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STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY



FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert O. Vernon, Director






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39







RECONNAISSANCE OF SPRINGS AND SINKS
IN WEST-CENTRAL FLORIDA

By
W. S. Wetterhall


Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
and the
SOUTHWEST FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT


Tallahassee
1965










FLORIDA STATE BOARD

OF

CONSERVATION





HAYDON BURNS
Governor


TOM ADAMS
Secretary of State



BROWARD WILLIAMS
Treasurer



THOMAS D. BAILEY
Superintendent of Public Instruction


EARL FAIRCLOTH
Attorney General



RAY E. GREEN
Comptroller



DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGES
Director







LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


lorida jeologicaI Survey

Callakassee

January 28, 1965

Honorable Haydon Burns, Chairman
Florida State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida


Dear Governor Burns:

The Florida Geological Survey has published as its Report of
Investigations No. 39, "Reconnaissance of Springs and Sinks in
West-Central Florida." This study was prepared by W. S. Wetter-
hall, a geologist with the U. S. Geological Survey, working in
cooperation with this department and the Southwest Florida Water
Management District.
The report locates and describes 52 springs and sinks, and
gives selective chemical analyses of the water and the rate of flow
measured at the springhead or traversing the sink. These springs
and sinks are not only important as recreational sites, but con-
tribute to the availability of water resources of the area. This
report should be well received by the citizens of Florida.


Respectfully yours,
Robert O. Vernon
Director and State Geologist



















































Completed manuscript received
July 23, 1964
Published for the Florida Geological Survey
By the E. O. Painter Printing Company
DeLand, Florida
Tallahassee
1965

iv










CONTENTS


A abstract ..................... ....
Introduction .......................
Purpose and scope ...............
Location and extent of the area ...
Previous reports ................
Numbering system ...............
Acknowledgments .............. .
Geography .......................


Page
* 1
1

S.1

S2
S2
S4
4


C lim ate .... ................................................ .


Topography .... ......................
D rainage ..............................
Quality of water ..........................
Geohydrology .............................
Description of springs and sinks ...........
800-240-A. Phillippi Spring ............
805-246-A. Blue Sink ..................
805-247-A. Crystal Beach Spring .......
806-246-A. Health Spring ..............
807-244-A. Knights Sink ..............
807-244-B. Lake Tarpon Sink ..........
808-245-A. Tarpon Springs ............
812-239-A. Seven Springs ..............
814-243-A and B .......................
816-239-A. Rocky Sink ................
817-242-A..........................


817-243-A.
817-243-B.
819-240-A.
820-241-A.
820-242-A.
820-243-A.
821-242-A.
822-241-A.
822-242-A.
822-242-B.
823-241-A.
823-241-B.
824-239-A.
825-243-A.
826-238-A.
826-239-A.
826-239-B.
827-238-A.
830-234-A.


Salt Springs

Bear Sink
Round Sink
Hazel Sink


Hudson Springs ....................

Cedar Island Springs ...............
Cedar Island Springs ...............
Horseshoe Spring ..................

Isabella Spring ....................
The Jewfish Hole ...................
Bobhill Spring .....................
Boat Spring .......................



Little Spring ......................


. .. 5


S 6
S6
S 7
S 13
. 13
S 13
S14
. 15
. 15
S 16
. 17
S17
. 18
. 18
S 19
S 19
S22
. 22
S23
S24


.......... 25


....... 25
....... 26
....... 26
....... 26
....... 27
....... 27
....... 28
. .... 29
....... 29
....... 29
....... 30
....... 30
....... 31


831-234-A. W eekiwachee Springs .................................


. ... . . .


. . .


. . .
....... .. .
. . .
......... .. ..



. . I . . .


. . .
....... .. .


. . .

. .. ..... .


. . .


I . .







Description of springs-Continued

831-237-A. .......
831-237-B. ...........
831-237-C ........... .....


832-237-A.
832-237-B.
832-237-C.
839-238-A.
839-238-B.
840-238-A.
841-235-A.
841-236-A.
841-236-B.


Salt Spring ...
Mud Spring ...
............Blind Springs..
Blind Springs .
...............


841-236-C. ..................
842-234-A. Chassahowitzka Spril
842-234-B ...................
842-234-C ...................
843-235-A ...................
843-235-B ...................
843-235-C .......... ...
843-235-D. Ruth Spring .......


.gs. ........

ngs. .. .......


................... 32
................... 32
.................... 33
................. .. 33
..... ........... 34
.................... 34
................ 35
.................... 35
................ 36
................ 36
................ 36
................ 37
.................. .. 37
................ 38
................ 38
................ 39
............. ... 39
................ 40
.................... 4 0
................ 4 1


References.........................


ILLUSTRATIONS


Figure


Page

3
4
8

11

12


]


1 Map of west-central Florida showing location of springs and
sin k s ........................................ ..........
2 Explanation of spring and sink-numbering system ...............
3 Geohydrologic section A-A' ....................................
4 Water level in Rocky Sink (816-239-A) and estimated tide at
Indian Bay .............................. ...............
5 Water level in Isabella Spring (824-239-A) and estimated tide
at Indian Bay ...........................................


TABLES

Table Page
1 Chemical analyses of waters from springs in west-central Florida .. 20


: I]::






RECONNAISSANCE OF SPRINGS AND SINKS
IN WEST-CENTRAL FLORIDA
By
W. S. Wetterhall
ABSTRACT
The many springs in west-central Florida discharge large
quantities of water. Flows of more than 100 cubic feet per second
from several springs and the lesser flow of most of the springs are
derived from the limestones that comprise the Floridan aquifer.
Vertical zonation of permeability and the southwest dip of the
geologic formations tend to control the depth of springs and, to a
degree, their distribution. South of the latitude of New Port
Richey, most of the springs flow from the Tampa Formation."
Northward from New Port Richey to about the latitude of
Weekiwachee Springs, the permeable zone near the bottom of the
Suwannee Limestone yields the flow of most of the springs. The
several springs from Weekiwachee Springs north flow from either
the Suwannee Limestone or from older, deeper formations probably
from dolomite in the Avon Park Limestone. Water from those
springs that discharge from the Suwannee Limestone is murky in
contrast with the clear water that rises from the deeper limestones.
Lake Tarpon, southeast of Tarpon Springs, drains intermit-
tently through a sink in the lake bottom that connects with Tarpon
Springs in Spring Bayou about 2 miles to the northwest. The
conditions under which drainage begins and ends are variable,
being an interrelated set of water levels in the lake, in Spring
Bayou, and in the aquifer and the relative densities of water in the
various parts of the system.
Waters from springs are of either calcium carbonate or sodium
chloride type or a mixture of the two. The concentration of
dissolved material ranges from about 100 to 15,000 parts per
million. Chloride content ranges from about 4 to more than 9,000
parts per million. The higher concentrations of chloride occur near
the coast.
The report locates and describes 52 springs and sinks and gives
rate of flow and quality of water information for selected springs.
INTRODUCTION
PURPOSE AND SCOPE
Because of the large number of springs and sinks in the report
area, a knowledge of their role and effect on the hydrology is
1The stratigraphic nomenclature in this report conforms to the usage of
the Florida Geological Survey and differs in part from that of U.S. Geological
Survey.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


important to any study appraising water resources. For this
reason, a preliminary reconnaissance study of springs and sinks
was made. The report provides information about the size, shape,
location, the geologic and hydrologic setting, and the flow of 52
inventoried springs and sinks.
The distribution of the inventoried springs bears no relation
to the distribution of springs in the area but rather reflects the
limited time that was available for the study and the limited
accessibility of most of the area.
A generalized geologic cross section, prepared from a study of
well cuttings and electric logs on file at the Florida Geological
Survey, is presented as are the results of three dye-tracer tests
and a stage-tidal relation for two sinks.

LOCATION AND EXTENT OF THE AREA

The area discussed in this report lies between latitude 2800'
and 28'45' N., and between longitude 82030' and 82050' W. (See fig.
1.) The area includes the northern 6 miles of Pinellas County, the
western parts of Pasco and Hernando counties, and the southern
part of Citrus County. Part of the Gulf of Mexico is included to
show the location of submarine springs.

PREVIOUS REPORTS

Sellards (1908, p. 86) estimated the flow of Weekiwachee
Springs at 200 cfs (cubic feet per second) in the earliest known
published report that contained data for springs in the area.
Ferguson and others (1947), as part of a state-wide inventory
of the larger springs in Florida, described Chassahowitzka Springs
(842-234-A, p. 54), Weekiwachee Spring (831-234-A, p. 74),
Seven Springs (812-239-A, p. 136), and Hudson Spring
(821-242-A, p. 136). In addition, Ferguson and others (op. cit.,
p. 77) mentioned two other springs in the area; Bobhill Spring
(826-238-A) and Mud Spring (832-237-B). Heath and Smith
1954, p. 38-42) described the drainage of Lake Tarpon and Taylor
(1953) described the drainage in more detail with description of
some of the springs and sinks in the vicinity of Lake Tarpon.
Measurements of the flow of Weekiwachee Springs (831-234-A)
and Little Spring (830-234-A) prior to 1961 are published in U.S.
Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers and subsequent flow
measurements will appear in annual reports entitled "Surface
Water Records of Florida: Streams."






RfEPORT OF INVE;STIGATIONS NO, 39


4ne, s825o0 45' R 16 E 40' B I 35' R18 E 3 %'n,


I I I









Mop of tktida howiro
of aoto distuted in 0i



EXPLANATION
.A
Sping and lellk idpdillco
Line of MSt Setlion
shmm on ligure 3.





Seclon Idhlicolon


| to
Sctot lortoto


lotd
CITU
N NDO. COUNTY
9 r~Ta I II-W s7L----40'

















JtttERNA DACO CUNTY
i 4ttSMrj IKL,2 _
-4p


Ced, /W*# _

P. -


I oot~.0LT'i 'b.) 14


B ; N45. -t,
Ota-o

rNe. Port Iil i- i





PISCO COU~; -
I COUNTY HIL SOO0OUGH C UNTY




-I 1-I-

Av.. I V
CRYSTL AL
BE H I I
&XhC7110f 19~
rE'_hI"


I RISE 3


82"50' i5E 45 RIGE 40' I RI7E 35'


Figure 1. Map of west-central Florida showing location of springs and sinks.


2500'


I:


:B











r


I






4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Six of the springs, with analyses of water, were reported by
Wetterhall, (1964, p. 17).

NUMBERING SYSTEM

The springs and sinks shown in figure 1 were assigned numbers
based on the location and the order in which they were inventoried
within a minute of latitude and longitude. The numbering system
is explained in figure 2.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Appreciation is extended to the owners of properties who
allowed access to springs and sinks and to the local residents who
assisted in the location of many of the springs and in the collection
of data. Without the cooperation of these people, the collection of
the data would not have been feasible.



.. i. G E 0 R G I A







.,. : '"F : ::: '! : '": t 5 !";...... ......
.A
















.Figure 2. Explanation of spring and sink-numbering system
i . .... ,o> : .. ) i a' i I -- o- .... ..... ....-.








..... .. -" __ ....-- a B'i 8i.'....' a-io' ...... ...
_________3_______________......O







Figure 2. Explanation of spring and sink-numbering system.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39


The investigation was under the supervision of M. I. Rorabaugh
and C. S. Conover, successive district engineers of the Ground
Water Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey in Florida.

GEOGRAPHY
CLIMATE
Precipitation on the area averages about 52 inches per year,
of which about 35 inches falls during the 5-month period-May
through September. July is the wettest month and November the
driest.
The average annual temperature is 72F. Frost may be ex-
pected 24 days per year. The minimum temperature of 170F may
be expected twice in 25 years and a temperature of 250F may be
expected 23 times in 25 years.

TOPOGRAPHY
The area lies in the Terraced Coastal Lowlands of Vernon (1951,
p. 36-41), a subdivision of the Coastal Plain Province. Marine
terraces, formed during Pleistocene time, and sand dunes are the
dominant topographic features.
The submarine bottom and adjacent coastal marshlands slope
gently from about 10 feet below sea level to about 4 feet above sea
level. The 2-foot scarp at about 4 feet above sea level is the
landward limit of the coastal swamp. Above the scarp, a limestone
plain with a thin muck, clay, and sand cover extends inland to
a major 10-foot escarpment that rises quite abruptly as a sand
dune complex from about 10 feet above sea level. This scarp is
the boundary between the hardwood hammock belt below and the
sandy pine and oak forest above.
Islands in the coastal swamp and in the hammock belt are
residual limestone mounds or sand dunes that rise as much as 30
feet above the surrounding surface. Most of the dunes in the
hammock are not shown on topographic maps but can be detected
on aerial photographs by the difference of texture and shade
imparted to the photograph by the vegetation that grows on the
dune. Inland from the scarp at an altitude of about 20 feet, the
surface is a subdued karst modified by sand dunes. The dunes
generally are disposed about the northeastern sides of lakes or
depressions in crescent-shaped masses of small irregular dunes.
Drowned valleys and relict islands that bear the flora of higher
areas inland indicate that the coast is being slowly submerged in
the Gulf of Mexico.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


DRAINAGE

Disposal of rainfall from the surface is effected by evapotrans-
piration, downward movement, and surface runoff.
Evapotranspiration is the transfer of water to the air from
water surfaces by evaporation and from living plants by the process
known as transpiration. Evaporation from the land surface occurs
during and soon after rains while the surface is wet. Transpiration
occurs continuously, the water being derived from the zone of soil
moisture or the zone of saturation by the plant's roots.
Downward movement of rainwater to the zone of saturation
may occur by percolation of water through the surficial sands and
clays or by direct flow through sinks or other breaches in the
overburden.
Surface runoff occurs when the amount of rainfall exceeds the
amount disposed of by evapotranspiration and downward movement
of water into the zone of saturation.
The amount of evapotranspiration varies with the variety and
density of plant growth, climate, and the area of exposed wetted
surface. Losses by evapotranspiration are smallest in the near
barren dune covered areas and largest in the dense forests and
marshes. Most of the water transpired by the coastal marshes
and forests is derived from the Floridan aquifer. The upward
moving artesian ground water probably supports the hardwood
growth on relict islands in the salt-water marsh.
Downward movement of rainwater to the zone of saturation
and subsequent disposal by coastward movement through the
Floridan aquifer occurs throughout most of the area. Much of the
rainfall percolates continuously through the sand and clay to the
artesian aquifer. Drain sinks, which occur where relatively thick
sand and clay are breached, are the principal points of entry of
large slugs of water into the aquifer in short periods of time.
Surface runoff through streams to the Gulf of Mexico occurs
in the southern part of the area where the clays that overlie the
limestone are thick and continuous. Reduced downward percolation,
resulting from the low permeability of clay, cause the Pithlachas-
cotee River, the Anclote River, and a number of small, short
streams to exist.

QUALITY OF WATER

The chemical character of water depends on the kinds and
nature of dissolved materials contacted. The results of chemical






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 39


analyses of waters from selected springs in the area are given in
table 1. Additional information on the chemical character of water
is given in the description of springs and sinks.
The concentration of chloride in waters from springs in the
area ranges from 4 ppm (parts per million) in Little Spring
(830-234-A) to more than 15,000 ppm in Crystal Beach Spring
(805-247-A).
All spring waters in the area contain calcium, bicarbonate, and
minor amounts of other materials derived from the limestone
aquifer. Springs in and near the Gulf yield water that contains
sodium, chloride, and other materials derived from salt water, in
addition to calcium and bicarbonate.
If the sum of the equivalent percentages of calcium and
bicarbonate exceeds 50, the water is classified as a calcium
bicarbonate water in this report. Similarly, if the sum of the
equivalent percentages of sodium and chloride exceeds 50, the
water is classified as a sodium chloride water. All of the waters
from springs in the area are quite definitely of one of the two types.
Concentrations of dissolved solids of spring waters tend to
decrease with increasing distance from the coast and with
increasing elevation of the piezometric surface.

GEOHYDROLOGY
Springs are a part of the hydrologic cycle-the regimen of
water movement from the oceans to the air, to the ground, over
and through the ground back to the ocean.
Part of the rain that falls on the land surface moves downward
through the ground to the zone of saturation and laterally to points
of discharge.
The limestones which underlie the area, and through which
the water moves, comprise the Floridan aquifer. If water in the
aquifer is at atmospheric pressure and is free to rise and fall, the
water occurs under nonartesian conditions and the water surface
is referred to as the water table. If beds of material of low
permeability restrict the vertical movement of water in a saturated
aquifer and the pressure is greater than atmospheric, the water
occurs under artesian conditions and the imaginary surface to
which water will rise in wells is referred to as the piezometric
surface.
Where the water table is higher than the piezometric surface
of the artesian aquifer, water may move downward into the
artesian aquifer. Such recharge of the aquifer can take place either







8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

through sinks that penetrate the confining beds or by percolation
through the confining beds.
Where the piezometric surface of the artesian aquifer is higher
than the water table, or the surface of a body of water, upward
discharge of water may occur. Such discharge is termed seepage
if it occurs over a large area. Flow from a natural opening in the
land surface is termed springflow, and the opening is called a
spring. The characteristics of a spring depend on the geology,
hydrology, and location.
Springs in west-central Florida are situated in the limestones
of the Floridan aquifer and derive their flow from the aquifer.
Because springs are natural features, they reflect the solubilities
of the limestone beds and the conditions under which the springs
were formed.
The depth and thickness of the several geologic units that lie
less than 600 feet below sea level are generalized in figure 3. The
vertical openings of the springs shown on the cross section
generally end at or near the bottom of a formation. Because of
the southward dip of the formations, the springs may be grouped
by source in a north-south distribution. Thus, most springs south
of the latitude of New Port Richey end near the top of the
Suwannee Limestone or are in the Tampa Formation and probably
discharge water principally from the Tampa Formation.

A A




TAMPA FORMATION
(Miocene)

SUWANNEE LIMESTONE
(Oligocene)



S LIMESTONE OF THE OCALA GROUP
A (Eocene)

AVON PARK LIMESTONE
(Eocene) Note: f I f


0 2 4 6 B 10

Figure 3. Geohydrologic section A-A'.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39


North from New Port Richey to about the latitude of
Weekiwachee Spring, the springs terminate on various beds in the
thick Suwannee Limestone and probably discharge water
principally from the Suwannee Limestone.
The springs west of Weekiwachee Springs, between latitude
28030' and 2833', discharge about 500 cfs from the Floridan
aquifer. The Suwannee Limestone is penetrated completely by
several springs in this area which are known to originate below
the bottom of the Suwannee Limestone. (See Mud Spring and
Salt Spring on fig. 3.)
Mud Spring (832-237-B) probably terminates on the top of
the Ocala Group. A generally westward cross current is reported
in this spring below a depth of 50 feet.2 The large flow of the
spring and the reportedly rapid cross current indicate that the
spring is part of a very large cavity system.
Previous studies of the characteristics of the Floridan aquifer
have indicated the existence of highly permeable zones separated
by less permeable zones. Below the Suwannee Limestone, the most
probable source of the large quantities of water that flow from the
deeper springs is the thick dolomite bed that lies about 150 feet
below the top of the Avon Park Limestone. Throughout the general
area this dolomite bed is the most permeable zone known.
Weekiwachee Springs (831-234-A) and Salt Spring (832-237-A)
probably derive their flow from the Avon Park Limestone. The
source of flow of the several other springs in the area is not known.
The sparkling clear water that flows from the known deep
springs contrasts sharply with the murky water from Mud Spring
(832-237-B) and several other shallow springs that contain organic
material. The growth of microorganisms in ground water may
result from an increase in the oxygen content or from other
material that favors the growth of the organisms. The enriched
waters enter through the drain sinks that dot the area east of the
spring and then move to the spring through cavities in the
Suwannee Limestone that are virtually separate from the source
of water of the deep springs.
North of Weekiwachee Springs, the springs probably derive
their flow from rocks that lie above the middle of the Lake City
Limestone which underlies the Avon Park Limestone. The lower
part of the Lake City Limestone is usually impregnated with
gypsum that would impart a high sulfate content to water with


2Oral communication; Mr. Carl Holder, Tampa, 1962.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


which it came in contact. No waters of this type were found in
the area.
An interesting hydrologic phenomenon relating to a spring is
that which occurs during the natural draining of Lake Tarpon,
southeast of the City of Tarpon Springs.
For many years the local residents had observed the intermittent
flow of Tarpon Springs in Spring Bayou. Lake Tarpon was known
to have several tributaries but no observable outflow. Taylor
(1953), and Heath and Smith (1954) described the phenomenon
and postulated an explanation. A summary of those reports and
of additional data collected by the author follows:
Tarpon Springs (808-245-A) is the principal outlet of Lake
Tarpon, the tributaries of which drain approximately 60 square
miles of Hillsborough, Pasco, and Pinellas counties. The average
flow into the lake is about 30 cfs. Because evaporation approximates
rainfall on the lake, approximately 30 cfs of discharge from the
lake is required to maintain the average lake level.
Some seepage from the lake bottom to the aquifer may occur,
but most of the water that flows from tributaries into the lake is
discharged through an underground conduit that connects Lake
Tarpon Sink (807-244-B) in Lake Tarpon with Tarpon Springs
(808-245-A) in Spring Bayou. Intermittent drainage of the lake
occurs when the stage of the lake, ground water levels, tidal levels
and density of water in the several parts of the system are such
that salt water in the conduit begins to flow with a flushing action.
Periods of draining last from about a week to about a month and
usually begin when the lake stage is 2.5 to 6.4 feet above sea level.
Drainage ceases when the lake stage is 1.2 to 3.1 feet above sea
level. Following cessation of draining, the flow through the conduit
reverses and some salt water flows into the lake. Cyclic flow of
water into and out of the lake and Spring Bayou occurs during
interdrain periods.
The chloride content of water from the lake ranges from about
150 to about 4,500 ppm depending on the residual predrain
concentration of chloride in the lake water, the amount of salt
water that entered the lake in the postdrain reverse flow, and the
amount of rainfall and inflow through tributaries of the lake.
Distribution of salinity is fairly uniform both horizontally and
vertically throughout the lake.
The reason for this unusual drainage pattern was not known
prior to 1953 when an investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey
was completed. In the 1920's a water-treatment plant was






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39


constructed on the shore of the lake to supply water for the City
of Tarpon Springs. The plant was abandoned shortly after
completion because of the high chloride content of the lake water.
The effect of tidal fluctuation on water levels in Rocky Sink
(816-239-A) and Isabella Spring (824-239-A) is illustrated in
figures 4 and 5. The water levels in many other sinks and springs
in the area fluctuate in response to tidal fluctuation in the gulf.
Near the coast the effect is pronounced and the time between
changes in the tide and changes in water levels in the aquifer
is small. The effect of the tide diminishes and the time lag between
the cause and the effect increases with increasing distance from
the coast. The fluctuations of the water level in the sinks are
caused by earth tides and by loading and unloading of the aquifer
as the tidal waters advance and retreat from the coast. In addition
to pressure transfer by tidal loading and unloading of the aquifer,
some water is interchanged between the gulf and the aquifer
where the water level in the aquifer is below high tide.


