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STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY



FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert 0. Vernon, Director






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 36







HYDROLOGY OF THE BISCAYNE AQUIFER
IN THE
POMPANO BEACH AREA,
BROWARD COUNTY, FLORIDA

By
George R. Tarver


AL 2


Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the6
CITY OF POMPANO BEACH
and the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
f- :


Tallahassee
1964








AGiw-
CULTUA

FLORIDA STATE BO Y

OF

CONSERVATION





FARRIS BRYANT
Governor


TOM ADAMS
Secretary of State



J. EDWIN LARSON
Treasurer



THOMAS D. BAILEY
Superintendent of Public Instruction


RICHARD ERVIN
Attorney General



RAY E. GREEN
Comptroller



DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGES
Director







II






LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


florioa geological Survey

Callakassee

December 5, 1963

Honorable Farris Bryant, Chairman
Florida State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida
Dear Governor Bryant:
The Florida Geological Survey is publishing, as Report of In-
vestigations No. 36, a study of the "Hydrology of the Biscayne
Aquifer in the Pompano Beach Area, Broward County, Florida."
This study was prepared by Mr. George R. Tarver, geologist with
the U. S. Geological Survey, and its publication is quite timely.
The Biscayne aquifer is the only source of fresh ground water
in much of the southeastern part of Florida. The aquifer is ex-
tremely permeable, and many of the large wells may yield 2,000
gallons per minute, with less than 4 feet of drawdown. The
aquifer is composed of quartz sand, calcitic sandstone and sandy
limestone that extends from the land surface to depths of as much
as 400 feet. Replenishment of the ground water is largely from
rainfall, and, because of the extreme permeability of the forma-
tion, it is anticipated that increased use of water in the area in the
future will be offset through salvage from loss to evapo-
transpiration and transpiration.
The steadily increasing population in the southeastern area of
Florida will require large amounts of additional water in the
future, and the details of this study will help to meet these needs.
Respectfully yours,
Robert 0. Vernon
Director and State Geologist


















































Completed manuscript received
May 15, 1963
Published for the Florida Geological Survey
By The E. O. Painter Printing Company
DeLand, Florida
Tallahassee
1964

iv









TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Abstract --_ -- ..---...- ------------------ --_--- ---------- ----- ----- 1
Introduction -. ..---.------ ------- ._- -_--- ----............ 2
Purpose and scope -..--.. ---------------------------------...-_ ..-. -- 2
Previous investigations------__-- ---------------______-------- 2
Personnel and acknowledgments ---------------_----.. ---.---.. ----- 3
Well-numbering system ---..------------.--.--...-....-----......-. 3
Geography -------- --_- .----- ----- ----- 4
Location and general features ...------_--...- -..--...-........ 4
Population --. ... ----. -.. .. . ..------------------_..-... --- --------------. .. .. 4
Climate ..-- -- ---- -... --.. .-... --------..- ---------.................__ .. 4
Topography and drainage -------------------------------------- 4
Biscayne aquifer ------..-_------_--------------------------------- 7
Geologic formations composing the Biscayne aquifer --_------ 8
Tamiami Formation .....----.-------------------.----.---_-------- 8
Anastasia Formation ------------------------------------_----------.-._..-- 8
Miami Oolite ....---------------.------ --------.......---.. 9
Pamlico Sand ......-------.-------------- -----------9....... .___ 9
Ground water ---------- -- --------- 10
Occurrence of ground water ------ -- ---------- 10
Recharge and discharge -_ ----- .. ---.---. -.-- ... 10
Water use ....-------.. --... -- ---- --_--------- -------------.. 13
Water-level fluctuations _- ..---------------------.------- 16
Quality of water -.. .. -- -----------------.--------------.--.. .-- ---... .. 24
Salt-water contamination ..---.-----------------------...... 26
Quantitative studies .--.---------- ----------------------...... 32
Conclusions ....-...---------- --------------- ------- --- -.-- 39
References ._.---- 4--.--------------.. ----------------------------------- 43






ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page
1 Peninsular Florida showing location of Pompano Beach area 5
2 Parts of Broward and Palm Beach counties, showing canals
and levees of the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control
District ------ ... -------..._--.- ---- ..... --- ..--...-- --. -- 6
3 Northeastern Broward County showing locations of wells and
surface-water observation stations --.---.... ------.------------ Facing 8
4 Graphs of fluctuations of chloride content of the water from
the Pompano Canal and two finger canals ._-._-___--- 11
5 Northeastern Broward County showing the chloride content of
water samples from surface-water bodies June 5-6, 1961 -------. 12








ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued)

6 Graph showing monthly pumpage of municipal supplies in
northeastern Broward County ..---_______-- __------------ .. ..--------- 14
7 Monthly pumpage from the Pompano Beach well field and
monthly rainfall at Pompano Beach, 1957-60 _-------------- ---. 15
8 Hydrograph of well 614-007-11, daily municipal pumpage and
daily rainfall at Pompano Beach, Sept. 1960-Feb. 1961 ------ 17
9 Hydrographs of wells 614-007-11 and 614-008-1 at Pompano
Beach .--_. -.... .........-- --- ------- .........------- .....-- ......... ------- 18
10 Northeastern Broward County, showing contours on the water
table October 13, 1960, when water levels were high .--..-.------ ----. 19
11 Northeastern Broward County, showing contours on the water
table March 16, 1961, when water levels were about average --.---- 20
12 Northeastern Broward County, showing contours on the water
table August 15, 1961 ... --------------. --- -------- --- 21
13 Hydrographs of wells in northeastern Broward County _-- ------- 22
14 Hydrographs of Pompano Canal showing stage at several
locations during 1960-61 ...--.--------------- -------- 23
15 Fluctuations of chloride content of water from well 613-006-1
and water level in well 614-007-11 -_ ------------- ---- 28
16 Fluctuations of chloride content of water from uncontrolled
reaches of the Hillsboro and Pompano canals _-------- ...-------.----- 29
17 Fluctuations of chloride content of water from wells near
bodies of saline surface water ------- ---------- 30
18 Fluctuations of chloride content of water from wells distant
from bodies of saline surface water ..----.-- .. -------- ------. 30
19 Northeastern Broward County, showing the maximum chloride
content of water samples from wells and surface-water bodies,
1960-61 -----------_ ---------- ------- Facing 32
20 Sketch of pumping test sites in the Pompano Beach and Deer-
field Beach well fields ._ --------.---- ----- ---- --- 34
21 Logarithmic graphs of type curve and plot of s against r2/t
for observation wells 615-007-7, 615-007-8, and 615-006-2 --- ---- 35
22 Predicted drawdowns in the vicinity of a well discharging 1,000
gpm for selected periods of time --_ ------------------ 37
23 Predicted drawdowns in the vicinity of a well discharging at
selected times and rates ____ ----------------------- -- 38
24 Pompano Beach well-field area showing predicted levels after
pumping 20 mgd for 180 days without rainfall _---- --------- ----- 39


TABLES

Table Page
1 Average monthly temperature and rainfall at Pompano Beach
1950-60 ._______ ---..._ ...---.. .. ....._------- 7
2 Analyses of water from wells in northeastern Broward County -.... 25
3 Lithologic logs of test holes .. .. _-- _.------............-........--------- 45
4 Records of wells in northeastern Broward County -_ ------ 48









HYDROLOGY OF THE BISCAYNE AQUIFER
IN THE
POMPANO BEACH AREA,
BROWARD COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
George R. Tarver

ABSTRACT

The Biscayne aquifer is the only source of fresh ground water
in northeastern Broward County, Florida. The aquifer extends
from the land surface to a depth of about 400 feet and is composed
of quartz sand, calcareous sandstone, and sandy to nearly pure
limestone. Replenishment to the aquifer is chiefly by local rainfall.
The permeable rock zones are erratic in their occurrence within
the aquifer, but they are generally more prevalent and thicker at
greater depths. Small water supplies can be obtained from thin
permeable lenses that generally occur at depths less than 60 feet.
Large water supplies can be obtained from wells drilled to thick
permeable layers that occur at greater depths. Many of the large
wells yield 2,000 gpm (gallons per minute) with less than 4 feet of
drawdown.
Chemical analyses of ground-water samples show that the water
is hard and is high in iron content, but is easily treated. Periodic
analyses of the chloride content of the ground water show that
some areas near the Intracoastal Waterway and uncontrolled
reaches of major canals become increasingly salty when water
levels are lowered. Data collected from test wells indicate that
during 1960-61 salt-water encroachment was of no major signifi-
cance to the Pompano Beach well field.
Aquifer test data indicate that the coefficient of transmissibility
is about 1,500,000 gpd (gallons per day) per foot and the coefficient
of storage is about 0.30. The test data also indicate that the more
permeable rock layers act initially as an artesian system, but with
continued development change to water-table conditions, at which
time the entire aquifer reacts as a hydrologic unit.
Water-level, rainfall, salinity, and quantitative data indicate
that much larger quantities of water can be obtained from the
ridge area provided that well spacing is adequate, pumping is
regulated, and salt water in canals is controlled.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


INTRODUCTION

The population growth in southeastern Florida during recent
years has created numerous problems. One problem which has
plagued most of the coastal cities is supplying water to the
expanding population. The principal difficulty has been to locate
and produce water without inducing salt water into the well field
areas. Salt-water intrusion has occurred in several areas along the
lower east coast where water use has greatly increased. The
officials of Pompano Beach, cognizant of salt-water intrusion
problems in southeastern Florida and of the need for additional
data to solve their present and future problems, requested that
the U. S. Geological Survey make an investigation of the ground-
water resources of the area and furnished cooperative funds. The
Florida Geological Survey also furnished cooperative funds as part
of its program to appraise the water resources of Florida.

