southeastern states:
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 517.
Wyrick, G. G.
1960 The ground-water resources of Volusia County, Florida: Florida
Geol. Surv. Rept. Inv. 22.




Water resources of northeast Florida (St. Johns River Basin and adjacent coastal areas) ( FGS: Report of investigations 54 )
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001241/00001
 Material Information
Title: Water resources of northeast Florida (St. Johns River Basin and adjacent coastal areas) ( FGS: Report of investigations 54 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Report of investigations 54 )
Physical Description: vii, 77 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Snell, L. J ( Leonard John ), 1907-
Anderson, Warren ( joint author )
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Publisher: State of Florida, Bureau of Geology
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1970
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Hydrology -- Florida -- Saint Johns River Watershed   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by L. J. Snell and Warren Anderson.
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 76-77.
General Note: "Prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Geology, Division of Interior Resources, Florida Department of Natural Resources."
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000824187
notis - AEB9382
lccn - 70633650 //r82
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Florida State Board of Conservation
        Page ii
    Transmittal letter
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
    Abstract
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction, purpose and scope
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Explanation of terms
        Page 5
        Page 4
        Page 6
    Hydrologic and geologic setting
        Page 7
        Page 6
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 16a
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Surface water
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Ground water
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Summary of conditions
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 66
    References
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Copyright
        Copyright
Full Text








STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES


BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
Robert O. Vernon, Chief



REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54



WATER RESOURCES OF
NORTHEAST FLORIDA
(St. Johns River Basin and Adjacent Coastal Areas)






By
L. J. Snell and Warren Anderson
U. S. Geological Survey




Prepared by the
U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES



Tallahassee, Florida
1970







-- -7. S- "




C, FORIDA STATE BOARD
OF
CONSERVATION







CLAUDE R. KIRK, JR.
Governor


TOM ADAMS
Secretary of State




EARL FAIRCLOTH
Attorney General





BROWARD WILLIAMS
Treasurer


FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN
Superintendent of Public Instruction




FRED O. DICKINSON, JR.
Comptroller





DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGES
Director







LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Bureau of Geology
Tallahassee
February 25, 1970


Governor Claude R. Kirk, Chairman
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Governor Kirk:

The Bureau of Geology of the Division of Interior Resources,
Florida Department of Natural Resources, is publishing as its Report
of Investigations No. 54 a study, Water Resources of Northeast
Florida (St. Johns River Basin and Adjacent Coastal Areas). This
report was prepared as a part of the cooperative program between
the Bureau of Geology and the U.S. Geological Survey and is written
by L. J. Snell and Warren Anderson of the U.S.G.S.

The study is published at a time when the St. Johns Watershed
and coastal areas are being rapidly developed and urbanized, and it
will provide data on the amounts of ground and surface water that
will be available in the area and will be the basis for planning so far as
the quality and quantity of these waters are concerned. A summary
of these data indicates that there are adequate amounts of potable
water in the area to meet the needs for the immediate future. Certain
problems, such as the reduction of ground water recharge, the
reduction of the amount of water flowing from wells and contamina-
tion of water in some local areas, will probably accelerate the
declines in quality and quantity of water but adequate management
will reduce the severity of these problems.

Respectfully yours, ,


R. O. Vernon, Chief























































Completed manuscript received
February 25, 1970
Printed for the Florida Department of Natural Resources
Division of Interior Resources
Bureau of Geology
Designers Press of Orlando, Inc.
Orlando, Florida

iv 2











CONTENTS


Abstract ..................
Introduction ...............
Purpose and scope ......
Explanation of terms ....
Hydrologic and geologic setting
Drainage ..............
Water quality ..........
Floods ..............
Low flow .............
Flow duration ........
Water use ................
Public supplies ........
Rural ...............
Irrigation ............
Self-supplied industrial..
Surface water .............
Upper St. Johns River bas
Jane Green and Wolf Cre(
Econlockhatchee River .
Deep Creek ..........
Wekiva River .........
Oklawaha River basin ......
Lower St. Johns River ba
Dunns Creek
Rice Creek .....
Black Creek ......
Coastal basins.
Moultrie Creek'....
Tomoka Creek .
Turkey Creek .....
Fellsmere Canal .
Canals near Vero Be
Other small tributary
Lakes .......
Ground water ............
Shallow aquifers.......
Artesian aquifers ......
Summary of conditions .
Duval County.....
Clay County......
St. Johns County ..
Alachua County ...
Putnam County ...
Flagler County ....
Marion County....
Volusia County- ...
Lake County .....
Seminole County ..


Page
............................ 1
................. ........... 2
............................ 2
............................ 4
............................ 6
............................ .9
............ ......... ...... 10
........... ..... .......... 15
............................ 19
............................ 23
................... ........ 24
............................ 25
............... ............ 25


.. ...................... ........ 31
...... ............... .... ... ... 31
.......... ..............,......... ... 35
sin ................................. 35
eks ................................. 38
..................................... 41
................................... .41
.................................... 42
............................... ..... 42
sin ..... ...... ..................... 44
.......... ... ..... ..... ......... 45
.n....... ............................ 45
..... .............................. 46
.... .. ............................... 46
.'. .. ..... ........ ............... 47
....... .... ............ .......... 47
............. ......... ......... 48
.................................... 48
ach ................................ 48
Streams ............... ....... .... 49
.................... ..... ...........50
........................ .......... 54
................. ................ 54
............ .......... ........... 59
.................... ................ 65
......................... .......... 66
................................... 67
................................... 67
........................ .......... 68
...... ..... .............. ...... .... 68
..................... .... ........... 69
..., .................... .... .... ... 69
.................................... 69
......... .......................... 70
........................ .......... 70


Orange County ....................
Brevard County ...................


...................71
...................71








Indian River County ................................... 69
Other counties ........................................ 69
Estimated quantity of water available ...................... 69
Summary of water availability, use and problems ..................... 71
References ................................................... 73
Figure ILLUSTRATIONS Page
Figure Page
1. Map of northeast Florida showing drainage system and
flood regions .............................................. 3
2. Geologic formations penetrated by water wells in
northeast Florida ............................................7
3. Diagram showing chloride concentration in St. Johns River
during periods of high and low flow .............................14
4. Flood-frequency curves for the main stem of the St.Johns
River ....................................................15
5. Flood-frequency curves for the main stem of the
Oklawaha River ............................................16
6. Flood-frequency curves for Region A, area 1 in
northeast Florida .......................................... 17
7. Flood-frequency curves for Region B, area 1 in
northeast Florida .......................................... 18
8. Flood-frequency curves for Region B, area 2 in
northeast Florida ...........................................19
9. Graph showing attenuation adjustment to mean annual flood
due to lake and swamp storage ................................ 20
10. Graphs showing variation of mean annual, 5-, 10-, and 30- year
flood stages with channel distance for main stem of St.Johns
River ...................................................21
11. Graphs showing profiles of maximum stages on St. Johns River
forselected floods ..........................................22
12. Low-flow frequency curves for St.Johns River near Christmas ........ 23
13. Low-flow frequency curves for Econlockhatchee River near
Chuluota ....................................... ...........24
14. Curves showing the maximum periods during which discharge
was less than given amounts, St.Johns River at Palatka and
Jacksonville .............................................. 26
15. Flor-duration curves for streams in St. Johns River basin
above Lake Monroe .........................................27
16. Flow-duration curves for streams in St. Johns River basin
below Lake Monroe ....................................... .28
17. Graphs showing water source, purpose, and relation of
consumptive use to water withdrawal in northeast Florida ........... .36
18. Graph of relationship of drainage area to average discharge for
main stem of St.Johns River .................................. 37
19. Flow chart showing average flow of streams in northeast
Florida ..................................................38
20. Graph showing maximum, minimum, and median daily
dissolved solids equaled or exceeded 5 and 25 per cent
of the time, for St.Johns River near Cocoa ...................... .39








Figure Page
21. Graph showing maximum, minimum, and median daily
temperature for St.Johns River near Cocoa ...................... .40
22. Low-flow frequency curves for Wekiva River near Sanford ........... 43
23. Hydrographs of month-end elevations of Lake Apopka,
Lake Poinsett, and Orange Lake ...............................51
24. Stage-duration curve for Lake Kerr near Eureka .................. .52
25. Stage-duration curve for Lakes Dora, Eustis and Griffin,
in northeast Florida ........................................ 53
26. Stage-duration curve for Lake Louisa near Clermont ................ 54
27. Stage-duration curve for Kingsley Lake near Camp Blanding .......... 55
28. Two geologic sections through northeastern Florida ............... .56
29. Hydrographs of wells in water-table, shallow artesian, and
Floridan aquifers one mile east of Bithlo, Orange County,
Florida .................................................. 58
30. Map of northeast Florida showing altitude of top of Floridan
aquifer .................................................. 61
31. Map of northeast Florida showing piezometric surface of
Floridan aquifer as of July 1961 ..............................63
32. Graphs showing water level fluctuations in five wells that
penetrate the Floridan aquifer, and rainfall at Gainesville ............64
33. Maps of northeast Florida showing chloride concentration,
hardness, total dissolved solids, and sulfate concentration in
water in upper part of Floridan aquifer ............. Between 66 and 67
34. Section showing variation in chloride content of waters from
the Floridan aquifer with depth along a line between
Groveland and Daytona Beach ................................66



Table TABLES Page
1. Water quality characteristics and their significance ................ .11
2. Suggested water quality tolerances for selected uses ............... .12
3. Observed extremes in quality of surface water in the
St. Johns River basin and coastal areas,
period 1952-65 ............... ....... ....... Between 16 and 17
4. Water used for public supplies, by counties, in St. Johns
River basin and adjacent coastal areas, 1965 ..................... .29
5. Water for rural use, by counties, in St. Johns River basin and
adjacent coastal areas, 1965 .................................. 30
6. Water used for irrigation, by counties, in St. Johns River basin and adjacent
coastal areas, 1965 ......................................... 32
7. Self-supplied industrial water, by counties, in St. Johns River
basin and adjacent coastal areas, 1965 .......................... .33
8. Water used for fuel-electric power, by counties, in St. Johns
River basin and adjacent coastal areas, 1965 ...................... 34
9. Drainage areas and observed extremes of discharge for other
small streams in the St. Johns River basis and coastal area ............49

vii







WATER RESOURCES OF NORTHEAST FLORIDA
(St. Johns River Basin and Adjacent Coastal Areas)

by
L. J. Snell and Warren Anderson
U. S. Geological Survey


ABSTRACT

The St. Johns River basin and adjacent coastal basins, an
elongated area of approximately 11,200 square miles in northeast
Florida, comprise one-fifth the land area of Florida and contain
one-fourth its population.
Rapid industrial expansion and population growth in both the
present centers of population and the less densely populated rural
areas places increasing demands on water resources in the area.
Total water use is expected to quadruple by the year 2020.
Ground water from the Floridan aquifer, a limestone aquifer
which underlies the entire area, is the principal source of water for
all uses except cooling water used in the generation of electric
power and in some industrial processes. Some small municipalities
and rural domestic users obtain ground water from sand or sand
and shell aquifers that occur above the Floridan aquifer. Surface
water is used for irrigation in some areas and a few municipalities
obtain water from lakes.
Large supplies of good quality water may be obtained from
much of the Floridan aquifer, which ranges from about 500 feet to
more than 1,000 feet in thickness. The top of the limestone, which
is at or near land surface near the western divide, is more than 400
feet below land surface and sea level in the northern and southern
parts of the area. Wells drilled into the aquifer may yield more
than 5,000 gallons per minute. The quality of the deep aquifer
water varies from good in or near the recharge areas in the western
part of the area to poor along the St. Johns River and near the
coast where high concentrations of chloride and other constituents
render the artesian waters unsuitable for most uses. An exception
is the Jacksonville area where good quality water has been located
in formations at a depth of about 2,100 feet.
Moderate amounts of good quality water can be obtained
from the shallow sand and shell aquifers and from sand and shell-
beds in the Hawthorn Formation in the areas along the coast
where the water in the Floridan aquifer is of poor quality.








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


The St. Johns River and its principal tributary, the Oklawaha
River, receive much of their flow from large perennial springs,
which are among Florida's many tourist attractions. Silver Springs,
near Ocala, discharges an average of 530 mgd (million gallons per
day) of good quality water; other smaller springs discharge waters
which vary in quality from good to highly saline.
The low relief of the area is typical of Florida; the fall in
more than 300 miles from the marshes at the source of the St.
Johns River to its mouth is only 25 feet. The river is affected by
tides for 161 miles upstream from its mouth. Numerous shallow
lakes occur in the Oklawaha River subbasin and others occur as
widened parts of the St. Johns River main stem. Waters in swampy
areas are highly colored from decayed vegetation but otherwise are
of good chemical quality. Springs contribute high carbonate waters
to streams throughout the basin and some saline water is added to
the main stem of the St. Johns River.
Ample quantities of good quality water are available to meet
the foreseeable water needs in the report area. Exclusive of saline
waters used for cooling in electric power generation, the water
withdrawn from surface and ground water sources is less than 10
per cent, and that consumed is less than 5 per cent of the esti-
mated available supply. The problems of water supply, therefore,
are essentially problems of distribution rather than availability
because most sources of readily available good quality water are in
the western parts of the report area and the centers of greatest
demand are presently along the Atlantic coast. Urbanization and
drainage of lands tend to reduce ground-water recharge; free flow-
ing wells and heavy industrial pumping without return of used
water to the aquifers reduce the ground water levels; excessive
pumping invites saline-water intrusion in some areas. Contamina-
tion of both surface and ground waters is a problem which must
be controlled to insure the quality of waters in the area.

INTRODUCTION
PURPOSE AND SCOPE

The rapidly expanding population and economic growth in
northeast Florida places increasing demands on its water resources.
Although water is abundant in most parts of the area covered by
this report and more than meets the demands at the present time,
the demand for water is expected to double by 1980 and to more
than quadruple by the year 2020, indicating a need for thorough
and continued evaluations, understanding, and proper management








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


The St. Johns River and its principal tributary, the Oklawaha
River, receive much of their flow from large perennial springs,
which are among Florida's many tourist attractions. Silver Springs,
near Ocala, discharges an average of 530 mgd (million gallons per
day) of good quality water; other smaller springs discharge waters
which vary in quality from good to highly saline.
The low relief of the area is typical of Florida; the fall in
more than 300 miles from the marshes at the source of the St.
Johns River to its mouth is only 25 feet. The river is affected by
tides for 161 miles upstream from its mouth. Numerous shallow
lakes occur in the Oklawaha River subbasin and others occur as
widened parts of the St. Johns River main stem. Waters in swampy
areas are highly colored from decayed vegetation but otherwise are
of good chemical quality. Springs contribute high carbonate waters
to streams throughout the basin and some saline water is added to
the main stem of the St. Johns River.
Ample quantities of good quality water are available to meet
the foreseeable water needs in the report area. Exclusive of saline
waters used for cooling in electric power generation, the water
withdrawn from surface and ground water sources is less than 10
per cent, and that consumed is less than 5 per cent of the esti-
mated available supply. The problems of water supply, therefore,
are essentially problems of distribution rather than availability
because most sources of readily available good quality water are in
the western parts of the report area and the centers of greatest
demand are presently along the Atlantic coast. Urbanization and
drainage of lands tend to reduce ground-water recharge; free flow-
ing wells and heavy industrial pumping without return of used
water to the aquifers reduce the ground water levels; excessive
pumping invites saline-water intrusion in some areas. Contamina-
tion of both surface and ground waters is a problem which must
be controlled to insure the quality of waters in the area.

INTRODUCTION
PURPOSE AND SCOPE

The rapidly expanding population and economic growth in
northeast Florida places increasing demands on its water resources.
Although water is abundant in most parts of the area covered by
this report and more than meets the demands at the present time,
the demand for water is expected to double by 1980 and to more
than quadruple by the year 2020, indicating a need for thorough
and continued evaluations, understanding, and proper management







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


of the water resources. Further, though water is generally abundant
in the area as a whole, the quality of the surface water in the
lower St. Johns River and of the artesian water in Brevard County
and some other areas, for example, is unacceptable for most uses.
Also, though the quality of water in the streams and aquifers in
much of the area is acceptable now, increased development with


Figure 1 Map of northeast Florida showing drainage system and flood regions







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


attendant disposal of waste and modification of the hydrologic
cycle portend increased problems relating to quality.
This report summarizes and appraises the water resources of the
St. Johns River basin and the adjacent narrow coastal strip of
northeast Florida (as shown in Figure 1). The area includes all or
major parts of Duval, Clay, St. Johns, Alachua, Putnam, Flagler,
Marion, Volusia, Lake, Seminole, Orange, Brevard, Osceola, and
Indian River counties, and small parts of Levy, Sumter, Polk, Okee-
chobee and St. Lucie counties. The area contains 11,200 square
miles, approximately, and has about one quarter (more than
1,500,000) of Florida's population. The report provides information
on the occurrence, availability, chemical quality, and use of surface
and underground waters as a guide for public and private agencies for
planning the most beneficial development of the water resources of
the area, to recognize areas of excess and deficient water, areas of
good and poor quality waters, and areas where further detailed
investigations are desirable. The population and economic expansion
creates the need for additional water supplies either from present
sources or from new sources. Sources should be investigated in order
to maintain acceptable water quality, to assure flood protection, and
to otherwise determine water availability to enhance the economic
and recreational aspects of the area.
The report was prepared under the general supervision of Clyde
S. Conover, District Chief, Water Resources Division, U. S. Geologi-
cal Survey, at the request of the Florida Board of Conservation,
Water Resources Division, as part of the statewide cooperation with
the Division of Geology to evaluate the water resources of Florida.
Reports and publications, including those from which the report
material has been extracted, are given in the list of references. The
efforts of the original investigators and the review provided by
colleagues are appreciated and gratefully acknowledged.