Estimated tide at
Indian Boy








-t 1
14 15 16 17 18
DECEMBER 1961


Figure 4. Water level in Rocky Sink (816-239-A) and
Indian Bay.


estimated tide at






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 5. Water level in


DECEMBER 1961
Isabella Spring (824-239-A) and estimated tide at
Indian Bay.


Because the above processes all produce similar changes in
water level in sinks and springs, a direct method is necessary to
determine whether water is interchanging between a sink and the
gulf. For this purpose a dye, hidacid fluorescein, was introduced
to a few sinks directly or to streams that flowed into sinks. The
latter method allowed constant feed of dyed water to a sink over
extended periods of time to assure the detection of the dye by daily
visits to probable points of discharge of the dyed water.
Dye was used to find or confirm the connection between Knights
Sink (807-244-A) and Tarpon Springs (808-245-A), between the
several subterranean conduits in the run of Salt Springs
(817-243-A), and between Round Sink (820-241-A) and Spring
(820-243-A). Attempts to trace the flow of Rocky Sink (816-239-A)
and Bear Sink (819-240-A) were unsuccessful. The dye allowed
detection of the cyclic flow of water to and from the aquifer in
Isabella Spring (824-239-A) and demonstrated the effect of rainfall
on the movement of water in the aquifer for that area.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39


DESCRIPTION OF SPRINGS AND SINKS

Information relating to each spring and sink is grouped
systematically to allow the report to be used for ready reference.
The number and name serve to identify the spring or sink. The
number is based on latitude and longitude. (See fig. 2.) In addition
to the location indicated by the number, the locations are referenced
to General Land Office surveys based on quarter-quarter section,
township, and range. Supplementary descriptions further pinpoint
the locations.
The description of a spring or sink includes information about
the general size, shape, depth, and other data. Most of the distances
were estimated but depths were measured by weighted tape or
fathometer.

800-240-A. PHILLIPPI SPRING

Location.-Pinellas County. SE1/SE1/ sec. 27, T. 28 S., R.
16 E., about 200 feet east of the west shore of Safety Harbor, 0.2
mile southeast of the north gate of Phillippi Park 0.3 mile southeast
of the junction of County Road 80 with State Highway 590, and
1.3 miles southeast of the junction of State Highways 580 and 590.
Description.-A concrete curb 3 feet in diameter and 2 feet high
has broken off on the shoreward side to about 0.4 foot above the
filled land surface. The spring has ceased flowing because of the
persistence of vandals who have filled the opening with rocks and
trash more frequently than park personnel could remove it. The
author observed flow frdm the spring in the late 1920's and up to
1940. Park personnel report that the spring has not flowed since
before 1959.
Discharge.-The estimated flow in 1940 was 10 gpm.
Quality.-The water tasted salty in 1940.
Use.-None.

805-246-A. BLUE SINK

Location.-Pinellas County, SE1/SE1/4 sec. 35, T. 27 S., R. 15
E., about 0.8 mile north of Palm Harbor, 1,100 feet north of U. S.
Highway 19 at the junction of a dirt road to the sink, 50 feet east
of the dirt road, and 50 feet north of a dirt trail.
Description.-The pool is about 80 feet in diameter at the
surface. The bottom slopes irregularly toward a vertical hole
about 15 feet in diameter in a rock ledge. Below the rock ledge the






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


hole expands to an undetermined diameter (estimated by a diver
to be 50 feet) to a depth of 111 feet. A small mound of sand and
a water-logged tree rest on a landing at 111 feet. On the southwest
side of the landing, a hole, large enough to swim in but not
measured, extends to a depth of 150 feet. Below 150 feet the hole
changes to an elongate inclined cavity that continues downward
an undetermined distance at perhaps 60 degrees from the vertical.
Discharge.-A pumping station on the southwest side of the
sink has pumped 1,000 gpm for as long as a week without
appreciably lowering the water level. A small amount of surface
water and shallow ground water is drained by the sink.
Quality of Water.-The chloride content of water near the
surface was 360 ppm on August 30, 1962, 86 ppm on October 3,
1946, and 388 ppm on June 25, 1945. The chloride content of water
from near the bottom was 11,300 ppm on October 3, 1946, 13,300
on September 20, 1946, and 595 on June 25, 1941. The quality of
the water reportedly does not seriously deteriorate after one week
of pumping at 1,000 gpm. In the late 1930's and early 1940's, the
water reportedly was too salty for irrigation of citrus. Mr. George
McCall, Pinellas County Sanitation Engineer, reports that water
in a turbid layer between depths 125 to 130 feet contains more
than 37 ppm of hydrogen sulfide. This is about 10 times the
concentration of hydrogen sulfide previously reported in waters
in Florida.
Use.-Irrigation.


805-247-A. CRYSTAL BEACH SPRING

Location.-Pinellas County, NW1/NE1/4 sec. 3, T. 28 S., R. 15
E., at Crystal Beach in the bottom of St. Joseph Sound about 1,000
feet southwest of the shore at the west end of Florida Boulevard.
The spring is noted on U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart 858.
Description.-The rim of the spring is about 50 feet in diameter.
The maximum depth was 18 feet below the water surface in a hole
about 10 feet in diameter. The general bottom depth in the spring
is about 14 feet.
Discharge.-Not measured-probably on the order of 5 or 10
cfs at low tide.
Quality of Water.-14,000 to 16,000 ppm chloride on September
19 and 20, 1946. A sample from 16-foot depth on September 30,
1962 contained 11,000 ppm chloride. Temperature 84F.
Use.-None.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39


806-246-A. HEALTH SPRING

Location.-Pinellas County, NW1/4SE14, sec. 26, T. 27 S., R.
15 E., at town of Wall Springs about 500 feet northwest of the
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad track and 1,200 feet northwest of
U.S. Highway 19A at the road to the spring in Wall Springs, 3
miles south of Tarpon Springs.
Description.-The spring basin slopes toward the spring which
is about 10 feet deep. A low curb about 30 feet in diameter
encloses the spring. Water from the spring flows under the curb
through a rectangular opening into a swimming-wading pool
complex. The swimming and wading pools discharge into a
partially curbed swimming hole, about 1 acre in area, that is
separated from the salt water of Boggy Bayou by a dike. The flow
from the swimming hole is regulated by a gate valve and reverse
flow is prevented by a flap valve.
Discharge.-Measured flow was 6.14 cfs on November 10, 1947;
11.2 cfs on August 22, 1949; 16.5 cfs on August 23, 1949; 1 cfs on
May 2, 1956; and 4.52 cfs on November 3, 1960.
Quality of Water.-67 ppm chloride on September 20, 1946.
Use.-Bathing and drinking.


807-244-A. KNIGHTS SINK

Location.-Pinellas County, NW1/4NE1 sec. 19, T. 27 S., R.
16 E., about 1.3 miles south of State Highway 582 and 0.2 mile
south of the south city limit of Tarpon Springs; about 100 feet
west of the west shore of Lake Tarpon and 800 feet east of U.S.
Highway 19.
Description.-The sink pond is about 100 feet long and 80 feet
wide. The sides of the sink are fairly steep from the top of the
ridge that surrounds the sink, to a depth of 1 to 20 feet below the
water surface. A nearly vertical hole extends from the rim at
10-20 feet to a general bottom depth of about 60 feet. The
northwest side of the hole is 75 feet deep. Water enters and leaves
the sink through a horizontal opening below the vertical or
overhanging wall. Dye studies indicate that Knights Sink is
connected with the underground drain that connects Lake Tarpon
Sink (807-244-B) with Tarpon Springs (808-245-A).
Discharge.-Only small amounts of water flow into or out of
the sink. The principal causes of outflow are declining stage of
Lake Tarpon during a drain cycle with resultant decrease in storage






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


in the sink, ebbing tide, and minor local ground water and surface
water that enter the sink. Inflow is induced by rising tide, by
rising stage of Lake Tarpon, and by evapotranspirative losses from
the sink.
Quality of Water.-In June 1945 during an interdrain period,
the following chloride concentrations were noted: 432 ppm at
surface, 1,810 ppm at 40 feet, and 19,300 ppm at the bottom. At
this time the water near the surface of Lake Tarpon contained
more than 4,000 ppm chloride. The small amount of fresh water
derived from rainfall and from local surface and ground water
inflow apparently maintains the observed stratification of dense
salty water and fresh water.
Use.-None.

807-244-B. LAKE TARPON SINK
Location.-Pinellas County, NW1/NE1/ sec. 19, T. 27 S., R.
16 E., in the bottom of Lake Tarpon about 60 feet east of the west
shore of the lake, 1.3 miles south of State Highway 582 and about
200 feet southeast of Knights Sink (807-244-A).
Description.-The sink is irregular in shape, about 250 feet
wide and 300 feet long at a depth of 10 feet below the lake surface
when the lake stage is 2 feet above mean sea level. The generally
west and south sides slope moderately from the rim to a depth
of about 40 feet then slope steeply but very irregularly toward
the deep on the west side of the depression. The west and north
slopes are steep or vertical from a depth of about 20 feet to the
bottom. The deep is a small vertical hole about 20 feet deep below
general bottom depth of 95 feet below mean sea level along the
west side of the sink. Lake Tarpon Sink is probably the eastern
end of the underground conduit system that connects Tarpon
Springs (808-245-A).
Discharge.-Flow to and from the lake through the sink
approached 200 and 150 cfs, respectively, during a period of
vacillating flow when the lake level was approximately 1.5 feet
above mean sea level. The flow from the lake during the early
part of the drain cycle has not been determined.
Quality of Water.-Salt water from Tarpon Spring (808-245-A)
flows into Lake Tarpon through this sink during periods of reverse
flow. Under such conditions, the sink contains water with about
18,000 ppm chloride. During drainage of the lake, the water in
the sink is similar to that of the lake. During periods when the flow
virtually stops, the chloride content of water near the top is the






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39


same as that of the lake, but the chloride content increases to
perhaps 18,000 ppm as the bottom is approached.
Use.-None.
808-245-A. TARPON SPRINGS
Location.-Pinellas County, SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 12, T. 27 S., R.
15 E., about 100 feet north and 150 feet west of the curb around
Spring Bayou, near the west end of Tarpon Avenue and the north
end of Bath Street in Tarpon Springs.
Description.-The rim of the kidney-shaped spring basin is
about 130 feet long and 60 feet wide at a depth of 10 feet below
mean sea level and is 125 feet deep at the deepest point. The
north, east, and west sides slope steeply toward the spring to a
depth of 60 feet, then drop vertically to about 100 feet. The south
wall is vertical or overhung from 20 feet to 125 feet. The vertical
hole below 60 feet is about 40 feet long and 20 feet wide. The floor
of the hole slopes quite steeply toward the 125-foot deep on the
south side. The spring opening is in the south wall near the bottom.
Tarpon Springs is the principal and probably the only drainage
outlet for Lake Tarpon, about 11/2 miles southeast of the spring.
The unusual hydrologic phenomena associated with the flow of
the spring are discussed in the section on Geohydrology.
Discharge.-The maximum flow of the spring was about 1,000
cfs on September 8, 1950 during a period while Lake Tarpon was
draining. The sporadic periods of large flow last for 7 to 25 days.
Reverse flow occurs at the high tide following cessation of the
drainage of Lake Tarpon. This reversed flow was 146 cfs on
October 10, 1946, on a falling tide. Between these definite types
of flow, the spring vacillates with the tide.
Quality of Water.-During periods of lake drainage, the quality
of the water in the spring approaches that of the lake water. The
maximum chloride content observed was 16,100 ppm in a water
sample from the bottom on June 24, 1945. The chloride content
probably equals or exceeds 18,000 ppm, the concentration observed
in Lake Tarpon Sink (807-244-B) during flow toward the sink
from Tarpon Springs.
Use.-None.
812-239-A. SEVEN SPRINGS
Location.-Pasco County, NWl/4NW1 sec. 24, T. 26 S., R. 16
E., at Seven Springs, about 50 feet east of State Highway 54 and
150 feet south of the Anclote River, at the southeast corner of an
abandoned swimming pool.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Description.-Only one of the "Seven" springs has flowed in
recent years. The spring is curbed with 18-inch concrete pipe to a
a depth of about 17 feet below the present land surface. Local
residents report that the spring formerly supplied a swimming
pool but was inadequate. The curb was practically filled with dry
sand on April 4, 1962. Reported depth of water in the curb was 12
feet on May 3, 1946.
Discharge.-Almost no flow during drought of 1945, 13 gpm on
May 3, 1946, 2.6 gpm on May 3, 1956, 18 gpm on November 3,
1960, 4.2 gpm on November 23, 1960, and no flow on April 4, 1962.
Quality--See table 1. Temperature 76F on May 3, 1946;
hydrogen sulfide odor.
Use.-None.

814-243-A and B

Location.-Pasco County, SE1/iNE1/ sec. 8, T. 26 S., R. 16 E.
In New Port Richey about 600 feet east of South Boulevard in the
south bank of the Pithlachascotee River, about 15 feet south of the
river. Spring 814-243-A is in the western fork and 814-243-B in
the eastern fork of a spring run. Spring 814-243-B is about 15
feet east of spring 814-243-A.
Description.-The springs flow from beneath an overhanging
shelf of dense, hard limestone about 3 feet thick. At high tide the
river floods the springs to a depth of 2 feet.
Discharge.-Estimated flow of each spring was about 100 gpm
on September 13, 1961.
Use.-None.

816-239-A. ROCKY SINK

Location.-Pasco County, NEI/SEI/ sec. 26, T. 25 S., R. 16
E, about 600 feet south of State Highway 587 at Bass Lake
Subdivision which is 4 miles north and east along State Highway
587 from Congress Street in New Port Richey.
Description.-The sink is about 125 feet in diameter and 52
feet deep below the water surface at a stage of 13 feet above mean
sea level. The deep is about 15 feet southwest of a large cypress
tree on the north east bank of the sink.
The bank above the water surface on the north and west sides
is a nearly vertical limestone wall. The east bank above the water
surface is mostly clay. Rock prominences below the water surface
form a rough shelf several feet wide.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 39


At the south side, a stream flows into the sink from the chain
of several lakes to the southwest, west, north, and northeast, in
the order of distance from the sink. The stage of the sink fluctuated
between 8.2 and more than 13 feet above mean sea level during the
period August 1960 to September 1962. Minor fluctuations of
the stage of the sink are related to the tide as shown in figure 4.
The average fluctuation of the stage of the sink is about 6 percent
of the tide in Indian Bay. The estimated flow of the stream and
hence the discharge of the sink to the aquifer was 26 cfs on July
12, 1960 and 5 cfs on January 22, 1962. The measured flow was
14.5 cfs on September 10, 1962.
Quality.-The water in the stream at the sink was highly colored
and contained 4 ppm chloride on September 10, 1962.
Use.-The sink drains five lakes and a large swampy area.

817-242-A

Location.-Pasco County, SE1/NW/4 sec. 21, T. 25 S., R. 16
E., 2.2 miles northeast of Port Richey, about 600 feet west of an
old road 0.15 mile north of its junction with U.S. Highway 19 in
the bottom of a drainage ditch about 5 feet from the east end
of the ditch.
Description.-The spring flows from the rock through a thin
sand cover to form a sand boil a few inches in diameter. The ditch
drains directly to the Gulf of Mexico.
Discharge.-The estimated flow was 5 gpm on November
23, 1960.
Quality of Water.-The chloride content, based on a specific
conductance of 2,050 micromhos, was 500 ppm on November
23, 1960.
Use.-None.

817-243-A. SALT SPRINGS

Location.-Pasco County, NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 20, T. 25 S., R. 16
E., about 1.6 miles north of Port Richey, 0.4 mile west of U.S.
Highway 19, and 500 feet south of Salt Springs Road; on the
south bank of a neck on the west side of a 1-acre pond, about 100
feet east of the easternmost natural bridge.
Description.-The spring opening, invisible from the surface,
is an irregular hole in the vertical bank. The water flows 100 feet
westward to a natural bridge where it enters a hole in a vertical
bank, flows about 3 feet underground, and then emerges from a









Tdbll 1. Chbvatcal n41tyIes of walte Ifrum sprinsl In wueit..aur:al FlurdJ.

(Analyses by U,8, G JliLSLwurv), Y6IReIul la i erti pr ot lJln iei pt *ipeclifi:.Lc UJduiL.(tc, dI a P .IJ cuu.)


Iprtia






812-239-A

817-243-A

817-243.5

821-242-A

823-241-A

824-239-A

826-238-A

826-239-A

827-238-A

830-234-A

831-234-A

839-238-A


841-236-A

41-236(B



841-236-C


842.234-A


842-234-1


Iprtal




arnu




Salt

Budson

Borisihoa



lobhtll





Little

Vasklwvchbs

Blind











Chailabovital
Do.

ChDashou.lu
Do.


2 7 6 18 3 65 26 8


5. 3-56

11-23.60

5-17-62

5- 3-56

11-28-60

11-14-61

5-16-62

5-15-62

7-13-60

6-14-60

5- 2-56

11-28-61

11-29-61


Iran



In
solution
at tiU
of
analysis

0.01





.01







.00.





.01


Dissolved
sullJd




lldus
ac 160oC


,1

5,2





3,290







13





3.1


2.0



202

857



14

4.0

7.6





6.0

1,220

580


492



296


36
18

166
156


....-

*....




..=...


.....


.....

161


..o,-


lardanes
as C8C03


C l lu
iusnir


164

2,680

680

2,090

885

184

106

122

90

128

148

3,060

1,550


1,360


8.5

7,900

1,360

6,030

2,300

84

7.0

21

5.0

4.0

5.0

9,200

4,300


3,700



2,120


250
98

1,180
1,200


carbunata


0

2,560



1,940

740





10

5

5
12


96
....


318

21,800

4,710

16,900

7,240

571

76

295

176

324

283

, 60&

12,900


11,4001--- --


7,060


1,100
625

4,060
3,900


imaarks


=....





=o1o





.....

174


..... .

.....

*..-o


.....


5.5 176


,2 .9 684 ..8



.2 1.8 2,470 0


..... 2,150


.00



.00


I pled at low tide











Brown,flaky material
suspended ln water.