PURPOSE AND SCOPE

The purpose of the ground-water investigation was to determine,
insofar as possible, (1) the ground-water potential, (2) the quality
of the water, (3) the occurrence of saline water in the Biscayne
aquifer, (4) the hydraulic coefficients of the aquifer, and (5) the
relation of ground-water levels and salt-water movement in the
aquifer and in canals.
The study consisted of the following: (1) An inventory of wells,
(2) installation of two automatic water-level recording gages, (3)
installation of shallow wells for water-level observations, (4) drill-
ing of four deep test wells to determine the character of the
sediments and the quality of the water in the Biscayne aquifer,
(5) leveling to refer measuring points to mean sea level altitudes,
(6) periodic water-level measurements, (7) periodic determination
of the chloride content of water from wells and bodies of surface
water; and (8) pumping tests to determine the water transmitting
and storing properties of the aquifer.

PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS

No detailed investigation of the ground-water resources of the
Pompano area has been made previously. However, considerable
information on the hydrology and geology of the area has been
published by the Florida Geological Survey and the U. S. Geological
Survey. Most of the publications have been reviewed and some







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 36


of the data have been used in this report. Publications most
pertinent and frequently used are reports by Cooke (1945), Black
and Brown (1951), Parker and others (1955), Schroeder and
others (1958), and Sherwood (1959).

PERSONNEL AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The investigation was under the immediate supervision of M. I.
Rorabaugh, district engineer, Tallahassee, and Howard Klein,
geologist-in-charge, Miami, Florida, of the U. S. Geological Survey.
C. B. Sherwood of the U. S. Geological Survey gave much valuable
help and advice during the study.
The investigation was greatly aided by residents of the area
who furnished information on and permitted access to their wells.
The author further appreciates the information and aid given by
personnel of the city of Pompano Beach and other municipalities
in the area. Special acknowledgment is expressed to the Maxson
Well Drilling Co.; Philpott, Ross and Saarinen, consulting engi-
neers; and S. W. Wells of the General Development Corporation.

WELL-NUMBERING SYSTEM

The well-numbering system used in this report is based on
parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude which divide the
study area into 1-minute quadrangles. Each 1-minute quadrangle
is assigned a number consisting of the degree and minute of the
parallel on the south side of the quadrangle and the degree and
minute of the meridian on the east side of the quadrangle. Each
well number consists of three sets of digits separated by hyphens.
The first and second sets are the quadrangle number, abbreviated
to three digits by omitting the left digit of each latitude and
longitude value of the quadrangle number. The third set is the
number assigned consecutively to each well within the 1-minute
quadrangle as it was inventoried. For example, well 615-006-4
was the fourth well inventoried in the 1-minute quadrangle
bounded on the south by 26015' north latitude and on the east by
80006' west longitude.
The same system is used in numbering surface-water observa-
tion points, except the third set of digits is prefixed by the letters
"SW." For example, the stage of the Hillsboro Canal was measured
periodically on the upstream side of the locks and is designated by
the number 619-007-SW1. Wells and surface-water observation
points, referred to by number in the text, are located on figure 3.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


GEOGRAPHY

LOCATION AND GENERAL FEATURES

The Pompano Beach area in this report includes the area of
study shown in figure 1. The area comprises about 60 square miles
and is bounded on the north by the Hillsboro Canal, on the west
by the Everglades and Conservation area 2, on the south by Canal
C14 (Pompano Canal), and on the east by the Atlantic Ocean (fig.
2).

POPULATION

The area has experienced a tremendous influx of people since
1950. In 1950, Pompano Beach and Deerfield Beach had a combined
population of 7,770 and the entire study area probably had less
than 10,000 people. The area has changed from a rural economy
to a tourist and retirement center with a population of 60,000 in
1960, an increase of 600 percent in 10 years. The projected popu-
lation increase has been estimated at about 12 percent per year
during the 1960's.

CLIMATE

The climate of Pompano Beach is subtropical and generally
quite humid. The average monthly temperature ranges from
65.4F to 81.7'F. During the period 1950-60 the average tempera-
ture was 74'F, and the average monthly rainfall was 64 inches.
The highest temperature and heaviest rainfall generally occur
during May through October, and the lightest rainfall occurs
during the winter. The average temperature and rainfall data
given in table 1 were furnished by the U.S. Weather Bureau.

TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE

The study area is part of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, which is
bounded on the east by the Atlantic Ocean and on the west by the
Everglades. The land surface rises to about 22 feet above msl
(mean sea level) at the crest of the ridge, which is about 2 miles
inland and is parallel to the coast. The ridge is mantled by white
quartz sand, which is thickest at the crest and thins to less than
5 feet in the backswamp area where it is underlain by a thin
permeable limestone layer.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 36


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Figure 1. Peninsular Florida showing location of Pompano Beach area.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 2. Parts of Broward and Palm Beach counties showing canals and
levees of the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District.


West of the divide or crest of the ridge the land surface
descends rapidly to the backswamp area, which is about half a mile
west of the divide. The backswamp area slopes gently to the west
5 miles to the Everglades, and consists of swampy sloughs and low
intraswamp ridges.
Originally, the backswamp area remained wet for long periods,
being poorly drained by sloughs toward the west and by under-
ground flow toward the ocean. Subsequently, it was developed for
farming by the construction of a series of canals, ditches, dams,
and pumping stations to control water levels. Presently, the
backswamp area is irrigated and drained through secondary canals
which connect with the Hillsboro Canal on the north and the








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 36


TABLE 1. Average Monthly Temperature and Rainfall at Pompano Beach,
1950-60

Month Temperature OF Rainfall (inches)

January 65.4 2.02
February 67.6 2.34
March 69.5 3.00
April 73.7 4.25
May 76.9 5.49
June 79.8 7.19
July 81.2 5.99
August 81.7 6.90
September 80.6 10.60
October 76.6 9.10
November 72.1 3.48
December 67.1 3.40
Yearly average 74.4 63.76


Pompano Canal on the south. These major canals flow eastward to
the ocean (fig. 2).
The Hillsboro and Pompano canals drain water from the
Pompano Beach area and they are also a part of the Central and
Southern Florida Flood Control District network of canals that
drain parts of the Everglades. The flow of the Pompano Canal is
controlled by a spillway structure a short distance east of the
Florida East Coast Railroad, and a gated dam 2 miles farther up-
stream (fig. 3). During periods of heavy rainfall, these structures
are adjusted to prevent local flooding; however, during most of the
year they are operated to hold high stages in the canal. Major
floodwaters in the western area are removed by the diversion canal
south of the Pompano Canal (fig. 3), and through the Hillsboro
Canal in the northern part of the area. The Hillsboro Canal is
controlled 2 miles upstream from the Florida East Coast Railroad.
The west slope of the ridge area drains to the backswamp area;
the east slope of the ridge drains to the Intracoastal Waterway.
In recent years drainage east of the ridge divide has been highly
developed to accommodate urbanization, and the area now drains
to the Intracoastal Waterway through storm sewers, streets west
of U. S. Highway 1, and by a massive system of finger-canals east
of U. S. Highway 1 (fig. 3).

BISCAYNE AQUIFER

The Pompano Beach area is underlain by the Biscayne aquifer
which is composed chiefly, of permeable limestone, sandstone, and
sand that range in age from late Miocene through Pleistocene. The






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Biscayne aquifer is thickest near the coast, where its base is about
400 feet below msl, and it thins to the west. Hydrologically the
aquifer is a unit, but geologically it comprises the following
formations: Tamiami Formation, upper Miocene; Anastasia
Formation, Pleistocene; Miami Oolite, Pleistocene; and Pamlico
Sand, Pleistocene. The entire section of sediments in this area
probably is of marine origin. The Biscayne aquifer is underlain
to a depth of 950 feet by a massive section of marine sediments
of middle and early Miocene age that are predominantly greenish
sandy clay and marl of low permeability. This material forms the
upper confining layers for the Floridan aquifer, a regional artesian
system which, in the Pompano Beach area, yields salty water to
flowing wells.
Detailed lithologic logs of four test wells in the Pompano Beach
are a are given in the section of well logs.

GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS COMPOSING THE BISCAYNE
AQUIFER

TAMIAMI FORMATION

The Tamiami Formation is the oldest and lowest formation in
the Biscayne aquifer. As redefined by Parker (1951, p. 823), it
includes all the upper Miocene material in southern Florida. The
Tamiami Formation ranges in composition from pure quartz sand
to nearly pure limestone, which is generally white to gray in color.
Rock layers are formed at random depth but they cannot be corre-
lated over large areas because wedging and lensing of the sediments
is common. The percentage of carbonate material in the sediments
shows a general increase with depth.
The numerous indurated zones are quite permeable, and open-
end wells in the limestone layers are capable of yielding large
quantities of water. The formation is tapped by only a few wells
because equally good water and comparable yields can be obtained
from wells that penetrate shallower limestones in the Anastasia
Formation.