EXPLANATION OF TERMS

Knowledge of the water resources of the area has expanded
considerably since 1930. The period 1950-65 was used as the base
for comparative purposes in portions of this report. Rainfall, which is
the source of all fresh-water resources in the area, was close to the
long-term average during the 15-year period. However, The record of
long-term yearly rainfall indicates that wet and dry cycles in this
period were more severe than in earlier years.
Definitions are given herewith for a number of terms used in
this report.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


Surface water is water on the surface of the earth.
Ground water is water beneath the surface of the earth in zones
of saturation. It does not include "soil moisture" which normally is
not directly available for use by man.
Drainage basin is an area occupied by a drainage system into
which all surface waters within the area flow. The boundary between
two drainage basins is called a "drainage divide." The basin may
contain "noncontributing areas," which are areas in which water is
diverted for use, returned to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration,
or enters the ground at a rate sufficient to prevent or reduce surface
runoff.
Runoff is considered that part of precipitation that appears in
surface streams. However, runoff herein is considered essentially
synonomous with streamflow which is derived both from "overland
flow" and "base flow." In Florida "base flow", which is a major part
of the total flow in most streams, is essentially "ground-water run-
off" and is supplied from ground water emerging as springs or as
seepage, sometimes without regard to topographic divides.
Surface-water discharge is the rate of flow of a stream. It is
expressed as cubic feet per second (cfs) in this report.
Aquifer is a formation, group of formations, or part of a
formation that is water-bearing. It is often called a "ground-water
reservoir."
Recharge is water added to an aquifer by infiltration of precipi-
tation into the soil or rock, by seepage through the soil or sinkholes,
by seepage from streams, lakes and other surface water bodies, by
flow from one aquifer to another, and by introduction through or
into recharge wells and sinkholes. Recharge is generally expressed as
a rate of inches per year over an area.
Water table is the upper surface of a ground-water body under
atmospheric pressure, as indicated by the level of water in a well or
open hole that penetrates the top of the zone of saturation. The
water table is usually synonymous with the "shallow" or "non-
artesian" water level.
Artesian water is water under hydrostatic pressure confined in
an aquifer by relatively impervious materials, which rises in a well
above the top of the aquifer. Flowing wells occur where hydrostatic
pressure in the aquifer is great enough to raise the water above the
land surface.
Piezometric level is the level to which water rises under hydro-
static pressure in a tightly cased well that penetrates an artesian
aquifer. An artesian pressure surface is defined by the piezometric
levels in a number of wells that penetrate the same confined aquifer.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


attendant disposal of waste and modification of the hydrologic
cycle portend increased problems relating to quality.
This report summarizes and appraises the water resources of the
St. Johns River basin and the adjacent narrow coastal strip of
northeast Florida (as shown in Figure 1). The area includes all or
major parts of Duval, Clay, St. Johns, Alachua, Putnam, Flagler,
Marion, Volusia, Lake, Seminole, Orange, Brevard, Osceola, and
Indian River counties, and small parts of Levy, Sumter, Polk, Okee-
chobee and St. Lucie counties. The area contains 11,200 square
miles, approximately, and has about one quarter (more than
1,500,000) of Florida's population. The report provides information
on the occurrence, availability, chemical quality, and use of surface
and underground waters as a guide for public and private agencies for
planning the most beneficial development of the water resources of
the area, to recognize areas of excess and deficient water, areas of
good and poor quality waters, and areas where further detailed
investigations are desirable. The population and economic expansion
creates the need for additional water supplies either from present
sources or from new sources. Sources should be investigated in order
to maintain acceptable water quality, to assure flood protection, and
to otherwise determine water availability to enhance the economic
and recreational aspects of the area.
The report was prepared under the general supervision of Clyde
S. Conover, District Chief, Water Resources Division, U. S. Geologi-
cal Survey, at the request of the Florida Board of Conservation,
Water Resources Division, as part of the statewide cooperation with
the Division of Geology to evaluate the water resources of Florida.
Reports and publications, including those from which the report
material has been extracted, are given in the list of references. The
efforts of the original investigators and the review provided by
colleagues are appreciated and gratefully acknowledged.

EXPLANATION OF TERMS

Knowledge of the water resources of the area has expanded
considerably since 1930. The period 1950-65 was used as the base
for comparative purposes in portions of this report. Rainfall, which is
the source of all fresh-water resources in the area, was close to the
long-term average during the 15-year period. However, The record of
long-term yearly rainfall indicates that wet and dry cycles in this
period were more severe than in earlier years.
Definitions are given herewith for a number of terms used in
this report.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Ground-water discharge is water that leaves an aquifer by any
means, including pumping, natural flow as springs or seepage to
streams, lakes, or canals, or by evapotranspiration.

HYDROLOGIC AND GEOLOGIC SETTING

The area covered in this report includes 11,200 square miles,
approximately, of which about 9,430 are in the St. Johns River basin
and the balance are in coastal basins between the St. Johns River and
the Atlantic Ocean. The area has a humid subtropical climate which
supports heavy growths of native pine and scrub oak in the generally
sandy and well-drained soils, and cypress in wet bottom lands. The
principal source of fresh water is rain on the area although some
ground water flows into the area through aquifers from the central.
highlands of Florida.
The St. Johns River basin and the adjacent coastal area receive
an average of about 28 bgd (billion gallons per day) of precipitation,
all of which occurs as rain. About 20 bgd renters the atmosphere
through the processes of evapotranspiration, about 3 bgd percolates
into the aquifers, and 6.5 bgd runs off through streams to the ocean.
Of the 3 bgd which percolates into the aquifers, more than half
emerges as springs to augment the surface flow, some is withdrawn
through wells, and the remainder emerges as off-shore submarine
springs, or underground flow to the Suwannee and Withlacoochee
River basins.
The St. Johns River is the largest river wholly in Florida and is
one of the few large northerly-flowing rivers in the United States. It
is affected by tides to Lake Monroe, 161 miles above its mouth. The
altitude of most of the area is less than 50 feet above mean sea level,
although altitudes along the western drainage divides generally range
from 75 to 200 feet and exceed 300 feet in the upper Oklawaha
River basin. Along headwater reaches of the St. Johns River in Indian
River County, more than 300 river miles from its mouth, the flood
plain is only 25 feet above sea level. The average slope of the St.
Johns River main stem is less than 0.1 ft. per mile in the 300 mile
length and less than 0.05 ft. per mile for the lower half of the river.
Relief is greater in the Oklawaha River subbasin. Low terraces which
parallel the coast, formed when the ocean stood at higher levels
during Pleistocene time, are the Silver Bluff, Pamlico, Talbot and
Penholoway terraces at altitudes approximately 8, 25, 42, and 70
feet above present sea level. Other, less readily recognizable terraces
are at higher altitudes.
The area is underlain by several water-bearing formations which










REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


vary as to water availability and quality. In descending order they are
the marine deposits of Pleistocene and Holocene (Recent) age; undif-
ferentiated deposits and the Hawthorn Formation of Miocene age;


Marine -.\ Sand, coquina, shell, and sandy clay lenses. Supplies small to moderate
deposits \ amounts of water to small diameter wells. Yields vary locally depending
0-1 SO ft. .on permeability of deposits.

Undiffercntialted Sand, shell, and silty clay. Generally low permeability. Yields
deposits .ft .-.' small supplies of water from sand and shell beds.
0-100 ft. -,

Hawthorn Sandy clay, sand, and sandy limestone; forms confining layer
Formation for underlying limestones. Generally poor yield, except from
0-250 ft. shell and limestone beds.

.-t-^-'-^
Crystal River White to cream, clhalky
Formation \ massive limestone. I Generally yields large quart
0-120 ft. of water and is primary sol
-- -ost of area: tile Willislon
Williston Tan to buff granular generally more dense with
S 0-100 ft.
Haw Formation c limestone. f



SInlglis Tan to buff granu.
o Formation f lar limestone and
50-200 ft. \ dolomites.





Avon Park White to reddish brown, hard, dense lime-
,E Limestone \ stone, and dolomite, with porous and
\ clhalky zones. Yields large amounts of wa
150-700 ft. thick \ from the porous zones in some areas.
0
z
Z-

u.
m of a-(--lt
Wilso TSanZ^ tobf rnlr\nr ymr eiewt


100-500 ft. thick


Oldsmar Limestone
800 ft. thick


itilies
urce in
Formation
lesser yields.


ter


Buff to brown porous and white
to brown massive limestone: gray
to tan dolomite.
Water yields vary; dense
zones poorly permeable:
good yields in Duval
County.


Water generally
saline; untapped
in most of area.


Figure 2. Geologic Formations penetrated by water wells in northeast Florida.


Figure 2 Geologic formations penetrated by water wells in northeast Florida


_L__rL`ff







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Ground-water discharge is water that leaves an aquifer by any
means, including pumping, natural flow as springs or seepage to
streams, lakes, or canals, or by evapotranspiration.

HYDROLOGIC AND GEOLOGIC SETTING

The area covered in this report includes 11,200 square miles,
approximately, of which about 9,430 are in the St. Johns River basin
and the balance are in coastal basins between the St. Johns River and
the Atlantic Ocean. The area has a humid subtropical climate which
supports heavy growths of native pine and scrub oak in the generally
sandy and well-drained soils, and cypress in wet bottom lands. The
principal source of fresh water is rain on the area although some
ground water flows into the area through aquifers from the central.
highlands of Florida.
The St. Johns River basin and the adjacent coastal area receive
an average of about 28 bgd (billion gallons per day) of precipitation,
all of which occurs as rain. About 20 bgd renters the atmosphere
through the processes of evapotranspiration, about 3 bgd percolates
into the aquifers, and 6.5 bgd runs off through streams to the ocean.
Of the 3 bgd which percolates into the aquifers, more than half
emerges as springs to augment the surface flow, some is withdrawn
through wells, and the remainder emerges as off-shore submarine
springs, or underground flow to the Suwannee and Withlacoochee
River basins.
The St. Johns River is the largest river wholly in Florida and is
one of the few large northerly-flowing rivers in the United States. It
is affected by tides to Lake Monroe, 161 miles above its mouth. The
altitude of most of the area is less than 50 feet above mean sea level,
although altitudes along the western drainage divides generally range
from 75 to 200 feet and exceed 300 feet in the upper Oklawaha
River basin. Along headwater reaches of the St. Johns River in Indian
River County, more than 300 river miles from its mouth, the flood
plain is only 25 feet above sea level. The average slope of the St.
Johns River main stem is less than 0.1 ft. per mile in the 300 mile
length and less than 0.05 ft. per mile for the lower half of the river.
Relief is greater in the Oklawaha River subbasin. Low terraces which
parallel the coast, formed when the ocean stood at higher levels
during Pleistocene time, are the Silver Bluff, Pamlico, Talbot and
Penholoway terraces at altitudes approximately 8, 25, 42, and 70
feet above present sea level. Other, less readily recognizable terraces
are at higher altitudes.
The area is underlain by several water-bearing formations which








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


the Ocala Group', consisting of the Crystal River, Williston and
Inglis Formations, the Avon Park Limestone and the Lake City Lime-
stone, all of Eocene age, which, with the hydraulically connected
limestone in tfie lower part of the Hawthorn Formation, compose the
Floridan aquifer; and the Oldsmar Limestone, also of Eocene age.
Figure 2 shows the geologic formations penetrated by water wells in
northeast Florida, with their general characteristics and approximate
thicknesses, which vary from one locality to another. The Floridan
aquifer which underlies all of the area, is the principal source of water.
The Oldsmar Limestone is generally untappedin the area.
The top of the Floridan aquifer is at or near the land surface in
central Marion County, Alachua County, and some other areas, and
is at a depth of more than 400 feet at the extreme ends of the basin,
in Duval and Indian River counties. The Floridan aquifer ranges in
thickness from about 500 to more than 1,000 feet. It is overlain by
sand, sandy clay, and shell deposits of Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene
and Holocene ages. These deposits have generally low to moderate
permeability and limited thickness and thus yield small to moderate
quantities of water to wells. Porous limestones of the Floridan
aquifer near the land surface in the highlands area, and permeable
surficial sands in Marion, Alachua, Lake, Orange, and other counties,
absorb much of the rainfall. On such areas recharge to the Floridan
aquifer may be, locally, in excess of 16 inches per year. Some of the
water later emerges as springs, seeps along streams, or from free-
flowing or pumped wells, perhaps many years and miles from the
time and place of its occurrence as rain. Most ground water in the
area flows through the Floridan aquifer in a generally easterly direc-
tion toward the Atlantic Ocean although, in Alachua and western
Marion counties, some ground water moves westward out of the St.
Johns River basin into the Withlacoochee and Suwannee River
basins. Many of Florida's large springs, including Silver Springs,
Alexander Springs, Blue Springs, Wekiva Springs, and others are in
the report area, some of which obtain their waters from relatively
local recharge. Some ground water is discharged from submarine
springs in the Atlantic Ocean.
In contrast to the areas of rapid ground-water recharge charac
terized by the absence of surface streams, are parts of Clay, Putnam,
Flagler and other counties that are underlain by deposits that have
low permeability and are characterized by numerous surface streams;
and swampland. Rainfall does not readily recharge the ground water
The geologic nomenclature used in this report conforms to that of the Florida Geological
Survey, and is not necessarily conformable to that of the U. S. Geological Survey.
I








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


aquifers in such areas because both the deep and the shallow aquifers
are usually full so that water runs off in surface streams or is lost by
evapotranspiration. Surface runoff averages about 12 inches per year
in the entire area but ranges from zero in large parts of Alachua,
Vlarion, Lake and Orange counties to more than 20 inches in others.
Average evapotranspiration is estimated to be about 37 inches.
The report area contains a large supply of available water of
good quality and, also, large amounts of less desirable water. Under
good management the water needs of the area should be fulfilled to
the year 2020 and beyond. Distribution. of water to the localities of
concentrated demand, control practices to reduce or eliminate salt
water and other contamination in ground water and surface water,
and the competition or conflict of interest between domestic, recre-
ational, industrial, and agricultural needs, are water management
problems that will require resolution in the future.

DRAINAGE
The St. Johns River, the most prominent drainage feature of the
area (figure 1), has its source at an altitude of less than 25 feet in a
broad swampy area just west of Fort Pierce, in St. Lucie County,
about 300 river miles from its mouth at Mayport. From the head-
waters a marsh extends northward approximately 40 miles before a
natural channel becomes recognizable, upstream from Lake Hellen
Blazes. This area has been modified extensively by canals and dikes
and considerable interchange of water with the Lake Okeechobee
basin to the south and the coastal basins to the east occurs. From the
head of the channel the river flows generally northward for 250 miles
to Jacksonville where it turns eastward and flows an additional 23
miles to the Atlantic Ocean. The river passes through eight shallow
lakes, such as Lake Harney and Lake George; six other lakes are in
the flood plain. Downstream from Palatka the river averages more
than a mile in width. The total surface area of the main stem of the
river at low water exceeds 300 square miles, from which the average
loss by evaporation is approximately 530,000,000 gallons per day.
The St. Johns River is perennially tidal as far upstream as Lake
George (106 miles) and, under combined conditions of drought and
high tide, the tidal effects occur as far upstream as Lake Monroe
(161 miles). Approximately two-thirds of the drainage area in the St.
Johns River basin, including the Oklawaha River basin, lies west of
the main stem.
Drainage in the coastal strip between the St. Johns River basin
and the Atlantic Ocean is into lagoons, formed by barrier islands, and
to the ocean.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


WATER QUALITY

The chemical quality of waters varies according to the materials
available for solution or suspension according to varying hydrologic
conditions and to actions of man. Rain is not chemically pure but
contains low concentrations of carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen.
Water acts as a solvent and dissolves chemical constituents during
passage over the ground or through an aquifer; industrial and other
wastes, pesticides and fertilizers add contaminants to water. Sus-
pended sediment, which is a serious problem in some parts of the
United States, is not a serious problem in peninsular Florida. Dis-
solved minerals, water temperature, color, and salt water intrusion
are the natural and man-influenced water-quality phenomena that are
significant to use of water in the report area. Unless controlled, water
quality will deteriorate as the result of man's effects on water from
use of fertilizers and pesticides and the movement of the effluents
from industrial, municipal and domestic sources into water courses
and ground water aquifers.
The significance and effects of certain common dissolved or
suspended chemical constituents and properties of water are given in
Table 1. Some dissolved minerals are detrimental in extremely small
concentrations. Tolerance limits for drinking water have been sug-
gested by the U. S. Public Health Service, and limits for industrial
uses have been suggested by the American Water Works Association.
At the present time, quality of water standards are under detailed
study by the State of Florida and by the Federal Water Pollution
Control Administration. Table 2 lists suggested tolerances, or maxi-
mum allowable limits, for certain water uses.
The chemical character of the water in streams in the area
differs from stream to stream and varies seasonally and even daily in
individual streams due to natural causes and to development. The
water is generally low in mineral content if it is direct runoff or
seepage from nonartesian aquifers and generally high in dissolved
minerals if it was derived from the artesian aquifer. The chloride
content is sometimes high in the upper as well as lower reaches of the
St. Johns River, because of upward leaking saline water from the
artesian aquifer; also, salinity in the lower reaches is from the influx
of seawater as a result of tides. Near the mouth of the river the
salinity varies from brackish to that of seawater.
Wells that tap the Floridan aquifer in the upper reaches of the
St. Johns River basin discharge water which is high in chlorides but
nevertheless is used to irrigate citrus groves. The salty drainage water
from citrus groves is diluted during periods of high runoff. Figure 3








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


TABLE 1. WATER QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS AND
THEIR SIGNIFICANCE


Constituent or properties Significance


Dissolved solids


Silica


Sulfate


Nitrate



Fluoride


Iron and Manganese


Chloride


Sodium


Hardness


Alkalinity


Color


Suspended solids


A measure of the total amount of dissolved matter,
usually determined by evaporation. Excessive solids
interfere in most industrial processes and cause
foaming in boilers.

Causes scale in boilers and deposits on turbine blades.

Excessive amounts are cathartic and unpleasant to
taste. May cause boiler scale.

High concentrations indicate pollution. Causes
methemoglobinemia in infants. Helps to prevent inter-
crystalline cracking of boiler steel.

Over 1.5 mg/1 cause mottled tooth enamel, small
amounts (about 1.0 mg/1) prevent tooth decay.

Values below 7.0 indicate an acid water and a ten-
dency for the water to be corrosive.

On precipitation cause stains; unpleasant taste in
drinking water; scale deposits in water lines and
boilers; interferes in many processes such as dyeing
and paper manufacture.

Unpleasant taste in high concentrations. Increases
corrosive nature of water.

Large amounts injurious to humans with certain ill-
nesses and to soils and crops.