Brown. flaky aterial
suspended in lwatr,
irutatr d flow 5 cfs.

Brown, flaky materirL
suspended in at er.

Lightly turbid
Do.

Do.
Do.


11-29-61172 ----


11-29-61


4-20-62
4.26-62

4-20-62
4-26-6;


|


.I r I I








Toble I-Continued


Iron Dissolved Hardnessl
CO) s ollds a CaCO J
Spring Spring w s 3s
nzber oe a I e a Rimarks
0br name d a a w
a solution a
a I S a Tot Residue Cnluw -a*
Sa at 180- carbonate a 5
____ J-il=^_iJ_lJ B :il1l C I n^ C____

842-234-C Chass honwltlkau 4-26-62 72 8.9 0.00 0.07 50 14 53 2.4 178 18 96 0.2 0.2 372 ----- 182 36 632 --..
843-235-B i 4-20-62 75 9.1 .01 .76 98 145 1,140 44 184 296 2,000 .2 .6 4,250 3,820 841 690 6,600 7. 2 rurbid
843-235-D Ruth 11-29-61 77 ---- --- ---- ----.......... ..... -- 13 975 ------ ----- ..... 470 --. 3,460 -- sampled 3,000 feet
420-62 75 8.9 .01 .16 80 85 662 26 170 1,200 .2 2,50 2,320 549 410 4,000 7.7 e ro spring.
Sm. 4-20-62 75 8.9 .01 .16 80 85\ 662 26 170 L72 2,200 .4 2,550 2,320 549 410 4,000 7.7j 2 i.'rbid






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


hole in the opposite vertical bank. Dye placed in the water above
this natural bridge emerges from the west side in 11/2 minutes. The
water flows about 75 feet westward to another natural bridge
about 10 feet wide and emerges from 3 holes in the bottom of the
sloping western side of the natural bridge. Dye placed in the water
above this bridge emerges from the two vigorously boiling
southwestern and southern holes in 2 minutes and from another
smaller and sluggishly flowing northern hole in 21/2 minutes. Flow
reverses at high tide and salt water from the gulf flows into the
spring. The spring run, known as Salt Springs Run, is a bayou of
the Gulf of Mexico.
Discharge.-The measured outflow was 10.5 cfs on January
18. 1962. Inflow was not measured but is of the same order as
outflow.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-None.

817-243-B

Location.-Pasco County, SEI4NEI/ sec. 20, T. 25 S., R. 16 E.,
2.2 miles northeast of Port Richey, about 0.7 mile west of an old
road, 0.15 mile north of its junction with U.S. Highway 19 at the
end of the south fork of a dirt road in a coastal hammock.
Description.-The spring flows from an irregular hole in the
rock near the east side of the pool. The pool is indefinite in size
because it merges with the surrounding swamp.
Discharge.-The flow was estimated at 2 cfs on May 17, 1962.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-None.

819-240-A. BEAR SINK

Location.-Pasco County, SW/4NE1/ sec. 11, T. 25 S., R. 16 E.,
about 1,500 feet south of State Highway 52 and 1.7 miles east of
U.S. Highway 19 at Bayonet Point community, at the site of historic
5-A sawmill and community, on the southside of the northward
continuing channel of Bear Creek.
Description.-The sink is about 100 feet wide and 150 feet long.
The maximum depth of 35 feet was measured about 30 feet from
the west shore and 75 feet from the south shore. Another deep at
the extreme south end of the pool receives sand slides from the
actively slumping south wall. The bottom of the south deep at 30






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 39


feet was hard to the sounding lead and is probably rock. Numerous
tree trunks and roots partially block both deeps.
Bear Creek enters the sink on the north side through a well
developed channel. At high stage, the flow of the creek exceeds
the drainage capacity of the sink, and the excess water flows into
a stream channel that leads to Round Sink (820-241-A). The flow
of the creek, as measured under such a condition on September 10,
1962, was 54.9 cfs at a bridge 1.7 miles upstream from Bear Sink,
and the flow through the overflow channel about 600 feet
downstream from Bear Sink was 13.5 cfs. By difference, the flow
into Bear Sink was 41.4 cfs. The stage of the sink was about
3 feet above normal stage and 6 feet below the stage observed
in December 1960. Normal stage of the sink is about 3 feet above
mean sea level and at this stage the sink drains an estimated 10
or 15 cfs. Flow of the creek upstream from the sink diminishes
to a trickle during dry periods. The stage of the sink fluctuates
with the tide.
An attempt was made to trace the water that enters the sink
to its point of emergence from the aquifer. On January 19, 1962, 13
pounds of hidacid fluorescein dye were put into the creek at several
places upstream from the sink and into the sink. Dyed water
entered the sink over a period of more than 24 hours. This reduced
the probability of a single slug of dyed water being dispersed before
it could be detected by daily inspection. A number of local residents
observed the color of nearby springs at frequent intervals. Other
accessible springs within several miles were checked daily for about
2 weeks. Springs that were not accessible by land were checked
by helicopter or airplane every few days for about two weeks, then
weekly for several months. No dye was observed to emerge from
any of the springs along the coast or within 5 miles of the coast.
Either the dyed water was still in the aquifer or the point of
discharge was beyond the area observed or the dye was so diluted
that it escaped detection after discharge.
Quality of Water.-Water from Bear Creek at the sink
contained 10 ppm chloride on September 10, 1962.
Use.-Drains several square miles in the basin of Bear Creek.

820-241-A. ROUND SINK

Location.-Pasco County, SEI/4SEI4 sec. 3, T. 25 S., R. 16 E.,
about 1,000 feet north of State Highway 52 and a mile east of U.S.
Highway 19 at Bayonet Point community.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Description.-The sink is about 100 feet in diameter. 'The sides
are nearly vertical from the top of the bank to a depth of 20 to 40
feet. Near the center of the sink a vertical pipe or chimney about
20 feet in diameter bottoms at 60 feet.
During wet periods, the overflow of Bear Creek from Bear Sink
(819-240-A) enters the sink via a swamp that lies to the southeast.
The drainage capacity of the sink normally exceeds the inflow and
the sink is the normal terminal of Bear Creek during wet periods.
In 1960 and on one other occasion in the memory of old-time resi-
dents, the creek overflowed the sink and followed a poorly defined
stream channel to the gulf.
On May 8, 1961, 8 pounds of hidacid fluorescein dye were
dissolved in the sink when the inflow was about 0.5 cfs. During the
next 2 weeks, the inflow ranged from about 0.2 cfs to about 1 cfs.
No dye was observed in any of the local springs until an aerial check
of spring 820-243-A, about 3 miles distant in the Gulf of Mexico,
was made on June 8, 1961. The dye was emerging from the spring
and gradually dispersing toward the northwest. A previous aerial
check of the spring on June 2, 1961 was negative.
The dye water moved approximately 3 miles in 26 to 30 days.
Assuming a rate of travel of 500 feet per day in a straight line
distance and an average flow of 0.5 cfs, the cross-sectional area of
the conduit would be 80 square feet or approximately that of a
10-foot pipe.
Use.-Drains overflow of Bear Creek from Bear Sink.


820-242-A. HAZEL SINK

Location.-Pasco County, NEINEIA sec. 4, T. 25 S., R. 16 E.,
about 600 feet west of U.S. Highway 19, and 1 mile north of State
Highway 52 at Bayonet Point community.
Description.-The sink is about 250 feet in diameter. The bank
drops steeply from land surface to a few feet below the water
surface very near the shore. The bottom then slopes rather
erratically toward the center. A virtually circular opening about
100 feet in diameter near the center of the sink extends vertically
from the irregular rim to a depth of 110 to 115 feet. The bottom
is muddy.
Strips of aluminum foil, dropped into the sink near the middle
of the deep opening, moved quite rapidly toward the west as they
sank. The stage of the sink fluctuates with the tide.
Use.-None.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39


820-243-A


Location.-Pasco County. In the Gulf of Mexico 2 miles
southwest of Hudson and 3,000 feet due west of the north point
of Lighter Bayou in the line of sight of the coastline south of
Bayonet Point.
Description.-The oval rim of the depression around the spring
is about 100 feet long and 30 feet wide. From about 2 feet below
the water surface at the rim the bottom slopes to the edge of the
spring hole about 10 feet from the southeast end of the lobe. The
spring is irregular in shape, about 6 feet in diameter, and more
than 40 feet deep.
The spring is hydraulically connected with Round Sink
(820-241-A). See discussion under Round Sink.
Discharge.-Not measured.
Quality of Water.-The chloride content, based on a specific
conductance of 25,000 micromhos, was 8,500 ppm and the
temperature 590 at a depth of 20 feet on December 5, 1960.
Use.-None.

821-242-A. HUDSON SPRINGS

Location.-Pasco County, NW1/SE1/4 sec. 28, T. 24 S., R. 16 E.,
at Hudson at the head of Hudson Creek, about 130 feet west of
Pine Street, 120 feet north of Hudson Avenue, and 3 feet west of
the rock curb of the creek.
Description.-The spring flows from an irregular elongate hole
in the northeast rock wall and boils up at the surface about 4 feet
from the northeast end of the curb. The boil decreases as the tide
rises but remains visible through the flood tide. At times the flow
may reverse at high tide.
A possible former spring 40 feet east of this spring has been
curbed to prevent flow. The depth was 17 feet in 1946 but the
"sinkhole" has been filled with large boulders to about low tide
level. Dye placed in this sink remained at constant concentration
between May 2 and May 6, 1961. During this time, the sink flooded
and drained with each tidal rise and fall. By May 10, 1961, the
col6r had disappeared but none of the dye had been detected in the
spring only 40 feet away. Many additional springs flow from the
deepened portion of Hudson Creek about 1,000 feet west of this
spring.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-None.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


822-241-A

Location.-Pasco County, SEI/NW/4 sec. 27, T. 24 S., R. 16
E, at Hudson, about 150 feet north of Stevens Avenue and 0.1 mile
west of U.S. Highway 19; about 50 feet north and 60 feet east of
the southwest corner of a basin in a canal.
Description.-The spring was formed by excavation of the basin
in which it lies. The flow from the three openings produces a
vigorous boil on the surface, especially at low tide.
Discharge.-The estimated flow was 30 cfs on August 22, 1960.
Quality of Water.-A sample taken from the bottom of the tidal
basin 30 feet north of the spring on August 30, 1962, contained
1.150 ppm chloride. The water from the spring probably contains
much less chloride than that of the tidal basin.
Use.-None.

822-242-A. CEDAR ISLAND SPRINGS

Location.-Pasco County, NW/4SE1 sec. 21, T. 24 S., R. 16
E., about 1.1 miles north of Hudson, 1,200 feet north of Cedar
Island Point, and 1,000 feet west of the shoreline at high tide.
Description.-The rim of the spring is irregularly elongate in a
north-south direction. It is about 25 feet long and 15 feet wide at
2 feet below mean tide. The spring hole is an irregular vertical
cavern in rock about 6 feet in diameter and 23 feet deep below tide.
It lies about 5 feet from the northern rim of the spring.
Discharge.-No observable flow. Water temperature and
chloride measurements indicate some flow.
Quality of Water.-The chloride content, based on a specific
conductance of 14,000 micromhos, was 4,600 ppm, and the
temperature 580F at surface and 600F at 20 feet on December 5,
1960. The chloride content, based on a specific conductance of
20,000 micromhos, was 4,600 and temperature 730F at total depth
on December 11, 1960.
Use.-None.

822-242-B. CEDAR ISLAND SPRINGS

Location.-Pasco County, NW/4SE1/4 sec. 21, T. 24 S., R. 16 E.,
about 1.1 miles north of Hudson, 1,200 feet north of Cedar Island
Point and 1,050 feet west of the shoreline at high tide; about 50
feet west of 822-242-A.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 39


Description.-The rim of the spring is irregularly elongate in
a north-south direction. It is about 15 feet long and 6 feet wide
at 2 feet below mean tide. The spring hole is an irregular cavern
in rock about 3 feet in diameter and 28 feet deep below tide. It lies
about 5 feet from the northern rim of the spring.
Discharge.-No observable flow. Water temperature measure-
ments indicate some flow.
Quality of Water.-Temperature 630F at surface, 640F at 20
feet, and 73F at total depth; the chloride content, based on a
specific conductance of 25,000 micromhos, was 8,500 ppm at total
depth on December 11, 1960. The chloride content of the gulf
water 1.7 miles west of the spring was more than 15,000 ppm based
on a specific conductance of more than 40,000 micromhos on De-
cember 5, 1960.
Use.-None.

823-241-A HORSESHOE SPRING
Location.-Pasco County, SW1/4NE14 sec. 15, T. 24 S., R. 16
E., about 2.3 miles northeast of Hudson. The spring is on the edge
of a tidal marsh, about 1 mile west of the intersection of State
Highway 595 and the trail to the spring 2.1 miles northeast of
Hudson.
Description.-The spring pool is horseshoe-shaped with several
deeps from which former springs probably flowed. The present
spring is an irregular elongate hole in the rock 10 feet long, 6 feet
wide and about 25 feet deep below the water that lies in the bend
of the horseshoe. The southeast side of the spring is a vertical rock
wall from which the spring flows.
The water flows toward Fillman Bayou to the north through a
spring run about 8 feet wide at the spring.
Discharge.-Flow estimated as 6.7 cfs on November 28, 1960.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-None.

823-241-B
Location.-Pasco County, SW1/4NE1/, sec. 15, T. 24 S., R. 16
E., about 2.3 miles northeast of Hudson. The spring is about 100
feet southeast of Horseshoe Spring (823-241-A) and about 1 mile
west of the intersection of State Highway 595 and a trail to the
spring about 2.1 miles northeast of Hudson.
Description.-The spring pool is about 5 feet wide at the head
of a small spring run. The opening is obscured by grass and slime.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Discharge.-The flow of the spring was about one half cfs on
November 28, 1960.
Use.-None.

824-239-A. ISABELLA SPRING
Location.-Pasco County, SWI/NWI/4 sec. 12, T. 24 S., R. 16
E., about 1.4 miles southeast of Aripeka, 0.7 mile west of the
junction of U.S. Highway 19 and State Highway 595 southeast of
Aripeka, 0.3 mile southwest of State Highway 595 at a dirt trail
leading to the spring, and 150 feet east of the trail. The spring is
in the west end of Whitten Swamp which extends to U.S. Highway
19 on the east.
Description.-The spring opening is obscured by the dense
shade afforded by the lush foliage of the trees. The pool is about
20 feet long and 15 feet wide. Several trees, submerged in the
spring, prevent the measuring of depth from the bank. A stream
bed leads eastward through Whitten Swamp. The spring flows
vigorously on the incoming tide to flood the swamp, especially in
the well developed stream channels. As the tide begins to ebb, the
flow stops and the spring drains the swamp completely. The water
level in the spring fluctuates about half a foot for each foot of tidal
change at Indian Bay with a time lag of about half an hour to two
hours. The fluctuation of the water level in the spring and the
estimated tide at Indian Bay, 3 miles to the northwest, is shown in
figure 5. The stage of the spring fluctuates between about 3 and
6 feet above mean sea level. The flow of the spring fills and empties
a ground-water reservoir that is only imperfectly connected with
the aquifer. On May 21, 1961, 3 pounds of hidacid fluorescein
dye was put in the water as it entered the ground. Samples of
water taken each day through May 30, 1961 contained the original
concentration of dye. About an inch of rain fell the evening of
May 31, 1961. The following day the dye had been reduced to half
the original concentration. The dye entirely disappeared during the
next few days but was not observed to emerge at any of the springs
in the area during the following three months.
Discharge.-The cyclic flow of the spring varies between no
flow at the changes in tide to about 15 cfs at maximum flow. The
rate of flow varies with the magnitude of fluctuation of water levels
so that the greatest rate and volume of flow would occur at spring
tide and lesser flow at neap tide.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-None.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 39


825-243-A. THE JEWFISH HOLE

Location.-Pasco County, in the Gulf of Mexico about a mile
west of Hammock point, 3 miles west-southwest of Aripeka, and
about 600 feet south of the "Aripeka Channel," a shallow natural
channel, a mile south of the marked channel, that is customarily
used by local fishermen.
Description.-The rim of the spring is approximately circular
in shape and about 40 feet in diameter at about 4 feet below mean
tide. The bottom slopes toward the spring opening to a depth of
about 10 feet below approximate mean tide. The spring hole is an
irregular, vertical pipe about 15 feet in diameter and 148 feet deep
below the general bottom which is about 4 feet below approximate
mean tide.
Discharge.-A vigorous boil at low tide becomes a "slick" at
high tide. The flow has not been measured. During the drought of
1961-62, the boil and slick ceased.
Quality of Water.-The chloride content, based on a specific
-conductance of 12,000 micromhos, was 3,800 ppm and the
temperature 58F on December 5, 1960.
Use.-None.

826-238-A. BOBHILL SPRING

Location.-Hernando County, SW/4SE1/4 sec. 31, T. 23 S., R. 17
E., about 600 feet north of the Pasco County line and 1,000 feet
west of U.S. Highway 19 in a hammock.
Description.-The spring is at the head of a rim in a pool about
6 feet wide. The opening is obscured by a metal barrel that has
been sunk to the bottom so that the spring water could be obtained
without contaminants from the surrounding pool. The vigorous
boil is continuous. The water surface at the spring is about 10 feet
above sea level.
Discharge.-The flow was about 31/ cfs on January 8, 1961.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-The water from this spring supplied the drinking water
for residents of Aripeka and vicinity for many years.

826-239-A. BOAT SPRING

Location.-Hernando County, NWI/4SW1/4 sec. 36, T. 23 S., R.
16 E., about 0.7 mile northeast of Aripeka at the head of Hammock
Creek.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Description.-Five springs boil from solution-riddled rock that
forms the bottom of the head pool. The owner reports that a diver
established the direct connection of the holes with a common
source of water at depth. The springs are in the northern half of
the head pool which is about 40 feet long and 20 feet wide. A short
narrow run connects the head pool with a sawgrass marsh, the
stage of which fluctuates with the tide in Hammock Creek. The
spring is being improved by excavation.
Discharge.-The flow at low tide was about 6 cfs on February
19. 1962.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-None.

826-239-B

Location.-Hernando County, SE1SWl/4 sec. 36, T. 23 S., R.
16 E., about 280 feet north of the Pasco-Hernando County line, and
about 2,600 feet east of State Highway 595 at the county line on
Palm Island in Aripeka.
Description.-Three small springs occur in a line about 3 feet
apart near the head of a pool which is about 8 feet wide. The pool
flows into two runs that flow generally northeast. The northern
run is about 6 feet wide and a foot deep and the eastern run is
about 12 feet wide and 2.5 feet deep at the head pool. A larger
spring flows from the bottom of the eastern run about 20 feet from
the head pool. This run is bridged by ferns from the head pool to
the larger spring and to the northeast is either bridged by ferns
or runs underground. Dye placed in either run emerges upstream
from a small bridge across the main run near Hammock Creek.
Discharge.-The estimated flow of the three small springs was
5 cfs on February 19, 1962. About a fourth of the spring flow was
entering the westernmost run and the remainder was flowing
toward the larger spring, the flow of which was not determined.
Quality of Watcr.-Not determined-does not taste salty.
Use.-None.

827-238-A

Location.-Hernando County, NW14SE1 sec. 30, T. 23 S., R.
16 E., about 1.4 miles north of the Pasco County line and 0.7 mile
west of U.S. Highway 19, about 10 feet from the west end of a
grassy swamp, about 600 feet east of a jeep trail, and about 0.1
mile north of a spring run at the crossing of the jeep trail.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39


Description.-The spring is seen as a sand boil in the grass that
mats the low swampy area. The water flows in an indistinct path
across the grassy area to a stream at the southeast side. This
stream joins several other spring runs to form Indian Creek.
Discharge.-The estimated flow of the run at an alligator pen
about 1,000 feet downstream from the spring was 1 cfs on July
13, 1960.
Quality of Water.-See table 1. The alligators in a display pen
in the run of the spring lose patches of epidermis several days after
being placed in the water.
Use.-Several houses and a hotel in the northern part of
Aripeka use water from Indian Creek for domestic purposes.

