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STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION


DIVISION OF GEOLOGY

Robert 0. Vernon, Director


REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 52





RECONNAISSANCE OF THE GROUND-WATER
RESOURCES
OF BAKER COUNTY, FLORIDA


By
Gilbert W. Leve
U. S. Geological Survey


Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
FLORIDA BOARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY


Tallahassee, Florida
1968











FLORIDA STATE BOARD

OF

CONSERVATION


CLAUDE R. KIRK, JR.
Governor


TOM ADAMS
Secretary of State




BROWARD WILLIAMS
Treasurer




FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN
Superintendent of Public Instruction


EARL FAIRCLOTH
Attorney General




FRED 0. DICKINSON, JR.
Comptroller




DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGES
Director














,Division of Cje0toffy

Tallahassee

June 4, 1968


Honorable Claude R. Kirk, Jr., Chairman
State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Governor Kirk:

The Division of Geology is publishing as its Report of Investigat
No. 52, a report on the "Reconnaissance of the Ground-Water Resou
of Baker County, Florida" prepared by Gilbert W. Leve, with
U. S. Geological Survey, as a part of the cooperative investigation
the water resources of Florida-a Division of Geology responsib:

Ground-water is not widely used in Baker County, but the pres
of a high equipotential area in the artesian system beneath the Co
made it necessary that the resource be understood insofar as this
affected the ground-water resources of Nassau and Duval counties w
were being intensively studied and mapped.

The method and rates of movement of ground-water from one I
to another in the artesian aquifer are understood more fully by us
the data in this report.

Respectfully yours,
Robert O. Vernon
Director and State Geologi




































Completed manuscript received

June 4, 1968

Published for the Division of Geology

By St. Petersburg Printing Company

St. Petersburg, Florida

1968






CONTENTS

Page
Abstract --..----..-----..-..................-----------------... ------- --------- 1
Introduction ----..-- ---.. -----........ ----------..... 2---------------------2
Purpose and scope -------............--------.... -----...... --- ---------------------- 2
Previous investigations ----...----.. ---...... --.... --..........--...- --------------------------- 3
Well-numbering system .......---------------..........................--------------- ------------ 3
Topography and drainage ------.. ----...------------------------ 4
Climate and culture .--------...... ---------.............--.----------- 5------------- 5
Ground-water resources -------.....-------....... --............-..-------5-------------------- 5
Occurrence of ground water --------... ------..............-....-...----------- 5----------- 5
Geologic framework --------.... ----..-- -----......-----....................--------------6------ 6
Eocene limestone formations ..-----..-..----.--------.-------- ------- 6
Post-Eocene deposits ....---..--..----....----...----------------. 12
Aquifers ..--..... -------------------------------- ------------------ 13
Water-table aquifer .....-----.....--- ---.....-... ------------------------------------- 13
Shallow artesian aquifers -----..---.. ----.. --....... ---.............-..-.......------------- 14
Floridan aquifer ..---......-----..--..-----------------------.----------------------- 14
Occurrence and physical characteristics .--.---.........-----.------------------ 16
Artesian pressure -------.--.--------.....---....------.. ----------.---------------- 16
Piezometric Surface ---------.. --..---.. --..------------------------- 17
Quality of water ---..----.....------.............--........----...........--.... 19---------- 19
Ground-water use in Baker County .-----------...-..................----------------. -------- 22
Summary ----------------........................---.....--..........---------------------- -------......... 22
References ........--------------------------- ---------------------- 24















V






ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page
1 Map of Baker County, Florida, showing the location of wells -------................. 2
2 Diagram illustrating the well-numbering system -.........--------.---.--.. 4
3 Graphs of data collected during the construction of Sanderson
test well, 301535N0821620.1 .--------....--..--.----------------- 7
4 Graphs of data collected during the construction of Taylor test
well, 302620N0821735.1 ..---..----..----..--..-.......--------- 8
5 Map of Baker County showing altitude of the top of the Crystal
River Formation .--..----.......-..-- ------------ 9
6 Generalized south-north geologic section showing formations
penetrated by wells ...-----..--------..-.-----------------. 10
7 Generalized west-east geologic section showing formations pene-
trated by wells ---------........----------------------- ------------ 11
8 Graphs showing the relation between artesian pressure in Taylor
test well, 302620N0821735.1, and rainfall at Glen St. Mary and
Lake City .--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17
9 Generalized map of the piezometric surface of the Floridan
aquifer in northeast Florida, showing greater detail of the piezo-
metric surface in Baker County, March 1964 ..............--------------.. ---.. ------. 18





TABLES

Table Page
1 Water levels measured at different depths in test wells
301535N'0821620.1, near Sanderson, and 302620N0821735.1, near
Taylor -._.------. .-----...-.. .. ..-- -----. ---- 15
2 Analyses of water from wells in Baker County -------..............----------------... 20
3 Records of selected wells in Baker, Duval, and Union Counties......----............------ 21






RECONNAISSANCE OF THE GROUND-WATER
RESOURCES
OF BAKER COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
Gilbert W. Leve
ABSTRACT
Baker County comprises approximately 585 square miles in north
Florida. The surface of the area is flat with rolling terrain generally
between about 100 to 150 feet above sea level which is drained by the
St. Marys River and Olustee Creek, a tributary of the Suwannee River.
About one-third of the 7,700 inhabitants live in the two major towns of
Macclenny and Glen St. Mary.
Water supplies are obtained from three aquifers: (1) the water-table
aquifer, (2) the shallow artesian aquifer, and (3) the Floridan aquifer.
The greatest potential source of ground water in the county is from the
Floridan aquifer. It is composed of limestone formations of Eocene age
which underlie all of Baker County at altitudes ranging from less than
50 to more than 350 feet below sea level and are at least 750 to 1,000
feet thick. The Floridan aquifer is recharged to the south of Baker
County and possibly in southern Baker County directly by rainfall or
by downward percolation from bodies of surface water or shallower
aquifers.
Seasonal fluctuations of the artesian pressure in the Floridan aquifer
result primarily from changes in the rate of recharge. A progressive
decline in the piezometric surface in the Floridan aquifer of 10 to 20
feet from 1945 to 1964 is related in part to increased discharge by wells
in adjacent Duval and Nassau counties.
In eastern Baker and Bradford counties, on the eastern flank of the
piezometric high, water in the Floridan aquifer moves toward discharge
areas in Duval and Nassau counties.
Water from the water-table and shallow artesian aquifers is softer and
less mineralized than water from the Floridan aquifer but it contains a
higher concentration of iron. The carbonate hardness of water analyzed
from wells in the Floridan aquifer ranged from 121 to 204 ppm (parts per
million) and the dissolved solids concentration ranged from 141 to
217 ppm.
Most rural water supplies are from wells in the water table and shallow
artesian aquifers. At present, only the City of Macclenny, the Northeast
Florida State Hospital, government installations, and a few private
homes obtain water from wells completed in the Floridan aquifer. Large
additional quantities of ground water can be developed from the Floridan
aquifer to supply foreseeable future needs.








INTRODUCTION
A reconnaissance investigation of ground water in Baker (
Florida, was conducted as a part of a more comprehensive study
ground-water resources in adjacent Duval and Nassau counties.
County, located in north Florida, is bounded on the east by Nass
Duval counties; on the south by Clay, Bradford, and Union c(
on the west by Columbia County; and on the north by the S
Georgia, as shown in figure 1. It is approximately "L" shaped and
area of about 585 square miles.


S ----EXPLANATION
| In--'t =0 1 in later < o i

















Ri l I 2E I




Figure 1. Map of Baker County, Florida, showing the location of we

PURPOSE AND SCOPE

The purpose of this report is to locate and describe the aqu
an aid to development of the ground-water resources in Baker
| -- ---- F'^-- TAYLOR --- -f --
























and in adjacent and near-by counties of northeast Florida and s(
Georgia
The iAnvetir.tinn -nv mnrl hv 1h1 T2T _,3-Jl-,ss,1 ...
2C----- 3__xER J^ 2 N ~`f
^ ^^^^^T
r^0"^ *^1^^ N i















The invp-qcmtin-nfirT -wan Trnnrls- tw ao TT Q 'r\~~tC,-r,





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 52 d

)rida Board of Conservation, to evaluate the water resources of Florida.
.e report presents and summarizes all of the pertinent, available data
the ground-water resources of Baker County obtained from:
1. Collection of ground-water data by inventorying wells in the
county and periodically measuring the water level in selected
wells.
2. Collection of geologic information from drillers and in the files of
the Division of Geology, Florida Board of Conservation.
3. Drilling of two deep test wells in areas where ground-water data
,nd geologic information were not available.
The investigation was made under the supervision of C. S. Conover,
district Chief, Water Resources Division, U. S. Geological Survey.

PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS
No prior investigations have been made of the geology and ground-
ater resources of Baker County. However, a number of reports by
e U. S. Geological Survey and the Division of Geology, Florida Board
Conservation have included general geologic and hydrologic informa-
mn on the area. Reports by Applin and Applin (1944), Cooke (1945),
emon (1951), and Purl (1957) include information on the geology
Baker County, and reports by Stringfield (1936, 1966) and Cooper,
enner, and Brown (1953) include some information on the ground-water
sources. The chemical character of water from a number of wells in
aker County is included in a report by Black and Brown (1951). A
:port by Pride (1958) describes the surface-water resources of Baker
ountv.
WELL-NUMBERING SYSTEM
The well-numbering system used in this report is that of the Water
sources Division of the U. S. Geological Survey and is based on a
ne-second grid of parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude, in
iat order.
The well number is a composite of two numbers separated by the
hitter N. The first part consists of six digits; the two digits of the degrees,
le two digits of the minutes, and the two digits of the seconds of
ititude. The N refers to "north" latitude. The second part consists of
even digits; the three digits of the degrees, the two digits of the minutes,
nd the two digits of the seconds of longitude. If more than one well
es within a one-second grid, the wells are numbered consecutively and





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


on the south and east sides of a one-second quadrangle in which the
well is located.
Figure 2 is a diagram illustrating the well-numbering system. For
example, the designation 275134N0815220.1 indicates that this is the


Figure 2. Diagram illustrating the well-numbering system.
first well inventoried in the one-second grid bounded bylatitude 27051'34"
on the south and longitude 081'52'20" on the east.

TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE
Baker County is in the Central Highlands topographic region (Cooke,
1945, p. 8), and the topography is flat to gently rolling with altitudes






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 52


between about 100 to 150 feet above msl (mean sea level). A high, sandy
ridge termed the "Trail Ridge" extends north-south through eastern
Baker County. A number of sand hills on this ridge have altitudes of
more than 200 feet.
Most of the surface drainage is by the St. Marys River and its
tributaries. Small areas in western and southern Baker County are
drained by Olustee Creek, a tributary of the Suwannee River. Streams
are sluggish and poorly developed on the flat terrain and much of the
area is marshland. The Okefenokee Swamp, which occupies a large area
in southern Georgia, extends into northern Baker County.