ANASTASIA FORMATION

The Anastasia Formation of Pleistocene age was named by
Sellards (1912, p. 18) after studying coquina pits at St. Augustine,
Florida. Since 1912, the formation has been noted along the coastal
ridge as far south as Dade County. In the Pompano Beach area






UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
U -' .-I


8013'


EXPLANATION
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surface-water observation stations.


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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 36


the formation overlies the Tamiami Formation and is covered by
the Pamlico Sand and the Miami Oolite. The Anastasia Formation,
as defined by Schroeder (1958, p. 21), includes all pre-Pamlico
marine deposits of Pleistocene age along the coastal areas. It
consists of heterogeneous mixtures of very fine to very coarse quartz
sand. finely broken shells, and redeposited calcium carbonate either
in the form of calcite crystals or as cryptocrystalline cementing
materials. The colors range from white to gray or tan.
The indurated zones are generally highly permeable and yield
very large quantities of water (2,000 gpm) to open-end wells. The
Anastasia Formation is the most important component of the
Biscayne aquifer in the Pompano Beach area.

MIAMI OOLITE

Miami Oolite was named by Sanford (1909, p. 211-214) and
redefined by Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 204-207) to include all
the oolitic limestone in southern Florida. The Miami Oolite of
Pleistocene age, overlies the Anastasia Formation in the Pompano
Beach area and is covered by the Pamlico Sand. It is fairly per-
sistent west of the coastal ridge but occurs discontinuously in the
ridge area along the Pompano and Hillsboro canals. The formation
is a sandy, oolitic limestone containing many pelecypod shells. It
is a white thin-bedded to massive, very permeable limestone which
may occur locally as a solid rock to a depth of 40 feet below the
land surface.
Where the rock is appreciably thick it is an excellent aquifer,
but because it is discontinuous very little water is derived from it.
The Miami Oolite is strip mined and used extensively as road base
building material, and decorative building stone.

PAMLICO SAND

The Pamlico Sand is a late Pleistocene terrace deposit of marine
origin. Parker and Cooke (1944, p. 74-75) extended the term
Pamlico Sand from North Carolina to southern Florida, and defined
it to include all the marine Pleistocene deposits younger than the
Anastasia Formation. The Pamlico Sand blankets the study area
except in the north-central part, where the Miami Oolite crops
out. The sand west of the ridge is generally 2 to 5 feet thick, and
on the ridge it attains a maximum thickness of 18 feet. It is very
fine to coarse, mostly of medium size, subangular, and contains
varying amounts of iron oxide.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Numerous sand-point wells completed in this material will yield
small quantities of water (50 gpm or less), which commonly has
a high iron content.

GROUND WATER

Ground water is the subsurface water in the zone of saturation,
the zone in which all pore spaces are filled with water under greater
than atmospheric pressure. The chief source of ground-water re-
plenishment in the Pompano Beach area is local rainfall. Part of
the rainfall is evaporated, part is absorbed by plants and transpired,
and a part is lost by surface runoff; the remainder infiltrates
downward to the zone of saturation. After entering the zone of
saturation, ground water flows by gravity from areas of recharge,
where water levels are high, to areas of discharge, where water
levels are low. A formation, group of formations, or part of a
formation within the zone of saturation that is capable of
transmitting water in usable quantities is called an aquifer.

OCCURRENCE OF GROUND WATER

Ground water in the Pompano Beach area occurs under both
water-table (nonartesian) conditions and artesian conditions.
Where water occurs in an unconfined aquifer and its upper surface
is free to rise and fall, the aquifer is referred to as a water-table
aquifer and its upper surface is the water table. In the Pompano
Beach area all fresh ground-water supplies are derived from the
Biscayne aquifer, a water-table aquifer.
Ground water contained in an aquifer that is confined by
impermeable beds, and that is under sufficient pressure to rise
above the top of the aquifer, is defined as artesian water. The
height to which the water will rise in a tightly cased well that
penetrates an artesian aquifer is the pressure, or piezometric,
surface. Artesian ground water occurs beneath the area but the
top of the artesian (Floridan) aquifer is about 950 feet deep and
contains salty water.

RECHARGE AND DISCHARGE

The Biscayne aquifer is recharged by rainfall and by surface
water pumped into the area through canals. About 50 percent of
the rainfall (estimated by Parker and others, 1955, p. 221, for a








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 36


1960 1961
10 AR APR. MA UEULYAUG.SEPT CT. NOV. DEC. JAN FEBMAR APRMAY JUNE JULY AUG. EPTOCT.


140 I







K I- I -








S613-007-SWI
ck


Figure 4. Graphs of fluctuations of chloride content of the water from the
Pompano Canal and two finger canals.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


a- r .a u S Go'o9cw
S24.3CO
Figure 5. Northeastern Broward County showing the chloride content of water
samples from surface-water bodies June 5-6, 1961.

similar area in North Miami), infiltrates to the zone of saturation
and becomes ground water. In the western part of the Pompano
Beach area great volumes of water are pumped through a system
of irrigation canals which maintain high ground-water levels during
the dry seasons. The pumping procedures are reversed during
rainy seasons to prevent flooding of croplands.
Discharge from the Biscayne aquifer occurs by evapotran-
spiration, by ground-water outflow to canals and to the ocean, and
by pumping from wells. Evapotranspiration and ground-water
outflow probably account for more than 80 percent of the total







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 36


discharge. The losses are greatest during the rainy season in late
spring to early fall when temperatures and water levels are highest.
Evidence of the discharge of ground water into canals is shown
by the periodic changes in the quality of the water in several
canals in the area. Figure 4 compares the chloride content of the
water from two observation stations (613-007-SW1 and 613-008-
SW2) along the lower controlled reach of the Pompano Canal
during 1960-61. Throughout most of the sampling period the water
at station 613-007-SW1 had a slightly lower chloride content than
the water at station 613-008-SW2. The chloride content is lowest
during the rainy seasons and highest during dry seasons. Water
|moving from the west in the Pompano Canal generally contains
more salt than does the ground water in the Pompano Beach area.
During wet periods, such as July to October 1960, a large part of
the increased flow of the Pompano Canal was the result of heavy
ground-water discharge into the canal in the Pompano Beach area
which caused dilution of the canal water as it moved to the ocean.
During the ensuing dry season of 1961, a large part of the canal
flow was contributed by areas west of Pompano Beach, as a result
the chloride content of the canal water increased.
Figure 5 shows the chloride content of the surface water at
points in major canals, irrigation laterals, and ponds or rock pits
June 5-6, 1961. The distribution shows that the chlorides are
higher in the western areas than they are near the coast. In the
Hillsboro Canal, water entering the area from the west contained
74 ppm (parts per million) of chloride and was diluted by ground-
water discharge along the lower reach to 64 ppm at the control
dam. Similarly, the water in the Pompano Canal was diluted from
80 ppm of chloride at the western edge to 30 ppm above the control
in Pompano Beach.

WATER USE

The greatest use of ground water in northeastern Broward
County is for public supplies. During 1960-61 the total pumpage
for public supplies in the area was 7 to 8 billion gallons (fig. 6).
In 1961 the municipalities pumped about 4.3 billion gallons, at a
rate of about 12 mgd (million gallons per day); about one-half
was used for lawn irrigation.
The maximum withdrawals normally are during the winter
season, when the population is greatest, when the rainfall is least,
and when irrigation is heaviest. The normal condition seldom
exists; therefore, during some years the largest withdrawals are







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Hillsboro Beach
Margate

Deerfield Beach
Collier City
Broward Utilities
Pompano Beach


J F M A M JJ A S 0 N D J F M A M J J A S


1960


1961


Figure 6. Graph showing monthly pumpage of municipal supplies in north-
eastern Broward County.


450



400


350


300 F


250


200 F


50-


100 v


50 -


















25
z
20


15
05

Szi
5 P

O
01


Figure 7. Monthly pumpage from the Pompano Beach well field and monthly
rainfall at Pompano Beach, 1957-60.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


in the summer, when rainfall is deficient. Figure 7 shows the
monthly pumpage from the Pompano Beach well field and the
monthly rainfall at Pompano Beach. A relation between pumpage
and rainfall is evident. The graph also shows the large increase
in annual pumpage from 1957 to 1961. It is estimated that the
pumpage by 1970 will be twice that of 1961.
A large quantity of water is used by residents who irrigate
lawns from privately owned wells. The use of water for industry
is very small except for the seasonal use by the vegetable packing
plants in the western part of the area. Most water for crop irri-
gation in the west is obtained from surface-water sources.