830-234-A. LITTLE SPRING

Location.-Hernando County, NW1/4SW1/4, sec. 2, T. 23 S., R.
17 E., about 50 feet east of a sharp bend in a jungle trail half a
mile west along the trail from Weekiwachee Springs; about 1,000
feet northwest of U.S. Highway 19 and 300 feet north of the north
shore of a 20-acre lake, at the head of a sawgrass swamp and
stream.
Description.-The spring pool is nearly circular, about 25 feet
in diameter. The spring opening, near the center of the pool, is 40
feet deep, below the water surface. A small dam on the west side
of the pool restricts flow to a single channel of Little Springs Run
through the grass swamp to the Weekiwachee River about half a
mile north of the spring.
Discharge.-The measured flow was 37 cfs on August 14, 1960
and 17.6 cfs on March 3, 1961. The flow of this spring is routinely
measured along with the flow of Weekiwachee Springs (831-234-A).
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-Tourist attraction.

831-234-A. WEEKIWACHEE SPRINGS

Location.-Hernando County, SW/4NE/4 sec. 2, T. 23 S., R. 17
E., about 700 feet south of State Highway 50 and 250 feet west of
U.S. Highway 19 at the head of the Weekiwachee River near the
south end of a spring pool.
Description.-The spring pool is about 150 feet wide and 250
feet long with the flow from the northwest side of the pool forming
the Weekiwachee River. The bottom of the spring pool slopes to a
rock ledge at a depth of 10 feet. Below this ledge, a vertical hole






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


about 50 feet in diameter bottoms on a rock ledge at a depth of 50
feet. Below this ledge the hole diameter is about 20 feet to a depth
of 137 feet where the vertical hole bottoms on rock chips and sand.
A cavity in the east side of the hole continues downward at an
inclination of about 45. Divers regularly go to a depth of 137 feet
but report the velocity of the water emerging from the inclined
cavity is too high to permit a person to swim into it.
Discharge.-Flow of the Weekiwachee River is measured about
three-quarters of a mile west of the spring and includes the flow of
Little Springs (830-234-A) and Weekiwachee Springs (831-234-A).
The maximum and minimum measured flows for the period 1931-62
were 260 cfs on October 21, 1959 and September 9, 1960, and 101
cfs on July 24, 1956. The average of 264 flow measurements is
169 cfs.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-Tourist attraction.

831-237-A
Location.-Hernando County, SE/,NW1/, sec. 32, T. 22 S., R.
17 E., about 1,000 feet from the north line and 2,100 feet from the
west line of sec. 32, T. 22 S., R. 17 E.; at the head of a small run
about 100 feet south of the Fish Hospital, a hole in a sharp bend
of the Weekiwachee River 1,000 feet upstream from State Highway
595 bridge.
Description.-The spring is an almost perfectly cylindrical pipe
about 3 feet in diameter and 40 feet deep. Water from the vigorous
boil flows north through a channel about 3 feet wide and half a foot
deep. The channel empties into the Weekiwachee River at a large
hole 150 feet in diameter and 118 feet deep known as the Fish
Hospital.
Discharge.-The flow was about 11/ cfs on May 22, 1962.
Use.-None.

831-237-B
Location.-Hernando County, NWI1/NW/4 sec. 5, T. 23 S., R.
17 E., in a 25-foot diameter bay in Jenkins Creek about 200 feet
downstream from the head of the creek; about 0.4 mile southeast
of the State Highway 595 bridge over Jenkins Creek, 1 mile
southwest of the State Highway 595 bridge over the Weekiwachee
River, about 200 feet southwest of spring 831-237-C.
Description.-The spring is about 6 feet in diameter and 18
feet deep. Logs and other trash obscure the view of the spring






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39


opening. Water from the spring merges with that of spring
831-237-C to form Jenkins Creek.
Discharge.-The estimated discharge was 10 cfs on May
22, 1962.
Quality of Water.-The chloride content, based on a specific
conductance of 5,500 micromhos, was 1,600 ppm on May 22, 1962.
Use.-None.

831-237-C

Location.-Hernando County, NWNW1/4 sec. 5, T. 23 S., R.
17 E., at the head of Jenkins Creek about 0.4 mile southeast of the
State Highway 595 bridge over Jenkins Creek, 1 mile southwest
of the Weekiwachee River bridge; about 200 feet northeast of
spring 831-237-B.
Description.-The spring pool is about 20 feet in diameter. A
major run exits from the southeast side of the pool to form Jenkins
Creek. A smaller run flows from the east side of the pool parallel
to Jenkins Creek to enter the north side of the pool of spring
831-237-B.
Discharge.-The estimated discharge was 12 cfs in the larger
run and 0.5 cfs in the smaller run on May 22, 1962.
Quality of Water.-The chloride content, based on a specific
conductance of 5,000 micromhos, was 1,500 ppm on May 22, 1962.
Use.-None.

832-237-A. SALT SPRING

Location.-Hernando County, NE1/4NEI/4 sec. 29, T. 22 S., R.
17 E., at head of Salt Creek about 100 feet south of State Highway
50 and about 1,000 feet west of the intersection of State Highway
50 and State Highway 595, 1/ miles east of Bayport.
Description.-The head pool is about 40 feet in diameter with
a run about 20 feet wide flowing southward from the south side of
the pool. The irregular rocky sides of the pool below a depth of
about 3 feet form an almost vertical hole about 10 feet in diameter
and, with minor offsets and ledges, 165 feet deep. The vertical
spring cavity becomes complex with depth and several alternate
channels exist-some large enough to accommodate a diver. Several
divers have lost their lives in the complex of rooms and shafts.
Discharge.-The measured discharge was 24.7 cfs on January
18, 1961.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Quality of Water.-The chloride content of water from the
surface of the boil was 760 ppm and the temperature 74F on
December 16, 1960.
Use.-None.

832-237-B. MUD SPRING

Location.-Hernando County, NE1/4NW1/ sec. 29, T. 22 S., R.
17 E., at head of Mud River about 400 feet south of State Highway
50, 1.3 miles east of Bayport, and 3,000 feet west of the intersection
of State Highway 50 and State Highway 595.
Description.-The head pool of Mud River is about 400 feet in
diameter with a 200-foot wide run flowing from the east side. The
spring is near the southwest side of the pool about 15 feet east of
a dock. The spring basin is elongate in a north-south direction and
slopes irregularly toward the deep on the north, east, and south
sides. The west side is essentially vertical to a depth of 82 feet.
The general bottom in the vicinity of the deep is at a depth of 58
feet. Divers report a horizontal current flows westward at about
3 miles per hour at a depth of 50 feet. The bottom is obscured at
all times by a brown flaky material, probably algal, that gives the
river and spring the name "mud'. The spring has been known as
Sulfur Spring.
Discharge.-The measured flow was 128 cfs on January 18,
1961.
Quality of Water.-The chloride content, based on a specific
conductance of 23,000 micromhos, was 8,000 ppm at a depth of 58
feet, and the temperature 69F on December 16, 1960.
Use.-Fishing and boat launching.

832-237-C

Location.-Hernando County, SE1I4SW1/4 sec. 20, T. 22 S., R. 17
E., about 500 feet north of a culvert under State Highway 50 about
600 feet west of Mud Spring (832-237-B), 1.2 miles east of Bayport,
3,600 feet west of the intersection of State Highway 50 and State
Highway 595.
Description.-The spring pool is about 30 feet long and 10 feet
wide in the bed of an intermittent creek. The spring was observed
from the air only and no detailed information is available. The
spring run flows south to a culvert under State Highway 50 where
the flow was estimated and a sample taken.
Discharge.-The flow was about 5 cfs on December 16, 1960.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39


Quality of Water.-The chloride content, based on a specific
conductance of 8,500 micromhos, was 2,700 ppm on December 16,
1960.

839-238-A. BLIND SPRINGS

Location.-Hernando County, SE/4NE1/4 sec. 18, T. 21 S., R.
17 E., at the head of Blind Creek about 2.5 miles south of the mouth
of the Chassahowitzka River at the Citrus-Hernando County line,
about 1.5 miles upstream from the mouth of North Blind Creek.
Description.-The head pool of Blind Creek is about 100 feet in
diameter. A run about 10 feet wide that flows from the east side
of the pool widens to about 100 feet a short distance downstream.
The rock floor of the spring basin slopes and drops vertically in
variable increments to a distinct hole about 20 feet in diameter
and 53 feet deep about 20 feet from the north side of the pool. A
boil usually marks the location of the hole. A number of lesser
springs issue from elongate solution enlarged joints or fractures in
the floor of the spring basin and of the run near the basin. Highly
colored water obscures the bottom below a depth of about 5 feet.
Discharge.-Because the head pool and the adjacent section of
the run contain a complex of springs, the flow was measured about
400 feet downstream. The flow was 50.3 cfs on November 28, 1961.
The flow of the entire complex of springs near the head of Blind
Creek was estimated to be 200 cfs on November 28, 1961 (includes
flow of 839-238-B and other springs not inventoried).
Quality of Water.-See table 1. The chloride content, based on a
specific conductance of 14,000 micromhos, was 4,600 ppm at a
depth of 50 feet, and the temperature 750F on September 8, 1961.
Use.-None.

839-238-B

Location.-Hernando County, SE14NE1/4 sec. 18, T. 21 S., R. 17
E., about 800 feet downstream from the head pool of Blind Creek
in a bay on the southwest side of the creek, 100 feet southwest of a
200-foot long island in the creek; about 2.4 miles south of the Citrus
County line at the mouth of the Chassahowitzka River and 1.1 miles
upstream from the mouth of Blind Creek.
Description.-The spring flows from beneath a rock ledge on
the southwest side of a baylet in the southwest bank of Blind Creek.
Discharge.-Estimated flow was 50 cfs on November 28, 1961.
Use.-None.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


840-238-A
Location.-Hernando County, NE1/tSE1/ sec. 7, T. 21 S., R.
17 E., in the bed of Chub Creek 100 feet from the north shore, 50
feet from the south shore and 100 feet west of a point of land on
the east side of a creek tributary to Chub Creek from the north,
about 1.5 miles south of the mouth of the Chassahowitzka River
and about 1 mile from the mouth of Chub Creek.
Description.-At low tide water boils from at least one of
several fissures in the rock in the bottom of Chub Creek. A
depression a few feet deep, about 20 feet long, and 10 feet wide,
surrounds the spring's opening.
Discharge.-Probably less than 10 cfs.
Quality of Water.-The chloride content, based on a specific
conductance of 19,000 micromhos, was 6,400 ppm and the
temperature 750F on September 8, 1961.
Use.-None.

841-235-A
Location.-Hernando County, NE1/SE1/4 sec. 3, T. 21 S., R. 17
E., at the head of Crawford Creek about 2.7 miles upstream from
the mouth of the creek at the Chassahowitzka River, located from
aerial photographs.
Description.-This spring reportedly contributed most or all of
the flow of Crawford Creek. The spring, not visited, is accessible
with extreme difficulty. Large trees across the stream block entry
by boat from the mouth and swampy ground makes approach by
land difficult.
Discharge.-The flow of Crawford Creek, measured about 1.8
miles from the mouth and 300 feet upstream from a small tributary
creek was 30.1 cfs on November 29, 1961. The flow was estimated
to be approximately the same a quarter of a mile upstream from
the measured section.
Quality of Water.-The chloride content, based on a specific
conductance of 650 micromhos, was 110 ppm, and the temperature
74F on November 29, 1961.
Use.-None.

841-236-A
Location.-Hernando County, SW1/4NWI/ sec. 4, T. 21 S., R. 17
E., near the center of the 50-foot wide, hook-shaped head pool of
Ryle Creek about 50 feet from the head, about 1.1 miles upstream






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39


from Garden Island and 0.5 mile south of the Citrus County Line.
Description.-The largest and easternmost of three springs in
the head of Ryle Creek. Brown, flaky, probably algal, material
suspended in the water obscures the bottom. A few hundred feet
downstream from the springs, this material has accumulated to a
depth of more than 6 feet, and in the vicinity of the springs the
material masks most of the bottom. The deepest sounding was 20
feet near the boil of the spring.
Discharge.-Estimated flow of the spring was 5 cfs on
November 29, 1961.
Quality of Water.-See table 1. The chloride content, based on
a specific conductance of 9,500 micromhos, was 3,000 ppm, and the
temperature 74F on September 18, 1961. The water is more highly
mineralized than that in nearby spring 841-236-B.
Use.-None.

841-236-B
Location.-Hernando County, SW/tNWl/. sec. 4, T. 21 S., R. 17
E., at the head of Ryle Creek about 40 feet northwest of 841-236-A,
about 1.1 miles upstream from Garden Island and 0.5 mile south of
the Citrus County line.
Description.-The sluggish boil of the spring emerges from the
brown flaky silt that settles from the water wherever the velocity
of the water decreases sufficiently.
Discharge.-Estimated flow was 5 cfs on November 29, 1961.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-None.

841-236-C
Location.-Hernando County, SEI,4NE/4, sec. 4, T. 21 S., R. 17
E., at the head of Blue Run, a tributary of Crawford Creek, about
0.7 mile upstream from its confluence with Crawford Creek, and
about 2,800 feet south of the Citrus County line.
Description.-The head pool of the stream is about 100 feet
wide and 600 feet long. The deepest spot sounded was 28 feet below
the water about 10 feet from the rock ledge at the head of the pool.
No boil was visible on November 29, 1961. The bottom of the pool
is obscured by the milky turbidity of the water.
Discharge.-The measured flow was 9.1 cfs on November 29,
1961, about 1,100 feet downstream from the head of the head pool.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-None.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


842-234-A. CHASSAHOWITZKA SPRINGS

Location.-Citrus County, NE1/SWi/ sec. 26, T. 20 S., R. 17
E., in the Chassahowitzka River about 300 feet east of the end of
State Highway 480 and about 1.8 miles west of U.S. Highway 19
at its junction with U.S. Highway 98.
Description.-The spring boils from the sand bottom along a
crevice about 25 feet long and 341/2 feet below the water surface.
The bottom of the 150-foot diameter pool in the river slopes gently
toward the spring, then becomes steep to vertical in a 50-foot
wide cone.
Discharge.-The flow of the Chassahowitzka River is measured
downstream from the mouth of Crab Creek about 600 feet west of
Chassahowitzka Springs (842-234-A). Flow at that point is the
composite of the flows of springs 842-234-A, 842-234-B, 842-234-C,
and the one or more springs upstream from spring complex
842-234-C. In addition, some surface drainage and the flow of a
canal are included in the measurement. Maximum measured flow
was 140 cfs on November 9, 1960 and minimum measured flow was
54.6 cfs on November 8, 1935. The average of seven measurements,
made between October 9, 1930 and November 9, 1960, is 94.2 cfs.
The flow of spring 842-234-A alone was estimated to be on the
order of 30 cfs on September 18, 1961.
Quality of Water.-See table 1. The chloride content of the
water was 53 ppm and the sulfate content was 13 ppm on July 25,
1946. The disproportionate increase in chloride indicates a complex
source of the salts in the water or variation of sampling techniques.
The stream that flows across the spring probably contains less
dissolved material than the water from spring 842-234-A.
Use.-Swimming.

842-234-B

Location.-Citrus County, NE/4SW14 sec. 26, T. 20 S., R. 17
E. The three openings are about 10, 75, and 100 feet from the head
of Crab Creek along the southeast bank near a wooden dock, and
about 600 feet upstream from the mouth of the creek which is
about 300 feet northwest of the end of State Highway 480 in
Chassahowitzka.
Description.-The spring is a complex of three sub-round
vertical holes about 3 feet in diameter and 10 to 17 feet in depth.
Two horizontal crevices reported by Ferguson and others (1946,
p. 54) were obscured by the turbid water and were not flowing







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39


vigorously enough to cause a boil on the surface on April 26, 1962.
Discharge.--The discharge of the three openings was on the
order of 40 cfs on September 18, 1961 and 20 cfs on April 26, 1962.
Quality of Water.-See table 1. Ferguson and others reported
the water to be clear in 1946; however, when visited in April 1961
the water was turbid.
Use.-Domestic supply for a summer home is pumped from
the spring opening nearest the head of the creek.

842-234-C

Location.-Citrus County, NE/4SW1/ sec. 26, T. 20 S., R. 17
E. The several openings of this complex spring are in the bed of a
spring run that flows into the north side of the Chassahowitzka
River about 400 feet east of Chassahowitzka Springs (842-234-A)
and about 700 feet east of the end of State Highway 480 in
Chassahowitzka. Opening 1 is farthest downstream, about 30 feet
north of a small island at the mouth. Other openings are spaced
fairly evenly through the stream bed for about 200 feet upstream
from opening 1.
Description.-Virtually the entire creek bottom is a spring
complex for more than 100 feet upstream from the mouth of the
run. The rock bottom consists of solution-riddled limestone with
pipe-like holes a few feet deep, and many irregular fissures. The
interconnection of all the various cavities is difficult to confirm but
is apparent in many places. Farther upstream, the bottom is thinly
covered by sand with numerous small boils in the sand. Sand
remains in animated suspension in the high velocity water near
the narrow deeper parts of most of the openings.
Discharge.-The discharge at the mouth of the run was on the
order of 30 cfs on September 18, 1961. The observed springs were
contributing probably 20 cfs of the total flow. The remainder was
flowing in the run above opening 7, the farthest upstream of the
observed openings.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-None.

843-235-A

Location.-Citrus County, NE/4NE1/4 sec. 27, T. 20 S., R. 17
E., at the head of Salt Creek, about 50 feet upstream from
843-235-B, about 1.4 miles northwest of the terminus of State
Highway 480 at the Chassahowitzka River.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Description.-The spring pool which is about 4 feet wide forms
the head of Salt Creek. The spring flows from a small irregular
hole in the rock.
Discharge.-The estimated flow was 0.1 cfs on September 18,
1961.
Quality of Water.-The chloride content, based on a specific
conductance of 5,500 micromhos, was 1,600 ppm, and the
temperature 75F on September 18, 1961. The water contains
brown, flaky, material in suspension.
Use.-None.

843-235-B

Location.-Citrus County, NE1/NE1/ sec. 27, T. 20 S., R. 17
E., about 50 feet downstream from 843-235-A and the head of
Salt Creek.
Description.-The spring manifests itself as a boil near the
north bank of the creek. The bottom was obscured by turbidity and
suspended brown, flaky material on September 18, 1961.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-None.

843-235-C

Location.-Citrus County, NE1%NE1/ sec. 27, T. 20 S., R. 17
E., about 125 feet southwest of 843-235-A and the head of Salt
Creek, near the center of the creek.
Description.-The spring is the southernmost visible boil in
Salt Creek. Below the spring the creek widens into a bay with a
tributary stream entering the northside. Specific conductance of
the water from the tributary stream was 16,000 micromhos on
September 18, 1961. Water from the three springs (843-235-A, B,
and C) in the northern neck had a specific conductance of 6,500
micromhos. A specific conductance of 19,000 was recorded near
the south side of the bay near an overhanging bank. A spring
probably flows from beneath the bank.
Quality of Water.-The chloride content, based on specific
conductance of 6,200 micromhos, was 1,900 ppm, and the
temperature 750F on September 18, 1961.
Use.-None.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39 41

843-235-D. RUTH SPRING

Location.-Citrus County, SWI/NWI/4 sec. 22, T. 20 S., R. 17
E., at the head of the wide part of Potter Creek about three-quarters
of a mile from the mouth.
Description.-The spring is an irregular hole 17 feet deep in
the head of the 100-foot wide part of the creek. A small stream,
probably a spring run, enters the north end of the wide run and
flows across the spring pool.
Discharge.-The measured flow of Potter Creek was 31.7 cfs
about 500 feet above the mouth on November 29, 1961. The
estimated flow of the tributary to the head pool was 10 cfs. By
difference the flow of Ruth Spring was about 22 cfs.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-None.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


REFERENCES

Coast and Geodetic Survey
1961 Tide tables, east coast North and South America, including
Greenland.
Ferguson, G. E.
1947 (and Lingham, C. W., Love, S. K., and Vernon, R. O.) Springs
of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 31.
Heath, R. C.
1954 (and Smith, P. C.) Ground-water resources of Pinellas County,
Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 12.
Lingham, C. W. (see Ferguson, G. E.)
Love, S. K. (see Ferguson, G. E.)
Sellards, E. H.
1908 A preliminary report on the underground water supply of central
Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 1.
Smith, P. C. (see Heath, R. C.)
Taylor, R. L.
1953 Hydrologic characteristics of Lake Tarpon area, Florida: U. S.
Geol. Survey open-file report.
U. S. Geological Survey
1961-62 Surface-water records of Florida, v. 1: Streams.
Vernon, R. O. (also see Ferguson, G. E.)
1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Sur-
vey Bull. 33.
Wetterhall, W. S.
1964 Geohydrologic reconnaissance of Pasco and southern Hernando
counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 34.