CLIMATE AND CULTURE
The climate of Baker County is subtropical. The average annual
temperature is about 69F, and the average annual rainfall is about
52 inches. Most of the rain occurs during the summer months. Rainfall
of more than 10 inches per month during the summer and less than half
an inch per month during the late fall is not uncommon.
According to the 1960 U. S. Census, the population of Baker County
was 7,400; and, in 1965, it was estimated to be about 8,000 by the Bureau
of Economic and Business Research, University of Florida. About one-
third of the population lives in the major towns of Macclenny and Glen
St. Mary. The major industries are lumbering, wood pulp, and cattle
ranching. Two large nurseries at Glen St. Mary, a number of small farms,
and the Northeast Florida State Mental Hospital add to the economy of
the county.

GROUND-WATER RESOURCES
Water supplies in Baker County are available from both surface- and
ground-water sources. However, surface-water sources are undependable
because of droughts; and they generally are too far from the water users
to be economically used. The surface-water resources of the county are
discussed in a report by Pride (1958). Practically all water presently
used in the county is ground water. This report discusses only the
ground-water resources in the area.

OCCURRENCE OF GROUND WATER
Rain is the source of most ground water. Part of the rain is returned
to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration, part drains overland into lakes
and streams, and part seeps into the ground near the point where it
falls, or also from lakes and streams. Only the water that reaches the






6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

zone of saturation-the zone saturated with water under hydrostatic
pressure--becomes ground water.
The occurrence of ground water is controlled primarily by the sub-
surface rocks. The chemical composition, physical characteristics, and
structure of the geologic formations determine the quality of the ground
water, the amount of water available, and the vertical and areal distri-
bution of ground water. In order to obtain information on the subsurface
rocks in Baker County, logs of wells and cuttings obtained from wells
on file with the Division of Geology, Florida Board of Conservation were
examined. Also, two test wells were drilled in areas where geologic or
ground-water information was lacking.

GEOLOGIC FRAMEWORK

The geologic framework that controls the occurrence and distribution
of ground water in Baker County is graphically portrayed by the logs
of the two test wells, figures 3 and 4, the map of the top of the Crystal
River Formation, figure 5, and the geologic sections, figures 6 and 7.
Although the chemical composition and the physical properties of the
geologic formations may vary slightly throughout the county, the type
of rocks penetrated by the test wells are essentially typical of the sub-
surface rocks underlying the entire county. Both wells were drilled into
the Lake City Limestone, which is the deepest formation generally
penetrated by water wells in northeastern Florida and southeastern
Georgia.

EOCENE LIMESTONE FORMATIONS

The oldest formation shown in figures 3-7 is the Lake City Limestone
of middle Eocene age. It is predominantly a tan to dark brown, hard,
massive, dolomitic limestone and medium soft, finely crystalline dolomite,
both containing relatively thin beds of tan, soft, chalky to granular
limestone. The Lake City Limestone is about 500 feet thick and its top
ranges from about 450 feet below sea level in the southwestern part of
the county to more than 650 feet below sea level in the eastern part.
The Avon Park Limestone of late middle Eocene age unconformably
overlies the Lake City Limestone and is similar in lithology. It is about
140 feet thick in southwestern Baker County and thins to less than
50 feet in the eastern part of the county. The top of the formation ranges
from 300 feet below sea level in southwestern Baker County to more than
600 feet below sea level in the eastern part.






IiEPORT LJF INVESTIGATIONS INU. u4


50 00 150 200 4 8 12 16 62 66 1




---


500 EXPLANATION









Figure 3. Graphs of data collected during the construction of Sanderson test
301535N0821620.1

The Ocala Group1, Inglis, Williston, and Crystal River Formatic
late Eocene age consist of a relatively homogeneous sequence of c
to light gray, medium soft, chalky to granular, marine limestone,
training thin beds of hard, massive, dolomitic limestone and dole

1 The classification and nomenclature of the rock units conform to the usage
Division of Geoloev, Florida Board of Conservation and, also, except for the
Fiue3Z rpso2aacletddrigtecntuto fSnesnts
3053N826'.

Th cl ru1 nls ifisoadCytlRvrFrai
late Eoenaae tonisofarltvlhooeousqenefc
tolgtgamdu sfcak ogaulr aielmsoe
tain thnbesofhrdLAssTIveO ooiN imsoeadd


e~L rK ~3(311Vll~ LIrYLVU


\





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


SLF- POTBTIAL DRILUNG TIME CALIPER LOG
~0 5'


TEMPAVnUE cAMUr


V


^ "-
0--~




; 3 1 "-






W.0 --1 ; :7''
sooi j^^^ "'r~






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Figure 4. Graphs of data collected during the construction of Taylor test well,
302620N0821735.1

The Inglis and Williston Formations are generally more granular in
texture than the overlying Crystal River Formation and the Inglis
Formation generally is more calcitic and slightly darker in color than
either the Williston or the Crystal River Formations.
The geologic sections in figures 6 and 7 show that the thickness of
the Ocala Group ranges from about 220 to 310 feet in Baker County.
The average thickness of the Crystal River Formation is about 150 feet
and the average thickness of the Williston and Inglis Formations is about
50 feet each.


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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 52


-250 EXPLANATION
P" \ BAKER COUNTY ~- ,"W 155
S/ Number represents the altitude of
the top of the Crystol River
\ Formation in feet below mean
-200' *sea level
S \\ ---50-----
Contour represents the .altitude. of
| \ \ --32 the top of the Crystal River
S\Formofion. Dashed where
-150 Lx \intferred. 'Contour inervaol 50
I t feet. Datum is meon seo level
LOR 12 A- ---- '
-281 \ \Location of geologic sections
shI hown in figures 6 and 7.

0 I- 2 -3 4 -5miles -e -
0 2345 ie

__________ N


I -287.







-200 -250


Figure 5. Map of Baker County showing altitude of the top of the Crystal River
Formation.



The altitude and configuration of the top of the Crystal River Forma-
tion are shown by contour lines in figure 5. The top of the Crystal River
Formation ranges from about 50 feet below sea level in southwestern
Baker County to about 350 feet below sea level in the eastern part.
Structurally, the surface of the Crystal River Formation in Baker County
is a monocline which strikes approximately north-northwest-south-south-
east and dips east-northeastward about 20 feet per mile.










NORTH -
A' 0


Figure 6. Generalized south-north geologic section showing formations penetrated by wells,


SOUTH
A


O00


100


0


100


200


300


400


500 -


600 -


700 -


Boo








WEST EAST
B -I -. 'B'


~W ,! 200



100 .UPPER '0-- 1 _,

y 0 SUWANNEE LIMESTONE C -


00 ys PLIOCENE DEPOSIT -100




300tON 300

O 400 N4LIS00
< --04 FORMATION



6 000
-J3











'=~ Vertical scale greatly exoggorated t
700 0 2 3 4 5mile8

SNote: Location oat section ehown on fig. S
-------sw---- ------------ Woo








300' si 800

Figure 7. Generalized west-east geologic section showing formations penetrated by wells.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


POST-EOCENE DEPOSITS
In southwestern Baker County, the Crystal River Formation is
overlain by the Suwannee Limestone of late Oligocene age. It consists
of light gray to white, granular, limestone and yellowish brown, indurated,
siltstone and sandstone cemented with calcium carbonate. As shown on
the geologic cross sections in figure 5, the Suwannee Limestone is less
than 30 feet thick in southwestern Baker County. It was not recognized
in cuttings from either of the test wells in central Baker County or in
cuttings from wells in the eastern part. The Suwannee Limestone either
was not deposited in these areas or it was removed by erosion prior to
the deposition of the Hawthorn Formation.
Where the Suwannee Limestone is absent, the Crystal River Formation
is overlain by the Hawthorn Formation of middle Miocene age. The
Hawthorn Formation consists of gray to olive green, phosphatic, clayey
sand and sandy clay; gray to green, phosphatic, calcareous clay, inter-
bedded with lenses of medium to coarse, phosphatic sand; and phosphatic,
sandy" limestone, shell and dolomite. The dolomite beds generally occur
near the base of the formation and are about 20 feet thick in both of
the test wells. Examination of the cuttings from a number of wells in
the county show the Hawthorn Formation is overlain by beds of green,
calcareous, shelly clay; white, granular limestone; and fine to medium
sand- These overlying deposits are similar to those in the Hawthorn
Formation but they contain no phosphate and more shells. They can be
correlated to the upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits in neighboring
Nassau and Duval counties (Leve, 1966) on the basis of lithology and
position in the subsurface. As shown on the geologic sections, figures 6
and 7, the combined thickness of the Hawthorn Formation and the
upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits range from about 120 feet in western
Baker County to about 400 feet in the eastern part.
Deposits of Pleistocene and Recent age overlie the upper Miocene
or Pliocene deposits and the Hawthorn Formation and blanket the
surface of Baker County. Undifferentiated beds of fine to coarse sand
and green to red, silty clay were deposited as marine terraces by fluctua-
tions of the sea level during Pleistocene interglacial periods. Recent
sediments are presently being deposited as alluvial sand and clay in
the stream valleys and as peat and muck in the lakes, swamps, and other
poorly drained areas in the county. The deposits of Pleistocene and
Recent age are discontinuous and vary in texture and lithology within
short distances both laterally and vertically. The combined thickness of
these deposits ranges from about 30 feet in western Baker County to
about 150 feet in the vicinity of Trail Ridge in the eastern part.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 52


AQUIFERS
Rocks that are sufficiently permeable to yield usable quantities of
water to wells are called aquifers. The aquifers serve as conduits that
distribute and store ground water. Where the aquifer is not overlain
by an impermeable bed and the surface of the water is free to rise and
fall, it is termed a water-table aquifer. Where the aquifer is overlain by
an impermeable bed and the water in the aquifer is confined under
pressure, it is termed an artesian aquifer. Both water-table and artesian
aquifers occur in Baker County.