WATER-LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS

Major fluctuations of ground-water level in the Pompano Beach
area are caused by recharge to and discharge from the Biscayne
aquifer. The magnitude of the fluctuations and the day-by-day
changes were determined from automatic recorders installed on
selected wells in Pompano Beach during 1960-61. Also, monthly
measurements of water level were made in wells of random depth
in the aquifer. The continuous water-level records provided informa-
tion on short term fluctuations and furnished a complete record
of the seasonal fluctuations. The periodic measurements provided
information to determine the configuration and altitude of the
water table at different times. The water-table maps were used to
determine areas of recharge and discharge, the direction of flow
in the aquifer, and changes in ground-water storage.
The most pronounced and rapid water-level fluctuations are
the result of recharge by rainfall and discharge by pumping. The
effect of recharge is shown in figure 8 by the rise of the water
table when appreciable rainfall occurs, such as on September 23
and October 22, 1960. The combined effect of discharge by evapo-
transpiration, ground-water outflow, and pumpage is indicated by
the relatively slow decline of the water table as compared to the
rapid rise caused by recharge. The effect of pumping ground water
on water levels is very pronounced near a discharging well, but
is included in and masked by the general effect of the other
discharge factors.
Figure 9 compares the hydrograph of well 614-007-11, in the
Pompano Beach well field, with that of well 614-008-1, nearly 1 mile
west of the well field. The rate of decline of the water level in well
614-007-11 is slightly more rapid than that in well 614-008-1 and
can be attributed to the effect of withdrawals in the well field. The







3


I

i.


A Il N A AAl I I 1"
"I 1l l I 10 I n lI I
,, v
I


V


4 -- --- ----------------------------------------
3 -- -- -------------------------- | ---------
6
5


3



SEPT OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB

Figure 8. Hydrograph of well 614-007-11, daily municipal pumpage and daily
rainfall at Pompano Beach, Sept. 1960-Feb. 1961.


I
a:






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1960 1961


A I i \J-~ ^- -
Si .ELL 614-007-l 1




Figure 9. Hydrographs of wells 614-007-11 and 614-008-1 at Pompano Beach.

rate of water-level recession in well 614-008-1 suggests no reflection
from well field pumping. The relative effect of pumping also is
suggested in part by a comparison of the range of fluctuations in
the two wells. The total range in well 614-007-11 was 9 feet,
whereas that in well 614-008-1 was slightly more than 6 feet. When
water levels are high, the effect of outflow to drainage canals has
some differential effect on the rates of decline; when water levels
are low, ground-water outflow to canals is reduced and the rate
of decline of water levels is reduced accordingly.
During September and October 1960, water levels in the area
generally rose about 5 feet as a result of heavy rainfall (fig. 8).
Very little water was pumped for irrigation and withdrawals from
the Pompano Beach well field were reduced to 3.5 mgd. During the
next 6 months, deficient rainfall and increased pumping for
irrigation and municipal purposes caused water levels to fall below
the pre-September levels.
Contour maps were prepared from water-level data in the
area to represent high, average, and low-water conditions in the
Biscayne aquifer for the period of record. Figure 10 represents the
approximate configuration and altitude of the water table on
October 13, 1960, when water levels were abnormally high owing to
the extremely heavy September rainfall. The map shows steep
ground-water gradients toward the Hillsboro Canal, the Intracoastal
Waterway, and the Pompano Canal, indicating heavy discharge of
ground water throughout the area.
The large depression in the water table in the center of the
area, between Powerline Road and the Seaboard Air Line Railroad,
is caused by heavy pumping from rock pits to lower water levels
so that the pits can be mined. The trough in the Water table, south-
west of the rock pits indicates that the canal that connects the
pits with the Pompano Canal was effectively draining ground
water from storage in the aquifer. Significant recharge was
j








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 36


Bo tom Wom U S Geologca l I 0 -4


Figure 10. Northeastern Broward County showing contours on the water
October 13, 1960, when water levels were high.


table


occurring in the northwestern part of the area, as indicated by the
large ground-water mound within the 13-foot contour. The close
spacing of the contours adjacent to the Hillsboro Canal, on the
north, suggests a thinning or a decrease in permeability of the
Biscayne aquifer.

Figure 11 represents the water table on March 16, 1961, when
water-level conditions were about average. The water-table
depression at the rock pits is still evident but it is much less
pronounced than it was in October 1960; however, the canal to the
southwest of the rock pits continues to drain ground water from
storage from the adjacent area. The high ground-water mound


Is' 12' II 09 oT 059 050 0"O'M
EXPIANAT.ON
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hat b,,. .1.1 000., .n RD~r 960

C_ ~, fD mon ro n
PALM M BEACF. COUNTY TON
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DEERFIELD BEACH





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8013 12 I 1 09 0' 6' CI






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


3ou w u G G qoiocl a iwt
l2.000
Figure 11. Northeastern Broward County showing contours on the water
table March 16, 1961, when water levels were about average.

in the northwest has been dissipated and the 13-foot water-level
contour has shifted westward. The pattern of the contours indicates
that the northern reach of the canal adjacent to State Highway 7
was the main source of recharge to the Biscayne aquifer in the
Pompano Beach area. Canal C14 was completed by March 1961
and its flow was controlled by a dam a short distance downstream
from its confluence with the Pompano Canal and another located
at the Florida East Coast Railroad.
Within the Pompano Beach well field area, the water-table
contours show considerably more distortion as compared to the
contours for October 1960. The pronounced distortion is the result









REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 36


A 12'* "' 0 09' O5 07' 06 05" 80C I


I' 0' 09' 08'


07' 06" OS 8 'O


1 2 0 _..


Figure 12. Northeastern Broward County showing contours on the water
table August 15, 1961.



of heavier pumping in the well field during March 1961 (about 8

mgd). The gradients toward the canals are less, indicating less

outflow than in October 1960.

Figure 12 represents the altitude and configuration of the water

table on August 15, 1961, when water levels were low as a result of

generally deficient rainfall. The general pattern of the contours is

about the same as that in March, but the distortion of the contours
in the vicinity of the Pompano Beach well field is more acute

because of the continuous heavy pumping throughout the period of

deficient rainfall. A noticeable distortion in the contours also occurs


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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1960 1961
618-012-1
*4btTif4<+t I IiH


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618-005-1


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I 615-005-1






4 i t
E # ,


Figure 13. Hydrographs of wells in northeastern Broward County.

in the vicinity of the Deerfield Beach well field, about half a mile
west of the Florida East Coast Railroad, as a result of relatively
heavy pumping in the area.
The flat gradiert of the water table in the southeast indicates
that much of the water that normally moves toward the Intra-
coastal Waterway is being intercepted by the heavy withdrawals
in the Pompano Beach well field. Water levels in the western part
of the area remained relatively high during the period of record,
because of water-control activities in that area. Water levels are
-1


615-009-1



e - ,,i--o6q-%

S614-008-2











II N I I
614-006-3





614-007-3



614-0067-


... ........~..--~..


: VIX. /
I _"_- o \






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 36


1g
-4 661
0--613-08-SW 2












area are shown by the hydrographs in figure 13. Hydrographs of1960-61.

(adjintained at fairly constant altitude forest side of the area show by
controrelatively small ranges in irrigfluctuation canals and county pumpinuous high water from the
levels as a resenult of the water-vel flucntrol practieons througin the area. Con-udy
rea re s e hydrographs o e 1 614-007- i th opao ah


fieldls 618-012-1 and 616-006-1,12-1, located near the pelarge range ofal
(adjafluctuations that occur in dischargy 7) on the and downgradienthe area show
relatively small hydrograngephs in figure 14 reprsctuations and cont periodicgh water
levels as a urements ault of several locater-control practices in the Pompano Canal. CoThen-




dams are open to permit discharge of flood water. During the dry
period (1961) the controls were generally closed and water levels
were maintained relatively constant and high to furnish replenish-
ment by outflow into the aquifer. The difference between the paired
hydrographs indicates the ability to control water levels in the
Pompano Canal at desired heads. During the dry season high canal
stages are desirable but during flood period canal stages are lowered
to accommodate flood waters.
to accommodate flood waters. --l-







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


QUALITY OF WATER

The chemical quality of ground water depends upon the amount
and type of constituents contained in the recharge, the composition
and solubility of the rocks through which the recharge moves, and
the presence of connate water in the aquifer. In the Pompanc
Beach area rainfall is the principal source of recharge. As the
rainfall infiltrates to the water table it acquires organic acids and
dissolves calcium carbonate from the rocks which imparts hardness
to the water. The occurrence of connate water and the encroach-
ment of sea water into the aquifer will be discussed under another
section.
Ground-water samples were collected from wells at several
locations and from different depths in some wells in the Biscayne
aquifer. The samples were analyzed by the U. S. Geological Survey
and are presented in table 2. Included also are other analyses made
by the General Development Corporation and the Florida State
Board of Health. The analyses show that the ground water is hard,
but is suitable for most uses, without being treated, or with
relatively simple treatment.
Iron derived from iron-bearing minerals within the aquifer or
from the action of iron-fixing bacteria is the most noticeable and
objectionable constituent in the ground water of this area. Un-
treated ground water used for lawn irrigation has caused iron
staining on shrubs, trees, sidewalks, and houses. In the samples
analyzed iron was present in amounts ranging from 0.01 to 4.3
ppm. Iron in concentrations in excess of 0.3 ppm is objectionable in
water used for public supply, and in concentrations in excess of
about 0.5 ppm it imparts a noticeable taste to the water. The
amount of dissolved iron in ground water in the area is very erratic
and cannot be predicted with any accuracy even for short distances
horizontally or vertically. Iron is most easily and inexpensively
removed by aeration and filtration in the large volumes used by
municipal supplies.
Hardness is caused by calcium and magnesium dissolved from
shell material, limestone, and dolomite in the aquifer. Water having
a hardness in excess of 120 ppm is considered hard. Hardness of
the water samples ranged from 22 to 316 ppm. The hardness is
generally low in the sand ridge area at shallow depths and generally
high in the west and at greater depths in the aquifer. This is com-
patible with the character of quartz sand which is the main
component of the aquifer at shallow depths in the ridge area and






TABLE 2. Analyses of Water from Wells in Northeastern Broward County
Analyses by U. S. Geological Survey. Chemical constituents are expressed in parts per million, except pH and color.