Reconnaissance of springs and sinks in west-central Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 39 )
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Title: Reconnaissance of springs and sinks in west-central Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 39 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Report of investigations 39 )
Physical Description: vi, 42 p. : illus., maps. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wetterhall, W. S
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Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1965
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Springs -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sinkholes   ( lcsh )
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Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY



FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert O. Vernon, Director






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39







RECONNAISSANCE OF SPRINGS AND SINKS
IN WEST-CENTRAL FLORIDA

By
W. S. Wetterhall


Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
and the
SOUTHWEST FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT


Tallahassee
1965










FLORIDA STATE BOARD

OF

CONSERVATION





HAYDON BURNS
Governor


TOM ADAMS
Secretary of State



BROWARD WILLIAMS
Treasurer



THOMAS D. BAILEY
Superintendent of Public Instruction


EARL FAIRCLOTH
Attorney General



RAY E. GREEN
Comptroller



DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGES
Director







LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


lorida jeologicaI Survey

Callakassee

January 28, 1965

Honorable Haydon Burns, Chairman
Florida State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida


Dear Governor Burns:

The Florida Geological Survey has published as its Report of
Investigations No. 39, "Reconnaissance of Springs and Sinks in
West-Central Florida." This study was prepared by W. S. Wetter-
hall, a geologist with the U. S. Geological Survey, working in
cooperation with this department and the Southwest Florida Water
Management District.
The report locates and describes 52 springs and sinks, and
gives selective chemical analyses of the water and the rate of flow
measured at the springhead or traversing the sink. These springs
and sinks are not only important as recreational sites, but con-
tribute to the availability of water resources of the area. This
report should be well received by the citizens of Florida.


Respectfully yours,
Robert O. Vernon
Director and State Geologist



















































Completed manuscript received
July 23, 1964
Published for the Florida Geological Survey
By the E. O. Painter Printing Company
DeLand, Florida
Tallahassee
1965

iv










CONTENTS


A abstract ..................... ....
Introduction .......................
Purpose and scope ...............
Location and extent of the area ...
Previous reports ................
Numbering system ...............
Acknowledgments .............. .
Geography .......................


Page
* 1
1

S.1

S2
S2
S4
4


C lim ate .... ................................................ .


Topography .... ......................
D rainage ..............................
Quality of water ..........................
Geohydrology .............................
Description of springs and sinks ...........
800-240-A. Phillippi Spring ............
805-246-A. Blue Sink ..................
805-247-A. Crystal Beach Spring .......
806-246-A. Health Spring ..............
807-244-A. Knights Sink ..............
807-244-B. Lake Tarpon Sink ..........
808-245-A. Tarpon Springs ............
812-239-A. Seven Springs ..............
814-243-A and B .......................
816-239-A. Rocky Sink ................
817-242-A..........................


817-243-A.
817-243-B.
819-240-A.
820-241-A.
820-242-A.
820-243-A.
821-242-A.
822-241-A.
822-242-A.
822-242-B.
823-241-A.
823-241-B.
824-239-A.
825-243-A.
826-238-A.
826-239-A.
826-239-B.
827-238-A.
830-234-A.


Salt Springs

Bear Sink
Round Sink
Hazel Sink


Hudson Springs ....................

Cedar Island Springs ...............
Cedar Island Springs ...............
Horseshoe Spring ..................

Isabella Spring ....................
The Jewfish Hole ...................
Bobhill Spring .....................
Boat Spring .......................



Little Spring ......................


. .. 5


S 6
S6
S 7
S 13
. 13
S 13
S14
. 15
. 15
S 16
. 17
S17
. 18
. 18
S 19
S 19
S22
. 22
S23
S24


.......... 25


....... 25
....... 26
....... 26
....... 26
....... 27
....... 27
....... 28
. .... 29
....... 29
....... 29
....... 30
....... 30
....... 31


831-234-A. W eekiwachee Springs .................................


. ... . . .


. . .


. . .
....... .. .
. . .
......... .. ..



. . I . . .


. . .
....... .. .


. . .

. .. ..... .


. . .


I . .







Description of springs-Continued

831-237-A. .......
831-237-B. ...........
831-237-C ........... .....


832-237-A.
832-237-B.
832-237-C.
839-238-A.
839-238-B.
840-238-A.
841-235-A.
841-236-A.
841-236-B.


Salt Spring ...
Mud Spring ...
............Blind Springs..
Blind Springs .
...............


841-236-C. ..................
842-234-A. Chassahowitzka Spril
842-234-B ...................
842-234-C ...................
843-235-A ...................
843-235-B ...................
843-235-C .......... ...
843-235-D. Ruth Spring .......


.gs. ........

ngs. .. .......


................... 32
................... 32
.................... 33
................. .. 33
..... ........... 34
.................... 34
................ 35
.................... 35
................ 36
................ 36
................ 36
................ 37
.................. .. 37
................ 38
................ 38
................ 39
............. ... 39
................ 40
.................... 4 0
................ 4 1


References.........................


ILLUSTRATIONS


Figure


Page

3
4
8

11

12


]


1 Map of west-central Florida showing location of springs and
sin k s ........................................ ..........
2 Explanation of spring and sink-numbering system ...............
3 Geohydrologic section A-A' ....................................
4 Water level in Rocky Sink (816-239-A) and estimated tide at
Indian Bay .............................. ...............
5 Water level in Isabella Spring (824-239-A) and estimated tide
at Indian Bay ...........................................


TABLES

Table Page
1 Chemical analyses of waters from springs in west-central Florida .. 20


: I]::






RECONNAISSANCE OF SPRINGS AND SINKS
IN WEST-CENTRAL FLORIDA
By
W. S. Wetterhall
ABSTRACT
The many springs in west-central Florida discharge large
quantities of water. Flows of more than 100 cubic feet per second
from several springs and the lesser flow of most of the springs are
derived from the limestones that comprise the Floridan aquifer.
Vertical zonation of permeability and the southwest dip of the
geologic formations tend to control the depth of springs and, to a
degree, their distribution. South of the latitude of New Port
Richey, most of the springs flow from the Tampa Formation."
Northward from New Port Richey to about the latitude of
Weekiwachee Springs, the permeable zone near the bottom of the
Suwannee Limestone yields the flow of most of the springs. The
several springs from Weekiwachee Springs north flow from either
the Suwannee Limestone or from older, deeper formations probably
from dolomite in the Avon Park Limestone. Water from those
springs that discharge from the Suwannee Limestone is murky in
contrast with the clear water that rises from the deeper limestones.
Lake Tarpon, southeast of Tarpon Springs, drains intermit-
tently through a sink in the lake bottom that connects with Tarpon
Springs in Spring Bayou about 2 miles to the northwest. The
conditions under which drainage begins and ends are variable,
being an interrelated set of water levels in the lake, in Spring
Bayou, and in the aquifer and the relative densities of water in the
various parts of the system.
Waters from springs are of either calcium carbonate or sodium
chloride type or a mixture of the two. The concentration of
dissolved material ranges from about 100 to 15,000 parts per
million. Chloride content ranges from about 4 to more than 9,000
parts per million. The higher concentrations of chloride occur near
the coast.
The report locates and describes 52 springs and sinks and gives
rate of flow and quality of water information for selected springs.
INTRODUCTION
PURPOSE AND SCOPE
Because of the large number of springs and sinks in the report
area, a knowledge of their role and effect on the hydrology is
1The stratigraphic nomenclature in this report conforms to the usage of
the Florida Geological Survey and differs in part from that of U.S. Geological
Survey.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


important to any study appraising water resources. For this
reason, a preliminary reconnaissance study of springs and sinks
was made. The report provides information about the size, shape,
location, the geologic and hydrologic setting, and the flow of 52
inventoried springs and sinks.
The distribution of the inventoried springs bears no relation
to the distribution of springs in the area but rather reflects the
limited time that was available for the study and the limited
accessibility of most of the area.
A generalized geologic cross section, prepared from a study of
well cuttings and electric logs on file at the Florida Geological
Survey, is presented as are the results of three dye-tracer tests
and a stage-tidal relation for two sinks.

LOCATION AND EXTENT OF THE AREA

The area discussed in this report lies between latitude 2800'
and 28'45' N., and between longitude 82030' and 82050' W. (See fig.
1.) The area includes the northern 6 miles of Pinellas County, the
western parts of Pasco and Hernando counties, and the southern
part of Citrus County. Part of the Gulf of Mexico is included to
show the location of submarine springs.

PREVIOUS REPORTS

Sellards (1908, p. 86) estimated the flow of Weekiwachee
Springs at 200 cfs (cubic feet per second) in the earliest known
published report that contained data for springs in the area.
Ferguson and others (1947), as part of a state-wide inventory
of the larger springs in Florida, described Chassahowitzka Springs
(842-234-A, p. 54), Weekiwachee Spring (831-234-A, p. 74),
Seven Springs (812-239-A, p. 136), and Hudson Spring
(821-242-A, p. 136). In addition, Ferguson and others (op. cit.,
p. 77) mentioned two other springs in the area; Bobhill Spring
(826-238-A) and Mud Spring (832-237-B). Heath and Smith
1954, p. 38-42) described the drainage of Lake Tarpon and Taylor
(1953) described the drainage in more detail with description of
some of the springs and sinks in the vicinity of Lake Tarpon.
Measurements of the flow of Weekiwachee Springs (831-234-A)
and Little Spring (830-234-A) prior to 1961 are published in U.S.
Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers and subsequent flow
measurements will appear in annual reports entitled "Surface
Water Records of Florida: Streams."






RfEPORT OF INVE;STIGATIONS NO, 39


4ne, s825o0 45' R 16 E 40' B I 35' R18 E 3 %'n,


I I I









Mop of tktida howiro
of aoto distuted in 0i



EXPLANATION
.A
Sping and lellk idpdillco
Line of MSt Setlion
shmm on ligure 3.





Seclon Idhlicolon


| to
Sctot lortoto


lotd
CITU
N NDO. COUNTY
9 r~Ta I II-W s7L----40'

















JtttERNA DACO CUNTY
i 4ttSMrj IKL,2 _
-4p


Ced, /W*# _

P. -


I oot~.0LT'i 'b.) 14


B ; N45. -t,
Ota-o

rNe. Port Iil i- i





PISCO COU~; -
I COUNTY HIL SOO0OUGH C UNTY




-I 1-I-

Av.. I V
CRYSTL AL
BE H I I
&XhC7110f 19~
rE'_hI"


I RISE 3


82"50' i5E 45 RIGE 40' I RI7E 35'


Figure 1. Map of west-central Florida showing location of springs and sinks.


2500'


I:


:B











r


I






4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Six of the springs, with analyses of water, were reported by
Wetterhall, (1964, p. 17).

NUMBERING SYSTEM

The springs and sinks shown in figure 1 were assigned numbers
based on the location and the order in which they were inventoried
within a minute of latitude and longitude. The numbering system
is explained in figure 2.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Appreciation is extended to the owners of properties who
allowed access to springs and sinks and to the local residents who
assisted in the location of many of the springs and in the collection
of data. Without the cooperation of these people, the collection of
the data would not have been feasible.



.. i. G E 0 R G I A







.,. : '"F : ::: '! : '": t 5 !";...... ......
.A
















.Figure 2. Explanation of spring and sink-numbering system
i . .... ,o> : .. ) i a' i I -- o- .... ..... ....-.








..... .. -" __ ....-- a B'i 8i.'....' a-io' ...... ...
_________3_______________......O







Figure 2. Explanation of spring and sink-numbering system.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39


The investigation was under the supervision of M. I. Rorabaugh
and C. S. Conover, successive district engineers of the Ground
Water Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey in Florida.

GEOGRAPHY
CLIMATE
Precipitation on the area averages about 52 inches per year,
of which about 35 inches falls during the 5-month period-May
through September. July is the wettest month and November the
driest.
The average annual temperature is 72F. Frost may be ex-
pected 24 days per year. The minimum temperature of 170F may
be expected twice in 25 years and a temperature of 250F may be
expected 23 times in 25 years.

TOPOGRAPHY
The area lies in the Terraced Coastal Lowlands of Vernon (1951,
p. 36-41), a subdivision of the Coastal Plain Province. Marine
terraces, formed during Pleistocene time, and sand dunes are the
dominant topographic features.
The submarine bottom and adjacent coastal marshlands slope
gently from about 10 feet below sea level to about 4 feet above sea
level. The 2-foot scarp at about 4 feet above sea level is the
landward limit of the coastal swamp. Above the scarp, a limestone
plain with a thin muck, clay, and sand cover extends inland to
a major 10-foot escarpment that rises quite abruptly as a sand
dune complex from about 10 feet above sea level. This scarp is
the boundary between the hardwood hammock belt below and the
sandy pine and oak forest above.
Islands in the coastal swamp and in the hammock belt are
residual limestone mounds or sand dunes that rise as much as 30
feet above the surrounding surface. Most of the dunes in the
hammock are not shown on topographic maps but can be detected
on aerial photographs by the difference of texture and shade
imparted to the photograph by the vegetation that grows on the
dune. Inland from the scarp at an altitude of about 20 feet, the
surface is a subdued karst modified by sand dunes. The dunes
generally are disposed about the northeastern sides of lakes or
depressions in crescent-shaped masses of small irregular dunes.
Drowned valleys and relict islands that bear the flora of higher
areas inland indicate that the coast is being slowly submerged in
the Gulf of Mexico.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


DRAINAGE

Disposal of rainfall from the surface is effected by evapotrans-
piration, downward movement, and surface runoff.
Evapotranspiration is the transfer of water to the air from
water surfaces by evaporation and from living plants by the process
known as transpiration. Evaporation from the land surface occurs
during and soon after rains while the surface is wet. Transpiration
occurs continuously, the water being derived from the zone of soil
moisture or the zone of saturation by the plant's roots.
Downward movement of rainwater to the zone of saturation
may occur by percolation of water through the surficial sands and
clays or by direct flow through sinks or other breaches in the
overburden.
Surface runoff occurs when the amount of rainfall exceeds the
amount disposed of by evapotranspiration and downward movement
of water into the zone of saturation.
The amount of evapotranspiration varies with the variety and
density of plant growth, climate, and the area of exposed wetted
surface. Losses by evapotranspiration are smallest in the near
barren dune covered areas and largest in the dense forests and
marshes. Most of the water transpired by the coastal marshes
and forests is derived from the Floridan aquifer. The upward
moving artesian ground water probably supports the hardwood
growth on relict islands in the salt-water marsh.
Downward movement of rainwater to the zone of saturation
and subsequent disposal by coastward movement through the
Floridan aquifer occurs throughout most of the area. Much of the
rainfall percolates continuously through the sand and clay to the
artesian aquifer. Drain sinks, which occur where relatively thick
sand and clay are breached, are the principal points of entry of
large slugs of water into the aquifer in short periods of time.
Surface runoff through streams to the Gulf of Mexico occurs
in the southern part of the area where the clays that overlie the
limestone are thick and continuous. Reduced downward percolation,
resulting from the low permeability of clay, cause the Pithlachas-
cotee River, the Anclote River, and a number of small, short
streams to exist.

QUALITY OF WATER

The chemical character of water depends on the kinds and
nature of dissolved materials contacted. The results of chemical






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 39


analyses of waters from selected springs in the area are given in
table 1. Additional information on the chemical character of water
is given in the description of springs and sinks.
The concentration of chloride in waters from springs in the
area ranges from 4 ppm (parts per million) in Little Spring
(830-234-A) to more than 15,000 ppm in Crystal Beach Spring
(805-247-A).
All spring waters in the area contain calcium, bicarbonate, and
minor amounts of other materials derived from the limestone
aquifer. Springs in and near the Gulf yield water that contains
sodium, chloride, and other materials derived from salt water, in
addition to calcium and bicarbonate.
If the sum of the equivalent percentages of calcium and
bicarbonate exceeds 50, the water is classified as a calcium
bicarbonate water in this report. Similarly, if the sum of the
equivalent percentages of sodium and chloride exceeds 50, the
water is classified as a sodium chloride water. All of the waters
from springs in the area are quite definitely of one of the two types.
Concentrations of dissolved solids of spring waters tend to
decrease with increasing distance from the coast and with
increasing elevation of the piezometric surface.

GEOHYDROLOGY
Springs are a part of the hydrologic cycle-the regimen of
water movement from the oceans to the air, to the ground, over
and through the ground back to the ocean.
Part of the rain that falls on the land surface moves downward
through the ground to the zone of saturation and laterally to points
of discharge.
The limestones which underlie the area, and through which
the water moves, comprise the Floridan aquifer. If water in the
aquifer is at atmospheric pressure and is free to rise and fall, the
water occurs under nonartesian conditions and the water surface
is referred to as the water table. If beds of material of low
permeability restrict the vertical movement of water in a saturated
aquifer and the pressure is greater than atmospheric, the water
occurs under artesian conditions and the imaginary surface to
which water will rise in wells is referred to as the piezometric
surface.
Where the water table is higher than the piezometric surface
of the artesian aquifer, water may move downward into the
artesian aquifer. Such recharge of the aquifer can take place either







8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

through sinks that penetrate the confining beds or by percolation
through the confining beds.
Where the piezometric surface of the artesian aquifer is higher
than the water table, or the surface of a body of water, upward
discharge of water may occur. Such discharge is termed seepage
if it occurs over a large area. Flow from a natural opening in the
land surface is termed springflow, and the opening is called a
spring. The characteristics of a spring depend on the geology,
hydrology, and location.
Springs in west-central Florida are situated in the limestones
of the Floridan aquifer and derive their flow from the aquifer.
Because springs are natural features, they reflect the solubilities
of the limestone beds and the conditions under which the springs
were formed.
The depth and thickness of the several geologic units that lie
less than 600 feet below sea level are generalized in figure 3. The
vertical openings of the springs shown on the cross section
generally end at or near the bottom of a formation. Because of
the southward dip of the formations, the springs may be grouped
by source in a north-south distribution. Thus, most springs south
of the latitude of New Port Richey end near the top of the
Suwannee Limestone or are in the Tampa Formation and probably
discharge water principally from the Tampa Formation.

A A




TAMPA FORMATION
(Miocene)

SUWANNEE LIMESTONE
(Oligocene)



S LIMESTONE OF THE OCALA GROUP
A (Eocene)

AVON PARK LIMESTONE
(Eocene) Note: f I f


0 2 4 6 B 10

Figure 3. Geohydrologic section A-A'.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39


North from New Port Richey to about the latitude of
Weekiwachee Spring, the springs terminate on various beds in the
thick Suwannee Limestone and probably discharge water
principally from the Suwannee Limestone.
The springs west of Weekiwachee Springs, between latitude
28030' and 2833', discharge about 500 cfs from the Floridan
aquifer. The Suwannee Limestone is penetrated completely by
several springs in this area which are known to originate below
the bottom of the Suwannee Limestone. (See Mud Spring and
Salt Spring on fig. 3.)
Mud Spring (832-237-B) probably terminates on the top of
the Ocala Group. A generally westward cross current is reported
in this spring below a depth of 50 feet.2 The large flow of the
spring and the reportedly rapid cross current indicate that the
spring is part of a very large cavity system.
Previous studies of the characteristics of the Floridan aquifer
have indicated the existence of highly permeable zones separated
by less permeable zones. Below the Suwannee Limestone, the most
probable source of the large quantities of water that flow from the
deeper springs is the thick dolomite bed that lies about 150 feet
below the top of the Avon Park Limestone. Throughout the general
area this dolomite bed is the most permeable zone known.
Weekiwachee Springs (831-234-A) and Salt Spring (832-237-A)
probably derive their flow from the Avon Park Limestone. The
source of flow of the several other springs in the area is not known.
The sparkling clear water that flows from the known deep
springs contrasts sharply with the murky water from Mud Spring
(832-237-B) and several other shallow springs that contain organic
material. The growth of microorganisms in ground water may
result from an increase in the oxygen content or from other
material that favors the growth of the organisms. The enriched
waters enter through the drain sinks that dot the area east of the
spring and then move to the spring through cavities in the
Suwannee Limestone that are virtually separate from the source
of water of the deep springs.
North of Weekiwachee Springs, the springs probably derive
their flow from rocks that lie above the middle of the Lake City
Limestone which underlies the Avon Park Limestone. The lower
part of the Lake City Limestone is usually impregnated with
gypsum that would impart a high sulfate content to water with


2Oral communication; Mr. Carl Holder, Tampa, 1962.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


which it came in contact. No waters of this type were found in
the area.
An interesting hydrologic phenomenon relating to a spring is
that which occurs during the natural draining of Lake Tarpon,
southeast of the City of Tarpon Springs.
For many years the local residents had observed the intermittent
flow of Tarpon Springs in Spring Bayou. Lake Tarpon was known
to have several tributaries but no observable outflow. Taylor
(1953), and Heath and Smith (1954) described the phenomenon
and postulated an explanation. A summary of those reports and
of additional data collected by the author follows:
Tarpon Springs (808-245-A) is the principal outlet of Lake
Tarpon, the tributaries of which drain approximately 60 square
miles of Hillsborough, Pasco, and Pinellas counties. The average
flow into the lake is about 30 cfs. Because evaporation approximates
rainfall on the lake, approximately 30 cfs of discharge from the
lake is required to maintain the average lake level.
Some seepage from the lake bottom to the aquifer may occur,
but most of the water that flows from tributaries into the lake is
discharged through an underground conduit that connects Lake
Tarpon Sink (807-244-B) in Lake Tarpon with Tarpon Springs
(808-245-A) in Spring Bayou. Intermittent drainage of the lake
occurs when the stage of the lake, ground water levels, tidal levels
and density of water in the several parts of the system are such
that salt water in the conduit begins to flow with a flushing action.
Periods of draining last from about a week to about a month and
usually begin when the lake stage is 2.5 to 6.4 feet above sea level.
Drainage ceases when the lake stage is 1.2 to 3.1 feet above sea
level. Following cessation of draining, the flow through the conduit
reverses and some salt water flows into the lake. Cyclic flow of
water into and out of the lake and Spring Bayou occurs during
interdrain periods.
The chloride content of water from the lake ranges from about
150 to about 4,500 ppm depending on the residual predrain
concentration of chloride in the lake water, the amount of salt
water that entered the lake in the postdrain reverse flow, and the
amount of rainfall and inflow through tributaries of the lake.
Distribution of salinity is fairly uniform both horizontally and
vertically throughout the lake.
The reason for this unusual drainage pattern was not known
prior to 1953 when an investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey
was completed. In the 1920's a water-treatment plant was






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39


constructed on the shore of the lake to supply water for the City
of Tarpon Springs. The plant was abandoned shortly after
completion because of the high chloride content of the lake water.
The effect of tidal fluctuation on water levels in Rocky Sink
(816-239-A) and Isabella Spring (824-239-A) is illustrated in
figures 4 and 5. The water levels in many other sinks and springs
in the area fluctuate in response to tidal fluctuation in the gulf.
Near the coast the effect is pronounced and the time between
changes in the tide and changes in water levels in the aquifer
is small. The effect of the tide diminishes and the time lag between
the cause and the effect increases with increasing distance from
the coast. The fluctuations of the water level in the sinks are
caused by earth tides and by loading and unloading of the aquifer
as the tidal waters advance and retreat from the coast. In addition
to pressure transfer by tidal loading and unloading of the aquifer,
some water is interchanged between the gulf and the aquifer
where the water level in the aquifer is below high tide.


