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STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION


DIVISION OF GEOLOGY

Robert O. Vernon, Director


REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 51





CHEMICAL QUALITY OF WATERS OF
BROWARD COUNTY, FLORIDA


Rodney G. Grantham and C. B. Sherwood
U. S. Geological Survey





Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
FLORIDA BOARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY
and
BROWARD COUNTY


Tallahassee, Florida
1968











FLORIDA STATE BOARD

OF

CONSERVATION


CLAUDE R. KIRK, JR.
Governor


TOM ADAMS
Secretary of State




BROWARD WILLIAMS
Treasurer




FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN
Superintendent of Public Instruction


EARL FAIRCLOTH
Attorney General




FRED O. DICKINSON, JR.
Comptroller




DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGES
Director






LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


AVisi of gCeotox
Tallahassee
June 4, 1968
Honorable Claude R. Kirk, Jr., Chairman
Florida State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida
Dear Governor Kirk:
The Division of Geology of the Florida Board of Conservation is
publishing as it's Report of Investigations No. 51, a report on the Chem-
ical Quality of Waters of Broward County, Florida. This report was
prepared by Rodney G. Grantham and C. B. Sherwood, of the U. S.
Geological Survey, as a part of the cooperative program between the
Division of Geology and Broward County.
The data presented in this report indicate that the natural and man
associated water problems have mushroomed in Broward County because
of the rapid development of the population in this area. Most of the
water for municipal and domestic supplies is obtained from the produc-
tive Biscayne Aquifer. High iron in the southern part of the county
and chlorides in the coast and in the lower part of the aquifer have
presented some quality of water problems.
Surface water, as it does nearly everywhere else, varies in chemical
quality between rainy years and periods of drought. The use of canal
systems in the County for the disposal of wastes causes considerable
problems during periods of low rainfall. Pesticides, herbicides, and
detergents will probably increase in their occurrence in the waters of
the County, and the Water Quality Control Commission should find
the data presented in this report of considerable interest.
Sincerely yours,
Robert O. Vernon
Director and State Geologist




































Completed manuscript received

June 4, 1968

Published for the Division of Geology

By St. Petersburg Printing Company

St. Petersburg, Florida






CONTENTS


Page
Abstract .... ...... -- -....... ... .... .. ................................... 1
Introduction ..... ----........ ................................ 2
Purpose and scope --------------.........--------............. ................--- 2
Previous investigations ---. -----....................... ----------............-. 2
Acknowledgments ----- ---..............................-.........................------ 3
Hydrologic setting .......--------- ---....- .................................. 3
Collection of data ...--..................................... 7
Chemical quality of waters of Broward County --......- -------..----....-... ......... 8
Water in the Biscayne aquifer --....----..... ...--..---- ---....................... 28
Changes with depth and location ...----......-......--.....-....................... 28
Changes with time ----..-- -----------------............--............ .......- 34
Sea-water intrusion -----..................-----.. .............-------------------................... 35
Water in the Floridan aquifer ..--.......---.......----........ --..................... 40
Surface water .---.........--.. ...... --- ................. ....................... 40
Chemical content --..--..---.. ...-----.. ---...-.... --..-...............-......... 41
Changes with time ----...............--------....-. ...................-- ... 43
Contamination of water resources ---...........------- --...... ...................... 45
Summary and conclusions .... -----------..---------------..................... 48
References ------------------- ---- --------------........................ ...........- 51






ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page
I Southeastern Florida showing Broward County, and the water
conservation areas of Central and Southern Florida Flood Control
District 4_____-__--------- 4
2 Location of water and sewage treatment plants and generalized
agricultural and industrial areas ..---........-................-.........-............--- ---- 5
3 Location of water-ampling stations ...--..........----..............-..------------- -- 7
4 Diagram illustrating the well-numbering system ................---..................---- 9
5 Variation of dissolved solids in ground water of eastern Broward
County, 1964 -.. ........................................................................................... 29
6 Variation of hardness of ground water of eastern Broward County,
1964 --.._.....----...-....-......................---.............-....--....--..--....-... 30
7 Variation of iron in the ground water of eastern Broward County,
1964 _....... ... ..------.............................-....--------......................... 31
8 Variation in chemical constituents in water with depth from
selected wells ..-----........--..........- .................................--.....................-......... 32
9 Changes in chemical composition of water from well
261018N0800850 with depth .............................----...........................-.....---- 33
10 Changes in selected chemical constituents in water from a well
seven miles west of Davie during the period 1955 to 1964 --....-....---.......-- 35
11 Extent of sea-water intrusion, 1964 (Modified from Sherwood and
Grantham 1966) .............................................................................................. 36
12 Progressive salt-water intrusion in the Middle River-Prospect well
field area, near Fort Lauderdale (Sherwood and Grantham, 1966) .....--... 37
13 Variation of chloride content with depth in inland areas (after
Parker et al) ---------------------.......... .................................... 39
14 Fluoride content of water from Pompano Canal near Pompano
Beach ...---..... ------................................ 42
15 Discharge and chloride content of water from tidal reaches of
selected canals --- ---------------............................................................. 44
16 Mineral content of water from South New River near Davie and
rainfall, 1954 -1963 ............------... ... ................................-.......--- 45







TABLES

Table Page
1 Chemical analyses of water from wells and canals in Broward
County, Fla. .-...................................................... ........................... ....-------- 10
2 Analyses of minor chemical constituents in water from selected
canals, December 21, 1966 .................................... ..........-..................... 47
3 Analyses of pesticides in water from selected canals, December
21, 1966 .................. ..............-..............--......-.............-.. 48






CHEMICAL QUALITY OF WATERS OF
BROWARD COUNTY, FLORIDA

By
Rodney G. Grantham and C. B. Sherwood
U. S. Geological Survey

ABSTRACT

The chemical quality of the abundant surface and ground-water
resources of Broward County is generally good. However, natural and
man-made problems of water quality are accented by the mushrooming
need for water and changes in the hydrology of the area caused by rapid
urbanization.
Water of good chemical quality for municipal and domestic supplies
in Broward County is obtained from the highly productive Biscayne
aquifer, which is part of an interconnected ground and surface-water
system. The water is calcium bicarbonate in type and ranges from hard
to very hard, and from neutral to slightly alkaline. The prime objection-
able constituents in the water are iron in the southern part of the county,
and chloride near the coast and in the lower part of the Biscayne aquifer
in the inland areas.
Large quantities of water are available in the artesian Floridan
aquifer at depths below 900 feet, but the water is salty and of limited
use. The Floridan aquifer is used for the disposal of sewage effluent at
one location.
Surface water in the area is generally good but variable in chemical
quality. During the rainy season the mineral content of the water in
canals is diluted by surface runoff; however during the dry season the
mineral content of the canal water increases because of the increase in
the percentage of ground water in the canals and the drainage from
swampy inland areas. Large quantities of surface water are used for
irrigation in inland areas and for replenishment to coastal parts of the
aquifer for municipal supplies and to prevent salt-water intrusion.
The water in parts of Broward County is contaminated by salt-water
intrusion and by various wastes such as sewage effluent. The use of the
controlled canal system for disposal of waste materials poses a potential
problem during periods of little or no flow. Chemical weed killers applied
on the land, as well as detergents, have been detected in the ground
water indicating movement of waste through the ground. As urbanization
and industrial growth continue, problems of waste disposal will become
more acute and will require stricter control.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


INTRODUCTION
Fresh water is one of south Florida's most valuable natural resources.
At present the chief factor limiting the use of water is quality rather
than quantity. Broward County has a plentiful supply of water of good
chemical quality; however, because of the ever increasing need for
water, this resource must be protected by careful management and
control. A few chemical quality problems are already present, some
natural, some man made. Along the coast salt water occurs in or has
entered the aquifer; in many areas iron in the water makes it objection-
able; and throughout most of the county the water is hard. Other chemical
quality problems involve pollution due to accidental or intentional
dumping of wastes and chemicals. With the continued rapid increase
in population and the industrial development of the area, the problems of
pollution are likely to increase manyfold.

PURPOSE AND SCOPE
The purpose of this report is to make data and observations available
on the chemical quality of the surface and ground waters of Broward
County for use by water-supply and water-management officials, and
to aid in preventing deterioration of water resources by contamination.
The chemical constituents of the water are discussed in reference to
seasonal changes, areal differences, variation with depth, source of
certain dissolved minerals, and chemical properties.
This report was prepared by the U. S. Geological Survey in coopera-
tion with Broward County and as part of the statewide program with
the Division of Geology, Florida Board of Conservation. This report
constitutes the results of one phase of the investigation of water resources
of Broward County under the supervision of H. Klein, Chief, Miami
Subdistrict, and C. S. Conover, District Chief, Water Resources Division,
U. S. Geological Survey, Tallahassee.

PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS
A general report on the chemical quality of surface and ground water
of Florida by Collins and Howard (1928) contained a few analyses of
water in Broward County. In 1939, an intensive study of the water
resources of southeastern Florida was begun. As part of that investigation
Parker (1955) presented considerable data on the occurrence, movement
and the quality of ground water and surface water in Broward County
as well as information on salt-water intrusion. Salt-water intrusion in the
Fort Lauderdale area was studied in detail by Vorhis (1948) during his
investigation of the geology and ground-water resources of that area.





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


Schroeder, Klein, and Hoy (1958) conducted a study of the hydrology
of the Biscayne aquifer in which they delineated the approximate areas of
the salt intrusion in Broward County. A more detailed investigation
of salt-water intrusion and some work on water quality in the Oakland
Park area was done by Sherwood (1959). The hydrology of Biscayne
aquifer in the Pompano Beach area was studied by Tarver (1964). He
included information on the chemical quality of the water and salt-water
intrusion. Sherwood and Grantham (1965) prepared a leaflet on the
mechanics of salt-water intrusion and its effect over a period of years
on Broward County.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Appreciation is expressed to Mr. J. Stanley Weedon, Water Control
Engineer, Broward County Engineering Department, for his cooperation
and courtesy throughout the investigation; to Mr. George T. Lohmeyer,
former Director of Sanitary Engineering, Broward County Health De-
partment, for his cooperation and information concerning contamination
and sewage disposal; to Messrs. K. A. MacKichan and L. G. Toler,
U. S. Geological Survey, for help and guidance in the preparation of
this report; to Mr. H. J. McCoy, U. S. Geological Survey, for collecting
samples especially during the test-drilling program; and to the residents
of Broward County who furnished information about their wells and
permitted the collection of water samples.


HYDROLOGIC SETTING

Broward County borders the Atlantic Ocean in southeastern Florida,
figure 1. The Atlantic Coastal Ridge occupies most of the county between
the coast and the Everglades, a few miles inland, and has an average
elevation of 8 to 10 feet above msl (mean sea level). Maximum elevations
at isolated points range from 20 to 25 feet above msl. Most of the
population is concentrated in the coastal ridge area. In Broward County
the ridge is underlain chiefly by permeable sand and limestone. The
Everglades, an area of organic soils, lies west of the ridge. The eastern
edge of the Everglades is utilized for agriculture, figure 2. The central
part is utilized for diked water conservation areas in which water can
be stored for release during dry periods. The county is cut by an extensive
network of canals of the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control
District and several local water-control agencies. These water-control
agencies have nearly complete control of water levels and canal flows
within the coastal area.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 1. Southeastern Florida showing Broward County, and the water conserva-
tion areas of Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District.

The climate in Broward County is semi-tropical. The average
temperature is about 750F. Rainfall averages 60 inches per year with
about 75 percent falling from May through October.
The ground and surface waters of southeastern Florida are perhaps
better interconnected than in any other area in the United States. The
area contains an extensive system of controlled canals and water-conser-
vation areas. The major canals penetrate the highly permeable Biscayne
aquifer, and extend eastward from the water conservation areas to the





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


Figure 2. Location of water and sewage treatment plants and generalized agricul-
tural and industrial areas.

ocean. In most cases the flow in the canals is controlled by stage and
flow control structures near the coast. During the rainy season the
coastal control structures are opened and excess water is discharged to
the ocean to prevent inland flooding. This fresh-water flow pushes the
salt water in the uncontrolled sections of the canals seaward. During the
dry season, the control structures are closed to conserve fresh water and
to prevent salt water from migrating upstream beyond the structures.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


For a considerable time after the dry season begins water levels
along controlled reaches of the canals remain relatively high as a result
of ground-water inflow and seepage from the water conservation areas
to upstream reaches of the canals. As the dry season progresses and
during prolonged drought, water stored in the conservation areas may
be released into the canals to maintain adequate fresh-water levels
in the canals at the downstream control structures. Because of the higher
water levels above a control structure and the good hydraulic continuity
water can move from the canals into the aquifer and ground-water
levels are thus kept high.
In operation this method of aquifer replenishment can be either
beneficial, or detrimental. Beneficially, well fields developed near canals
(fig. 2) can withdraw more water than otherwise would be possible,
because the infiltration of water from the canals reduces water-level
drawdowns caused by pumping. Also, adequate fresh-water levels prevent
the intrusion of salt water into the aquifer. Detrimentally, salt water may
be trapped upstream of controls during operation unless extreme care is
exercised. When this occurs the salty water does not remain stationary
but settles and moves upstream because of density currents. During
drought periods when controls are closed and canal flows are at a
minimum, treated effluents, industrial wastes, and other contaminants
which are normally flushed to the sea are retained and tend to be
concentrated in the canals.
All municipal water supplies in Broward County are obtained from
the Biscayne aquifer. Because of its more stable chemical and bacterio-
logical characteristics ground water from this aquifer is more suitable
for municipal use than is canal water. Water treatment ranges from only
chlorination to iron removal and softening zeolitee or lime-soda treat-
ment). The productivity of the aquifer and the shallow depths required
for large capacity wells are shown by the following pumpage and well
data. (See well field locations, fig. 2).

Range of Average Pumpage, 1965
Number depth (million gallons
Well Field of wells (feet) per day)
Dixie well field
(Ft Lauderdale) 26 100 130 11.5
Prospect well field
(Ft- Lauderdale) 22 100 130 16.5
Hollywood well field 14 90 120 7.3
Pompano Beach well field 11 100 140 8.1
Deerfield Beach well field 9 80 120 2.6





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


COLLECTION OF DATA
Wells and canal sites from which water samples have been collected
for chemical analysis are shown in figure 3.


Figure 3. Location of water-sampling stations.

Surface-water samples were collected periodically at high tide
immediately upstream of control structures. Samples of ground water
were pumped from wells to obtain water representative of the section





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


during the drilling of 19 test wells. During the construction of test wells,
drilling was stopped about every 21 feet (the length of a section of
drill stem) and all drilling fluid was pumped out of the drill stem. Water
from the aquifer was then pumped out of the drill stem for several
minutes and a sample collected. Specific conductance was determined
for all samples. Those that had conductance values differing appreciably
from previous samples were analyzed for dissolved constituents. All water
samples collected during this study were analyzed by the U. S. Geological
Survey. Sampling was started in December 1961, however analyses of
samples collected during earlier studies are included.
The well-numbering system used in this report is that of the Water
Resources Division of the U. S. Geological Survey and is based on a
one-second grid of parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude, in
that order.
The well number is a composite of two numbers separated by the
letter N. The first part consists of six digits; the two digits of the degrees,
the two digits of the minutes, and the two digits of the seconds of latitude.
The N refers to "north" latitude. The second part consists of seven digits;
the three digits of the degrees, the two digits of the minutes, and the
two digits of the seconds of longitude. If more than one well lies within
a one-second grid, the wells are numbered consecutively and this number
is placed at the end of the well number following the decimal. Therefore,
the well number defines the latitude and the longitude on the south and
east sides of a one-second quadrangle in which the well is located.
Figure 4 is a diagram illustrating the well-numbering system. For
example, the designation 275134N0815220.1 indicates that this is the first
well inventoried in the one-second grid bounded by latitude 27051'34"
on the south and longitude 81052'20" on the east.

CHEMICAL QUALITY OF WATERS OF BROWARD COUNTY
Chemical analyses of water from wells and canal sites in Broward
County are shown in table 1. Standard chemical analyses of water
samples as determined by the U. S. Geological Survey are for the cations
(positively charged ions), calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium;
the anions (negatively charged ions) sulfate, chloride, fluoride,. nitrate;
those contributing to alkalinity (expressed as equivalent amounts of
carbonate and bicarbonate), and total iron and silica. Other properties
usually determined are pH, hardness, color, specific conductance, and
total dissolved solids (as residue and sum of determined constituents).
The chemical constituents are commonly reported in ppm (parts per
million). One part per million represents 1 milligram of solute in 1 liter






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


Figure 4. Diagram illustrating the well-numbering system.


of solution, or expressed in English units 8.34 pounds of constituent per
million gallons of water.
Dissolved mineral content of water is generally reported in one of
two forms: (1) dissolved solids, the weight of residue remaining after
evaporation of a known volume of clear water; (2) sum of the individual
components, the total of the constituents as determined by chemical
analysis. Residue and calculated dissolved solids should be approximately
equal, although the residue figure usually is slightly larger. This difference
may be caused by organic or inorganic substances not analyzed, or the
residue may contain a small amount of water of hydration.











Table I, CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN IROWARD COUNTY, FLA,
A.-Ground Water
(Chemical analyses, in parts per million, except pH and color)
Specific Diiolved Hardnes
Date Depth conduct Ter- Mag- Po. Car- solids
Well of of tance per- Silica Cal- ne. Sodium ta- Blcar- bon- Sulfate Chio- Fluo- Ni- Iron Non. Col-
number collec- well (micro- pH alur (SI02) clum alum (Na) alum bonate ate (SO4) ride ride rate (Fe) Residue Cal. Calcium, car- or
tion (ft.) mhos (oF) (Ca) (Mg) (K) (HCO3) (CO3) (CI) (F) (NO3) at cu- magne- bon-
at 250C) 1800C lated slum ate
255829N0801120 04-06-62 116 553 7.9 77 9.1 98 7.4 15 0.6 310 0 14 22 0.0 0.0 0.56 338 319 275 21 35
255909N0801317 04-06-62 160 551 7.6 73 8.9 96 7,4 16 0.6 292 0 24 21 0.0 1.1 1,7 346 319 270 30 55
255742N 0802720 09-18-41 32 398 83 61 10 5.0 214 1.0 19 202 193 110
255742N 0802720 09-19-41 56 426 77 70 8.3 8.2 242 1.0 19 226 209 110
255742N 0802720 09-23-41 90 877 77 50 28 91 321 25 105 47 240 20
255742N 0802720 09-2441 134 1430 76 48 48 202 444 26 230 763 276 20
255742N 0802720 09-2541 173 1640 76 42 42 257 458 33 282 875 249 20
255742N 0802720 09-2641 198 2130 77 33 33 378 518 39 408 1150 218 20
255745N 0802722 04-20-64 45 660 7.3 72 5.8 94 8.1 40 0.8 304 0 5.2 66 0.3 0.0 1.3 371 370 268 19 60
255918N 0800917 04-06-62 82 563 7.7 77 5.7 101 2.4 19 2.0 282 0 24 27 0,0 0.5 0.24 324 321 262 31 20
255948N 0800909 04-13-64 80 587 7.8 76 13 66 21 35 1.3 284 0 0.4 56 0.2 0.1 1.5 314 333 252 20 20
255948N 0800909 04-20-64 215 540 8.2 8.8 97 5.4 14 0,6 286 0 29 22 0.2 0.2 3.9 338 318 264 30 20
255946N0801519 04-06-62 121 564 7.7 70 11 102 9.8 13 0.7 314 0 20 20 0.0 1.9 1.6 360 333 295 38 50
260043N 0801042 04-06-62 65 535 7.9 77 6.3 100 2.6 16 0.8 292 0 22 19 0.0 0.1 0.54 320 311 260 20 12
260054N 0801033 04-05-64 20 562 8.0 75 5.3 82 16 18 2.2 298 0 27 28 0.3 0.0 0.68 320 326 272 28 25
260054N 0801033 04-0664 122 544 8.0 8.2 92 0.6 23 0.7 288 0 8.4 47 0.2 0.1 2.0 322 232 0 20
260054N0801033 04-07-64 167 411 7.8 11 52 4.5 31 1.6 174 0 4.0 62 0.2 0.7 1.6 253 148 6 5
260054N 0801033 0408-64 200 1020 7.8 11 41 70 86 6.3 204 0 10 225 0.3 0.2 0.23 604 550 390 223 10
260149N 0801332 04-06-62 200 335 7.7 78 8.8 59 3.6 7.5 0.6 172 0 13 14 0.1 0.1 0.74 194 192 162 21 35
260251N0800911 04-06-62 90 603 7.9 78 7.6 110 1.3 22 1.0 300 0 24 36 0.0 0.0 0.65 374 350 280 34 25
260252N 0800914 03-19-64 75 4400 7.9 8.3 166 79 700 18 288 0 180 1320 0.5 3.0 3080 2620 740 504 20
260252N0800914 03-20-64 115 1130 8.0 6.2 123 32 76 2.5 248 0 40 230 0.3 0.0 0.82 926 632 440 237 20
260312N 0801001 03-16-64 20 1320 7.9 13 61 53 180 9.2 300 0 29 285 0.3 0.2 1.2 786 779 370 124 IS
260312N0801001 03-16-64 62 464 8.1 6.6 85 7.8 15 1.5 312 0 IS 24 0.2 0.0 0.70 309 244 0 30
260312N 0801001 03-17-64 200 2750 7.9 7.1 119 47 405 6.8 132 0 104 820 0.2 2.4 2.3 1940 1580 490 382 20
260336N0801157 04-0662 67 429 7.6 73 8.0 74 6.2 13 1.2 228 0 10 20 0.0 0.9 0.80 262 245 210 23 55
260322N0801621 04-06-62 170 610 7.7 77 9.9 110 8.6 17 0.7 326 0 27 24 0.0 1.6 2.3 410 360 310 43 55
260338N0802606 12-0640 66 538 74 101 9.1 A12 336 5.3 25 318 289 170
260338N 0802606 12-0740 118 3840 77 102 67 A618 389 206 950 2130 530 35
260338N 0802606 12-0740 159 4190 77 83 76 A693 358 243 1050 2320 520 25
260338N 0802606 12-09-40 204 4110 76 74 82 A675 371 237 1020 2270 522 25
260438N0801009 02-20-64 61 496 8.0 5.6 111 1.7 3.7 0.7 320 0 14 6.0 0.3 0.4 1.4 314 301 284 22 50
260438N 0801009 02-24-64 145 471 8.1 12 66 5.7 26 0.8 204 0 0.0 52 0.1 0.1 0.11 263 188 21 S
260438N 0801009 03-03-64 197 499 7.9 14 46 12 98 3.6 172 0 19 75 0.2 0.1 3.2 303 164 23 5
260438N 0801009 03-04.64 206 751 7.8 9.4 50 33 74 5.6 250 0 14 116 0.3 0.3 4.4 408 426 260 55 20
260437N 0801217 03-26-64 63 530 7.7 6.8 70 15 32 0.8 256 0 4.8 48 0.4 0.6 4.4 344 304 238 28 40
A Calculated Na plus K, reported as Na.








Table 1. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN BROWARD COUNTY, FLA.-Continued
A.-Ground Water
(Chemical analyses, in parts per million, except pH and color)
Specific Dissolved Hardness
Date Depth conduc- Ten- Mag- Po- Car- solids
Wel of of tance per- Silica Cal- ne- Sodium tas- Blcar- bon- Sulfate Chlo- Fluo- N- Iron Non- Col-
number collec- well (micro- pH nature (SiO2) cium slum (Na) slum bonate ate (S04) ride ride trate (Fe) Residue Cal- Calcium, car- or
tion (ft.) mhos (OF) (Ca) (Mg) (K) (HCO3) (C03) (Cl) (F) (NO3) at cu- magne- bon-
at 250C) 1800C lated slum ate
260437N0801217 03-29-64 187 500 7.9 75 13 85 23 240 10 316 0 10 391 0.2 1.3 0.22 930 308 49 10
260437N 0801217 03-31-64 204 3480 8.0 14 78 79 567 24 376 0 54 980 0.4 2.0 4.4 2200 1980 520 212 20
260427N0801355 04-06-62 115 438 7.7 78 9.3 78 5.0 13 0.6 240 0 10 18 0.0 0.0 2.2 272 252 215 18 55
260437N0801402 06-18-63 126 437 7.7 9.6 84 3.8 11 0.0 260 0 6.9 19 0.4 0.0 296 263 225 12 45
260519N 0801017 04-05-62 65 434 7.8 75 9.1 56 12 22 2.3 218 0 0.0 32 0.0 0.2 0.52 240 241 189 10 20
260542N0801554 04-02-62 58 559 7.5 76 7.7 86 5.0 28 0.7 244 0 17 45 0.0 3.9 1.6 376 313 235 35 80 ,
260515N 0802021 09-30-64 28 490 8.1 78 2.2 98 3.8 7.0 2.0 320 0 0.0 10 0.4 4.3 286 260 0 45
260604N0801201 04-06-62 136 443 7.6 73 8.6 83 2.2 9.0 0.5 246 0 8.4 15 0.1 0.3 1.34 254 248 216 14 15
260609N 0801205 12-0341 124 436 77 84 1.7 A9.5 252 12 13 0.0 245 217 5
260609N 0801205 12-05-41 147 484 77 80 22 All 250 2.0 18 0.2 257 209 5
260609N 0801205 12-0641 171 500 76 71 2.6 A13 226 2.1 21 0.2 221 188 5
260609N0801205 12-1741 228 960 77 82 19 A98 332 2.7 157 0.0 522 283 5
260609N 0801205 12-18-41 263 3620 77 69 57 A572 342 2.3 970 1840 407 5
260609N0801205 12-2341 314 8940 76 110139 A1650 300 333 2720 5100 846 5
260653N 0801849 05-28-64 58 780 8.0 15 89 36 44 1.7 376 0 6.4 76 0.4 0.2 0.45 494 454 368 60 50
260725N 0801155 04-05-62 100 489 7.9 73 9.5 94 2.6 12 0.5 284 0 4.8 18 0.0 0.5 3.0 304 282 245 12 45
260820N 0801410 04-05-62 155 636 7.8 75 9.7 120 5.0 18 0.6 330 0 24 31 0.0 1.0 3.0 396 372 320 50 25
260702N 0801907 07-02-63 56 520 8.0 7.1 84 5.0 26 0.7 260 0 4.4 43 0.3 0.2 1.3 339 299 230 17 50
260809N0800928 02-13-63 23 505 8.0 7.0 78 14 19 0.5 234 0 16 44 0.5 0.0 1.0 320 294 254 62 40
260809N 0800928 02-14-63 113 510 7.9 8.1 59 1.2 22 0.5 164 0 24 27 0.2 0.0 0.15 223 152 18 30
260809N 0800928 02-17-63 185 1050 8.0 13 69 9.2 132 4.4 192 0 11 240 0.2 0.7 0.41 574 210 52 15
260809N 0800928 02-18-63 208 1330 7.9 13 64 57 180 5.4 300 0 12 295 0.4 0.8 0.20 774 776 395 199 30
260842N 0802629 042264 45 840 7.7 77 20 98 19 66 2.2 388 0 2.8 100 0.5 0.0 1.8 501 321 3 70
260843N 0802629 10-2341 37 580 73 94 9.4 A18 325 6.6 28 0.3 316 273 160
260843N 0802629 10-25.41 62 594 73 96 9.4 A18 326 5.3 31 0.3 321 278 120
260843N0802629 10-28-41 133 2180 75 70 34 A351 558 43 408 1181 314 20
260843N 0802629 10-30-41 190 2380 76 56 45 A407 672 31 44S 1315 325 20
260917N 0801045 04-05-62 74 399 7.7 76 11 76 1.3 8.0 0.5 228 0 3.2 14 0.0 0.4 1.8 242 226 195 8 20
261018N 0800850 01-07-64 23 423 8.1 9.2 83 4.1 8.9 0.2 256 0 2.8 16 0.2 0.0 1.9 272 250 224 14 50
261018N 0800850 01-08-64 56 642 7.4 78 10 83 2.2 58 1.4 282 0 25 63 0.2 0.0 1.4 382 216 0 45
261018N 0800850 01-09-64 85 459 8.3 78 8.2 75 1.7 17 0.5 204 4 13 32 0.2 0.0 0.22 252 194 27 25
261018N0800850 01-15-64 167 1120 7.7 9.4 94 2.3 116 0.8 126 0 4.8 280 0.2 1.2 1.4 571 244 140 8
261018N 0800850 01-16-64 186 4850 7.8 10 128 125 750 2.0 230 0 24 1580 0.2 1.8 3.1 3230 2730 835 646 20
261159N 0801038 04-05-62 79 384 7.7 77 7.9 72 3.8 6.4 0.7 220 0 2.8 12 0.0 1.0 0.92 228 215 195 14 15
261018N0801217 04-06-62 80 488 8.4 7.8 98 1.3 13 0.6 278 6 3.6 19 0.0 1.1 1.1 326 287 250 12 120
261122N 0800834 04-22-64 84 251 8.1 12 44 3.9 6.6 0.6 146 0 0.0 10 0.4 0.1 158 150 126 22 20
A Calculated Na plus K, reported as Na.











Table 1. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN BROWARD COUNTY, FLA.-Continued
A.-Ground Water
(Chemlcal analyses, In parts per million, except pH and color)
Special Diuolved Hardnssu
Date Depth conduc- Tenm Mag- Po. Car- solids
Well of of stance per- Silica Cal- ne. Sodium tu- Blear- bon- Sulfate Chlo- Fluo- Ni. Iron Non. Col.
number collect. well (micro- pH ature (1O2 cium alum (Na) slum bonate ate (804) ride ride Irate (Fe Reldue Cal- Calcium, car- or
lion (ft.) mhos (OF) (Ca) (Mg) (K) (HCO3) (CO3) (CI) (F) (NO3) at cu- magne- bon.
at 25oC) I80C lated slum ate
261122N 0800834 04-28-64 167 329 8.0 9.0 77 1,0 9.7 0,6 230 0 5.6 18 0.2 0.1 3.7 234 196 8 5
261122N0800834 05-04-64 204 582 7.8 7.3 93 10 19 0.8 302 0 31 32 0.5 0.0 422 343 274 26 65
261142N 0800822 01-20-64 61 642 8.1 9.2 126 1,8 16 0.5 374 0 14 30 0.3 0.0 0.16 356 382 322 16 40
261142N 0800822 01-24.64 180 1790 7.9 76 14 125 7.8 295 6,9 250 0 22 522 0.4 1.9 0.53 120 344 139 15
261142N 0800822 01-47-64 186 3520 7.9 14 155 23 575 14 278 0 60 1040 0.3 1,8 0.53 2360 2020 480 252 20
261143N 0801211 01-29-64 23 129 7.7 7.1 24 1,9 2.1 0,4 66 0 7.2 5.0 0.2 0.0 0.20 98 81 68 14 60
261143N0801211 01-30-64 197 436 8.2 17 26 20 46 4.2 138 0 4.0 70 0.3 0.6 0.07 262 256 148 35 20
26121SN0800808 04-05-62 68 681 7.8 75 5.7 84 7.4 50 3.2 264 0 26 73 0.0 0.0 1.2 408 379 240 24 45
261204N0801228 04-03-62 104 697 8.0 73 13 124 7.4 23 1.2 390 0 8.0 37 0.0 0.0 2.6 436 406 340 20 35
261358N0800723 01-03-63 304 493 7.9 77 7.5 82 4.3 16 1.4 266 0 5.2 28 0.3 0.1 3.4 283 276 222 4 5
261358N 0800724 08-27-51 190 261 7.4 18 44 2.5 9.8 0.3 136 0 9.0 14 0.4 0.9 170 166 120 9 6
261459N0800639 08-10-60 158 228 8.0 77 3.5 36 1.0 8,3 0.6 113 0 3.6 13 0.2 0.1 0.44 124 122 94 2 5
261445N 0800750 08-10-60 220 116 9.8 78 1.7 8.4 0.2 12 0.6 11 9 2.4 18 0.2 0.1 0.30 58 58 22 0 S
261450N 0800716 04-05-62 105 315 7.8 79 7.0 56 2.1 8.1 0.8 162 0 7.2 13 0.0 0.1 0.58 162 174 148 15 0
261436N 0800719 08-23-51 140 267 7.6 12 44 2.5 9.2 0.6 140 0 8.0 14 0.3 0.6 168 161 120 5 7
261436N0800720 09-05511 203 370 7.6 14 70 0.4 11 0.7 222 0 6.5 15 0.4 0.8 252 231 189 7 28
261409N0801000 04-05-62 168 513 7.8 76 14 00 3.8 11 0.8 308 0 2.8 16 0.0 0.2 0.91 320 301 265 12 15
261424N 0801244 04-05-62 117 730 7.7 75 13 132 7.4 21 0.8 420 0 0.0 35 0.0 0.0 0.07 428 416 360 16 5
261408N 0802743 05-19-53 55 1080 7.5 16 121 24 89 0.8 500 0 44 105 0.6 2.1 2.1 692 655 416 6 SS
261504N 0800602 01-24-61 176 295 8.0 78 9.5 52 2.1 7.7 0.4 162 0 2.8 12 0.3 0.1 0.57 167 167 138 51 S
261547N0800619 04-05-62 140 315 8.0 80 6.7 56 2.1 8.5 0.6 162 0 6.4 15 0.0 0.1 0.35 152 175 148 15 0
261512N0800841 04-06-62 150 752 7.8 76 17 126 8.6 30 1.6 412 0 0.0 46 0.0 0.0 0.16 444 432 350 12 7
261527N0801138 03-12-64 165 740 7.6 74 11 138 5.7 22 1.2 392 0 32 36 0.2 0.1 0.12 494 439 368 47 25
261652N0800854 04-14-64 145 741 7.6 75 15 38 5.7 23 1.0 388 0 31 36 0.2 0.2 1.38 482 441 368 50 15
261734N 0800621 04-05-62 178 355 7.8 78 6.3 62 3.3 9.9 0.6 192 0 4.0 16 0.0 0.2 0.54 186 197 168 10 0
261704N 0801022 03-12-64 106 650 7.5 77 13 123 1.6 17 1.3 384 0 0.0 25 0.3 0.1 0.42 386 373 326 12 15
261710N 0801350 03-12-64 24 615 7.5 76 4.6 112 12 12 0.7 344 0 31 18 0.1 0.1 0.14 364 360 330 48 10
261822N 0800707 04-14-64 62 485 7.7 77 7.3 98 3.8 8.4 0.4 288 0 4.4 14 0.3 0.0 1.03 336 279 260 24 90
261856N0800842 03-12-64 100 755 7.7 77 16 135 3.6 29 1.1 364 0 17 63 0.3 0.0 0.82 492 444 352 54 20
261838N 0801513 11-19-63 57 429 7.8 3.3 30 29 15 1.0 206 0 15 28 0.1 0.4 0.07 262 223 194 25 20
261838N 0801513 11-25-63 102 1520 7.6 73 14 96 20 210 7.2 310 0 32 340 0.4 0.1 0.07 872 873 320 66 20
261840N 0801633 04-14-64 104 2700 7.7 75 19 75 23 298 8.0 522 0 120 518 0.4 0.6 0.10 1458 1420 530 102 10
261908N 0800622 04-05-62 94 360 7.9 78 6.9 66 0.9 8.7 0.5 194 0 7.2 15 0.0 0.0 0.70 204 201 168 9 25
261914N 0800607 12-06-63 23 232 7.9 79 3.2 50 0.2 2.6 0.2 146 0 4.8 5.0 0.5 0.0 0.48 144 138 126 6 70
261914N 0800607 01-06-64 195 312 8.0 79 9.8 61 1.5 8.5 0.6 176 0 3.6 16 0.3 0.3 0.03 180 189 158 14 20
261948N 0804640 03-13-64 85 2800 7.4 75 7.8 30 42 450 7.4 488 0 64 680 0.5 0.1 0.40 1600 1620 496 96 5