Due to calcium and magnesium salts causes excessive
soap consumption, scale in heat exchangers, boilers,
radiators, pipes, and interfered in manufacturing pro-
cesses. Less than 60 mg/l soft; 60-120 is moderately
hard; 120-200 is hard.

Causes foaming in boilers and carryover of solids with
steam, embrittlement of boiler steel.

Stains products in process use. May cause foaming in
boilers. Not desirable in drinking water.

Unsightly appearance in water. Causes deposits in
water lines, process equipment, and boilers.








12 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


TABLE 2 SUGGESTED WATER-QUALftY, TOLERANCES FOR SELECTED
USES (maximum allowable limits in milligrams per liter)




.N

Use U 0 e t > c
U U c3 0 tn 9 On


Air Conditioning

Baking

Boiler feed water
0-150 PSI
150-250PSI
250-400 PSI
Over 400 PSI

Brewing
Light beer
Dark beer

Carbonated Beverages

Confectionary

Dairy industry

Food Canning and Freezing

Food Equipment washing

Food Processing. general

Ice

.aundering

Plastics. clear, uncolored

Paper and Pulp:
Kraft pulp
Soda and sulfate
High grade light papers


10 I10


200-250



180

3/50-85

10

10-250



50


100
100
50


0.5

.2









.1
.1

0.1-.2

.2

0.1-.3


3000-500
2500-500
1500-100
50


500-1500
500-1500

850

50-100

500

850

850

850

300



200


300
200
200


75-80
80-150

50-128


low

low









low
low

low

low

none


.2


5
3
0
0


.2
.2

0-0.2


30-250 none 1.0


30-250

30-50


none

low


1/American Water Works Association 1950 and Water Quality Criteria, McKee and Wolf 1963.
2/ P indicates that potable water, conforming to USPIIS standards, is necessary.
3/Peas 200-400, fruits and vegetables 100-200, legumes 25-75.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


z E
u O
.00 I 0 o E r e
0. to 1: 0 O.ther requirements


0.2-1.0





1.0

1.0

1.0


No corrosiveness,
slime formation
P








P NaCI less than 275 mg/1
P NaCI less than 275 mg/1

P

P No corrosiveness,
slime formation
P

P

P

P

P
p'



p'


200
100
40
20


50-68
50-68


8.0
8.4
9.0
9.6


6.5-7.0
6.5-7.0



7.0



7.5


100-200
200-500


60-100
60-100

250



30

400-600

250







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Madfi;d Itr= Lichlar. Andersn. oand J. (1fi68)


I __


@ 0 0 0 0 6


50


MILES FROM MOUTrt OF RIVER


Figure 3 Diagram showing chloride concentration in St. Johns River
during periods of high and low flow

shows the relation of the chloride concentration to water discharge
along a stretch of the St. Johns River during a period of high flow
and of low flow. The main stem data show the effects of saline
inflows, the dilution by fresh-water tributaries, and the effect of tidal
action in the lower reach.
Streams in the coastal area are generally more saline than
tributaries of the St. Johns River and water in the coastal lagoons is
too saline to be used for purposes other than cooling and recreation.
Color of surface waters is extremely variable throughout the
study area and normally ranges from zero to about 200 Hazen units.
After heavy rains when highly colored water is flushed into small
streams from swampy areas, the color reaches as high as 600 units.
Additional information on quality of surface water is given in
the sections of the report which follow. The quality of ground waters
j


o
o
~
~ c
c
,s







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


s variable with depth and with location and is discussed in the
sectionn on ground water. Table 3 lists the observed extremes in
quality of surface water for some of the more important streams and
lakes in the report area.

FLOODS

Data on floods in the area were analyzed by Barnes and Golden
(1966) to determine the relation between flood magnitude, drainage
area, and the average frequency of occurrence. The flood-frequency
analysis shows that because of physiographic differences the area
must be delineated into two flood regions; "A," south of Lake
Poinsett, and "B," north of Lake Poinsett, and that region "B" must
be further divided into two hydrologic areas, area B-1 and area Bm2.
These subdivisions are shown on figure 1.


3 0 ,0 0 0 1 .. ........ .... ...... -- ... ..... ..




S20,000

-


w

S 1 0 ,0 0 0 .



S7,000 -- ---
U)OC]


"I I After Barnes and Golden (1966)
)00 1 1 1 .. 1 |
700 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000
DRAINAGE AREA, SQUARE MILES
Figure 4 Flood-frequency curves for the main stem
of the St. Johns River







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


2,000 -

? 7j000




S5,000-
S,000







After Barnes and Golden (1966)

000 500 2,000 2,500 300
DRAINAGE AREA, SQUARE MILES

Figure 5 Flood-frequency curves for the main steam of the Oklawaha River



Special analyses were required for the main stem of the St.
Johns and Oklawaha Rivers because their hydrologic characteristics
differ from those of the smaller streams in the area. Figures 4 and 5
are the flood frequency curves developed for the main stems of the
St. Johns and Oklawaha Rivers. Flood-frequency curves for region A,
area 1 (south of Lake Poinsett) are given in Figure 6; for region B,
area 1, north of Lake Poinsett in Figure 7; and for region B, area 2
(Black Creek basin) in Figure 8.

Drainage basins that contain lakes and swamps have lower flood
peaks than otherwise equivalent basins because of the temporary
storage of flood runoff. Discharge records from streams draining
lakes and swamps in central Florida have been analyzed to determine
the effect of storage on the attenuation of flood peaks. This effect
... -- .







TABLE 3. OBSERVED EXTREMES IN QUALITY OF SURFACE WATER IN ST. JOHNS RIVER BASIN AND COASTAL AREAS, PERIOD 1952-65.
(chemical constituents in milligrams per liter. Analyses by USGS)


.c-:siuter Sprnsis near Astor
3ilui- ,ings near Orange City
.;-u Lake near Cocoa
Cr-uz. Czeek at iMelbourne
rerpe Czeek near Osteen
Eciniockhatchee River near Bithlo
Ecmiockhatchee River near Chuluota
Ellis Canal near Indian River City
Fcilsmere Canal near Fellsmere
Jnec Green Creek near Deer Park
Johns Like at Oakland
kiings-iey Lake near Camp Blanding
Lake Apopka at Winter Garden
Lake Geneva near Keystone Heights
L.Le Lochloosa near Lochloosa
Lake Xiaitland at Winter Park
Little Ecunlockhatchee River near Union Park.
%loultrie Creek near St. Augustine
Newnans Laike near Gainesville
N'r-th Fork Black Creek near Highland
North Fork Black Creek near MAlddeburg
Oklawaha River near Orange Springs
Orange Lake near Boardman
Ponce De Leon Springs near De Land
uit Springs near Lake Kerr
Silve. Springs near Ocala
Sutui Fork Black Creek near Penney Farms
St. Johns River at Christmas
ST. Johns River near Cocoa
St. Johns River near De Land
St. Johns River near Geneva
St. Johns River ac Jacksonville
St. Johns River near Melbourne
romoka River near Holly Hill


Result from one sampling only during period.
S mbincd odium and potassium.


1 1 1 T T 1 r r r s- x -_____ _____


10 -12
8.5- 8.6
1.9-13
.5-20
.4- 6.6
.0- 8.9
1.7-12
7.4-14
5.0-19
.4-19
.0- 1.6
.3- 1.9
5.1-15
.0- 2.5
.0- 5.7
.0- .9
.3-11
7.0-23
.1- 3.0
.8-33
1.1-11
5.5-12
2.3- 4.3
5.6- 7.4
10 -12
10 -11
1.4-18
.2-11
.0-16
1.0-11
.8-30
.7- 4.7
.3-20
2.5- 7.3


0.00
.00-.01
.08,.22
.00,.55
.08-.97
.02,.50
.00,.60
.00,.71
.00,.50
.01-.50

.01,.03
.01,.27
.00,.02
.06,.56
.00,.04
-01-.77
.00,.60
.14,.65
.02,.25
.00,.28
.00-.75
.16,.23
.00-.01
.00-.05
.00,.02
.027.58
.00,.43
.00,.83
.00,.20
.00-.28
.00-.13
.00,.26
.16,.32


40 49
57 60
8.0- 19
25 -168
4.4- 21
2.6- 26
3.6- 51
120 -209
36 -101
3.8- 19
7.2- 8.0
2.2- 3.4
28 38
.8- 2.0
8.0- 15
18 24
5.4- 16
1.4- 96
3.2- 5.6
2.4- 59
.8- 28
38 69
6.0- 6.8
25 50
452 -200
67 73
1.0- 34
7.5-162
8.4-136
16 84
7.5-146
27 -225
7.1- 62
15 42


nz


Dissolved solids Hardness as CaCQ3


Calcium, Non-
magnesium carbonate


I + I I 4 .1- .1. .1 1 _______ ______ I ______ I I I


15 18
20 26
3.8- 11
5.3- 31
.0- 4.4
.2- 2.7
1.0- 14
27 49
5.4- 16
.2- 4.1
2.9- 6.1
.7- 1.0
8.8- 13
.7- 1.3
1.7- 3.3
4.9- 6.8
.6- 4.8
1.5- 28
.9- 1.7
.0- 6.1
.0- 3.9
2.9- 18
1.2- 1.9
6.8- 18
44 -110
8.0- 9.8
.1- 3.2
2.2- 77
1.5- 56
7.0- 41
3.0-105
10 -633
1.1- 11
1.6- 4.0


100 121 3.0- 3.3
215 240 7.7- 9.0
29 85
**1l7 -119
4.1- 12 .2- 1.4
1.8- 15 .2- 1.6
*** .7-112
***270 -409
***19 83
.7- 12 .1- 1.2
10 20 6.0- 8.0
4.7- 6.2 .2- .6
8.4- 23 3.3- 13
5.6- 6.4 .0- 1.0
5.8- 7.8 .1- 1.0

9.3- 14 3.7- 5.2
5.2- 16 .2- 2.4
8.7- 128 .3- 3.8
3.8- 9.0 .0- 1.0
4.2- 72 .0- 1.8
3.2- 20 .0- 1.9
16 53 .0- 2.0


4.6- 4.7
33 135
878 -1,620
5.4- 5.7
1.8- 7.2
11 606
12 454
43 312
+t*17


.1- .8
2.0- 5.6
18 58
.5
.0- .7
.6- 15
.0- 14
.6- 12
-644


92 97
128 -160
12 24
62 -279
9 34
8 83
10 -112
126 -274
96 -214
4 34
7 13
4 8
104 -186
1 4
29 50

52 72
9 51
11 -234
4 21
0 36
1 25
70 -158
18 21
122 -138
67 90
200 -202
4 90
21 -138
5.2-136
31 -152
20 -116


71 -5,520 2.6-200 60 -112
4.8- 62 .8- 2.5 17 -128
10 18 .0- .8 39 -134


52 61
37 80
9.0- 32
15 77
.3.6- 21
0 6.4
1.0- 58
199 278
23 57
0 18
26 42
2.9- 5.6
15 20
3.0- 6.8
3.2- 12

24 31
1.2- 6.8
.2- 132'
1.2- 3.2
4.0- 199
.8- 96
22 102
.8- 3.0
15 36
368 626
38 52
0 22
2 364
2.5- 156
14 166
6.8- 402
28 -1,320
0 30
4.0- 13


169 232
245 560
54 165
38 300
6.5- 44
3.0- 23
8.0- 179
315 -1,150
46 270
6.5- 36
18 24
8.0- 10
16 25
8.5- 10
10 16

15 20
9.5- 20
14 242
2.5- 14
3.8- 12
3.5- 12
28 96
7.0- 10
66 240
1,550 -2,900
7.0- 9.0
3.0- 13
20 -1,150
21 900
88 570
30 -1,210
128 -9,720
14 140
18 30


0.1-0.2
.1- .2

.1- .4
.1- .4
.0- .8
.2- .6
.4
.2- .6
.1- .2
.1- .3
.0- .1
.4- .6
.0- .1
.2- .3

.1- .5
.0- .4
.0- .6
.2- .3
.0- .4
.1- .4
.1- .8
.1- .3
.1- .2
.0- .2
.2- .3
.0- .4
.0- .5
.0- .7
.0- .4
.1- .7
.3- .7
.0-1.2
.1- .4


0.0- 3.0
.8- 1.3 *0.80
.1- 1.3
.0- 1.8
.0- 1.7
.0- 1.3
.0-14
.4- 3.6
.0- 2.0
.0- 2.8
.0- 1.4
.0- .1
.9- 3.7
.0- .2
.0- 1.0 .00-1.1

.0- 2.8
.0- .8 1.0
.0- 1.8
.0- 4.4 .00- .10
.0- 3.6 .00- .50
.1- 1.7 .00- .50
.0- 1.2
.2- 1.3
.1- 5.0 .14- .25
.3- 5.7


1.2- 2.0
.0- 3.4
.0- 6.4
.0- 5.6
.0- 2.2
.0- 5.6
.1-11
.0- 1.2
.0- .3


F'-


Calculated


Residue


_ y
-o_
|||
00- *-"


352- 502
553- 835




32- 163


436- 525
563- 920
152- 320
131- 808
28- 86
16- 108
31- 468
1,380- 1,640
193- 524
29- 96
77- 111
20- 32
149- 229
26- 28
44- 84

104- 131
35- 75


45
316
170


33- 42
221- 558
3,110- 3,710
233- 259
12- 118
57- 2,350
67 1,760
213- 1,090
760- 1,570
394-17,700
50- 258
77- 181


114-
22-
206-
26-
49-

128-
69-
68-
53-
54-
59-
223-
49-
242-


3,110- 4,030
252- 254
3- 156
188- 2,830
103- 2,320
628- 1,440
1,080- 2,730
360-18,700
188- 546


146
37
285
34
91

154
146
820
76
336
184
441
66
532


164- 192
212- 280
36- 93
84- 462
14- 66
8- 74
13- 162
410- 690
112- 284
18- 54
30- 44
10- 12
106- 150
8- 8
29- 51

65- 88
16- 48
15- 354
12- 21
8- 157
8- 86
38- 222
20- 25
128- 195
777- 876
200- 220
3- 98
28- 720
16- 570
69- 378
31- 796
109-3,170
23- 200
47- 122


88- 502
106- 166
24- 73
33- 248
6- 29
0- 19
5- 74
308- 500
34- 108
3- 28
20- 38
3- 5
0-- 25
4- 7
5- 12

22- 32
4- 20
0- 194
4- 9
0- 146
6- 68
30- 130
4- 8
24- 221
780- 811
34- 56
0- 30
11- 672
9- 494
40- 312
14- 752
45-3,080
5- 94
9- 18


813- 988
480- 2,490
229- 646
261- 1,410
42- 225
24- 197
55- 873
1,840- 4,410
331- 1,180
57- 261
150- 202
36- 57
333- 385
52- 56
83- 142

195- 230
58- 146
64- 1,390
49- 86
35- 581
38- 279
301- 663
61- 83
329- 1,000
5,380- 9,500
352- 430
18- 228
110- 4,800
40- 3,500
350- 2,220
152- 4,230
618-30,000
91- 696
122- 292


7.3-7.8
7.5-7.6
6.2-6.8
7.0-8.1
6.2-7.3
5.7-7.8
6.2-7.6
7.1-7.9
7.3-7.9
5.5-7.2
5.8-6.5
5.9-6.6
7.0-7.9
5.1-5.6
6.6-6.8

6.6-7.6
5.6-8.0
5.7-8.1
5.3-6.6
4.1-7.1
4.7-6.8
6.8-8.3
6.3-6.5
7.7.-7.9
7.3-7.7
7.7-8.0
5.3-7.5
6.3-7.5
6.4-7.9
6.6-7.6
6.5-7.4
6.8-7.3
6.2-7.4
6.9-7.4


0- 5
2- 5
80-180
30-280
80-260
35-400
40-600
35-160
50-300
25-360
25- 80
5- 8
20- 45
0- 10
15- 75

5- 10
20-400
5-560
50-110
5-280
5-340
5-400
50- 80
0- 5
2- 5
0- 5
10-360
45-220
30-280
12-240
35-300
10-120
45-280
180-240


72-73
73-7.4



50-88





50-87

56-82

60-88
59-85



12-78
55-88
10-80
48-75

59-83
63-74
72-75
73-74
50-80

46-95
51-86


.30- .50





.00- .32


i i i i i i i


I I I I I I I I I I I I


Dissolved solids


Hardness as CaCO3


0 s-






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


30,000 1 i I I F I


20,000

Use in conjunction with Figure 9.