Hardness
as CaCO,





010- 2 7 80 4 24 18 4 .0 3 414 9





614-006-1 8-10-60 158 77 8.5 .44 86 1.0 8.8 .6 118 8.6 1 .,2 .1 124 228 8,0 5
614-007-1 8-10-60 220 78 1.7 .0 8.4 0.2 12 .6 11 2.4 18 2 .1 8 116 98 5
01 g g 5 I 10 I c .


618-007-1 1- 4-61 304 77 7.5 4.8 P2 4.8 16.0 1.4 266 6 .2 .428 0. O 283 222 4 498 7.9 1
618-007-2 8-27-51 190 18.0 0.18 44 2.6 9.8 0.6 140 8.0 14 .1 1708 120 9 261 7.4 6
618-010-11 2- 5-67 80 74 2.4 118 4.9 393 3.0 33 .25 .. 414 316 6 6.9 22
614-006-1 8-10.60 158 77 3.6 .44 86 1.0 8.3 .6 118 8.6 18 .2 .1 124 94 2 228 8.0 5
614-007-1 8-10.60 220 78 1.7 .80 8.4 0.2 12 .6 11 2.4 18 .2 .1 58 22 0 116 9.8 5
614-007-2 1-24-61 140 77 7.8 .72 64 2.8 8.6 .6 164 10.0 14 .2 .4 182 146 12 316 7.9 10
614-007-9 8-28-61 108 12.0 .89 44 .26 9.2 .6 140 8.0 14 .3 .6 168 120 6 267 7.6 7
9-10-56 .. .... 18.0 .01 47 1.1 9.8 .8 140 12.0 16 .1 .4 182 122 8 291 7.8 5
614-007-10 9- 6-1 208 .. 14.0 .07 70 8.5 11.0 .7 222 6. 16 .4 .8 252 189 7 870 7.6 28
614-010-12 6-18-68 147 76 ..... 1.2 94 6.8 ...... .... 822 10.0 18 820 264 0 .. 6.9 10
6-18-58 168 74 .... .1 88 4.9 305 .0 17 .8 807 240 0 7.5 10
615-006-4 1-24-61 188 78 9.5 .67 52 2.1 7.7 .4 162 2.8 12 .8 .1 167 138 5 295 8.0 5
616-006-111 8- 5-66 90 76 .86 46 .9 .... .... 19 27.0 9 .15 .. 149 118 4 ... 7.6
617-006-12 2-24-55 178 75 ...... .4 51 2.9 .. .... 168 8.0 13 .5 ... 186 188 2 7. 7
8-22-66 7 ..... .45 0 2.4 ...... 166 6.0 9 .15 .- 188 16 0 ... 7.5 10
5-11-59 77 ...... 3 55 1.4 .... ... 180 .0 16 .1 188 144 4 7.3 5
11- 8-59 77 ...... 54 2.4 .... 188 20.0 17 .25 .. 17 146 0 ... 7.8 5
617-006-22 2-24-55 180 7 ..... .4 50 2.9 .... 168 85.0 15 .5 ... 164 18 0 7.6 6
5-11-59 77 ...... .4 8 .5 ...... .... 188 .0 14 .. 180 148 6 7.8 5
11- 3-59 77 ..... .3 6 2.4 ... 188 20.0 17 .85 170 148 0 .... 7.3 5
617-006-82 4-18-58 10 76 ...... .4 62 4.0 ......210 19.0 18 .2 .... 22 172 0 7.8 8
5-11-59 78 ...... .7 66 1.4 217 .0 14 .15 209 172 6 ... 7.2
11- 8-59 78 ...... .45 65 2.0 224 10.0 18 .25 ... 210 174 .- 7.8 7
617-006-42 11- 8-69 122 77 ..... .1 50 2.9 ...... 176 30.0 17 .35 .. 186 18 0 7.8 7
617-006-2 8-27-61 189 76 ...... 60 1.4 ...... 185 .0 22 .... 142 12 0 .. 7.4 10
619-006-11 1-16-52 80 78 ...... 1. 66 .0 ..... .. 193 .0 18 .1 .. 280 18 6 ...... 7.8 25

lAnalyses by Florida State Board of Health.
2Analyses by General Development Corporation.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


the shell beds and limestone which are the main components
throughout the aquifer in the western sections and at great depths
beneath the ridge.
The hydrogen-ion concentration (pH) is a measure of the acidity
or alkalinity of water. Distilled water has a pH value of 7.0 and
thus is neither acid nor alkaline; decreasing values below 7.0
denote increasing acidity and usually indicate a corrosive water;
conversely, increasing values above 7.0 denote increasing alkalinity.
The pH of the water analyzed ranged from 6.9 to 9.8 and is mostly
about 7.5, which is slightly alkaline and should be noncorrosive.
Color in water usually is derived from the decomposition of
organic matter. Peat and muck deposits are common in the
western part of the area and in buried mangrove swamps in the
east. Visible coloration of drinking water is undesirable. Water
having concentrations in excess of 20 units is considered by the
U. S. Public Health Service (1946) to be unsuitable for human
consumption. The range of concentration in this area is from 3
to 28 units. Highly colored water often retains an earthy odor
similar to the organic material from which the color was derived.
Part of the color of the water in this area is from iron. Color is
generally lower than 10 in the sand ridge area and generally high
in the west, where several large irrigation wells produce highly
colored water.
Dissolved hydrogen sulfide and methane gases were noted in
several wells. The gases are derived from the decomposition of
organic matter, and they impart undesirable odors. The odors are
easily removed by aeration.

SALT-WATER CONTAMINATION

Salt-water contamination in the Biscayne aquifer in north-
eastern Broward County could occur from two general sources:
(1) the direct encroachment of sea water into the coastal parts
of the aquifer or along uncontrolled canals; and (2) the upward
movement of saline water that may exist in beds below the
Biscayne aquifer. If saline water occurs in the underlying beds it
may be connate, trapped in the sediments when they were deposited,
or it may be sea water that infiltrated the beds during Pleistocene
interglacial stages when the ocean inundated the area several
times. During this study no certain evidence was found that
saline water exists within the aquifer beneath the sand ridge,
except for a few local areas immediately adjoining finger canals
in Pompano Beach. West of the ridge the chloride content of the







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 36


water increases slightly and is 30 to 40 ppm along State Highway
7. Farther west, the chloride content increases progressively west-
ward and with depth. Five miles west of State Highway 7 and 1.5
miles south of the Palm Beach County line a 104-foot well yielded
water containing 520 ppm of chloride. This increase of salinity
with depth is well defined by Parker and others (1955, p. 820),
who present several maps showing chloride concentrations in ground
water at different depths.
The local occurrences of saline water along the coastal finger
canals may be from downward infiltration of salt water from the
canals, or from the encroachment of sea water at depth in the
Biscayne aquifer. The system of uncontrolled finger canals has
lowered water levels along the coast to permit an inland extension
of sea water in the aquifer. Also, with the development of the
area and the increased use of water, much of the water that
normally would have discharged to the sea was intercepted
by municipal and irrigation wells, causing further lowering of water
levels and reduction of seaward flow.
The movement of salt and fresh water in a coastal aquifer is
controlled to a large degree by the relative height of the fresh
water above sea level and by the difference in the densities of fresh
and salt water. Under static conditions the relation is that of a
U-tube whose arms contain two fluids of different densities, and
it is expressed by the Ghyben-Herzberg principle (Brown, 1925,
p. 16-17) as follows:

h=-
g-1
where h = depth of fresh water below sea level
t = height of fresh water above sea level
g = specific gravity of sea water
1.0 = specific gravity of fresh water.