Table 1. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN BROWARD COUNTY, FLA.-Continued
B.-Surface Water
(Chemical analyses, in parts per million, except pH and color)


Dissolved Hardness Specific
Mag- Po- solids (as CaCO3) conduc-
Date Mean Cal- neI tas- Bicar- Fluo- NI- Phos- tance
of discharge Silica Iron cium slum Sodium slum bonate Sulfate Chloride ride trate phate Residue Cal- Calcium, Non- (micro- pH Col-
collection (cfs) (SiO2) (Fe) (Ca) (Mg) (Na) (K) (HCO3) (SO4) (CI) (F) (N3) (P4) at cu- magne- carbon. mhos or
1800C lated slum ate at 25oC)


2-2813. HILLSBORO CANAL AT S-39, NEAR DEERFIELD BEACH
Oct. 6, 1960 315 10 0.06 41 9.6 44 4.3 148 27 62 0.0 271 142 20 486 7.7 160
Dec. 5 449 3.9 .04 25 4.3 23 1.4 90 7.6 32 .0 112 80 6 262 7.6 120
Jan. 3, 1961 113 1.3 .08 18 4.1 21 2.0 66 7.2 28 1.7 116 62 8 217 7.4 110
Feb. 1 22 4.4 .05 33 9.1 38 2.0 136 11 52 .5 217 120 8 396 7.3 110
Mar. 1 9 2.6 .04 26 5.4 29 3.5 100 8.8 40 .7 165 87 5 307 6.3 100
AMr. 3 82 3.5 .04 30 7.1 25 1.8 120 7.2 36 .0 170 104 6 309 7.5 110
May.l 8 .5 .04 56 12 55 4.4 216 13 69 3.8 320 189 12 600 7.7 50
June 1 243 17 .07 81 22 74 5.1 290 64 96 10 512 292 55 873 7.5 150
Aug. 2 10 17 .06 54 17 67 3.7 230 27 90 .0 389 204 16 679 7.8 110
Sept. 6 118 18 .09 81 30 122 5.6 354 60 153 .4 644 326 36 1095 7.6 200
Oct. 11 17 .02 49 17 98 3.4 210 29 130 .3 453 192 10 783 8.4 100
Nov. 13 7.2 .03 56 22 104 3.5 256 38 135 .2 492 230 20 867 7.9 110
Dec. 11 6.7 .06 74 11 49 4.9 242 25 80 .0 370 230 31 664 7.6 90
Jan. 8, 1962 3.4 .05 69 23 102 4.1 316 29 134 2.6 266 8 920 8.2 90
Feb. 7 8.5 .01 72 37 237 7.3 370 67 340 1.7 953 332 28 1750 7.9 80
Mar. 15 9.7 .04 70 22 160 4.7 308 50 205 2.1 676 265 12 1190 7.8 60
Apr. 7 5.2 .05 78 9.1 78 3.5 248 36 113 .3 445 232 29 806 8.0 70
Apr. 13 1.6 .03 60 18 134 4.0 238 52 175 .4 562 224 28 1010 8.1 70
May 10 .02 72 17 150 4.4 290 50 190 1.4 638 250 12 1140 7.6 50
June 15 15 .03 84 27 225 5.8 380 64 270 1.4 879 320 9 1540 7.8 90
Nov. 2 17 .11 70 27 128 5.8 318 44 170 .3 619 286 25 1060 7.7 240
Dec. 4 74 11 .12 58 21 107 4.8 264 28 152 0.8 .2 610 513 231 14 900 8.0 160
July 17, 1963 9.4 .06 96 8.4 76 3.4 308 25 104 .6 .2 486 475 274 22 806 7.4 80
July 30 6.4 .15 29 8.6 49 1.7 118 8.8 58 .1 220 108 12 403 7.5 90
Sept. 17 10 .03 38 13 64 2.6 156 21 90 .0 316 148 20 541 7.4 80
Dec. 10 4.8 .03 50 18 90 3.4 222 32 122 .2 429 200 18 750 8.0 100
Jan.14,1964 19 .06 110 40 145 8.0 395 89 194 34 834 437 114 1300 7.9 150
r. 21 6.0 .10 53 18 99 3.2 233 26 132 .4 205 14 785 8.1 100
p20 6.9 .06 50 13 64 2.2 192 17 99 .1 347 178 20 629 7.8 110
June 18 11 .12 72 18 67 5.6 210 65 100 20 462 250 78 770 7.8 220
July 24 16 .15 61 18 87 .0 240 48 124 .7 .9 562 224 28 771 7.7 200
Oct. 28 16 72 22 117 5.0 284 54 150 .8 5.6 582 270 38 964 7.8 150
Nov. 20 13 .04 64 29 106 4.6 300 50 55 .9 .3 601 280 34 910 7.3 140
Jan, 26, 1965 890 -
Feb. 22 2.9 .05 53 17 90 3,7 220 25 24 .6 .3 425 200 20 750 7.1 100
May 21 7.0 .00 57 15 76 1.5 218 13 10 .7 2.7 390 202 24 699 7.7 100













Table 1, CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN BROWARD COUNTY, FLA,-Continued
B.-Surface Water
(Chemical analyses, in parts per million, except pH and color)
Diuolved lHardness Specific
Mag- Po- solids (ai CCro3) conduc-
Date Mean Cal. ne- tia- Bicr. Fluo. N1. Pho- tlance
of discharge SilW Iaron cium alum Sodium alum bonate Sulfate Chloride ride trate phat Residue Cal. Calcium, NoW. (micro. pH Col-
o o) (Fe) (Ca) (M) (Na) (K) (HCO) (804) (CI) () (N ) a cu magn carbon mho or
collectio (FCO lP8 ated slum ate at 25C)
2-2813.1E. HILLSBORO CANAL AT 8-39 BELOW CONTROL, NEAR DEERFIELD BEACH
Oct. 7,1959 1140 3.4 0.03 41 2.8 27 2.2 116 20 34 0.0 187 114 19 343 7.9 100
Nov. 10 170 4.0 .05 25 2.3 13 1.9 74 7.2 16 .1 106 72 1 188 7.4 80
Dec. 10 28 2.7 .05 30 2.4 17 .7 94 8.0 30 .4 137 85 8 268 7.4 60
Jan. 7,1960 18 3.8 .04 44 3.0 28 .8 128 9.6 43 .2 195 122 18 366 7.5 140
Mar.9 A 10 4.5 .02 85 IS 118 3.2 290 45 188 .5 602 274 36 1120 7.7 80
Apr. 5 A 10 .8 .03 89 20 165 5.0 366 48 220 2.3 730 304 4 1320 8.1 110
June 7 355 9.1 .07 66 7.2 54 S.S B224 22 82 .1 356 194 10 635 8.6 120
July 7 137 9.2 .13 94 3.3 55 1.8 C289 20 80 .1 415 248 10 748 8.4 85
July 17,1963 140 9.7 .06 96 8.4 71 3.2 304 24 98 .6 1.2 478 462 274 25 790 7.6 85
Feb. 22, 1965 7.6 .04 90 19 133 5.3 292 42 225 .6 .2 667 304 64 1180 7.6 75
2-2815. HILLSBORO CANAL ABOVE CONTROL, AT DEERFIELD BEACH
Apr. 7,1962 D 40 4.8 0.14 83 10 92 4.3 266 38 120 0.4 0.2 512 248 30 877 7.6 75
Aug. 23 D 160 9.3 .05 98 6.2 62 4.1 294 24 95 .6 .0 486 270 29 770 7.6 80
Dec. 4 11 .12 58 21 107 4.8 264 28 152 .8 .2 610 513 231 14 900 8.'1 160
Oct. 8, 1963 D 244 7.5 .05 83 6.1 39 3.9 251 21 60 .4 .1 348 232 26 600 7.7 60
Jan.13,1964 D752 8.2 .06 90 7.2 52 5.4 260 36 80 .5 1.3 444 254 41 700 7.5 70
Apr. 21 D 72 6.3 .05 94 10 300 26 102 1.2 .1 476 276 30 803 7.6 80
May 20 D 172 7.7 98 2.8 64 2.1 276 23 98 .5 .0 470 256 30 761 7.6 70
June 18 D 106 8.1 .09 99 2.2 47 3.1 278 22 72 .5 .0 424 256 28 670 7.6 75
Sept. 2 D 123 8.5 .11 80 6.0 48 6.1 232 26 76 .4 1.4 224 58 629 7.2 120
Oct. 28 7.1 91 4.4 42 3.3 272 10 60 .6 .1 352 245 22 622 7.5 70
Feb. 22, 1965 7.1 .05 90 10 470 2.6 300 24 102 .5 .2 454 266 20 830 7.6 75
Apr. 26 5.8 .01 76 .6 54 2.0 197 14 83 .5 .6 334 192 30 577 7.5 60
May 21 12 .04 76 6.4 4 1.2 236 18 68 .5 .0 343 216 22 609 7.1 50


A LeaKage o0 1i cis, oasa on 4 aucnarge measurements ana records
B Includes 12 ppm of carbonte (C ).
C Includes 18 ppm of carbonate (COj).
D Discharge at time of sampling.


or dam operation.


F







Table 1. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN BROWARD COUNTY, FLA.-Continued
B.-Surface Water
(Chemical analyses, in parts per million, except pH and color)
Dissolved Hardness Specific
Mag- Po- solids (as CaCO3) conduc-
Date Mean Cal- ne- tas- Bicar- Fluo- Ni- Phos- tance
of discharge Silica Iron cium alum Sodium slum bonate Sulfate Chloride ride trate phate Residue Cal Calcium, Non (micro pH Col-
collection (cfs) (SI2) (Fe) (Ca) (Mg) (Na) (K) (HCO3) (S04) (Cl) (F) (N03) (P04) at cu- magne- carbon- mhos or
1800C lated slum ate at 250C)
2-2815.1E. HILLSBORO CANAL BELOW CONTROL, NEAR DEERFIELD BEACH
July 17, 1963 140 9.7 0.06 96 8.4 71 3.2 304 24 98 0.6 1.2 478 462 274 25 790 7.6 85
Oct. 8 6.9 .06 86 4.7 40 3.9 252 21 61 .4 .2 356 234 28 600 7.8 80
Jan. 13,1964 8.2 .06 90 6.7 50 5.3 25S 29 82 .5 .8 399 252 43 698 7.2 70
Apr. 21 6.2 .04 95 7.5 74 3.2 298 28 100 .6 .0 472 268 24 788 7.5 65
20 8.0 .03 92 7.4 65 2.3 268 26 102 .5 .0 492 260 40 1270 7.8 70
June 18 8.6 101 2.9 50 3.3 284 22 72 .5 .0 424 264 32 678 7.6 85
Sept. 2 8.6 .01 82 5.0 48 5.5 240 23 74 .4 1.0 225 32 625 7.4 120
Oct. 28 7.2 90 3.8 41 3.2 272 8.8 62 .4 .1 I I -1 351 240 17 610 7.4 60
2-2817. POMPANO CANAL ABOVE CONTROL AT S-38, NEAR POMPANO BEACH
July 16,1963 11 0.06 42 14 91 2.9 191 19 122 0.6 0.0 466 397 161 4 679 8.0 80
Oct. 9 13 .04 32 7.8 55 2.4 124 11 80 .3 .2 276 112 10 465 7.5 50
Jan. 15, 1964 11 .04 ,53 14 58 2.6 196 23 80 .5 .4 384 188 28 570 7.4 50
Apr. 22 3.4 .03 31 7.9 SO 1.7 134 4.5 61 .4 .1 226 110 0 401 7.2 50
May 19 5.8 45 4.7 47 1.4 160 3.6 70 .5 .0 300 132 1 465 7.4 55
June 17 13 50 9.5 100 2.3 176 13 154 .6 .1 468 164 20 769 7.8 90
Sept. 1 17 .06 51 16 74 4.0 203 35 108 .6 .0 193 26 691 7.4 100
Oct. 30 17 .04 38 15 65 3.6 166 19 92 .4 .2 332 156 20 572 7.8 60
Mar. 9, 1965 17 .03 51 24 86 3.2 212 18 115 .5 .1 419 180 50 694 7.5 80
Apr. 26 15 .04 72 28 134 6.0 324 40 202 1.1 .0 658 295 30 1170 7.6 110
May 26 21 .01 70 28 155 6.3 310 36 232 .9 .5 703 288 34 1300 7.7 100
June 3 18 .03 61 28 160 5.7 300 30 240 .9 .5' 692 320 21 1290 7.9 60
2-2817.1E. POMPANO CANAL BELOW CONTROL AT S-38, NEAR POMPANO BEACH
Apr. 5, 1962 4.3 96 9.8 56 0.7 294 34 94 0.2 0.0 440 280 39 765 7.7 50
Apr. 4,1963 9.3 0.05 70 10 62 1.7 220 6.4 102 .3 .8 456 372 216 36 694 7.7 90
July 16 8.9 .07 71 11 75 2.6 260 17 106 .6 .7 454 421 224 11 746 7.7 100
Oct. 9 7.9 .05 47 6.0 40 2.0 159 7.6 57 .4 .4 248 142 12 435 7.6 70
2-2820. POMPANO CANAL ABOVE CONTROL AT POMPANO BEACH
Dec. 12, 1961 7.5 0.04 89 5.4 30 0.9 292 15 37 1.3 0.1 330 244 4 585 8.0 40
Mar. 12, 1962 13 .51 84 2.6 54 2.6 284 18 58 2.7 .1 375 220 0 600 7.4 50
Aug. 23 8.8 .03 84 3.8 29 1.5 252 15 39 .6 .0 306 225 18 527 7.7 40
July 17, 1963 8.9 .05 86 7.7 57 2.6 276 20 81 .5 .1 442 400 246 20 712 7.5 70
Oct. 8 8.7 .54 86 1.8 20 2.1 242 18 28 .4 .1 296 222 24 470 7.9 45
Jan. 13, 1964 8.2 .03 93 1.9 22 2.2 264 20 28 .6 .1 310 240 24 523 7.8 50
Apr. 21 10 .01 94 23 35 1.7 286 28 39 1.5 .0 353 244 10 569 7.6 30





Tabkl 1. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WmLIJ AND CANAL IN HROWARI) COUNTY, PLA,- Cot.IIud
UI,-Surface Water
(Climnii l nIMlyMW, i Iw per mUUuii, oicpt pli and col0r)
lisaulvvd lH MMu,. P. sulild (m C!C03) ci.duc.
Mei Meal Cal- nU*- tl' UHicw. luo. NI1 Phos. C-- p.~- c... .
Io aw, lor I 1ll i l u a u N c
uf liaclie3ics hIun ciuui *iunl Sudi iluun boovuld SB~fat Chloride ride lral hate eidue Cal- Calcium, Nun$ (nieuru. pH Cuor
culleoliull (fs (S0 () () (C) (M1) (WN) (K) (3iCO3) (04) (C13) (F) (NO3) fro4) vul/ U, c.billlla n n lia ur
1u0'CI,11eul 0 alm I It at 2SnC)


2-2830, POMPANO CANAL ABOVE CONTROL AT POMPANO B3ACII-Conllnuud
May 20 1964 -- 92 T.1 20 1.4 276 13 24 0.9 0,0 338 -1 38 13 130 7.9 40
JunI 9.1 96 4.5 18 .4 278 39 2 .3 ,3 322 258 30 518 7.7 40
Sept, 2 7.7 .04 83 3,2 26 2.5 242 I 40 .3 .8 303 220 22 500 7.4 50
Oct. 28 7.4 .03 69 1,0 18, 2.2 400 13 26 .4 .0 235 176 12 402 7.4 35
Fob, 22, 1965 II .02 86 1.3 31 2,2 276 6.4 33 1.9 .0 356 309 220 0 512 7.4 25
Ap 26 1.1 .01 74 2.6 26 1,9 220 10 37 1.2 .5 270 196 16 467 7.6 20
My23 I 1 8,6 .05 88 1.61 31 1.3 264 14 36 1.5 .4 321 226 10 633 7.9 20
2-2820.1. POMPANO CANAL BELOW CONTROL,,AT POMPANO BEACH
Dec. 12. 1961 3.3 0.02 253 755 5890 212 206 1350 10870 0.9 2.7 19800 3740 3570 27500 7.7 30
Mar, 1962 450 -
Aug. 23 5.4 .02 163 326 2710 88 229 650 4880 .7 1,7 8940 1740 1560 13200 7.4 45
July 17, 1963 8.6 .06 86 7.7 60 2.7 276 22 83 .6 .2 448 407 246 20 702 7.5 65
Oct. 28, 1964 7.3 .03 112 119 1020 40 222 260 1790 .6 3.0 3460 770 588 5780 7.5 45
Feb. 22, 1965 3.0 .02 292 774 6570 242 201 1580 11500 1.0 2.8 1100 3910 3740 31100 7.2 25
2-2821. CYPRESS CREEK CANAL ABOVE S-37A, NEAR POMPANO BEACH
Dec. 12, 1961 4.9 0.06 96 9.4 56 2,8 E298 30 90 0.5 0.3 437 278 34 766 8.4 55
Mar. 2,1962 2.3 .03 107 2.7 40 2.4 296 31 66 .5 .0 398 278 36 640 8.0 40
Apr. 7 16 98 9.6 46 2.4 294 34 69 .3 .0 420 284 43 802 7.8 30
Aug. 23 6.6 .05 94 5.0 35 2.8 268 24 52 .4 .0 352 255 36 605 7.8 75
July 17, 1963 6.4 .04 87 7.5 53 2.3 269 22 84 .0 464 396 248 28 679 7.6 50 .
Apr. 21, 1964 3.7 .03 96 .4 48 2.9 294 27 76 .5 .0 416 274 33 712 7.6 65
May 20 4.8 .05 137 187 1520 56 252 382 2740 .5 1.0 5620 1110 904 8420 7.7 60
June 18 9.2 91 51 37 2.1 256 26 54 .4 .0 376 248 38 589 7.6 60
Sept. 2 7.1 .05 80 4.7 39 3.6 232 21 58 .3 .0 328 219 29 560 7.2 70
Oct. 28 7.3 .08 82 4.7 28 2.2 240 19 43 .2 .0 300 224 28 520 7.5 80
Feb. 22, 1965 7.1 .03 98 7.2 50 2.5 302 26 78 .4 .1 418 274 26 718 7.8 50
Apr. 26 5.9 .01 96 7.4 58 3.1 296 25 93 .6 .1 435 270 28 753 7.7 45
May 21 5.8 .03 85 9.0 66 2.7 286 26 95 .5 .1 431 249 14 1 782 7.4 50
2-2821.1E. CYPRESS CREEK CANAL BELOW S-37A, NEAR POMPANO BEACH
Dec. 12, 1961 3.3 0.04 315 934 7440 172 213 1390 13700 1.2 3.1 24400 4630 4450 33000 7.4 45
Mar. 2, 1962 .- 14200 3000 -
Aug. 23 5.2 .04 167 318 12500 82 237 624 4540 .7 .9 18400 1730 1530 12700 7.5 60
July 17, 1963 4.8 .05 232 523 4440 162 222 1140 7860 .8 8.2 16900 14500 2730 2550 21000 6.9 40
Apr. 21, 1964 .7 ,02 320 893 7230 310 189 1780 13200 1.1 .1 26000 4470 4320 35800 7.2 45
May20 3.3 239 594 5050 183 210 1210 8950 .8 .9 17200 3040 2870 24500 7.5 40
June 18 5.1 165 284 2370 86 233 596 4370 .7 .6 8700 1580 1390 12700 7.5 65
Sept. 2 6.7 .05 100 71 595 29 229 149 1080 .3 1.3 2150 540 352 3300 7.2 70
Oct. 28 6.9 .09 88 37 278 12 236 80 490 .2 2.0 1110 370 176 1980 7.5 80
Feb. 22, 1965 3.0 .03 1740 17 72701 29 193 1780 13400 1.1 1.8 24300 4410 4250 34100 7.4 15
E Includes 8 ppm of carbonate (C03).








Table 1. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN BROWARD COUNTY, FLA.-Continued
B.-Surface Water
(Chemical analyses, in parts per million, except pH and color)
Dissolved Hardness Specific
Mag- Po. solids (as CaCO3) conduc-
Date Mean Cal- ne- tas- Bicar- Fluo- Ni. Phos- tance
of discharge Silica Iron clum slum Sodium slum bonate Sulfate Chloride ride trate hate Residue Cal- Calcium, Non. (micro- pH Col-
colusation (F)P 1800C lated slum ate at250C)
collection (cfs) (02) (Fe) (Ca) (Mg) (Na) (K) (HC3) (0SO4) (Cl) (F) (NO1) (PO4) td a cartn- at C or

2-2827. MIDDLE RIVER CANAL ABOVE S-36, NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE
Apr. 7, 1962 17 F0.41 102 2.3 17 1.8 288 19 26 0.5 0.8 344 264 28 549 7.7 60
Aug. 23 11 .03 106 2.6 18 1.4 298 18 27 .3 .8 342 275 31 582 7.2 35
July 17, 1963 3.4 .04 85 2.9 25 1.7 244 17 35 .3 .7 336 291 224 24 509 7.5 50
Jan. 15, 1964 6.6 .04 120 2.3 22 1.3 324 32 36 .3 .0 381 309 44 632 7.9 40
Mar. 13 9.9 .03 126 4.3 20 .4 360 18 32 .3 .0 388' 332 37 630 7.5 40
Apr. 21 4.4 .02 123 2.7 21 1.2 342 23 33 .3 .0 392 318 38 644 7.6 45
May 19 3.4 105 1.5 23 1.3 288 21 36 .2 .0 376 268 32 567 7.3 40
June 18 11 113 1.9 16 1.0 314 25 22 .3 .0 368 -, 290 32 568 7,5 60
Sept. 1 9.1 .11 104 1.1 19 2.9 284 19 33 .2 1.0 329 264 32 568 7.3 50
Oct. 28 7.0 104 3.0 17 1.9 288 12 26 .4 .3 314 272 36 529 7.5 80
Feb. 22, 1965 4.3 .02 124 3.5 26 2.0 352 24 41 .3 .0 448 398 324 36 699 7.7 35
May21 4.7 .01 80 4.0 25 1.7 276 21 44 .4 .1 317 216 0 651 7.2 50
2-2827.0E. MIDDLE RIVER CANAL BELOW S-36, NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE
Apr. 7, 1962 3150 10400 45
Aug. 23 8.6 0.04 106 2.6 19 1.4 302 16 30 0.3 0.1 372 275 28 99 7.7 55
July 17, 1963 4.9 .04 103 2.0 108 4.8 292 39 181 .4 .1 642 597 308 68 1060 7.5 45
Apr. 21, 1964 5.5 .03 152 147 1240 54 276 310 2260 .5 .1 420 984 758 7150 7.4 50
May 19 5.2 121 35 262 9.6 300 80 465 .3 .0 1260 445 199 1920 7.3 45
June 18 8.3 96 11 20 1.2 308 23 32 .4 .4 386 286 34 582 7.6 60
Sept. 1 8.5 .05 102 2.3 19 2.4 233 22 34 .2 2.3 332 264 32 550 7.4 50
Oct. 28 7.9 .10 104 2.1 16 2.0 290 22 26 .2 .2 309 268 30 540 7.7 90
Feb. 22, 1965 9.8 5.4 .02 158 177 148 56 264 372 2600 .6 1.8 5530 4980 1120 904 7820 7.5 40
2-2827.5E. MIDDLE RIVER CANAL NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE
July 17, 1963 .57 0.04 124 97 838 31 272 214 1450 0.4 2.0 3260 2900 710 487 5110 7.4 5b
Oct. 8 6.7 .09 91 2.7 12 2.1 248 24 20 .2 .1 296 238 35 477 7.5 80
2-2830.1E. PLANTATION ROAD CANAL BELOW S-33, NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE
Dec. 12, 1961 9.8 0.05 100 4.5 17 2.8 302 13 26 0.3 3.5 326 268 20 563 7.6 4S
Mar. 1,962 32 700 -
Aug.23 8.0 .04 94 3.8 23 2.0 276 17 32 .4 .0 316 250 24 538 7.1 60
Apr. 5, 1963 9.0 .03 91 1.2 24 2.4 268 10 30 .0 9.3 309 232 12 529 7.4 60
Oct. 8 7.8 .05 90 2.8 17 1.9 255 18 25 .3 .1 296 236 27 500 7.2 70
Apr.21,1964 8.8 .03 92 2.1 21 2.9 250 12 32 .2 11 305 238 33 540 7.1 45
May19 6.8 95 3.6 18 2.0 250 20 28 .3 13 358 252 47 504 7.6 60
F Total iron (Fe).


r












0
CA




-4















Table 1. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN BROWARD COUNTY, FLA.-Continued
D,-Surface Water
(Chemical analyses, In parts per million, except pH and color)
Dissolved Hardness Specfic
Mai. Po- solids (as CaCO3) conduct.
Date Meun Cal- ne. ta. Bicer. Fluo. Ni. Phos. tance
of dischare Silica Iron clum slum Sodium Ilum bonate Sulfat Chloride ride rate phats Residue Cal. Calcium, Non* (micro. pH Col-
collection (cfs) (SIO2) (Pe) (Co) (Mg) (Na) (K) (HCO3) (804) (Cl) (F) (NO3) (O4) ai i cu. magne carbon mhos or
1 o lC ated slum ate at 250C)
2-2830,1E, PLANTATION ROAD CANAL BELOW 8-33, NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE-Continued
June 18, 1964 7.6 99 0.2 16 1.7 264 19 32 0.4 5.2 346 248 32 510 7.7 80
Sept. 1 8.1 005 91 3.6 1.7 2.0 252 18 28 .2 5.3 387 242 36 500 7.3 60
Oct.28 7.8 .06 99 1.2 13 1.6 266 20 20 .2 72 301 252 34 5s0 7.7 60
Feb. 22, 196 8.6 .04 78 5.2 30 3.s 198 20 50 .4 29 323 216 54 552 7.1 50
2-2832. PLANTATION ROAD CANAL ABOVE 8-33, NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE
Dec. 12, 1961 10 0.08 66 4.7 37 6.3 164 22 54 38 319 184 0 5$89 7.0 70
Mar. 1,1962 11 .04 61 3.9 50 7.3 196 26 70 0.9 9.9 337 168 557 7.2 50
Aug. 23 7.9 .04 92 5.0 23 2.4 270 17 31 .4 3,6 315 250 28 542 7.8 60
Apr. 3,1963 11 .07 59 10 52 6.2 228 26 60 .5 6.2 343 188 1 595 7.0 70
A-r. 12 .06 48 5.8 62 8.2 138 25 68 1.2 47 346 144 31 582 7.2 90
July 17 8.8 .06 75 8.0 40 2.5 238 16 60 .4 3.5 400 331 220 25 559 7.2 55
Oct. 8 8.1 42 90 2.8 18 2.1 244 20 26 .3 6.6 320 236 36 496 7.5 60
Jan. 15, 1964 10 .12 96 3.0 20 2.6 268 22 30 .3 .0 316 252 32 529 7.0 0S
Apr.21 11 .05 62 3.5 40 7.1 152 29 64 .6 1.8 294 169 12 576 6.9 100
May 19 7.2 .37 96 .1 19 2.1 244 22 28 .4 14 356 240 40 504 7.7 60
June 18 6.7 97 1.0 16 1.8 258 20 24 .4 6.8 342 246 34 510 7.5 85
Sept. I 8.7 .05 91 2.7 18 2.2 246 20 27 .3 9.4 300 238 36 510 7.3 55
Oct. 28 7.5 .05 98 2.3 13 1.5 272 20 20 .1 .9 296 254 31 507 7.4 60
Feb. 22,1965 8.7 .04 80 3.5 31 3.6 194 20 50 .3 30 323 214 55 536 7.2 50
Apr. 26 12 .12 4 6.2 6. 6.9 127 25 71 1.0 33 295 160 56 600 7.2 60
May21 __ 10 .02 0S 8.5 62 8.0 72 33 87 1.6 62 357 160 101 620 7.0 50















Table 1. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN BROWARD COUNTY, FLA.-Continued
B.-Surface Water
(Chemical analyses, in parts per million, except pH and color)


Dissolved Hardness Specific
Mag- Po- solids (as CaCO3) conduc-
Date Mean Cal. no. tas- Bicar. Fluo- Ni- Phos- tance
of discharge Silica Iron cium sium Sodium slum bonate Sulfate Chloride ride rate phate Residue Cas. Calcium, Non- (micro- pH Col-
collection (efs) (S102) (Fe) (Ca) (Mg) (Na) (K) (HCO3) (804) (CI) (F) (NO3) (PO4) at cu magne- carbon- mho) or
180CC lated sium ate at250C)


2-2846.9E. NORTH NEW RIVER CANAL ABOVE S-34, NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE
July 16, 1963 15 0.03 69 AS 49 1.9 258 21 78 0.5 1.0 436 377 235 24 603 7.4 60
Apr. 22, 1964 6.6 .03 35 9.8 59 1.4 153 25 74 .4 .1 286 128 2 472 7.3 50
May 19 10 58 11 50 1.7 220 12 74 .S .0 308 188 8 572 7.5 60
June 17 12 69 12 50 1.7 246 11 72 .6 1.4 390 220 18 603 7.8 65
Sept. 1 14 .05 72 12 50 2.0 264 4.8 74 .4 .3 228 12 640 7.3 70
Oct. 30 16 62 12 56 2.6 240 4.8 80 .5 .6 352 204 8 622 7.5 70
Mar. 9,1965 12 .03 67 17 64 2.1 272 14 88 .5 .2 399 236 13 680 8.0 65
Apr.26 12 .03 69 24 84 3.8 256 46 132 .8 .0 498 270 60 839 7.6 60
May 26 8.5 .00 48 17 60 2.7 182 53 82 .5 .2 r 362 212 41 650 7.6 30
2-2847. NORTH NEW RIVER CANAL BELOW S-34, NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE1
Apr. 7,1962 10 0.42 77 15 48 1.8 300 6.0 69 0.2 1.7 402 254 8 629 7.8 55
Aug. 23 10 .03 82 15 54 2.0 304 5.6 76 .4 1.6 456 266 17 684 7.9 65
July 16, 1963 13 .06 85 18 60 2.1 346 7.2 80 .5 2.8 460 439 288 4 762 7.6 80
pr. 22, 1964 7.0 .04 48 12 51 1.5 200 7.6 76 .4 .1 312 170 6 551 7.4 50
ay 19 13 .27 96 IS 60 1.7 374 .0 82 .5 .9 453 302 0 772 7.6 70
June 17 14 .49 103 14 72 1.8 376 4.8 95 .S 2.9 493 314 6 839 7.8 80
Sept. 1 23 .05 93 18 68 2.1 356 7.8 94 .4 .3 305 14 800 7.2 80
Oct. 30 15 .06 88 19 61 2.0 348 .0 94 .3 1.5 452 296 11 783 7.5 75
Mar. 9, 1965 15 .05 102 19 78 2.1 404 5.6 110 .5 2.3 534 332 1 900 7.7 90
Apr. 26 13 .04 76 18 80 3.8 266 41 125 .7 .4 489 262 44 833 7.6 60
May 26 8.9. .01 62 18 58 2.8 212 53 84 .5 2.0 393 228 54 710 7.4 40







Tuble I. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELI. AND CANALS IN IIROWARP COUNTY, FLA.-Conlllued
I,-Surfac Watwr
S(ClIminal aialyue, In parte r million, expt pll and color)
[)slveyail Hardness Spewln
Mo- Po-. olids (W CaCO3) coanuc-
Da1a Mean Cal* ue.- to* iclar0 1.1u- N1- Phlo- ----- lnceiI
oralr gl:hlel Sllleu Iran cIum uI BotudluIn /unit bulle( Isulpit Ca elrldj l r, I Ir plla! Residue l l Coul. ulclumn, Nuo- (nlclm. pH ICuol
collection f) ( ) (F) (C (M (N) K) (HCO) (80.4) (Cl) (F) (NO3) (PO4) i cu. m u- curbon nlw / or
______ 1C u latd tluno t nlaC)
2-284. NORTH NEW RIVER CANAL AT HOLLOWAY LATERAL,. NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE
Feb. 21,1961 5,9 0.94 64 6.9 47 2.7 224 9.6 67 0.3 313 188 4 569 7.7 60
Apr. 13 4.3 .03 16 8.6 49 2.0 180 6.4 69 11 287 180 32 563 7.7 71
Mey11 11 .45 96 6.9 40 1,4 298 23 64 .0 390 268 0 581 7.6 60
Jun 6 6.4 .02 80 4.0 26 .8 256 11 43 .0 297 216 6 523 7.5 50
July 7 9.8 .O0 83 11 46 1.2 296 13 62 1.1 374 252 8 643 8.0 80
Aug. 9 6.7 .04 59 10 48 1.7 240 4.4 67 .2 315 188 0 563 7.7 65
Sept. 11 4.0 .06 64 5.5 20 .6 H196 12 32 .3 229 182 22 410 7.9 70
Oct. 12 8.8 .04 100 5.0 22 .8 246 7.2 68 1.0 334 270 30 580 7.7 80
Nov. 13 7.7 .04 70 9.6 52 2.8 258 7.6 75 1.1 353 214 2 627 7.6 55
Dec. 3 4.1 .03 70 9.1 41 3.1 242 12 65 .4 324 212 14 583 8.0 60
Jan. 1962 8.1 .05 67 IS 54 2.2 256 22 82 1.2 378 228 18 660 8.1 55
Feb. 6 7.3 .05 74 14 58 2.3 272 12 75 .6 354 242 19 678 8.1 60
Mar. 6 4.6 .01 62 20 60 2.1 240 18 74 .2 259 237 40 634 7.9 50
Apr. 5 5.2 .02 78 9.6 61 2.5 256 18 94 1.6 396 234 24 720 8.1 60
May 3 4.7 .02 78 11 56 1.7 280 10 75 .0 374 240 10 678 7.8 55
June 11 7.5 .04 71 12 59 2.4 262 18 76 .5 375 226 12 696 7.5 75
Aug. 6 D 0.3 6.7 .03 48 9.7 43 1.4 176 14 60 .1 270 160 16 495 7.6 50
Oct. 10 4.6 .03 106 3.8 19 .7 294 23 28 0.2 1.4 346 332 280 39 538 7.8 65
Nov. 8 8.6 .04 75 11 46 1.9 264 12 68 .1 353 232 16 612 7.8 70
Dec. 6 7.6 .06 78 12 49 1.9 274 12 68 .5 .9 412 365 242 18 580 8.1 50
Jan. 10, 1963 7.2 .03 78 13 51 2.1 282 10 72 4.3 373 248 17 520 7.8 70
July 30 7.9 G 1.6 85 12 53 1.4 303 8.2 76 .0 1.0 394 260 12 673 7,6 60
Oct. 15 8.0 .05 78 8.6 38 1.9 248 19 52 1.4 329 230 0 578 7.6 90
Dec. 10 8.8 .04 80 9.8 44 1.7 266 11 65 2.6 354 240 22 610 7.9 80
Jan. 13, 1964 7.9 .05 88 6.9 33 1.5 268 14 50 .4 1.5 335 248 28 580 7.6 70
Apr. 22 6.1 .02 65 10 52 1.3 246 3.6 72 .2 205 4 581 7.9 50
May 19 11 82 9.6 49 1.8 284 17 66 2.6 369 244 12 619 7.9 60
June 17 9.6 .32 84 11 20 1.6 298 8.0 64 .3 346 254 10 639 7.2 60
2-2850. NORTH NEW RIVER CANAL NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE
Oct. 8, 1963 D 744 7.5 0.02 82 6.7 33 1.8 250 19 47 0.4 1.1 360 232 27 558 7.8 70
Jan. 13, 1964 D 323 9.5 .05 83 6.8 38 1.5 267 8.4 60 .4 .8 340 235 16 580 7.5 60
Oct. 30 8.8 .06 82 7.7 29 1.5 260 16 46 .4 1.8 321 236 23 552 7.5 80
Feb. 22, 1965 7.8 .04 80 9.4 48 1.4 280 8 75 .4 1.5 362 238 8 638 7.7 65
Apr. 26 1 .03 74 22 2 3.8 268 42 130 .8 .0 498 276 56 878 7.8 70
ay 26 5.2 .O 50 18 78 4.1 214 40 110 .5 5.0 416 199 24 1050 7.9 50
2-2851.0E. NORTH NEW RIVER CANAL AT STATE HIGHWAY 7, NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE
July 17, 1963 8.2 0.04 80 II 52 2.0 288 10 68 0.4 1.0 398 375 246 10 '650 7.8 70
Apr. 21,1964 4.5 .04 101 107 888 32 262 202 1580 .5 9.0 3230 2930 690 476 4800 7.3 50
My 19 7.1 .02 86 9.6 44 1.4 270 13 64 .4 .2 359 254 32 606 7.5 60
June 18 7.1 89 6.3 44 1.3 284 10 64 .5 .0 394 362 248 16 633 7.7 70
Sept. 1 8.3 .05 82 8.6 39 1.7 269 11 56 .3 1.3 341 240 20 582 7.4 80
D Discharge at time of sampling.