WATER-TABLE AQUIFER
The water-table aquifer occurs in upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits
and Pleistocene and Recent deposits which together range in thickness
from about 30 feet in western Baker County to more than 150 feet.
Permeable sand and shell beds within about the uppermost 50 feet of
these deposits comprise the aquifer; however, these permeable beds are
discontinuous and wedge out laterally against less permeable silty clay
beds. Generally, wells completed less than 30 feet deep, in the surficial
sand beds, will tap part or all of the water-table aquifer.
The water-table aquifer is recharged principally by local rainfall and
from surface streams and marshes. Water discharges from the water-table
aquifer by evapotranspiration, by seepage into streams, lakes, and swamps
when their water surface is lower than the water level in the aquifer,
by downward percolation into deeper aquifers, and by pumpage from
a few wells.
The water level in the water-table aquifer rises when the amount of
recharge exceeds the rate of discharge and vice versa. Seasonal fluctua-
tions of the watel level of 6 to 8 feet are not uncommon, and some wells
completed in the upper part of the aquifer go dry when the water levels
decline and have to be deepened. In addition, centrifugal pumps installed
on some wells during periods of relatively high water levels fail when
the water levels are relatively low and have to be replaced with deep-well
pumps.
Water from the water-table aquifer is relatively high in iron content
which stains plumbing fixtures and imparts a bad taste to the water.
The high iron content of the water combined with the seasonal declines
of water levels make this aquifer the least desirable source of ground
water in the county. However, a number of rural domestic, stock, and
irrigation supplies are obtained from this aquifer because of the relatively
inexpensive cost.







SHALLOW ARTESIAN AQUIFERS
The shallow artesian aquifers in Baker County consist of relatively
bin, discontinuous lenses of sand, shell, and limestone within relatively
mpermeable beds of clay and clayey sand in the Hawthorn Formation
md in the upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits. The relatively imperme-
,ble beds restrict the vertical movement of water and confine the water
mder artesian pressure within the aquifers. Similar conditions exist at
)aces within the Pleistocene and Recent deposits during certain times
if the year when the aquifer is completely saturated.
The occurrence of shallow artesian aquifers varies throughout Baker
countyy and the exact depth and thickness of the aquifers at any location
iften cannot be predetermined. In test well 301535N0821620.1, near
;anderson (fig. 3), shallow artesian aquifers were located at depths
if 70 to 90 feet below land surface near the base of the upper Miocene
ir Pliocene deposits and from 130 to 140 feet below land surface and
rom 160 to 180 feet below land surface in the Hawthorn Formation. In
est well 302620N0821735.1, near Taylor (fig. 4), shallow artesian
Iquifers were located at depths from 200 to 220 feet below land surface,
rom 255 to 270 feet below land surface, and from 330 to 380 feet below
and surface in the Hawthorn Formation.
The artesian pressure in shallow artesian aquifers differs depending
in the areal location within the county and the depth of each aquifer.
Fable 1 shows the water level measured at different depths in test wells
301535N0821620.1 and 302620N0821735.1. The water levels in each of
he shallow artesian aquifers are lower than the water level in the
vater-table aquifer and higher than the water level in the Floridan
aquifer.
The shallow artesian aquifers are recharged locally by downward
;eepage of water from the water-table aquifer.
WVelIs completed in the shallow artesian aquifers generally yield more
vater with a lower iron content than wells completed in the water-table
Lquifer. Small-diameter wells throughout Baker County produce water
rom these aquifers for domestic, stock, and irrigation supplies.

FLORIDAN AQUIFER
The FIoridan aquifer is the principal source of water supplies in
lortheastemrn Florida and southeastern Georgia; and, although it is
presently tapped by only a few- wells in Baker County, it is the greatest
potential source of water supplies in the area. Development of water
mntlies from the aauifer in one hart of the area could P.ventnlnlv nffp.et









Table 1. WATER LEVELS MEASURED AT DIFFERENT DEPTHS IN TEST
WELLS 301535N0821620.1, NEAR SANDERSON, AND 302620N0821735.1, NEAR TAYLOR


Well 301535N0821620.1 Well 302620N0821735.1
Depth, feet below land surface Depth, feet below land' surface


Casing Hole Water Aquifer Casing Hole Water Aquifer
Level Level

20 20 10-12 Water table 46 50 17 Water table
0-40 0-55

83 83 14.5 Sec. artesian 185 208 21 Sec. artesian
70-90 200-220

165 174 20.9 Sec. artesian 230 245 18.8 Sec. artesian
160-180 255-270

282 335 99 334 370 57.8 Sec. artesian
330-380

282 425 100.7 Floridan 416 450 60
315-825

282 810 100.5 416 472 62.1
Floridan
416 905 60.9 409-905






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


characteristics of the Floridan aquifer in Baker County would aid future
development of the aquifer in adjacent areas.
OCCURRENCE AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
The Floridan aquifer in Baker County consists primarily of permeable
limestone and dolomite beds of Eocene age. Locally, however, the
Suwannee Limestone of late Oligocene age and limestone beds in the
Hawthorn Formation of middle Miocene age form part of the aquifer.
The aquifer underlies all of the county; and, as shown in figure 5, the top
of the aquifer ranges from less than 50 feet below sea level in the western
part to more than 350 feet in the eastern part. The exact thickness of the
aquifer is not known; however, it is more than 1,600 feet thick in south-
western Baker County and about 1,900 feet thick in the northeastern
part Most water wells penetrate less than 1,000 feet of the aquifer.
The permeable limestone and dolomite formations contain dense
zones, occurring primarily in the Avon Park and Lake City Limestones,
that are relatively impermeable and restrict the vertical movement of
water within the aquifer. Possibly some of these zones are extensive
laterally and may separate water-producing zones within the aquifer
such as occur in adjacent Duval and Nassau counties (Leve, 1964).
ARTESIAN PRESSURE
Water in the Floridan aquifer is confined under pressure by poorly
permeable sandy clays in the overlying Hawthorn Formation and in the
upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits. In north-central Florida, the aquifer
is recharged primarily in areas where the confining beds are thin, absent,
or where they are breached by streams and sinkholes and water moves
downward into the aquifer. Water is discharged from the Floridan
aquifer, by upward seepage, and through wells.
Artesian pressure in the Floridan aquifer continuously fluctuates, and
most significant changes are those caused by recharge and discharge.
When the rate of recharge exceeds the rate of discharge over a significant
period of time, artesian pressures increase and vice versa.
Artesian pressure can be expressed as the altitude above a fixed datum
to which water will rise in a tightly cased well. Figure 8 shows the
relation between artesian pressure in well 302620N0821735.1 and rainfall
at Glen St. Mary and Lake City for the period from December 1963
through February 1964. As shown, an increase in rainfall from 2.8 inches
in December to 9.2 inches in January resulted in about a 3-foot rise in
artesian pressure. The artesian pressure increased only 1 foot during
February because of a decrease in the amount of rainfall during the
month.













W Taylor test well, 302620N0821735.1

IW56





c 54 -- 1 1 1 1 4



Figure 8. Graphs showing the relation between artesian pressure in Tayl 20 25 5 0 5 20
Glen S. Mry Lke Cinfall aty Glen St Ma ry


The piezometric surface is an imaginary surface to which water6.8



DECEMBER' 1963 JANUARY 1964 FEBRUARY 1964
Figure 8. Graphs showing the relation between artesian pressure in Tayl
well, 302620N0821735.1, and rainfall at Glen St. Mary and Lake I

PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE
The piezometric surface is an imaginary surface to which watel
an aquifer will rise in tightly cased wells that penetrate the a(
The piezometric surface is shown by contour lines that connect poi
equal altitude. Generally, water enters the aquifer in those areas'
piezometric surface is high and moves downgradient in a dir
approximately perpendicular to the contour lines. The velocity (
ground-water movement depends on the permeability of the aquiff
the hydraulic gradient. Piezometric maps can also be used to dete
the rate of ground-water flow if the permeability and thickness (
aquifer are known.
Figure 9 shows the piezometric surface of the Floridan aqui
Baker County and adjacent areas in March 1964. The piezometric
as shown is the northern extension of a high that centers in Ak
Clay, and Putnam counties. The configuration of the piezometric si
in figure 9 indicates that water enters the Floridan aquifer south of








S G I


0 \ A\

7.. \ NASSAU
046 0



JACKSONVILLEL,
BAKER .8'UV
.4,4 A0, 7DUVAL
3LUMBIA (5 MACCLENNY
/ 60.7
LAKECITY

*J J I.Q io
f .UNION / / \\
_/5_8. ...-. AY /






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 52


Much of the ground water that moves eastward in the Floridan
aquifer from the piezometric high is discharged in areas in Duval and
Nassau counties where large quantities of water are used by industries
and cities.
QUALITY OF WATER
Rainfall entering the ground is only slightly mineralized. As the
water moves through the ground, it dissolves some of the minerals that
compose the rocks. Therefore, the chemical quality of ground water
is primarily a result of the dissolution of minerals in the rocks through
which it moves.
Table 2 lists analyses of water from selected wells in Baker County.
Water in the water-table and shallow artesian aquifers is generally
softer and less mineralized than water in the Floridan aquifer but
has a higher iron content. As shown on table 2, water from well
301220N0822630.1, which taps the water-table or a shallow artesian
aquifer, contains only 27 ppm dissolved solids. This mineral content is
considerably lower than in water from the Floridan aquifer; however,
the water contains 1.8 ppm of iron (over 0.3 ppm of iron is considered
excessive).
Water in the Floridan aquifer is of similar chemical quality throughout
Baker County. As shown in table 2, the dissolved solid content ranges
from 141 to 217 ppm; and the carbonate hardness ranges from 121 to
204 ppm. Analyses of water samples collected several years apart indicate
a slight, but probably insignificant, increase in the content of water in
the aquifer has occurred in recent years.
The temperature of water at different depths in the Floridan aquifer
was determined in test wells at Sanderson and Taylor. As shown by
graphs in figures 3 and 4, the temperature of the water increased from
66,2 at the top of the aquifer to 69F at the bottom of the well or an
increase of about 2312F in about 400 feet in the well at Sanderson, and
it increased from 70F at the top of the aquifer to 730F at the bottom
of the well or an increase of about 3F in 500 feet in the well at Taylor.
This represents an increase of about 1F for every 160 feet penetration
in the Floridan aquifer. A slight but pronounced temperature anomaly
was recorded at 500 feet below land surface in the well at Taylor which
may indicate the presence of a highly mineralized zone.
Water from the Floridan aquifer in Baker County, except for being
relatively hard, is of good quality and may be used for domestic, agri-
cultural, and most industrial purposes.
Records of selected wells in Baker, Duval, and Union counties are
presented in table 3.











Table 2, ANALYSES OF WATER FROM
(Chemical constituents are expressed
Aquifer: F, Floridan; SA, secondary artesian; WT, water table.
Remarks: Analysts; (1) Fla. Board Health; (2) Univ. of Fla,; (3) Black Lal

1 I I I I I I I


C#, .0 5n

I I s l g
Well I f
number m

30141SNO820805.1 6-11-59 650 F 0.27 32 14 20 0.3 0 15(
6- 2-63 650 F 0.0 32 17 0 15S
301410N0820800.2 6-11-59 610 440 F 0.04 33 13 22.6 1.0 0 15(
301700N0820710.1 1-31-63 700 460 F 0.2 36 17 0 141
301657N0820735.2 6- ?-42 595 449 F 0.10 29 12 -- 14:
10- ?-50 595 449 F 36 13 16(
4-16-59 595 449 F 0.06 40 23 151
2- 6-63 595 449 F 0.03 37 16 15(
301655N082755.1 9- 7-42 455 330 F 0.03 27 10 14:
9-15-49 455 330 F 0.05 26 14 14(
10-30-50 455 330 F 31 11 15i
4-10-59 455 330 F 0.50 34 12 0 14(
301240N0822320.1 2- 7-41 260 187 F& 0.7 42 21 24:
SA
301220N0822630.1 2-18-41 52 50 WT 1.8 2 2 i1
_______SA


k, I I I


I I








Table 3. RECORDS OF WELLS IN BAKER, DUVAL AND UNION COUNTIES.