Estimated tide at
Indian Boy








-t 1
14 15 16 17 18
DECEMBER 1961


Figure 4. Water level in Rocky Sink (816-239-A) and
Indian Bay.


estimated tide at






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 5. Water level in


DECEMBER 1961
Isabella Spring (824-239-A) and estimated tide at
Indian Bay.


Because the above processes all produce similar changes in
water level in sinks and springs, a direct method is necessary to
determine whether water is interchanging between a sink and the
gulf. For this purpose a dye, hidacid fluorescein, was introduced
to a few sinks directly or to streams that flowed into sinks. The
latter method allowed constant feed of dyed water to a sink over
extended periods of time to assure the detection of the dye by daily
visits to probable points of discharge of the dyed water.
Dye was used to find or confirm the connection between Knights
Sink (807-244-A) and Tarpon Springs (808-245-A), between the
several subterranean conduits in the run of Salt Springs
(817-243-A), and between Round Sink (820-241-A) and Spring
(820-243-A). Attempts to trace the flow of Rocky Sink (816-239-A)
and Bear Sink (819-240-A) were unsuccessful. The dye allowed
detection of the cyclic flow of water to and from the aquifer in
Isabella Spring (824-239-A) and demonstrated the effect of rainfall
on the movement of water in the aquifer for that area.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39


DESCRIPTION OF SPRINGS AND SINKS

Information relating to each spring and sink is grouped
systematically to allow the report to be used for ready reference.
The number and name serve to identify the spring or sink. The
number is based on latitude and longitude. (See fig. 2.) In addition
to the location indicated by the number, the locations are referenced
to General Land Office surveys based on quarter-quarter section,
township, and range. Supplementary descriptions further pinpoint
the locations.
The description of a spring or sink includes information about
the general size, shape, depth, and other data. Most of the distances
were estimated but depths were measured by weighted tape or
fathometer.

800-240-A. PHILLIPPI SPRING

Location.-Pinellas County. SE1/SE1/ sec. 27, T. 28 S., R.
16 E., about 200 feet east of the west shore of Safety Harbor, 0.2
mile southeast of the north gate of Phillippi Park 0.3 mile southeast
of the junction of County Road 80 with State Highway 590, and
1.3 miles southeast of the junction of State Highways 580 and 590.
Description.-A concrete curb 3 feet in diameter and 2 feet high
has broken off on the shoreward side to about 0.4 foot above the
filled land surface. The spring has ceased flowing because of the
persistence of vandals who have filled the opening with rocks and
trash more frequently than park personnel could remove it. The
author observed flow frdm the spring in the late 1920's and up to
1940. Park personnel report that the spring has not flowed since
before 1959.
Discharge.-The estimated flow in 1940 was 10 gpm.
Quality.-The water tasted salty in 1940.
Use.-None.

805-246-A. BLUE SINK

Location.-Pinellas County, SE1/SE1/4 sec. 35, T. 27 S., R. 15
E., about 0.8 mile north of Palm Harbor, 1,100 feet north of U. S.
Highway 19 at the junction of a dirt road to the sink, 50 feet east
of the dirt road, and 50 feet north of a dirt trail.
Description.-The pool is about 80 feet in diameter at the
surface. The bottom slopes irregularly toward a vertical hole
about 15 feet in diameter in a rock ledge. Below the rock ledge the






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


hole expands to an undetermined diameter (estimated by a diver
to be 50 feet) to a depth of 111 feet. A small mound of sand and
a water-logged tree rest on a landing at 111 feet. On the southwest
side of the landing, a hole, large enough to swim in but not
measured, extends to a depth of 150 feet. Below 150 feet the hole
changes to an elongate inclined cavity that continues downward
an undetermined distance at perhaps 60 degrees from the vertical.
Discharge.-A pumping station on the southwest side of the
sink has pumped 1,000 gpm for as long as a week without
appreciably lowering the water level. A small amount of surface
water and shallow ground water is drained by the sink.
Quality of Water.-The chloride content of water near the
surface was 360 ppm on August 30, 1962, 86 ppm on October 3,
1946, and 388 ppm on June 25, 1945. The chloride content of water
from near the bottom was 11,300 ppm on October 3, 1946, 13,300
on September 20, 1946, and 595 on June 25, 1941. The quality of
the water reportedly does not seriously deteriorate after one week
of pumping at 1,000 gpm. In the late 1930's and early 1940's, the
water reportedly was too salty for irrigation of citrus. Mr. George
McCall, Pinellas County Sanitation Engineer, reports that water
in a turbid layer between depths 125 to 130 feet contains more
than 37 ppm of hydrogen sulfide. This is about 10 times the
concentration of hydrogen sulfide previously reported in waters
in Florida.
Use.-Irrigation.


805-247-A. CRYSTAL BEACH SPRING

Location.-Pinellas County, NW1/NE1/4 sec. 3, T. 28 S., R. 15
E., at Crystal Beach in the bottom of St. Joseph Sound about 1,000
feet southwest of the shore at the west end of Florida Boulevard.
The spring is noted on U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart 858.
Description.-The rim of the spring is about 50 feet in diameter.
The maximum depth was 18 feet below the water surface in a hole
about 10 feet in diameter. The general bottom depth in the spring
is about 14 feet.
Discharge.-Not measured-probably on the order of 5 or 10
cfs at low tide.
Quality of Water.-14,000 to 16,000 ppm chloride on September
19 and 20, 1946. A sample from 16-foot depth on September 30,
1962 contained 11,000 ppm chloride. Temperature 84F.
Use.-None.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39


806-246-A. HEALTH SPRING

Location.-Pinellas County, NW1/4SE14, sec. 26, T. 27 S., R.
15 E., at town of Wall Springs about 500 feet northwest of the
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad track and 1,200 feet northwest of
U.S. Highway 19A at the road to the spring in Wall Springs, 3
miles south of Tarpon Springs.
Description.-The spring basin slopes toward the spring which
is about 10 feet deep. A low curb about 30 feet in diameter
encloses the spring. Water from the spring flows under the curb
through a rectangular opening into a swimming-wading pool
complex. The swimming and wading pools discharge into a
partially curbed swimming hole, about 1 acre in area, that is
separated from the salt water of Boggy Bayou by a dike. The flow
from the swimming hole is regulated by a gate valve and reverse
flow is prevented by a flap valve.
Discharge.-Measured flow was 6.14 cfs on November 10, 1947;
11.2 cfs on August 22, 1949; 16.5 cfs on August 23, 1949; 1 cfs on
May 2, 1956; and 4.52 cfs on November 3, 1960.
Quality of Water.-67 ppm chloride on September 20, 1946.
Use.-Bathing and drinking.


807-244-A. KNIGHTS SINK

Location.-Pinellas County, NW1/4NE1 sec. 19, T. 27 S., R.
16 E., about 1.3 miles south of State Highway 582 and 0.2 mile
south of the south city limit of Tarpon Springs; about 100 feet
west of the west shore of Lake Tarpon and 800 feet east of U.S.
Highway 19.
Description.-The sink pond is about 100 feet long and 80 feet
wide. The sides of the sink are fairly steep from the top of the
ridge that surrounds the sink, to a depth of 1 to 20 feet below the
water surface. A nearly vertical hole extends from the rim at
10-20 feet to a general bottom depth of about 60 feet. The
northwest side of the hole is 75 feet deep. Water enters and leaves
the sink through a horizontal opening below the vertical or
overhanging wall. Dye studies indicate that Knights Sink is
connected with the underground drain that connects Lake Tarpon
Sink (807-244-B) with Tarpon Springs (808-245-A).
Discharge.-Only small amounts of water flow into or out of
the sink. The principal causes of outflow are declining stage of
Lake Tarpon during a drain cycle with resultant decrease in storage






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


in the sink, ebbing tide, and minor local ground water and surface
water that enter the sink. Inflow is induced by rising tide, by
rising stage of Lake Tarpon, and by evapotranspirative losses from
the sink.
Quality of Water.-In June 1945 during an interdrain period,
the following chloride concentrations were noted: 432 ppm at
surface, 1,810 ppm at 40 feet, and 19,300 ppm at the bottom. At
this time the water near the surface of Lake Tarpon contained
more than 4,000 ppm chloride. The small amount of fresh water
derived from rainfall and from local surface and ground water
inflow apparently maintains the observed stratification of dense
salty water and fresh water.
Use.-None.

807-244-B. LAKE TARPON SINK
Location.-Pinellas County, NW1/NE1/ sec. 19, T. 27 S., R.
16 E., in the bottom of Lake Tarpon about 60 feet east of the west
shore of the lake, 1.3 miles south of State Highway 582 and about
200 feet southeast of Knights Sink (807-244-A).
Description.-The sink is irregular in shape, about 250 feet
wide and 300 feet long at a depth of 10 feet below the lake surface
when the lake stage is 2 feet above mean sea level. The generally
west and south sides slope moderately from the rim to a depth
of about 40 feet then slope steeply but very irregularly toward
the deep on the west side of the depression. The west and north
slopes are steep or vertical from a depth of about 20 feet to the
bottom. The deep is a small vertical hole about 20 feet deep below
general bottom depth of 95 feet below mean sea level along the
west side of the sink. Lake Tarpon Sink is probably the eastern
end of the underground conduit system that connects Tarpon
Springs (808-245-A).
Discharge.-Flow to and from the lake through the sink
approached 200 and 150 cfs, respectively, during a period of
vacillating flow when the lake level was approximately 1.5 feet
above mean sea level. The flow from the lake during the early
part of the drain cycle has not been determined.
Quality of Water.-Salt water from Tarpon Spring (808-245-A)
flows into Lake Tarpon through this sink during periods of reverse
flow. Under such conditions, the sink contains water with about
18,000 ppm chloride. During drainage of the lake, the water in
the sink is similar to that of the lake. During periods when the flow
virtually stops, the chloride content of water near the top is the






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39


same as that of the lake, but the chloride content increases to
perhaps 18,000 ppm as the bottom is approached.
Use.-None.
808-245-A. TARPON SPRINGS
Location.-Pinellas County, SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 12, T. 27 S., R.
15 E., about 100 feet north and 150 feet west of the curb around
Spring Bayou, near the west end of Tarpon Avenue and the north
end of Bath Street in Tarpon Springs.
Description.-The rim of the kidney-shaped spring basin is
about 130 feet long and 60 feet wide at a depth of 10 feet below
mean sea level and is 125 feet deep at the deepest point. The
north, east, and west sides slope steeply toward the spring to a
depth of 60 feet, then drop vertically to about 100 feet. The south
wall is vertical or overhung from 20 feet to 125 feet. The vertical
hole below 60 feet is about 40 feet long and 20 feet wide. The floor
of the hole slopes quite steeply toward the 125-foot deep on the
south side. The spring opening is in the south wall near the bottom.
Tarpon Springs is the principal and probably the only drainage
outlet for Lake Tarpon, about 11/2 miles southeast of the spring.
The unusual hydrologic phenomena associated with the flow of
the spring are discussed in the section on Geohydrology.
Discharge.-The maximum flow of the spring was about 1,000
cfs on September 8, 1950 during a period while Lake Tarpon was
draining. The sporadic periods of large flow last for 7 to 25 days.
Reverse flow occurs at the high tide following cessation of the
drainage of Lake Tarpon. This reversed flow was 146 cfs on
October 10, 1946, on a falling tide. Between these definite types
of flow, the spring vacillates with the tide.
Quality of Water.-During periods of lake drainage, the quality
of the water in the spring approaches that of the lake water. The
maximum chloride content observed was 16,100 ppm in a water
sample from the bottom on June 24, 1945. The chloride content
probably equals or exceeds 18,000 ppm, the concentration observed
in Lake Tarpon Sink (807-244-B) during flow toward the sink
from Tarpon Springs.
Use.-None.
812-239-A. SEVEN SPRINGS
Location.-Pasco County, NWl/4NW1 sec. 24, T. 26 S., R. 16
E., at Seven Springs, about 50 feet east of State Highway 54 and
150 feet south of the Anclote River, at the southeast corner of an
abandoned swimming pool.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Description.-Only one of the "Seven" springs has flowed in
recent years. The spring is curbed with 18-inch concrete pipe to a
a depth of about 17 feet below the present land surface. Local
residents report that the spring formerly supplied a swimming
pool but was inadequate. The curb was practically filled with dry
sand on April 4, 1962. Reported depth of water in the curb was 12
feet on May 3, 1946.
Discharge.-Almost no flow during drought of 1945, 13 gpm on
May 3, 1946, 2.6 gpm on May 3, 1956, 18 gpm on November 3,
1960, 4.2 gpm on November 23, 1960, and no flow on April 4, 1962.
Quality--See table 1. Temperature 76F on May 3, 1946;
hydrogen sulfide odor.
Use.-None.

814-243-A and B

Location.-Pasco County, SE1/iNE1/ sec. 8, T. 26 S., R. 16 E.
In New Port Richey about 600 feet east of South Boulevard in the
south bank of the Pithlachascotee River, about 15 feet south of the
river. Spring 814-243-A is in the western fork and 814-243-B in
the eastern fork of a spring run. Spring 814-243-B is about 15
feet east of spring 814-243-A.
Description.-The springs flow from beneath an overhanging
shelf of dense, hard limestone about 3 feet thick. At high tide the
river floods the springs to a depth of 2 feet.
Discharge.-Estimated flow of each spring was about 100 gpm
on September 13, 1961.
Use.-None.

816-239-A. ROCKY SINK

Location.-Pasco County, NEI/SEI/ sec. 26, T. 25 S., R. 16
E, about 600 feet south of State Highway 587 at Bass Lake
Subdivision which is 4 miles north and east along State Highway
587 from Congress Street in New Port Richey.
Description.-The sink is about 125 feet in diameter and 52
feet deep below the water surface at a stage of 13 feet above mean
sea level. The deep is about 15 feet southwest of a large cypress
tree on the north east bank of the sink.
The bank above the water surface on the north and west sides
is a nearly vertical limestone wall. The east bank above the water
surface is mostly clay. Rock prominences below the water surface
form a rough shelf several feet wide.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 39


At the south side, a stream flows into the sink from the chain
of several lakes to the southwest, west, north, and northeast, in
the order of distance from the sink. The stage of the sink fluctuated
between 8.2 and more than 13 feet above mean sea level during the
period August 1960 to September 1962. Minor fluctuations of
the stage of the sink are related to the tide as shown in figure 4.
The average fluctuation of the stage of the sink is about 6 percent
of the tide in Indian Bay. The estimated flow of the stream and
hence the discharge of the sink to the aquifer was 26 cfs on July
12, 1960 and 5 cfs on January 22, 1962. The measured flow was
14.5 cfs on September 10, 1962.
Quality.-The water in the stream at the sink was highly colored
and contained 4 ppm chloride on September 10, 1962.
Use.-The sink drains five lakes and a large swampy area.

817-242-A

Location.-Pasco County, SE1/NW/4 sec. 21, T. 25 S., R. 16
E., 2.2 miles northeast of Port Richey, about 600 feet west of an
old road 0.15 mile north of its junction with U.S. Highway 19 in
the bottom of a drainage ditch about 5 feet from the east end
of the ditch.
Description.-The spring flows from the rock through a thin
sand cover to form a sand boil a few inches in diameter. The ditch
drains directly to the Gulf of Mexico.
Discharge.-The estimated flow was 5 gpm on November
23, 1960.
Quality of Water.-The chloride content, based on a specific
conductance of 2,050 micromhos, was 500 ppm on November
23, 1960.
Use.-None.

817-243-A. SALT SPRINGS

Location.-Pasco County, NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 20, T. 25 S., R. 16
E., about 1.6 miles north of Port Richey, 0.4 mile west of U.S.
Highway 19, and 500 feet south of Salt Springs Road; on the
south bank of a neck on the west side of a 1-acre pond, about 100
feet east of the easternmost natural bridge.
Description.-The spring opening, invisible from the surface,
is an irregular hole in the vertical bank. The water flows 100 feet
westward to a natural bridge where it enters a hole in a vertical
bank, flows about 3 feet underground, and then emerges from a









Tdbll 1. Chbvatcal n41tyIes of walte Ifrum sprinsl In wueit..aur:al FlurdJ.

(Analyses by U,8, G JliLSLwurv), Y6IReIul la i erti pr ot lJln iei pt *ipeclifi:.Lc UJduiL.(tc, dI a P .IJ cuu.)


Iprtia






812-239-A

817-243-A

817-243.5

821-242-A

823-241-A

824-239-A

826-238-A

826-239-A

827-238-A

830-234-A

831-234-A

839-238-A


841-236-A

41-236(B



841-236-C


842.234-A


842-234-1


Iprtal




arnu




Salt

Budson

Borisihoa



lobhtll





Little

Vasklwvchbs

Blind











Chailabovital
Do.

ChDashou.lu
Do.


2 7 6 18 3 65 26 8


5. 3-56

11-23.60

5-17-62

5- 3-56

11-28-60

11-14-61

5-16-62

5-15-62

7-13-60

6-14-60

5- 2-56

11-28-61

11-29-61


Iran



In
solution
at tiU
of
analysis

0.01





.01







.00.





.01


Dissolved
sullJd




lldus
ac 160oC


,1

5,2





3,290







13





3.1


2.0



202

857



14

4.0

7.6





6.0

1,220

580


492



296


36
18

166
156


....-

*....




..=...


.....


.....

161


..o,-


lardanes
as C8C03


C l lu
iusnir


164

2,680

680

2,090

885

184

106

122

90

128

148

3,060

1,550


1,360


8.5

7,900

1,360

6,030

2,300

84

7.0

21

5.0

4.0

5.0

9,200

4,300


3,700



2,120


250
98

1,180
1,200


carbunata


0

2,560



1,940

740





10

5

5
12


96
....


318

21,800

4,710

16,900

7,240

571

76

295

176

324

283

, 60&

12,900


11,4001--- --


7,060


1,100
625

4,060
3,900


imaarks


=....





=o1o





.....

174


..... .

.....

*..-o


.....