Table 1. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN BROWARD COUNTY, FLA.-Continued
B.-Surface Water
(Chemical analyses, in parts per million, except pH and color)
Dissolved Hardness Specific
Mag- Po- solids (as CaCO3) conduc-
Date Mean Cal- ne- tas- Bicar- Fluo- Ni- Phos- tance
of discharge Silica Iron cium slum Sodium slum bonate Sulfate Chloride ride trat hate Residue Cal Calcum Non (micro pH Col-
collection (cfs) (SiO2) (Fe) (C) (Mg) (Na) (K) (HCO3) (S04) (Cl) (F) (N03) (P04) at cue magne- carbon- mhos or
1800C lated slum ate at 250C)
2-2851.0E. NORTH NEW RIVER CANAL AT STATE HIGHWAY 7, NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE-Continued
Oct. 30,1964 7.2 0.07 86 7.2 29 1.5 264 18 42 .3 1.2 322 244 28 553 7.5 80
Feb. 22,1965 8.4 .03 82 9.6 58 1.9 274 8.0 92 .4 1.3 397 244 20 683 7.7 60
Apr.26 5.6 .02 132 197 1580 60 264 392 2820 .6 3.0 $320 1140 924 8740 7.6 70
May 12 3.9 .00 177 314 2640 9.4 199 661 4630 1.4 4.3 8540 1730 1570 14100 7.4 50
2-2851.1E. CHULA VISTA DRAINAGE CANAL 1, NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE
Oct. 14,1963 8.2 0.05 86 12 80 6.0 256 34 132 0.4 0.1 548 262 52 860 7.6 70
2-2853.99. SOUTH NEW RIVER CANAL ABOVE S-9, NEAR DAVIE
Dec. 13,1961 7.0 0.03 87 8.5 30 1.0 314 6.0 42 0.4 0.9 338 252 0 598 7.8 55
Mar. 1, 1962 8.6 .30 100 2.5 30 .9 314 12 38 .3 .1 347 260 3 770 8.0 50
Aug. 23 7.0 .04 84 9.8 41 1.3 280 17 54 .4 .0 353 250 20 608 7.6 65
July 16,1963 16 .03 93 29 82 4.2 356 69 118 .7 .0 680 580 352 60 979 8.0 110
Oct. 9 D 97 9.2 .05 94 13 40 1.9 310 24 56 .5 .2 416 286 32 640 8.0 50
June 17,1964 D 105 8.4 .30 98 9.1 44 1.4 324 16 68 .5 1.4 484 282 16 700 7.7 80
Sept. I D 459 9.3 .07 86 10 33 2.1 280 14 48 .3 .7 256 26 570 7.5 80
Oct. 30 9.0 .05 91 5.1 31 1.7 272 18 44 .3 .1 341 248 25 595 7.5 75
Mar. 9, 1965 21 .04 52 6.4 70 2.3 216 28 102 .6 .2 389 192 0 670 7.5 85
Apr. 26 11 .02 68 18 75 2.8 252 35 117 .7 .0 452 242 36 783 7.5 60
May26 8.5 .00 72 18 64 2.2 246 40 97 .5 .2 423 252 50 759 7.0 50
2-2854. SOUTH NEW RIVER CANAL BELOW S-9, NEAR DAVIE
Dec. 13, 1961 9.2 0.07 78 14 42 1.7 312 7.2 57 0.3 1.3 365 252 0 657 8.0 90
Mar. 1, 1962 8.7 .36 98 2.8 47 1.9 316 1.3 56 .4 1.5 374 256 0 670 7.9 70
Aug. 23 8.3 .03 90 12 44 1.7 314 19 60 .5 .7 391 274 16 673 8.1 80
July 16,1963 7.9 .05 90 14 53 1.6 334 14 67 .4 .8 426 414 282 8 713 7.5 100
Oct. 9 9.3 .04 91 13 47 2.0 308 22 68 .4 .7 456 282 30 684 7.9 60
Apr. 22,1964 11 .06 98 12 79 2.2 307 35 108 .6 .2 536 292 40 809 8.4 90
May 19 11 .02 99 14 60 1.7 346 22 89 .5 .0 467 302 20 788 7.7 65
June 17 8.9 .16 102 7.2 44 1.4 324 15 64 .5 .9 474 284 18 697 7.9 80
Sept. 1 9.6 .07 90 6.2 32 2.0 280 14 46 .3 .4 380 250 20 583 7.4 80
Oct. 30 10 .08 88 16 47 1.8 318 12 64 .2 1.1 401 284 24 696 7.8 80
Mar. 9, 1965 11 .05 89 15 59 1.7 346 7.2 80 .5 1.1 435 284 0 750 7:7 80
Apr. 26 13 .04 94 17 60 2.0 338 10 97 .6 .9 461 306 29 789 7.6 90
May 26 12 .02 93 15 60 1.5 332 9.2 91 .5 .4 447 292 20 820 7.8 65
D Discharge at time of sampling.


r



'I






0?

z










Table I, CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN BROWARD COUNTY, FLA.-Conlinued
U.-Surface Water
(Chemical analym, n par per million, we t pl and color) _
Dissolved Hlardness lpeclfic
Mag Po- solids (as CACD3) conduc-
Date Mean Cal. ne. tas Iar. Fluo. NI. Phos- lance
or dischwa SlIca Iron clum aum Sodium slum bonte Sulfate Chlorde ride Irate phale Reddue Cal- Calcium, Nun- (miro- pH Col
collection (cfh) (810) (Fe) (Ca) (M() (Na) (K) (C03) ( ) (C) ( (NO3) (P04) ta Cu~ mane carbon- mho or

2-2860.5 SOUTH NEW RIVER CANAL AT 8- 13A, NEAR DAVIE


B Includes 12 ppm of carbonate (CO3).
F Total iron (Fe).


10
5,7
8.2
11
II
6.8
9.5
8.4
10
8.4
8.4
10
7.7
9.1
14
8.3
8.4
6.6
7.7
8.6
6.8
8.2
7.1
7.8
4.8
4.3
6.0
3.6
4.7
7.1
11
7.8
8.3
8.0
7.9
9.1
9.2
7.4
35
7.3
7.5


I Discharge computed from head-discharge relation and pump rating.
J Includes 6 ppm of carbonate (CO3).


274
301
326
265
482
340
282
1 290


De. IS, 1959
Feb. 5, 1960
Mar. 31
Apr. 13
June 6
June 27
July 21
Aug. 22
Oct. 14
Dec. 30
Jan 31, 1961
Feb. 21
Mar. 17
Apr. 13
May 11
June 6
July 7
Aug. 9
Sept. 11
Oct. 12
Nov. 13
Dec. 6
Dec. 14
Jan. 8, 1962
Feb. 6
Mar. 1
Mar. 6
Apr. 5
May 2
June 11
July 10
Aug. 6
Aug. 23
Sept. 12
Oct. 10
Nov. 8
Dec. 6
Jan. 10, 1963
Mar. 9
July 30


0.02
.02
.01
.01
.05
.03
.03
.03
.04
.03
.02
.04
.03
.05
.45
.04
.03
.03
.07
.02
.04
.03
.27
.04
.03
.05
.01
.02
.02
.03
.03
.04
.03
.01
.05
.37
.05
.06
.04
F 2.1


93
94
91
78
62
89
86
83
86
86
86
85
86
88
83
82
65
85
85
84
85
82
88
76
75
99
64
70
80
80
92
88
90
93
94
94
93
96
88
89


6.8 32
6.2 42
3.2 45
14 48
6.2 20
4.9 30
6.7 44
9.0 46
5.2 14
10 48
10 44
10 49
8.1 49
8.4 45
10 50
9.6 41
6.3 50
14 48
5.8 47
12 45
10 43
11 37
8.9 31
10 46
15 54
.7 32
IS 55
12 50
7.4 56
9.8 50
12 38
12 36
9.8 30
8.3 29
6.2 54
12 47
13 45
12 45
14 43
14 48


0.6
.7
.9
1.4
5.1
.6
1.0
1.0
2.1
1.0
1.4
.9
2.5
2.2
1.4
1.1
1.8
1.1
1.4
.8
1.2
2.2
1.0
1.5
1.8
1.5
2.1
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.1
1.0
1.1
.8
1.5
2.1
1.2
1.8
1.4
1.0


" ' "


P I


288
298
272
B 302
196
272
294
J 292
260
302
306
306
304
308
300
276
236
316
304
306
306
284
292
280
284
276
E 254
270
276
292
296
304
288
300
312
320
320
320
318
324


II
8.0
6.3
6.0
18
12
7.6
9.6
22
8.4
8.0
6.0
4.8
9.6
7.2
18
6.4
5.6
8.8
22
6.0
12
12
7.2
11
10
9.6
8.8
11
8.0
16
13
17
14
24
20
19
17
12
12


0.1
.6
.5
.0
.4
.9
.4
.0
.5
.2
.1
.6
.0
1.3
.0
.6
.5
.4
.8
1.2
1.0
.7
.5
1.0
.2
.9
.1
.2
.0
.1
.0
.0
.8
.1
.7
2.0
.8
5.5
.9
1.1


260
360
240
252
180
242
242
244
236
256
256
253
248
254
248
244
188
270
236
259
253
250
256
230
248
250
221
224
230
240
279
269
265
266
260
284
286
288
276
280


24 612 8.0 55
16 654 8.1 70
17 633 8.2 75
4 670 8.5 80
20 449 8.1 120
19 579 8.1 80
I 652 7.8 60
4 627 8.4 70
23 496 8.0 80
8 684 8.0 75
4 669 7.6 80
2 687 8.0 65
0 688 7.7 60
2 668 7.9 70
2 682 7.7 70
18 633 7.9 65
0 574 7.8 5
10 660 8.2 80
0 659 8.0 70
8 665 7.9 80
2 651 7.7 65
17 616 7.9 55
16 660 7.6 75
1 625 8.0 55
16 634 8.0 60
24 540 7.9 70
12 583 8.4 60
2 621 7.9 60
4 658 8.2 50
0 669 7.7 60
36 635 7.6 60
20 643 7.7 60
29 585 7.8 80
20 590 7.8 50
4 679 7.9 80
22 700 7.7 85
24 690 8.2 80
26 635 8.0 100
16 580 7.9 80
15 689 7.5 80


I I I I I


I~~ i I n










Table 1. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN BROWARD COUNTY, FLA.-Continued
B.-Surface Water
(Chemical analyses, in parts per million, except pH and color)


Dissolved Hardness Specific
Mag- Po- solids (as CaCO3) conduc-
Date Mean Cal- ne. tas- Blcar Fluo- NI- Phos. tance
of discharge Silica Iron alum slum Sodium slum bonate Sulfate Chloride ride trate hate Residue Cal- Calcium, Non (micro- pH Col-
o(F) NO3) o C atu- agne- e aron- ami i
collection () (02) (Fe) (Ca) (Mg) (Na) (K) (HCO3) (504) (C) (F) (N03) ( at cud magne- carbon mho or
1BsOC lated slum ate at250C)


2-2860.5. SOUTH NEW RIVER CANAL AT S-13A, NEAR DAVIE-Continued
Oct. 15, 1963 24 0.06 98 8.6 21 2.4 292 28 32 2.6 361 280 40 584 7.7 80
Oct. 15 L 13 .09 98 5.7 21 1.7 292 19 32 .1 386 268 28 560 7.3 85
Dec. 10 8.3 .11 98 10 46 1.3 328 14 66 1.1 407 286 17 680 8.1 80
Jan. 13, 1964
(1310) K 7.8 .05 97 6.3 33 1.4 301 12 52 0.4 .0 358 268 22 592 7.2 70
Jan. 13 (1320) 7.6 .04 94 11 37 1.3 312 21 56 .4 .0 382 280 24 631 7.6 50
r 22 8.9 .02 93 16 56 1.4 342 15 77 1.1 296 16 738 8.2 80
Ma 19 9.7 .10 102 3.8 26 1.2 296 20 36 .5 .0 345 270 28 579 7.3 60
June 17 8.6 98 8.6 24 1.8 298 30 34 2.2 354 280 36 583 8.0 90
2-2861. SOUTH NEW RIVER CANAL ABOVE S-13, NEAR DAVIE
Dec. 14, 1961 7:0 0.06 104 63 530 20 288 128 942 0.3 1.3 1938 518 282 3420 7.8 70
Mar. 1,1962 7800 -
Aug. 23 8.1 .05 92 8.6 30 1.0 288 16 42 .4 .1 340 265 29 587 7.6 45
July 17, 1963 251 8.6 .04 85 19 21 1.0 296 16 54 .4 .0 426 352 291 48 606 7.6 60
Oct. 8 D 67 12 .05 94 5.2 23 1.8 272 21 34 .4 1.9 360 256 33 548 7.8 70
Apr. 21, 1964 D 17 5.9 .05 92 3.5 37 1.3 275 13 52 .4 .8 384 244 18 613 7.6 80
May 19 D 288 7.7 .08 101 3.9 23 1.2 292 22 34 .4 .0 337 268 28 561 7.6 60
June 17 D151 7.7 101 4.4 23 1.2 288 21 35 .4 .8 402 270 34 559 7.9 90
Sept. 1 D176 9.2 .08 91 6.1 21 2.6 268 20 36 .3 .0 318 252 32 550 7.0 100
Oct. 30 319 6.9 .10 86 6.2 18 2.0 244 21 31 .3 2.6 294 240 40 490 7.5 110
Feb. 22, 1965 12 7.1 .04 98 2.8 25 1.0 296 14 42 .3 1.1 337 256 14 571 7.7 90
Apr. 26 8.9 .04 95 8.5 54 2.3 290 23 90 .6 .0 425 272 34 725 7.5 80
May 21 7.5 .48 87 11 43 1.3 276 23 70 .5 .1 380 262 36 682 7.5 60
2-2861.IE. SOUTH NEW RIVER CANAL BELOW S-13, NEAR DAVIE
Dec. 14, 1961 7.0 0.06 104 63 530 20 288 128 942 0.3 1.3 2230 1940 518 282 3420 7.8 70
Aug. 23, 1962 8.1 .05 92 8.6 30 1.0 288 16 42 .4 .1 340 265 29 587 7.6 45
Oct. 10 9.1 .05 94 6.2 54 1.5 312 24 62 .7 406 260 4 679 7.9 80
Apr. 21, 1964 3.9 .04 119 88 734 29 296 182 1300 .5 .3 2890 658 416 4500 7.4 70
May 19 8.3 .03 95 8.0 24 1.2 288 22 36 .4 .7 338 270 34 568 7.8 60
June 17 7.8 103 2.7 21 1.2 288 22 34 .4 1.7 380 268 32 560 7.7 95
Sept. 1 8.0 .13 93 5.8 20 2.4 264 20 34 .3 1.0 256 40 522 7.3 120
Oct.30 319 7.6 .03 86 4.3 16 1.9 244 21 29 .3 3.1 289 232 32 493 7.S 110
Feb. 22, 1965 8.9 .04 99 4.1 24 1.0 288 IS 42 .4 2.2 339 264 28 570 7.0 95
D Discharge at time of sampling.






Table I, CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANAL IN IIROWAIR COUNTY, FLA..-Coltinlud
II.-Surfawc Wtter
(Chemical analyse, In puwt per million, except pH and color)
Dissolved Hardnoes Spcinlte
Mov. Po. solids (W CaCO1) condue-
DCti Man Cal I n- ts Blear. Fun- Nl- Pliu- l-nce
of dhilharge Sic Iron clum slum Sodiu lum bonale ulfate Cldorde rid trte p hlate R iu Cal. Calclum, Nn- (micro pH Col
oie( () .)-)..(C I4 7Uslu Elm at 25 C)
collueclion (8f) ( io) (I') (C M (N (K) C03) (04) (C) (F) (NO3) P04) at scui carbon- mnhoa of
("I" I(' (I) '"


2-2861,5. HOLLYWOOD CANAL AT DANIA
July IS, 1963 7,3 0.04 164 260 2340 98 259 578 3890 0.6 9.0 8210 7470 1480 1270 12000 7,3 51
Oct. 8 6.1 .06 116 58 470 21 284 132 840 .3 .8 1980 530 298 3180 7.7 60
Jan. 13, 1964 7.4 .05 180 299 2470 100 270 612 4480 ,6 21 8320 1680 1460 14000 7.1 30
Apr. 21 2.4 .00 351 886 7380 295 592 1780 13000 12 .1 26000 4430 3940 31900 7.2 20
May 27 .8 168 248 2050 78 259 115 3730 ,S .9 7680 1440 1230 11200 7.5 60
June 18 7.2 .02 136 48 556 16 232 148 938 .3 .7 2220 537 293 3340 7.6 40
Sept. l 6,2 .04 171 281 2340 86 267 554 4280 .5 1.1 7850 1580 1360 13000 7.2 50
Oct. 30 7,0 .03 128 100 781 30 284 212 1400 .2 2.4 2800 730 498 4780 7.4 35
Feb. 22,1965 3.0 .01 316 803 6710 247 213 1620 11900 1.0 2,7 21700 4090 3920 31900 7.0 20
Apr. 26 1,0 .00 1900 593 8520 372 178 2220 16600 1.3 17 30300 7180 7030 43200 7.4 10
ay 1 ,8 .00 391 1090 8300 315 180 137 16500 .7 17 26800 5460 8310 46000 7,2 10
2-2861.8. SNAKE CREEK CANAL ABOVE S-30, NEAR HIALEAH
Dec. 14, 1961 7.6 0.06 78 13 41 2.0 304 6.4 58 1.1 357 248 0 637 8.1 65
Mar. 1, 1962 9.4 .04 99 5.1 43 1.8 326 4.6 64 0.4 .0 388 268 1 670 7.8 50
Aug. 23 8.0 .03 90 16 37 1.9 314 20 51 .4 1.4 381 290 33 642 7,8 70
July 16, 1963 7.2 .03 92 3.0 38 1,1 329 8.8 54 .4 .0 430 377 281 12 643 7.7 50
Oct. 9 7.0 .04 62 8.1 23 1.4 205 6.6 32 .7 .1 244 188 20 418 7.8 60
Jan. 13, 1964 3.4 .04 79 8.5 34 1.4 268 5.6 48 .3 .1 340 232 12 560 7.8 60
Apr 20 6.5 .03 95 5.6 44 1.3 324 6.7 63 .5 .3 420 260 0 670 7.6 60
ay 19 4.9 86 6.7 34 1.2 288 6.4 46 .4 .2 358 242 6 574 7.9 60
June 17 4.0 78 3.8 30 1.2 244 .8 40 .4 .6 308 210 10 583 7.9 70
Sept. 1 5.0 .05 71 6.3 41 1.0 242 .0 60 .3 .4 203 4 560 7.4 70
Oct. 31 3.4 .04 64 7.9 36 1.0 232 .0 54 .2 .6 291 192 2 510 7.8 45
Mar. 9, 1965 5.1 .03 75 11 48 1.0 280 .4 70 .4 .1 349 232 2 628 7.8 50
Apr. 26 7.1 .02 85 17 56 1.2 300 .2 90 .5 .4 405 280 34 712 7.9 50
May26 5.9 .00 81 14 63 .9 314 5.6 88 .5 .8 415 258 719 7.9 50
2-2861.8E. SNAKE CREEK CANAL BELOW S-30, NEAR HIALEAH
June 3, 1963 4.8 0.03 84 8.6 35 0.8 286 10 48 0.5 0.0 344 333 245 10 565 7.8 55
July 15 5.8 .04 88 7.9 33 1.2 284 16 46 .4 .1 386 338 252 20 565 7.4 70
July 16 7.1 .04 86 12 36 1.1 310 8.2 52 .4 1.5 424 357 262 8 606 7.4 45
Sept. 15 7.6 .02 88 8.4 31 1.8 288 14 43 ,4 1.3 374 338 254 18 577 7.6 70
Oct. 9 7.1 .05 70 6.7 25 1.4 232 4.8 34 .4 .5 280 202 12 462 7.8 70
Jan. 13, 1964 3.9 .05 79 9.5 33 1.2 264 9.2 48 .3 1.1 332 236 20 565 7.5 60
A. 20 6.4 .03 92 4.5 42 1.7 266 6.8 60 .5 .2 412 249 31 653 8.3 80
S19 4.9 82 9.6 38 1.2 310 6.0 47 .4 .1 382 244 0 556 7.8 60
June 17 5.0 .05 77 8.3 32 1.7 258 .8 42 .4 14 386 226 14 551 7.3 70
Sept. 1 5.7 .05 74 6.7 38 1.0 248 .0 56 .3 .6 304 212 9 542 7.5 70
Oct. 30 4.1 .02 66 8.6 35 1.0 236 .0 52 .2 .0 283 200 6 510 7.8 45
Mar. 9, 1965 3.7 .03 78 11 48 1.0 280 .0 70 .3 1.5 352 240 10 628 7.5 45
Apr. 26 5.9 .06 87 11 54 1.2 299 .8 87 .5 .2 395 264 19 699 7.7 60
May 26 1 5.8 .00 94 6.2 53 .9 296 6.0 88 .5 .2 401 260 18 710 7.7 60


I
O




a
cn














Table 1., CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN BROWARD COUNTY, FLA.-Continued
B.-Surface Water
(Chemical analyses, in parts per million, except pH and color)


Dissolved Hardness Specific
Mag. Po- solids (as CCO3) conduc-
Date Mean Cal- ne- tas- Blear. Fluo- Ni- Phos- tance
of discharge Silica Iron clum slum Sodium slum bonate Sulfate Chloride ride trate phte Residue Cal- Calcium, Non- (micro- pH Col.
collection (cfs) (S102) (Fe) (Ca) (Mg) (Na) (K) (HCO3) (804) (Cl) (F) (NO3) (4) at cu- magne carbon- mhos or
1800C lated slum ate at 250C)


2-2862. SNAKE CREEK CANAL AT N. W. 67th AVENUE, NEAR HIALEAH
July 16,1963 6.2 0.03 84 10 33 0.9 291 11 47 0.3 0.1 382 336 251 12 571 7.8 45
Oct. 9 7.6 .12 90 7.7 31 1.1 288 19 42 .4 .5 390 256 20 580 7.5 70
Jan. 13,1964 7.7 .13 91 8.0 31 .9 288 18 44 .4 .1 345 260 24 579 7.5 50
Apr. 20 6.1 .04 85 4.9 38 .9 288 7.3 50 .4 .5 360 232 0 606 7.6 50
June 17 6.7 .04 93 7.3 26 .9 292 20 38 .3 1.0 340 262 22 562 7.7 70
Sept. 1 6.6 .05 90 7.7 27 1.0 ,286 19 39 .4 1.3 333 256 22 570 7.6 55
Oct. 30 6.6 .03 83 12 27 .8 280 19 38 .3 1.2 326 256 26 566 7.8 55
Mar. 9, 1965 5.6 .04 90 7.2 33 .8 288 14 50 .4 .5 344 254 18 582 7.6 55
Apr. 26 6.0 .02 68 17 38 .9 283 64 57 .6 .0 333 240 8 588 7.7 50
May 26 7.9 .03 80 15 45 2.3 292 2.0 76 .5 .3 373 260 20 673 7.9 50


r







I0.
i
a
z






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The ability of water to conduct an electric current is directly related
to the amount and kind of minerals dissolved in the water. In general, the
more minerals dissolved in water, the greater will be the electric con-
ductance. The conductance will also vary slightly depending on the type
of minerals present.
Measurement of acidity or alkalinity is recorded as pH. The pH scale
is based on the concentration of hydrogen ion in solution and a pH of 7
is considered neutral. Water having pH values below 7 are acidic, and
water having pH values above 7 are alkaline. Ground and surface waters
in Broward County are slightly alkaline because of the predominance of
carbonate and bicarbonate salts in soluble limestones in the shallow
subsurface materials.
Hardness in water results when alkaline earth minerals, principally
calcium and magnesium, are present in solution and it is commonly
expressed as an equivalent amount of calcium carbonate. The U. S.
Geological Survey classifies hardness as follows:

0 60 ppm soft
61 120 ppm moderately hard
121 180 ppm hard
over 180 ppm very hard

In Broward County the water-bearing materials are composed prin-
cipally of limestone which dissolves in slightly acidic water and produces
hard water. Hardness in water is objectionable because it consumes
soap in laundry operations and forms incrustation in pipes and boilers.
Hardness can be beneficial in water used for irrigation because it helps
maintain soil structure and permeability.
Nitrogen is found in water primarily in the form of nitrate; in un-
polluted water, nitrate usually does not exceed 10 ppm. Sources of
nitrate include decomposition of organic materials and drainage water
from soils that are heavily fertilized with nitrate-bearing fertilizer.
Leached barnyard refuse can pollute streams and shallow ground water.
Where both chloride and nitrate concentrations are above normal for
an area the possibility of contamination by human or animal wastes
should be investigated.
Color in water may be derived from animal, vegetable, or mineral
sources, and is measured by comparing a water sample with standard
solutions of platinum and cobalt and reported as units on the platinum-
cobalt scale (Hazen, 1892). The maximum color of water used for public
supply suggested by the U. S. Public Health Service (1962) is 15 Hazen






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


units. The objection to color in water for domestic use is primarily
aesthetic, although colored water may stain fixtures or laundry. Color
in ground waters in Broward County occasionally is high enough to be
objectionable and color in surface waters generally is both high and
variable.
It is well known today that fluoride can be beneficial to the teeth;
however, too much fluoride can cause dental defects such as mottled
tooth enamel. People tend to drink more water when the annual tempera-
ture is high and, therefore, will take more fluoride into the body. In
Broward County, the average annual temperature falls in the established
70.7 and 79.9 degree range, where to be beneficial, the fluoride content
of drinking water should range between 0.7 ppm and 1.0 ppm. The
average concentration of fluoride should not exceed the maximum of
1.0 ppm.
Water for public use in Broward County should conform to the
Florida State Water Standards which are based on the U. S. Public
Health Service Drinking Water Standards (1962). According to the
standards, the following constituents should not exceed the concentrations
shown:

Substance Concentration (ppm)
Alkyl benzene sulfonate (ABS) 0.5
Arsenic (As) 0.01
Chloride (Cl) 250
Iron (Fe) 0.3
Nitrate (NO3) 45.0
Sulfate (SO4) 250
Total dissolved solids 500
Fluoride (F) 1.0
Carbon chloroform extract (CCE) 0.2
Phenols 0.001
Zinc (Zn) 5.0
Copper (Cu) 1.0
Manganese (Mn) 0.05

The practical limits of some chemical constituents are based mainly
on aesthetic considerations. Within the range of maximum standard
concentrations some chemical constituents of water tend to produce a
noticeable taste. Most people can detect a salty taste in water when the
chloride reaches 200-300 ppm. Water containing a sulfate concentration






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


of about 250 ppm may have a laxative effect on some people. Iron con-
centrations of about 0.3 ppm in water will often impart a taste and may
discolor laundry or stain porcelain fixtures.

WATER IN THE BISCAYNE AQUIFER

The Biscayne aquifer is the principal source of fresh water for public
supply in southeastern Florida. This aquifer is composed chiefly of porous
permeable limestone with some sandstone and sand. In Broward County,
the aquifer is thickest along the coast where it extends from the land
surface to a depth about 150 feet in the south and nearly 400 feet (Tarver,
1964) in the north; it thins to a feather edge near the western boundary
of Broward County. The Biscayne aquifer is underlain by clay and marl of
low permeability which extend to a depth of about 900 feet.

CHANGES WITH DEPTH AND LOCATION
The chemical quality of water in the Biscayne aquifer differs really
and with depth. Chemical differences with depth in existing wells are-
difficult, if not impossible, to detect because wells are generally cased
to one producing zone. However, multiple-depth information collected
during this investigation indicates differences in the chemical quality
of the water in the Biscayne aquifer throughout the county. Also, the
multiple depth data were used in conjunction with other chemical quality
data to prepare maps of the area showing differences in and distribution
of the various chemical constituents with depth. Generally the data were
from wells which were not contaminated by salt water. The chemical
constituents mapped are dissolved solids, hardness as CaCO3, and iron.
The location of the wells sampled are shown on each map.
The maps in figure 5 show the dissolved solids in water from depths
ranging from 0 to greater than 200 feet. The relatively low chemical
content of the water in the Fort Lauderdale area indicates the circulation
of ground water that results from the combined effect of the drainage
by the canal system and the local recharge by rainfall. In the rest of the
county the slower movement of the ground water permits more time
for the water to dissolve minerals from the materials composing the
aquifer. The tendency of the calcareous sands of northern Broward
County to hold the water in storage is indicated by the relatively high
dissolved solids near the coast in that area. This is supported by the fact
that water levels in the northern part of the county are considerably
higher than those in the central and southern parts; The higher concen-
tration of dissolved solids in the wells deeper tht .200 feet indicates
there is much less circulation of water at those depths.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONs No. 51


-^ Q_ CANAL EXPLANATION
A *WELL SAMPLED FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSES
S0-100 FEET-SAMPLE DEPTH ZONE
I -300-- LINE OF EQUAL DISSOLVED
SOLIDS,PARTS PER MILLION


Figure 5. Variation of dissolved solids in ground water of eastern Broward County,
1964.


The maps showing hardness of ground water, figure 6, generally show
the same pattern as the dissolved solids maps. A similarity in the illustra-
tions would be expected because calcium and bicarbonate are the major
constituents of the natural water of south Florida. The ground water of
Broward County ranges from hard to very hard. The hardest water
occurs in the northern section and extends nearly to the coast.
The iron content of ground water also varies really and with depth
in the Biscayne aquifer. According to Hem (1959, p. 60), iron usually
will occur only in the ferrous state in water whose pH ranges from 7 to 8,
the range normally found in Broward County. When water containing
ferrous iron and bicarbonate comes in contact with oxygen, the iron is
oxidized to the ferric state and precipitates as ferric hydroxide. The
bicarbonate in solution is replaced with carbon dioxide which slightly
lowers the pH. Aeration as commonly employed to remove iron from
water, utilizes this reaction.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 6. Variation of hardness of ground water of eastern Broward County, 1964.