WELL NUMBERS: See Figure 2 for explanation of well-numbering
system.
OWNERSHIP: C, county; F, Federal government; M, city; N, company or
corporation; S, State agency.
DEPTH OF WELL: To nearest foot.
WELL FINISH: X, open hole in aquifer, cased to aquifer; Z, gravel pack.
METHOD DRILLED; C, cable-tool; H, hydraulic rotary; J, jetted.
TYPE PUMP: J, jet;N, none; T, turbine.
USE OF WATER: H, domestic; I, irrigation; P. municipal or public
supply; U, unused.


AQUIFERS: IF, Floridan; 2H, Hawthorne-clayey sand and gravel; IM,
Miocene-limestone; IN, Nonartesian sand aquifer.
ALTITUDE OF LAND SURFACE: To the nearest foot above mean sea
level.
WATER LEVEL: To the nearest foot. Date of measurement includes
month and year.
CHEMICAL ANALYSES AVAILABLE: C, complete; P, partial.
RANGE OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS: Iron: 0, 0.00-0.05; 1,
0.06-0,1; 2, 0.11-0.30; 5, 1.1-3.0. Sulfate: 0, 0-10; 2, 26-50; 3,
51-100. Chloride: 0, 0-10, 1, 11-25; Hardness: 2, 21-50;4, 101-150;
5, 151-200.


Casing Alti- Water level SiP
tude Yield Period Chemi- cflc Trn-
Well Owner- Year Depth Well Meth- Type Use Aqul- land Above (gal- Draw- of ical Iron Sul- Chlo- Hard- con- per-
number ship corn- of Depth Dia- fin- od of of fer surface or be- Date Ions down dis- anal- (Fe) fate ride ness duce a-
pie- well (feet) meter ish drill- pump water above low(-) of per (feet) charge yses. ppm (04) (CI) tance ture
ted (feet) (in- ed mean land meas- min- (hours) avail- ppm ppm (micro- (OF)
ches) sea surface uro- ute) able mhos at
level (feet) ment 250C)
BAKER COUNTY
302620N0821735.1 F 1963 905 417 6 X C N U IF' 116 61 10-63
301535N821620.1 F 1963 825 282 6 X C N U IF 158 98 8-63
301106N0822723.1 F 1957 21 18 6 Z I N U IN 155 1 5-58
301423N0822611.1 F 168 3 N U IF 160 100 6-57
301655N0820755.1 M 1945 595 459 6 X T U IF 130 55 5-45 200
302615N0821435.1 C 1956 198 102 2 X N U 2H 18 12-60
300950N0822725.1 N 1950 3043 16 H N U 145
301250N0822220.1 S 1957 355 243 8 X 1 IF 164 110 5-S7
301240N0822320.1 F 1939 260 188 6 X H IF 170
301210N0822630.1 F 1932 52 50 2 X J H IM 165 18 6-64 P 5 0 0 2
301415N0820805.1 S 650 440 8 X H T P IF 137 72 1-60 C 0 0 1 4 74
301410N0820800.2 S 1958 610 440 12 X H T P IF 1200 48 C 0 2 1 4 75
301657N0820735.2 M 1945 595 449 10 X H T P IF 127 55 5-45 200 C 1 3 1 5 76
302920N0821240.1 N i1947 3349 1051 13 X H N U 124
301700N0820710.1 M 1960 704 460 10 X T P 1F 130 900 C 2 0 1 5 72
DUVAL COUNTY
301339N0815312.1l F 19411 980 431 10 X T P I IF 79 16 3-41
UNION COUNTY


, i I I II I I I T I


300741N0822258.11


S1195511 724 1 694 1 8 1 XI I N I U IF 153 1 90 111-581 6301


I I I I I I 1 1 73





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


GROUND-WATER USE IN BAKER COUNTY
Because the water-table and shallow artesian aquifers occur at
relatively shallow depths throughout Baker County, water supplies
from these aquifers can be developed economically. Most rural farm
homes have wells, generally two inches in diameter, developed in these
aquifers which furnish the small to moderate amounts of water needed
for domestic and stock use.
Large supplies of ground water for municipal, industrial, or irriga-
tion use in Baker County can be obtained from the Floridan aquifer.
In 1966, only a few wells were drilled into the Floridan aquifer because
of the lack of need of large quantities of water required by industries.
Only one municipal supply existed and obtained its water from the
Floridan aquifer. The following are large users of water from the
Floridan aquifer:
City of Macclenny-Water is obtained from two wells that are 10
inches in diameter and 595 and 700 feet deep with an emergency
standby well 455 feet deep. The water is pumped from the wells to
a treatment plant with a rated capacity of about 1 mgd. Municipal
water use has increased from about 130,000 gpd in 1950 to about 250,000
gpd in 1963.
Northeast Florida State Hospital-This hospital, about three miles
south of Macclenny, is supplied with water from the Floridan aquifer
by two wells that are 8 inches in diameter and 610 and 650 feet deep
respectively. The water is pumped to a treatment plant and then to the
hospital and to a number of homes of personnel connected with the
hospital in the area. Water use increased from about 90,000 gpd in
1959 to about 195,000 gpd in 1963.
Other-Wells in the Floridan aquifer owned by the Florida State
Forestry Service, Florida Board of Parks and Historic Monuments,
and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, all located in the vicinity of
Olustee, supply water for domestic, public, and agricultural uses.

SUM1IMARY
Ground water from porous limestone, sand, and shell aquifers is
the principal source of water supplies in Baker County. The formations
penetrated by water wells range in age from Lake City Limestone of
middle Miocene age to Recent sands and clays.
Ground water in Baker County occurs in three aquifers: (1) the
water-table aquifer, (2) shallow artesian aquifer, and (3) the Floridan
aquifer.
The water-table aquifer consists of surficial sand beds within the
upper Miocene or Pliocene and Pleistocene and Recent deposits. This






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 52


aquifer ranges from about 10 to 50 feet in thickness and is recharged
by local rainfall.
The shallow artesian aquifers occur in discontinuous sand, shell,
and limestone beds within the Hawthorn Formation and the upper
Miocene or Pliocene deposits. The thickness and depth of these aquifers
varies throughout the county but generally range from 10 to 50 feet
in thickness and from 70 to 380 feet below land surface. The shallow
artesian aquifers are recharged locally by downward percolation from
the water table or from shallower secondary artesian aquifers.
The Floridan aquifer which occurs in the limestones of Eocene
age, in the Suwannee Limestone, and limestone beds in the Hawthorn
Formation is the greatest potential source of ground water in Baker
County. The top of the Floridan aquifer in Baker County ranges from
less than 50 to more than 350 feet below sea level. The aquifer is
about 750 to 1,000 feet thick. Relatively impermeable layers within the
Lake City and Avon Park Limestones may separate the lower part of
the aquifer into thin, water-bearing zones.
Piezometric maps show that the water in the Floridan aquifer
moves radially away from Baker County toward areas of discharge.
In eastern Baker and Bradford counties and western Nassau, Duval,
and Clay counties, much of the water moves toward discharge areas
in Duval and Nassau counties.
Water from the water-table and shallow artesian aquifers is less
mineralized and softer than water from the Floridan aquifer. However,
the iron content of water from the water-table and shallow artesian
aquifers is generally higher than water from the Floridan aquifer.
Although the water from the Floridan aquifer is more mineralized, the
chemical quality is adequate for domestic, stock, agricultural, and most
industrial purposes. Analyses of water from the Floridan aquifer show
there has been a slight increase in the mineral content in recent years.
Most domestic and farm water supplies in Baker County are obtained
from the water-table and shallow artesian aquifers. The larger water
users in the county obtain water from the Floridan aquifer.
At present there is relatively little development of the ground-water
supplies in Baker County. Future industrial development and popula-
tion growth in the county will require a much greater development of
the ground-water resources, particularly from the Floridan aquifer.
This aquifer is capable of supplying sufficient quantities of good quality
water provided the development of the aquifer is based on a sound
water management policy. Because the Floridan aquifer extends through-
out all of northeast Florida and southeast Georgia, the development of
this aquifer in adjacent areas will affect and be affected to some extent
by development in Baker County.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


REFERENCES

Applin, E. R_ (see Applin, P. L-)

Appin. P. L_
1944 (and Applin, E. R.) Regional subsurface stratigraphy and structure
of Florida and southern Georgia: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists
BulL, v. 28, no. 12, p. 1673-1753.

Black, A. P.
1951 (and Brown, Eugene) Chemical character of Florida's waters-
1951: Florida State Board of Conserv., Div. Water Survey and
Research, Paper 6.

Brown, Eugene (see Black, A. P., and Cooper, H. H., Jr.)

Cooke, C. W.
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29.

Cooper, H. H., Jr.
1953 (and Kenner, W. E., and Brown, Eugene) Ground water in central
and northern Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 10.
Results of transmissibility tests in Duval and Nassau Counties:
U.S. Geol. Survey open-fie release, Tallahassee, Florida.

Kenner, W. E. (see Cooper, H. H., Jr.)

Leve, C. V_.
1966 Ground water in Duval and Nassau Counties, Florida: Florida
Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 43.

Pride, R. NV.
1958 Interim report on surface-water resources of Baker County, Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 20.

Puri, HI S.
1953 Zonation of the Ocala Group in peninsular Florida (abs.): Jour.
Sed. Petrology, v. 23.
1957 Stratigraphy and zonation of the Ocala Group: Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 38.

Stringfield, V. T.
1936 Artesian water in the Florida peninsula: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-
Supply Paper 773-C.
1966 Artesian water in tertiary limestone in the southeastern states:
Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 517.


Vernon, R_ O.
1951


Geology of Citrus and Levy Counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 33.