S0,000

a, 7,000



S3,7000 --





< 2,000 0 50 70-0-- --

Fue 6 Fo e Not applicable to main stem of
w d St. Johns or Oklawaha Rivers
1,000
After Barnes and Golden (1966) -
700o I II I I i I I I
10 20 30 50 70 100 200 300
DRAINAGE AREA, SQUARE MILES
Figure 6 Flood-frequency curves for Region A, area 1 in northeast Florida



was found to be significant only if the lakes and swamps covered as
much as three per cent of the total drainage basin. Figure 9 supplies
the values for reduction in the mean annual flood discharge for
drainage areas containing a significant percentage area of lakes and
swamps. The adjustment factor for attenuation is applicable to
streams of each of the three area in figures 6, 7, and 8, with the
exception of mainstem streams. Large parts of the area, including
sink-hole areas from which there is no flow, and areas where canals
and dikes are constructed, are not subject to regional flood analysis.
Caution should be used in applying these flood-frequency analyses to
parts of the area because the installation of control structures on







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


20,000



10,000

7,000

5,000


3,000





1,000

700

500


300

200


1 5 0 1 1 I I I I ."I B'
10 20 30 50 70 100 200 300 500
DRAINAGE AREA, SQUARE MILES
Figure 7 Flood-frequency curves for Region B, area 1 in northeast Florida


natural drainage-ways and canals, and urbanization, modify the rela-
tion.
Peak flood stages are more significant than peak flood dis-
charges. Much of the flood plain is under cultivation and extensive
crop and other damage is caused by extended periods of inundation
rather than by high discharge. A stage-frequency analysis for the St.
Johns River in the 158 mile reach between State Highway 60,.in
Indian River County, and DeLand is presented in figure 10. The
profiles of three significant floods that occurred since 1950 are
shown in Figure 11. Comparison of the profiles in figure 11 with the
stage-frequency analysis in figure 10 shows, for example, that the
recurrence interval of the flood of October 1953 on Lake Poinsett is
about 30 years whereas that for October 1956 is about 8 years.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 54


2 10,000



S500

13,000 -


S50 / 00
3,000









700 ----- -- -

500 --
400 I I I I I I -I I
10 20 30 50 70 100 200 300
DRAINAGE AREA, SQUARE MILES
Figure 8 Flood-frequency curves for Region B, area 2 in northeast
Florida

LOW FLOW

Low-flow characteristics of a stream determine whether it can
be used for a specific purpose without artificial storage. Figures 12
and 13 provide low-flow frequency curves for the .St. Johns River
near Christmas and Econlockhatchee' River near Chuluota.
Although',the storage capacity of the main stem of the St. Johns
River is great, water in storage may be depleted by outflow and by
evaporation during droughts as is. illustrated.. by comparing. the
minimum flow at the Christmas station with that of its tributary, the








20 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

Econlockhatchee River. Although the drainage area of the St. Johns
River near Christmas is more than six times that of the Econlock-
hatchee River near Chuluota, during the spring of 1939 the St. Johns
River stopped flowing on three separate occasions while the flow of
the Econlockhatchee River did not fall below 9 cfs. Figures 12 and
13 indicate that a condition wherein the minimum 7-day flow of the
St. Johns River will be less than that of the Econlockhatchee River
will average not more than once in almost 30 years.
Flow of the St. Johns River in the reach downstream from Lake
George reverses with each tidal change except under conditions of
high freshwater inflow or strong winds which offset the tidal influ-
ence. About 75 per cent of the time the net flow is toward the ocean
but at other times the net flow is upstream for several consecutive
days. The maximum number of days during which the net flow is
likely to be equal to, or less than, a specific amount at Palatka and at
1.0 -




30 -- --- *<- ---- -- --- --- -- -
<> 0.5 --- "--- -- - -

UJ




0
0.2 -- - -



0.1 o

0.05 -- -
U-


Q ,
0 ('-1- -- -,


0.011
2


I I 1 1 1 1 11
From Barnes and Golden,
I i i l i l l


1966


5 10 20 50
PERCENTAGE OF DRAINAGE AREA COVERED BY LAKES


Figure 9 Graph showing attenuation adjustment to mean annual flood
due to lake and swamp storage


: I L







St Johns River headwaters near Vero Beach
I I I
St. Johns River headwaters near Kenansvllle

St. Johns River near Melbourne

Lake Washington

I Lake Poinsett


After Pride, 1958
280 260 240 220 200 180 160 140
MILES FROM MOUTH OF RIVER
Figure 10 Graphs showing variation of mean annual, 5-, 10-, and 30- year flood
stages with channel distance for main steam of St. Johns River






35 1 I----T~
St. Johns River headwaters near Vero Beach
St. Johns River headwaters near Kenonsville
Crest-stage gage No.I
30 -- Crest-stage gage No.2 -
| Crest-stage gage No.3
St. Johns River near Melbourne
Lake Washington |
25 --- Crest-stage gage No. 5
I. lLake Polnsett
Crest -stage
I I | St. Joh


gage No. 8
ns River near Christmas
est-stage gage No.9 -
St. Johns River above Lake Harney near Geneva
St. Johns River near Sanford
I St. Johns River
-- ----- near DeLand


-- September -October 1960
--- October 1956
......... October 1953
ft ___ i __ ---- ---- ---- .,._ -----------


300 280 260 240


220 200
MILES FROM MOUTH


180
OF RIVER


Figure 11 Graphs showing profiles of maximum stages on St. Johns River for selected floods


_j
W





z
4



0

4
W



IL6
UJ
0


I-
-J


20




15


0


0
o






0

,<


I ; I I


jt


- C


**Sy-l.









REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


facksonville are shown in Figure 14. The periods of upstream, or
negative, net flow usually occur during periods of low fresh-water
nflow, high evaporation rates, and increasing tidal range.

FLOW DURATION

The per cent of time that specific discharges are likely to be
equaled or exceeded is shown in Figures 15 and 16 for locations on
the St. Johns River near Melbourne, Christmas, and DeLand and for
some tributaries. The flat slopes of these curves at high discharge
rates reflect the effects of storage of water in lakes and on the flood
plain. During extreme droughts, however, the flood plain becomes
dry and the drainage of water stored in lakes is greatly reduced.
Under these drought conditions, river flow decreases rapidly as
indicated by the steeper slopes of the lower parts of the curves for
the stations at Christmas and Melbourne. At DeLand, the rapid
recession of the flow-duration curve is the result of backwater from
tides and wind effect during periods of reduced fresh-water flow.


3000

2000


1000


500



200


100


50


Example: For a 10-year recurrence interval the 7-day ao
minimum flow is 22.5 cfs and the )-year minimum flow a
10 is 415 cfs -[- -
From Lichtler, Anderson, and Joyner, 1968
1.05 1.1 1.2 1.5 2 3 4 5 7 10 15 20 30
RECURRENCE INTERVAL, YEARS.
Figure 12 Low-flow frequency curves,for St. Johns River near Christmas









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


LOI 1.05 LI 1.2


1.5 2 3 4 5 7 10
RECURRENCE INTERVAL, YEARS


Figure 13 Low-flow frequency curves for Econlockhatchce River near
Chuluota


WATER USE


A survey of water use was made by the U. S. Geological Survey
in 1965 and these data are used in this report. Water withdrawal and


500





300




200


z
0
U
LU
o


C. 100
I-
tU
u.
o 70

U

Li 50


u


15 20 30








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


water use are listed by counties, source, and purpose. The sources
considered are ground water, fresh surface water, and saline surface
water. The classifications in which all water uses are included are
public supply, which includes some publicly supplied industrial
water; rural domestic and stock-water; irrigation; self-supplied in-
dustrial; and fuel-electric power.
Water use may be classed as withdrawal use and nonwithdrawal
use. Withdrawal use requires that water be pumped or otherwise
diverted from the ground water or surface water sources whether for
consumptive or non-consumptive use. Nonwithdrawal use includes
water used for waste disposal or dilution, navigation, fish and wildlife
propagation and recreation and is not removed from the flow system;
however, it may be made unfit for other uses. As nonwithdrawal use
does not deplete the supply, data on that use is not included herein.
Water consumed is water evaporated or incorporated into the
product through vegetative growth or through processing; non-
consumptive use is water used in industrial processing and cooling
that is returned to the water source, although usually altered in
quality or temperature. In the context of this report, water extracted
from the artesian aquifer is not classified as consumptive use in the
broad term of the water budget in the basin. However, in a real sense,
water extracted from the artesian aquifer is consumed as far as the
aquifer system is concerned because the water is not returned to the
aquifer in most parts of the area.

PUBLIC SUPPLIES

Water for public supply includes that furnished by both public
and private utilities for all uses including domestic, fire fighting,
street flushing, irrigation of lawns and parks, commerce and industry
served by the utility, and leakage in the system. The population
served from public supplies in the report area in 1965 is estimated as
1,220,000. A total of 178 mgd was withdrawn for public supply (an
average use of 140 gpd per person), of which 53.5 mgd, or 30 per
cent, was consumed. Most of the water withdrawn was from wells
mnd only 5.4 mgd, or 3.0 per cent, was from streams or lakes. Table 4
'ists water-use data for public supply, by counties, and the popula-
iion served.
RURAL

Self-supplied water for domestic and -small scale livestock and
gardening uses not included under irrigation are included in this
category. An estimated 23.6 mgd was withdrawn of which 18.8 mgd




























After Anderson, 1967

5 7 10


20 30 50 70 100 200 300 500 700 1000


MAXIMUM NUMBER OF CONSECUTIVE
MEAN DAILY DISCHARGE WAS LESS THAN


DAYS ON WHICH
INDICATED, 1954-1965


Figure 14 Curves showing the maximum periods during which discharge was
less than given amounts, St. Johns River at Palatka and Jacksonville


20



10



0



-10


-20
3







I i


2 00 10fI
,000 NI


I"


7

3
2














i


0.1 0.2 05 I 2 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
PERCENT OF TIME


90 95 98 99 99.5


Figure 15 Flow-duration curves for streams in St. Johns River basin above
Lake Monroe


7,OOC
5#oC


too:-- -- --^ ^ -- -- _____-

00 --
roo - _- -_____-

70.


20-() St. Johns River near Christmas
(October 1934 to Selptember 1965).
10 (g St. Johns River near Melbourne
5- (October 1940 to September 1965). ---
3 -) Econlockhatchee River near Chuluota ____
(October 1935 to September 1965). -
Jane Green Creek near Deer Park
I (October 1954 to September 1965). _. --
0.7 -( Wolf Creek near Deer Park -- -
.5- (October 1956 to September 1965). ---
.2


0oo0 _


- 01O


0
0


0


ZI-

z


M<
Cn

0


A


-- ,'**- J 'I


!l


J I


99.9


99.99








































PERCENT OF TIME
Figure 16 Flow-duration curves for streams in St. Johns River basin
below Lake Monroe








TABLE 4- WATER USED FOR PUBLIC SUPPLIES BY COUNTIES, 'IN ST. JOHNS RIVER BASIN,
AND ADJACENT COASTAL AREAS, 1965.

POPULATION SERVED WATER WITHDRAWN INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL
Ground Surface All Ground Surface All Per (from public supplies) WATER
COUNTY water water water water water uses capital Air cond. Other All Uses CONSUMED
(thousands) (thousands) (thousands) (mgd) (mgd) (mgd) (gpd) (mgd) (mgd) (mgd) (mgd)
*Alachua 68.4 0 68.4 8.1 0 8.1 118 0.05 0.95 1.0 3.5
Brevard 107.7 40.0 147.7 20.9 3.6 24.5 166 4.0 3.7 7.7 12.0
Clay 11.2 0 11.2 1.0 0 1.0 89 0 .1 .1 .4
Duval 498.7 0 498.7 60.0 0 60.0 120 2.5 2.6 5.1 12
Flagler 2.8 0 .2.8 .2 0 .2 70 0 .02 .02 .1
Indian River 12.5 0 12.5 1.5 0 1.5 120 0 .3 .3 .3
Lake 44.2 0 44.2 8.0 0 8.0 181 .1 1.9 2.0 5.0
Levy 1.6 0 1.6 .2 0 .2 125 0 .04 .04 .06
Marion 20.4 0 20.4 3.6 0 3.6 176 .1 .6 .7 1.0
Okeechobee Negligible
Orange 250.0 0 250.0 47.0 0 47.0 188 .1 4.7 4.8 9.6
Osceola Negligible
Polk Negligible
Putnam 14.0 0 14.0 2.0 0 2.0 143 0 .2 .2 1.0
St. Johns 9.0 13.0 22.0 1.2 1.8 3.0 136 .2 .1 .3 .15
* St. Lucie 20.0 0 20.0 2.2 0 2.2 110 .03 .07 .1 .4
Seminole 33.1 0 33.1 4.2 0 4.2 127 .03 .57 .6 2.0
Volusia 126.2 0 126.2 13.0 0 '13.0 103 .4 1.6 2.0 6.0
Entire area 1,219.8 53.0 1,272.8 173.1 5.4 178.5 140 7.51 17.45 24.96

* Indicates that figures listed are for portion of the county within the St. Johns basin, not for the total county.







TABLE 5 WATER FOR RURAL USE, BY COUNTIES, IN ST, JOHNS RIVER BASIN AND ADJACENT
COASTAL AREAS, 1965,

DOMESTIC USE (MGD) LIVESTOCK USE (MGD) DOMESTIC AND LIVESTOCK (MCD)
WATER WITHDRAWN WATER WITHDRAWN WATER WITHDRAWN
Ground Surface WATER Ground Surface WATER Ground Surface ALL WATER
water water CONSUMED water water CONSUMED Water water WATER CONSUMED

Alachua 0.4 0 0.4 0.6 0.1 0.6 1.0 0.1 1.1 1.0
Brevard 4.0 0 2.8 .3 .1 .4 4.3 .1 4.4 3.2
Clay .6 0 .5 .3 0 .3 .9 0 .9 .8
Duval .1 0 .1 .2 0 .2 .3 0 .3 .3
Flagler .1 0 .1 .2 0 .2 .3 0 .3 .3
Indian River 1.0 0 .8 .2 .1 .3 1.2 .1 1.3 1.1
Lake 1.4 0 1.2 .1 .2 .2 1.5 .2 1.7 1.4
*Levy .1 0 .1 e e e .1 e .1 .1
Marion 1.8 0 1.6 .8 .1 .9 2.6 .1 2.7 2.5
Okeechobee .1 0 e .1 .1 .2 .2 ,1 .3 .2
Orange 2.4 0 1.7 .3 .1 .4 2.7 .1 2.8 2.1
*Osceola .2 0 .1 .3 .2 .4 .5 .2 .7 .5
*Polk .1 0 .1 .2 .1 .2 .3 .1 .4 .3
Putnam .9 0 .6 .2 e .2 1.1 e 1.1 .8
St. Johns .6 0 .3 .1 e e .7 e .7 .3
*St. Lucie .6 0 .3 e .1 .1 .6 .1 .7 .4
Seminole 1.8 e 1.6 .1 .1 .2 1.9 .1 2.0 1.8
Volusia 1.7 0 1.4 .2 .2 .3 1.9 .2 2.1 1.7
Entire area 17.9 e 13.7 4.2 1.5 5.1 22.1 1.5 23.6 18.8
* Indicates that figures listed are for portion of the county within the St. Johns basin, not for the total county.
e Less than 0.05 mgd.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


was consumed in serving the rural population. A total of 22.1 mgd
was from ground water and 1.5 mgd from surface water. Water for
rural use, by counties, is tabulated in Table 5.

IRRIGATION

Water withdrawn for irrigation was determined to be 351 mgd,
or 394,000 acre-feet, in 1965, applied on 232,000 acres. Of that
total, 200 mgd was withdrawn from ground water and 150 mgd from
surface water sources. Of the water withdrawn for irrigation, an
estimated 172 mgd, or 49 per cent, was consumed. Water used for
sprinkler irrigation is mostly lost through evapotranspiration in this
climatic region although in conventional irrigation systems the return
flow and losses to streams or to ground water are considerable. The
large consumptive use in irrigation indicates a relatively inefficient
use of water as compared to industrial use. Water used for irrigation
is tabulated inTable 6.

SELF-SUPPLIED INDUSTRIAL

Industry in the area is increasing rapidly. Some industrial uses
have high withdrawal requirements but consume little water since
most is used for cooling and processing without being evaporated or
incorporated into a product. The withdrawal was 172 mgd in 1965
of which 7.7 mgd, or 4.5 per cent was consumed. By source of water,
117 mgd was from wells and 55.0 mgd from surface sources, of
which 1.0 mgd was saline surface water. Fuel-electric power genera-
tion is not included in the above industrial use. A total of 1,997 mgd
was withdrawn for fuel-electric power cooling water, of which only
9.4 mgd, or less than half of one per cent, was consumed. Most of
the fuel-electric cooling water is saline surface water. Table 7 lists the
self-supplied industrial water use, and Table 8, the water used for
fuel-electric power production in 1965, by counties.
Figure 17 shows the water-use distribution by source and pur-
pose and a comparison of water withdrawn and water consumed. The
pie-charts show the portions obtained from ground water, surface
water, and saline waters and the consumptive use of water for public
supply, rural, irrigation, industrial, and fuel-electric power uses. The
bar chart in the figure shows the consumptive use as compared to
total use, or withdrawal, and the water source.
Although industrial and fuel-electric power withdrawals are
great, the consumptive use is relatively small. Re-use, or recirculation
of water could be a means of lowering withdrawal demands. About








TABLE 6 WATER USED FOR IRRIGATION, BY COUNTIES, IN ST. JOHNS RIVER BASIN AND ADJACENT
COASTAL AREAS,

COUNTIES ACRES WATER WITHDRAWN CONSUMED WATER WITHDRAWN CONSUMED
IRRIGATED Surface Ground Surface Ground
Water Water Total Water Water Total
Ac/ft Ac/ft Ac/ft Ac/ft mgd mgd mgd mgd

* Alachua 2,270 400 1,300 1,700 1,100 0.4 1.2 1.6 1.0
Brevard 24,000 5,100 56,500 61,600 39,400 4.5 50.4 54.9 35.2
Clay 3,000 0 5,600 5,600 4,500 0 5.0 5.0 4.0
* Duval 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Flagler 6,500 0 3,900 3,900 1,600 0 3.5 3.5 1.4
Indian River 50,600 44,000 29,300 70,300 29,000 36.6 26.2 62.8 25.9
* Lake 20,000 13,500 15,700 29,200 10,600 12.1 14.0 26.1 9.5
* Levy 100 0 200 200 200 0 .2 .2 .2
* Marion 14,400 3,400 16,100 19,500 5,400 3.0 14.4 17.4 4.8
* Okeechobee 4,000 7,200 1,100 8,300 3,600 6.4 1.0 7.4 3.2
* Orange 18,900 15,900 13,600 29,500 13,200 11.9 12.1 24.0 11.8
* Osceola 1,200 1,100 1,100 2,200 1,100 1.0 1.0 2.0 1.0
* Polk *9,200 *1,000 *14,900 *15,900 8,000 .9 13.6 14.5 7.1
Putnam 13,000 1,700 13,000 14,700 7,500 1.5 11.6 13.1 6.7
St. Johns 22,000 0 15,600 15,600 7,000 0 13.9 13.9 6.2
* St. Lucie 29,220 73,000 24,000 97,000 49,000 65.0 21.4 86.4 43.7
Seminole 10,000 6,600 5,400 12,000 5,400 5.9 4.8 10.7 4.8
Volusia 3,700 1,300 6,900 8,200 6,000 1.2 6.2 7.4 5.4
Totals- 232,090 171,200 223,200 394,400 192,600 150.4 200.5 350.9 171.5


* Indicates that figures listed are for portion of the county
for the total county.
* From SCS report.


within the St. Johns basin, not







TABLE 7 SELF-SUPPLIED INDUSTRIAL WATER, BY COUNTIES, IN
COASTAL AREAS, 1965.