The maps in figure 7 show that the iron concentration increases to
the south and west. The reason for the higher iron content could be the
action of certain bacteria on organic material. Sarles and' others (1951,
p, 235), state that certain bacteria can bring about reactions with organic
material which produce ferric hydroxide or ferrous sulfide. Soil micro-
organisms also can cause the formation of acids which aid in bringing
iron compounds into solution. These reactions occur deep in the sub-
surface where there is no free oxygen.
To illustrate differences in chemical quality in an individual well a
modified Stiff diagram was used. This method of presentation of data
is based on the percentage of the principal cations and anions in terms of
equivalents per million (reacting values of ions), and is diagrammed in
figure 8. The modified Stiff diagram shows only percentage composition,
not the total mineral content of a sample; therefore, the specific con-
ductance was plotted against depth in figure 8 also, in order to show
changes in total mineral content of the water with depth in the aquifer.
The analyses of water from Well 260609N0801205 (fig. 8) show the
typical changes in the water of the Biscayne aquifer in the coastal area


EXPLANATION
* WELL SAMPLED FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSES
0-100 FEET -SAMPLE DEPTH ZONE
-200- LINE OF EQUAL HARDNESS,AS
CaCO3,IN PARTS PER MILLION





e ~ I
^ /







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


C' $/I EXPLANATION
WELL SAMPLED FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSES
I -100FEET- SAMPLE DEPTH ZONE
-3.0- LINE OF EQUAL IRON CONCENTRATION
I PARTS PER MILLION


SBROWARD C p-



150-200 FEET

GREATER THAN 200 FEET ,



Figure 7. Variation of iron in the ground water of eastern Broward County, 1964.

of Broward County. The shallow water is a calcium bicarbonate type
which gradually changes with depth to a sodium chloride type. The
diagram representing the 227-foot sample shows the midpoint of the
transition from fresh water to saline water. The sample collected at
314 feet shows the typical diagram of sea water, although the specific
conductance of sea water would be many times greater.
Analyses of water at different depths from two wells (255742N0802720
and 260843N0802629) in western Broward County showed that the
aquifer contains naturally soft water with a high bicarbonate content.
Natural softening is caused by a base-exchange reaction in which the
calcium in solution is replaced with sodium from an exchange material
(clays).
According to Foster (1950, pp. 33-48), base-exchange reaction, accom-
panied by high bicarbonates, requires that three materials be present:
calcium carbonate, carbonaceous material, and a base-exchange material.
Calcium carbonate, relatively insoluble in pure water, goes into solution
as calcium bicarbonate in the presence of carbon dioxide. Carbonaceous
material, such as organic matter, decomposes to produce much of the








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


WELU WELL
260609-0401205 255742-002720
CONDUCTANCE. MICROMHOS


WELL WELL
260843-0802629 260054-0801033
PER CENTIMETER AT 25' C
0000 0 5000 10000 0 500 1000







-. 1


Figure 8. Variation in chemical constituents with depth in water from selected wells.


carbon dioxide in the ground. Carbonaceous material abounds in the
organic soil in the Everglades in western Broward County. The base-
exchange material, generally clay minerals, is present in the surface marl
and as part of the deeper unconsolidated material.
Water from well 255742N0802720 (fig. 8) is naturally soft with high
sodium and bicarbonate and low calcium and sulfate. The deeper waters
from well 260843N0802629 are the same type but the water at shallow
depths is calcium bicarbonate in type. This indicates that the upper
section of the aquifer in the area of well 260843N0802629 contains little
or no base-exchange material. Water samples from both wells show the
presence of salt water in the deeper part of the aquifer, as do all other
deep samples collected in this vicinity.
In addition, the dissolved ions in water from several of the wells
indicate the presence of dolomitic (CaMg(CO3)2) material in the deeper
section. The diagram of the dissolved solids in waters from the 200-foot
zone in well 260054N0801033 (fig. 8) shows a high concentration of
magnesium (70 ppm). In contrast, very little magnesium (4.5 ppm)
occurs at a depth of 168 feet. A similar change was found in six of the
wells in which multi-depth samples were collected.


EACH


2606 1205 H
Sj26005406010l3
5572002720 5 0 SMILE!







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


Although chloride is the dominant anion in the 200-foot zone, its
concentration is low (250 ppm) and the magnesium/chloride ratio is too
high for the magnesium content to be caused by active saltwater intrusion.
The EPM ratio of calcium to magnesium in water from the 200-foot
zone is 1:3; the EPM ratio in sea water is 1:5, while the EPM ratio in
waters from dolomitic rocks is approximately 1:1. It appears, therefore,
that the high magnesium content of the deeper waters in these six wells
is caused by a combination of solution of a dolomitic source material
and the occurrence of salty water at a depth of approximately 200 feet.
The presence of dolomitic limestones at similar depths has been
reported in the area around Lake Okeechobee by Mr. Bob Erwin (Oral
communication).
The analyses of water from well 261018N0800850, located near the
tidal reach of Middle River Canal, are shown in figure 9 by Stiff diagram,
CHLORIDE. PARTS PER MILLION
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000



0 250 D, -D

.1 POMPANO
032 0-------- J -0--
S3 LAUDERDALE

I /I O I 9 -/ O HOLLYWOOD
S100 5 .MILES




z I CONDUCTANC

S7 CHLORIDE
"200 r/


Figure 9. Changes in chemical composition of water from well 261018N0800850
with depth.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


chloride content, and specific conductance. The analysis of multiple-depth
samples showed that the water from a depth of 23 feet was calcium
bicarbonate type; the sample collected at 56 feet had an appreciable
increase in sodium chloride concentration and the water from 85 feet
was again predominately a calcium bicarbonate type. This indicates
that part of the water at the 56-foot depth was salt water infiltrating from
the tidal canal, and that material of relatively low permeability exists
in the interval between 56 and 85 feet which retards vertical movement
of water.
The chloride content increases from 280 to 1580 ppm in the 19 foot
interval from 167 to 186 feet. This illustrates the tendency of the heavier
salt water to move to the bottom of the aquifer, under the fresh water.
It also illustrates the effect of differences in permeability within the
aquifer on the extent of sea-water intrusion. The material penetrated
during the drilling of the bottom 19 feet of this well ranged in composition
from very sandy limestone at the top of this interval, to highly permeable
pure limestone in the lower part of this interval. The permeable limestone
tends to facilitate salt water intrusion in the Ft. Lauderdale area. The
chemical quality conditions in this well are probably typical of many
areas near the coast and adjacent to a tidal canal.

CHANGES WITH TIME
Observation well 260515N0802021 was drilled in November 1950, in
an undeveloped section of Broward County about 7 miles west of Davie,
to provide a record of changes in water levels and water quality caused
by drainage in the area and by the storage of water in the conservation
areas. The well is 29 feet in depth cased to 28 feet with 6-inch casing.
A continuous water-level recorder was installed on the well and hydrologic
observations have continued to date. Monitoring of the chemical quality
of the water was begun in March 1955, and water samples have been
collected periodically and analyzed for mineral content and chemical
properties. Even though the well has not been used, changes in chemical
quality have occurred during the period of observations. As shown in
figure 10, the mineral content of the water decreased from about 400 ppm
to less than 300 ppm. The greatest change was in sulfate concentrations
which declined steadily from 95 ppm to 0.
According to Hem (1959, p. 101), most sulfides are converted sulfates
in the upper oxidized layers of soils, and are leached away. In humid
regions, sulfates can be thoroughly leached because the amount of water
is large in proportion to the soluble salts. Extended periods of low water
levels such as those shown in figure 10 during 1955-57 and increased
drainage caused by the improvement of the canal system probably aided







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


WELL 260515-0802021 DEPTH 29 FEET


I 1955 I 1956 I 1957 I 1Qos I 1959


iQA I96 I QA I 101.2 I 101. I lOCd I


Figure 10. Changes in selected chemical constituents in water from a well seven
miles west of Davie, during the period 1955 to 1964.

the flushing of the upper part of the aquifer by recharge from local
rainfall. Most of the other constituents in the water decreased slightly
during the period of record, a further indication that improved drainage
accelerated the movement of ground water which removed the soluble
material from the area.
Changes in the ratios of the different chemicals in the water through-
out the period of record show that a base-exchange reaction has taken
place. Natural softening (see page 31) occurred to a slight degree, but
was probably limited by a lack of base-exchange material. During the
10 years of record the calcium decreased from about 120 ppm to 90 ppm,
the sodium remained nearly constant, the bicarbonate increased slightly,
and the total mineral content decreased. The decrease in hardness with
no decrease in bicarbonate also indicates a slight base-exchange reaction.

SEA-WATER INTRUSION

Sea-water intrusion is one of the prime water problems in coastal
areas of Broward County. Sea water has moved into the aquifer near the
coast and adjacent to uncontrolled reaches of the rivers and canals.
Because the majority of salts in sea water are in the form of chlorides,








36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


the chloride content of water is generally used as the index of sea-water
encroachment. Figure 11 shows the inland extent of water containing


EX DLITUP A L BEACH
BCCOUNTY








SM s awB 0WV R D CANAL .





WELL FIEL OU ATLANTC OCEA















GENERALIZED I
___-3..... -' ." .




































Figure 11. Extent of sea-water intrusion 1964.

1,000 ppm of chloride near the bottom of the Biscayne aquifer in Broward
County in 1964. The wedge-shaped, salt-water body in the aquifer is
thickest at the coast and thins inland to an edge where it underlies the
fresh ground water at depths from 160 to 200 feet below the land surface.
The map sequence in Figure 12 shows successive adjustments of the
salt-front pattern, which have occurred since 1941 in response to drainage
X.










01 2 3 4 5 es






CROSS SECTION -10
-20

-40







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


Figure 12. Progressive salt-water intrusion in the Middle River-Prospect Well Field
Area, near Fort Lauderdale.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


(canal construction), increases in municipal pumping, and salinity-control
practices in the Middle River-Prospect well field area near Fort Lauder-
dale. In the early 1940's, when rapid growth was just beginning, there was
very little ground-water pumpage and the existing streams were shallow
and relatively ineffective for drainage. This resulted in overall high water
levels which prevented salt-water intrusion, except for areas adjacent
to the coast and along tidal channels (fig. 12A). During the mid 1950's,
as urban areas were expanded, canals were dug to lower water levels to
prevent flooding in inland areas. Short, tidal, finger canals were excavated
in low-lying coastal areas and the excavated material used to raise land
surface elevations, thereby creating water-front property. Ground-water
withdrawals were increased to accommodate the growing demand. The
combined effect of increased drainage and water use lowered water
levels near the coast and caused a gradual inland movement of salt
water (fig. 12B).
Salinity-control structures in major canals have done much to retard
or even push back intruding salt water. The connection of Cypress Creek
into the water-control system has aided the prevention of intrusion in
the northern part of Prospect well field even though pumpage has tripled
during the period 1956-63; however, the south edge of the well field is
threatened with salt-water intrusion (fig. 12C), because the control
structure in Canal C-13 is too far upstream to be fully effective.
The increased threat to fresh ground-water supplies resulted in the
passage of the salt-intrusion control act by the State Legislature in 1963.
This act gives the Broward County Water Resources Department and the
Water Resources Advisory Board the power to control man-made changes
in the ground and surface water flow system, subject to approval of the
Board of County Commissioners.
Brackish water occurs in less permeable materials beneath the Biscayne
aquifer along parts of the coastal ridge. This water of inferior quality
could be connate water trapped in sediments during deposition or residual
sea water remaining in the aquifer as a result of inundation by the sea
during Pleistocene time. The brackish water does not appear to be a
threat to the shallow fresh water in the aquifer, provided ground-water
levels are not excessively lowered. An observation well in the center of
the Fort Lauderdale Dixie well field yields water that contains about
700 ppm of chloride from a depth of 211 feet and has shown no ap-
preciable change in chloride during the last 15 years. The well field is
pumped at the rate of 10 mgd from an average depth of 150 feet, but
the salty water 60 feet below the zone being pumped has shown no
indication of upward migration.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


Mineralized ground water also occurs under similar conditions in
inland areas of Broward County. In an early study of ground water in
southeastern Florida, information from several test wells in the Ever-
glades, (Parker 1955, p. 820) showed that the chloride content of the
water increased to the west and northwest and with depth in Broward
County, figure 13.


Figure 13. Variation of chloride content with depth in inland areas (after Parker
et al).







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


WATER IN THE FLORIDAN AQUIFER
The Floridan aquifer underlies southeastern Florida at depths greater
than 900 feet. It is composed primarily of permeable limestone which
dips eastward and southward and is thought to intersect the ocean bottom
several miles offshore beyond the Continental Slope. The limestone is
overlain by thick impermeable marl and clay. The aquifer is artesian
but yields water containing chlorides in excess of 1,500 ppm in Broward
County and therefore is too salty for human consumption. In southern
Florida the water having high chloride content appears to be chiefly
from sea water which has not been flushed from the aquifer. Some of
the sea water is connate water and some entered the aquifer during
Pleistocene time (Stringfield 1966).
Although the water is too salty for most purposes, the water and
the aquifer are used in several ways. In the Pompano Beach area a utility
company uses an 18-inch well 1,153 feet deep for disposal of sewage
effluent. About 450,000 gpd of treated sewage are pumped into this well.
The effluent is discharged into the aquifer against an artesian head of
about 30 feet. This same technique is being used or planned for use in
other sections of the state to dispose of municipal and industrial wastes
to prevent pollution of the streams and shallow fresh ground-water
sources.
Because wells in the Floridan aquifer flow freely and the water
temperature is constant, it is used for industrial cooling and for air-
conditioning units. The water is high in mineral content, contains
hydrogen sulfide and therefore is corrosive to most metals. Where fresh
water is in short supply, the salty water of the Floridan aquifer has been
used for swimming pools, flushing waste systems, and mixing with the
fresh water for irrigation of golf courses.
The Floridan aquifer represents a source of very large quantities of
water of poor quality. Although it may not be feasible now to utilize
this source for many purposes, it has an excellent potential for use in
future years when maximum growth is attained and the fresh-water
resources in the county approach maximum utilization.

SURFACE WATER
The urban and agricultural sections of Broward County are dissected
by a complex system of primary and secondary drainage canals. The
larger primary canals convey water seaward, draining the inland areas,
and in most instances are controlled near their outlets to the ocean; some
control structures however, are several miles inland. The secondary canals
are connected to the primary canals and are designed to cope with local







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


flooding. The control structures on the primary canals have two main
functions: the first is to prevent the movement of sea water upstream in
the canal, the second is to maintain high fresh-water levels during dry
periods to prevent ocean water from seeping into the highly permeable
Biscayne aquifer and contaminating the fresh-water supply of the area.
Upstream of the controls, the water in the canals is basically fresh and
therefore a major natural resource.
The composition of the water in canals in Broward County varies
widely with fluctuations in discharge caused by seasonal rainfall. When
discharge is high most of the water is surface runoff from inland areas
which is highly colored but contains only a small amount of dissolved
minerals. When discharge is low most of the water is derived from
ground-water inflow and the amount of dissolved minerals increases.
In Broward County, water in the canals is not used directly for
domestic supplies. However, during the dry seasons canals supply a
major portion of the water which artificially replenishes the various
municipal and private well fields. For this reason, the mineral content
of the canal water is of importance. During the dry season inflow to the
canals is from inland areas where ground-water levels are higher than
canal levels, but in coastal areas controls are closed, canal levels are
higher than ground-water levels and water generally flows from the
canals into the aquifer. Thus the period when canals are the primary
supplemental source of replenishment to ground-water supplies occurs
when effluent wastes in the canals are most concentrated.
In general, the chemical quality of surface-waters in Broward County
is within the limits established by Florida State Water Standards.
However, the mineral content of a given surface-water source varies
more in a short time period than the content of a given ground-water
source, and therefore, surface water is more difficult to treat.

CHEMICAL CONTENT
Surface waters collected during this study are primarily alkaline
ranging from pH 6.3 to 8.6. When slightly acid rain water comes in
contact with limestones which underlie this area, solution of the limestone
causes the ground water to become slightly alkaline. Therefore, during
dry periods when most of the water in canals is ground-water inflow,
canal water will be alkaline. Canals which are used extensively for
disposal of wastes and sewage effluent may periodically become slightly
acid. The effluent from sewage treatment plants is a source of nitrate in
surface water in this area. Water from Plantation Canal above control
structure S-33 had the highest nitrate content found during this study.
Eight of the 16 samples (fig. 3) collected showed a nitrate content






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


ranging from 9.4 to 62 ppm as compared with an average of about 1 ppm
for surface waters in the area. The nitrate content of the canal water
seems to vary with discharge. The samples that had the highest nitrate
content were collected during or immediately after periods of little or
no flow whereas samples collected during periods of appreciable flow
generally had low nitrate content. In 1965 nearly 1.7 million gallons
per day of treated effluent was discharged into the controlled reach of
this canal.
Water samples from the Pompano Canal above the control at Pompano
Beach contained the highest fluoride in the surface water (2.7 ppm,
March 12, 1962). As shown in Figure 14, the fluoride content at this site

3.0 I i i i i

z
O
-4
t 20

0
'1.0





1961 1962 1963 1964

Figure 14. Fluoride content of water from Pompano Canal near Pompano Beach.

fluctuates seasonally. During 1962 it ranged from 2.7 ppm in March to
0.4 ppm in October. The greatest fluoride content apparently occurs
during the first heavy rains after the long winter dry season each year.
The probable source of the fluoride is the inland agricultural areas drained
by the Pompano Canal where fluoride is added to soils by application
of fertilizer (U. S. Dept. of Agric. Yearbook, 1957). This soil fluoride
could be leached from the ground by irrigation and the runoff from
heavy rains.
The Hillsboro Canal which also passes through the same area had
a fluoride of 1.2 ppm in April 1964. Fluoride is less likely to be detected
in the Hillsboro Canal because of high flows which would cause extensive
dilution of any contaminant.
The canal waters of Broward County vary in color from 30 to as high
as 240 standard platinum-cobalt units and therefore are in the objection-







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


able range of the Florida Standards for drinking water. At present this
presents little problem because the principal direct use of canal water
is for crop irrigation. When canal water infiltrates the aquifer, color is
removed as the water moves through the aquifer and is diminished by
dilution as the canal water mixes with ground water.

CHANGES WITH TIME
The total mineral content of the water along controlled reaches of
canals usually ranges from about 150 to 600 ppm. In the tidal reaches
below control structures the water is predominantly sea water although
the chloride content varies considerably in response to changes in the
rate of discharge of fresh water through the control structures. Daily
chloride values derived from continuously recorded conductivity values
collected in uncontrolled reaches of North New River Canal, Middle
River Canal, and Hollywood Canal during 1964 and 1965 are shown
with hydrographs of available canal discharge in Figure 15.
The hydrographs show clearly the effect of discharge on the movement
of the salt water in the canals and also, the effects of the lack of control
and replenishment to the Hollywood Canal. The highest chloride content
in water at these sites occurs during the dry season when discharge is
at a minimum. During the wet season when discharge is high the salt
water in both primary canals is pushed downstream to coastal reaches of
the canals. The chloride content of water in Hollywood Canal is generally
high because the canal drains a small urban area and discharge is low.
Major well fields are located near the sampling sites on Middle River
and North New River Canals (fig. 2) and ground-water gradients indicate
that water flows from the canals toward the well fields during periods of
low water levels and heavy pumpage. The graphs of Middle River and
North New River Canals show that when a discharge of 50 to 75 cfs
occurs through the control structures, the salt front is held downstream
from the sampling points. Figure 16 shows the sum of chemical constitu-
ents from periodic samples collected at South New River at S-13 and
monthly rainfall at the nearby agriculture research station for the period
September 1950 through December 1963. At S-13 the mineral content
commonly varies inversely with rainfall. The great increase in mineral
content in early 1957 is very likely the end result of the extended drought
of 1954-56 which had its greatest effect on south Florida near the end
of 1956 (Pride, 1962). During a period of low rainfall, mineral content
increases as a result of concentration by evaporation and the inflow of
more highly mineralized ground water. The extreme decrease in mineral
content in late 1957 was caused by dilution due to the above normal
rainfall which followed the drought.










MIDDLE RIVER CANAL C-13 )
At OAKLAHD PAM IKVP.


1964 1965
Figure 15. Discharge and chloride content of water from tidal reaches of selected canals.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


20
-A 2.
15"


S 1954 I 1955 I 1956 I 1957 I 1958 1 1959 1 1960 I 1961 I 1962 1963 I
Figure 16. Mineral content of water from South New River near Davie and rainfall,
1954- 1963.

CONTAMINATION OF WATER RESOURCES
Each public water-supply system in the county is requested to furnish
to the Broward County Health Department an annual chemical analysis
of the raw water from each producing well and an analysis showing the
amount of trace elements present. This practice has resulted in the
correction of some potentially dangerous situations.
The analyses of water from several wells in southern Broward County
have shown fluctuating increases in ABS (detergents) content in recent
years. The wells are in an area served mainly by septic tanks which are
thought to be the source of the ABS. The fact that most manufacturers
now produce biodegradable detergents may cause a gradual decrease in
the ABS content of the water.
In 1962 the trace element analysis of a group of wells showed an
increase in arsenic over the previous years. Though not a dangerous
concentration, it was enough to warrant checking. The investigation
showed a sodium arsenite weed killer had been used in the vicinity
which probably leached down to the water table. The arsenic decreased
when the use of the weed killer was stopped. As a result of this incident
the Broward County Health Department has restricted the use of arsenite
weed killers in the vicinity of public supply wells in the county.
Arsenic again became a potential problem in 1965 when an increase
was noted in the annual trace element analysis in two well fields. Again
the arsenic did not reach a potentially harmful concentration. The arsenic
evidently was transported to the well fields through the canal system of
the area. The source could be either industrial or agricultural pollutants.
Drought conditions limited the dilution and flushing of the arsenic from
the canals. Further efforts to trace the source were negated by heavy
rains which diluted the mineral content of water in the canals.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Fresh water in streams normally contains several ppm dissolved
oxygen. The oxygen is consumed in oxidation of organic material and
is replaced by oxygen from the atmosphere. If large quantities of organic
matter are in the water, oxygen may be used faster than it is replaced.
Treated waste water, high in organic matter, can cause a problem of
oxygen depletion when discharged into the waterways. Large quantities
of dissolved oxygen are required to oxidize the organic material. Tur-
bulent flow of water will aid in the oxygen uptake of water; however,
the canal system in Broward County generally does not have turbulent
flow. When the dissolved oxygen becomes very low, there are often
problems of odor, floating sludge, and killing of fish and aquatic life.
It is generally established that 5 ppm dissolved oxygen is necessary to
support fish life. In extreme cases when the dissolved oxygen is totally
depleted, there is no self purification of the water and a septic condition
develops.
During the low flow period in December 1966 the U.S. Geological
Survey made a study of the diurnal (24 hour) dissolved oxygen content
at selected points in the canal system in Broward County. The study
showed that the two sites with the lowest dissolved oxygen content,
Snake Creek Canal (C-9) and Plantation Canal (C-12), were also the
canals which received the greatest amount of treated sewage. Snake
Creek Canal receives about 2.5 mgd of treated effluent and had a diurnal
range of 0.7 to 1.8 ppm dissolved oxygen. Plantation Canal, which receives
about 1.2 mgd of effluent had a range of 1.9 to 3.4 ppm dissolved oxygen.
South New River Canal and North New River Canal also had very low
diurnal dissolved oxygen content. During this study the dissolved oxygen
ranged from 0.3 to 7.6 ppm and the average for all samples collected
was 3.5 ppm. The data indicate that at times, the dissolved oxygen
concentration of the canal waters is reduced to levels below those
necessary to sustain many forms of aquatic life, which is a potential
problem if those life forms are to be maintained.
Dissolved oxygen depletion is not the only pollution-caused degrada-
tion of canal water in Broward County. Another source of degradation
is pollution from chemical contamination. Table 2 lists various minor
constituents which were detected by the chemical analyses of the canal
waters sampled during the dissolved oxygen study. None of the waters
analyzed contained dangerous amounts of these chemicals, but several
constituents are present in detectable amounts. Also the presence of
ammonia compounds, nitrates, and phosphates indicates probable organic
pollution. These analyses again show the same canals as potential problem
areas, namely, Plantation, Snake Creek, South New River, North New
River and Middle River Canals. The probable reason Middle River Canal







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


Table 2. ANALYSES OF MINOR CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS IN WATER
FROM SELECTED CANALS, DECEMBER 21,1966.
Chemical analyses, in parts per million

-

Site Z z o

Hillsboro Canal above control
at Deerfield Beach 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.03 1.4 0.02 0.33
Pompano Canal above control
at Pompano Beach 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.5 0.01 0.28
Cypress Creek Canal above
S-37-A near Pompano Beach 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.06 2.2 0.02 0.69
Middle River Canal, above S-36
near Ft. Lauderdale 0.01 0.00 0.00 3.0 9.1 0.16 1.4
Plantation Canal, above S-33
near Ft. Lauderdale 0.03 0.00 0.00 2.3 1.8 0.50 5.4
North New River Canal above
control near Ft. Lauderdale 0.01 0.00 0.02 1.6 0.5 0.01 0.18
South New River Canal above
S-13, near Davie 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.13 2.5 0.12 0.29
Snake Creek Canal above S-29,
near Nortli Miami Beach 0.03 0.00 0.01 0.05 3.3 0.03 1.0
Snake Creek Canal at 67th Ave.,
near Hialeah 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.75 0.9 0.00 0.20
W. S. Public Health
Recommended Maximum 0.05 5.0 0.05 45

is in this group, but not in the low dissolved oxygen group, is because
the sampling site is just downstream from a large treatment plant and
there was not sufficient flow time for the dissolved oxygen to be lowered
appreciably.
In conjunction with the current chemical sampling, special samples
were taken at selected sites for pesticides analysis (Table 3). These
analyses show that Plantation Canal and Snake Creek Canal contain the
highest, although not dangerous, concentrations of certain pesticides.
The pesticides probably come from the agricultural area in western
Broward County.
These studies are only a beginning and need to be followed by more
complete studies conducted at various seasons and under different water-
flow conditions.
Another source of chemicals in the water is effluent from sewage-
treatment plants (fig. 2). In 1965, with only 36 percent of the population
served by public sewerage systems, more than 21 mgd of treated effluent
were discharged into the waterways of Broward County. Included in the
discharge figure was the treated effluent from approximately 900,000
gallons of septic tank sludge material which must be disposed of each
month. Records for 1963 showed only about 20 percent of the septic







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 3. ANALYSES OF PESTICIDES IN WATER FROM SELECTED CANALS,
DECEMBER 21,1966.
Analysis by U.S. Geological Survey
(parts per trillion)






Beach. 0 nd nd nd 0 nd nd 10 nd nd
*a .a o -.3
SamplingSite .0 |


Snake Creek Canal above
S-29 near North Miami
Beach. 10 nd nd nd 10 nd nd 10 nd nd
Plantation Canal above
S33, near Fort
Landerdale. 10 nd nd nd 10 nd 20 10 10 40
Pompano Canal, above
control at Pompano
Beach- nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd
Hilsboro Canal above
control, near
Deerfield Beach. nd nd nd nd nd nd nd 10 nd nd
nd-Not detected
tank sludge was being treated in sewage-treatment plants. The Broward
County Health Department required complete treatment of sewage and
post-chlorination of the effluent before discharging into the receiving
water. Sewage-plant effluent is generally higher in nitrates and chloride
than the natural water of the area. During drought periods, when the
canal control structures are closed, the increased dissolved chemical
constituents in canal water caused by sewage can be further concentrated
by evaporation of the canal water.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
The chemical quality of the water in the interrelated surface and
ground-water system of Broward County is generally good. Most of the
water used in Broward County is obtained from the Biscayne aquifer
which is recharged by local rainfall and by water that infiltrates from
the canals. The very permeable limestone of the Biscayne aquifer permits
relatively free interchange of water between the aquifer and the canals.
The mineral content of water from the Biscayne aquifer usually meets
the water standards set by the State of Florida. The water is hard, and
in the southeast part of the county it contains iron in objectionable
concentrations. Ground water along the coast is contaminated by salt-
water, and parts of the aquifer inland contain salty remnants of ancient
sea floodings. The water contained in the major part of the aquifer is a






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


calcium bicarbonate type but near the bottom of the aquifer it is a
sodium chloride type. In one area the deeper water is high in magnesium
indicating the presence of dolomite. In southwestern Broward County
some natural softening of the water is caused by a base exchange reaction
in which the calcium in solution is replaced with sodium from an exchange
material, generally clay minerals in the aquifer. Generally, the mineral
content of the water increases inland and with depth in the aquifer. The
water of lowest dissolved solids is in the Fort Lauderdale area-an
intensively drained area where the circulation of water is rapid. Analyses
of water collected for ten years from a well at the east edge of the
Everglades show a decrease in the dissolved solids and most other
chemical constituents; the sulfate concentration declined from 95 ppm
to O.
The Floridan aquifer yields brackish water by artesian flow. Small
quantities of this water are used in swimming pools, for cooling, and
for mixing with fresh water for irrigation of golf courses. One sewage-
treatment plant discharges treated effluent into the Floridan aquifer.
The chemical quality of the surface water of Broward County
generally varies seasonally. Mineral content of canal water increases
during dry seasons when the contribution to the canals from ground
water is greatest, and decreases when the canal water is largely surface
runoff. Generally the mineral content does not exceed about 500 ppm.
Upstream from the control structures the water is generally a calcium
bicarbonate type. The water downstream from the control structures
is mainly seawater, with the chloride content varying in response to
seasonal runoff and control-structure operations. The interchange between
the aquifer and the canal system contributes to the contamination of the
waters of Broward County. There has been, and will continue to be,
problems of pollution and salt-water intrusion. No serious pollution
situations have arisen, but instances of arsenic and detergent contam-
inations in well fields have occurred. Further studies are needed on
the contamination problems. Specific studies are needed on: 1) the
relation of treated effluent loads to the discharge in the canals; 2) the
effect of the interchange of water between the ground and surface water
on fresh water well fields located close to canals; and 3) the use of
the Floridan aquifer for the disposal of treated effluent and industrial
waste. Continued monitoring of the salt-water intrusion and effects of
waste disposal are needed.
To maintain the good quality of the abundant supply of water in
Broward County a firm program of planning and management is par-
amount. If planning and management of the water resource is defaulted,






50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

the rapidly-expanding economy and growing water needs in the area
can result in depletion of water resources, contamination of the inland
waters by industrial, agricultural, and domestic practices and by intrusion
of salt water.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


Black, A. P.
1951


1953



Brown, Eugene

Collins, W. D.
1932


REFERENCES


(and Brown, Eugene) Chemical character of Florida's waters -
1951: Florida State Board Cons. Div. Water Survey and Research
Paper 6.
(and Brown, E., and Pearce, J. M.) Salt water intrusion in Florida:
Florida State Board Cons. Div. Water Survey and Research
Paper 9.

(see Black, A. P., 1951, 1953).


(and Lamar, W. L., and Lohr, E. W.) Industrial Utility of Public
Water Supplies in the United States: U. S. Geological Survey
Water Supply Paper 658.


Crooks, J. W. (see Pride, R. W.)


Foster, Margaret
1950



Grantham, R. G.

Hazen, Allen
1892


Hem, John D.
1959


Hoy, Nevin D.

Klein, Howard


The Origin of High Sodium Bicarbonate Waters in the Atlantic
and Gulf Coastal Plains: Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta,
Vol. 1, pp. 33-48.

(see Sherwood, C. B., 1965).


A new Color Standard for Natural Waters: Amer. Chem. Soc. Jour.
Vol. 12.


Study and Interpretation of the Chemical Characteristics of Natural
Water: U. S. Geol. Survey Water Supply Paper 1473.

(see Schroeder, M. C., and Klein, Howard, 1958).

(see Schroeder, M. C. and Hoy, Nevin D., 1958).


Lamar, W. L. (see Collins, W. D., and Lohr, E. W., 1932).


Langbein, W. B.

Leopold, L. B.
1960


Lohr, E. W.

Love, S. K.

Parker, G. G.
1955


(see Leopold, L. B., 1960).


(and Langbein, W. B.) A primer on Water: U. S. Dept. of Interior,
Geol. Survey.

(see Collins, W. D., and Lamar, W. L., 1932).

(see Parker, G. G., and Ferguson, G. E., 1955).


(and Ferguson, G. E., Love, S. K., and others) Water resources of
southeastern Folrida, with special reference to the geology and
ground water of the Miami area: U. S. Geol. Survey Water Supply
Paper 1255.


Pearce, J. M. (see Black, A. P., and Brown, Eugene, 1953).







52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Pride. R. W.
1962 (and Crooks, J. W.) The Drought of 1954-56, Its Effect on
Florida's Surface-Water Resources: Fla. Geol. Survey. R. I. 26.

Rainwater, F. H.
1960 (and Thatcher, L. I.) Methods for Collection and Analysis of
Water Samples: U. S. Geol. Survey Water Supply Paper 1454.

Sarles, W. B. et al,
1951 Microbiology: Harper & Brothers, p. 235.

Schroeder, M. C.
1958 (Klein, Howard, and Hoy, Nevin D.) Biscayne Aquifer of Dade
and Broward Counties, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey, R. I.. 17.

Sherwood, C. B.
1959 Ground Water Resources of the Oakland Park Area of Eastern
Broward County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey, R. I. 20.
1965 (and Grantham, R. G.) Water Control vs. Sea-Water Intrusion,
Brotcard County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Leaflet No. 5.

Stringfield, V. T.
1966 Artesian Water in Tertiary Limestone in the Southeastern States:
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 517.

Tarver, George R.
1964 Hydrology of the Biscayne Aquifer in the Pompano Beach Area,
Brotcard County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey, R. I. 36.

U. S. Public Health Department
1962 Public Health Service Publication No. 956.

Vorhis. Robert C.
1948 Geology and Groundwater of the Fort Lauderdale Area, Florida:
Fla. Geol. Survey, R. I. 6.