Reconnaissance of the ground-water resources of Baker County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 52 )
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 Material Information
Title: Reconnaissance of the ground-water resources of Baker County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 52 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Report of investigations 52 )
Physical Description: vi, 24 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Leve, Gilbert W ( Gilbert Warren ), 1928-
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1968
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Groundwater -- Florida -- Baker County   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Gilbert W. Leve.
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 24.
General Note: "Prepared by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Board of Conservation, Division of Geology."
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STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION


DIVISION OF GEOLOGY

Robert O. Vernon, Director


REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 52





RECONNAISSANCE OF THE GROUND-WATER
RESOURCES
OF BAKER COUNTY, FLORIDA


By
Gilbert W. Leve
U. S. Geological Survey


Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
FLORIDA BOARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY


Tallahassee, Florida
1968











FLORIDA STATE BOARD

OF

CONSERVATION


CLAUDE R. KIRK, JR.
Governor


TOM ADAMS
Secretary of State




BROWARD WILLIAMS
Treasurer




FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN
Superintendent of Public Instruction


EARL FAIRCLOTH
Attorney General




FRED O. DICKINSON, JR.
Comptroller




DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGES
Director




LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
^vflE .


C


,Division of jetoffy

Tallahassee

June 4, 1968


Honorable Claude R. Kirk, Jr., Chairman
State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Governor Kirk:

The Division of Geology is publishing as its Report of Investigations
No. 52, a report on the "Reconnaissance of the Ground-Water Resources
of Baker County, Florida" prepared by Gilbert W. Leve, with the
U. S. Geological Survey, as a part of the cooperative investigations of
the water resources of Florida-a Division of Geology responsibility.

Ground-water is not widely used in Baker County, but the presence
of a high equipotential area in the artesian system beneath the County
made it necessary that the resource be understood insofar as this high
affected the ground-water resources of Nassau and Duval counties which
were being intensively studied and mapped.

The method and rates of movement of ground-water from one point
to another in the artesian aquifer are understood more fully by use of
the data in this report.

Respectfully yours,
Robert O. Vernon
Director and State Geologist


'~


~cn




































Completed manuscript received

June 4, 1968

Published for the Division of Geology

By St Petersburg Printing Company

St. Petersburg, Florida

1968






CONTENTS

Page
Abstract -..----...-.....-.......---.....---..-- -------..---------------- 1
Introduction -..--................---- --------------------------------- 2
Purpose and scope -.........--.--.. --..--..--..-- --..----.-------------- 2
Previous investigations ..-----.-......................-- --.- ---------.---- 3
Well-numbering system ...............-..............-- --- -------------- 3
Topography and drainage ----..........--.. ------------------------ 4
Climate and culture .-..........----.......-...--..-.--------.------ 5
Ground-water resources ............-..........---------------..----.... 5--------
Occurrence of ground water -...-.....-----.. ..---------..---..-- ----------- 5
Geologic framework -....------.-...------.... .....---- -------...------ 6
Eocene limestone formations ..-...........-- ..------------------- ------- 6
Post-Eocene deposits ....---..--..--..---- ..------- -- ------------. 12
Aquifers ..--.........--..........---------- ----------------.. 13
Water-table aquifer .................--- --.. ..---------------- .....................-------------------. 13
Shallow artesian aquifers ....--.........-............. ----.......--.-- ------- 14
Floridan aquifer ..-......--.. ..-----------------.......................----- ------------------ 14
Occurrence and physical characteristics .....-----. .....----- ..............-------- 16
Artesian pressure .--.----..... ------------....................................------.......----------------- 16
Piezometric Surface --..--..-----..------- ..---- --------------. 17
Quality of water -...................-----------------...............---------- 19
Ground-water use in Baker County .-..------------.......------------------.... ....... 22
Summary --.~........................ .------------........................-- ---- 22
References -...........--.....--.--.-.----.---------------------- 24
















V






ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page
1 Map of Baker County, Florida, showing the location of wells-....................... 2
2 Diagram illustrating the well-numbering system ---....-..-..-.................... 4
3 Graphs of data collected during the construction of Sanderson
test well, 301535N0821620.1 ...------...---...------------------- 7
4 Graphs of data collected during the construction of Taylor test
well, 302620N0821735.1 ..----..- ----.....---------.--------- 8
5 Map of Baker County showing altitude of the top of the Crystal
River Formation .-....----.--_.. ... .-- -------------. 9
6 Generalized south-north geologic section showing formations
penetrated by wells ...--..--------....... -.----------. -. 10
7 Generalized west-east geologic section showing formations pene-
trated by wells ------------------.. ....--- --_....------------------- 11
8 Graphs showing the relation between artesian pressure in Taylor
test well, 302620N0821735.1, and rainfall at Glen St. Mary and
Lake City ...------------..................-------------------------.................----------.......... 17
9 Generalized map of the piezometric surface of the Floridan
aquifer in northeast Florida, showing greater detail of the piezo-
metric surface in Baker County, March 1964 ....-----......--........--.......... ------ 18





TABLES

Table Page
1 Water levels measured at different depths in test wells
301535N0821620.1, near Sanderson, and 302620N0821735.1, near
Taylor -...............--------.. ....... ...........-- ----- ..---. 15
2 Analyses of water from wells in Baker County ........... ................---------------- 20
3 Records of selected wells in Baker, Duval, and Union Counties..-----................- 21






RECONNAISSANCE OF THE GROUND-WATER
RESOURCES
OF BAKER COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
Gilbert W. Leve
ABSTRACT
Baker County comprises approximately 585 square miles in north
Florida. The surface of the area is flat with rolling terrain generally
between about 100 to 150 feet above sea level which is drained by the
St. Marys River and Olustee Creek, a tributary of the Suwannee River.
About one-third of the 7,700 inhabitants live in the two major towns of
Macclenny and Glen St. Mary.
Water supplies are obtained from three aquifers: (1) the water-table
aquifer, (2) the shallow artesian aquifer, and (3) the Floridan aquifer.
The greatest potential source of ground water in the county is from the
Floridan aquifer. It is composed of limestone formations of Eocene age
which underlie all of Baker County at altitudes ranging from less than
50 to more than 350 feet below sea level and are at least 750 to 1,000
feet thick. The Floridan aquifer is recharged to the south of Baker
County and possibly in southern Baker County directly by rainfall or
by downward percolation from bodies of surface water or shallower
aquifers.
Seasonal fluctuations of the artesian pressure in the Floridan aquifer
result primarily from changes in the rate of recharge. A progressive
decline in the piezometric surface in the Floridan aquifer of 10 to 20
feet from 1945 to 1964 is related in part to increased discharge by wells
in adjacent Duval and Nassau counties.
In eastern Baker and Bradford counties, on the eastern flank of the
piezometric high, water in the Floridan aquifer moves toward discharge
areas in Duval and Nassau counties.
Water from the water-table and shallow artesian aquifers is softer and
less mineralized than water from the Floridan aquifer but it contains a
higher concentration of iron. The carbonate hardness of water analyzed
from wells in the Floridan aquifer ranged from 121 to 204 ppm (parts per
million) and the dissolved solids concentration ranged from 141 to
217 ppm.
Most rural water supplies are from wells in the water table and shallow
artesian aquifers. At present, only the City of Macclenny, the Northeast
Florida State Hospital, government installations, and a few private
homes obtain water from wells completed in the Floridan aquifer. Large
additional quantities of ground water can be developed from the Floridan
aquifer to supply foreseeable future needs.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


INTRODUCTION
A reconnaissance investigation of ground water in Baker County,
Florida, was conducted as a part of a more comprehensive study of the
ground-water resources in adjacent Duval and Nassau counties. Baker
County, located in north Florida, is bounded on the east by Nassau and
Duval counties; on the south by Clay, Bradford, and Union counties;
on the west by Columbia County; and on the north by the State of
Georgia, as shown in figure 1. It is approximately "L" shaped and has an
area of about 585 square miles.


Figure 1. Map of Baker County, Florida, showing the location of wells.

PURPOSE AND SCOPE
The purpose of this report is to locate and describe the aquifers as
an aid to development of the ground-water resources in Baker County
and in adjacent and near-by counties of northeast Florida and southeast
Georgia.
The investigation was made by the U. S. Geological Survey as part
of the statewide cooperative program with the Division of Geology,





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 52


Florida Board of Conservation, to evaluate the water resources of Florida.
The report presents and summarizes all of the pertinent, available data
on the ground-water resources of Baker County obtained from:
1. Collection of ground-water data by inventorying wells in the
county and periodically measuring the water level in selected
wells.
2. Collection of geologic information from drillers and in the files of
the Division of Geology, Florida Board of Conservation.
3. Drilling of two deep test wells in areas where ground-water data
and geologic information were not available.
The investigation was made under the supervision of C. S. Conover,
District Chief, Water Resources Division, U. S. Geological Survey.

PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS
No prior investigations have been made of the geology and ground-
water resources of Baker County. However, a number of reports by
the U. S. Geological Survey and the Division of Geology, Florida Board
of Conservation have included general geologic and hydrologic informa-
tion on the area. Reports by Applin and Applin (1944), Cooke (1945),
Vernon (1951), and Puri (1957) include information on the geology
of Baker County, and reports by Stringfield (1936, 1966) and Cooper,
Kenner, and Brown (1953) include some information on the ground-water
resources. The chemical character of water from a number of wells in
Baker County is included in a report by Black and Brown (1951). A
report by Pride (1958) describes the surface-water resources of Baker
County.
WELL-NUMBERING SYSTEM
The well-numbering system used in this report is that of the Water
Resources Division of the U. S. Geological Survey and is based on a
one-second grid of parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude, in
that order.
The well number is a composite of two numbers separated by the
letter N. The first part consists of six digits; the two digits of the degrees,
the two digits of the minutes, and the two digits of the seconds of
latitude. The N refers to "north" latitude. The second part consists of
seven digits; the three digits of the degrees, the two digits of the minutes,
and the two digits of the seconds of longitude. If more than one well
lies within a one-second grid, the wells are numbered consecutively and
this number is placed at the end of the well number following the
decimal. Therefore, the well number defines the latitude and the longitude





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


on the south and east sides of a one-second quadrangle in which the
well is located.
Figure 2 is a diagram illustrating the well-numbering system. For
example, the designation 275134N0815220.1 indicates that this is the


Figure 2. Diagram illustrating the well-numbering system.
first well inventoried in the one-second grid bounded bylatitude 27051'34"
on the south and longitude 081O52'20" on the east.

TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE

Baker County is in the Central Highlands topographic region (Cooke,
1945, p. 8), and the topography is flat to gently rolling with altitudes






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 52


between about 100 to 150 feet above msl (mean sea level). A high, sandy
ridge termed the "Trail Ridge" extends north-south through eastern
Baker County. A number of sand hills on this ridge have altitudes of
more than 200 feet.
Most of the surface drainage is by the St. Marys River and its
tributaries. Small areas in western and southern Baker County are
drained by Olustee Creek, a tributary of the Suwannee River. Streams
are sluggish and poorly developed on the flat terrain and much of the
area is marshland. The Okefenokee Swamp, which occupies a large area
in southern Georgia, extends into northern Baker County.