ST. JOHNS RIVER BASIN AND ADJACENT


WATER WITHDRAWN, MILLION GALLONS PER DAY USED FOR
COUNTIES Ground Water Surface Water All Water AIR COND. CONSUMED
Fresh Saline Fresh Saline Fresh Saline (mgd) Fresh (mgd)

*Alachua 11.7 0 0 0 11.7 0 9.4 2.7
Brevard 1.0 0 0 0 1.0 0 0 .1
Clay 1.5 0 0 0 1.5 0 0 .2
* Duval 47.0 0 0 1.0 47.0 1.0 2.5 2.0
Flagler 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Indian River 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
*Lake 15.4 0 0 0 15.4 0 0 .8
*Levy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
*Marion 4.5 0 0 0 4.5 0 0 .2
*Okeechobee 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
*Orange 4.8 0 0 0 4.8 0 .2 .2
*Osceola 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
*Polk 27.0 0 0 0 27.0 0 0 .7
Putnam 3.0 0 54.0 0 57.0 0 0 .5
St.Johns 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
* St. Lucie .3 0 0 0 .3 0 .1 .1
Seminole 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Volusia .4 .2 0 0 .4 .2 0 .2
Totals 116.6 .2 54.0 1.0 170.6 1.2 12.2 7.7


* Indicates that figures listed are for portion of
not for the total county.


the county within the St. Johns basin,













TABLE 8 WATER USED FOR FUEL-ELECTRIC POWER, BY COUNTIES, IN ST. JOHNS RIVER BASIN AND
ADJACENT COASTAL AREAS, 1965.

COOLING WATER OTHER WATER
SELF SUPPLIES (mgd) PUBLIC SELF SUPPLIES (mgd) PUBLIC
COUNTIES Surface Water Ground Water SUPPLY Surface Water Ground Water SUPPLY ALL WATER
Fresh Saline Fresh Saline (mgd) Fresh Saline Fresh Saline (mgd) SUPPLIED CONSUMED
Alachua 0 0 0 0 1.0 0 0 0 0 0 1.0 0.4
Brevard 0 785 0 0 0 0 0 .2 0 .1 785.3 4.8
Duval 0 553 0 0 .7 0 0 .1 0 0 553.8 0
Indian River 0 75 0 0 0 0 0 e 0 0 75.0 .2
Levy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 e 0 0 e .1
Orange 95 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 e 95.0 .1
Osceola 0 0 .2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .2 0
Putnam 130 0 0 0 0 0 0 .1 0 0 130.0 .7
St. Lucie 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 e 6.0 .2
Volusia 350 0 0 0 0 0 0 .2 0 0 350.2 2.9
Totals 575 1,419 .2 0 1.7 0 0 .6 0 .1 1,996.6 9.4


e Less than 0.05 mgd.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


half of the water withdrawn for irrigation is consumed and more
than two-thirds of the water for public use is returned to the surface
or ground water sources. Quantities for parts of counties within the
St. Johns River basin and adjacent coastal area are either from actual
data obtained from the users or estimated on the basis of land area
and land use.


SURFACE WATER

For convenience in the discussion of the surface water features,
the area is divided into four sub-areas: the upper St. Johns River
basin upstream from the mouth of the Oklawaha River; the Okla-
waha River basin; the lower St. Johns River basin, below the mouth
of the Oklawaha River; and the narrow coastal strip between the St.
Johns River basin and the Atlantic Ocean.


UPPER ST. JOHNS RIVER BASIN

The relation of the average discharge to drainage area along the
main stem of the St. Johns River is shown in Figure 18. As indicated
by the solid part of the plot, the unit runoff in the upstream reaches
is very uniform. The downward extension of the plot suggests that
the computed drainage area upstream of Melbourne is too small or
that considerable water is diverted from the basin in this area. The
likelihood of some diversion is substantiated by the higher unit
runoff in the coastal basins immediately to the east of this area south
of Melbourne (see section on coastal areas). Diking and canalization
in the area upstream of Melbourne complicates delineation of the
drainage divide for the St. Johns River.
The relation between average discharge and drainage area down-
stream from DeLand is based on estimates of the average flow at
Palatka and at Jacksonville. The accuracy of net flow determinations
at Jacksonville is questionable as records are adequate only to evalu-
ate the upstream and downstream volumes of tidal flow. The average
discharge of the St. Johns River above the mouth of the Oklawaha
River is estimated as 4,000 cfs on the basis of 3,270 cfs discharge at
the gaging station near DeLand, which has 86 per cent of the
drainage area. The increase in average flow of the main stem as it is
successively joined by its tributaries is indicated by the flow chart (as
shown in Figure 19).








36 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY




RURAL
IRRIGATION 18.8 MGD
SALINE 172 MGD FUEL-ELECTRIC
SURFACE GROUND POWER,9.4 MGD
WATER WATER
1420 MGO 513 MGD
PUBLIC
SUPPLY
53.5 MGD


FRESH
SURFACE
WATER INDUSTRIAL
787 MGD 7.7 MGD

50- SOURCE OF WATER WITHDRAWN WATER CONSUMPTION, BY PURPOSE OR _
OR USED, TOTAL, 2720 MGD. USE CLASSIFICATION, TOTAL 261 MGD.




300 GROUND WATER

D SURFACE WATER

y CONSUMPTIVE USE
250 -





200 -












-..- 0___ 77_











PUBLIC SUPPLY RURAL USE IRRIGATION INDUSTRIAL FUEL-ELECTRIC
(SELF-SUPPLIED) POWER (COOLING)
Figure 17 Graphs showing water source, purpose, and relation of
consumptive use to water withdrawal in northeast Florida








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


Average discharge increases quite uniformly with drainage area
in the reach downstream from Jane Green Creek. The average dis-
charge in the St. Johns River near Cocoa, with 1,331 square miles
drainage area, is 1,210 cfs or 0.91 cfs per square mile; however,
minimum flows approach zero.
Figure 20 shows the maximum, minimum and median concen-
tration of dissolved solids, and the concentration equaled or ex-
ceeded 5 and 25 per cent of the time, for the St. Johns River near
Cocoa. Also shown are the calcium, sodium, sulfate, and chloride
proportions of the total dissolved solids, and the corresponding
hardness as calcium carbonate. The water temperature varies daily
and seasonally (as shown in Figure 21). Information on the water
temperature is valuable in planning the use of the water for industrial
cooling and for evaluating the suitability of the water for fish and


10,000





8,000


S7,000


i 6,000

,000
U)

w 4,000


C, 3oo0


2,000


1,000


0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 1
AVERAGE DISCHARGE, CUBIC FEET PER SECOND
Figure 18 Graph of relationship of drainage area to average discharge
for main stem of St. Johns River


0,000


ATLANTIC OCEAN I
JACKSONVILLE--

/
/
/

PALATKA----













-NEAR SANFORD (OUTLET OF LAKE MONROE)
'N.NEAR SANFORD (INLET OF LAKE MONROE)


NEAR COCOA__________________
_ _.. ~~~~- NEAR COCOA ____ _...__ ___ ___ __


/ -NEAR MELBOURNE









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


other aquatic life. It is interesting to note that the maximum daily
temperature, which occures in August, is nearly 350C (950F).

JANE GREEN AND WOLF CREEKS

Jane Green Creek drains 260 square miles in the upper St. Johns
River basin. The average flow of 1.38 cfs per square mile of drainage


FLOW SCALE








500 -
300
200

-- B ~a divide
- Sub-bafi divide
62,
S i


0 3


OK E C


'ICHCt


80


Figure 19 Flow chart showing average flow of streams in northeast Florida


^
r


^A
"^
















- VALUE EQUALED OR EXCEEDEDI5 PERCENT


II OF THE TIME DURING THE MONTH


I I


Note: Awili'ary scafes
of rfIght are aoroximate.


.. I "I


VALUE EQUALED OR EXCEEDED 25 PERCENT IV
OF THE TIME DURING THE MONTH
MAXFMUM J--. V *1--- --





1000-



S_ RECORD USED: OCT 95 TO SEPT 1962
500- L--- ---- --


I-l

f.




0.
,,l




.o
C,





o



co
sJ
-j

o
0
III
0


OCT. NOV. DEC JAN. FEB. MARL APR.


MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT .


After MacKichan. 1967 MEDIANM -

--- _WIM .
^'.- ^.v ^, r~~rI ^ ___ __ I MIIMUM __ __ __ ___ __


0


180' 5
I SO, IS
500 1|40

q 1130


o40 400 2

riG
120
0300;3
,:00. ^90


-gZOG' 70

60 60.


40 100- 5
40
20
3C
0
05 20S


800


1000 70

900
sWq
600



S800







300
200



100 I00


220

200



I0




I O
1 80




6C

40
20

0


Figure 20 Graph showing maximum, minimum, and median daily dissolved
solids equaled or exceeded 5 and 25 per cent of the time, for St.
Johns River near Cocoa


I1 1


I I II k I[ I I[ I I' ,


I


bWVW































DEC. JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY
Figure 21 Graph showing maximum, minimum, and median daily temperature
for St. Johns River near Cocoa







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


area is the second highest of the gaged tributaries and probably is a
result of the relative steepness of the basin slope coupled with low
soil permeabilities that impede infiltration. The maximum observed
discharge of 18,400 cfs is equal to 73 cfs per square mile. The creek
has been dry for long periods, such as 116 days in 1956. The
recurrence interval of a discharge of 18,400 cfs is 48 years (Barnes
and Golden). The flow duration curve for Jane Green Creek (fig. 15)
shows it to be dry about 8 per cent of the time.
The unit runoff for Jane Green Creek is exceeded by that for
Wolf Creek which averages 1.49 cfs per square mile. The maximum
runoff from the 31 square mile area of Wolf Creek near Deer Park is
293 cfs per square mile. Water quality in both streams is generally
good except for high color values at times. Specific conductivity
varies inversely with discharge from about 50 to 400 micromhos.
Hardness and chloride are low.
ECONLOCKHATCHEE RIVER

The Econlockhatchee River drains 260 square miles of the
western slope of the St. Johns River basin between Orlando and
,Bithlo. The headwaters are an elongated swamp from which drainage
is slow and evaporation and transpiration losses are high. Some of the
topographically delineated drainage basin of its largest tributary, the
Little Econlockhatchee River, are karst areas that contribute no
runoff. The unit runoff is 1.16 cfs per square mile. The maximum
recorded discharge at Chuluota is 11,000 cfs which is equivalent to
46 cfs per square mile. The recurrence interval of a flood of this
magnitude exceeds 50 years. The channel of the Econlockhatchee
River is well developed in its lower reach. In this reach the channel is
incised into the water-table aquifer so that the river derives some
base flow from the shallow aquifer during even the most severe
droughts. Further, some low flow augmentation (11 cfs in 1963) is
derived from effluent from the Orlando sewage plant. Figure 13
shows the frequency at which the minimum average flows for
selected durations are likely to recur.
Chemical quality of the water is generally within acceptable
limits with moderate hardness but with fairly high color during high
flows.
DEEP CREEK
Deep Creek drains about 160 square miles in Volusia County.
Discharge varies from no flow at times to maximum flows that
exceed 2,600 cfs. Water quality is good except for fairly high color at
all times.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


WEKIVA RIVER

The Wekiva River drains about 200 square miles from State
Highway 46, much of which is karst terrain from which no surface
flow occurs. Much of the rainfall infiltrates downward to recharge
the Floridan aquifer and emerges in the basin from Rock and Wekiva
springs. The remainder of the basin includes many swamps and lakes,
most of which drain to the Wekiva River by way of its tributary, the
Little Wekiva River.
The combined surface runoff and spring inflow provide an
average yield of 1.39 cfs per square mile, or 278 cfs, at State
Highway 46. The effect of infiltration of rainfall to ground-water
storage and subsequent return to the stream through large springs is
so pronounced that the average discharge is less than three times the
minimum discharge. Low-flow frequency curves are shown in Figure
22. The flow-duration curve (figure 16) shows that at least 100 cfs
(65 mgd) is available at State Highway. 46 near Sanford at all times.
The water has an average hardness of about 110 mg/1
(milligrams per liter). Specific conductance varies only about 15 per
cent from an average of about 260 micromhos.
OKLAWAHA RIVER BASIN
The Oklawaha River, the largest tributary of the St. Johns
River, has a drainage area of 2,870 square miles. It comprises about
one-third of the drainage basin and contributes about one-quarter of
the surface water outflow from the St. Johns River basin. The average
discharge of about 2,050 cfs is equivalent to 0.72 cfs per square mile.
The relatively low unit runoff is the result of a large noncontributing
area, the flow of ground water out of the basin, high evaporation
losses from the large lakes in the upper reaches and
evapotranspiration losses from the swamps in the lower reaches.
Variation in the flow of the Oklawaha River near its mouth is
small because of the attenuating effects of temporary storage of
water in the ground and in lakes that is subsequently released at
relatively uniform rates, as, for example, from Silver Springs. The
maximum observed discharge is only 4.3 times the average flow and
the average flow is only 2.9 times the minimum discharge. The
dependable flow of this river is at least 450 mgd, or 697 cfs.
Average yield from the basin above Silver Springs is 420 cfs,
only 0.39 cfs per square mile. Yield from the Orange Creek basin is
188 cfs or only 0.17 cfs per square mile. That subbasin, however,
includes Paynes Prairie, a non-contributing area of 675 square miles
in parts of Alachua, Levy, and Marion counties. The remainder of the









REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


500





.365 days
400, 273 days Average flow: 278 cfs
o400 183 days I I I
0o 120 days Example: For a 10-year recurrence interval
/ /60 days the I -day minimum flow is 139 cfs and the
/ 30 days 365-days minimum flow is 221 cfs
a.


300
CiD












From Lichtler, Anderson, and Joyner, 1968
100 I- I- -I I ii
1.01 1.I 1.2 1.5 2 3 4 5 7 10 20 30
RECURRENCE INTERVAL, YEARS


Figure 22 Low-flow frequency curves for Wekiva River near Sanford

Oklawaha River basin has an average yield of 1,450 cfs or 2.2 cfs per
square mile. This high yield results from the emergence of previously
infiltrated water as springs in this part of the basin, including Silver
Springs with an average flow of 530 million gallons per day of good
quality water.
Water in the Oklawaha River basin is generally of good quality
except near the mouth where springs and seepage from the Floridan
aquifer and discharge from deep artesian wells contribute more
highly mineralized water to the stream. Numerous lakes in the Lake







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Louisa and Lake Minnehaha vicinity contain water of excellent
quality, with total dissolved solids averaging only 25 to 40 mg/1.
Palatlakaha Creek contains water of similar quality. Lake Apopka
and Lake Dora have total dissolved solids above 200 mg/1, with
calcium carbonate hardness of 100-160 mg/1, which is probably due
partly to large inflows from the artesian aquifer through springs.
Lakes Eustis, Harris, and Griffin have about half the dissolved solid
concentration as that of Lakes Apopka and Dora. Silver Springs-
contributes a large flow of high carbonate water which again raises
the total dissolved solids to more than 200 mg/1. Other constituents
in water from Silver Springs are low. Chloride and other chemical
constituents are low throughout the basin. Spring discharges are clear
and all lakes and streams are low in color except in the extreme
headwaters, where color reaches more than 200 units in small creeks
and lakes. Contamination from fertilizers and pesticides, especially
from the intensively farmed citrus groves and muck farms, has
contributed to the dissolved chemical constituents in the basin
waters. Water in the Orange Creek basin contains an average of about
70 mg/1 of dissolved solids; it is generally good for all purposes but
color and iron are sometimes objectionable in Newnans Lake and
Camps Canal.

LOWER ST. JOHNS RIVER BASIN

The average discharge of the St. Johns River at its mouth is
estimated at 8,300 cfs. Reversal of flow by tidal action causes
upstream and downstream flow at Jacksonville to reach 130,000 cfs.
The capacity of the main stem of the St. Johns River to store
water is tremendous owing to: (1) the great width of channel in the
reach between Palatka and Jacksonville, (2) its low gradients, (3)
several large lakes upstream from Palatka, and (4) the low flood plain
which in places is more than ten miles wide. Storm water is held in
storage for long periods before being discharged to the sea.
The recorded range in stage along the main stem varies from 5.9
feet at State Highway 60, in Indian River County, to 11.0 feet at
State Highway 46, near Lake Harney. The range in stage of 7.1 feet
at Jacksonville is partly the effect of wind and tide. The greatest
ranges occur in the reach between Lake Washington and Lake
Harney.
Water quality in the main stem is generally poor during low
water and fair during high water, as indicated by the graph in figure 3
which shows the chloride concentration below Lake Harney to
exceed 200 mg/1 most of the time. The water is also very hard and







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


color exceeds 200 units at times. Serious pollution from industrial
wastes and urban centers is presently under investigation by several
agencies.
The principal tributaries to the lower St. Johns River are Dunns
Creek, Rice Creek, and Black Creek. Their flow characteristics and
general chemical quality are discussed below.

DUNNS CREEK

Dunns Creek is the second largest of the St. Johns River
tributaries. Its drainage basin includes about 400 square miles of low
swamps, a hundred square miles of karst terrain with no surface
runoff and about 30 square miles of lakes on the east side of the St.
Johns River. Little Haw Creek and Middle Haw Creek, 2 tributaries
of Dunns Creek, have average flows of 90 cfs and 60 cfs, equal to
0.75 and 1.50 cfs per square mile. The prorated yield from the total
gaged area is 0.94 cfs per square mile, or an average runoff of about
500 cfs for this basin. The yield from Little Haw Creek basin is low
because about half of its drainage area has no surface runoff. The
maximum recorded discharge of 27 cfs per square mile from the part
of Little Haw Creek basin drained by streams is indicative of the flat
slopes and the storage capacity of the swamps in this basin. Middle
Haw Creek has a maximum recorded flow of 60 cfs per square mile,
and in most years the flow declines to insignificant amounts or
ceases. Flow in Dunns Creek is subject to twice daily reversal at
Crescent Lake because of tide induced backwater from the St. Johns
River.
Except for high color, water quality in Dunns Creek basin varies
from excellent in the upper reaches of Haw Creek to poor in and
downstream from Crescent Lake. Specific conductance in Crescent
Lake exceeds 1000 micromhos and chloride concentration exceeds
200 mg/1 much of the time. In the upper reaches, Lake Disston and
Little Haw Creek have specific conductances of only 70 micromhos
and chloride concentration less than 20 mg/1; color, however,
reaches 165 units. Middle Haw Creek is high in color with up to 700
units at times although its chemical quality is excellent.