Chemical quality of waters of Broward County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 51 )
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 Material Information
Title: Chemical quality of waters of Broward County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 51 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Report of investigations 51 )
Physical Description: vii, 52 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Grantham, Rodney G
Sherwood, C. B. ( joint author )
Broward County (Fla.)
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1968
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Water quality -- Florida -- Broward County   ( lcsh )
Hydrology -- Florida -- Broward County   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Rodney G. Grantham and C. B. Sherwood.
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 51-52.
General Note: "Prepared by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Board of Conservation, Division of Geology, and Broward County."
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lccn - 73625154 //r84
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STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION


DIVISION OF GEOLOGY

Robert O. Vernon, Director


REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 51





CHEMICAL QUALITY OF WATERS OF
BROWARD COUNTY, FLORIDA


Rodney G. Grantham and C. B. Sherwood
U. S. Geological Survey





Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
FLORIDA BOARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY
and
BROWARD COUNTY


Tallahassee, Florida
1968











FLORIDA STATE BOARD

OF

CONSERVATION


CLAUDE R. KIRK, JR.
Governor


TOM ADAMS
Secretary of State




BROWARD WILLIAMS
Treasurer




FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN
Superintendent of Public Instruction


EARL FAIRCLOTH
Attorney General




FRED O. DICKINSON, JR.
Comptroller




DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGES
Director






LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


AVisi of gCeotox
Tallahassee
June 4, 1968
Honorable Claude R. Kirk, Jr., Chairman
Florida State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida
Dear Governor Kirk:
The Division of Geology of the Florida Board of Conservation is
publishing as it's Report of Investigations No. 51, a report on the Chem-
ical Quality of Waters of Broward County, Florida. This report was
prepared by Rodney G. Grantham and C. B. Sherwood, of the U. S.
Geological Survey, as a part of the cooperative program between the
Division of Geology and Broward County.
The data presented in this report indicate that the natural and man
associated water problems have mushroomed in Broward County because
of the rapid development of the population in this area. Most of the
water for municipal and domestic supplies is obtained from the produc-
tive Biscayne Aquifer. High iron in the southern part of the county
and chlorides in the coast and in the lower part of the aquifer have
presented some quality of water problems.
Surface water, as it does nearly everywhere else, varies in chemical
quality between rainy years and periods of drought. The use of canal
systems in the County for the disposal of wastes causes considerable
problems during periods of low rainfall. Pesticides, herbicides, and
detergents will probably increase in their occurrence in the waters of
the County, and the Water Quality Control Commission should find
the data presented in this report of considerable interest.
Sincerely yours,
Robert O. Vernon
Director and State Geologist




































Completed manuscript received

June 4, 1968

Published for the Division of Geology

By St. Petersburg Printing Company

St. Petersburg, Florida






CONTENTS


Page
Abstract .... ...... -- -....... ... .... .. ................................... 1
Introduction ..... ----........ ................................ 2
Purpose and scope --------------.........--------............. ................--- 2
Previous investigations ---. -----....................... ----------............-. 2
Acknowledgments ----- ---..............................-.........................------ 3
Hydrologic setting .......--------- ---....- .................................. 3
Collection of data ...--..................................... 7
Chemical quality of waters of Broward County --......- -------..----....-... ......... 8
Water in the Biscayne aquifer --....----..... ...--..---- ---....................... 28
Changes with depth and location ...----......-......--.....-....................... 28
Changes with time ----..-- -----------------............--............ .......- 34
Sea-water intrusion -----..................-----.. .............-------------------................... 35
Water in the Floridan aquifer ..--.......---.......----........ --..................... 40
Surface water .---.........--.. ...... --- ................. ....................... 40
Chemical content --..--..---.. ...-----.. ---...-.... --..-...............-......... 41
Changes with time ----...............--------....-. ...................-- ... 43
Contamination of water resources ---...........------- --...... ...................... 45
Summary and conclusions .... -----------..---------------..................... 48
References ------------------- ---- --------------........................ ...........- 51






ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page
I Southeastern Florida showing Broward County, and the water
conservation areas of Central and Southern Florida Flood Control
District 4_____-__--------- 4
2 Location of water and sewage treatment plants and generalized
agricultural and industrial areas ..---........-................-.........-............--- ---- 5
3 Location of water-ampling stations ...--..........----..............-..------------- -- 7
4 Diagram illustrating the well-numbering system ................---..................---- 9
5 Variation of dissolved solids in ground water of eastern Broward
County, 1964 -.. ........................................................................................... 29
6 Variation of hardness of ground water of eastern Broward County,
1964 --.._.....----...-....-......................---.............-....--....--..--....-... 30
7 Variation of iron in the ground water of eastern Broward County,
1964 _....... ... ..------.............................-....--------......................... 31
8 Variation in chemical constituents in water with depth from
selected wells ..-----........--..........- .................................--.....................-......... 32
9 Changes in chemical composition of water from well
261018N0800850 with depth .............................----...........................-.....---- 33
10 Changes in selected chemical constituents in water from a well
seven miles west of Davie during the period 1955 to 1964 --....-....---.......-- 35
11 Extent of sea-water intrusion, 1964 (Modified from Sherwood and
Grantham 1966) .............................................................................................. 36
12 Progressive salt-water intrusion in the Middle River-Prospect well
field area, near Fort Lauderdale (Sherwood and Grantham, 1966) .....--... 37
13 Variation of chloride content with depth in inland areas (after
Parker et al) ---------------------.......... .................................... 39
14 Fluoride content of water from Pompano Canal near Pompano
Beach ...---..... ------................................ 42
15 Discharge and chloride content of water from tidal reaches of
selected canals --- ---------------............................................................. 44
16 Mineral content of water from South New River near Davie and
rainfall, 1954 -1963 ............------... ... ................................-.......--- 45







TABLES

Table Page
1 Chemical analyses of water from wells and canals in Broward
County, Fla. .-...................................................... ........................... ....-------- 10
2 Analyses of minor chemical constituents in water from selected
canals, December 21, 1966 .................................... ..........-..................... 47
3 Analyses of pesticides in water from selected canals, December
21, 1966 .................. ..............-..............--......-.............-.. 48









CHEMICAL QUALITY OF WATERS OF
BROWARD COUNTY, FLORIDA

By
Rodney G. Grantham and C. B. Sherwood
U. S. Geological Survey

ABSTRACT

The chemical quality of the abundant surface and ground-water
resources of Broward County is generally good. However, natural and
man-made problems of water quality are accented by the mushrooming
need for water and changes in the hydrology of the area caused by rapid
urbanization.
Water of good chemical quality for municipal and domestic supplies
in Broward County is obtained from the highly productive Biscayne
aquifer, which is part of an interconnected ground and surface-water
system. The water is calcium bicarbonate in type and ranges from hard
to very hard, and from neutral to slightly alkaline. The prime objection-
able constituents in the water are iron in the southern part of the county,
and chloride near the coast and in the lower part of the Biscayne aquifer
in the inland areas.
Large quantities of water are available in the artesian Floridan
aquifer at depths below 900 feet, but the water is salty and of limited
use. The Floridan aquifer is used for the disposal of sewage effluent at
one location.
Surface water in the area is generally good but variable in chemical
quality. During the rainy season the mineral content of the water in
canals is diluted by surface runoff; however during the dry season the
mineral content of the canal water increases because of the increase in
the percentage of ground water in the canals and the drainage from
swampy inland areas. Large quantities of surface water are used for
irrigation in inland areas and for replenishment to coastal parts of the
aquifer for municipal supplies and to prevent salt-water intrusion.
The water in parts of Broward County is contaminated by salt-water
intrusion and by various wastes such as sewage effluent. The use of the
controlled canal system for disposal of waste materials poses a potential
problem during periods of little or no flow. Chemical weed killers applied
on the land, as well as detergents, have been detected in the ground
water indicating movement of waste through the ground. As urbanization
and industrial growth continue, problems of waste disposal will become
more acute and will require stricter control.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


INTRODUCTION
Fresh water is one of south Florida's most valuable natural resources.
At present the chief factor limiting the use of water is quality rather
than quantity. Broward County has a plentiful supply of water of good
chemical quality; however, because of the ever increasing need for
water, this resource must be protected by careful management and
control. A few chemical quality problems are already present, some
natural, some man made. Along the coast salt water occurs in or has
entered the aquifer; in many areas iron in the water makes it objection-
able; and throughout most of the county the water is hard. Other chemical
quality problems involve pollution due to accidental or intentional
dumping of wastes and chemicals. With the continued rapid increase
in population and the industrial development of the area, the problems of
pollution are likely to increase manyfold.

PURPOSE AND SCOPE
The purpose of this report is to make data and observations available
on the chemical quality of the surface and ground waters of Broward
County for use by water-supply and water-management officials, and
to aid in preventing deterioration of water resources by contamination.
The chemical constituents of the water are discussed in reference to
seasonal changes, areal differences, variation with depth, source of
certain dissolved minerals, and chemical properties.
This report was prepared by the U. S. Geological Survey in coopera-
tion with Broward County and as part of the statewide program with
the Division of Geology, Florida Board of Conservation. This report
constitutes the results of one phase of the investigation of water resources
of Broward County under the supervision of H. Klein, Chief, Miami
Subdistrict, and C. S. Conover, District Chief, Water Resources Division,
U. S. Geological Survey, Tallahassee.

PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS
A general report on the chemical quality of surface and ground water
of Florida by Collins and Howard (1928) contained a few analyses of
water in Broward County. In 1939, an intensive study of the water
resources of southeastern Florida was begun. As part of that investigation
Parker (1955) presented considerable data on the occurrence, movement
and the quality of ground water and surface water in Broward County
as well as information on salt-water intrusion. Salt-water intrusion in the
Fort Lauderdale area was studied in detail by Vorhis (1948) during his
investigation of the geology and ground-water resources of that area.





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


Schroeder, Klein, and Hoy (1958) conducted a study of the hydrology
of the Biscayne aquifer in which they delineated the approximate areas of
the salt intrusion in Broward County. A more detailed investigation
of salt-water intrusion and some work on water quality in the Oakland
Park area was done by Sherwood (1959). The hydrology of Biscayne
aquifer in the Pompano Beach area was studied by Tarver (1964). He
included information on the chemical quality of the water and salt-water
intrusion. Sherwood and Grantham (1965) prepared a leaflet on the
mechanics of salt-water intrusion and its effect over a period of years
on Broward County.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Appreciation is expressed to Mr. J. Stanley Weedon, Water Control
Engineer, Broward County Engineering Department, for his cooperation
and courtesy throughout the investigation; to Mr. George T. Lohmeyer,
former Director of Sanitary Engineering, Broward County Health De-
partment, for his cooperation and information concerning contamination
and sewage disposal; to Messrs. K. A. MacKichan and L. G. Toler,
U. S. Geological Survey, for help and guidance in the preparation of
this report; to Mr. H. J. McCoy, U. S. Geological Survey, for collecting
samples especially during the test-drilling program; and to the residents
of Broward County who furnished information about their wells and
permitted the collection of water samples.


HYDROLOGIC SETTING

Broward County borders the Atlantic Ocean in southeastern Florida,
figure 1. The Atlantic Coastal Ridge occupies most of the county between
the coast and the Everglades, a few miles inland, and has an average
elevation of 8 to 10 feet above msl (mean sea level). Maximum elevations
at isolated points range from 20 to 25 feet above msl. Most of the
population is concentrated in the coastal ridge area. In Broward County
the ridge is underlain chiefly by permeable sand and limestone. The
Everglades, an area of organic soils, lies west of the ridge. The eastern
edge of the Everglades is utilized for agriculture, figure 2. The central
part is utilized for diked water conservation areas in which water can
be stored for release during dry periods. The county is cut by an extensive
network of canals of the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control
District and several local water-control agencies. These water-control
agencies have nearly complete control of water levels and canal flows
within the coastal area.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 1. Southeastern Florida showing Broward County, and the water conserva-
tion areas of Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District.

The climate in Broward County is semi-tropical. The average
temperature is about 750F. Rainfall averages 60 inches per year with
about 75 percent falling from May through October.
The ground and surface waters of southeastern Florida are perhaps
better interconnected than in any other area in the United States. The
area contains an extensive system of controlled canals and water-conser-
vation areas. The major canals penetrate the highly permeable Biscayne
aquifer, and extend eastward from the water conservation areas to the





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


Figure 2. Location of water and sewage treatment plants and generalized agricul-
tural and industrial areas.

ocean. In most cases the flow in the canals is controlled by stage and
flow control structures near the coast. During the rainy season the
coastal control structures are opened and excess water is discharged to
the ocean to prevent inland flooding. This fresh-water flow pushes the
salt water in the uncontrolled sections of the canals seaward. During the
dry season, the control structures are closed to conserve fresh water and
to prevent salt water from migrating upstream beyond the structures.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


For a considerable time after the dry season begins water levels
along controlled reaches of the canals remain relatively high as a result
of ground-water inflow and seepage from the water conservation areas
to upstream reaches of the canals. As the dry season progresses and
during prolonged drought, water stored in the conservation areas may
be released into the canals to maintain adequate fresh-water levels
in the canals at the downstream control structures. Because of the higher
water levels above a control structure and the good hydraulic continuity
water can move from the canals into the aquifer and ground-water
levels are thus kept high.
In operation this method of aquifer replenishment can be either
beneficial, or detrimental. Beneficially, well fields developed near canals
(fig. 2) can withdraw more water than otherwise would be possible,
because the infiltration of water from the canals reduces water-level
drawdowns caused by pumping. Also, adequate fresh-water levels prevent
the intrusion of salt water into the aquifer. Detrimentally, salt water may
be trapped upstream of controls during operation unless extreme care is
exercised. When this occurs the salty water does not remain stationary
but settles and moves upstream because of density currents. During
drought periods when controls are closed and canal flows are at a
minimum, treated effluents, industrial wastes, and other contaminants
which are normally flushed to the sea are retained and tend to be
concentrated in the canals.
All municipal water supplies in Broward County are obtained from
the Biscayne aquifer. Because of its more stable chemical and bacterio-
logical characteristics ground water from this aquifer is more suitable
for municipal use than is canal water. Water treatment ranges from only
chlorination to iron removal and softening zeolitee or lime-soda treat-
ment). The productivity of the aquifer and the shallow depths required
for large capacity wells are shown by the following pumpage and well
data. (See well field locations, fig. 2).

Range of Average Pumpage, 1965
Number depth (million gallons
Well Field of wells (feet) per day)
Dixie well field
(Ft Lauderdale) 26 100 130 11.5
Prospect well field
(Ft- Lauderdale) 22 100 130 16.5
Hollywood well field 14 90 120 7.3
Pompano Beach well field 11 100 140 8.1
Deerfield Beach well field 9 80 120 2.6





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


COLLECTION OF DATA
Wells and canal sites from which water samples have been collected
for chemical analysis are shown in figure 3.


Figure 3. Location of water-sampling stations.

Surface-water samples were collected periodically at high tide
immediately upstream of control structures. Samples of ground water
were pumped from wells to obtain water representative of the section





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


during the drilling of 19 test wells. During the construction of test wells,
drilling was stopped about every 21 feet (the length of a section of
drill stem) and all drilling fluid was pumped out of the drill stem. Water
from the aquifer was then pumped out of the drill stem for several
minutes and a sample collected. Specific conductance was determined
for all samples. Those that had conductance values differing appreciably
from previous samples were analyzed for dissolved constituents. All water
samples collected during this study were analyzed by the U. S. Geological
Survey. Sampling was started in December 1961, however analyses of
samples collected during earlier studies are included.
The well-numbering system used in this report is that of the Water
Resources Division of the U. S. Geological Survey and is based on a
one-second grid of parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude, in
that order.
The well number is a composite of two numbers separated by the
letter N. The first part consists of six digits; the two digits of the degrees,
the two digits of the minutes, and the two digits of the seconds of latitude.
The N refers to "north" latitude. The second part consists of seven digits;
the three digits of the degrees, the two digits of the minutes, and the
two digits of the seconds of longitude. If more than one well lies within
a one-second grid, the wells are numbered consecutively and this number
is placed at the end of the well number following the decimal. Therefore,
the well number defines the latitude and the longitude on the south and
east sides of a one-second quadrangle in which the well is located.
Figure 4 is a diagram illustrating the well-numbering system. For
example, the designation 275134N0815220.1 indicates that this is the first
well inventoried in the one-second grid bounded by latitude 27051'34"
on the south and longitude 81052'20" on the east.

CHEMICAL QUALITY OF WATERS OF BROWARD COUNTY
Chemical analyses of water from wells and canal sites in Broward
County are shown in table 1. Standard chemical analyses of water
samples as determined by the U. S. Geological Survey are for the cations
(positively charged ions), calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium;
the anions (negatively charged ions) sulfate, chloride, fluoride,. nitrate;
those contributing to alkalinity (expressed as equivalent amounts of
carbonate and bicarbonate), and total iron and silica. Other properties
usually determined are pH, hardness, color, specific conductance, and
total dissolved solids (as residue and sum of determined constituents).
The chemical constituents are commonly reported in ppm (parts per
million). One part per million represents 1 milligram of solute in 1 liter






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


Figure 4. Diagram illustrating the well-numbering system.


of solution, or expressed in English units 8.34 pounds of constituent per
million gallons of water.
Dissolved mineral content of water is generally reported in one of
two forms: (1) dissolved solids, the weight of residue remaining after
evaporation of a known volume of clear water; (2) sum of the individual
components, the total of the constituents as determined by chemical
analysis. Residue and calculated dissolved solids should be approximately
equal, although the residue figure usually is slightly larger. This difference
may be caused by organic or inorganic substances not analyzed, or the
residue may contain a small amount of water of hydration.











Table I, CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN IROWARD COUNTY, FLA,
A.-Ground Water
(Chemical analyses, in parts per million, except pH and color)
Specific Diiolved Hardnes
Date Depth conduct Ter- Mag- Po. Car- solids
Well of of tance per- Silica Cal- ne. Sodium ta- Blcar- bon- Sulfate Chio- Fluo- Ni- Iron Non. Col-
number collec- well (micro- pH alur (SI02) clum alum (Na) alum bonate ate (SO4) ride ride rate (Fe) Residue Cal. Calcium, car- or
tion (ft.) mhos (oF) (Ca) (Mg) (K) (HCO3) (CO3) (CI) (F) (NO3) at cu- magne- bon-
at 250C) 1800C lated slum ate
255829N0801120 04-06-62 116 553 7.9 77 9.1 98 7.4 15 0.6 310 0 14 22 0.0 0.0 0.56 338 319 275 21 35
255909N0801317 04-06-62 160 551 7.6 73 8.9 96 7,4 16 0.6 292 0 24 21 0.0 1.1 1,7 346 319 270 30 55
255742N 0802720 09-18-41 32 398 83 61 10 5.0 214 1.0 19 202 193 110
255742N 0802720 09-19-41 56 426 77 70 8.3 8.2 242 1.0 19 226 209 110
255742N 0802720 09-23-41 90 877 77 50 28 91 321 25 105 47 240 20
255742N 0802720 09-2441 134 1430 76 48 48 202 444 26 230 763 276 20
255742N 0802720 09-2541 173 1640 76 42 42 257 458 33 282 875 249 20
255742N 0802720 09-2641 198 2130 77 33 33 378 518 39 408 1150 218 20
255745N 0802722 04-20-64 45 660 7.3 72 5.8 94 8.1 40 0.8 304 0 5.2 66 0.3 0.0 1.3 371 370 268 19 60
255918N 0800917 04-06-62 82 563 7.7 77 5.7 101 2.4 19 2.0 282 0 24 27 0,0 0.5 0.24 324 321 262 31 20
255948N 0800909 04-13-64 80 587 7.8 76 13 66 21 35 1.3 284 0 0.4 56 0.2 0.1 1.5 314 333 252 20 20
255948N 0800909 04-20-64 215 540 8.2 8.8 97 5.4 14 0,6 286 0 29 22 0.2 0.2 3.9 338 318 264 30 20
255946N0801519 04-06-62 121 564 7.7 70 11 102 9.8 13 0.7 314 0 20 20 0.0 1.9 1.6 360 333 295 38 50
260043N 0801042 04-06-62 65 535 7.9 77 6.3 100 2.6 16 0.8 292 0 22 19 0.0 0.1 0.54 320 311 260 20 12
260054N 0801033 04-05-64 20 562 8.0 75 5.3 82 16 18 2.2 298 0 27 28 0.3 0.0 0.68 320 326 272 28 25
260054N 0801033 04-0664 122 544 8.0 8.2 92 0.6 23 0.7 288 0 8.4 47 0.2 0.1 2.0 322 232 0 20
260054N0801033 04-07-64 167 411 7.8 11 52 4.5 31 1.6 174 0 4.0 62 0.2 0.7 1.6 253 148 6 5
260054N 0801033 0408-64 200 1020 7.8 11 41 70 86 6.3 204 0 10 225 0.3 0.2 0.23 604 550 390 223 10
260149N 0801332 04-06-62 200 335 7.7 78 8.8 59 3.6 7.5 0.6 172 0 13 14 0.1 0.1 0.74 194 192 162 21 35
260251N0800911 04-06-62 90 603 7.9 78 7.6 110 1.3 22 1.0 300 0 24 36 0.0 0.0 0.65 374 350 280 34 25
260252N 0800914 03-19-64 75 4400 7.9 8.3 166 79 700 18 288 0 180 1320 0.5 3.0 3080 2620 740 504 20
260252N0800914 03-20-64 115 1130 8.0 6.2 123 32 76 2.5 248 0 40 230 0.3 0.0 0.82 926 632 440 237 20
260312N 0801001 03-16-64 20 1320 7.9 13 61 53 180 9.2 300 0 29 285 0.3 0.2 1.2 786 779 370 124 IS
260312N0801001 03-16-64 62 464 8.1 6.6 85 7.8 15 1.5 312 0 IS 24 0.2 0.0 0.70 309 244 0 30
260312N 0801001 03-17-64 200 2750 7.9 7.1 119 47 405 6.8 132 0 104 820 0.2 2.4 2.3 1940 1580 490 382 20
260336N0801157 04-0662 67 429 7.6 73 8.0 74 6.2 13 1.2 228 0 10 20 0.0 0.9 0.80 262 245 210 23 55
260322N0801621 04-06-62 170 610 7.7 77 9.9 110 8.6 17 0.7 326 0 27 24 0.0 1.6 2.3 410 360 310 43 55
260338N0802606 12-0640 66 538 74 101 9.1 A12 336 5.3 25 318 289 170
260338N 0802606 12-0740 118 3840 77 102 67 A618 389 206 950 2130 530 35
260338N 0802606 12-0740 159 4190 77 83 76 A693 358 243 1050 2320 520 25
260338N 0802606 12-09-40 204 4110 76 74 82 A675 371 237 1020 2270 522 25
260438N0801009 02-20-64 61 496 8.0 5.6 111 1.7 3.7 0.7 320 0 14 6.0 0.3 0.4 1.4 314 301 284 22 50
260438N 0801009 02-24-64 145 471 8.1 12 66 5.7 26 0.8 204 0 0.0 52 0.1 0.1 0.11 263 188 21 S
260438N 0801009 03-03-64 197 499 7.9 14 46 12 98 3.6 172 0 19 75 0.2 0.1 3.2 303 164 23 5
260438N 0801009 03-04.64 206 751 7.8 9.4 50 33 74 5.6 250 0 14 116 0.3 0.3 4.4 408 426 260 55 20
260437N 0801217 03-26-64 63 530 7.7 6.8 70 15 32 0.8 256 0 4.8 48 0.4 0.6 4.4 344 304 238 28 40
A Calculated Na plus K, reported as Na.








Table 1. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN BROWARD COUNTY, FLA.-Continued
A.-Ground Water
(Chemical analyses, in parts per million, except pH and color)
Specific Dissolved Hardness
Date Depth conduc- Ten- Mag- Po- Car- solids
Wel of of tance per- Silica Cal- ne- Sodium tas- Blcar- bon- Sulfate Chlo- Fluo- N- Iron Non- Col-
number collec- well (micro- pH nature (SiO2) cium slum (Na) slum bonate ate (S04) ride ride trate (Fe) Residue Cal- Calcium, car- or
tion (ft.) mhos (OF) (Ca) (Mg) (K) (HCO3) (C03) (Cl) (F) (NO3) at cu- magne- bon-
at 250C) 1800C lated slum ate
260437N0801217 03-29-64 187 500 7.9 75 13 85 23 240 10 316 0 10 391 0.2 1.3 0.22 930 308 49 10
260437N 0801217 03-31-64 204 3480 8.0 14 78 79 567 24 376 0 54 980 0.4 2.0 4.4 2200 1980 520 212 20
260427N0801355 04-06-62 115 438 7.7 78 9.3 78 5.0 13 0.6 240 0 10 18 0.0 0.0 2.2 272 252 215 18 55
260437N0801402 06-18-63 126 437 7.7 9.6 84 3.8 11 0.0 260 0 6.9 19 0.4 0.0 296 263 225 12 45
260519N 0801017 04-05-62 65 434 7.8 75 9.1 56 12 22 2.3 218 0 0.0 32 0.0 0.2 0.52 240 241 189 10 20
260542N0801554 04-02-62 58 559 7.5 76 7.7 86 5.0 28 0.7 244 0 17 45 0.0 3.9 1.6 376 313 235 35 80 ,
260515N 0802021 09-30-64 28 490 8.1 78 2.2 98 3.8 7.0 2.0 320 0 0.0 10 0.4 4.3 286 260 0 45
260604N0801201 04-06-62 136 443 7.6 73 8.6 83 2.2 9.0 0.5 246 0 8.4 15 0.1 0.3 1.34 254 248 216 14 15
260609N 0801205 12-0341 124 436 77 84 1.7 A9.5 252 12 13 0.0 245 217 5
260609N 0801205 12-05-41 147 484 77 80 22 All 250 2.0 18 0.2 257 209 5
260609N 0801205 12-0641 171 500 76 71 2.6 A13 226 2.1 21 0.2 221 188 5
260609N0801205 12-1741 228 960 77 82 19 A98 332 2.7 157 0.0 522 283 5
260609N 0801205 12-18-41 263 3620 77 69 57 A572 342 2.3 970 1840 407 5
260609N0801205 12-2341 314 8940 76 110139 A1650 300 333 2720 5100 846 5
260653N 0801849 05-28-64 58 780 8.0 15 89 36 44 1.7 376 0 6.4 76 0.4 0.2 0.45 494 454 368 60 50
260725N 0801155 04-05-62 100 489 7.9 73 9.5 94 2.6 12 0.5 284 0 4.8 18 0.0 0.5 3.0 304 282 245 12 45
260820N 0801410 04-05-62 155 636 7.8 75 9.7 120 5.0 18 0.6 330 0 24 31 0.0 1.0 3.0 396 372 320 50 25
260702N 0801907 07-02-63 56 520 8.0 7.1 84 5.0 26 0.7 260 0 4.4 43 0.3 0.2 1.3 339 299 230 17 50
260809N0800928 02-13-63 23 505 8.0 7.0 78 14 19 0.5 234 0 16 44 0.5 0.0 1.0 320 294 254 62 40
260809N 0800928 02-14-63 113 510 7.9 8.1 59 1.2 22 0.5 164 0 24 27 0.2 0.0 0.15 223 152 18 30
260809N 0800928 02-17-63 185 1050 8.0 13 69 9.2 132 4.4 192 0 11 240 0.2 0.7 0.41 574 210 52 15
260809N 0800928 02-18-63 208 1330 7.9 13 64 57 180 5.4 300 0 12 295 0.4 0.8 0.20 774 776 395 199 30
260842N 0802629 042264 45 840 7.7 77 20 98 19 66 2.2 388 0 2.8 100 0.5 0.0 1.8 501 321 3 70
260843N 0802629 10-2341 37 580 73 94 9.4 A18 325 6.6 28 0.3 316 273 160
260843N 0802629 10-25.41 62 594 73 96 9.4 A18 326 5.3 31 0.3 321 278 120
260843N0802629 10-28-41 133 2180 75 70 34 A351 558 43 408 1181 314 20
260843N 0802629 10-30-41 190 2380 76 56 45 A407 672 31 44S 1315 325 20
260917N 0801045 04-05-62 74 399 7.7 76 11 76 1.3 8.0 0.5 228 0 3.2 14 0.0 0.4 1.8 242 226 195 8 20
261018N 0800850 01-07-64 23 423 8.1 9.2 83 4.1 8.9 0.2 256 0 2.8 16 0.2 0.0 1.9 272 250 224 14 50
261018N 0800850 01-08-64 56 642 7.4 78 10 83 2.2 58 1.4 282 0 25 63 0.2 0.0 1.4 382 216 0 45
261018N 0800850 01-09-64 85 459 8.3 78 8.2 75 1.7 17 0.5 204 4 13 32 0.2 0.0 0.22 252 194 27 25
261018N0800850 01-15-64 167 1120 7.7 9.4 94 2.3 116 0.8 126 0 4.8 280 0.2 1.2 1.4 571 244 140 8
261018N 0800850 01-16-64 186 4850 7.8 10 128 125 750 2.0 230 0 24 1580 0.2 1.8 3.1 3230 2730 835 646 20
261159N 0801038 04-05-62 79 384 7.7 77 7.9 72 3.8 6.4 0.7 220 0 2.8 12 0.0 1.0 0.92 228 215 195 14 15
261018N0801217 04-06-62 80 488 8.4 7.8 98 1.3 13 0.6 278 6 3.6 19 0.0 1.1 1.1 326 287 250 12 120
261122N 0800834 04-22-64 84 251 8.1 12 44 3.9 6.6 0.6 146 0 0.0 10 0.4 0.1 158 150 126 22 20
A Calculated Na plus K, reported as Na.