CLIMATE AND CULTURE
The climate of Baker County is subtropical. The average annual
temperature is about 690F, and the average annual rainfall is about
52 inches. Most of the rain occurs during the summer months. Rainfall
of more than 10 inches per month during the summer and less than half
an inch per month during the late fall is not uncommon.
According to the 1960 U. S. Census, the population of Baker County
was 7,400; and, in 1965, it was estimated to be about 8,000 by the Bureau
of Economic and Business Research, University of Florida. About one-
third of the population lives in the major towns of Macclenny and Glen
St. Mary. The major industries are lumbering, wood pulp, and cattle
ranching. Two large nurseries at Glen St. Mary, a number of small farms,
and the Northeast Florida State Mental Hospital add to the economy of
the county.

GROUND-WATER RESOURCES
Water supplies in Baker County are available from both surface- and
ground-water sources. However, surface-water sources are undependable
because of droughts; and they generally are too far from the water users
to be economically used. The surface-water resources of the county are
discussed in a report by Pride (1958). Practically all water presently
used in the county is ground water. This report discusses only the
ground-water resources in the area.

OCCURRENCE OF GROUND WATER
Rain is the source of most ground water. Part of the rain is returned
to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration, part drains overland into lakes
and streams, and part seeps into the ground near the point where it
falls, or also from lakes and streams. Only the water that reaches the






FLOIUDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


zone of saturation-the zone saturated with water under hydrostatic
pressure-becomes ground water.
The occurrence of ground water is controlled primarily by the sub-
surface rocks. The chemical composition, physical characteristics, and
structure of the geologic formations determine the quality of the ground
water, the amount of water available, and the vertical and areal distri-
bution of ground water. In order to obtain information on the subsurface
rocks in Baker County, logs of wells and cuttings obtained from wells
on file with the Division of Geology, Florida Board of Conservation were
examined. Also, two test wells were drilled in areas where geologic or
ground-water information was lacking.

GEOLOGIC FRAMEWORK

The geologic framework that controls the occurrence and distribution
of ground water in Baker County is graphically portrayed by the logs
of the two test wells, figures 3 and 4, the map of the top of the Crystal
River Formation, figure 5, and the geologic sections, figures 6 and 7.
Although the chemical composition and the physical properties of the
geologic formations may vary slightly throughout the county, the type
of rocks penetrated by the test wells are essentially typical of the sub-
surface rocks underlying the entire county. Both wells were drilled into
the Lake City Limestone, which is the deepest formation generally
penetrated by water wells in northeastern Florida and southeastern
Georgia.

EOCENE LIMESTONE FORMATIONS

The oldest formation shown in figures 3-7 is the Lake City Limestone
of middle Eocene age. It is predominantly a tan to dark brown, hard,
massive, dolomitic limestone and medium soft, finely crystalline dolomite,
both containing relatively thin beds of tan, soft, chalky to granular
limestone. The Lake City Limestone is about 500 feet thick and its top
ranges from about 450 feet below sea level in the southwestern part of
the county to more than 650 feet below sea level in the eastern part.
The Avon Park Limestone of late middle Eocene age unconformably
overlies the Lake City Limestone and is similar in lithology. It is about
140 feet thick in southwestern Baker County and thins to less than
50 feet in the eastern part of the county. The top of the formation ranges
from 300 feet below sea level in southwestern Baker County to more than
600 feet below sea level in the eastern part.





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 52


Figure 3. Graphs of data collected during the construction of Sanderson test well,
301535N0821620.1

The Ocala Group1, Inglis, Williston, and Crystal River Formations of
late Eocene age consist of a relatively homogeneous sequence of cream
to light gray, medium soft, chalky to granular, marine limestone, con-
taining thin beds of hard, massive, dolomitic limestone and dolomite.
1 The classification and nomenclature of the rock units conform to the usage of the
Division of Geology, Florida Board of Conservation and, also, except for the Ocala
Group and its subdivisions, with those of the U. S. Geological Survey, which regards
the Ocala as two formations, the Ocala Limestone and the Inglis Limestone.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


SLF- POTBTIAL DRILUNG TIME CALIPER LOG
~0 5'


TEMPAVnUE cAMUr


V


^ "-
0--~




; 3 1 "-






W.0 --1 ; :7''
sooi j^^^ "'r~






I r"' \
f C"




ri i|s / ^
TO o\ l-( --- r
'^ =


^ ^ *I ^
3o _iJ 1 1 .S


I 1 I '1


j



-j


'i


Figure 4. Graphs of data collected during the construction of Taylor test well,
302620N0821735.1

The Inglis and Williston Formations are generally more granular in
texture than the overlying Crystal River Formation and the Inglis
Formation generally is more calcitic and slightly darker in color than
either the Williston or the Crystal River Formations.
The geologic sections in figures 6 and 7 show that the thickness of
the Ocala Group ranges from about 220 to 310 feet in Baker County.
The average thickness of the Crystal River Formation is about 150 feet
and the average thickness of the Williston and Inglis Formations is about
50 feet each.


JE PA %-SSTMT'


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ExPU.--





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I I


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- 20 40 60 8000 2KP IL


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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 52


-250 o EXPLANATION
BAKER COUNTY w~ *155
S Number represents the altitude of
the top of the Crystol River
\ Formation in feet below mean
-200 sea level
I \\ --50-----
Contour represents the attituded. of
-326 A! i the *' top of the Crystal River
Formation. Dashed where
-150 inferred. 'Contour interval 50
I feet. Datum is mean seo level
T LOR 12 A- A
\ \ -281\
Location of geologic sections
I hown in figures 6 and 7.

0 I 2 3 4 miles -
-__o__-


--'-'X0,


I -287.








-200 -250


Figure 5. Map of Baker County showing altitude of the top of the Crystal River
Formation.



The altitude and configuration of the top of the Crystal River Forma-
tion are shown by contour lines in figure 5. The top of the Crystal River
Formation ranges from about 50 feet below sea level in southwestern
Baker County to about 350 feet below sea level in the eastern part.
Structurally, the surface of the Crystal River Formation in Baker County
is a monocline which strikes approximately north-northwest-south-south-
east and dips east-northeastward about 20 feet per mile.










NORTH
A' 0


Figure 6. Generalized south-north geologic section showing formations penetrated by wells,


SOUTH
A


100


0


100


200


300


400


500


600


700


8oo0








WEST EAST
B -I -. 'B'



0 W 200

PLEISTOCN 0
100-- ..UPPER I,' ---0 1 _,,,
0-cerv N S100


g HAWTHORN FORMATION UPPER MIOCENE




0 200 200
0 000
8o 0 3006 ~300

o 400 N4LIS00
Soo-- oEN FORMATION
t00 of eton hown on fig



B 600- P 800
Figure 7. Generalized west-east geologic section showing formations enrticetl cle greatly exoggrate by ortedwells
700 0 I 2 3 4 Hmile 825'ORNFORMATIO

T otal d e t 3,0 4 3 ___N ote: L ocati on at section uhaw n on fig S
O00
Figure 7. Generalized west-east geologic section showing formations penetrated by wells. C





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


POST-EOCENE DEPOSITS
In southwestern Baker County, the Crystal River Formation is
overlain by the Suwannee Limestone of late Oligocene age. It consists
of light gray to white, granular, limestone and yellowish brown, indurated,
siltstone and sandstone cemented with calcium carbonate. As shown on
the geologic cross sections in figure 5, the Suwannee Limestone is less
than 30 feet thick in southwestern Baker County. It was not recognized
in cuttings from either of the test wells in central Baker County or in
cuttings from wells in the eastern part. The Suwannee Limestone either
was not deposited in these areas or it was removed by erosion prior to
the deposition of the Hawthorn Formation.
Where the Suwannee Limestone is absent, the Crystal River Formation
is overlain by the Hawthorn Formation of middle Miocene age. The
Hawthorn Formation consists of gray to olive green, phosphatic, clayey
sand and sandy clay; gray to green, phosphatic, calcareous clay, inter-
bedded with lenses of medium to coarse, phosphatic sand; and phosphatic,
sandy limestone, shell and dolomite. The dolomite beds generally occur
near the base of the formation and are about 20 feet thick in both of
the test wells. Examination of the cuttings from a number of wells in
the county show the Hawthorn Formation is overlain by beds of green,
calcareous, shelly clay; white, granular limestone; and fine to medium
sand. These overlying deposits are similar to those in the Hawthorn
Formation but they contain no phosphate and more shells. They can be
correlated to the upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits in neighboring
Nassau and Duval counties (Leve, 1966) on the basis of lithology and
position in the subsurface. As shown on the geologic sections, figures 6
and 7, the combined thickness of the Hawthorn Formation and the
upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits range from about 120 feet in western
Baker County to about 400 feet in the eastern part.

Deposits of Pleistocene and Recent age overlie the upper Miocene
or Pliocene deposits and the Hawthorn Formation and blanket the
surface of Baker County. Undifferentiated beds of fine to coarse sand
and green to red, silty clay were deposited as marine terraces by fluctua-
tions of the sea level during Pleistocene interglacial periods. Recent
sediments are presently being deposited as alluvial sand and clay in
the stream valleys and as peat and muck in the lakes, swamps, and other
poorly drained areas in the county. The deposits of Pleistocene and
Recent age are discontinuous and vary in texture and lithology within
short distances both laterally and vertically. The combined thickness of
these deposits ranges from about 30 feet in western Baker County to
about 150 feet in the vicinity of Trail Ridge in the eastern part.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 52


AQUIFERS
Rocks that are sufficiently permeable to yield usable quantities of
water to wells are called aquifers. The aquifers serve as conduits that
distribute and store ground water. Where the aquifer is not overlain
by an impermeable bed and the surface of the water is free to rise and
fall, it is termed a water-table aquifer. Where the aquifer is overlain by
an impermeable bed and the water in the aquifer is confined under
pressure, it is termed an artesian aquifer. Both water-table and artesian
aquifers occur in Baker County.