RICE CREEK

Rice Creek drains 354 square miles north and west of Palatka.
The average flow for six years of record is 404 cfs, or 1.14 cfs per
square mile. The estimated yield from 174 square miles of the upper
basin is 0.30 cfs per square mile, which indicates runoff of 1.95 cfs







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


per square mile from the swampy area in the lower basin. Water from
wells penetrating the Floridan aquifer in the Etonia Creek basin
contributes to the base flow. The maximum observed discharge of
about 7,000 cfs, or 20 cfs per square mile, is low and probably
results from the storage of storm runoff in swamps and lakes. The
lower reaches of Rice Creek are affected by tidal backwater from the
St. Johns River. As much as 100 million cubic feet of water per day
may enter the creek from the St. Johns River as a result of rising
tide.
The water quality in the upper reaches of Rice Creek and of
Etonia Creek is good, with low to moderate concentrations of all
chemical constituents. Total dissolved solids and chloride content
increase in the lower reaches of Rice Creek but are within acceptable
tolerances. Serious industrial pollution occurs in lower Rice Creek,
which affects St. Johns River upstream as well as downstream
because of tidal action.

BLACK CREEK
Black Creek drains 474 square miles of the eastern slope of Trail
Ridge west of the St. Johns River. The creek bed slopes an average of'
10 feet per mile which results in high flow per unit area despite some
attenuation by lakes and swamps. The maximum observed discharge
of 13,900 cfs for the South Fork is 104 cfs per square mile and for
the North Fork is 12,600 cfs, 72 cfs per square mile.
The South Fork contributes 44 per cent and the North Fork
contributes 39 per cent of the 515 cfs total average flow from Black
Creek and small tributaries below the confluence of the North and
South Forks contribute the remainder. Average runoff ranges from
0.37 cfs per square mile from the upper Yellow Water Creek basin to
1.48 cfs per square mile from part of the upper North Fork. Average
runoff from the entire basin is 1.08 inches.
The concentration of dissolved solids in the upper reaches of
North Fork Black Creek averages about 30 mg/1 and increases
downstream to about 130 mg/1, but has reached more than 300
mg/1. The average concentration of dissolved solids in the South
Fork Black Creek is about the same as in North Fork, but with a
greater upper range and with considerable organic matter. Except for
some objectionable color and iron at times, water from South Fork
Black Creek is suitable for all uses.

COASTAL BASINS

The streams draining the coastal area have relatively small







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


drainage basins. The largest, Tomoka River, drains only 152 square
miles. The coastal lagoons (Tolomato, or North River, Matazas River,
Halifax River and Indian River) are connected with artificial channels
where required to establish continuity of the Intracoastal waterway,
and Pablo Creek is connected to Tolomato River to form a section of
the waterway east of Jacksonville, thus changing the drainage pattern
in that area. Water draining from the coastal area into the lagoons
reaches the ocean through five inlets that connect the coastal lagoons
to the ocean.
Information on the more important coastal streams and canals
is given below. Flow and quality of water are variable as drainage is
both natural and by drains from intensely farmed agricultural areas
which at times utilize highly mineralized artesian water for irrigation.

MOULTRIE CREEK

Moultrie Creek drains 23 square miles of ridges and swamps on
the eastern slope of the coastal ridge. The channel cuts through
several of the sand ridges which permits drainage to a coastal lagoon,
known as Matanzas River.
The average discharge of Moultrie Creek is 24 cfs or about 1 cfs
per square mile. The maximum observed discharge of 1,450 cfs, or
62 cfs per square mile, is fairly low and reflects the attenuating
effects of storage in the swamps feeding the creek and percolation
into the surficial sandy material. The minimum discharge is 0.1 cfs.
The water quality varies inversely with discharge and although
low in most chemical constituents is moderately hard to very hard;
color is high during periods of high discharge when decayed vegeta-
tion is flushed from swampy areas.
TOMOKA RIVER

Tomoka River drains a swampy area south and west of Daytona
Beach similar to the area drained by Moultrie Creek. The average
discharge from the basin is estimated to be 155 cfs, or 1 cfs per
square mile. The maximum observed discharge is 2,170 cfs, or 28 cfs
per square mile, at the gaging station and indicates that the peak flow
is attenuated by swamp storage and probably some percolation into
the surficial sediments. The minimum recorded flow is 0.6 cfs.
Quality of water is generally good except for color values that
at times exceeds 400 units in Little Tomoka River, and about 200
units in Tomoka River near Holly Hill. The water is generally soft
but during low flows is moderately hard.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


TURKEY CREEK

Turkey Creek drains 95.5 square miles above the gaging station
southwest of Melbourne. The entire drainage basin is gridded by an
extensive system of canals. Some interconnection by gravity flow
exists and considerable, but unevaluated, amounts of water are
diverted by pumping into the Turkey Creek basin from the St. Johns
River basin.
The average flow at the gaging station is 135 cfs, or 1.42 cfs per
square mile; considerably greater than that from the undeveloped
basins to the north. This higher yield is caused partly by increased
drainage of the water-table aquifer by the canals and partly by
pumpage from the St. Johns basin. The maximum discharge of 2,798
cfs, or 29 cfs per square mile, is low despite the improved channels of
flow. The high minimum flow of 15 cfs is the result of inflow from
the water-table aquifer.
Water in Turkey Creek is considered hard and specific conduc-
tivity varies from about 50 micromhos during high flows to more
than 1,500 during low flows. Chloride concentration exceeds 250
mg/1 much of the time.

FELLSMERE CANAL

This canal drains 78.4 square miles above the gaging station into
Sebastian Creek between Melbourne and Vero Beach. A complete
system of irrigation and drainage canals with dikes and pumps has
been constructed in the area drained. Considerable interconnection
exists with the St. Johns River and with the parallel Big 40 Canal to
the north.
The average flow in the canal is 131 cfs, or 1.67 cfs per square
mile. This relatively high yield results from causes similar to those
mentioned for Turkey Creek; and, in addition, the basin contains
numerous flowing wells. As with Turkey Creek the high base flow of
18 cfs is the result of drainage from the water table aquifer and flow
from artesian wells. The maximum flow of record is 1,880 cfs, or 24
cfs per square mile.
Water in the canal is hard and average chloride concentration
exceeds 100 mg/1 in the eastern end. The water is suitable for most
uses although color at times is objectionable.

CANALS NEAR VERO BEACH

Three canals, North Canal, Main Canal, and South Canal, drain








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


an area of topographically undetermined size west of Vero Beach.
The canals are the primary outlets of the drainage and irrigation
system in the area derived in part from return flow from artesian
wells. The flows are completely controlled by dams and pumps and
empty into Indian River between Sebastian and Fort Pierce Inlets.
The average flows from the canals are as follows: North Canal,
27.6 cfs; Main Canal, 75.8 cfs; and South Canal, 38.2 cfs. The
respective maximum flows resulting from the storm of September
23, 1960 are 1,790, 1,900 and 1,930 cfs. The minimums are 2.6 cfs,
1.2, and 2.0 cfs.
Quality of the water is comparable to that in Fellsmere Canal,
and is affected by return irrigation drainage waters and flow from
artesian wells which add dissolved minerals to the water in the canals.
Indian River, Banana River, and other lagoons along the coast
contain water that is brackish or approaches seawater in quality. The
chloride concentration, which at times has exceeded that of sea-
water, becomes as low as 5,000 mg/1 during periods of high runoff.

OTHER SMALL STREAMS

Some data have been collected on many other streams as shown
in table 9.

TABLE 9. DRAINAGE AREAS AND OBSERVED EXTREMES OF DIS-
CHARGE FOR OTHER SMALL STREAMS IN THE ST.
JOHNS RIVER BASIN AND COASTAL AREA.


Drainage area, Discharge, CFS
Name of Stream square miles Maximum Minimum

Taylor Creek near Cocoa 55.2 3,000 0
Jim Creek near Christmas 22.7 3,750 0
Deep Creek near Osteen 120 *2,630 0.09
Deep Creek near Barberville 23 492 0.06
Big Davis Creek at Bayard 13.6 780 0.59
Durbin Creek near Durbin 36.7 4,140 0
3rtega River near Jacksonville 27.8 1,670 0.2
Pottsburg Creek near South Jacksonville 9.89 1,490 0.16
rout River at Dinsmore 19.9 646 -
edar Creek near Panama Park 12 0
Dunn Creek near Eastport 4.86 720 0
Spruce Creek near Samsula 32 1,610 0
crane Creek at Melbourne 12.6 665 1.8


"Maximum daily







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


LAKES

A large part of the "lake country" of Florida is within the area
of this report. The chain of interconnected lakes in the Oklawaha
River basin, including Apopka, Harris, Eustis, Griffin, and others, are
important recreational assets and, through their temperature mod-
erating effect during short periods of extreme cold, are a great
benefit to the citrus industry. The large, shallow lakes along the main
stem of the St. Johns River, such as Lakes George, Harney, Monroe,
and others, are a distinct feature of the basin although they may be
considered only wide reaches of the channel.
The interconnection of lakes by improved or artificial channels
is a continuous development that modifies drainage divides and flow
patterns to some degree. Controlled storage of water in some lakes
for recreation and the drainage of swamps and some shallow lakes to
develop land for urban and agricultural purposes change the basin
runoff characteristics.
Water-stage data have been collected for 56 lakes in the area.
Data range from a few spot observations to as much as 45 years of
record.
Lake altitudes range from half a foot below sea level along the
St. Johns River during droughts to almost 178 feet above sea level
for Kingsley Lake during flood periods. Fluctuations in stage range
from less than 2 feet for Sand Hill Lake to more than 32 feet for
Pebble Lake.
Lakes in the area range in size from less than one acre for some
sinkhole lakes to about 70 square miles for Lake George. Lake
Apopka, with 47.9 square miles, is the largest lake that is not a part
of the main stem of the St. Johns River. Seven other lakes exceed 10
square miles in area.
Figure 23 shows hydrographs of Lake Apopka, Lake Poinsett,
and Orange Lake, each lake being in a different hydrologic setting.
Lake Apopka is located where the piezometric surface is higher than
the lake surface on the south side but lower on the north side;
however, the formations below the lake bottom restrict the upward
or downward movement of water so that the lake level is largely
independent of changes in artesian pressure. Regulation of outflow
by the control structure in Apopka-Beauclair Canal tends to limit the
fluctuations of the lake level. Lake Poinsett is a widening of the main
stem of the St. Johns River and fluctuates with river stages. The river
is capable of transporting large volumes of water in a short time,
which results in abrupt changes and a considerable range in stage.
Lakes Washington, Monroe, Harney, George, and other main stem









REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


0961







z
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lakes react similarly. The connection between Orange Lake and the
Floridan aquifer is fairly good so that the lake tends to fluctuate,
except as affected by surface flow, with the same range and patterns
as the piezometric surface.
Figures 24, 25, 26, and 27 are stage-duration curves for selected
lakes in the area and show the percent of time that specific


0
14






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0




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BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


-1
> 27


S26
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uL 23

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LI 22
f h Weekly averages, April 1936 to December


0


19-




Figure 24 Stage-duration durve for Lake Kerr near Eureka


elevations were equaled or exceeded. Stage-duration curves do not,
however, indicate the chronological sequence of events or the length
of time that the lake may have remained at or above specific levels.
The quality of water in lakes, such as those along the St. Johns
and Oklawaha Rivers, tends to be similar to that in the stream system

of which they are a part. Lakes without surface outlets, and sinkhole
type lakes, have good quality water because the water movement is
generally downward from surface runoff containing little mineraliza-
tion. However, man's use of fertilizers and pesticides, some of which
are subsequently carried by surface and subsurface waters draining
into lakes, are adding chemical constituents which are deleterious to

the water quality.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


66




Lake Dora Daily averages July 1942 to September 1964
64


63 ___





61 Lake Eustis Daily averages July 1956 to September 1964






59 -- -- -- y v -- -- -- -- --r




Lake Griffin Daily averages June 1955 to September 1964
57


K CQ I ____ ___ _____ ____ ____ ___ ---- ---- ---- ----


0 10 20 30 40 50 60
PERCENT OF TIME


70 80 90 100


Figure 25 Stage-duration curve for Lakes Dora, Eustis and Griffin,
in northeast Florida


Although lake water is used for the irrigation of residential areas
md adjacent citrus groves, the primary use of lakes is for recreation
md for home sites both for the tourist industry and for permanent
residents. A few lakes are used as a source of municipal supply, such
as Lake Washington for the city of Melbourne, however, ground
water is the more dependable supply in the report area. The acceler-
ating development of lake property for residential use and the
esthetic and recreational values of lakes at optimum levels make
control of levels within a limited range desirable.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


100





97-








S95

o

S94

Daily averages, March 1957 to September 1964
93
_ 92








0 Io 20 30 40 50 60
PERCENT OF TIME
ug 96 --- -- -- -- ^ ^ -


kLI 9 5 -- -- -- -- -- -- -


S 94f -- -- -- -- -- -- -







< PERCENT OF TIME


70 80 90 100


Figure 26 Stage-duration curve for Lake Louisa near Clermont



GROUND WATER

The largest and most important source of potable water in the
St. Johns River basin is ground water in artesian and overlying
shallow aquifers.

SHALLOW AQUIFERS

Ground water in shallow aquifers includes water in the zone of
saturation under water-table conditions as well as water in shallow
artesian aquifers below the water-table aquifer and above the Flo-
ridan aquifer. The water-table aquifer consists mainly of sand and
clayey sand of Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene and Holocene ages and
the shallow artesian aquifers occur in limestone layers and shell beds








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


-i
Wli> >
0 w 177

W <7 --------- -- -- -- ---^ -- --






0 0 20 30 40 60 70 8 90 00
S
w \
















conditions.


the Floridan aquifer, ranges from less than a foot in parts of Marion
>- 174
W-W

173 -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- --


172 1 --- ---- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
PERCENT OF TIME
Figure 27 Stage-duration curve for Kingsley Lake near Camp Blanding


in the Hawthorn Formation and occasionally in sand beds within the
more recent formations where clayey lenses create local artesian
conditions.

The thickness of the water-table aquifer, or materials overlying
the Floridan aquifer, ranges from less than a foot in parts of Marion
and Alachua counties to more than 400 feet in Indian River and St.
Lucie counties. Permeability varies from relatively high to very low,
with the thicker more permeable zone in the eastern part of the
report area. The two geologic sections in Figure 28 show the relative
thickness of the shallow deposits.

Considerable water for both domestic and municipal uses has
been obtained from the sandy shallow aquifer in Indian River and
Brevard counties. The cities of Titusville, Eau Gallie, and Melbourne
pumped several million gallons per day from the shallow aquifers
prior to their use of supplies more recently developed from artesian
or surface sources. Moderate supplies may be obtained under con-
trolled pumping in the coastal ridge area in Brevard County and
other counties and lesser supplies are available on the barrier islands,








56 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


while shallow ground-water reservoirs supply low capacity domestic
wells. In eastern St. Johns and Flagler counties, in Seminole County,
western Clay County, and southeastern Alachua County moderate
supplies are obtained for domestic use from wells that draw water



4 I A



Sod PLIENE_- LEE 00L
LEVEL. t . -DOOODO"S




0d- AN PAR ESTOE --- 4d
5od- --t A T -~ -D-- -G0'



aC -- 015 1TO0 M S -600'





Se------------------------?-- 200:

M a S S ED EFR O 8O B MS E E M I L E S 'L 7 d
O D EERTICA L SCAE AE L
-40--
50 3Ai 0 --










Figure 28 Two geologic sections through northeastern Florida




from sand or coquina aquifers and from permeable Miocene age
limestone beds. In Duval County, wells 40 to 150 feet deep supply

water to many users. Wells range from 1 -inch sand points to wells 24
inches in diameter which yield in excess of 100 gpm (gallons per

minute). Supplies from wells in the shallow aquifers are often limited
by the seasonal fluctuations of the water-table or by insufficient depth
of the well; however, shallow wells are a valuable source of water in








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


areas where the depth to artesian water, or the quality of the artesian
water, does not justify its use.

The chemical quality of shallow waters is generally good, al-
though higher in iron and color it is lower in other constituents than
water from the underlying artesian aquifers. This is especially true in
areas of Orange and Seminole counties underlain by quartz sands
where total hardness under 10 mg/1 is common. Chloride is low
except in some areas where the water-table aquifers have become
contaminated by intrusion of salt water from Indian River or the
Atlantic Ocean, or where the piezometric surface of the artesian
aquifer is higher than the water table so that relatively saline ground
water can move upward into the water-table aquifer. Such conditions
occur naturally in years of low rainfall, as in 1956, or are artificially
induced by heavy pumping, both of which lower the head of the
shallow water table permitting upward and landward migration of
salt water. Temperatures of shallow ground water range from about
19 to 270 C., with seasonal variation, in contrast to the nearly
constant temperature of water from the upper part of the Floridan
aquifer, which is most commonly 220-240C (72-750F) in the report
area.

(The shallow aquifers are recharged directly by local rainfall and
by percolation from surface-water bodies. The water moves by grav-
ity from a higher to a lower level at a rate dependent on the
permeability of deposits and the slope of the water table. The water
table in shallow aquifers generally follows the topography but with
less relief, and is generally from 10 to 40 feet below land surface on
high ground and at or near land surface at lakes and swamps)Annual
water-level fluctuation ranges from about five to twenty feet on high
ground to practically none in low or swamp areas, but extremes over
longer periods between years of excess rainfall and drought may be
considerable greater. Figure 29 shows the fluctuation in water level
in a water-table well near Bithlo, Orange County, and its relation to
rainfall and to fluctuations of water level in a nearby well in a
secondary artesian aquifer and in a Floridan aquifer well; and shows
the more rapid response of the shallow water table to rainfall.

Discharge from the shallow aquifers in the report area is by (1)
natural seepage into streams, lakes and the ocean, (2) downward
movement into the Floridan aquifer, (3) loss by evapotranspiration,
and (4) pumpage for irrigation, domestic, and industrial uses. In
much of the Oklawaha River basin, mostly in Lake, Marion, Alachua,










BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


+5




U
0:
U-



z

Z

j -5


0
_j
hi
cc
( -10
0
U,
0
tO
S-15
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U3'
ul

t-2
-25


Figure 29 Hydrographs of wells in water-table, shallow artesian, and Floridan
aquifers one mile east of Bithlo, Orange County, Florida


WATER-TABLE AQUIFER











SHALLOW ARTESIAN AQUIFER


















FLORIDAN AQUIFER












I ,



RAINFALL AT ORLANDO











1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966


-3C



20







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


and Putnam counties, the discharge from the shallow aquifer is
primarily as downward movement into the Floridan aquifer except
for water lost through evapotranspiration. In most of this area little
water is pumped from the shallow aquifer and surface runoff is
negligible. The water table usually fluctuates closely with rainfall as
indicated by the hydrograph in figure 29 of the shallow well near
Bithlo. Where the water-table aquifer is directly or partially con-
nected to the artesian aquifer, water levels fluctuate similarly to the
piezometric surface of the artesian water. Water moves downward
into the artesian aquifer through materials of low to moderate
permeability in areas where the head in the shallow water aquifer is
higher. Where artesian pressure is higher the movement may be
upward into the shallow aquifer.