When the approximate value of the specific gravity of sea water
(1.025) is inserted in the equation, h=40t, or for every foot the
fresh water is above sea level, there will be 40 feet of fresh water
below sea level. This theoretical condition is modified somewhat
by the movement of the fresh water toward points of discharge,
by variations in the permeability of the aquifer materials, and by
the salinity of the sea water. The variations have only a minor
effect so the general relation is adequate for determining the
minimum depth at which salt water will occur in coastal parts of
the aquifer. One of the inconsistencies is the assumption that the
encroaching saline water has a specific gravity of 1.025. The







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


CHLORIDE i 50
WELL 613-006-
S12 --- --,--p--.- --100 --



t -J




~WATER LEVLL
S--WELL 614-007:11 30



Figure 15. Fluctuations of chloride content of water from well 613-006-1 and
water level in well 614-007-11.

inconsistency applies particularly to some of the finger canals that
are long and shallow. These canals receive much fresh water from
ground-water inflow which causes periodic dilution as shown by
two canals in figure 4b.
Because 91 percent of the dissolved constituents in sea water
are chloride salts, analyses of the chloride content of ground-
water samples can be reliably used to determine the extent of sea-
water encroachment in an aquifer. Salt-water encroachment occurs
in Pompano Beach adjacent to the uncontrolled finger canals that
dissect most of the area east of U. S. Highway 1. This system of
canals constitutes a persistent drain of ground water from storage,
thereby causing a general lowering of the water table to near sea
level during dry seasons. Also, it provides open channels for salt
water to move inland. Encroachment is indicated by the changes
in chloride content of the water from well 613-006-1, a 70-foot well
in the southern part of Pompano Beach (fig. 15).
Figure 15 also shows a comparison of the chloride content of
water from well 613-006-1 and the water-level fluctuations in well
614-007-11, less than a mile to the northwest. Well 613-006-1 is
flanked on three sides by tidal canals and is pumped heavily during
dry periods. The changes in the salinity of the water from the well
show an excellent correlation with water levels in the well less than







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 36


Figure 16. Fluctuations of chloride content of water from uncontrolled reaches
of the Hillsboro and Pompano canals.

a mile away. The aquifer in this area probably will become
progressively more saline as pumpage from Pompano Beach well
field increases and intercepts more of the natural ground-water
flow to the southeast.
Figure 16 shows the chloride content of water samples from the
observation stations immediately downstream (tidal reach) from
the lower control dams in the Hillsboro and Pompano canals. The
low chloride contents during most of 1960 are the result of the
nearly continuous discharge of fresh water through the control
dams. The two large increases in chloride content in 1961 occurred
when drought conditions prevailed, ground-water levels were low,
and little or no water was being discharged over the control dams.
Water from several wells near the coast showed very small
increases in chloride content during 1961 when rainfall was
deficient. The changes have a general correlation with water-level
fluctuations; that is, an increase in chloride occurs with a decrease
in water levels and vice versa. The four lower graphs in figure 17
show periodic chloride changes in two municipal wells (wells 617-
006-1 and 619-006-1) that are 4,400 and 2,400 feet, respectively,
from saline canals, and two private lawn-irrigation wells (wells
616-005-1 and 613-006-2) that are 200 and 1,000 feet, respectively,







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1960 1961
MAR APR MAY N Y AUG EPT.O NOV AN FLM MA APR MAY 2N= Y AG PT T
-6eW-006-6
-J


S-^ 615-006-5

^-- I I --7 ---- --7


619-006-1
3 ------ L ^-"- -


S616-oos-,-- F 6/ \

61600561-006-1

--'- -" -o-t,-1

Figure 17. Fluctuations of chloride content of water from wells near bodies
of saline surface water.


Figure 18. Fluctuations of chloride content of water from wells distant from
bodies of saline surface water.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 36


from saline canals. None of these supplies had a chloride content
that was in excess of the normal chloride content of the area,
indicating that seawater encroachment was not yet a problem in
these areas.
Another chloride graph in figure 17 is for the golf course
190-foot irrigation well (well 615-006-5) 900 feet from a saline
canal. The well was pumped heavily at regular intervals during
1961. The average water level near this well was about 3.5 feet
above msl during most of the summer of 1961. Pumping lowered
water levels nearly to sca level in the immediate vicinity of the well,
but only a small increase in chloride content was noted.
Analyses of water from wells farther from the coast (fig. 18),
similarly showed little or no variation in the chloride content during
the study. An exception was well 617-010-2, which showed an
increase from 26 ppm to 38 ppm. This change can be associated
with the reactivation of a large irrigation well in the immediate
vicinity.
In 1948, well 613-006-3 was drilled to salt water at a reported
depth of 210 feet. An analysis of the water in 1961 showed a con-
centration of 4,650 ppm of chloride. If future samples from this
well show increases in the chloride content, the increase may be
the result of the drainage effect of the uncontrolled part of the
Pompano Canal (and connected finger canals) to the south and
the series of finger canals to the northeast and the interception
of water by the Pompano Beach well field.
SWater samples for chloride analysis were collected periodically
from selected wells in the area; water samples from 15 of these
selected wells were analyzed each month to detect changes in the
chloride content. The maximum chloride content in each well was
used in the preparation of figure 19. Water samples also were
collected during the drilling of test holes to determine the variations
of chloride with depth in the Biscayne aquifer in areas between
the Pompano Beach well field and bodies of salt water.
Test well 613-007-1, located between the south edge of the
Pompano Beach well field and the lower control dam on the Pompano
Canal, was drilled to a depth of 304 feet. The average chloride
content of water samples from this well was 29 ppm, indicating
that the proper operation of the control dam was effectively main-
taining high water levels in the southern part of the area, thereby
preventing the inland movement of salt water from the controlled
reach of the canal.
Test well 615-006-4 was drilled to 183 feet below the land surface
near the upstream end of a long finger canal east of the Pompano






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Beach airport. Water from all zones sampled in this well contained
less than 25 ppm of chloride. Periodic analyses of water from this
well determine the effect that the adjacent tidal canal and the
heavy pumping at the golf course, immediately to the east, have
on the inland movement of salt water. Analyses of samples from
wells adjacent to and north of this finger canal show that salty
water occurs at relatively shallow depth in the aquifer. Also,
samples from wells in the southeastern part of Pompano Beach
indicate an inland extension of the salt front.
A potential area of salt-water encroachment could develop in
Deerfield Beach adjacent to the tidal reach of the Hillsboro Canal.
As shown in figure 19, water of high chloride content has occurred
in the canal as far upstream as the control dam. During low-water
periods, the effect of heavy pumping in the Deerfield Beach well
field, about half a mile south of the canal, could extend northward
to the canal and cause a reversal of the normal gradient and a
resultant southward migration of salt water. The distortion of the
2-foot contour in the Deerfield Beach area, in figure 12, suggests
that a gradient reversal might have been occurring in August 1961.


QUANTITATIVE STUDIES

Knowledge of the hydraulic properties of the aquifer of the
Pompano Beach area is essential to an evaluation of its ground-
water resources. The foremost hydraulic properties of an aquifer
are its ability to transmit and to store water. These properties are
expressed as the coefficients of transmissibility and storage. The
coefficient of transmissibility is defined by Theis (1938, p. 892) as
the number of gallons of water, at the prevailing water temperature,
that will move in 1 day through a vertical strip of the aquifer
having a width of 1 foot and a height equal to the saturated
thickness of the aquifer, under a hydraulic gradient of unity. The
coefficient of storage is defined as the volume of water released
from or taken into storage per unit surface area of the aquifer per
unit change in the component of head. Water transmitted through
overlying and underlying semiconfining materials into the principal
producing zone is termed leakage. The leakage coefficient (Hantush,
1956, p. 702) indicates the ability of semiconfining beds to transmit
water into the section being tested. It is defined as the rate at
which water moves through a unit area of the semiconfining bed,
if the head between the main aquifer and the bed supplying the
leakage is unity.




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


S 13' 12' 1' 10' 09' 08' 07' 06' 05' 8004'
262 uI 2621'
EXPLANAON1
N "0
Well )mpled prillodllly

In Srlt e p tr million.
Lowr number II te mpledi deoo, In
I ofl below land surfao c In Wells,
of below Waler SurlfCe G1o swrfo
dwaroen -o0'
P A L M BEACH COUNTY BOCA
HILLSBORO 1 CANAL N_ At I a/ RATON
BR OWA RD C UNTY ,

9 / t a 19'

DEERFIELD BEACH












Sa BEACH 1.









6 0 .


18'- -14'
SAMPNE P O O i











2' II 09' 08' 07'06'







2'09' 08' 07' 06' 05' 80004'
nes )barr ~rr?


a


ua, lwn ll irlll CV iIg CUal
Survey topo rophic quadrongles,


I h2 0. I


Figure 19. Northeastern Broward County, showing the maximum chloride
content of water samples from wells and surface-water bodies, 1960-61.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 36


The hydraulic coefficients are generally determined by pumping
water from an aquifer and observing the effect of the withdrawal
on the water levels in adjacent areas. Normally one well is pumped,
and water levels in several nearby nonpumping wells are observed
to relate the lowering of water level to distance and time. This
lowering of water level has the general shape of an inverted cone
and is referred to as the cone of depression. The shape of the
cone of depression depends upon the rate and period of pumping,
the water-storing and transmitting properties of the aquifer, and
the natural changes in storage in the aquifer.
Pumping tests were made on wells in the Pompano Beach
municipal well field during early February 1961, and at the Deer-
field Beach municipal well field at the end of August 1961. Well
615-007-4 in the Pompano Beach well field was pumped at the rate of
2,000 gpm for 100 hours and the water was discharged to the water
plant. For a period of 3 days prior to the test, no wells were
pumped within a distance of 3,700 feet of well 615-007-4. Water-
level measurements made during the 3-day period showed that
antecedent water-level conditions were nearly stable, and the
effects of other pumping in the area were small. After pumping
started, water levels were measured in observation wells shown
in figure 20 to determine the drawdown of levels at different
distances from the pumped well. In the Deerfield Beach test, well
619-006-5 was pumped for 8 hours at the rate of 450 gpm and
drawdowns were measured in the observation wells as shown in
figure 20. No other pumping occurred within 2,000 feet of the
Deerfield Beach test site during the test.
In both the Pompano Beach and Deerfield Beach well field areas
the municipal wells are developed in a permeable rock zone that is
overlain by thick sections of sand, shells, or silt. In the Pompano
Beach area the overlying material is mostly clean sand, but in the
Deerfield Beach area the overlying material consists of less
permeable heterogeneous mixtures of silt and shell. Because of
the low permeability of the shallow sediments, the aquifer in Deer-
field Beach acts initially as an artesian system when pumping be-
gins, proceeds through a leaky-aquifer transitional condition, and
ultimately, with time, to a water-table system. The time required
for this transition to be completed may be a few hours or days,
depending upon the rate of pumping and the nature of the over-
lying semiconfining beds supplying the leakage.
The drawdown data obtained from the Pompano Beach test were
analyzed by the Theis graphical method as described by Wenzel
(1942, p. 87-89). This method is best applied when the following