WATER-TABLE AQUIFER
The water-table aquifer occurs in upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits
and Pleistocene and Recent deposits which together range in thickness
from about 30 feet in western Baker County to more than 150 feet.
Permeable sand and shell beds within about the uppermost 50 feet of
these deposits comprise the aquifer; however, these permeable beds are
discontinuous and wedge out laterally against less permeable silty clay
beds. Generally, wells completed less than 30 feet deep, in the surficial
sand beds, will tap part or all of the water-table aquifer.
The water-table aquifer is recharged principally by local rainfall and
from surface streams and marshes. Water discharges from the water-table
aquifer by evapotranspiration, by seepage into streams, lakes, and swamps
when their water surface is lower than the water level in the aquifer,
by downward percolation into deeper aquifers, and by pumpage from
a few wells.
The water level in the water-table aquifer rises when the amount of
recharge exceeds the rate of discharge and vice versa. Seasonal fluctua-
tions of the watel level of 6 to 8 feet are not uncommon, and some wells
completed in the upper part of the aquifer go dry when the water levels
decline and have to be deepened. In addition, centrifugal pumps installed
on some wells during periods of relatively high water levels fail when
the water levels are relatively low and have to be replaced with deep-well
pumps.
Water from the water-table aquifer is relatively high in iron content
which stains plumbing fixtures and imparts a bad taste to the water.
The high iron content of the water combined with the seasonal declines
of water levels make this aquifer the least desirable source of ground
water in the county. However, a number of rural domestic, stock, and
irrigation supplies are obtained from this aquifer because of the relatively
inexpensive cost.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


SHALLOW ARTESIAN AQUIFERS
The shallow artesian aquifers in Baker County consist of relatively
thin, discontinuous lenses of sand, shell, and limestone within relatively
impermeable beds of day and clayey sand in the Hawthorn Formation
and in the upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits. The relatively imperme-
able beds restrict the vertical movement of water and confine the water
under artesian pressure within the aquifers. Similar conditions exist at
places within the Pleistocene and Recent deposits during certain times
of the year when the aquifer is completely saturated.
The occurrence of shallow artesian aquifers varies throughout Baker
County and the exact depth and thickness of the aquifers at any location
often cannot be predetermined. In test well 301535N0821620.1, near
Sanderson (fig. 3), shallow artesian aquifers were located at depths
of 70 to 90 feet below land surface near the base of the upper Miocene
or Pliocene deposits and from 130 to 140 feet below land surface and
from 160 to 180 feet below land surface in the Hawthorn Formation. In
test well 302620N0821735.1, near Taylor (fig. 4), shallow artesian
aquifers were located at depths from 200 to 220 feet below land surface,
from 255 to 270 feet below land surface, and from 330 to 380 feet below
land surface in the Hawthorn Formation.
The artesian pressure in shallow artesian aquifers differs depending
on the areal location within the county and the depth of each aquifer.
Table 1 shows the water level measured at different depths in test wells
301535N0821620.1 and 302620N0821735.1. The water levels in each of
the shallow artesian aquifers are lower than the water level in the
water-table aquifer and higher than the water level in the Floridan
aquifer.
The shallow artesian aquifers are recharged locally by downward
seepage of water from the water-table aquifer.
Wells completed in the shallow artesian aquifers generally yield more
water with a lower iron content than wells completed in the water-table
aquifer. Small-diameter wells throughout Baker County produce water
from these aquifers for domestic, stock, and irrigation supplies.

FLORIDAN AQUIFER
The Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water supplies in
northeastern Florida and southeastern Georgia; and, although it is
presently tapped by only a few wells in Baker County, it is the greatest
potential source of water supplies in the area. Development of water
supplies from the aquifer in one part of the area could eventually affect
hydrologic conditions over the entire area. Therefore, knowledge of the









Table 1. WATER LEVELS MEASURED AT DIFFERENT DEPTHS IN TEST
WELLS 301535N0821620.1, NEAR SANDERSON, AND 302620N0821735.1, NEAR TAYLOR


Well 301535N0821620.1 Well 302620N0821735.1
Depth, feet below land surface Depth, feet below land surface


Casing Hole Water Aquifer Casing Hole Water Aquifer
Level Level

20 20 10-12 Water table 46 50 17 Water table
0-40 0-55

83 83 14.5 Sec. artesian 185 208 21 Sec. artesian
70-90 200-220

165 174 20.9 Sec. artesian 230 245 18.8 Sec. artesian
160-180 255-270

282 335 99 334 370 57.8 Sec. artesian
330-380

282 425 100.7 Floridan 416 450 60
315-825

282 810 100.5 416 472 62.1
Floridan
416 905 60.9 409-905






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


characteristics of the Floridan aquifer in Baker County would aid future
development of the aquifer in adjacent areas.
OCCURRENCE AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
The Floridan aquifer in Baker County consists primarily of permeable
limestone and dolomite beds of Eocene age. Locally, however, the
Suwannee Limestone of late Oligocene age and limestone beds in the
Hawthorn Formation of middle Miocene age form part of the aquifer.
The aquifer underlies all of the county; and, as shown in figure 5, the top
of the aquifer ranges from less than 50 feet below sea level in the western
part to more than 350 feet in the eastern part. The exact thickness of the
aquifer is not known; however, it is more than 1,600 feet thick in south-
western Baker County and about 1,900 feet thick in the northeastern
part. Most water wells penetrate less than 1,000 feet of the aquifer.
The permeable limestone and dolomite formations contain dense
zones, occurring primarily in the Avon Park and Lake City Limestones,
that are relatively impermeable and restrict the vertical movement of
water within the aquifer. Possibly some of these zones are extensive
laterally and may separate water-producing zones within the aquifer
such as occur in adjacent Duval and Nassau counties (Leve, 1964).
ARTESIAN PRESSURE
Water in the Floridan aquifer is confined under pressure by poorly
permeable sandy clays in the overlying Hawthorn Formation and in the
upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits. In north-central Florida, the aquifer
is recharged primarily in areas where the confining beds are thin, absent,
or where they are breached by streams and sinkholes and water moves
downward into the aquifer. Water is discharged from the Floridan
aquifer, by upward seepage, and through wells.
Artesian pressure in the Floridan aquifer continuously fluctuates, and
most significant changes are those caused by recharge and discharge.
When the rate of recharge exceeds the rate of discharge over a significant
period of time, artesian pressures increase and vice versa.
Artesian pressure can be expressed as the altitude above a fixed datum
to which water will rise in a tightly cased well. Figure 8 shows the
relation between artesian pressure in well 302620N0821735.1 and rainfall
at Glen St. Mary and Lake City for the period from December 1963
through February 1964. As shown, an increase in rainfall from 2.8 inches
in December to 9.2 inches in January resulted in about a 3-foot rise in
artesian pressure. The artesian pressure increased only 1 foot during
February because of a decrease in the amount of rainfall during the
month.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 52 17

d
lAJ 60 --1 -- --i ---I-I



I 5 592 2 2 I
ToTaylor test well, 302620N0821735.1


U.



3 5 o10 15 20 25 1 5 o10 15 20 25 1 5 I1 5 20 25

1 5 10 Is 20 25 1 5 10 15 20 25 1 5 Ii 15 20 25

Glen St. Mory Lake City Glen St. Mory


Total -2.8" To,..9.eTolo I_9.2" Total z 6.8*
Tt 2
cc



0A


DECEMBER 1963


JANUARY 1964


FEBRUARY 1964


Figure 8. Graphs showing the relation between artesian pressure in Taylor test
well, 302620N0821735.1, and rainfall at Glen St. Mary and Lake City.

PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE

The piezometric surface is an imaginary surface to which water from
an aquifer will rise in tightly cased wells that penetrate the aquifer.
The piezometric surface is shown by contour lines that connect points of
equal altitude. Generally, water enters the aquifer in those areas where
piezometric surface is high and moves downgradient in a direction
approximately perpendicular to the contour lines. The velocity of the
ground-water movement depends on the permeability of the aquifer and
the hydraulic gradient. Piezometric maps can also be used to determine
the rate of ground-water flow if the permeability and thickness of the
aquifer are known.

Figure 9 shows the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in
Baker County and adjacent areas in March 1964. The piezometric high
as shown is the northern extension of a high that centers in Alachua,
Clay, and Putnam counties. The configuration of the piezometric surface
in figure 9 indicates that water enters the Floridan aquifer south of Baker
County and possibly within southern Baker County and moves radially
away.



















EXPLANATION
Well Number represent altitude
08.7 the piesomrtric
surface feet above
mean sea level.

- -- Contour line represents
the plezomeirlo
surface, feet above
mean sea level .


S 5 I0 MILES


Figure 9. Generalized map of the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in northeast Florida, showing greater detail of the piezo-
metric surface in Baker County, March 1964.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 52


Much of the ground water that moves eastward in the Floridan
aquifer from the piezometric high is discharged in areas in Duval and
Nassau counties where large quantities of water are used by industries
and cities.
QUALITY OF WATER
Rainfall entering the ground is only slightly mineralized. As the
water moves through the ground, it dissolves some of the minerals that
compose the rocks. Therefore, the chemical quality of ground water
is primarily a result of the dissolution of minerals in the rocks through
which it moves.
Table 2 lists analyses of water from selected wells in Baker County.
Water in the water-table and shallow artesian aquifers is generally
softer and less mineralized than water in the Floridan aquifer but
has a higher iron content. As shown on table 2, water from well
301220N0822630.1, which taps the water-table or a shallow artesian
aquifer, contains only 27 ppm dissolved solids. This mineral content is
considerably lower than in water from the Floridan aquifer; however,
the water contains 1.8 ppm of iron (over 0.3 ppm of iron is considered
excessive).
Water in the Floridan aquifer is of similar chemical quality throughout
Baker County. As shown in table 2, the dissolved solid content ranges
from 141 to 217 ppm; and the carbonate hardness ranges from 121 to
204 ppm. Analyses of water samples collected several years apart indicate
a slight, but probably insignificant, increase in the content of water in
the aquifer has occurred in recent years.
The temperature of water at different depths in the Floridan aquifer
was determined in test wells at Sanderson and Taylor. As shown by
graphs in figures 3 and 4, the temperature of the water increased from
66, at the top of the aquifer to 69"F at the bottom of the well or an
increase of about 231oF in about 400 feet in the well at Sanderson, and
it increased from 70F at the top of the aquifer to 730F at the bottom
of the well or an increase of about 3F in 500 feet in the well at Taylor.
This represents an increase of about 1F for every 160 feet penetration
in the Floridan aquifer. A slight but pronounced temperature anomaly
was recorded at 500 feet below land surface in the well at Taylor which
may indicate the presence of a highly mineralized zone.
Water from the Floridan aquifer in Baker County, except for being
relatively hard, is of good quality and may be used for domestic, agri-
cultural, and most industrial purposes.
Records of selected wells in Baker, Duval, and Union counties are
presented in table 3.