Much shallow ground water is pumped from small capacity
wells for domestic and livestock uses in the report area. Where
artesian water is of poor quality, especially in Brevard and Indian
River counties, shallow water may economically meet increased
needs. Since permeability and physical conditions are extremely
variable, the shallow aquifer should be thoroughly investigated to
determine local aquifer characteristics prior to the development of
well fields to supply large quantities of water.


ARTESIAN AQUIFERS

The entire report area is underlain by the Floridan aquifer, one
of the most prolific and most studied sources of ground water. The
Floridan aquifer includes the hydraulically connected permeable
limestone and shell beds of the Hawthorn Formation of Miocene age,
the Ocala Group consisting of the Crystal River, Williston, and Inglis
Formations, and the underlying Avon Park and Lake City Lime-
stones, all of Eocene age. The Ocala Group, which is generally the
most productive unit, is not uniform throughout the area and is thin,
or entirely absent, in parts of Seminole, Orange, Volusia, Marion,
Lake and Osceola counties, where the Hawthorn Formation, or
undifferentiated deposits of Miocene and younger age, lie uncon-
formably on limestones older than the Ocala Group. In most areas,
however, the Ocala Group is from 50 to 200 feet thick and has
relatively good permeability because of many cavities and solution
channels. Some cavities are now filled with sand and clay so that the
permeability has been reduced. The Oldsmar Limestone which under-







60 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

lies the Lake City Limestone, generally yields saline water and is not
generally considered as part of the Floridan aquifer.

The uplifted backbone of peninsular Florida is in general both z.
surface water and a ground water divide although locally the divides
may not coincide by several miles. Two geologic sections across parts
of the St. Johns River basin, shown on figure 28, portray somewhat
similar geologic patterns. In general, good quality ground water is
more easily obtained where the water-producing formations are
higher in altitude and in or near recharge areas. These are mostly
west of the St. Johns River except in central Volusia County. In the
northern and southern parts of the area, the prolific water-bearing
formations are generally lower in altitude, greater in depth, more
costly to exploit, and more liable to saline contamination.
Wells drilled into the Floridan aquifer are cased into the upper
limestone bed below which an open hole is drilled to a sufficient
depth so that the well will produce water in adequate quantity.
Figure 30 shows the configuration of the top of the Floridan aquifer
as compiled from recent published and unpublished reports. The
approximate depth to limestone and the length of casing required
may be roughly estimated from figure 30 if the land surface altitude
at the desired location is known. Locally small filled depressions in
fault and sinkhole areas are not uncommon and the top of the
aquifer may differ considerably from that shown.

The height at which water stands in a tightly cased well pene-
trating an artesian aquifer is called the piezometric level. Figure 31
shows the piezometric surface of the principal artesian aquifer in the
St. Johns River basin and adjacent coastal area and the areas of
artesian flow as of July 1961. The piezometric surface fluctuates in
response to recharge to and discharge from the aquifer. In locations
where heavy withdrawal exceeds recharge to the aquifer, the water
levels will progressively decline so that upward movement of saline
water may result; therefore, new well fields and wider spacing of
wells become necessary. The hydrographs of water levels in five wells
in the Floridan aquifer are shown inFigure 321 The long-term, as well
as seasonal, changes in the piezometric level at different locations in
the report area are shown. A graph of annual precipitation at Gaines-
ville in Alachua County which is near a principal recharge area, is
included for comparison of annual variations. The well in Marion
County near Silver Springs, and the one in Volusia County near
Barberville show that the piezometric surface in areas unaffected by
large man-made withdrawals respond to below average and above








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


Inferred fault / /
-50,I---
Structural contours showing altitude 2AoN D / A N VEO
of the top of the Floridan aquifer, in IO- R V E/R i. BEACH
feet above or below mean sea level. D 7 \ 3 a0
Dashed where approximated.

1.300 --0
0 FORT
S T. L U C I E
Figure 2-8. Altitude of the Top of the Floridan Aquifer I
82 8 -- -80
'rcm Bermes, Leve, Lichtler, Faulkner, Vernon, Wyrick.
Figure 30 Map of northeast Florida showing altitude of top of Floridan aquifer

average rainfall, but maintain their levels over a long period of years.
The water level in the well in Duval County has a net decline as a
result of large increases in pumping at Jacksonville. The water level-in
the well in Putnam County is affected by pumping in the Palatka







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


area which increased in the mid 1950's. Decline of water level first
became appreciable in the late 1950's but then stabilized, perhaps
due to salvage of natural discharge or because of increased natural
recharge. The slow decline of water level in the well in southwestern
Brevard County is probably caused by increasing reclamation and
development of lands for agriculture and increasing pumpage for
irrigation.
Recharge to the artesian aquifer is almost entirely from rainfall
within the St. Johns River basin and occurs where rainwater perco-
lates through relatively thin surficial deposits in the highlands area in
Alachua, Marion, Lake, Polk and other counties. Recharge also takes
place through sinkholes and lakes connected to the aquifer, and
through the relatively thick and less permeable surficial deposits
where the water table stands at a level higher than the piezometric
level, as in parts of Seminole, Volusia and Orange counties. Some
recharge also occurs in the coastal ridge area. There is no recharge to
the artesian aquifer in Indian River County, in most of Brevard
County, or in large areas of Duval, St. Johns, and Flagler counties.
Movement of water into the basin is shown by the slope of the
piezometric surface in Polk, Lake, and Highlands counties. Flow is in
the direction of lower water levels, generally at right angle to the
piezometric contours. Movement of water out of the basin to the
west occurs in western Alachua and Marion counties.
Artesian heads may not be uniform throughout the entire
thickness of the aquifer because the more permeable zones are
separated by less permeable zones. Leakage or movement in one zone
may occur without appreciably affecting the head in another higher
or lower zone in the aquifer. In parts of Volusia County, eastern
Orange, Brevard, and Seminole counties, and other areas, upward
movement and discharge from the upper part of the aquifer has
reduced the pressure head in that part of the aquifer. Saline water
and fresh water move upward or downward through fractures or
uncased holes from one zone to another in response to differences in
head. Upward movement also occurs along faults or fractures as
along Haw Creek and the St. Johns River. In areas where Floridar
aquifer water moves upward to the water table and to land surface
much water is lost to unproductive evapotranspiration and no re-
charge takes place. Under these conditions pumping water for benefi-
cial use from the ground-water aquifer tends to lower the water table
and to reduce that loss. Lowering of the water-table would increase
recharge in areas where the gound-water reservoir is filled and poten-
tial recharge is rejected.










REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54 63


800


30* -
















29'-


0



.7-


EXPLANATION

Area where piezometric
-28* surface is above land surface
-1 0-
Piezometric contour
Shows altitude to
which water will rise in wells
Contour interval 10 feet
Datum is mean sea level

Basin divide

Sub-basin divide

From Healy (1962)
82*


Os CE
0 S C\E 0 L

'. I






OK EE C H 0



0 10 20 30 40 SO MILES


81


VERO
BEACH


1ST L U CI E
r


80'
I I I


Figure 31 Map of northeast Florida showing piezometric surface of
Floridan aquifer as of July 1961


The chemical quality of water in the Floridan aquifer varies
laterally and with depth throughout the report area. Water in the

upper 200 feet of the aquifer is generally of better quality than water
in lower zones. It contains less than 10 mg/1 of chloride and 200


-30
















L-29.


82 0 --I .. 1 810


110*


i I I -
8 1.
I







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


+3U 1 -
DUVAL 122 905 FT DEEP



*35 y ,---\

+30
25 BREVARD 20 447 FT DEEP m



+15




SMARION 5 135 FT DEEP


PUTNAM 29 300 FT. DEEP



0
_o L-- --------------------. ---- -- ---

VOLUSIA 29 107 FT DEEP
-150 ."-,V P IM Aq a- -A w A-

-20 NJ---v-I-1---- -- --------- -


100 10 0 10 0 '0
(0 t 0 0 0 0to 0C
_r 9n _.) W o


,Figure 32 Graphs showing water level fluctuations in five wells that penetrate
the Floridan aquifer, and rainfall at Gainesville








f ~


'XiV



A--x


AY TONA
BEACH


K E U I

K E


EXPLANATION

DISSOLVED SOLIDS.
1LLIGRA.-MS PER LITER
SLes than 250
U 250-500
3 500-1000
3 More than 1000

Basin Boundary

Area Boundary


F-m


0 S CEoI


S K E E C I


IC 20 30 40 50 MILES
SC -965i


EXPLANATION o

SULFATE CONCENTRATION,
MILLIGRAMS PER LITER
El Less than 50

VEO 50-100
BEACH U 100-250

FORT H More than 250
PIERCE
Basin Boundary

Area Boundary

t


S CE 0 L









0 K E E Ct


Li
EXPLANATION o s CE L

CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION,
MILLIGRAMS PER LITER
D Less than 50

m 50-250
BEACH 250-1000

FORT More than 1000 OK E E C
IERCE Basin Boundary

T LC Area Boundary
I


EXPLANATION o s

HARDNESS, MILLIGRAMS PER LITER
Li Less than 60 (soft)
60-120 (moderately hard)
VERO 120-180 (hard)
BE More than 180 (very hard)

FOTOK EEC
PIERCE Basin Boundary

ST LUCI E Area Boundary

_- I


Figure 33. Maps of Northeast Florida showing chloride concentration, hardness, total dissolved solids, and sulfate concentration in water in upper part of Floridan aquifer.


T AUGUSTINE


AYTONA
BEACH


T AUGUSTINE


5DAYTONA
BEACH


-'X

7--

z."

DAYTONA
BEACH


0



"-z


0 R A N


IST L UCI E
*r


.VILLE


PLLE


ST AJGUSTINE


T AUGUSTINE


UVS-I







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


mg/1 dissolved solids in and near recharge areas. Water from the
deeper zones is generally more saline because saline water in the
deeper zones, perhaps remaining since ancient times, has not yet
been completely flushed away. Artesian water in Indian River
County, the eastern part of Brevard County except under the coastal
ridge, and much of Flagler and St. Johns counties contains certain
dissolved minerals in concentrations that exceed U. S. Public Health
Service standards for water for domestic use. However, the water is
used for irrigation of citrus groves and for stock water. Wells in the
City of Cocoa well field, in southeastern Orange County, yield water
containing between 40 and 300 mg/1 of chloride from zones about
250 to 800 feet deep. The water utility operators are able to control
the salinity of the composite water by controlled pumping and
mixing of water from various wells within the well field. A multi-
zoned salinity monitoring well in the Cocoa well field, from which
samples are obtained from five levels, yields water containing more
than 600 mg/1 chloride from a depth of more than 1,350 feet and 40
to 90 mg/1 chloride from depths of less than 1,200 feet below land
surface.
The chemical quality of artesian water differs from place to
place depending largely on distance from the recharge area as well as
depth in the aquifer. Figure 33 shows the generalized concentration
of chloride, hardness, dissolved solids, and sulfate in the upper part
of the Floridan aquifer in the report area. Figure 34 shows variations
in chloride content of waters from the Floridan aquifer with depth
above an east-west line between Groveland and Daytona Beach.
Detailed information on the chemical quality of water is available in
several reports listed in the references based on analyses of water
from hundreds of wells in many locations and to different depths in
the area. A general rule is that chemical quality of water in the
Floridan aquifer deteriorates as water moves away from recharge
areas and to greater depths.

SUMMARY OF CONDITIONS

Ground water in the St. Johns River basin and coastal areas is
abundant but the depth to, and the quality of, the water differ from
place to place. Summaries by county are given in order to more
closely identify the water availability and problems within the indi-
vidual counties.








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Indicates
chloride in mg/I


Line representing
20 approximately
1000 mg/I chloride


I
/
I


I \ 127 I
\ 71/

1/0



/
I
7

IBA
1 T 2 DAYTOI


A


220d -"781jI
t6290
240od' l 23000 After Pride, Meyer, and Cherry (1966)
Figure 34 Section showing variation in chloride content of waters from
the Floridan aquifer with depth along a line between Grove-
land and Daytona Beach

DUVAL COUNTY

The Floridan aquifer is about 1,000 feet thick and is the
principal source of water in Duval County; the altitude of the top of
the aquifer from south to north varies from 300 to 550 feet below
msl (mean sea level). It is overlain by the relatively impermeable clay,
sand and sandy clay of the Hawthorn Formation and the silty clay,
shell, and sand of more recent deposits. Recharge is from counties to


ta
z
2
Z>
Z0
e-
0-


2od

SEA
LEVEL

20d


40d -


600 -

sod -


lood -

1200d-


14od


16od


18od-







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


the west and south; deeper zones produce a greater supply, artesian
flow occurs in most of the county. The natural artesian flow of small
wells is as much as 500 gpm and of large wells is as much as 2,000
gpm; the capacity of large pumped wells can exceed 5,000 gpm.
Large withdrawals by more than a hundred municipal and other
supply wells in the Jacksonville area have depressed the piezometric
surface more than 30 feet in the past three decades. Water in the
'county is generally suitable for domestic use; chloride content varies
from less than 10 mg/1 in the southwest to 40 mg/1 in the northeast.
Most rural wells are constructed by jetting or driving a 2- to 4- inch
casing to the top of limestone and then drilling a few feet into the
limestone. Lowering of the piezometric level in the county by
increased pumping will increase salt water intrusion problems in
some areas, as has been experienced in the Hastings area. A good
water-bearing zone between 1,900 and 2,050 feet below land surface,
with a chloride concentration of 14 mg/1, has recently been located
by a test well near Jacksonville.

CLAY COUNTY

The top of the Floridan aquifer varies in altitude from approxi-
mately mean sea level in the southwest to 300'feet below msl in the
northeast. The piezometric level is about 90 feet above msl in the
southwest corner of the county and decreases to about 30 feet above
msl along the St. Johns River. Artesian flow occurs near the St.
Johns River and in the Black Creek basin. The piezometric levels
declined from the mid-1940's to mid-1950's, but appear to have
stabilized since. Specific capacities of wells range from 2 to 60 gpm
per ft. (gallons per minute per foot of drawdown) in the eastern and
northern part to 22 to 300 gpm per ft. in the western part. The
Floridan aquifer is the most productive aquifer but many small wells
obtain water from secondary artesian aquifers in the Hawthorn
Formation for domestic and stock water. Chemical quality of water
is generally good except for hardness which is in excess of 200 mg/1
from both the Floridan and secondary aquifers in the southeastern
part of the county.
ST. JOHNS COUNTY

The major source of water is the Floridan aquifer. Although
some recharge occurs in the central part of the county most of the
water in the aquifer is derived from underflow from neighboring
counties to the west. The piezometric level decreases from about 45
feet above msl in the north to 20 feet above msl in the south;







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


artesian flow occurs in the western and eastern parts of the county.
The top of the aquifer ranges from about 100 feet below msl in the
south to 300 feet below msl in the north. The upper 50 to 200 feet
of the aquifer is the most productive. Quality of water in the upper
200 feet is generally good, with less than 250 mg/1 of chloride in the
northern part of the county; however, chloride content is several
thousand milligrams per liter in some wells along the coast south of
St. Augustine. The shallow aquifers contain water of better quality
and supply domestic needs in coastal areas from wells 20 to 150 feet
deep.

ALACHUA COUNTY

The Floridan aquifer is the main water source in Alachua
County although shallow wells and wells tapping shallow. artesian
aquifers are also used extensively. Recharge to the Floridan aquifer
occurs in most of the county. The aquifer is more than 700 feet
thick and the limestones are at or near land surface in the southern
part of the county. Specific capacity of wells range from 2 to 700
gpm per ft of drawdown and pumping rates ranged up to 5,000 gpm;
most of the lower capacity wells are in the eastern part of the
county. Large capacity wells are generally 200 to 800 feet deep.
There is some artesian flow in low areas in the southeastern part of
the county. Hundreds of millions of gallons per day of additional
water can be withdrawn by pumping without depleting the county's
water resources. Water quality is generally good except for hardness
in excess of 200 mg/1 in the southern part of the county.

PUTNAM COUNTY

The Ocala Group in the Floridan aquifer is the principal source
of water in Putnam County. The altitude of the top of the Ocala
Group ranges generally from about 25 feet below msl in the western
part to 170 feet below msl in the eastern part. The overlying
Hawthorn Formation is relatively impervious but discontinuous.
Artesian flow occurs in lowlands along the St. Johns River and
nearby tributary streams, but pressures have declined recently. The
best producing zone is the upper 50 to 200 feet, and some wells in
the county yield in excess of 5,000 gpm. Water quality is generally
good in the upper 200 feet of the aquifer except in small areas along
the St. Johns River and northwest of Lake George, where total
hardness may exceed 250 mg/1 and chloride content is over 500
mg/1.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


FLAGLER COUNTY

The Floridan aquifer is the major source of water for irrigation,
industry and public supply. Its top ranges from 50 to 150 feet below
msl and slopes from south to north. The piezometric level is only 15
to 20 feet above msl, but there is artesian flow in the vicinity of
Crescent Lake and the Atlantic coast. Some wells 150 to 450 feet
deep yield more than 200 gpm, principally from the Ocala Group
and the Avon Park Limestone. Artesian water is highly mineralized in
the central and northeastern parts of the county except 'n or near
small local recharge areas. Chloride and hardness exceed 1,000 mg/1
in artesian waters in the Haw Creek basin and in the northeast, so
that domestic supplies in these areas are from the shallow aquifers
generally less than 70 feet deep. However, many shallow wells in the
Haw Creek basin yield brackish water which in part is derived from
upward leaking saline water from the underlying Floridan aquifer.