5.5 176


,2 .9 684 ..8



.2 1.8 2,470 0


..... 2,150


.00



.00


I pled at low tide











Brown,flaky material
suspended ln water.

Brown. flaky aterial
suspended in lwatr,
irutatr d flow 5 cfs.

Brown, flaky materirL
suspended in at er.

Lightly turbid
Do.

Do.
Do.


11-29-61172 ----


11-29-61


4-20-62
4.26-62

4-20-62
4-26-6;


|


.I r I I








Toble I-Continued


Iron Dissolved Hardnessl
CO) s ollds a CaCO J
Spring Spring w s 3s
nzber oe a I e a Rimarks
0br name d a a w
a solution a
a I S a Tot Residue Cnluw -a*
Sa at 180- carbonate a 5
____ J-il=^_iJ_lJ B :il1l C I n^ C____

842-234-C Chass honwltlkau 4-26-62 72 8.9 0.00 0.07 50 14 53 2.4 178 18 96 0.2 0.2 372 ----- 182 36 632 --..
843-235-B i 4-20-62 75 9.1 .01 .76 98 145 1,140 44 184 296 2,000 .2 .6 4,250 3,820 841 690 6,600 7. 2 rurbid
843-235-D Ruth 11-29-61 77 ---- --- ---- ----.......... ..... -- 13 975 ------ ----- ..... 470 --. 3,460 -- sampled 3,000 feet
420-62 75 8.9 .01 .16 80 85 662 26 170 1,200 .2 2,50 2,320 549 410 4,000 7.7 e ro spring.
Sm. 4-20-62 75 8.9 .01 .16 80 85\ 662 26 170 L72 2,200 .4 2,550 2,320 549 410 4,000 7.7j 2 i.'rbid






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


hole in the opposite vertical bank. Dye placed in the water above
this natural bridge emerges from the west side in 11/2 minutes. The
water flows about 75 feet westward to another natural bridge
about 10 feet wide and emerges from 3 holes in the bottom of the
sloping western side of the natural bridge. Dye placed in the water
above this bridge emerges from the two vigorously boiling
southwestern and southern holes in 2 minutes and from another
smaller and sluggishly flowing northern hole in 21/2 minutes. Flow
reverses at high tide and salt water from the gulf flows into the
spring. The spring run, known as Salt Springs Run, is a bayou of
the Gulf of Mexico.
Discharge.-The measured outflow was 10.5 cfs on January
18. 1962. Inflow was not measured but is of the same order as
outflow.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-None.

817-243-B

Location.-Pasco County, SEI4NEI/ sec. 20, T. 25 S., R. 16 E.,
2.2 miles northeast of Port Richey, about 0.7 mile west of an old
road, 0.15 mile north of its junction with U.S. Highway 19 at the
end of the south fork of a dirt road in a coastal hammock.
Description.-The spring flows from an irregular hole in the
rock near the east side of the pool. The pool is indefinite in size
because it merges with the surrounding swamp.
Discharge.-The flow was estimated at 2 cfs on May 17, 1962.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-None.

819-240-A. BEAR SINK

Location.-Pasco County, SW/4NE1/ sec. 11, T. 25 S., R. 16 E.,
about 1,500 feet south of State Highway 52 and 1.7 miles east of
U.S. Highway 19 at Bayonet Point community, at the site of historic
5-A sawmill and community, on the southside of the northward
continuing channel of Bear Creek.
Description.-The sink is about 100 feet wide and 150 feet long.
The maximum depth of 35 feet was measured about 30 feet from
the west shore and 75 feet from the south shore. Another deep at
the extreme south end of the pool receives sand slides from the
actively slumping south wall. The bottom of the south deep at 30






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 39


feet was hard to the sounding lead and is probably rock. Numerous
tree trunks and roots partially block both deeps.
Bear Creek enters the sink on the north side through a well
developed channel. At high stage, the flow of the creek exceeds
the drainage capacity of the sink, and the excess water flows into
a stream channel that leads to Round Sink (820-241-A). The flow
of the creek, as measured under such a condition on September 10,
1962, was 54.9 cfs at a bridge 1.7 miles upstream from Bear Sink,
and the flow through the overflow channel about 600 feet
downstream from Bear Sink was 13.5 cfs. By difference, the flow
into Bear Sink was 41.4 cfs. The stage of the sink was about
3 feet above normal stage and 6 feet below the stage observed
in December 1960. Normal stage of the sink is about 3 feet above
mean sea level and at this stage the sink drains an estimated 10
or 15 cfs. Flow of the creek upstream from the sink diminishes
to a trickle during dry periods. The stage of the sink fluctuates
with the tide.
An attempt was made to trace the water that enters the sink
to its point of emergence from the aquifer. On January 19, 1962, 13
pounds of hidacid fluorescein dye were put into the creek at several
places upstream from the sink and into the sink. Dyed water
entered the sink over a period of more than 24 hours. This reduced
the probability of a single slug of dyed water being dispersed before
it could be detected by daily inspection. A number of local residents
observed the color of nearby springs at frequent intervals. Other
accessible springs within several miles were checked daily for about
2 weeks. Springs that were not accessible by land were checked
by helicopter or airplane every few days for about two weeks, then
weekly for several months. No dye was observed to emerge from
any of the springs along the coast or within 5 miles of the coast.
Either the dyed water was still in the aquifer or the point of
discharge was beyond the area observed or the dye was so diluted
that it escaped detection after discharge.
Quality of Water.-Water from Bear Creek at the sink
contained 10 ppm chloride on September 10, 1962.
Use.-Drains several square miles in the basin of Bear Creek.

820-241-A. ROUND SINK

Location.-Pasco County, SEI/4SEI4 sec. 3, T. 25 S., R. 16 E.,
about 1,000 feet north of State Highway 52 and a mile east of U.S.
Highway 19 at Bayonet Point community.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Description.-The sink is about 100 feet in diameter. 'The sides
are nearly vertical from the top of the bank to a depth of 20 to 40
feet. Near the center of the sink a vertical pipe or chimney about
20 feet in diameter bottoms at 60 feet.
During wet periods, the overflow of Bear Creek from Bear Sink
(819-240-A) enters the sink via a swamp that lies to the southeast.
The drainage capacity of the sink normally exceeds the inflow and
the sink is the normal terminal of Bear Creek during wet periods.
In 1960 and on one other occasion in the memory of old-time resi-
dents, the creek overflowed the sink and followed a poorly defined
stream channel to the gulf.
On May 8, 1961, 8 pounds of hidacid fluorescein dye were
dissolved in the sink when the inflow was about 0.5 cfs. During the
next 2 weeks, the inflow ranged from about 0.2 cfs to about 1 cfs.
No dye was observed in any of the local springs until an aerial check
of spring 820-243-A, about 3 miles distant in the Gulf of Mexico,
was made on June 8, 1961. The dye was emerging from the spring
and gradually dispersing toward the northwest. A previous aerial
check of the spring on June 2, 1961 was negative.
The dye water moved approximately 3 miles in 26 to 30 days.
Assuming a rate of travel of 500 feet per day in a straight line
distance and an average flow of 0.5 cfs, the cross-sectional area of
the conduit would be 80 square feet or approximately that of a
10-foot pipe.
Use.-Drains overflow of Bear Creek from Bear Sink.


820-242-A. HAZEL SINK

Location.-Pasco County, NEINEIA sec. 4, T. 25 S., R. 16 E.,
about 600 feet west of U.S. Highway 19, and 1 mile north of State
Highway 52 at Bayonet Point community.
Description.-The sink is about 250 feet in diameter. The bank
drops steeply from land surface to a few feet below the water
surface very near the shore. The bottom then slopes rather
erratically toward the center. A virtually circular opening about
100 feet in diameter near the center of the sink extends vertically
from the irregular rim to a depth of 110 to 115 feet. The bottom
is muddy.
Strips of aluminum foil, dropped into the sink near the middle
of the deep opening, moved quite rapidly toward the west as they
sank. The stage of the sink fluctuates with the tide.
Use.-None.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39


820-243-A


Location.-Pasco County. In the Gulf of Mexico 2 miles
southwest of Hudson and 3,000 feet due west of the north point
of Lighter Bayou in the line of sight of the coastline south of
Bayonet Point.
Description.-The oval rim of the depression around the spring
is about 100 feet long and 30 feet wide. From about 2 feet below
the water surface at the rim the bottom slopes to the edge of the
spring hole about 10 feet from the southeast end of the lobe. The
spring is irregular in shape, about 6 feet in diameter, and more
than 40 feet deep.
The spring is hydraulically connected with Round Sink
(820-241-A). See discussion under Round Sink.
Discharge.-Not measured.
Quality of Water.-The chloride content, based on a specific
conductance of 25,000 micromhos, was 8,500 ppm and the
temperature 590 at a depth of 20 feet on December 5, 1960.
Use.-None.

821-242-A. HUDSON SPRINGS

Location.-Pasco County, NW1/SE1/4 sec. 28, T. 24 S., R. 16 E.,
at Hudson at the head of Hudson Creek, about 130 feet west of
Pine Street, 120 feet north of Hudson Avenue, and 3 feet west of
the rock curb of the creek.
Description.-The spring flows from an irregular elongate hole
in the northeast rock wall and boils up at the surface about 4 feet
from the northeast end of the curb. The boil decreases as the tide
rises but remains visible through the flood tide. At times the flow
may reverse at high tide.
A possible former spring 40 feet east of this spring has been
curbed to prevent flow. The depth was 17 feet in 1946 but the
"sinkhole" has been filled with large boulders to about low tide
level. Dye placed in this sink remained at constant concentration
between May 2 and May 6, 1961. During this time, the sink flooded
and drained with each tidal rise and fall. By May 10, 1961, the
col6r had disappeared but none of the dye had been detected in the
spring only 40 feet away. Many additional springs flow from the
deepened portion of Hudson Creek about 1,000 feet west of this
spring.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-None.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


822-241-A

Location.-Pasco County, SEI/NW/4 sec. 27, T. 24 S., R. 16
E, at Hudson, about 150 feet north of Stevens Avenue and 0.1 mile
west of U.S. Highway 19; about 50 feet north and 60 feet east of
the southwest corner of a basin in a canal.
Description.-The spring was formed by excavation of the basin
in which it lies. The flow from the three openings produces a
vigorous boil on the surface, especially at low tide.
Discharge.-The estimated flow was 30 cfs on August 22, 1960.
Quality of Water.-A sample taken from the bottom of the tidal
basin 30 feet north of the spring on August 30, 1962, contained
1.150 ppm chloride. The water from the spring probably contains
much less chloride than that of the tidal basin.
Use.-None.

822-242-A. CEDAR ISLAND SPRINGS

Location.-Pasco County, NW/4SE1 sec. 21, T. 24 S., R. 16
E., about 1.1 miles north of Hudson, 1,200 feet north of Cedar
Island Point, and 1,000 feet west of the shoreline at high tide.
Description.-The rim of the spring is irregularly elongate in a
north-south direction. It is about 25 feet long and 15 feet wide at
2 feet below mean tide. The spring hole is an irregular vertical
cavern in rock about 6 feet in diameter and 23 feet deep below tide.
It lies about 5 feet from the northern rim of the spring.
Discharge.-No observable flow. Water temperature and
chloride measurements indicate some flow.
Quality of Water.-The chloride content, based on a specific
conductance of 14,000 micromhos, was 4,600 ppm, and the
temperature 580F at surface and 600F at 20 feet on December 5,
1960. The chloride content, based on a specific conductance of
20,000 micromhos, was 4,600 and temperature 730F at total depth
on December 11, 1960.
Use.-None.

822-242-B. CEDAR ISLAND SPRINGS

Location.-Pasco County, NW/4SE1/4 sec. 21, T. 24 S., R. 16 E.,
about 1.1 miles north of Hudson, 1,200 feet north of Cedar Island
Point and 1,050 feet west of the shoreline at high tide; about 50
feet west of 822-242-A.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 39


Description.-The rim of the spring is irregularly elongate in
a north-south direction. It is about 15 feet long and 6 feet wide
at 2 feet below mean tide. The spring hole is an irregular cavern
in rock about 3 feet in diameter and 28 feet deep below tide. It lies
about 5 feet from the northern rim of the spring.
Discharge.-No observable flow. Water temperature measure-
ments indicate some flow.
Quality of Water.-Temperature 630F at surface, 640F at 20
feet, and 73F at total depth; the chloride content, based on a
specific conductance of 25,000 micromhos, was 8,500 ppm at total
depth on December 11, 1960. The chloride content of the gulf
water 1.7 miles west of the spring was more than 15,000 ppm based
on a specific conductance of more than 40,000 micromhos on De-
cember 5, 1960.
Use.-None.

823-241-A HORSESHOE SPRING
Location.-Pasco County, SW1/4NE14 sec. 15, T. 24 S., R. 16
E., about 2.3 miles northeast of Hudson. The spring is on the edge
of a tidal marsh, about 1 mile west of the intersection of State
Highway 595 and the trail to the spring 2.1 miles northeast of
Hudson.
Description.-The spring pool is horseshoe-shaped with several
deeps from which former springs probably flowed. The present
spring is an irregular elongate hole in the rock 10 feet long, 6 feet
wide and about 25 feet deep below the water that lies in the bend
of the horseshoe. The southeast side of the spring is a vertical rock
wall from which the spring flows.
The water flows toward Fillman Bayou to the north through a
spring run about 8 feet wide at the spring.
Discharge.-Flow estimated as 6.7 cfs on November 28, 1960.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-None.

823-241-B
Location.-Pasco County, SW1/4NE1/, sec. 15, T. 24 S., R. 16
E., about 2.3 miles northeast of Hudson. The spring is about 100
feet southeast of Horseshoe Spring (823-241-A) and about 1 mile
west of the intersection of State Highway 595 and a trail to the
spring about 2.1 miles northeast of Hudson.
Description.-The spring pool is about 5 feet wide at the head
of a small spring run. The opening is obscured by grass and slime.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Discharge.-The flow of the spring was about one half cfs on
November 28, 1960.
Use.-None.

824-239-A. ISABELLA SPRING
Location.-Pasco County, SWI/NWI/4 sec. 12, T. 24 S., R. 16
E., about 1.4 miles southeast of Aripeka, 0.7 mile west of the
junction of U.S. Highway 19 and State Highway 595 southeast of
Aripeka, 0.3 mile southwest of State Highway 595 at a dirt trail
leading to the spring, and 150 feet east of the trail. The spring is
in the west end of Whitten Swamp which extends to U.S. Highway
19 on the east.
Description.-The spring opening is obscured by the dense
shade afforded by the lush foliage of the trees. The pool is about
20 feet long and 15 feet wide. Several trees, submerged in the
spring, prevent the measuring of depth from the bank. A stream
bed leads eastward through Whitten Swamp. The spring flows
vigorously on the incoming tide to flood the swamp, especially in
the well developed stream channels. As the tide begins to ebb, the
flow stops and the spring drains the swamp completely. The water
level in the spring fluctuates about half a foot for each foot of tidal
change at Indian Bay with a time lag of about half an hour to two
hours. The fluctuation of the water level in the spring and the
estimated tide at Indian Bay, 3 miles to the northwest, is shown in
figure 5. The stage of the spring fluctuates between about 3 and
6 feet above mean sea level. The flow of the spring fills and empties
a ground-water reservoir that is only imperfectly connected with
the aquifer. On May 21, 1961, 3 pounds of hidacid fluorescein
dye was put in the water as it entered the ground. Samples of
water taken each day through May 30, 1961 contained the original
concentration of dye. About an inch of rain fell the evening of
May 31, 1961. The following day the dye had been reduced to half
the original concentration. The dye entirely disappeared during the
next few days but was not observed to emerge at any of the springs
in the area during the following three months.
Discharge.-The cyclic flow of the spring varies between no
flow at the changes in tide to about 15 cfs at maximum flow. The
rate of flow varies with the magnitude of fluctuation of water levels
so that the greatest rate and volume of flow would occur at spring
tide and lesser flow at neap tide.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-None.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 39


825-243-A. THE JEWFISH HOLE

Location.-Pasco County, in the Gulf of Mexico about a mile
west of Hammock point, 3 miles west-southwest of Aripeka, and
about 600 feet south of the "Aripeka Channel," a shallow natural
channel, a mile south of the marked channel, that is customarily
used by local fishermen.
Description.-The rim of the spring is approximately circular
in shape and about 40 feet in diameter at about 4 feet below mean
tide. The bottom slopes toward the spring opening to a depth of
about 10 feet below approximate mean tide. The spring hole is an
irregular, vertical pipe about 15 feet in diameter and 148 feet deep
below the general bottom which is about 4 feet below approximate
mean tide.
Discharge.-A vigorous boil at low tide becomes a "slick" at
high tide. The flow has not been measured. During the drought of
1961-62, the boil and slick ceased.
Quality of Water.-The chloride content, based on a specific
-conductance of 12,000 micromhos, was 3,800 ppm and the
temperature 58F on December 5, 1960.
Use.-None.

826-238-A. BOBHILL SPRING

Location.-Hernando County, SW/4SE1/4 sec. 31, T. 23 S., R. 17
E., about 600 feet north of the Pasco County line and 1,000 feet
west of U.S. Highway 19 in a hammock.
Description.-The spring is at the head of a rim in a pool about
6 feet wide. The opening is obscured by a metal barrel that has
been sunk to the bottom so that the spring water could be obtained
without contaminants from the surrounding pool. The vigorous
boil is continuous. The water surface at the spring is about 10 feet
above sea level.
Discharge.-The flow was about 31/ cfs on January 8, 1961.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-The water from this spring supplied the drinking water
for residents of Aripeka and vicinity for many years.

826-239-A. BOAT SPRING

Location.-Hernando County, NWI/4SW1/4 sec. 36, T. 23 S., R.
16 E., about 0.7 mile northeast of Aripeka at the head of Hammock
Creek.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Description.-Five springs boil from solution-riddled rock that
forms the bottom of the head pool. The owner reports that a diver
established the direct connection of the holes with a common
source of water at depth. The springs are in the northern half of
the head pool which is about 40 feet long and 20 feet wide. A short
narrow run connects the head pool with a sawgrass marsh, the
stage of which fluctuates with the tide in Hammock Creek. The
spring is being improved by excavation.
Discharge.-The flow at low tide was about 6 cfs on February
19. 1962.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-None.

826-239-B

Location.-Hernando County, SE1SWl/4 sec. 36, T. 23 S., R.
16 E., about 280 feet north of the Pasco-Hernando County line, and
about 2,600 feet east of State Highway 595 at the county line on
Palm Island in Aripeka.
Description.-Three small springs occur in a line about 3 feet
apart near the head of a pool which is about 8 feet wide. The pool
flows into two runs that flow generally northeast. The northern
run is about 6 feet wide and a foot deep and the eastern run is
about 12 feet wide and 2.5 feet deep at the head pool. A larger
spring flows from the bottom of the eastern run about 20 feet from
the head pool. This run is bridged by ferns from the head pool to
the larger spring and to the northeast is either bridged by ferns
or runs underground. Dye placed in either run emerges upstream
from a small bridge across the main run near Hammock Creek.
Discharge.-The estimated flow of the three small springs was
5 cfs on February 19, 1962. About a fourth of the spring flow was
entering the westernmost run and the remainder was flowing
toward the larger spring, the flow of which was not determined.
Quality of Watcr.-Not determined-does not taste salty.
Use.-None.

827-238-A

Location.-Hernando County, NW14SE1 sec. 30, T. 23 S., R.
16 E., about 1.4 miles north of the Pasco County line and 0.7 mile
west of U.S. Highway 19, about 10 feet from the west end of a
grassy swamp, about 600 feet east of a jeep trail, and about 0.1
mile north of a spring run at the crossing of the jeep trail.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39


Description.-The spring is seen as a sand boil in the grass that
mats the low swampy area. The water flows in an indistinct path
across the grassy area to a stream at the southeast side. This
stream joins several other spring runs to form Indian Creek.
Discharge.-The estimated flow of the run at an alligator pen
about 1,000 feet downstream from the spring was 1 cfs on July
13, 1960.
Quality of Water.-See table 1. The alligators in a display pen
in the run of the spring lose patches of epidermis several days after
being placed in the water.
Use.-Several houses and a hotel in the northern part of
Aripeka use water from Indian Creek for domestic purposes.