Table 1. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN BROWARD COUNTY, FLA.-Continued
A.-Ground Water
(Chemlcal analyses, In parts per million, except pH and color)
Special Diuolved Hardnssu
Date Depth conduc- Tenm Mag- Po. Car- solids
Well of of stance per- Silica Cal- ne. Sodium tu- Blear- bon- Sulfate Chlo- Fluo- Ni. Iron Non. Col.
number collect. well (micro- pH ature (1O2 cium alum (Na) slum bonate ate (804) ride ride Irate (Fe Reldue Cal- Calcium, car- or
lion (ft.) mhos (OF) (Ca) (Mg) (K) (HCO3) (CO3) (CI) (F) (NO3) at cu- magne- bon.
at 25oC) I80C lated slum ate
261122N 0800834 04-28-64 167 329 8.0 9.0 77 1,0 9.7 0,6 230 0 5.6 18 0.2 0.1 3.7 234 196 8 5
261122N0800834 05-04-64 204 582 7.8 7.3 93 10 19 0.8 302 0 31 32 0.5 0.0 422 343 274 26 65
261142N 0800822 01-20-64 61 642 8.1 9.2 126 1,8 16 0.5 374 0 14 30 0.3 0.0 0.16 356 382 322 16 40
261142N 0800822 01-24.64 180 1790 7.9 76 14 125 7.8 295 6,9 250 0 22 522 0.4 1.9 0.53 120 344 139 15
261142N 0800822 01-47-64 186 3520 7.9 14 155 23 575 14 278 0 60 1040 0.3 1,8 0.53 2360 2020 480 252 20
261143N 0801211 01-29-64 23 129 7.7 7.1 24 1,9 2.1 0,4 66 0 7.2 5.0 0.2 0.0 0.20 98 81 68 14 60
261143N0801211 01-30-64 197 436 8.2 17 26 20 46 4.2 138 0 4.0 70 0.3 0.6 0.07 262 256 148 35 20
26121SN0800808 04-05-62 68 681 7.8 75 5.7 84 7.4 50 3.2 264 0 26 73 0.0 0.0 1.2 408 379 240 24 45
261204N0801228 04-03-62 104 697 8.0 73 13 124 7.4 23 1.2 390 0 8.0 37 0.0 0.0 2.6 436 406 340 20 35
261358N0800723 01-03-63 304 493 7.9 77 7.5 82 4.3 16 1.4 266 0 5.2 28 0.3 0.1 3.4 283 276 222 4 5
261358N 0800724 08-27-51 190 261 7.4 18 44 2.5 9.8 0.3 136 0 9.0 14 0.4 0.9 170 166 120 9 6
261459N0800639 08-10-60 158 228 8.0 77 3.5 36 1.0 8,3 0.6 113 0 3.6 13 0.2 0.1 0.44 124 122 94 2 5
261445N 0800750 08-10-60 220 116 9.8 78 1.7 8.4 0.2 12 0.6 11 9 2.4 18 0.2 0.1 0.30 58 58 22 0 S
261450N 0800716 04-05-62 105 315 7.8 79 7.0 56 2.1 8.1 0.8 162 0 7.2 13 0.0 0.1 0.58 162 174 148 15 0
261436N 0800719 08-23-51 140 267 7.6 12 44 2.5 9.2 0.6 140 0 8.0 14 0.3 0.6 168 161 120 5 7
261436N0800720 09-05511 203 370 7.6 14 70 0.4 11 0.7 222 0 6.5 15 0.4 0.8 252 231 189 7 28
261409N0801000 04-05-62 168 513 7.8 76 14 00 3.8 11 0.8 308 0 2.8 16 0.0 0.2 0.91 320 301 265 12 15
261424N 0801244 04-05-62 117 730 7.7 75 13 132 7.4 21 0.8 420 0 0.0 35 0.0 0.0 0.07 428 416 360 16 5
261408N 0802743 05-19-53 55 1080 7.5 16 121 24 89 0.8 500 0 44 105 0.6 2.1 2.1 692 655 416 6 SS
261504N 0800602 01-24-61 176 295 8.0 78 9.5 52 2.1 7.7 0.4 162 0 2.8 12 0.3 0.1 0.57 167 167 138 51 S
261547N0800619 04-05-62 140 315 8.0 80 6.7 56 2.1 8.5 0.6 162 0 6.4 15 0.0 0.1 0.35 152 175 148 15 0
261512N0800841 04-06-62 150 752 7.8 76 17 126 8.6 30 1.6 412 0 0.0 46 0.0 0.0 0.16 444 432 350 12 7
261527N0801138 03-12-64 165 740 7.6 74 11 138 5.7 22 1.2 392 0 32 36 0.2 0.1 0.12 494 439 368 47 25
261652N0800854 04-14-64 145 741 7.6 75 15 38 5.7 23 1.0 388 0 31 36 0.2 0.2 1.38 482 441 368 50 15
261734N 0800621 04-05-62 178 355 7.8 78 6.3 62 3.3 9.9 0.6 192 0 4.0 16 0.0 0.2 0.54 186 197 168 10 0
261704N 0801022 03-12-64 106 650 7.5 77 13 123 1.6 17 1.3 384 0 0.0 25 0.3 0.1 0.42 386 373 326 12 15
261710N 0801350 03-12-64 24 615 7.5 76 4.6 112 12 12 0.7 344 0 31 18 0.1 0.1 0.14 364 360 330 48 10
261822N 0800707 04-14-64 62 485 7.7 77 7.3 98 3.8 8.4 0.4 288 0 4.4 14 0.3 0.0 1.03 336 279 260 24 90
261856N0800842 03-12-64 100 755 7.7 77 16 135 3.6 29 1.1 364 0 17 63 0.3 0.0 0.82 492 444 352 54 20
261838N 0801513 11-19-63 57 429 7.8 3.3 30 29 15 1.0 206 0 15 28 0.1 0.4 0.07 262 223 194 25 20
261838N 0801513 11-25-63 102 1520 7.6 73 14 96 20 210 7.2 310 0 32 340 0.4 0.1 0.07 872 873 320 66 20
261840N 0801633 04-14-64 104 2700 7.7 75 19 75 23 298 8.0 522 0 120 518 0.4 0.6 0.10 1458 1420 530 102 10
261908N 0800622 04-05-62 94 360 7.9 78 6.9 66 0.9 8.7 0.5 194 0 7.2 15 0.0 0.0 0.70 204 201 168 9 25
261914N 0800607 12-06-63 23 232 7.9 79 3.2 50 0.2 2.6 0.2 146 0 4.8 5.0 0.5 0.0 0.48 144 138 126 6 70
261914N 0800607 01-06-64 195 312 8.0 79 9.8 61 1.5 8.5 0.6 176 0 3.6 16 0.3 0.3 0.03 180 189 158 14 20
261948N 0804640 03-13-64 85 2800 7.4 75 7.8 30 42 450 7.4 488 0 64 680 0.5 0.1 0.40 1600 1620 496 96 5










Table 1. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN BROWARD COUNTY, FLA.-Continued
B.-Surface Water
(Chemical analyses, in parts per million, except pH and color)


Dissolved Hardness Specific
Mag- Po- solids (as CaCO3) conduc-
Date Mean Cal- neI tas- Bicar- Fluo- NI- Phos- tance
of discharge Silica Iron cium slum Sodium slum bonate Sulfate Chloride ride trate phate Residue Cal- Calcium, Non- (micro- pH Col-
collection (cfs) (SiO2) (Fe) (Ca) (Mg) (Na) (K) (HCO3) (SO4) (CI) (F) (N3) (P4) at cu- magne- carbon. mhos or
1800C lated slum ate at 25oC)


2-2813. HILLSBORO CANAL AT S-39, NEAR DEERFIELD BEACH
Oct. 6, 1960 315 10 0.06 41 9.6 44 4.3 148 27 62 0.0 271 142 20 486 7.7 160
Dec. 5 449 3.9 .04 25 4.3 23 1.4 90 7.6 32 .0 112 80 6 262 7.6 120
Jan. 3, 1961 113 1.3 .08 18 4.1 21 2.0 66 7.2 28 1.7 116 62 8 217 7.4 110
Feb. 1 22 4.4 .05 33 9.1 38 2.0 136 11 52 .5 217 120 8 396 7.3 110
Mar. 1 9 2.6 .04 26 5.4 29 3.5 100 8.8 40 .7 165 87 5 307 6.3 100
AMr. 3 82 3.5 .04 30 7.1 25 1.8 120 7.2 36 .0 170 104 6 309 7.5 110
May.l 8 .5 .04 56 12 55 4.4 216 13 69 3.8 320 189 12 600 7.7 50
June 1 243 17 .07 81 22 74 5.1 290 64 96 10 512 292 55 873 7.5 150
Aug. 2 10 17 .06 54 17 67 3.7 230 27 90 .0 389 204 16 679 7.8 110
Sept. 6 118 18 .09 81 30 122 5.6 354 60 153 .4 644 326 36 1095 7.6 200
Oct. 11 17 .02 49 17 98 3.4 210 29 130 .3 453 192 10 783 8.4 100
Nov. 13 7.2 .03 56 22 104 3.5 256 38 135 .2 492 230 20 867 7.9 110
Dec. 11 6.7 .06 74 11 49 4.9 242 25 80 .0 370 230 31 664 7.6 90
Jan. 8, 1962 3.4 .05 69 23 102 4.1 316 29 134 2.6 266 8 920 8.2 90
Feb. 7 8.5 .01 72 37 237 7.3 370 67 340 1.7 953 332 28 1750 7.9 80
Mar. 15 9.7 .04 70 22 160 4.7 308 50 205 2.1 676 265 12 1190 7.8 60
Apr. 7 5.2 .05 78 9.1 78 3.5 248 36 113 .3 445 232 29 806 8.0 70
Apr. 13 1.6 .03 60 18 134 4.0 238 52 175 .4 562 224 28 1010 8.1 70
May 10 .02 72 17 150 4.4 290 50 190 1.4 638 250 12 1140 7.6 50
June 15 15 .03 84 27 225 5.8 380 64 270 1.4 879 320 9 1540 7.8 90
Nov. 2 17 .11 70 27 128 5.8 318 44 170 .3 619 286 25 1060 7.7 240
Dec. 4 74 11 .12 58 21 107 4.8 264 28 152 0.8 .2 610 513 231 14 900 8.0 160
July 17, 1963 9.4 .06 96 8.4 76 3.4 308 25 104 .6 .2 486 475 274 22 806 7.4 80
July 30 6.4 .15 29 8.6 49 1.7 118 8.8 58 .1 220 108 12 403 7.5 90
Sept. 17 10 .03 38 13 64 2.6 156 21 90 .0 316 148 20 541 7.4 80
Dec. 10 4.8 .03 50 18 90 3.4 222 32 122 .2 429 200 18 750 8.0 100
Jan.14,1964 19 .06 110 40 145 8.0 395 89 194 34 834 437 114 1300 7.9 150
r. 21 6.0 .10 53 18 99 3.2 233 26 132 .4 205 14 785 8.1 100
p20 6.9 .06 50 13 64 2.2 192 17 99 .1 347 178 20 629 7.8 110
June 18 11 .12 72 18 67 5.6 210 65 100 20 462 250 78 770 7.8 220
July 24 16 .15 61 18 87 .0 240 48 124 .7 .9 562 224 28 771 7.7 200
Oct. 28 16 72 22 117 5.0 284 54 150 .8 5.6 582 270 38 964 7.8 150
Nov. 20 13 .04 64 29 106 4.6 300 50 55 .9 .3 601 280 34 910 7.3 140
Jan, 26, 1965 890 -
Feb. 22 2.9 .05 53 17 90 3,7 220 25 24 .6 .3 425 200 20 750 7.1 100
May 21 7.0 .00 57 15 76 1.5 218 13 10 .7 2.7 390 202 24 699 7.7 100













Table 1, CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN BROWARD COUNTY, FLA,-Continued
B.-Surface Water
(Chemical analyses, in parts per million, except pH and color)
Diuolved lHardness Specific
Mag- Po- solids (ai CCro3) conduc-
Date Mean Cal. ne- tia- Bicr. Fluo. N1. Pho- tlance
of discharge SilW Iaron cium alum Sodium alum bonate Sulfate Chloride ride trate phat Residue Cal. Calcium, NoW. (micro. pH Col-
o o) (Fe) (Ca) (M) (Na) (K) (HCO) (804) (CI) () (N ) a cu magn carbon mho or
collectio (FCO lP8 ated slum ate at 25C)
2-2813.1E. HILLSBORO CANAL AT 8-39 BELOW CONTROL, NEAR DEERFIELD BEACH
Oct. 7,1959 1140 3.4 0.03 41 2.8 27 2.2 116 20 34 0.0 187 114 19 343 7.9 100
Nov. 10 170 4.0 .05 25 2.3 13 1.9 74 7.2 16 .1 106 72 1 188 7.4 80
Dec. 10 28 2.7 .05 30 2.4 17 .7 94 8.0 30 .4 137 85 8 268 7.4 60
Jan. 7,1960 18 3.8 .04 44 3.0 28 .8 128 9.6 43 .2 195 122 18 366 7.5 140
Mar.9 A 10 4.5 .02 85 IS 118 3.2 290 45 188 .5 602 274 36 1120 7.7 80
Apr. 5 A 10 .8 .03 89 20 165 5.0 366 48 220 2.3 730 304 4 1320 8.1 110
June 7 355 9.1 .07 66 7.2 54 S.S B224 22 82 .1 356 194 10 635 8.6 120
July 7 137 9.2 .13 94 3.3 55 1.8 C289 20 80 .1 415 248 10 748 8.4 85
July 17,1963 140 9.7 .06 96 8.4 71 3.2 304 24 98 .6 1.2 478 462 274 25 790 7.6 85
Feb. 22, 1965 7.6 .04 90 19 133 5.3 292 42 225 .6 .2 667 304 64 1180 7.6 75
2-2815. HILLSBORO CANAL ABOVE CONTROL, AT DEERFIELD BEACH
Apr. 7,1962 D 40 4.8 0.14 83 10 92 4.3 266 38 120 0.4 0.2 512 248 30 877 7.6 75
Aug. 23 D 160 9.3 .05 98 6.2 62 4.1 294 24 95 .6 .0 486 270 29 770 7.6 80
Dec. 4 11 .12 58 21 107 4.8 264 28 152 .8 .2 610 513 231 14 900 8.'1 160
Oct. 8, 1963 D 244 7.5 .05 83 6.1 39 3.9 251 21 60 .4 .1 348 232 26 600 7.7 60
Jan.13,1964 D752 8.2 .06 90 7.2 52 5.4 260 36 80 .5 1.3 444 254 41 700 7.5 70
Apr. 21 D 72 6.3 .05 94 10 300 26 102 1.2 .1 476 276 30 803 7.6 80
May 20 D 172 7.7 98 2.8 64 2.1 276 23 98 .5 .0 470 256 30 761 7.6 70
June 18 D 106 8.1 .09 99 2.2 47 3.1 278 22 72 .5 .0 424 256 28 670 7.6 75
Sept. 2 D 123 8.5 .11 80 6.0 48 6.1 232 26 76 .4 1.4 224 58 629 7.2 120
Oct. 28 7.1 91 4.4 42 3.3 272 10 60 .6 .1 352 245 22 622 7.5 70
Feb. 22, 1965 7.1 .05 90 10 470 2.6 300 24 102 .5 .2 454 266 20 830 7.6 75
Apr. 26 5.8 .01 76 .6 54 2.0 197 14 83 .5 .6 334 192 30 577 7.5 60
May 21 12 .04 76 6.4 4 1.2 236 18 68 .5 .0 343 216 22 609 7.1 50


A LeaKage o0 1i cis, oasa on 4 aucnarge measurements ana records
B Includes 12 ppm of carbonte (C ).
C Includes 18 ppm of carbonate (COj).
D Discharge at time of sampling.


or dam operation.


F







Table 1. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN BROWARD COUNTY, FLA.-Continued
B.-Surface Water
(Chemical analyses, in parts per million, except pH and color)
Dissolved Hardness Specific
Mag- Po- solids (as CaCO3) conduc-
Date Mean Cal- ne- tas- Bicar- Fluo- Ni- Phos- tance
of discharge Silica Iron cium alum Sodium slum bonate Sulfate Chloride ride trate phate Residue Cal Calcium, Non (micro pH Col-
collection (cfs) (SI2) (Fe) (Ca) (Mg) (Na) (K) (HCO3) (S04) (Cl) (F) (N03) (P04) at cu- magne- carbon- mhos or
1800C lated slum ate at 250C)
2-2815.1E. HILLSBORO CANAL BELOW CONTROL, NEAR DEERFIELD BEACH
July 17, 1963 140 9.7 0.06 96 8.4 71 3.2 304 24 98 0.6 1.2 478 462 274 25 790 7.6 85
Oct. 8 6.9 .06 86 4.7 40 3.9 252 21 61 .4 .2 356 234 28 600 7.8 80
Jan. 13,1964 8.2 .06 90 6.7 50 5.3 25S 29 82 .5 .8 399 252 43 698 7.2 70
Apr. 21 6.2 .04 95 7.5 74 3.2 298 28 100 .6 .0 472 268 24 788 7.5 65
20 8.0 .03 92 7.4 65 2.3 268 26 102 .5 .0 492 260 40 1270 7.8 70
June 18 8.6 101 2.9 50 3.3 284 22 72 .5 .0 424 264 32 678 7.6 85
Sept. 2 8.6 .01 82 5.0 48 5.5 240 23 74 .4 1.0 225 32 625 7.4 120
Oct. 28 7.2 90 3.8 41 3.2 272 8.8 62 .4 .1 I I -1 351 240 17 610 7.4 60
2-2817. POMPANO CANAL ABOVE CONTROL AT S-38, NEAR POMPANO BEACH
July 16,1963 11 0.06 42 14 91 2.9 191 19 122 0.6 0.0 466 397 161 4 679 8.0 80
Oct. 9 13 .04 32 7.8 55 2.4 124 11 80 .3 .2 276 112 10 465 7.5 50
Jan. 15, 1964 11 .04 ,53 14 58 2.6 196 23 80 .5 .4 384 188 28 570 7.4 50
Apr. 22 3.4 .03 31 7.9 SO 1.7 134 4.5 61 .4 .1 226 110 0 401 7.2 50
May 19 5.8 45 4.7 47 1.4 160 3.6 70 .5 .0 300 132 1 465 7.4 55
June 17 13 50 9.5 100 2.3 176 13 154 .6 .1 468 164 20 769 7.8 90
Sept. 1 17 .06 51 16 74 4.0 203 35 108 .6 .0 193 26 691 7.4 100
Oct. 30 17 .04 38 15 65 3.6 166 19 92 .4 .2 332 156 20 572 7.8 60
Mar. 9, 1965 17 .03 51 24 86 3.2 212 18 115 .5 .1 419 180 50 694 7.5 80
Apr. 26 15 .04 72 28 134 6.0 324 40 202 1.1 .0 658 295 30 1170 7.6 110
May 26 21 .01 70 28 155 6.3 310 36 232 .9 .5 703 288 34 1300 7.7 100
June 3 18 .03 61 28 160 5.7 300 30 240 .9 .5' 692 320 21 1290 7.9 60
2-2817.1E. POMPANO CANAL BELOW CONTROL AT S-38, NEAR POMPANO BEACH
Apr. 5, 1962 4.3 96 9.8 56 0.7 294 34 94 0.2 0.0 440 280 39 765 7.7 50
Apr. 4,1963 9.3 0.05 70 10 62 1.7 220 6.4 102 .3 .8 456 372 216 36 694 7.7 90
July 16 8.9 .07 71 11 75 2.6 260 17 106 .6 .7 454 421 224 11 746 7.7 100
Oct. 9 7.9 .05 47 6.0 40 2.0 159 7.6 57 .4 .4 248 142 12 435 7.6 70
2-2820. POMPANO CANAL ABOVE CONTROL AT POMPANO BEACH
Dec. 12, 1961 7.5 0.04 89 5.4 30 0.9 292 15 37 1.3 0.1 330 244 4 585 8.0 40
Mar. 12, 1962 13 .51 84 2.6 54 2.6 284 18 58 2.7 .1 375 220 0 600 7.4 50
Aug. 23 8.8 .03 84 3.8 29 1.5 252 15 39 .6 .0 306 225 18 527 7.7 40
July 17, 1963 8.9 .05 86 7.7 57 2.6 276 20 81 .5 .1 442 400 246 20 712 7.5 70
Oct. 8 8.7 .54 86 1.8 20 2.1 242 18 28 .4 .1 296 222 24 470 7.9 45
Jan. 13, 1964 8.2 .03 93 1.9 22 2.2 264 20 28 .6 .1 310 240 24 523 7.8 50
Apr. 21 10 .01 94 23 35 1.7 286 28 39 1.5 .0 353 244 10 569 7.6 30





Tabkl 1. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WmLIJ AND CANAL IN HROWARI) COUNTY, PLA,- Cot.IIud
UI,-Surface Water
(Climnii l nIMlyMW, i Iw per mUUuii, oicpt pli and col0r)
lisaulvvd lH MMu,. P. sulild (m C!C03) ci.duc.
Mei Meal Cal- nU*- tl' UHicw. luo. NI1 Phos. C-- p.~- c... .
Io aw, lor I 1ll i l u a u N c
uf liaclie3ics hIun ciuui *iunl Sudi iluun boovuld SB~fat Chloride ride lral hate eidue Cal- Calcium, Nun$ (nieuru. pH Cuor
culleoliull (fs (S0 () () (C) (M1) (WN) (K) (3iCO3) (04) (C13) (F) (NO3) fro4) vul/ U, c.billlla n n lia ur
1u0'CI,11eul 0 alm I It at 2SnC)


2-2830, POMPANO CANAL ABOVE CONTROL AT POMPANO B3ACII-Conllnuud
May 20 1964 -- 92 T.1 20 1.4 276 13 24 0.9 0,0 338 -1 38 13 130 7.9 40
JunI 9.1 96 4.5 18 .4 278 39 2 .3 ,3 322 258 30 518 7.7 40
Sept, 2 7.7 .04 83 3,2 26 2.5 242 I 40 .3 .8 303 220 22 500 7.4 50
Oct. 28 7.4 .03 69 1,0 18, 2.2 400 13 26 .4 .0 235 176 12 402 7.4 35
Fob, 22, 1965 II .02 86 1.3 31 2,2 276 6.4 33 1.9 .0 356 309 220 0 512 7.4 25
Ap 26 1.1 .01 74 2.6 26 1,9 220 10 37 1.2 .5 270 196 16 467 7.6 20
My23 I 1 8,6 .05 88 1.61 31 1.3 264 14 36 1.5 .4 321 226 10 633 7.9 20
2-2820.1. POMPANO CANAL BELOW CONTROL,,AT POMPANO BEACH
Dec. 12. 1961 3.3 0.02 253 755 5890 212 206 1350 10870 0.9 2.7 19800 3740 3570 27500 7.7 30
Mar, 1962 450 -
Aug. 23 5.4 .02 163 326 2710 88 229 650 4880 .7 1,7 8940 1740 1560 13200 7.4 45
July 17, 1963 8.6 .06 86 7.7 60 2.7 276 22 83 .6 .2 448 407 246 20 702 7.5 65
Oct. 28, 1964 7.3 .03 112 119 1020 40 222 260 1790 .6 3.0 3460 770 588 5780 7.5 45
Feb. 22, 1965 3.0 .02 292 774 6570 242 201 1580 11500 1.0 2.8 1100 3910 3740 31100 7.2 25
2-2821. CYPRESS CREEK CANAL ABOVE S-37A, NEAR POMPANO BEACH
Dec. 12, 1961 4.9 0.06 96 9.4 56 2,8 E298 30 90 0.5 0.3 437 278 34 766 8.4 55
Mar. 2,1962 2.3 .03 107 2.7 40 2.4 296 31 66 .5 .0 398 278 36 640 8.0 40
Apr. 7 16 98 9.6 46 2.4 294 34 69 .3 .0 420 284 43 802 7.8 30
Aug. 23 6.6 .05 94 5.0 35 2.8 268 24 52 .4 .0 352 255 36 605 7.8 75
July 17, 1963 6.4 .04 87 7.5 53 2.3 269 22 84 .0 464 396 248 28 679 7.6 50 .
Apr. 21, 1964 3.7 .03 96 .4 48 2.9 294 27 76 .5 .0 416 274 33 712 7.6 65
May 20 4.8 .05 137 187 1520 56 252 382 2740 .5 1.0 5620 1110 904 8420 7.7 60
June 18 9.2 91 51 37 2.1 256 26 54 .4 .0 376 248 38 589 7.6 60
Sept. 2 7.1 .05 80 4.7 39 3.6 232 21 58 .3 .0 328 219 29 560 7.2 70
Oct. 28 7.3 .08 82 4.7 28 2.2 240 19 43 .2 .0 300 224 28 520 7.5 80
Feb. 22, 1965 7.1 .03 98 7.2 50 2.5 302 26 78 .4 .1 418 274 26 718 7.8 50
Apr. 26 5.9 .01 96 7.4 58 3.1 296 25 93 .6 .1 435 270 28 753 7.7 45
May 21 5.8 .03 85 9.0 66 2.7 286 26 95 .5 .1 431 249 14 1 782 7.4 50
2-2821.1E. CYPRESS CREEK CANAL BELOW S-37A, NEAR POMPANO BEACH
Dec. 12, 1961 3.3 0.04 315 934 7440 172 213 1390 13700 1.2 3.1 24400 4630 4450 33000 7.4 45
Mar. 2, 1962 .- 14200 3000 -
Aug. 23 5.2 .04 167 318 12500 82 237 624 4540 .7 .9 18400 1730 1530 12700 7.5 60
July 17, 1963 4.8 .05 232 523 4440 162 222 1140 7860 .8 8.2 16900 14500 2730 2550 21000 6.9 40
Apr. 21, 1964 .7 ,02 320 893 7230 310 189 1780 13200 1.1 .1 26000 4470 4320 35800 7.2 45
May20 3.3 239 594 5050 183 210 1210 8950 .8 .9 17200 3040 2870 24500 7.5 40
June 18 5.1 165 284 2370 86 233 596 4370 .7 .6 8700 1580 1390 12700 7.5 65
Sept. 2 6.7 .05 100 71 595 29 229 149 1080 .3 1.3 2150 540 352 3300 7.2 70
Oct. 28 6.9 .09 88 37 278 12 236 80 490 .2 2.0 1110 370 176 1980 7.5 80
Feb. 22, 1965 3.0 .03 1740 17 72701 29 193 1780 13400 1.1 1.8 24300 4410 4250 34100 7.4 15
E Includes 8 ppm of carbonate (C03).








Table 1. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN BROWARD COUNTY, FLA.-Continued
B.-Surface Water
(Chemical analyses, in parts per million, except pH and color)
Dissolved Hardness Specific
Mag- Po. solids (as CaCO3) conduc-
Date Mean Cal- ne- tas- Bicar- Fluo- Ni. Phos- tance
of discharge Silica Iron clum slum Sodium slum bonate Sulfate Chloride ride trate hate Residue Cal- Calcium, Non. (micro- pH Col-
colusation (F)P 1800C lated slum ate at250C)
collection (cfs) (02) (Fe) (Ca) (Mg) (Na) (K) (HC3) (0SO4) (Cl) (F) (NO1) (PO4) td a cartn- at C or

2-2827. MIDDLE RIVER CANAL ABOVE S-36, NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE
Apr. 7, 1962 17 F0.41 102 2.3 17 1.8 288 19 26 0.5 0.8 344 264 28 549 7.7 60
Aug. 23 11 .03 106 2.6 18 1.4 298 18 27 .3 .8 342 275 31 582 7.2 35
July 17, 1963 3.4 .04 85 2.9 25 1.7 244 17 35 .3 .7 336 291 224 24 509 7.5 50
Jan. 15, 1964 6.6 .04 120 2.3 22 1.3 324 32 36 .3 .0 381 309 44 632 7.9 40
Mar. 13 9.9 .03 126 4.3 20 .4 360 18 32 .3 .0 388' 332 37 630 7.5 40
Apr. 21 4.4 .02 123 2.7 21 1.2 342 23 33 .3 .0 392 318 38 644 7.6 45
May 19 3.4 105 1.5 23 1.3 288 21 36 .2 .0 376 268 32 567 7.3 40
June 18 11 113 1.9 16 1.0 314 25 22 .3 .0 368 -, 290 32 568 7,5 60
Sept. 1 9.1 .11 104 1.1 19 2.9 284 19 33 .2 1.0 329 264 32 568 7.3 50
Oct. 28 7.0 104 3.0 17 1.9 288 12 26 .4 .3 314 272 36 529 7.5 80
Feb. 22, 1965 4.3 .02 124 3.5 26 2.0 352 24 41 .3 .0 448 398 324 36 699 7.7 35
May21 4.7 .01 80 4.0 25 1.7 276 21 44 .4 .1 317 216 0 651 7.2 50
2-2827.0E. MIDDLE RIVER CANAL BELOW S-36, NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE
Apr. 7, 1962 3150 10400 45
Aug. 23 8.6 0.04 106 2.6 19 1.4 302 16 30 0.3 0.1 372 275 28 99 7.7 55
July 17, 1963 4.9 .04 103 2.0 108 4.8 292 39 181 .4 .1 642 597 308 68 1060 7.5 45
Apr. 21, 1964 5.5 .03 152 147 1240 54 276 310 2260 .5 .1 420 984 758 7150 7.4 50
May 19 5.2 121 35 262 9.6 300 80 465 .3 .0 1260 445 199 1920 7.3 45
June 18 8.3 96 11 20 1.2 308 23 32 .4 .4 386 286 34 582 7.6 60
Sept. 1 8.5 .05 102 2.3 19 2.4 233 22 34 .2 2.3 332 264 32 550 7.4 50
Oct. 28 7.9 .10 104 2.1 16 2.0 290 22 26 .2 .2 309 268 30 540 7.7 90
Feb. 22, 1965 9.8 5.4 .02 158 177 148 56 264 372 2600 .6 1.8 5530 4980 1120 904 7820 7.5 40
2-2827.5E. MIDDLE RIVER CANAL NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE
July 17, 1963 .57 0.04 124 97 838 31 272 214 1450 0.4 2.0 3260 2900 710 487 5110 7.4 5b
Oct. 8 6.7 .09 91 2.7 12 2.1 248 24 20 .2 .1 296 238 35 477 7.5 80
2-2830.1E. PLANTATION ROAD CANAL BELOW S-33, NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE
Dec. 12, 1961 9.8 0.05 100 4.5 17 2.8 302 13 26 0.3 3.5 326 268 20 563 7.6 4S
Mar. 1,962 32 700 -
Aug.23 8.0 .04 94 3.8 23 2.0 276 17 32 .4 .0 316 250 24 538 7.1 60
Apr. 5, 1963 9.0 .03 91 1.2 24 2.4 268 10 30 .0 9.3 309 232 12 529 7.4 60
Oct. 8 7.8 .05 90 2.8 17 1.9 255 18 25 .3 .1 296 236 27 500 7.2 70
Apr.21,1964 8.8 .03 92 2.1 21 2.9 250 12 32 .2 11 305 238 33 540 7.1 45
May19 6.8 95 3.6 18 2.0 250 20 28 .3 13 358 252 47 504 7.6 60
F Total iron (Fe).


r












0
CA




-4















Table 1. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN BROWARD COUNTY, FLA.-Continued
D,-Surface Water
(Chemical analyses, In parts per million, except pH and color)
Dissolved Hardness Specfic
Mai. Po- solids (as CaCO3) conduct.
Date Meun Cal- ne. ta. Bicer. Fluo. Ni. Phos. tance
of dischare Silica Iron clum slum Sodium Ilum bonate Sulfat Chloride ride rate phats Residue Cal. Calcium, Non* (micro. pH Col-
collection (cfs) (SIO2) (Pe) (Co) (Mg) (Na) (K) (HCO3) (804) (Cl) (F) (NO3) (O4) ai i cu. magne carbon mhos or
1 o lC ated slum ate at 250C)
2-2830,1E, PLANTATION ROAD CANAL BELOW 8-33, NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE-Continued
June 18, 1964 7.6 99 0.2 16 1.7 264 19 32 0.4 5.2 346 248 32 510 7.7 80
Sept. 1 8.1 005 91 3.6 1.7 2.0 252 18 28 .2 5.3 387 242 36 500 7.3 60
Oct.28 7.8 .06 99 1.2 13 1.6 266 20 20 .2 72 301 252 34 5s0 7.7 60
Feb. 22, 196 8.6 .04 78 5.2 30 3.s 198 20 50 .4 29 323 216 54 552 7.1 50
2-2832. PLANTATION ROAD CANAL ABOVE 8-33, NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE
Dec. 12, 1961 10 0.08 66 4.7 37 6.3 164 22 54 38 319 184 0 5$89 7.0 70
Mar. 1,1962 11 .04 61 3.9 50 7.3 196 26 70 0.9 9.9 337 168 557 7.2 50
Aug. 23 7.9 .04 92 5.0 23 2.4 270 17 31 .4 3,6 315 250 28 542 7.8 60
Apr. 3,1963 11 .07 59 10 52 6.2 228 26 60 .5 6.2 343 188 1 595 7.0 70
A-r. 12 .06 48 5.8 62 8.2 138 25 68 1.2 47 346 144 31 582 7.2 90
July 17 8.8 .06 75 8.0 40 2.5 238 16 60 .4 3.5 400 331 220 25 559 7.2 55
Oct. 8 8.1 42 90 2.8 18 2.1 244 20 26 .3 6.6 320 236 36 496 7.5 60
Jan. 15, 1964 10 .12 96 3.0 20 2.6 268 22 30 .3 .0 316 252 32 529 7.0 0S
Apr.21 11 .05 62 3.5 40 7.1 152 29 64 .6 1.8 294 169 12 576 6.9 100
May 19 7.2 .37 96 .1 19 2.1 244 22 28 .4 14 356 240 40 504 7.7 60
June 18 6.7 97 1.0 16 1.8 258 20 24 .4 6.8 342 246 34 510 7.5 85
Sept. I 8.7 .05 91 2.7 18 2.2 246 20 27 .3 9.4 300 238 36 510 7.3 55
Oct. 28 7.5 .05 98 2.3 13 1.5 272 20 20 .1 .9 296 254 31 507 7.4 60
Feb. 22,1965 8.7 .04 80 3.5 31 3.6 194 20 50 .3 30 323 214 55 536 7.2 50
Apr. 26 12 .12 4 6.2 6. 6.9 127 25 71 1.0 33 295 160 56 600 7.2 60
May21 __ 10 .02 0S 8.5 62 8.0 72 33 87 1.6 62 357 160 101 620 7.0 50















Table 1. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN BROWARD COUNTY, FLA.-Continued
B.-Surface Water
(Chemical analyses, in parts per million, except pH and color)


Dissolved Hardness Specific
Mag- Po- solids (as CaCO3) conduc-
Date Mean Cal. no. tas- Bicar. Fluo- Ni- Phos- tance
of discharge Silica Iron cium sium Sodium slum bonate Sulfate Chloride ride rate phate Residue Cas. Calcium, Non- (micro- pH Col-
collection (efs) (S102) (Fe) (Ca) (Mg) (Na) (K) (HCO3) (804) (CI) (F) (NO3) (PO4) at cu magne- carbon- mho) or
180CC lated sium ate at250C)


2-2846.9E. NORTH NEW RIVER CANAL ABOVE S-34, NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE
July 16, 1963 15 0.03 69 AS 49 1.9 258 21 78 0.5 1.0 436 377 235 24 603 7.4 60
Apr. 22, 1964 6.6 .03 35 9.8 59 1.4 153 25 74 .4 .1 286 128 2 472 7.3 50
May 19 10 58 11 50 1.7 220 12 74 .S .0 308 188 8 572 7.5 60
June 17 12 69 12 50 1.7 246 11 72 .6 1.4 390 220 18 603 7.8 65
Sept. 1 14 .05 72 12 50 2.0 264 4.8 74 .4 .3 228 12 640 7.3 70
Oct. 30 16 62 12 56 2.6 240 4.8 80 .5 .6 352 204 8 622 7.5 70
Mar. 9,1965 12 .03 67 17 64 2.1 272 14 88 .5 .2 399 236 13 680 8.0 65
Apr.26 12 .03 69 24 84 3.8 256 46 132 .8 .0 498 270 60 839 7.6 60
May 26 8.5 .00 48 17 60 2.7 182 53 82 .5 .2 r 362 212 41 650 7.6 30
2-2847. NORTH NEW RIVER CANAL BELOW S-34, NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE1
Apr. 7,1962 10 0.42 77 15 48 1.8 300 6.0 69 0.2 1.7 402 254 8 629 7.8 55
Aug. 23 10 .03 82 15 54 2.0 304 5.6 76 .4 1.6 456 266 17 684 7.9 65
July 16, 1963 13 .06 85 18 60 2.1 346 7.2 80 .5 2.8 460 439 288 4 762 7.6 80
pr. 22, 1964 7.0 .04 48 12 51 1.5 200 7.6 76 .4 .1 312 170 6 551 7.4 50
ay 19 13 .27 96 IS 60 1.7 374 .0 82 .5 .9 453 302 0 772 7.6 70
June 17 14 .49 103 14 72 1.8 376 4.8 95 .S 2.9 493 314 6 839 7.8 80
Sept. 1 23 .05 93 18 68 2.1 356 7.8 94 .4 .3 305 14 800 7.2 80
Oct. 30 15 .06 88 19 61 2.0 348 .0 94 .3 1.5 452 296 11 783 7.5 75
Mar. 9, 1965 15 .05 102 19 78 2.1 404 5.6 110 .5 2.3 534 332 1 900 7.7 90
Apr. 26 13 .04 76 18 80 3.8 266 41 125 .7 .4 489 262 44 833 7.6 60
May 26 8.9. .01 62 18 58 2.8 212 53 84 .5 2.0 393 228 54 710 7.4 40







Tuble I. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELI. AND CANALS IN IIROWARP COUNTY, FLA.-Conlllued
I,-Surfac Watwr
S(ClIminal aialyue, In parte r million, expt pll and color)
[)slveyail Hardness Spewln
Mo- Po-. olids (W CaCO3) coanuc-
Da1a Mean Cal* ue.- to* iclar0 1.1u- N1- Phlo- ----- lnceiI
oralr gl:hlel Sllleu Iran cIum uI BotudluIn /unit bulle( Isulpit Ca elrldj l r, I Ir plla! Residue l l Coul. ulclumn, Nuo- (nlclm. pH ICuol
collection f) ( ) (F) (C (M (N) K) (HCO) (80.4) (Cl) (F) (NO3) (PO4) i cu. m u- curbon nlw / or
______ 1C u latd tluno t nlaC)
2-284. NORTH NEW RIVER CANAL AT HOLLOWAY LATERAL,. NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE
Feb. 21,1961 5,9 0.94 64 6.9 47 2.7 224 9.6 67 0.3 313 188 4 569 7.7 60
Apr. 13 4.3 .03 16 8.6 49 2.0 180 6.4 69 11 287 180 32 563 7.7 71
Mey11 11 .45 96 6.9 40 1,4 298 23 64 .0 390 268 0 581 7.6 60
Jun 6 6.4 .02 80 4.0 26 .8 256 11 43 .0 297 216 6 523 7.5 50
July 7 9.8 .O0 83 11 46 1.2 296 13 62 1.1 374 252 8 643 8.0 80
Aug. 9 6.7 .04 59 10 48 1.7 240 4.4 67 .2 315 188 0 563 7.7 65
Sept. 11 4.0 .06 64 5.5 20 .6 H196 12 32 .3 229 182 22 410 7.9 70
Oct. 12 8.8 .04 100 5.0 22 .8 246 7.2 68 1.0 334 270 30 580 7.7 80
Nov. 13 7.7 .04 70 9.6 52 2.8 258 7.6 75 1.1 353 214 2 627 7.6 55
Dec. 3 4.1 .03 70 9.1 41 3.1 242 12 65 .4 324 212 14 583 8.0 60
Jan. 1962 8.1 .05 67 IS 54 2.2 256 22 82 1.2 378 228 18 660 8.1 55
Feb. 6 7.3 .05 74 14 58 2.3 272 12 75 .6 354 242 19 678 8.1 60
Mar. 6 4.6 .01 62 20 60 2.1 240 18 74 .2 259 237 40 634 7.9 50
Apr. 5 5.2 .02 78 9.6 61 2.5 256 18 94 1.6 396 234 24 720 8.1 60
May 3 4.7 .02 78 11 56 1.7 280 10 75 .0 374 240 10 678 7.8 55
June 11 7.5 .04 71 12 59 2.4 262 18 76 .5 375 226 12 696 7.5 75
Aug. 6 D 0.3 6.7 .03 48 9.7 43 1.4 176 14 60 .1 270 160 16 495 7.6 50
Oct. 10 4.6 .03 106 3.8 19 .7 294 23 28 0.2 1.4 346 332 280 39 538 7.8 65
Nov. 8 8.6 .04 75 11 46 1.9 264 12 68 .1 353 232 16 612 7.8 70
Dec. 6 7.6 .06 78 12 49 1.9 274 12 68 .5 .9 412 365 242 18 580 8.1 50
Jan. 10, 1963 7.2 .03 78 13 51 2.1 282 10 72 4.3 373 248 17 520 7.8 70
July 30 7.9 G 1.6 85 12 53 1.4 303 8.2 76 .0 1.0 394 260 12 673 7,6 60
Oct. 15 8.0 .05 78 8.6 38 1.9 248 19 52 1.4 329 230 0 578 7.6 90
Dec. 10 8.8 .04 80 9.8 44 1.7 266 11 65 2.6 354 240 22 610 7.9 80
Jan. 13, 1964 7.9 .05 88 6.9 33 1.5 268 14 50 .4 1.5 335 248 28 580 7.6 70
Apr. 22 6.1 .02 65 10 52 1.3 246 3.6 72 .2 205 4 581 7.9 50
May 19 11 82 9.6 49 1.8 284 17 66 2.6 369 244 12 619 7.9 60
June 17 9.6 .32 84 11 20 1.6 298 8.0 64 .3 346 254 10 639 7.2 60
2-2850. NORTH NEW RIVER CANAL NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE
Oct. 8, 1963 D 744 7.5 0.02 82 6.7 33 1.8 250 19 47 0.4 1.1 360 232 27 558 7.8 70
Jan. 13, 1964 D 323 9.5 .05 83 6.8 38 1.5 267 8.4 60 .4 .8 340 235 16 580 7.5 60
Oct. 30 8.8 .06 82 7.7 29 1.5 260 16 46 .4 1.8 321 236 23 552 7.5 80
Feb. 22, 1965 7.8 .04 80 9.4 48 1.4 280 8 75 .4 1.5 362 238 8 638 7.7 65
Apr. 26 1 .03 74 22 2 3.8 268 42 130 .8 .0 498 276 56 878 7.8 70
ay 26 5.2 .O 50 18 78 4.1 214 40 110 .5 5.0 416 199 24 1050 7.9 50
2-2851.0E. NORTH NEW RIVER CANAL AT STATE HIGHWAY 7, NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE
July 17, 1963 8.2 0.04 80 II 52 2.0 288 10 68 0.4 1.0 398 375 246 10 '650 7.8 70
Apr. 21,1964 4.5 .04 101 107 888 32 262 202 1580 .5 9.0 3230 2930 690 476 4800 7.3 50
My 19 7.1 .02 86 9.6 44 1.4 270 13 64 .4 .2 359 254 32 606 7.5 60
June 18 7.1 89 6.3 44 1.3 284 10 64 .5 .0 394 362 248 16 633 7.7 70
Sept. 1 8.3 .05 82 8.6 39 1.7 269 11 56 .3 1.3 341 240 20 582 7.4 80
D Discharge at time of sampling.