MARION COUNTY

The Floridan aquifer is near land surface in the central part of
the county but the depth to its upper surface varies considerably.
Localized depressions in the buried surface of the aquifer extend to
300 feet below msl in the eastern part of the county, probably the
result of sinkholes and collapsed caverns. The county is an area of
major recharge to the artesian aquifer; recharge is estimated at about
12 to 18 inches per year. Silver Springs is a major fresh water
discharge point (530 mgd average) whereas Salt Springs is a large
highly saline spring (52 mgd). Wells in lowlands along the St. Johns
and Oklawaha Rivers have artesian flow. In general, the upper part of
the Floridan aquifer yields supplies of water adequate for existing
and foreseeable future needs and hundreds of millions of gallons per
day are available for development and use. Water quality is good
throughout the county except near Lake George. No serious water
supply problems are anticipated in the near future. Because of
adequate recharge the piezometric level has not yet been seriously
affected by pumping.
VOLUSIA COUNTY

The top of the Floridan aquifer ranges from sea level to 50 feet
below msl in the west-central part and slopes to 150 feet below msl
in the southeastern part of the county. It is overlain by sand, shell,
and clay. The water table is higher than the piezometric level in






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


much of the county so that the Floridan aquifer is recharged by
water percolating through the overlying beds. The aquifer is more
than 500 feet thick and furnishes most of the water used in the
county. Wells are generally 125 to 180 feet deep. The chemical
quality of the water is the best of any of the counties along the coast
east of the St. Johns River. Chloride concentrations are generally
under 50 mg/1; however, hardness is in the 200-400 mg/1 range. As
in all coastal areas an increase in salinity is probable if increased
pumping lowers the water levels excessively.


LAKE COUNTY

The altitude of the top of the Floridan aquifer ranges from near
sea level in the central part to about 100 feet below msl in the
northeastern part. Water of good quality is available in large quanti-
ties in most of the county. Good recharge occurs through the
relatively thin and porous deposits overlying the limestone, and
piezometric levels are relatively high. Artesian flow occurs in the St.
Johns River lowlands and near Lake Griffin. In places, old sinkholes
and depressions in the limestone are filled with Miocene or more
recent sand and sandy clay deposits to considerable depth. Although
water quality is generally good it is poor near the St. Johns River.


SEMINOLE COUNTY

The altitude of the top of the Floridan aquifer is at sea level in
the western part and 50 to 100 feet below msl elsewhere in the
county. Most wells tap the Ocala Group or the Avon Park Limestone
at depths of 90 to 250 feet and yield up to 500 gpm. The underlying
Lake City Limestone is an even more productive unit. The piezo-
metric level ranges from 15 to 50 feet above msl and artesian flow
occurs in lowlands along the St. Johns, Wekiva and Econlockhatchee
rivers. The piezometric level has declined 4 to 10 feet in the past 50
years. Recharge takes place in upland areas of the county and in
Orange County. The chemical quality of the Floridan aquifer water is
generally good in the western part and in the hilly upland areas. Both
chloride and total dissolved solids increase to more than 1,000 mg/1
toward the St. Johns River lowland areas. Throughout most of the
county the chloride content of water from the Floridan aquifer
generally increases slightly with depth and shows seasonal variations






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


as well as an average small increase over long periods of time. Water
from surficial sand aquifers is of good quality except for excessive
iron.

ORANGE COUNTY

Most water used in the county is obtained from the very
productive Floridan aquifer which is more than 1,300 feet thick. The
top of the aquifer ranges in altitude from 50 feet above msl in the
western part to 300 feet below msl in the southeastern corner.
Recharge is mostly from rainfall in the county but some water
migrates into Orange County from Lake and Polk counties. Artesian
flow occurs in lowlands along the St. Johns and Wekiva River and in
other low areas. In most of the county, yields in excess of 4,000 gpm
are obtained from large wells at depths generally less than 600 feet,
although some wells are more than a thousand feet deep. Chemical
quality is generally good with less than 150 mg/1 dissolved solids;
however, all dissolved constituents increase toward the St. Johns
River.

BREVARD COUNTY

The piezometric level of the Floridan aquifer is above land
surface in most of the county. The altitude of the top of the
Floridan aquifer ranges from about 75 feet below msl in the north-
west to more than 300 feet below msl in the southeast. The aquifer is
about 1,000 feet thick. The principal source of replenishment is
recharge in Orange County. Ground water moves generally toward
the northeast and leaks upward into the shallow aquifers and dis-
charges to submarine springs off the coast. Except in small areas west
of Titusville the artesian water is highly mineralized but none the less
is used for stock water and citrus irrigation. Well yields are generally
high; wells 8 inches in diameter and from 120 to 600 feet deep yield
more than 1,000 gpm. Because the Floridan aquifer water is highly
mineralized, water from shallow aquifers is pumped for domestic and
commercial uses. Existing small diameter domestic wells drilled into
the shallow aquifers yield as much as 30 gpm of good quality water
from the sands of the coastal ridge and from limestone or shell lenses
in the Hawthorn Formation. The potential of these shallow aquifers
to meet or supplement future water demands is not known. After an
evaluation is available the results may indicate that increased impor-
tation of water from neighboring counties may be necessary to meet
demands for potable water.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


INDIAN RIVER COUNTY

The principal source of water is the upper part of the Floridan
aquifer, the top of which ranges from about 200 feet below msl in
the northwest to 400 feet below msl in the southeast part of the
county. Recharge from Polk and Osceola counties is the principal
source of replenishment. The piezometric level ranges from a high of
about 50 feet above msl in the west to 25 feet above msl along the
coast, except for some slight variation in the southeast. Flowing wells
occur throughout the county even through the piezometric surface
has declined a few feet in recent years, probably as a result of
extensive pumping for irrigation. Artesian water from the Floridan
aquifer is highly mineralized and generally contains more than 500
mg/1 of chloride. Water from the coastal ridge sands or from some
shallow secondary artesian aquifers is used for domestic and munici-
pal supplies but upward leakage of poor quality water from the
underlying Floridan aquifer is a problem.

OTHER COUNTIES

The above summaries by county do not include discussions of
parts of other counties which are within the area of this report.
Information for parts of Levy, Osceola, Polk, St. Lucie, and other
counties may be obtained from the figures showing the altitude of
the top of the Floridan aquifer, the piezometric level, the chemical
constituents and other generalized data, as well as the information
given for adjacent counties and from published reports.

ESTIMATED QUANTITY OF WATER AVAILABLE

Water use varies with water availability and in many respects
follows the law of supply and demand. In general, population con-
centrations, agricultural development and industrial expansion occur
where water of good quality is available at reasonable cost.
The St. Johns River basin and the adjacent coastal area is
blessed with a large supply of fresh water in most of the area, and a
practically unlimited supply of brackish or salty water in lagoons and
in the Atlantic Ocean. Although fresh water is plentiful at this time,
future large-scale water needs in heavily populated coastal areas may
of necessity be met by importation of water from the west and by
desalinization of brackish water.
Good quality water is available in large quantity in the report
area from the Floridan aquifer and from shallow aquifers. Surface







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


sources are also plentiful but, owing to high mineralization or con-
tamination in some areas are utilized mainly for agricultural and
industrial use. The City of Melbourne, in Brevard County, and St.
Augustine, in St. Johns County, use some surface waters for public
supply. Although much of the water discharged to the sea by streams
is at present largely unfit for public supplies, it contains far lower
concentrations of dissolved minerals than does sea water.
Under present-day (1968) conditions the estimated total dis-
charge through streams and from springs in the report area to the
ocean exceeds 10,000 cfs, or 6,500 mgd. This volume of water is
sufficient to supply 43 million people at the rate of 150 gpd (gallons
per day) per person, or for about 4 million people if agricultural and
industrial use is included, at present day rates of use if total con-
sumption of the water is assumed. However, because only a small
percentage of water used is actually consumed or rendered unfit for
subsequent uses due to some kind of pollution, much larger popula-
tions can be supplied simply by reusing the available water many
times. Even more people could be accommodated if more efficient
use is made of the water supply and some reduction of evapotranspir-
ation is accomplished, thus making more water available for man's
use.
Ground water is the most readily available and is the traditional
source of most water for public, rural, industrial, and irrigation
supply in the area. The amount of ground water available perennially
is large and can be only approximated on the basis that water
naturally discharged or withdrawn from the aquifers should not
exceed potential recharge. Withdrawals over a period of years in
excess of potential recharge will lower the water levels and result in
increased cost of withdrawal and at places will permit salt water
intrusion. However, additional withdrawals will tend to reduce
evapotranspiration, runoff, and submarine spring discharge, thus
tending to increase recharge and thereby increase the usable supply.
An estimate of the recharge in the approximately 4,000 square miles
of the area in which recharge is known, or presumed, to occur is
3,000 mgd, a quantity that would supply a population of about 18
million persons at the rate of 150 gpd (gallons per day). In Marion
County alone, more than a billion gallons per day of ground and
surface water are perennially available for withdrawal under present-
day conditions of recharge. However, increased urban and industrial
development, with accompanying impermeable buildings, streets,
parking areas, and highways will reduce the area of natural recharge
so that artificial recharge might be necessary to maintain water levels
in some areas.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Springs are an excellent source of good water which are still
unused except for maintenance of stream flow and for recreational
purposes. Silver Springs in Marion County has an average flow of
530,000,000 gallons per day, which is greater than the total quantity
of water used in the St. Johns River basin and coastal areas for
public, rural, and industrial use in 1965. Other smaller springs which
discharge good quality water are excellent sources for increased
development and use. Large-scale development of ground water
upgradient from springs, may, however, affect their flow.
Direct withdrawal of water from streams for use as cooling
water for thermal-electric power, and for industry and irrigation, is
increasing. Some streams, however, including the lower reaches of
the St. Johns River, are sometimes highly mineralized from the
upstream movement of sea water by tidal action; upper reaches are
affected by highly mineralized springs and flowing wells.
SUMMARY OF WATER AVAILABILITY, USE AND PROBLEMS
Water in the St. Johns River basin and adjacent coastal area is
available in large quantity. The supplies of best quality are from the
Floridan aquifer and are largely in the western part of the basin in
contrast to much of the concentration of population which is along
the coast in the eastern part of the area. Industrial and population
growth is increasing in inland areas as indicated by the growth in the
vicinity of Orlando. Future industrial growth will undoubtedly occur
near the inland water-rich areas. The total water withdrawal, exclu-
sive of water for fuel-electric cooling water, was 725 mgd in 1965
and less than 10 per cent of the estimated 8,000 mgd difference
between rainfall and evapotranspiration over the area; water con-
sumed was 261 mgd, only 3.3 per cent of that total but 36 per cent
of that withdrawn. The area is in a very favorable position in so far as
water supplies are concerned.
The problems in the field of water supply are the continuing
ones of having water of good quality at the right place at the right
time. The location of industries and their accompanying urban
populations in the inland counties would tend to resolve part of that
problem. The establishment of forest, water and wildlife conserva-
tion preserves, and zoning, may assure that some inland ground-water
recharge areas are maintained to counter the loss that may result
from the urbanization. Artificial recharge of ground water can also
increase available water supplies through the salvaging of water
otherwise removed from an area by unbeneficial evapotranspiration
or surface runoff to the sea. Any management plan must be based on
data that can predict the effects on the system, as withdrawals at any







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


point in the system will be compensated for by reduced runoff,
evapotranspiration, or spring flow.
The conveyance of good quality water from the "have" to
"have not" areas requires management and cooperation between
counties or other political units. The hydrologic problems will re-
quire evaluation but the engineering is uncomplicated and costs are
appreciable. Although conflicts of interest would arise in the event
that it became necessary, it is of interest that the Oklawaha River
below Silver Springs can supply all the fresh-water requirements for
the entire report area at the use rate determined in 1965. Convey-
ance of water from interior ground-water or surface-water sources to
the coastal cities would assure good quality water without the
constant threat of saline contamination in well fields near the coast.
Controlled pumping for public supply or other beneficial use from
wells in selected areas where artesian and shallow aquifers are filled
can reduce nonbeneficial evapotranspiration and increase recharge to
the aquifers.
Development of water in conformance to the environment and
the control and management of the water in the areas are the
long-range needs, with conservation of water for the most beneficial
uses as the aim of long-range planning. The expansion of industries
and agriculture and the increasing population near industrial centers
and along the coast are accompanied by ever-increasing demands for
supplies of good quality water. Recreational, conservation, waste
disposal, and pollution dilution needs must also be met. Economic
factors will ordinarily relieve possible agricultural and industrial use
conflicts; social and health requirements can be adjusted through
political means. Long-range planning based on complete knowledge
of the availability of good quality water is the present need.
The areas of abundant water of good quality are mostly west of
the St. Johns River and north of Osceola County, as in parts of
Marion, Lake, Alachua, Seminole, Orange, Putnam, and Clay coun-
ties. In some of the coastal area, however, as in much of Brevard,
Indian River, and parts of St. Johns, Flagler and other counties the
chemical quality of otherwise ample ground water precludes its use
for public supplies without expensive treatment; and, surface waters
are deficient or too saline for economical use. Duval County has been
able to develop suitable ground water and is continuing intensive
investigations to further the knowledge of its water resources. Volu-
sia and Orange counties likewise have intensive investigations under
way. Investigations are needed in several other areas to better under-
stand water movement, quality, and availability to meet the expand-
ing needs of the future.
2 .







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


mg/1 dissolved solids in and near recharge areas. Water from the
deeper zones is generally more saline because saline water in the
deeper zones, perhaps remaining since ancient times, has not yet
been completely flushed away. Artesian water in Indian River
County, the eastern part of Brevard County except under the coastal
ridge, and much of Flagler and St. Johns counties contains certain
dissolved minerals in concentrations that exceed U. S. Public Health
Service standards for water for domestic use. However, the water is
used for irrigation of citrus groves and for stock water. Wells in the
City of Cocoa well field, in southeastern Orange County, yield water
containing between 40 and 300 mg/1 of chloride from zones about
250 to 800 feet deep. The water utility operators are able to control
the salinity of the composite water by controlled pumping and
mixing of water from various wells within the well field. A multi-
zoned salinity monitoring well in the Cocoa well field, from which
samples are obtained from five levels, yields water containing more
than 600 mg/1 chloride from a depth of more than 1,350 feet and 40
to 90 mg/1 chloride from depths of less than 1,200 feet below land
surface.
The chemical quality of artesian water differs from place to
place depending largely on distance from the recharge area as well as
depth in the aquifer. Figure 33 shows the generalized concentration
of chloride, hardness, dissolved solids, and sulfate in the upper part
of the Floridan aquifer in the report area. Figure 34 shows variations
in chloride content of waters from the Floridan aquifer with depth
above an east-west line between Groveland and Daytona Beach.
Detailed information on the chemical quality of water is available in
several reports listed in the references based on analyses of water
from hundreds of wells in many locations and to different depths in
the area. A general rule is that chemical quality of water in the
Floridan aquifer deteriorates as water moves away from recharge
areas and to greater depths.

SUMMARY OF CONDITIONS

Ground water in the St. Johns River basin and coastal areas is
abundant but the depth to, and the quality of, the water differ from
place to place. Summaries by county are given in order to more
closely identify the water availability and problems within the indi-
vidual counties.








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


REFERENCES

Barnes, H. H., Jr., and Golden, H. G.
1966 Magnitude and Frequency of Floods in the United States: U. S.
Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1674.
Barraclough, J. T.
1962 Ground-water Resources of Seminole County, Florida: Florida
Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 27.
Bermes, B.J.
1958 Interim report on geology and ground-water resources in Indian
River County, Florida: Florida Geol. Surv. Inf. Circ. 18.
Bermes, B. J., Leve, G. W., and Tarver, G. R.
1963 Geology and ground-water resources of Flagler, Putnam, and St.
Johns Counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Surv. Rept. Inv. 32.
Brown, D. W., Kenner, W. E., and Brown, Eugene
1962 Water resources of Brevard County, Florida: Florida Geol. Surv.
Rept. Inv. 28.
Clark, W. E., Musgrove, R. H., Menke, C. G., and Cagle, J. W., Jr.
1964 Water resources of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union Counties,
Florida: Florida Geol. Surv. Rept. Inv. 35.
Ferguson, G. E., Lingham, C. W., Love, S. J., and Vernon, R. 0.
1947 Springs of Florida: Florida Geol. Surv. Bull. 31.
Healy, Henry G.
1962 Piezometric surfaces and areas of flow of the Floridan aquifer in
Florida: Florida Geol. Surv. Map Series 4.
Leve, G. W.
1966 Ground water in Duval and Nassau Counties, Florida: Florida
Geol. Surv. Rept. Inv. 43.
Lichtler, W. F., Anderson, Warren, and Joyner, B. F.
1964 Interim report on the water resources of Orange County, Florida:
Florida GeoL Surv. Inf. Circ. 41.

1968 Water resources of Orange County, Florida: Florida Geol. Surv.
Rept. Inv. 50.
MacKiehan, K. A.
1967 Temperature and chemical characteristics of the St. Johns River
near Cocoa, Florida: Florida Geol. Surv. Map Series 25.
Pride, R. W., Meyer, F. W., and Cherry, R. N.
1966 Hydrology of Green Swamp area in Central Florida: Florida Geol.
Surv. Rept. Inv. 42.
Pride, R. W.
1958 Floods in Florida, magnitude and frequency: U. S. Geol. Survey
open-file report.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 54


Shampine, W. J.
1965 Chloride concentration in water from the upper part of the
Floridan aquifer in Florida: Florida Geol. Surv. Map Series 12.

1965 Hardness of water from the upper part of the Floridan aquifer in
Florida: Florida Geol. Surv. Map Series 13.

1965 Dissolved solids in water from the upper part of the Floridan
aquifer in Florida: Florida Geol. Surv. Map Series 14.

1965 Sulfate Concentration in water from the upper part of the Flo-
ridan aquifer in Florida: Florida Geol. Surv. Map Series 15.
Stewart, 11. G.
1966 Ground-water resources of Polk County, Florida: Florida Geol.
Surv. Rept. Inv. 44.
Stringfield, V. T.
1966 Artesian water in Tertiary Limestone in the southeastern states:
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 517.
Wyrick, G. G.
1960 The ground-water resources of Volusia County, Florida: Florida
Geol. Surv. Rept. Inv. 22.










FLRD GEOLIOWC( ICA SURflViEWY~


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