* 33










FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


5-615"007-8
POMPANO BEACH
WELL FIELD 61s-007-7





6,6
615-007-4.5,62







/615-006-2


14007

*614-007-2


EXPLANATION
PUMPING WELL
O
OBSERVATION WELL


I I
S----- DEERFIELD BEACH ---I
SWELL FIELD
! 619-006-7
=619-006-5 to100 t ---

/690600 -8'
619-006-8


Figure 20. Sketch of pumping test sites in the Pompano Beach and Deerfield
Beach well fields.
ideal conditions are met: the aquifer is homogeneous, isotropic,
uniformly thick, really infinite, and receives no recharge; the well
being pumped has an infinitesimal diameter and penetrates the
entire thickness of the aquifer; the water is all discharged through
the pumped well and water taken from storage is discharged
instantaneously with the decline in head. Not all these conditions
were met in the field, but the determined coefficients provide
valuable indications of the capacities of the aquifer. The coefficients
of transmissibility and storage can be computed from a series of


_








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 86 35

drawdown measurements made at different times in one observa-
tion well, or from drawdowns measured at one time in several
observation wells, by use of the following formula:


114.6 Q
8- >


00
c""
tl
U


114.6 Q
du -
T


W(u)


S 1.87 r- S
where U= --u
Tt
a = drawdown in feet
r = distance from the discharging well, in feet
Q = rate of discharge, in gallons per minute
t = time well was discharging, in days
T = coefficient of transmissibility, in gallons per day per foot
S = coefficient of storage.
The test data were plotted and matched with the type curve,
figure 21, The coefficient of transmissibility was computed to be
1,400,000 gpd per foot and the coefficient of storage was computed
to5 be 0.34. Analysis of the data by the straight line method
(Cooper and Jacob, 1946) resulted in a coefficient of transmissibility
of 1,500,000 gpd per foot land a coefficient of storage of 0.25.


S(SQUARE FEET PER DAY)
Figure 21. Logarithmic graphs of type curve and plot of s against r2/t for
observation wells 615-007-7, 615-007-8, and 615-006-2.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Because of the presence of semiconfining beds within the aquifer,
the Deerfield Beach pumping test was analyzed both by the Theis
method and by the leaky-aquifer method outlined by Hantush
(1956), which is based on the theory of ground-water flow in a
leaky artesian aquifer (Hantush and Jacob, 1955). The leaky-
aquifer method involves the same assumptions as does the Theis
method, except that the aquifer is assumed to be recharged by
leakage through semiconfining beds and the leakage rate is main-
tained by a constant head. This method also involves matching the
plotted data with a set of type curves developed by Cooper (in
press). At the Deerfield Beach test the coefficient of
transmissibility was computed to be 400,000 gpd per foot, the
coefficient of storage 0.0004, and the coefficient of leakage 3.6 gpd
per square foot per foot of head differential. The small
transmissibility in the Deerfield Beach area as compared with the
Pompano Beach area could be due to a thinning of the aquifer or a
general change in permeability, or a combination of both factors;
however, sufficient geologic information is not available to determine
the reasons for the lower transmissibility.
If it is assumed that ideal hydrologic conditions prevail in
Pompano Beach, theoretical drawdowns that would occur in the
vicinity of a pumped well can be computed by the Theis nonequi-
librium formula. The graphs in figures 22 and 23 were developed
for the Pompano Beach well field on the basis of a coefficient of
transmissibility of 1,500,000 gpd per foot and a coefficient of
storage of 0.30. Figure 22 shows the theoretical drawdowns caused
by pumping a well at a rate of 1,000 gpm for different periods. This
graph can be used to determine the drawdown that would be
expected with continuous pumping from storage, no rainfall or
recharge occurring, and natural discharge from the aquifer not
being affected. Figure 23 shows the drawdowns that would result
if the well were pumped at different rates for 1 and 10 days. This
graph can be used to determine the drawdown in other wells at anj'
distance for the times indicated. For a given time and distance,
the drawdown is proportional to the pumping rate.
Because the period of heaviest pumpage normally coincides with
the dry season in southeastern Florida, computations were made to
determine the overall drawdown caused by increased pumping from
the Pompano Beach well field during a prolonged drought. A water-
table contour map was constructed to show the effects of
withdrawing 20 mgd from the well field throughout a 6-month
rainless period.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 36


DISTANCE FROM PUMPING WELLIN FEET



S0.3


0 .......- -


0.6T------ ----- --

0


O COMPUTATIONS BASED ON:
1.0 ______ _______________T 1,500,000 g pd per ft.
S,,0.30
'0 1000 gpm
I.2 _______ --- -------____ -- --- ---- --
Figure 22. Predicted drawdowns in the vicinity of a well discharging 1,000
gpm for selected periods of time.

By use of a plotting method described by Conover and Reeder
(1962), the drawdown caused by each pumping well was plotted
on a grid system covering the area of influence, and summed to
determine the net effect of all pumpage. These net drawdowns
were superimposed on the water-level contour map for these
assumed conditions. Figure 24 shows the combined effect of
pumping 20 mgd (3 times the pumping rate for 1961) continuously
from the Pompano Beach well field for a 6-month prolonged
drought (no rainfall).
The predicted water levels may be lower than might actually
occur because the September 1961 water levels, selected to represent
the beginning of a dry season, were near record low after a 4-month
period of deficient rainfall. However, the total drawdown caused
by the 20 mgd pumping rate is in proportion to that shown at the
6.5 mgd rate in figure 12. Figure 24 shows that water levels in
the immediate vicinity of the municipal well field would be drawn
down to 2 feet below msl, and that diversion of ground water toward
the well field would result in a reduction of head along the coast and
along the lower reach of the Pompano Canal.
If this large increase in pumping were to lower water levels
permanently along the coast, a slow inland movement of salt water
could occur on a broad front in the aquifer and the well field would







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


DISTANCE


PING
DAY


FROM PUMPING WELL, IN FEET
500 1000


7


0



0.2



LLO4

z

0.6

0
0


Figure 23. Predicted drawdowns in the vicinity of a
selected times and rates.


well discharging at


be threatened. Thus, it would not be advisable to withdraw the
20 mgd without expanding the well field facilities. Expansion could
be northward, along the sandy ridge, or westward. The northward
extension of the field would have the advantage of the availability
of water of excellent quality, but ultimately the problem of salt-
water encroachment would recur.
A westward extension of the well field would take advantage
of the perennially high water levels maintained in the vicinity of
the controlled reaches of the Pompano Canal. Replenishment to
the field would be by continuous infiltration from the. canal, under
high gradients. The resulting drawdowns would be small, thereby
reducing any threat of salt-water encroachment. A disadvantage to
westward extension of the well field is the slightly inferior quality
of the ground water.


100


10.000


PUMF
ONE
A





---0
C)
0^


O


00


A =,=,


"


T







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 36


1 1/2 0


I mile


Figure 24. Pompano Beach well-field area showing predicted levels after
pumping 20 mgd for 180 days without rainfall.



CONCLUSIONS

The Biscayne aquifer is the only source of fresh ground water
in the Pompano Beach area. The chief source of recharge to the
aquifer is rainfall on the immediate area; an additional source is
the surface water pumped through canals into the western part
of the area for irrigation. The ground water is of good quality
except for the high iron content and the hardness and color, which
increase toward the west.
The aquifer is composed of marine deposits of quartz sand,
calcareous sandstones, and sandy to nearly pure limestones, which
extend from the land surface to a depth of about 400 feet. The
distribution of the -rock zones in the aquifer is erratic, but
generally, thin rock layers that are sufficiently permeable to supply