Table 1. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN BROWARD COUNTY, FLA.-Continued
B.-Surface Water
(Chemical analyses, in parts per million, except pH and color)
Dissolved Hardness Specific
Mag- Po- solids (as CaCO3) conduc-
Date Mean Cal- ne- tas- Bicar- Fluo- Ni- Phos- tance
of discharge Silica Iron cium slum Sodium slum bonate Sulfate Chloride ride trat hate Residue Cal Calcum Non (micro pH Col-
collection (cfs) (SiO2) (Fe) (C) (Mg) (Na) (K) (HCO3) (S04) (Cl) (F) (N03) (P04) at cue magne- carbon- mhos or
1800C lated slum ate at 250C)
2-2851.0E. NORTH NEW RIVER CANAL AT STATE HIGHWAY 7, NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE-Continued
Oct. 30,1964 7.2 0.07 86 7.2 29 1.5 264 18 42 .3 1.2 322 244 28 553 7.5 80
Feb. 22,1965 8.4 .03 82 9.6 58 1.9 274 8.0 92 .4 1.3 397 244 20 683 7.7 60
Apr.26 5.6 .02 132 197 1580 60 264 392 2820 .6 3.0 $320 1140 924 8740 7.6 70
May 12 3.9 .00 177 314 2640 9.4 199 661 4630 1.4 4.3 8540 1730 1570 14100 7.4 50
2-2851.1E. CHULA VISTA DRAINAGE CANAL 1, NEAR FORT LAUDERDALE
Oct. 14,1963 8.2 0.05 86 12 80 6.0 256 34 132 0.4 0.1 548 262 52 860 7.6 70
2-2853.99. SOUTH NEW RIVER CANAL ABOVE S-9, NEAR DAVIE
Dec. 13,1961 7.0 0.03 87 8.5 30 1.0 314 6.0 42 0.4 0.9 338 252 0 598 7.8 55
Mar. 1, 1962 8.6 .30 100 2.5 30 .9 314 12 38 .3 .1 347 260 3 770 8.0 50
Aug. 23 7.0 .04 84 9.8 41 1.3 280 17 54 .4 .0 353 250 20 608 7.6 65
July 16,1963 16 .03 93 29 82 4.2 356 69 118 .7 .0 680 580 352 60 979 8.0 110
Oct. 9 D 97 9.2 .05 94 13 40 1.9 310 24 56 .5 .2 416 286 32 640 8.0 50
June 17,1964 D 105 8.4 .30 98 9.1 44 1.4 324 16 68 .5 1.4 484 282 16 700 7.7 80
Sept. I D 459 9.3 .07 86 10 33 2.1 280 14 48 .3 .7 256 26 570 7.5 80
Oct. 30 9.0 .05 91 5.1 31 1.7 272 18 44 .3 .1 341 248 25 595 7.5 75
Mar. 9, 1965 21 .04 52 6.4 70 2.3 216 28 102 .6 .2 389 192 0 670 7.5 85
Apr. 26 11 .02 68 18 75 2.8 252 35 117 .7 .0 452 242 36 783 7.5 60
May26 8.5 .00 72 18 64 2.2 246 40 97 .5 .2 423 252 50 759 7.0 50
2-2854. SOUTH NEW RIVER CANAL BELOW S-9, NEAR DAVIE
Dec. 13, 1961 9.2 0.07 78 14 42 1.7 312 7.2 57 0.3 1.3 365 252 0 657 8.0 90
Mar. 1, 1962 8.7 .36 98 2.8 47 1.9 316 1.3 56 .4 1.5 374 256 0 670 7.9 70
Aug. 23 8.3 .03 90 12 44 1.7 314 19 60 .5 .7 391 274 16 673 8.1 80
July 16,1963 7.9 .05 90 14 53 1.6 334 14 67 .4 .8 426 414 282 8 713 7.5 100
Oct. 9 9.3 .04 91 13 47 2.0 308 22 68 .4 .7 456 282 30 684 7.9 60
Apr. 22,1964 11 .06 98 12 79 2.2 307 35 108 .6 .2 536 292 40 809 8.4 90
May 19 11 .02 99 14 60 1.7 346 22 89 .5 .0 467 302 20 788 7.7 65
June 17 8.9 .16 102 7.2 44 1.4 324 15 64 .5 .9 474 284 18 697 7.9 80
Sept. 1 9.6 .07 90 6.2 32 2.0 280 14 46 .3 .4 380 250 20 583 7.4 80
Oct. 30 10 .08 88 16 47 1.8 318 12 64 .2 1.1 401 284 24 696 7.8 80
Mar. 9, 1965 11 .05 89 15 59 1.7 346 7.2 80 .5 1.1 435 284 0 750 7:7 80
Apr. 26 13 .04 94 17 60 2.0 338 10 97 .6 .9 461 306 29 789 7.6 90
May 26 12 .02 93 15 60 1.5 332 9.2 91 .5 .4 447 292 20 820 7.8 65
D Discharge at time of sampling.


r



'I






0?

z










Table I, CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN BROWARD COUNTY, FLA.-Conlinued
U.-Surface Water
(Chemical analym, n par per million, we t pl and color) _
Dissolved Hlardness lpeclfic
Mag Po- solids (as CACD3) conduc-
Date Mean Cal. ne. tas Iar. Fluo. NI. Phos- lance
or dischwa SlIca Iron clum aum Sodium slum bonte Sulfate Chlorde ride Irate phale Reddue Cal- Calcium, Nun- (miro- pH Col
collection (cfh) (810) (Fe) (Ca) (M() (Na) (K) (C03) ( ) (C) ( (NO3) (P04) ta Cu~ mane carbon- mho or

2-2860.5 SOUTH NEW RIVER CANAL AT 8- 13A, NEAR DAVIE


B Includes 12 ppm of carbonate (CO3).
F Total iron (Fe).


10
5,7
8.2
11
II
6.8
9.5
8.4
10
8.4
8.4
10
7.7
9.1
14
8.3
8.4
6.6
7.7
8.6
6.8
8.2
7.1
7.8
4.8
4.3
6.0
3.6
4.7
7.1
11
7.8
8.3
8.0
7.9
9.1
9.2
7.4
35
7.3
7.5


I Discharge computed from head-discharge relation and pump rating.
J Includes 6 ppm of carbonate (CO3).


274
301
326
265
482
340
282
1 290


De. IS, 1959
Feb. 5, 1960
Mar. 31
Apr. 13
June 6
June 27
July 21
Aug. 22
Oct. 14
Dec. 30
Jan 31, 1961
Feb. 21
Mar. 17
Apr. 13
May 11
June 6
July 7
Aug. 9
Sept. 11
Oct. 12
Nov. 13
Dec. 6
Dec. 14
Jan. 8, 1962
Feb. 6
Mar. 1
Mar. 6
Apr. 5
May 2
June 11
July 10
Aug. 6
Aug. 23
Sept. 12
Oct. 10
Nov. 8
Dec. 6
Jan. 10, 1963
Mar. 9
July 30


0.02
.02
.01
.01
.05
.03
.03
.03
.04
.03
.02
.04
.03
.05
.45
.04
.03
.03
.07
.02
.04
.03
.27
.04
.03
.05
.01
.02
.02
.03
.03
.04
.03
.01
.05
.37
.05
.06
.04
F 2.1


93
94
91
78
62
89
86
83
86
86
86
85
86
88
83
82
65
85
85
84
85
82
88
76
75
99
64
70
80
80
92
88
90
93
94
94
93
96
88
89


6.8 32
6.2 42
3.2 45
14 48
6.2 20
4.9 30
6.7 44
9.0 46
5.2 14
10 48
10 44
10 49
8.1 49
8.4 45
10 50
9.6 41
6.3 50
14 48
5.8 47
12 45
10 43
11 37
8.9 31
10 46
15 54
.7 32
IS 55
12 50
7.4 56
9.8 50
12 38
12 36
9.8 30
8.3 29
6.2 54
12 47
13 45
12 45
14 43
14 48


0.6
.7
.9
1.4
5.1
.6
1.0
1.0
2.1
1.0
1.4
.9
2.5
2.2
1.4
1.1
1.8
1.1
1.4
.8
1.2
2.2
1.0
1.5
1.8
1.5
2.1
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.1
1.0
1.1
.8
1.5
2.1
1.2
1.8
1.4
1.0


" ' "


P I


288
298
272
B 302
196
272
294
J 292
260
302
306
306
304
308
300
276
236
316
304
306
306
284
292
280
284
276
E 254
270
276
292
296
304
288
300
312
320
320
320
318
324


II
8.0
6.3
6.0
18
12
7.6
9.6
22
8.4
8.0
6.0
4.8
9.6
7.2
18
6.4
5.6
8.8
22
6.0
12
12
7.2
11
10
9.6
8.8
11
8.0
16
13
17
14
24
20
19
17
12
12


0.1
.6
.5
.0
.4
.9
.4
.0
.5
.2
.1
.6
.0
1.3
.0
.6
.5
.4
.8
1.2
1.0
.7
.5
1.0
.2
.9
.1
.2
.0
.1
.0
.0
.8
.1
.7
2.0
.8
5.5
.9
1.1


260
360
240
252
180
242
242
244
236
256
256
253
248
254
248
244
188
270
236
259
253
250
256
230
248
250
221
224
230
240
279
269
265
266
260
284
286
288
276
280


24 612 8.0 55
16 654 8.1 70
17 633 8.2 75
4 670 8.5 80
20 449 8.1 120
19 579 8.1 80
I 652 7.8 60
4 627 8.4 70
23 496 8.0 80
8 684 8.0 75
4 669 7.6 80
2 687 8.0 65
0 688 7.7 60
2 668 7.9 70
2 682 7.7 70
18 633 7.9 65
0 574 7.8 5
10 660 8.2 80
0 659 8.0 70
8 665 7.9 80
2 651 7.7 65
17 616 7.9 55
16 660 7.6 75
1 625 8.0 55
16 634 8.0 60
24 540 7.9 70
12 583 8.4 60
2 621 7.9 60
4 658 8.2 50
0 669 7.7 60
36 635 7.6 60
20 643 7.7 60
29 585 7.8 80
20 590 7.8 50
4 679 7.9 80
22 700 7.7 85
24 690 8.2 80
26 635 8.0 100
16 580 7.9 80
15 689 7.5 80


I I I I I


I~~ i I n










Table 1. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN BROWARD COUNTY, FLA.-Continued
B.-Surface Water
(Chemical analyses, in parts per million, except pH and color)


Dissolved Hardness Specific
Mag- Po- solids (as CaCO3) conduc-
Date Mean Cal- ne. tas- Blcar Fluo- NI- Phos. tance
of discharge Silica Iron alum slum Sodium slum bonate Sulfate Chloride ride trate hate Residue Cal- Calcium, Non (micro- pH Col-
o(F) NO3) o C atu- agne- e aron- ami i
collection () (02) (Fe) (Ca) (Mg) (Na) (K) (HCO3) (504) (C) (F) (N03) ( at cud magne- carbon mho or
1BsOC lated slum ate at250C)


2-2860.5. SOUTH NEW RIVER CANAL AT S-13A, NEAR DAVIE-Continued
Oct. 15, 1963 24 0.06 98 8.6 21 2.4 292 28 32 2.6 361 280 40 584 7.7 80
Oct. 15 L 13 .09 98 5.7 21 1.7 292 19 32 .1 386 268 28 560 7.3 85
Dec. 10 8.3 .11 98 10 46 1.3 328 14 66 1.1 407 286 17 680 8.1 80
Jan. 13, 1964
(1310) K 7.8 .05 97 6.3 33 1.4 301 12 52 0.4 .0 358 268 22 592 7.2 70
Jan. 13 (1320) 7.6 .04 94 11 37 1.3 312 21 56 .4 .0 382 280 24 631 7.6 50
r 22 8.9 .02 93 16 56 1.4 342 15 77 1.1 296 16 738 8.2 80
Ma 19 9.7 .10 102 3.8 26 1.2 296 20 36 .5 .0 345 270 28 579 7.3 60
June 17 8.6 98 8.6 24 1.8 298 30 34 2.2 354 280 36 583 8.0 90
2-2861. SOUTH NEW RIVER CANAL ABOVE S-13, NEAR DAVIE
Dec. 14, 1961 7:0 0.06 104 63 530 20 288 128 942 0.3 1.3 1938 518 282 3420 7.8 70
Mar. 1,1962 7800 -
Aug. 23 8.1 .05 92 8.6 30 1.0 288 16 42 .4 .1 340 265 29 587 7.6 45
July 17, 1963 251 8.6 .04 85 19 21 1.0 296 16 54 .4 .0 426 352 291 48 606 7.6 60
Oct. 8 D 67 12 .05 94 5.2 23 1.8 272 21 34 .4 1.9 360 256 33 548 7.8 70
Apr. 21, 1964 D 17 5.9 .05 92 3.5 37 1.3 275 13 52 .4 .8 384 244 18 613 7.6 80
May 19 D 288 7.7 .08 101 3.9 23 1.2 292 22 34 .4 .0 337 268 28 561 7.6 60
June 17 D151 7.7 101 4.4 23 1.2 288 21 35 .4 .8 402 270 34 559 7.9 90
Sept. 1 D176 9.2 .08 91 6.1 21 2.6 268 20 36 .3 .0 318 252 32 550 7.0 100
Oct. 30 319 6.9 .10 86 6.2 18 2.0 244 21 31 .3 2.6 294 240 40 490 7.5 110
Feb. 22, 1965 12 7.1 .04 98 2.8 25 1.0 296 14 42 .3 1.1 337 256 14 571 7.7 90
Apr. 26 8.9 .04 95 8.5 54 2.3 290 23 90 .6 .0 425 272 34 725 7.5 80
May 21 7.5 .48 87 11 43 1.3 276 23 70 .5 .1 380 262 36 682 7.5 60
2-2861.IE. SOUTH NEW RIVER CANAL BELOW S-13, NEAR DAVIE
Dec. 14, 1961 7.0 0.06 104 63 530 20 288 128 942 0.3 1.3 2230 1940 518 282 3420 7.8 70
Aug. 23, 1962 8.1 .05 92 8.6 30 1.0 288 16 42 .4 .1 340 265 29 587 7.6 45
Oct. 10 9.1 .05 94 6.2 54 1.5 312 24 62 .7 406 260 4 679 7.9 80
Apr. 21, 1964 3.9 .04 119 88 734 29 296 182 1300 .5 .3 2890 658 416 4500 7.4 70
May 19 8.3 .03 95 8.0 24 1.2 288 22 36 .4 .7 338 270 34 568 7.8 60
June 17 7.8 103 2.7 21 1.2 288 22 34 .4 1.7 380 268 32 560 7.7 95
Sept. 1 8.0 .13 93 5.8 20 2.4 264 20 34 .3 1.0 256 40 522 7.3 120
Oct.30 319 7.6 .03 86 4.3 16 1.9 244 21 29 .3 3.1 289 232 32 493 7.S 110
Feb. 22, 1965 8.9 .04 99 4.1 24 1.0 288 IS 42 .4 2.2 339 264 28 570 7.0 95
D Discharge at time of sampling.






Table I, CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANAL IN IIROWAIR COUNTY, FLA..-Coltinlud
II.-Surfawc Wtter
(Chemical analyse, In puwt per million, except pH and color)
Dissolved Hardnoes Spcinlte
Mov. Po. solids (W CaCO1) condue-
DCti Man Cal I n- ts Blear. Fun- Nl- Pliu- l-nce
of dhilharge Sic Iron clum slum Sodiu lum bonale ulfate Cldorde rid trte p hlate R iu Cal. Calclum, Nn- (micro pH Col
oie( () .)-)..(C I4 7Uslu Elm at 25 C)
collueclion (8f) ( io) (I') (C M (N (K) C03) (04) (C) (F) (NO3) P04) at scui carbon- mnhoa of
("I" I(' (I) '"


2-2861,5. HOLLYWOOD CANAL AT DANIA
July IS, 1963 7,3 0.04 164 260 2340 98 259 578 3890 0.6 9.0 8210 7470 1480 1270 12000 7,3 51
Oct. 8 6.1 .06 116 58 470 21 284 132 840 .3 .8 1980 530 298 3180 7.7 60
Jan. 13, 1964 7.4 .05 180 299 2470 100 270 612 4480 ,6 21 8320 1680 1460 14000 7.1 30
Apr. 21 2.4 .00 351 886 7380 295 592 1780 13000 12 .1 26000 4430 3940 31900 7.2 20
May 27 .8 168 248 2050 78 259 115 3730 ,S .9 7680 1440 1230 11200 7.5 60
June 18 7.2 .02 136 48 556 16 232 148 938 .3 .7 2220 537 293 3340 7.6 40
Sept. l 6,2 .04 171 281 2340 86 267 554 4280 .5 1.1 7850 1580 1360 13000 7.2 50
Oct. 30 7,0 .03 128 100 781 30 284 212 1400 .2 2.4 2800 730 498 4780 7.4 35
Feb. 22,1965 3.0 .01 316 803 6710 247 213 1620 11900 1.0 2,7 21700 4090 3920 31900 7.0 20
Apr. 26 1,0 .00 1900 593 8520 372 178 2220 16600 1.3 17 30300 7180 7030 43200 7.4 10
ay 1 ,8 .00 391 1090 8300 315 180 137 16500 .7 17 26800 5460 8310 46000 7,2 10
2-2861.8. SNAKE CREEK CANAL ABOVE S-30, NEAR HIALEAH
Dec. 14, 1961 7.6 0.06 78 13 41 2.0 304 6.4 58 1.1 357 248 0 637 8.1 65
Mar. 1, 1962 9.4 .04 99 5.1 43 1.8 326 4.6 64 0.4 .0 388 268 1 670 7.8 50
Aug. 23 8.0 .03 90 16 37 1.9 314 20 51 .4 1.4 381 290 33 642 7,8 70
July 16, 1963 7.2 .03 92 3.0 38 1,1 329 8.8 54 .4 .0 430 377 281 12 643 7.7 50
Oct. 9 7.0 .04 62 8.1 23 1.4 205 6.6 32 .7 .1 244 188 20 418 7.8 60
Jan. 13, 1964 3.4 .04 79 8.5 34 1.4 268 5.6 48 .3 .1 340 232 12 560 7.8 60
Apr 20 6.5 .03 95 5.6 44 1.3 324 6.7 63 .5 .3 420 260 0 670 7.6 60
ay 19 4.9 86 6.7 34 1.2 288 6.4 46 .4 .2 358 242 6 574 7.9 60
June 17 4.0 78 3.8 30 1.2 244 .8 40 .4 .6 308 210 10 583 7.9 70
Sept. 1 5.0 .05 71 6.3 41 1.0 242 .0 60 .3 .4 203 4 560 7.4 70
Oct. 31 3.4 .04 64 7.9 36 1.0 232 .0 54 .2 .6 291 192 2 510 7.8 45
Mar. 9, 1965 5.1 .03 75 11 48 1.0 280 .4 70 .4 .1 349 232 2 628 7.8 50
Apr. 26 7.1 .02 85 17 56 1.2 300 .2 90 .5 .4 405 280 34 712 7.9 50
May26 5.9 .00 81 14 63 .9 314 5.6 88 .5 .8 415 258 719 7.9 50
2-2861.8E. SNAKE CREEK CANAL BELOW S-30, NEAR HIALEAH
June 3, 1963 4.8 0.03 84 8.6 35 0.8 286 10 48 0.5 0.0 344 333 245 10 565 7.8 55
July 15 5.8 .04 88 7.9 33 1.2 284 16 46 .4 .1 386 338 252 20 565 7.4 70
July 16 7.1 .04 86 12 36 1.1 310 8.2 52 .4 1.5 424 357 262 8 606 7.4 45
Sept. 15 7.6 .02 88 8.4 31 1.8 288 14 43 ,4 1.3 374 338 254 18 577 7.6 70
Oct. 9 7.1 .05 70 6.7 25 1.4 232 4.8 34 .4 .5 280 202 12 462 7.8 70
Jan. 13, 1964 3.9 .05 79 9.5 33 1.2 264 9.2 48 .3 1.1 332 236 20 565 7.5 60
A. 20 6.4 .03 92 4.5 42 1.7 266 6.8 60 .5 .2 412 249 31 653 8.3 80
S19 4.9 82 9.6 38 1.2 310 6.0 47 .4 .1 382 244 0 556 7.8 60
June 17 5.0 .05 77 8.3 32 1.7 258 .8 42 .4 14 386 226 14 551 7.3 70
Sept. 1 5.7 .05 74 6.7 38 1.0 248 .0 56 .3 .6 304 212 9 542 7.5 70
Oct. 30 4.1 .02 66 8.6 35 1.0 236 .0 52 .2 .0 283 200 6 510 7.8 45
Mar. 9, 1965 3.7 .03 78 11 48 1.0 280 .0 70 .3 1.5 352 240 10 628 7.5 45
Apr. 26 5.9 .06 87 11 54 1.2 299 .8 87 .5 .2 395 264 19 699 7.7 60
May 26 1 5.8 .00 94 6.2 53 .9 296 6.0 88 .5 .2 401 260 18 710 7.7 60


I
O




a
cn














Table 1., CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS AND CANALS IN BROWARD COUNTY, FLA.-Continued
B.-Surface Water
(Chemical analyses, in parts per million, except pH and color)


Dissolved Hardness Specific
Mag. Po- solids (as CCO3) conduc-
Date Mean Cal- ne- tas- Blear. Fluo- Ni- Phos- tance
of discharge Silica Iron clum slum Sodium slum bonate Sulfate Chloride ride trate phte Residue Cal- Calcium, Non- (micro- pH Col.
collection (cfs) (S102) (Fe) (Ca) (Mg) (Na) (K) (HCO3) (804) (Cl) (F) (NO3) (4) at cu- magne carbon- mhos or
1800C lated slum ate at 250C)


2-2862. SNAKE CREEK CANAL AT N. W. 67th AVENUE, NEAR HIALEAH
July 16,1963 6.2 0.03 84 10 33 0.9 291 11 47 0.3 0.1 382 336 251 12 571 7.8 45
Oct. 9 7.6 .12 90 7.7 31 1.1 288 19 42 .4 .5 390 256 20 580 7.5 70
Jan. 13,1964 7.7 .13 91 8.0 31 .9 288 18 44 .4 .1 345 260 24 579 7.5 50
Apr. 20 6.1 .04 85 4.9 38 .9 288 7.3 50 .4 .5 360 232 0 606 7.6 50
June 17 6.7 .04 93 7.3 26 .9 292 20 38 .3 1.0 340 262 22 562 7.7 70
Sept. 1 6.6 .05 90 7.7 27 1.0 ,286 19 39 .4 1.3 333 256 22 570 7.6 55
Oct. 30 6.6 .03 83 12 27 .8 280 19 38 .3 1.2 326 256 26 566 7.8 55
Mar. 9, 1965 5.6 .04 90 7.2 33 .8 288 14 50 .4 .5 344 254 18 582 7.6 55
Apr. 26 6.0 .02 68 17 38 .9 283 64 57 .6 .0 333 240 8 588 7.7 50
May 26 7.9 .03 80 15 45 2.3 292 2.0 76 .5 .3 373 260 20 673 7.9 50


r







I0.
i
a
z






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The ability of water to conduct an electric current is directly related
to the amount and kind of minerals dissolved in the water. In general, the
more minerals dissolved in water, the greater will be the electric con-
ductance. The conductance will also vary slightly depending on the type
of minerals present.
Measurement of acidity or alkalinity is recorded as pH. The pH scale
is based on the concentration of hydrogen ion in solution and a pH of 7
is considered neutral. Water having pH values below 7 are acidic, and
water having pH values above 7 are alkaline. Ground and surface waters
in Broward County are slightly alkaline because of the predominance of
carbonate and bicarbonate salts in soluble limestones in the shallow
subsurface materials.
Hardness in water results when alkaline earth minerals, principally
calcium and magnesium, are present in solution and it is commonly
expressed as an equivalent amount of calcium carbonate. The U. S.
Geological Survey classifies hardness as follows:

0 60 ppm soft
61 120 ppm moderately hard
121 180 ppm hard
over 180 ppm very hard

In Broward County the water-bearing materials are composed prin-
cipally of limestone which dissolves in slightly acidic water and produces
hard water. Hardness in water is objectionable because it consumes
soap in laundry operations and forms incrustation in pipes and boilers.
Hardness can be beneficial in water used for irrigation because it helps
maintain soil structure and permeability.
Nitrogen is found in water primarily in the form of nitrate; in un-
polluted water, nitrate usually does not exceed 10 ppm. Sources of
nitrate include decomposition of organic materials and drainage water
from soils that are heavily fertilized with nitrate-bearing fertilizer.
Leached barnyard refuse can pollute streams and shallow ground water.
Where both chloride and nitrate concentrations are above normal for
an area the possibility of contamination by human or animal wastes
should be investigated.
Color in water may be derived from animal, vegetable, or mineral
sources, and is measured by comparing a water sample with standard
solutions of platinum and cobalt and reported as units on the platinum-
cobalt scale (Hazen, 1892). The maximum color of water used for public
supply suggested by the U. S. Public Health Service (1962) is 15 Hazen






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


units. The objection to color in water for domestic use is primarily
aesthetic, although colored water may stain fixtures or laundry. Color
in ground waters in Broward County occasionally is high enough to be
objectionable and color in surface waters generally is both high and
variable.
It is well known today that fluoride can be beneficial to the teeth;
however, too much fluoride can cause dental defects such as mottled
tooth enamel. People tend to drink more water when the annual tempera-
ture is high and, therefore, will take more fluoride into the body. In
Broward County, the average annual temperature falls in the established
70.7 and 79.9 degree range, where to be beneficial, the fluoride content
of drinking water should range between 0.7 ppm and 1.0 ppm. The
average concentration of fluoride should not exceed the maximum of
1.0 ppm.
Water for public use in Broward County should conform to the
Florida State Water Standards which are based on the U. S. Public
Health Service Drinking Water Standards (1962). According to the
standards, the following constituents should not exceed the concentrations
shown:

Substance Concentration (ppm)
Alkyl benzene sulfonate (ABS) 0.5
Arsenic (As) 0.01
Chloride (Cl) 250
Iron (Fe) 0.3
Nitrate (NO3) 45.0
Sulfate (SO4) 250
Total dissolved solids 500
Fluoride (F) 1.0
Carbon chloroform extract (CCE) 0.2
Phenols 0.001
Zinc (Zn) 5.0
Copper (Cu) 1.0
Manganese (Mn) 0.05

The practical limits of some chemical constituents are based mainly
on aesthetic considerations. Within the range of maximum standard
concentrations some chemical constituents of water tend to produce a
noticeable taste. Most people can detect a salty taste in water when the
chloride reaches 200-300 ppm. Water containing a sulfate concentration






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


of about 250 ppm may have a laxative effect on some people. Iron con-
centrations of about 0.3 ppm in water will often impart a taste and may
discolor laundry or stain porcelain fixtures.

WATER IN THE BISCAYNE AQUIFER

The Biscayne aquifer is the principal source of fresh water for public
supply in southeastern Florida. This aquifer is composed chiefly of porous
permeable limestone with some sandstone and sand. In Broward County,
the aquifer is thickest along the coast where it extends from the land
surface to a depth about 150 feet in the south and nearly 400 feet (Tarver,
1964) in the north; it thins to a feather edge near the western boundary
of Broward County. The Biscayne aquifer is underlain by clay and marl of
low permeability which extend to a depth of about 900 feet.

CHANGES WITH DEPTH AND LOCATION
The chemical quality of water in the Biscayne aquifer differs really
and with depth. Chemical differences with depth in existing wells are-
difficult, if not impossible, to detect because wells are generally cased
to one producing zone. However, multiple-depth information collected
during this investigation indicates differences in the chemical quality
of the water in the Biscayne aquifer throughout the county. Also, the
multiple depth data were used in conjunction with other chemical quality
data to prepare maps of the area showing differences in and distribution
of the various chemical constituents with depth. Generally the data were
from wells which were not contaminated by salt water. The chemical
constituents mapped are dissolved solids, hardness as CaCO3, and iron.
The location of the wells sampled are shown on each map.
The maps in figure 5 show the dissolved solids in water from depths
ranging from 0 to greater than 200 feet. The relatively low chemical
content of the water in the Fort Lauderdale area indicates the circulation
of ground water that results from the combined effect of the drainage
by the canal system and the local recharge by rainfall. In the rest of the
county the slower movement of the ground water permits more time
for the water to dissolve minerals from the materials composing the
aquifer. The tendency of the calcareous sands of northern Broward
County to hold the water in storage is indicated by the relatively high
dissolved solids near the coast in that area. This is supported by the fact
that water levels in the northern part of the county are considerably
higher than those in the central and southern parts; The higher concen-
tration of dissolved solids in the wells deeper tht .200 feet indicates
there is much less circulation of water at those depths.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONs No. 51


-^ Q_ CANAL EXPLANATION
A *WELL SAMPLED FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSES
S0-100 FEET-SAMPLE DEPTH ZONE
I -300-- LINE OF EQUAL DISSOLVED
SOLIDS,PARTS PER MILLION


Figure 5. Variation of dissolved solids in ground water of eastern Broward County,
1964.


The maps showing hardness of ground water, figure 6, generally show
the same pattern as the dissolved solids maps. A similarity in the illustra-
tions would be expected because calcium and bicarbonate are the major
constituents of the natural water of south Florida. The ground water of
Broward County ranges from hard to very hard. The hardest water
occurs in the northern section and extends nearly to the coast.
The iron content of ground water also varies really and with depth
in the Biscayne aquifer. According to Hem (1959, p. 60), iron usually
will occur only in the ferrous state in water whose pH ranges from 7 to 8,
the range normally found in Broward County. When water containing
ferrous iron and bicarbonate comes in contact with oxygen, the iron is
oxidized to the ferric state and precipitates as ferric hydroxide. The
bicarbonate in solution is replaced with carbon dioxide which slightly
lowers the pH. Aeration as commonly employed to remove iron from
water, utilizes this reaction.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 6. Variation of hardness of ground water of eastern Broward County, 1964.