830-234-A. LITTLE SPRING

Location.-Hernando County, NW1/4SW1/4, sec. 2, T. 23 S., R.
17 E., about 50 feet east of a sharp bend in a jungle trail half a
mile west along the trail from Weekiwachee Springs; about 1,000
feet northwest of U.S. Highway 19 and 300 feet north of the north
shore of a 20-acre lake, at the head of a sawgrass swamp and
stream.
Description.-The spring pool is nearly circular, about 25 feet
in diameter. The spring opening, near the center of the pool, is 40
feet deep, below the water surface. A small dam on the west side
of the pool restricts flow to a single channel of Little Springs Run
through the grass swamp to the Weekiwachee River about half a
mile north of the spring.
Discharge.-The measured flow was 37 cfs on August 14, 1960
and 17.6 cfs on March 3, 1961. The flow of this spring is routinely
measured along with the flow of Weekiwachee Springs (831-234-A).
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-Tourist attraction.

831-234-A. WEEKIWACHEE SPRINGS

Location.-Hernando County, SW/4NE/4 sec. 2, T. 23 S., R. 17
E., about 700 feet south of State Highway 50 and 250 feet west of
U.S. Highway 19 at the head of the Weekiwachee River near the
south end of a spring pool.
Description.-The spring pool is about 150 feet wide and 250
feet long with the flow from the northwest side of the pool forming
the Weekiwachee River. The bottom of the spring pool slopes to a
rock ledge at a depth of 10 feet. Below this ledge, a vertical hole






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


about 50 feet in diameter bottoms on a rock ledge at a depth of 50
feet. Below this ledge the hole diameter is about 20 feet to a depth
of 137 feet where the vertical hole bottoms on rock chips and sand.
A cavity in the east side of the hole continues downward at an
inclination of about 45. Divers regularly go to a depth of 137 feet
but report the velocity of the water emerging from the inclined
cavity is too high to permit a person to swim into it.
Discharge.-Flow of the Weekiwachee River is measured about
three-quarters of a mile west of the spring and includes the flow of
Little Springs (830-234-A) and Weekiwachee Springs (831-234-A).
The maximum and minimum measured flows for the period 1931-62
were 260 cfs on October 21, 1959 and September 9, 1960, and 101
cfs on July 24, 1956. The average of 264 flow measurements is
169 cfs.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-Tourist attraction.

831-237-A
Location.-Hernando County, SE/,NW1/, sec. 32, T. 22 S., R.
17 E., about 1,000 feet from the north line and 2,100 feet from the
west line of sec. 32, T. 22 S., R. 17 E.; at the head of a small run
about 100 feet south of the Fish Hospital, a hole in a sharp bend
of the Weekiwachee River 1,000 feet upstream from State Highway
595 bridge.
Description.-The spring is an almost perfectly cylindrical pipe
about 3 feet in diameter and 40 feet deep. Water from the vigorous
boil flows north through a channel about 3 feet wide and half a foot
deep. The channel empties into the Weekiwachee River at a large
hole 150 feet in diameter and 118 feet deep known as the Fish
Hospital.
Discharge.-The flow was about 11/ cfs on May 22, 1962.
Use.-None.

831-237-B
Location.-Hernando County, NWI1/NW/4 sec. 5, T. 23 S., R.
17 E., in a 25-foot diameter bay in Jenkins Creek about 200 feet
downstream from the head of the creek; about 0.4 mile southeast
of the State Highway 595 bridge over Jenkins Creek, 1 mile
southwest of the State Highway 595 bridge over the Weekiwachee
River, about 200 feet southwest of spring 831-237-C.
Description.-The spring is about 6 feet in diameter and 18
feet deep. Logs and other trash obscure the view of the spring






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39


opening. Water from the spring merges with that of spring
831-237-C to form Jenkins Creek.
Discharge.-The estimated discharge was 10 cfs on May
22, 1962.
Quality of Water.-The chloride content, based on a specific
conductance of 5,500 micromhos, was 1,600 ppm on May 22, 1962.
Use.-None.

831-237-C

Location.-Hernando County, NWNW1/4 sec. 5, T. 23 S., R.
17 E., at the head of Jenkins Creek about 0.4 mile southeast of the
State Highway 595 bridge over Jenkins Creek, 1 mile southwest
of the Weekiwachee River bridge; about 200 feet northeast of
spring 831-237-B.
Description.-The spring pool is about 20 feet in diameter. A
major run exits from the southeast side of the pool to form Jenkins
Creek. A smaller run flows from the east side of the pool parallel
to Jenkins Creek to enter the north side of the pool of spring
831-237-B.
Discharge.-The estimated discharge was 12 cfs in the larger
run and 0.5 cfs in the smaller run on May 22, 1962.
Quality of Water.-The chloride content, based on a specific
conductance of 5,000 micromhos, was 1,500 ppm on May 22, 1962.
Use.-None.

832-237-A. SALT SPRING

Location.-Hernando County, NE1/4NEI/4 sec. 29, T. 22 S., R.
17 E., at head of Salt Creek about 100 feet south of State Highway
50 and about 1,000 feet west of the intersection of State Highway
50 and State Highway 595, 1/ miles east of Bayport.
Description.-The head pool is about 40 feet in diameter with
a run about 20 feet wide flowing southward from the south side of
the pool. The irregular rocky sides of the pool below a depth of
about 3 feet form an almost vertical hole about 10 feet in diameter
and, with minor offsets and ledges, 165 feet deep. The vertical
spring cavity becomes complex with depth and several alternate
channels exist-some large enough to accommodate a diver. Several
divers have lost their lives in the complex of rooms and shafts.
Discharge.-The measured discharge was 24.7 cfs on January
18, 1961.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Quality of Water.-The chloride content of water from the
surface of the boil was 760 ppm and the temperature 74F on
December 16, 1960.
Use.-None.

832-237-B. MUD SPRING

Location.-Hernando County, NE1/4NW1/ sec. 29, T. 22 S., R.
17 E., at head of Mud River about 400 feet south of State Highway
50, 1.3 miles east of Bayport, and 3,000 feet west of the intersection
of State Highway 50 and State Highway 595.
Description.-The head pool of Mud River is about 400 feet in
diameter with a 200-foot wide run flowing from the east side. The
spring is near the southwest side of the pool about 15 feet east of
a dock. The spring basin is elongate in a north-south direction and
slopes irregularly toward the deep on the north, east, and south
sides. The west side is essentially vertical to a depth of 82 feet.
The general bottom in the vicinity of the deep is at a depth of 58
feet. Divers report a horizontal current flows westward at about
3 miles per hour at a depth of 50 feet. The bottom is obscured at
all times by a brown flaky material, probably algal, that gives the
river and spring the name "mud'. The spring has been known as
Sulfur Spring.
Discharge.-The measured flow was 128 cfs on January 18,
1961.
Quality of Water.-The chloride content, based on a specific
conductance of 23,000 micromhos, was 8,000 ppm at a depth of 58
feet, and the temperature 69F on December 16, 1960.
Use.-Fishing and boat launching.

832-237-C

Location.-Hernando County, SE1I4SW1/4 sec. 20, T. 22 S., R. 17
E., about 500 feet north of a culvert under State Highway 50 about
600 feet west of Mud Spring (832-237-B), 1.2 miles east of Bayport,
3,600 feet west of the intersection of State Highway 50 and State
Highway 595.
Description.-The spring pool is about 30 feet long and 10 feet
wide in the bed of an intermittent creek. The spring was observed
from the air only and no detailed information is available. The
spring run flows south to a culvert under State Highway 50 where
the flow was estimated and a sample taken.
Discharge.-The flow was about 5 cfs on December 16, 1960.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39


Quality of Water.-The chloride content, based on a specific
conductance of 8,500 micromhos, was 2,700 ppm on December 16,
1960.

839-238-A. BLIND SPRINGS

Location.-Hernando County, SE/4NE1/4 sec. 18, T. 21 S., R.
17 E., at the head of Blind Creek about 2.5 miles south of the mouth
of the Chassahowitzka River at the Citrus-Hernando County line,
about 1.5 miles upstream from the mouth of North Blind Creek.
Description.-The head pool of Blind Creek is about 100 feet in
diameter. A run about 10 feet wide that flows from the east side
of the pool widens to about 100 feet a short distance downstream.
The rock floor of the spring basin slopes and drops vertically in
variable increments to a distinct hole about 20 feet in diameter
and 53 feet deep about 20 feet from the north side of the pool. A
boil usually marks the location of the hole. A number of lesser
springs issue from elongate solution enlarged joints or fractures in
the floor of the spring basin and of the run near the basin. Highly
colored water obscures the bottom below a depth of about 5 feet.
Discharge.-Because the head pool and the adjacent section of
the run contain a complex of springs, the flow was measured about
400 feet downstream. The flow was 50.3 cfs on November 28, 1961.
The flow of the entire complex of springs near the head of Blind
Creek was estimated to be 200 cfs on November 28, 1961 (includes
flow of 839-238-B and other springs not inventoried).
Quality of Water.-See table 1. The chloride content, based on a
specific conductance of 14,000 micromhos, was 4,600 ppm at a
depth of 50 feet, and the temperature 750F on September 8, 1961.
Use.-None.

839-238-B

Location.-Hernando County, SE14NE1/4 sec. 18, T. 21 S., R. 17
E., about 800 feet downstream from the head pool of Blind Creek
in a bay on the southwest side of the creek, 100 feet southwest of a
200-foot long island in the creek; about 2.4 miles south of the Citrus
County line at the mouth of the Chassahowitzka River and 1.1 miles
upstream from the mouth of Blind Creek.
Description.-The spring flows from beneath a rock ledge on
the southwest side of a baylet in the southwest bank of Blind Creek.
Discharge.-Estimated flow was 50 cfs on November 28, 1961.
Use.-None.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


840-238-A
Location.-Hernando County, NE1/tSE1/ sec. 7, T. 21 S., R.
17 E., in the bed of Chub Creek 100 feet from the north shore, 50
feet from the south shore and 100 feet west of a point of land on
the east side of a creek tributary to Chub Creek from the north,
about 1.5 miles south of the mouth of the Chassahowitzka River
and about 1 mile from the mouth of Chub Creek.
Description.-At low tide water boils from at least one of
several fissures in the rock in the bottom of Chub Creek. A
depression a few feet deep, about 20 feet long, and 10 feet wide,
surrounds the spring's opening.
Discharge.-Probably less than 10 cfs.
Quality of Water.-The chloride content, based on a specific
conductance of 19,000 micromhos, was 6,400 ppm and the
temperature 750F on September 8, 1961.
Use.-None.

841-235-A
Location.-Hernando County, NE1/SE1/4 sec. 3, T. 21 S., R. 17
E., at the head of Crawford Creek about 2.7 miles upstream from
the mouth of the creek at the Chassahowitzka River, located from
aerial photographs.
Description.-This spring reportedly contributed most or all of
the flow of Crawford Creek. The spring, not visited, is accessible
with extreme difficulty. Large trees across the stream block entry
by boat from the mouth and swampy ground makes approach by
land difficult.
Discharge.-The flow of Crawford Creek, measured about 1.8
miles from the mouth and 300 feet upstream from a small tributary
creek was 30.1 cfs on November 29, 1961. The flow was estimated
to be approximately the same a quarter of a mile upstream from
the measured section.
Quality of Water.-The chloride content, based on a specific
conductance of 650 micromhos, was 110 ppm, and the temperature
74F on November 29, 1961.
Use.-None.

841-236-A
Location.-Hernando County, SW1/4NWI/ sec. 4, T. 21 S., R. 17
E., near the center of the 50-foot wide, hook-shaped head pool of
Ryle Creek about 50 feet from the head, about 1.1 miles upstream






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39


from Garden Island and 0.5 mile south of the Citrus County Line.
Description.-The largest and easternmost of three springs in
the head of Ryle Creek. Brown, flaky, probably algal, material
suspended in the water obscures the bottom. A few hundred feet
downstream from the springs, this material has accumulated to a
depth of more than 6 feet, and in the vicinity of the springs the
material masks most of the bottom. The deepest sounding was 20
feet near the boil of the spring.
Discharge.-Estimated flow of the spring was 5 cfs on
November 29, 1961.
Quality of Water.-See table 1. The chloride content, based on
a specific conductance of 9,500 micromhos, was 3,000 ppm, and the
temperature 74F on September 18, 1961. The water is more highly
mineralized than that in nearby spring 841-236-B.
Use.-None.

841-236-B
Location.-Hernando County, SW/tNWl/. sec. 4, T. 21 S., R. 17
E., at the head of Ryle Creek about 40 feet northwest of 841-236-A,
about 1.1 miles upstream from Garden Island and 0.5 mile south of
the Citrus County line.
Description.-The sluggish boil of the spring emerges from the
brown flaky silt that settles from the water wherever the velocity
of the water decreases sufficiently.
Discharge.-Estimated flow was 5 cfs on November 29, 1961.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-None.

841-236-C
Location.-Hernando County, SEI,4NE/4, sec. 4, T. 21 S., R. 17
E., at the head of Blue Run, a tributary of Crawford Creek, about
0.7 mile upstream from its confluence with Crawford Creek, and
about 2,800 feet south of the Citrus County line.
Description.-The head pool of the stream is about 100 feet
wide and 600 feet long. The deepest spot sounded was 28 feet below
the water about 10 feet from the rock ledge at the head of the pool.
No boil was visible on November 29, 1961. The bottom of the pool
is obscured by the milky turbidity of the water.
Discharge.-The measured flow was 9.1 cfs on November 29,
1961, about 1,100 feet downstream from the head of the head pool.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-None.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


842-234-A. CHASSAHOWITZKA SPRINGS

Location.-Citrus County, NE1/SWi/ sec. 26, T. 20 S., R. 17
E., in the Chassahowitzka River about 300 feet east of the end of
State Highway 480 and about 1.8 miles west of U.S. Highway 19
at its junction with U.S. Highway 98.
Description.-The spring boils from the sand bottom along a
crevice about 25 feet long and 341/2 feet below the water surface.
The bottom of the 150-foot diameter pool in the river slopes gently
toward the spring, then becomes steep to vertical in a 50-foot
wide cone.
Discharge.-The flow of the Chassahowitzka River is measured
downstream from the mouth of Crab Creek about 600 feet west of
Chassahowitzka Springs (842-234-A). Flow at that point is the
composite of the flows of springs 842-234-A, 842-234-B, 842-234-C,
and the one or more springs upstream from spring complex
842-234-C. In addition, some surface drainage and the flow of a
canal are included in the measurement. Maximum measured flow
was 140 cfs on November 9, 1960 and minimum measured flow was
54.6 cfs on November 8, 1935. The average of seven measurements,
made between October 9, 1930 and November 9, 1960, is 94.2 cfs.
The flow of spring 842-234-A alone was estimated to be on the
order of 30 cfs on September 18, 1961.
Quality of Water.-See table 1. The chloride content of the
water was 53 ppm and the sulfate content was 13 ppm on July 25,
1946. The disproportionate increase in chloride indicates a complex
source of the salts in the water or variation of sampling techniques.
The stream that flows across the spring probably contains less
dissolved material than the water from spring 842-234-A.
Use.-Swimming.

842-234-B

Location.-Citrus County, NE/4SW14 sec. 26, T. 20 S., R. 17
E. The three openings are about 10, 75, and 100 feet from the head
of Crab Creek along the southeast bank near a wooden dock, and
about 600 feet upstream from the mouth of the creek which is
about 300 feet northwest of the end of State Highway 480 in
Chassahowitzka.
Description.-The spring is a complex of three sub-round
vertical holes about 3 feet in diameter and 10 to 17 feet in depth.
Two horizontal crevices reported by Ferguson and others (1946,
p. 54) were obscured by the turbid water and were not flowing







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39


vigorously enough to cause a boil on the surface on April 26, 1962.
Discharge.--The discharge of the three openings was on the
order of 40 cfs on September 18, 1961 and 20 cfs on April 26, 1962.
Quality of Water.-See table 1. Ferguson and others reported
the water to be clear in 1946; however, when visited in April 1961
the water was turbid.
Use.-Domestic supply for a summer home is pumped from
the spring opening nearest the head of the creek.

842-234-C

Location.-Citrus County, NE/4SW1/ sec. 26, T. 20 S., R. 17
E. The several openings of this complex spring are in the bed of a
spring run that flows into the north side of the Chassahowitzka
River about 400 feet east of Chassahowitzka Springs (842-234-A)
and about 700 feet east of the end of State Highway 480 in
Chassahowitzka. Opening 1 is farthest downstream, about 30 feet
north of a small island at the mouth. Other openings are spaced
fairly evenly through the stream bed for about 200 feet upstream
from opening 1.
Description.-Virtually the entire creek bottom is a spring
complex for more than 100 feet upstream from the mouth of the
run. The rock bottom consists of solution-riddled limestone with
pipe-like holes a few feet deep, and many irregular fissures. The
interconnection of all the various cavities is difficult to confirm but
is apparent in many places. Farther upstream, the bottom is thinly
covered by sand with numerous small boils in the sand. Sand
remains in animated suspension in the high velocity water near
the narrow deeper parts of most of the openings.
Discharge.-The discharge at the mouth of the run was on the
order of 30 cfs on September 18, 1961. The observed springs were
contributing probably 20 cfs of the total flow. The remainder was
flowing in the run above opening 7, the farthest upstream of the
observed openings.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-None.

843-235-A

Location.-Citrus County, NE/4NE1/4 sec. 27, T. 20 S., R. 17
E., at the head of Salt Creek, about 50 feet upstream from
843-235-B, about 1.4 miles northwest of the terminus of State
Highway 480 at the Chassahowitzka River.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Description.-The spring pool which is about 4 feet wide forms
the head of Salt Creek. The spring flows from a small irregular
hole in the rock.
Discharge.-The estimated flow was 0.1 cfs on September 18,
1961.
Quality of Water.-The chloride content, based on a specific
conductance of 5,500 micromhos, was 1,600 ppm, and the
temperature 75F on September 18, 1961. The water contains
brown, flaky, material in suspension.
Use.-None.

843-235-B

Location.-Citrus County, NE1/NE1/ sec. 27, T. 20 S., R. 17
E., about 50 feet downstream from 843-235-A and the head of
Salt Creek.
Description.-The spring manifests itself as a boil near the
north bank of the creek. The bottom was obscured by turbidity and
suspended brown, flaky material on September 18, 1961.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-None.

843-235-C

Location.-Citrus County, NE1%NE1/ sec. 27, T. 20 S., R. 17
E., about 125 feet southwest of 843-235-A and the head of Salt
Creek, near the center of the creek.
Description.-The spring is the southernmost visible boil in
Salt Creek. Below the spring the creek widens into a bay with a
tributary stream entering the northside. Specific conductance of
the water from the tributary stream was 16,000 micromhos on
September 18, 1961. Water from the three springs (843-235-A, B,
and C) in the northern neck had a specific conductance of 6,500
micromhos. A specific conductance of 19,000 was recorded near
the south side of the bay near an overhanging bank. A spring
probably flows from beneath the bank.
Quality of Water.-The chloride content, based on specific
conductance of 6,200 micromhos, was 1,900 ppm, and the
temperature 750F on September 18, 1961.
Use.-None.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 39 41

843-235-D. RUTH SPRING

Location.-Citrus County, SWI/NWI/4 sec. 22, T. 20 S., R. 17
E., at the head of the wide part of Potter Creek about three-quarters
of a mile from the mouth.
Description.-The spring is an irregular hole 17 feet deep in
the head of the 100-foot wide part of the creek. A small stream,
probably a spring run, enters the north end of the wide run and
flows across the spring pool.
Discharge.-The measured flow of Potter Creek was 31.7 cfs
about 500 feet above the mouth on November 29, 1961. The
estimated flow of the tributary to the head pool was 10 cfs. By
difference the flow of Ruth Spring was about 22 cfs.
Quality of Water.-See table 1.
Use.-None.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


REFERENCES

Coast and Geodetic Survey
1961 Tide tables, east coast North and South America, including
Greenland.
Ferguson, G. E.
1947 (and Lingham, C. W., Love, S. K., and Vernon, R. O.) Springs
of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 31.
Heath, R. C.
1954 (and Smith, P. C.) Ground-water resources of Pinellas County,
Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 12.
Lingham, C. W. (see Ferguson, G. E.)
Love, S. K. (see Ferguson, G. E.)
Sellards, E. H.
1908 A preliminary report on the underground water supply of central
Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 1.
Smith, P. C. (see Heath, R. C.)
Taylor, R. L.
1953 Hydrologic characteristics of Lake Tarpon area, Florida: U. S.
Geol. Survey open-file report.
U. S. Geological Survey
1961-62 Surface-water records of Florida, v. 1: Streams.
Vernon, R. O. (also see Ferguson, G. E.)
1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Sur-
vey Bull. 33.
Wetterhall, W. S.
1964 Geohydrologic reconnaissance of Pasco and southern Hernando
counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 34.