Table 2. ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS IN BAKER COUNTY.
(Chemical constituents are expressed in parts per million)
Aquifer: F, Floridan; SA, secondary artesian; WT, water table.
Remarks: Analysts: (1) Fla, Board Health; (2) Univ. of Fla,; (3) Black Lab-Gainesville.
Hardneu
aa CaCO3






Well 09
number 0 1

30141 SN0820805.1 6-11 59 650 F 0.27 32 14 20 0.3 0 156 38 16 0.85 190 140 12 7.7 5
6- 2-63 650 F 0.0 32 17 0 156 >10 17 0.75 192 140 12 7.8 5 1
301410N0820800.2 6-11-59 610 440 F 0.04 33 13 22.6 1.0 0 156 36 IS 0.75 163 138 10 7.8 5 1
301700N0820710.1 1-31-63 700 460 F 0.2 36 17 0 148 >10 25 0.50 217 160 38 7.6 5 1
301657N0820735.2 6- ?-42 595 449 F 0.10 29 12 142 8.3 5.5 141 121 7.4 -
10- -50 595 449 F 36 13 166 30 16 204 146 7.75 -
4-16-59 595 449 F 0.06 40 23 151 65 14 0.45 202 196 72 7.7 5
2- 6-63 595 449 F 0.03 37 16 156 >10 15 .50 202 160 32 7.6 5 1
301655N082755.1 9- ?-42 455 330 F 0.03 27 10 143 6.7 7 145 108 7.25 -
9-15-49 455 330 F 0.05 26 14 146 >10 10 0.50 200 122 7.8 -
10-30-50 455 330 F 31 11 159 15 12 172 126 7.78 -
4-10-59 455 330 F 0.50 34 12 0 146 17 15 0.35 188 138 18 7.5 5 1
301240N0822320.1 2- 7-41 260 187 F& 0.7 42 21 243 0 8.7 233 204 12 7.7 (
SA
301220N0822630.1 2-18-41 52 50 WT 1.8 2 2 15 0 8 27 22 6.2 3 (1)
_SA








Table 3. RECORDS OF WELLS IN BAKER, DUVAL AND UNION COUNTIES.


WELL NUMBERS: See Figure 2 for explanation of well-numbering
system.
OWNERSHIP: C, county; F, Federal government; M, city; N, company or
corporation; S, State agency.
DEPTH OF WELL: To nearest foot.
WELL FINISH: X, open hole in aquifer, cased to aquifer; Z, gravel pack.
METHOD DRILLED; C, cable-tool; H, hydraulic rotary; J, jetted.
TYPE PUMP: J, jet;N, none; T, turbine.
USE OF WATER: H, domestic; I, irrigation; P. municipal or public
supply; U, unused.


AQUIFERS: IF, Floridan; 2H, Hawthorne-clayey sand and gravel; IM,
Miocene-limestone; IN, Nonartesian sand aquifer.
ALTITUDE OF LAND SURFACE: To the nearest foot above mean sea
level.
WATER LEVEL: To the nearest foot. Date of measurement includes
month and year.
CHEMICAL ANALYSES AVAILABLE: C, complete; P, partial.
RANGE OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS: Iron: 0, 0.00-0.05; 1,
0.06-0,1; 2, 0.11-0.30; 5, 1.1-3.0. Sulfate: 0, 0-10; 2, 26-50; 3,
51-100. Chloride: 0, 0-10, 1, 11-25; Hardness: 2, 21-50;4, 101-150;
5, 151-200.


Casing Alti- Water level S e-
tude Yield Period Chem- cpflc Tem.
Well Owner- Year Depth Well Meth- Type Use Aquli land Above (gal- Draw- of ical Iron Sul- Chlo- Hard- con- per-
number ship co- of Depth Dia- fin- od of of fers surface or be- Date Ions down dis- anal. (Fe) fate ride ness duc- a-
pie- well (feet) meter ish drill- pump water above low(-) of per (feet) charge yses. ppm (4) (CI) tance ture
ted (feet) (in- ed mean land meas- min- (hours) avail- ppm ppm (micro- (oF)
ches) sea surface uro- ute) able mhos at
level (feet) ment 250C)
BAKER COUNTY
302620N0821735.I F 1963 905 417 6 X C N U IF 116 61 10-63
301535N821620.1 F 1963 825 282 6 X C N U IF 158 98 8-63
301106N0822723.1 F 1957 21 18 6 Z I N U IN 155 1 5-58
301423N0822611.1 F 168 3 N U IF 160 100 6-57
301655N0820755.1 M 1945 595 459 6 X T U IF 130 55 5-45 200
302615N0821435.1 C 1956 198 102 2 X N U 2H 18 12-60
300950N0822725.1 N 1950 3043 16 H N U 145
301250N0822220.1 S 1957 355 243 8 X 1 IF 164 110 5-S7
301240N0822320.1 F 1939 260 188 6 X H IF 170
301210N0822630.1 F 1932 52 50 2 X J H IM 165 18 6-64 P 5 0 0 2
301415N0820805.1 S 650 440 8 X H T P IF 137 72 1-60 C 0 0 1 4 74
301410N0820800.2 S 1958 610 440 12 X H T P IF 1200 48 C 0 2 1 4 75
301657N0820735.2 M 1945 595 449 10 X H T P IF 127 55 5-45 200 C 1 3 1 5 76
302920N0821240.1 N i1947 3349 1051 13 X H N U 124
301700N0820710.1 M 1960 704 460 10 X T P IF 130 900 C 2 0 1 5 72
DUVAL COUNTY
301339N0815312.1 F 1941 980 431 10 X T P IF 79 16 3-41
UNION COUNTY


, i I I II I I I T I


300741N0822258.11


S1195511 724 1 694 1 8 1 XI I N I U IF 153 1 90 111-581 6301


I I I I I I 1 1 73





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


GROUND-WATER USE IN BAKER COUNTY
Because the water-table and shallow artesian aquifers occur at
relatively shallow depths throughout Baker County, water supplies
from these aquifers can be developed economically. Most rural farm
homes have wells, generally two inches in diameter, developed in these
aquifers which furnish the small to moderate amounts of water needed
for domestic and stock use.
Large supplies of ground water for municipal, industrial, or irriga-
tion use in Baker County can be obtained from the Floridan aquifer.
In 1966, only a few wells were drilled into the Floridan aquifer because
of the lack of need of large quantities of water required by industries.
Only one municipal supply existed and obtained its water from the
Floridan aquifer. The following are large users of water from the
Floridan aquifer:
City of Macclenny-Water is obtained from two wells that are 10
inches in diameter and 595 and 700 feet deep with an emergency
standby well 455 feet deep. The water is pumped from the wells to
a treatment plant with a rated capacity of about 1 mgd. Municipal
water use has increased from about 130,000 gpd in 1950 to about 250,000
gpd in 1963.
Northeast Florida State Hospital-This hospital, about three miles
south of Macclenny, is supplied with water from the Floridan aquifer
by two wells that are 8 inches in diameter and 610 and 650 feet deep
respectively. The water is pumped to a treatment plant and then to the
hospital and to a number of homes of personnel connected with the
hospital in the area. Water use increased from about 90,000 gpd in
1959 to about 195,000 gpd in 1963.
Other-Wells in the Floridan aquifer owned by the Florida State
Forestry Service, Florida Board of Parks and Historic Monuments,
and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, all located in the vicinity of
Olustee, supply water for domestic, public, and agricultural uses.

SUMMARY
Ground water from porous limestone, sand, and shell aquifers is
the principal source of water supplies in Baker County. The formations
penetrated by water wells range in age from Lake City Limestone of
middle Miocene age to Recent sands and clays.
Ground water in Baker County occurs in three aquifers: (1) the
water-table aquifer, (2) shallow artesian aquifer, and (3) the Floridan
aquifer.
The water-table aquifer consists of surficial sand beds within the
upper Miocene or Pliocene and Pleistocene and Recent deposits. This






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 52


aquifer ranges from about 10 to 50 feet in thickness and is recharged
by local rainfall.
The shallow artesian aquifers occur in discontinuous sand, shell,
and limestone beds within the Hawthorn Formation and the upper
Miocene or Pliocene deposits. The thickness and depth of these aquifers
varies throughout the county but generally range from 10 to 50 feet
in thickness and from 70 to 380 feet below land surface. The shallow
artesian aquifers are recharged locally by downward percolation from
the water table or from shallower secondary artesian aquifers.
The Floridan aquifer which occurs in the limestones of Eocene
age, in the Suwannee Limestone, and limestone beds in the Hawthorn
Formation is the greatest potential source of ground water in Baker
County. The top of the Floridan aquifer in Baker County ranges from
less than 50 to more than 350 feet below sea level. The aquifer is
about 750 to 1,000 feet thick. Relatively impermeable layers within the
Lake City and Avon Park Limestones may separate the lower part of
the aquifer into thin, water-bearing zones.
Piezometric maps show that the water in the Floridan aquifer
moves radially away from Baker County toward areas of discharge.
In eastern Baker and Bradford counties and western Nassau, Duval,
and Clay counties, much of the water moves toward discharge areas
in Duval and Nassau counties.
Water from the water-table and shallow artesian aquifers is less
mineralized and softer than water from the Floridan aquifer. However,
the iron content of water from the water-table and shallow artesian
aquifers is generally higher than water from the Floridan aquifer.
Although the water from the Floridan aquifer is more mineralized, the
chemical quality is adequate for domestic, stock, agricultural, and most
industrial purposes. Analyses of water from the Floridan aquifer show
there has been a slight increase in the mineral content in recent years.
Most domestic and farm water supplies in Baker County are obtained
from the water-table and shallow artesian aquifers. The larger water
users in the county obtain water from the Floridan aquifer.
At present there is relatively little development of the ground-water
supplies in Baker County. Future industrial development and popula-
tion growth in the county will require a much greater development of
the ground-water resources, particularly from the Floridan aquifer.
This aquifer is capable of supplying sufficient quantities of good quality
water provided the development of the aquifer is based on a sound
water management policy. Because the Floridan aquifer extends through-
out all of northeast Florida and southeast Georgia, the development of
this aquifer in adjacent areas will affect and be affected to some extent
by development in Baker County.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


REFERENCES

Applin, E. R. (see Applin, P. L.)

Applin, P. L.
1944 (and Applin, E. R.) Regional subsurface stratigraphy and structure
of Florida and southern Georgia: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists
Bull, v. 28, no. 12, p. 1673-1753.

Black, A. P.
1951 (and Brown, Eugene) Chemical character of Florida's waters-
1951: Florida State Board of Conserv., Div. Water Survey and
Research, Paper 6.

Brown, Eugene (see Black, A. P., and Cooper, H. H., Jr.)

Cooke, C. W.
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29.

Cooper, H. H., Jr.
1953 (and Kenner, W. E., and Brown, Eugene) Ground water in central
and northern Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 10.
Results of transmissibility tests in Duval and Nassau Counties:
U.S. Geol. Survey open-file release, Tallahassee, Florida.

Kenner, W. E. (see Cooper, H. H., Jr.)

Leve, G. W.
1966 Ground water in Duval and Nassau Counties, Florida: Florida
Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 43.

Pride, R. W.
1958 Interim report on surface-water resources of Baker County, Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 20.

Puri, H S.
1953 Zonation of the Ocala Group in peninsular Florida (abs.): Jour.
Sed. Petrology, v. 23.
1957 Stratigraphy and zonation of the Ocala Group: Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 38.

Stringfield, V. T.
1936 Artesian water in the Florida peninsula: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-
Supply Paper 773-C.
1966 Artesian water in tertiary limestone in the southeastern states:
Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 517.


Vernon, R. O.
1951


Geology of Citrus and Levy Counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 33.