The maps in figure 7 show that the iron concentration increases to
the south and west. The reason for the higher iron content could be the
action of certain bacteria on organic material. Sarles and' others (1951,
p, 235), state that certain bacteria can bring about reactions with organic
material which produce ferric hydroxide or ferrous sulfide. Soil micro-
organisms also can cause the formation of acids which aid in bringing
iron compounds into solution. These reactions occur deep in the sub-
surface where there is no free oxygen.
To illustrate differences in chemical quality in an individual well a
modified Stiff diagram was used. This method of presentation of data
is based on the percentage of the principal cations and anions in terms of
equivalents per million (reacting values of ions), and is diagrammed in
figure 8. The modified Stiff diagram shows only percentage composition,
not the total mineral content of a sample; therefore, the specific con-
ductance was plotted against depth in figure 8 also, in order to show
changes in total mineral content of the water with depth in the aquifer.
The analyses of water from Well 260609N0801205 (fig. 8) show the
typical changes in the water of the Biscayne aquifer in the coastal area


EXPLANATION
* WELL SAMPLED FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSES
0-100 FEET -SAMPLE DEPTH ZONE
-200- LINE OF EQUAL HARDNESS,AS
CaCO3,IN PARTS PER MILLION





e ~ I
^ /







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


C' $/I EXPLANATION
WELL SAMPLED FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSES
I -100FEET- SAMPLE DEPTH ZONE
-3.0- LINE OF EQUAL IRON CONCENTRATION
I PARTS PER MILLION


SBROWARD C p-



150-200 FEET

GREATER THAN 200 FEET ,



Figure 7. Variation of iron in the ground water of eastern Broward County, 1964.

of Broward County. The shallow water is a calcium bicarbonate type
which gradually changes with depth to a sodium chloride type. The
diagram representing the 227-foot sample shows the midpoint of the
transition from fresh water to saline water. The sample collected at
314 feet shows the typical diagram of sea water, although the specific
conductance of sea water would be many times greater.
Analyses of water at different depths from two wells (255742N0802720
and 260843N0802629) in western Broward County showed that the
aquifer contains naturally soft water with a high bicarbonate content.
Natural softening is caused by a base-exchange reaction in which the
calcium in solution is replaced with sodium from an exchange material
(clays).
According to Foster (1950, pp. 33-48), base-exchange reaction, accom-
panied by high bicarbonates, requires that three materials be present:
calcium carbonate, carbonaceous material, and a base-exchange material.
Calcium carbonate, relatively insoluble in pure water, goes into solution
as calcium bicarbonate in the presence of carbon dioxide. Carbonaceous
material, such as organic matter, decomposes to produce much of the








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


WELU WELL
260609-0401205 255742-002720
CONDUCTANCE. MICROMHOS


WELL WELL
260843-0802629 260054-0801033
PER CENTIMETER AT 25' C
0000 0 5000 10000 0 500 1000







-. 1


Figure 8. Variation in chemical constituents with depth in water from selected wells.


carbon dioxide in the ground. Carbonaceous material abounds in the
organic soil in the Everglades in western Broward County. The base-
exchange material, generally clay minerals, is present in the surface marl
and as part of the deeper unconsolidated material.
Water from well 255742N0802720 (fig. 8) is naturally soft with high
sodium and bicarbonate and low calcium and sulfate. The deeper waters
from well 260843N0802629 are the same type but the water at shallow
depths is calcium bicarbonate in type. This indicates that the upper
section of the aquifer in the area of well 260843N0802629 contains little
or no base-exchange material. Water samples from both wells show the
presence of salt water in the deeper part of the aquifer, as do all other
deep samples collected in this vicinity.
In addition, the dissolved ions in water from several of the wells
indicate the presence of dolomitic (CaMg(CO3)2) material in the deeper
section. The diagram of the dissolved solids in waters from the 200-foot
zone in well 260054N0801033 (fig. 8) shows a high concentration of
magnesium (70 ppm). In contrast, very little magnesium (4.5 ppm)
occurs at a depth of 168 feet. A similar change was found in six of the
wells in which multi-depth samples were collected.


EACH


2606 1205 H
Sj26005406010l3
5572002720 5 0 SMILE!







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


Although chloride is the dominant anion in the 200-foot zone, its
concentration is low (250 ppm) and the magnesium/chloride ratio is too
high for the magnesium content to be caused by active saltwater intrusion.
The EPM ratio of calcium to magnesium in water from the 200-foot
zone is 1:3; the EPM ratio in sea water is 1:5, while the EPM ratio in
waters from dolomitic rocks is approximately 1:1. It appears, therefore,
that the high magnesium content of the deeper waters in these six wells
is caused by a combination of solution of a dolomitic source material
and the occurrence of salty water at a depth of approximately 200 feet.
The presence of dolomitic limestones at similar depths has been
reported in the area around Lake Okeechobee by Mr. Bob Erwin (Oral
communication).
The analyses of water from well 261018N0800850, located near the
tidal reach of Middle River Canal, are shown in figure 9 by Stiff diagram,
CHLORIDE. PARTS PER MILLION
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000



0 250 D, -D

.1 POMPANO
032 0-------- J -0--
S3 LAUDERDALE

I /I O I 9 -/ O HOLLYWOOD
S100 5 .MILES




z I CONDUCTANC

S7 CHLORIDE
"200 r/


Figure 9. Changes in chemical composition of water from well 261018N0800850
with depth.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


chloride content, and specific conductance. The analysis of multiple-depth
samples showed that the water from a depth of 23 feet was calcium
bicarbonate type; the sample collected at 56 feet had an appreciable
increase in sodium chloride concentration and the water from 85 feet
was again predominately a calcium bicarbonate type. This indicates
that part of the water at the 56-foot depth was salt water infiltrating from
the tidal canal, and that material of relatively low permeability exists
in the interval between 56 and 85 feet which retards vertical movement
of water.
The chloride content increases from 280 to 1580 ppm in the 19 foot
interval from 167 to 186 feet. This illustrates the tendency of the heavier
salt water to move to the bottom of the aquifer, under the fresh water.
It also illustrates the effect of differences in permeability within the
aquifer on the extent of sea-water intrusion. The material penetrated
during the drilling of the bottom 19 feet of this well ranged in composition
from very sandy limestone at the top of this interval, to highly permeable
pure limestone in the lower part of this interval. The permeable limestone
tends to facilitate salt water intrusion in the Ft. Lauderdale area. The
chemical quality conditions in this well are probably typical of many
areas near the coast and adjacent to a tidal canal.

CHANGES WITH TIME
Observation well 260515N0802021 was drilled in November 1950, in
an undeveloped section of Broward County about 7 miles west of Davie,
to provide a record of changes in water levels and water quality caused
by drainage in the area and by the storage of water in the conservation
areas. The well is 29 feet in depth cased to 28 feet with 6-inch casing.
A continuous water-level recorder was installed on the well and hydrologic
observations have continued to date. Monitoring of the chemical quality
of the water was begun in March 1955, and water samples have been
collected periodically and analyzed for mineral content and chemical
properties. Even though the well has not been used, changes in chemical
quality have occurred during the period of observations. As shown in
figure 10, the mineral content of the water decreased from about 400 ppm
to less than 300 ppm. The greatest change was in sulfate concentrations
which declined steadily from 95 ppm to 0.
According to Hem (1959, p. 101), most sulfides are converted sulfates
in the upper oxidized layers of soils, and are leached away. In humid
regions, sulfates can be thoroughly leached because the amount of water
is large in proportion to the soluble salts. Extended periods of low water
levels such as those shown in figure 10 during 1955-57 and increased
drainage caused by the improvement of the canal system probably aided







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


WELL 260515-0802021 DEPTH 29 FEET


I 1955 I 1956 I 1957 I 1Qos I 1959


iQA I96 I QA I 101.2 I 101. I lOCd I


Figure 10. Changes in selected chemical constituents in water from a well seven
miles west of Davie, during the period 1955 to 1964.

the flushing of the upper part of the aquifer by recharge from local
rainfall. Most of the other constituents in the water decreased slightly
during the period of record, a further indication that improved drainage
accelerated the movement of ground water which removed the soluble
material from the area.
Changes in the ratios of the different chemicals in the water through-
out the period of record show that a base-exchange reaction has taken
place. Natural softening (see page 31) occurred to a slight degree, but
was probably limited by a lack of base-exchange material. During the
10 years of record the calcium decreased from about 120 ppm to 90 ppm,
the sodium remained nearly constant, the bicarbonate increased slightly,
and the total mineral content decreased. The decrease in hardness with
no decrease in bicarbonate also indicates a slight base-exchange reaction.

SEA-WATER INTRUSION

Sea-water intrusion is one of the prime water problems in coastal
areas of Broward County. Sea water has moved into the aquifer near the
coast and adjacent to uncontrolled reaches of the rivers and canals.
Because the majority of salts in sea water are in the form of chlorides,








36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


the chloride content of water is generally used as the index of sea-water
encroachment. Figure 11 shows the inland extent of water containing


EX DLITUP A L BEACH
BCCOUNTY








SM s awB 0WV R D CANAL .





WELL FIEL OU ATLANTC OCEA















GENERALIZED I
___-3..... -' ." .




































Figure 11. Extent of sea-water intrusion 1964.

1,000 ppm of chloride near the bottom of the Biscayne aquifer in Broward
County in 1964. The wedge-shaped, salt-water body in the aquifer is
thickest at the coast and thins inland to an edge where it underlies the
fresh ground water at depths from 160 to 200 feet below the land surface.
The map sequence in Figure 12 shows successive adjustments of the
salt-front pattern, which have occurred since 1941 in response to drainage
X.










01 2 3 4 5 es






CROSS SECTION -10
-20

-40







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


Figure 12. Progressive salt-water intrusion in the Middle River-Prospect Well Field
Area, near Fort Lauderdale.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


(canal construction), increases in municipal pumping, and salinity-control
practices in the Middle River-Prospect well field area near Fort Lauder-
dale. In the early 1940's, when rapid growth was just beginning, there was
very little ground-water pumpage and the existing streams were shallow
and relatively ineffective for drainage. This resulted in overall high water
levels which prevented salt-water intrusion, except for areas adjacent
to the coast and along tidal channels (fig. 12A). During the mid 1950's,
as urban areas were expanded, canals were dug to lower water levels to
prevent flooding in inland areas. Short, tidal, finger canals were excavated
in low-lying coastal areas and the excavated material used to raise land
surface elevations, thereby creating water-front property. Ground-water
withdrawals were increased to accommodate the growing demand. The
combined effect of increased drainage and water use lowered water
levels near the coast and caused a gradual inland movement of salt
water (fig. 12B).
Salinity-control structures in major canals have done much to retard
or even push back intruding salt water. The connection of Cypress Creek
into the water-control system has aided the prevention of intrusion in
the northern part of Prospect well field even though pumpage has tripled
during the period 1956-63; however, the south edge of the well field is
threatened with salt-water intrusion (fig. 12C), because the control
structure in Canal C-13 is too far upstream to be fully effective.
The increased threat to fresh ground-water supplies resulted in the
passage of the salt-intrusion control act by the State Legislature in 1963.
This act gives the Broward County Water Resources Department and the
Water Resources Advisory Board the power to control man-made changes
in the ground and surface water flow system, subject to approval of the
Board of County Commissioners.
Brackish water occurs in less permeable materials beneath the Biscayne
aquifer along parts of the coastal ridge. This water of inferior quality
could be connate water trapped in sediments during deposition or residual
sea water remaining in the aquifer as a result of inundation by the sea
during Pleistocene time. The brackish water does not appear to be a
threat to the shallow fresh water in the aquifer, provided ground-water
levels are not excessively lowered. An observation well in the center of
the Fort Lauderdale Dixie well field yields water that contains about
700 ppm of chloride from a depth of 211 feet and has shown no ap-
preciable change in chloride during the last 15 years. The well field is
pumped at the rate of 10 mgd from an average depth of 150 feet, but
the salty water 60 feet below the zone being pumped has shown no
indication of upward migration.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


Mineralized ground water also occurs under similar conditions in
inland areas of Broward County. In an early study of ground water in
southeastern Florida, information from several test wells in the Ever-
glades, (Parker 1955, p. 820) showed that the chloride content of the
water increased to the west and northwest and with depth in Broward
County, figure 13.


Figure 13. Variation of chloride content with depth in inland areas (after Parker
et al).







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


WATER IN THE FLORIDAN AQUIFER
The Floridan aquifer underlies southeastern Florida at depths greater
than 900 feet. It is composed primarily of permeable limestone which
dips eastward and southward and is thought to intersect the ocean bottom
several miles offshore beyond the Continental Slope. The limestone is
overlain by thick impermeable marl and clay. The aquifer is artesian
but yields water containing chlorides in excess of 1,500 ppm in Broward
County and therefore is too salty for human consumption. In southern
Florida the water having high chloride content appears to be chiefly
from sea water which has not been flushed from the aquifer. Some of
the sea water is connate water and some entered the aquifer during
Pleistocene time (Stringfield 1966).
Although the water is too salty for most purposes, the water and
the aquifer are used in several ways. In the Pompano Beach area a utility
company uses an 18-inch well 1,153 feet deep for disposal of sewage
effluent. About 450,000 gpd of treated sewage are pumped into this well.
The effluent is discharged into the aquifer against an artesian head of
about 30 feet. This same technique is being used or planned for use in
other sections of the state to dispose of municipal and industrial wastes
to prevent pollution of the streams and shallow fresh ground-water
sources.
Because wells in the Floridan aquifer flow freely and the water
temperature is constant, it is used for industrial cooling and for air-
conditioning units. The water is high in mineral content, contains
hydrogen sulfide and therefore is corrosive to most metals. Where fresh
water is in short supply, the salty water of the Floridan aquifer has been
used for swimming pools, flushing waste systems, and mixing with the
fresh water for irrigation of golf courses.
The Floridan aquifer represents a source of very large quantities of
water of poor quality. Although it may not be feasible now to utilize
this source for many purposes, it has an excellent potential for use in
future years when maximum growth is attained and the fresh-water
resources in the county approach maximum utilization.

SURFACE WATER
The urban and agricultural sections of Broward County are dissected
by a complex system of primary and secondary drainage canals. The
larger primary canals convey water seaward, draining the inland areas,
and in most instances are controlled near their outlets to the ocean; some
control structures however, are several miles inland. The secondary canals
are connected to the primary canals and are designed to cope with local







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


flooding. The control structures on the primary canals have two main
functions: the first is to prevent the movement of sea water upstream in
the canal, the second is to maintain high fresh-water levels during dry
periods to prevent ocean water from seeping into the highly permeable
Biscayne aquifer and contaminating the fresh-water supply of the area.
Upstream of the controls, the water in the canals is basically fresh and
therefore a major natural resource.
The composition of the water in canals in Broward County varies
widely with fluctuations in discharge caused by seasonal rainfall. When
discharge is high most of the water is surface runoff from inland areas
which is highly colored but contains only a small amount of dissolved
minerals. When discharge is low most of the water is derived from
ground-water inflow and the amount of dissolved minerals increases.
In Broward County, water in the canals is not used directly for
domestic supplies. However, during the dry seasons canals supply a
major portion of the water which artificially replenishes the various
municipal and private well fields. For this reason, the mineral content
of the canal water is of importance. During the dry season inflow to the
canals is from inland areas where ground-water levels are higher than
canal levels, but in coastal areas controls are closed, canal levels are
higher than ground-water levels and water generally flows from the
canals into the aquifer. Thus the period when canals are the primary
supplemental source of replenishment to ground-water supplies occurs
when effluent wastes in the canals are most concentrated.
In general, the chemical quality of surface-waters in Broward County
is within the limits established by Florida State Water Standards.
However, the mineral content of a given surface-water source varies
more in a short time period than the content of a given ground-water
source, and therefore, surface water is more difficult to treat.

CHEMICAL CONTENT
Surface waters collected during this study are primarily alkaline
ranging from pH 6.3 to 8.6. When slightly acid rain water comes in
contact with limestones which underlie this area, solution of the limestone
causes the ground water to become slightly alkaline. Therefore, during
dry periods when most of the water in canals is ground-water inflow,
canal water will be alkaline. Canals which are used extensively for
disposal of wastes and sewage effluent may periodically become slightly
acid. The effluent from sewage treatment plants is a source of nitrate in
surface water in this area. Water from Plantation Canal above control
structure S-33 had the highest nitrate content found during this study.
Eight of the 16 samples (fig. 3) collected showed a nitrate content






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


ranging from 9.4 to 62 ppm as compared with an average of about 1 ppm
for surface waters in the area. The nitrate content of the canal water
seems to vary with discharge. The samples that had the highest nitrate
content were collected during or immediately after periods of little or
no flow whereas samples collected during periods of appreciable flow
generally had low nitrate content. In 1965 nearly 1.7 million gallons
per day of treated effluent was discharged into the controlled reach of
this canal.
Water samples from the Pompano Canal above the control at Pompano
Beach contained the highest fluoride in the surface water (2.7 ppm,
March 12, 1962). As shown in Figure 14, the fluoride content at this site

3.0 I i i i i

z
O
-4
t 20

0
'1.0





1961 1962 1963 1964

Figure 14. Fluoride content of water from Pompano Canal near Pompano Beach.

fluctuates seasonally. During 1962 it ranged from 2.7 ppm in March to
0.4 ppm in October. The greatest fluoride content apparently occurs
during the first heavy rains after the long winter dry season each year.
The probable source of the fluoride is the inland agricultural areas drained
by the Pompano Canal where fluoride is added to soils by application
of fertilizer (U. S. Dept. of Agric. Yearbook, 1957). This soil fluoride
could be leached from the ground by irrigation and the runoff from
heavy rains.
The Hillsboro Canal which also passes through the same area had
a fluoride of 1.2 ppm in April 1964. Fluoride is less likely to be detected
in the Hillsboro Canal because of high flows which would cause extensive
dilution of any contaminant.
The canal waters of Broward County vary in color from 30 to as high
as 240 standard platinum-cobalt units and therefore are in the objection-







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


able range of the Florida Standards for drinking water. At present this
presents little problem because the principal direct use of canal water
is for crop irrigation. When canal water infiltrates the aquifer, color is
removed as the water moves through the aquifer and is diminished by
dilution as the canal water mixes with ground water.

CHANGES WITH TIME
The total mineral content of the water along controlled reaches of
canals usually ranges from about 150 to 600 ppm. In the tidal reaches
below control structures the water is predominantly sea water although
the chloride content varies considerably in response to changes in the
rate of discharge of fresh water through the control structures. Daily
chloride values derived from continuously recorded conductivity values
collected in uncontrolled reaches of North New River Canal, Middle
River Canal, and Hollywood Canal during 1964 and 1965 are shown
with hydrographs of available canal discharge in Figure 15.
The hydrographs show clearly the effect of discharge on the movement
of the salt water in the canals and also, the effects of the lack of control
and replenishment to the Hollywood Canal. The highest chloride content
in water at these sites occurs during the dry season when discharge is
at a minimum. During the wet season when discharge is high the salt
water in both primary canals is pushed downstream to coastal reaches of
the canals. The chloride content of water in Hollywood Canal is generally
high because the canal drains a small urban area and discharge is low.
Major well fields are located near the sampling sites on Middle River
and North New River Canals (fig. 2) and ground-water gradients indicate
that water flows from the canals toward the well fields during periods of
low water levels and heavy pumpage. The graphs of Middle River and
North New River Canals show that when a discharge of 50 to 75 cfs
occurs through the control structures, the salt front is held downstream
from the sampling points. Figure 16 shows the sum of chemical constitu-
ents from periodic samples collected at South New River at S-13 and
monthly rainfall at the nearby agriculture research station for the period
September 1950 through December 1963. At S-13 the mineral content
commonly varies inversely with rainfall. The great increase in mineral
content in early 1957 is very likely the end result of the extended drought
of 1954-56 which had its greatest effect on south Florida near the end
of 1956 (Pride, 1962). During a period of low rainfall, mineral content
increases as a result of concentration by evaporation and the inflow of
more highly mineralized ground water. The extreme decrease in mineral
content in late 1957 was caused by dilution due to the above normal
rainfall which followed the drought.










MIDDLE RIVER CANAL C-13 )
At OAKLAHD PAM IKVP.


1964 1965
Figure 15. Discharge and chloride content of water from tidal reaches of selected canals.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


20
-A 2.
15"


S 1954 I 1955 I 1956 I 1957 I 1958 1 1959 1 1960 I 1961 I 1962 1963 I
Figure 16. Mineral content of water from South New River near Davie and rainfall,
1954- 1963.

CONTAMINATION OF WATER RESOURCES
Each public water-supply system in the county is requested to furnish
to the Broward County Health Department an annual chemical analysis
of the raw water from each producing well and an analysis showing the
amount of trace elements present. This practice has resulted in the
correction of some potentially dangerous situations.
The analyses of water from several wells in southern Broward County
have shown fluctuating increases in ABS (detergents) content in recent
years. The wells are in an area served mainly by septic tanks which are
thought to be the source of the ABS. The fact that most manufacturers
now produce biodegradable detergents may cause a gradual decrease in
the ABS content of the water.
In 1962 the trace element analysis of a group of wells showed an
increase in arsenic over the previous years. Though not a dangerous
concentration, it was enough to warrant checking. The investigation
showed a sodium arsenite weed killer had been used in the vicinity
which probably leached down to the water table. The arsenic decreased
when the use of the weed killer was stopped. As a result of this incident
the Broward County Health Department has restricted the use of arsenite
weed killers in the vicinity of public supply wells in the county.
Arsenic again became a potential problem in 1965 when an increase
was noted in the annual trace element analysis in two well fields. Again
the arsenic did not reach a potentially harmful concentration. The arsenic
evidently was transported to the well fields through the canal system of
the area. The source could be either industrial or agricultural pollutants.
Drought conditions limited the dilution and flushing of the arsenic from
the canals. Further efforts to trace the source were negated by heavy
rains which diluted the mineral content of water in the canals.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Fresh water in streams normally contains several ppm dissolved
oxygen. The oxygen is consumed in oxidation of organic material and
is replaced by oxygen from the atmosphere. If large quantities of organic
matter are in the water, oxygen may be used faster than it is replaced.
Treated waste water, high in organic matter, can cause a problem of
oxygen depletion when discharged into the waterways. Large quantities
of dissolved oxygen are required to oxidize the organic material. Tur-
bulent flow of water will aid in the oxygen uptake of water; however,
the canal system in Broward County generally does not have turbulent
flow. When the dissolved oxygen becomes very low, there are often
problems of odor, floating sludge, and killing of fish and aquatic life.
It is generally established that 5 ppm dissolved oxygen is necessary to
support fish life. In extreme cases when the dissolved oxygen is totally
depleted, there is no self purification of the water and a septic condition
develops.
During the low flow period in December 1966 the U.S. Geological
Survey made a study of the diurnal (24 hour) dissolved oxygen content
at selected points in the canal system in Broward County. The study
showed that the two sites with the lowest dissolved oxygen content,
Snake Creek Canal (C-9) and Plantation Canal (C-12), were also the
canals which received the greatest amount of treated sewage. Snake
Creek Canal receives about 2.5 mgd of treated effluent and had a diurnal
range of 0.7 to 1.8 ppm dissolved oxygen. Plantation Canal, which receives
about 1.2 mgd of effluent had a range of 1.9 to 3.4 ppm dissolved oxygen.
South New River Canal and North New River Canal also had very low
diurnal dissolved oxygen content. During this study the dissolved oxygen
ranged from 0.3 to 7.6 ppm and the average for all samples collected
was 3.5 ppm. The data indicate that at times, the dissolved oxygen
concentration of the canal waters is reduced to levels below those
necessary to sustain many forms of aquatic life, which is a potential
problem if those life forms are to be maintained.
Dissolved oxygen depletion is not the only pollution-caused degrada-
tion of canal water in Broward County. Another source of degradation
is pollution from chemical contamination. Table 2 lists various minor
constituents which were detected by the chemical analyses of the canal
waters sampled during the dissolved oxygen study. None of the waters
analyzed contained dangerous amounts of these chemicals, but several
constituents are present in detectable amounts. Also the presence of
ammonia compounds, nitrates, and phosphates indicates probable organic
pollution. These analyses again show the same canals as potential problem
areas, namely, Plantation, Snake Creek, South New River, North New
River and Middle River Canals. The probable reason Middle River Canal







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


Table 2. ANALYSES OF MINOR CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS IN WATER
FROM SELECTED CANALS, DECEMBER 21,1966.
Chemical analyses, in parts per million

-

Site Z z o

Hillsboro Canal above control
at Deerfield Beach 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.03 1.4 0.02 0.33
Pompano Canal above control
at Pompano Beach 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.5 0.01 0.28
Cypress Creek Canal above
S-37-A near Pompano Beach 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.06 2.2 0.02 0.69
Middle River Canal, above S-36
near Ft. Lauderdale 0.01 0.00 0.00 3.0 9.1 0.16 1.4
Plantation Canal, above S-33
near Ft. Lauderdale 0.03 0.00 0.00 2.3 1.8 0.50 5.4
North New River Canal above
control near Ft. Lauderdale 0.01 0.00 0.02 1.6 0.5 0.01 0.18
South New River Canal above
S-13, near Davie 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.13 2.5 0.12 0.29
Snake Creek Canal above S-29,
near Nortli Miami Beach 0.03 0.00 0.01 0.05 3.3 0.03 1.0
Snake Creek Canal at 67th Ave.,
near Hialeah 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.75 0.9 0.00 0.20
W. S. Public Health
Recommended Maximum 0.05 5.0 0.05 45

is in this group, but not in the low dissolved oxygen group, is because
the sampling site is just downstream from a large treatment plant and
there was not sufficient flow time for the dissolved oxygen to be lowered
appreciably.
In conjunction with the current chemical sampling, special samples
were taken at selected sites for pesticides analysis (Table 3). These
analyses show that Plantation Canal and Snake Creek Canal contain the
highest, although not dangerous, concentrations of certain pesticides.
The pesticides probably come from the agricultural area in western
Broward County.
These studies are only a beginning and need to be followed by more
complete studies conducted at various seasons and under different water-
flow conditions.
Another source of chemicals in the water is effluent from sewage-
treatment plants (fig. 2). In 1965, with only 36 percent of the population
served by public sewerage systems, more than 21 mgd of treated effluent
were discharged into the waterways of Broward County. Included in the
discharge figure was the treated effluent from approximately 900,000
gallons of septic tank sludge material which must be disposed of each
month. Records for 1963 showed only about 20 percent of the septic







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 3. ANALYSES OF PESTICIDES IN WATER FROM SELECTED CANALS,
DECEMBER 21,1966.
Analysis by U.S. Geological Survey
(parts per trillion)






Beach. 0 nd nd nd 0 nd nd 10 nd nd
*a .a o -.3
SamplingSite .0 |


Snake Creek Canal above
S-29 near North Miami
Beach. 10 nd nd nd 10 nd nd 10 nd nd
Plantation Canal above
S33, near Fort
Landerdale. 10 nd nd nd 10 nd 20 10 10 40
Pompano Canal, above
control at Pompano
Beach- nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd
Hilsboro Canal above
control, near
Deerfield Beach. nd nd nd nd nd nd nd 10 nd nd
nd-Not detected
tank sludge was being treated in sewage-treatment plants. The Broward
County Health Department required complete treatment of sewage and
post-chlorination of the effluent before discharging into the receiving
water. Sewage-plant effluent is generally higher in nitrates and chloride
than the natural water of the area. During drought periods, when the
canal control structures are closed, the increased dissolved chemical
constituents in canal water caused by sewage can be further concentrated
by evaporation of the canal water.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
The chemical quality of the water in the interrelated surface and
ground-water system of Broward County is generally good. Most of the
water used in Broward County is obtained from the Biscayne aquifer
which is recharged by local rainfall and by water that infiltrates from
the canals. The very permeable limestone of the Biscayne aquifer permits
relatively free interchange of water between the aquifer and the canals.
The mineral content of water from the Biscayne aquifer usually meets
the water standards set by the State of Florida. The water is hard, and
in the southeast part of the county it contains iron in objectionable
concentrations. Ground water along the coast is contaminated by salt-
water, and parts of the aquifer inland contain salty remnants of ancient
sea floodings. The water contained in the major part of the aquifer is a






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


calcium bicarbonate type but near the bottom of the aquifer it is a
sodium chloride type. In one area the deeper water is high in magnesium
indicating the presence of dolomite. In southwestern Broward County
some natural softening of the water is caused by a base exchange reaction
in which the calcium in solution is replaced with sodium from an exchange
material, generally clay minerals in the aquifer. Generally, the mineral
content of the water increases inland and with depth in the aquifer. The
water of lowest dissolved solids is in the Fort Lauderdale area-an
intensively drained area where the circulation of water is rapid. Analyses
of water collected for ten years from a well at the east edge of the
Everglades show a decrease in the dissolved solids and most other
chemical constituents; the sulfate concentration declined from 95 ppm
to O.
The Floridan aquifer yields brackish water by artesian flow. Small
quantities of this water are used in swimming pools, for cooling, and
for mixing with fresh water for irrigation of golf courses. One sewage-
treatment plant discharges treated effluent into the Floridan aquifer.
The chemical quality of the surface water of Broward County
generally varies seasonally. Mineral content of canal water increases
during dry seasons when the contribution to the canals from ground
water is greatest, and decreases when the canal water is largely surface
runoff. Generally the mineral content does not exceed about 500 ppm.
Upstream from the control structures the water is generally a calcium
bicarbonate type. The water downstream from the control structures
is mainly seawater, with the chloride content varying in response to
seasonal runoff and control-structure operations. The interchange between
the aquifer and the canal system contributes to the contamination of the
waters of Broward County. There has been, and will continue to be,
problems of pollution and salt-water intrusion. No serious pollution
situations have arisen, but instances of arsenic and detergent contam-
inations in well fields have occurred. Further studies are needed on
the contamination problems. Specific studies are needed on: 1) the
relation of treated effluent loads to the discharge in the canals; 2) the
effect of the interchange of water between the ground and surface water
on fresh water well fields located close to canals; and 3) the use of
the Floridan aquifer for the disposal of treated effluent and industrial
waste. Continued monitoring of the salt-water intrusion and effects of
waste disposal are needed.
To maintain the good quality of the abundant supply of water in
Broward County a firm program of planning and management is par-
amount. If planning and management of the water resource is defaulted,






50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

the rapidly-expanding economy and growing water needs in the area
can result in depletion of water resources, contamination of the inland
waters by industrial, agricultural, and domestic practices and by intrusion
of salt water.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 51


Black, A. P.
1951


1953



Brown, Eugene

Collins, W. D.
1932


REFERENCES


(and Brown, Eugene) Chemical character of Florida's waters -
1951: Florida State Board Cons. Div. Water Survey and Research
Paper 6.
(and Brown, E., and Pearce, J. M.) Salt water intrusion in Florida:
Florida State Board Cons. Div. Water Survey and Research
Paper 9.

(see Black, A. P., 1951, 1953).


(and Lamar, W. L., and Lohr, E. W.) Industrial Utility of Public
Water Supplies in the United States: U. S. Geological Survey
Water Supply Paper 658.


Crooks, J. W. (see Pride, R. W.)


Foster, Margaret
1950



Grantham, R. G.

Hazen, Allen
1892


Hem, John D.
1959


Hoy, Nevin D.

Klein, Howard


The Origin of High Sodium Bicarbonate Waters in the Atlantic
and Gulf Coastal Plains: Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta,
Vol. 1, pp. 33-48.

(see Sherwood, C. B., 1965).


A new Color Standard for Natural Waters: Amer. Chem. Soc. Jour.
Vol. 12.


Study and Interpretation of the Chemical Characteristics of Natural
Water: U. S. Geol. Survey Water Supply Paper 1473.

(see Schroeder, M. C., and Klein, Howard, 1958).

(see Schroeder, M. C. and Hoy, Nevin D., 1958).


Lamar, W. L. (see Collins, W. D., and Lohr, E. W., 1932).


Langbein, W. B.

Leopold, L. B.
1960


Lohr, E. W.

Love, S. K.

Parker, G. G.
1955


(see Leopold, L. B., 1960).


(and Langbein, W. B.) A primer on Water: U. S. Dept. of Interior,
Geol. Survey.

(see Collins, W. D., and Lamar, W. L., 1932).

(see Parker, G. G., and Ferguson, G. E., 1955).


(and Ferguson, G. E., Love, S. K., and others) Water resources of
southeastern Folrida, with special reference to the geology and
ground water of the Miami area: U. S. Geol. Survey Water Supply
Paper 1255.


Pearce, J. M. (see Black, A. P., and Brown, Eugene, 1953).







52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Pride. R. W.
1962 (and Crooks, J. W.) The Drought of 1954-56, Its Effect on
Florida's Surface-Water Resources: Fla. Geol. Survey. R. I. 26.

Rainwater, F. H.
1960 (and Thatcher, L. I.) Methods for Collection and Analysis of
Water Samples: U. S. Geol. Survey Water Supply Paper 1454.

Sarles, W. B. et al,
1951 Microbiology: Harper & Brothers, p. 235.

Schroeder, M. C.
1958 (Klein, Howard, and Hoy, Nevin D.) Biscayne Aquifer of Dade
and Broward Counties, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey, R. I.. 17.

Sherwood, C. B.
1959 Ground Water Resources of the Oakland Park Area of Eastern
Broward County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey, R. I. 20.
1965 (and Grantham, R. G.) Water Control vs. Sea-Water Intrusion,
Brotcard County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Leaflet No. 5.

Stringfield, V. T.
1966 Artesian Water in Tertiary Limestone in the Southeastern States:
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 517.

Tarver, George R.
1964 Hydrology of the Biscayne Aquifer in the Pompano Beach Area,
Brotcard County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey, R. I. 36.

U. S. Public Health Department
1962 Public Health Service Publication No. 956.

Vorhis. Robert C.
1948 Geology and Groundwater of the Fort Lauderdale Area, Florida:
Fla. Geol. Survey, R. I. 6.