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


small water systems are present within the upper 60 feet. Thicker
rock zones from which large supplies can be developed by open-end
wells commonly occur at greater depths.
The water table has a gentle gradient from the interior to the
coast. Its configuration is greatly influenced by the Hillsboro and
Pompano canals and by pumping. Relatively high water levels
are maintained by the control structures in these canals, primarily
for irrigation purposes but also to retard the inland movement of
salt water. When pumping increases in future years, a large part
of the recharge to well fields will be from the controlled reaches of
the major canals. Pumping from the Pompano Beach well field
in 1961 has not lowered the water levels significantly to cause
appreciable inland movement of salt water. Future pumping at
greater rates could lower water levels to altitudes where sea water
would encroach into the aquifer.
Salt-water encroachment could occur from numerous tidal, salt-
water canals. The uncontrolled reaches of the Hillsboro and
Pompano canals are the most likely sources of encroachment,
because they allow salt water to extend appreciable distances inland
and they are adjacent to large well fields. The water from some
wells near the Intracoastal Waterway shows an increase in chloride
content when water levels are lowered. Salt-water encroachment
from subjacent beds is unlikely as no salt water was found by
drilling test holes into the lower zones of the Biscayne aquifer in
the Pompano Beach well field. Future threats of salt-water
encroachment could be diminished by controlling water levels in
canals at locations farther seaward, and by distributing the effect
of pumping more equally along the ridge area.
Pumping tests and water-level data indicate that much larger
quantities of ground water can be obtained in the ridge area, and
that even larger amounts could be produced farther west, with
little probability of salt-water encroachment.
Some of the major water problems that will face the city of
Pompano Beach in future years will be those problems associated
with rapid urbanization. As urbanization proceeds, water needs
will accelerate; at the same time, urbanization will require
drainage and flood control in the western part of the area. It is
important, therefore, to determine the effects that lowering water
levels in the west will have on the continued movement of water
eastward and on salt-water encroachment. These effects can be
evaluated by a continuing program of data collection and data
analysis on the availability of water. The continuing studies will '







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 36 41

point out changes in the hydrology of the area and will aid in
establishing an orderly program of water control and water
management in the area.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 36


REFERENCES

Black, A. P.
1951 (and Brown, Eugene) Chemical character of Florida's waters:
Florida State Board of Cons., Div. Water Survey and Research,
Paper 6.
Brown, Eugene (see Black. A. P.)
Brown, J. S.
1925 A study of coastal water, with special reference to Connecticut:
U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 537.
Conover, C. S.
1962 (and Reeder, H. 0.) Construction and use of special drawdown
scales for predicting water-level changes throughout heavily
pumped areas: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1545-C, p.
70-81 (in press).
Cooke, C. W. (also see Parker, G. G.)
1929 (and Mossom, Stuart) Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey
20th Ann. Rept., p. 29-227, 29 pl.
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29.
Cooper, H. H., Jr.
1946 (and Jacob, C. E.) A generalized graphical method for evaluating
formation constants and summarizing well-field history: Am.
Geophys. Union Trans., v. 27, no. 4, p. 526-534.
1962 Type curves for nonsteady radial flow in an infinite leaky
artesian aquifer, in methods of aquifer tests: U. S. Geol. Survey
Water-Supply Paper 1545-C, p. 88b-88q (in press).
Ferguson, G. E. (see Parker, G. G.)
Hantush, M. C.
1955 (and Jacob, C. E.) Nonsteady radial flow in an infinite leaky
aquifer: Am. Geophys. Union Trans., v. 36, no. 1, p. 95-100.
1956 Analysis of data from pumping tests in leaky aquifers: Am.
Geophys. Union Trans., v. 37, no. 6, p. 702-714.
Hoy, N. D. (see Schroeder, M. C.)
Jacob, C. E. (see Cooper, H. H.; Hantush, M. C.)
Klein, Howard (see Schroeder, M. C.)
Love, S. K. (see Parker, G. G.)
Mossom, Stuart (see Cooke, C. W.)
Parker, G. G.
1944 (and Cooke, C. W.) Late Cenozoic geology of southern Florida,
with a discussion of the ground water: Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 27.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1951 Geologic and hydrologic factors in the perennial yield of the
Biscayne aquifer: Am. Water Works Assoc. Jour., v. 43, no. 10.
1955 (and Ferguson, G. E., Love, S. K., and others) Water resources
of southeastern Florida, with special reference to the geology
and ground water of the Miami area: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-
Supply Paper 1255.
Reeder, H. O. (see Conover, C. S.)
Sanford, Samuel
1909 The topography and geology of southern Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey 2d Ann. Rept., p. 175-231.
Schroeder, M. C.
1958 (and Klein, Howard, and Hoy, N. D.) Biscayne aquifer of Dade
and Broward counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 17.
Sellards, E. H.
1912 The soils and other surface residual materials of Florida, their
origin, character, and the formations from which derived: Florida
Geol. Survey 4th Ann. Rept., p. 1-79.
Sherwood, C. B.
1959 Ground-water resources of the Oakland Park area of eastern
Broward County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 20.
Theis, C. V.
1938 The significance and nature of the cone of depression in ground-
water bodies: Econ. Geology, v. 33, no. 8.
Wenzel, L. K.
1942 Methods for determining permeability of water-bearing materials,
with special reference to discharging-well methods: U. S. Geol.
Survey Water-Supply Paper 887.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 36


TABLE 3. Lithologic Logs of Test Holes

WELL 615-006-4
Depth in feet
Material below land surface
Sand, quartz, gray to tan, very fine to very coarse, angular
to subrounded, iron-stained _---_. ............---------------------.. -- 0- 20
Sand, quartz, as above, slightly silty; and thin layer of
limestone ---- ----- ---...----........-........... .............-.. --................. 20- 30
Sand, quartz, white, medium, and tan, shelly limestone .-- 30- 40
Sand as above; and pink, sandy, shelly, very silty limestone 40- 43
Sand, quartz, white to gray, medium to coarse, mostly
coarse, slightly phosphatic -------------- --_____--..-- 43- 48
Sand as above; and dense, hard, shelly limestone .--..-...--- 48- 54
Limestone, white to tan, dense, shelly; some fine sand -...... 54- 59
Sand, quartz, white, fine, angular to subrounded, phosphatic
and white shelly limestone .--. .--..-.--.--..--. -... -- 59- 64
Limestone, white, crystalline, sandy, phosphatic .---.------- 64- 69
Sand, quartz, tan, mostly coarse and granular, slightly
phosphatic, partly indurated to sandstone -.---------...- 69- 78
Sand, quartz, white, mostly fine, silty, phosphatic; some
sandstone ...-- ---_..-......................--- ..-.- ......_ .....__..._..... 78 83
Sandstone composed of materials above ..-. --..--.----------_ 83- 88
Limestone, very sandy, white, shelly _--- --------- 88- 94
Sand, quartz, mostly fine but some very coarse grains,
calcareous and phosphatic ...----------....-------.---.. ----..----- 94- 99
Sand, fine to coarse, very calcareous, shelly, phosphatic 9-- 99-122
Marl, fresh-water? tan and brown, shelly, sandy; contains
some heavy minerals, wood material, and peat -- -----122 -124
Limestone, very sandy, shelly, phosphatic ----------.------ 124-135
Limestone, slightly sandy, shelly; sand, mostly medium,
very hard, 140-143 ..........--- ........-.-------........--...-----. 135 155
Limestone, almost pure, very slightly sandy; contains small
shell fragments ...----....-.._----..--.. -..--. .-----------.. ....---- 155 187

WELL 614-006-1
Depth in feet
Material below land surface
Sand, quartz, cream, very fine to coarse; small amount of
iron oxide .-..........---.._.......... ..------.-- ..-.... .. .. .----- 0- 10
Sand, quartz, fine to medium, angular and subangular, shelly
near bottom ---....--.....-........................... ....---.......------- 10- 20
Sand, as above; and thin layer of yellowish limestone at
25 feet ____ .. _... --------...___ ..--.....-... ...._..-- ...... .----- 20- 25
Sand, as above, shelly; contains phosphate and heavy
minerals ______________..._ .... ...._-__---__ 25- 42
Limestone, tan and cream, sandy, very hard at top; much
recrystalized calcite ____..-----..........-_.--- ..----.---. -.... .--- 42- 45






46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Limestone, white and cream, fairly pure, sugary to coarsely
crystalline; few shells --_ __-.-_ 45- 83
Sand, quartz, very fine to coarse, shelly; contains thin
interbedded white sandy limestone ...........- .... ................ 83- 115
Limestone, white and cream, sandy, shelly, slightly phos-
phatic, very hard at 130 feet .----...-..--..-.-...-....-- -..-- ...-- 115 -130
Limestone, white to tan, much recrystallized calcite, sandy,
shelly _.._._..._ .. ..... ...._............... 130 150
Sand, very fine to medium, angular, phosphatic, slightly
shelly _.._ ____. ... ... .... ......._......_. ...... 150-155
Limestone, white to cream, very sandy, shell fragments -.... 155 -157


WELL 614-007-1
Depth in feet
Material below land surface
Sand, quartz, fine to medium, subrounded, clear, frosted and
and iron-stained; bottom 2 feet shelly, sandy limestone .... 0- 20
Sand, quartz, fine to coarse, angular to subrounded, silty ...- 20- 58
Limestone, white and cream, very sandy, slightly phosphatic
and iron-stained ..-_-_..--..._ _.-----....... _... _............... ........-- 58- 65
Sand, quartz, tan and white; contains specks of phosphate
and limonite -_ ...- _- ..- ...- ..............-------- ... 65- 71
Sandstone, cream, very calcareous, poorly indurated, phos-
phatic --._-.---- _----..- -- -..-._--- i71- 82
Sand, fine to medium at top, becoming very coarse near
bottom, shelly, white; bottom shows traces of peat ..... ... 82-103
Sandstone, very calcareous, shelly, phosphatic; some in-
clusions appear oolitic -....-... ...........-...-... ................ 103- 118
Sand, quartz, mostly medium to very coarse, slightly marly,
phosphatic, shelly; bottom 2 feet indurated ---- ----_.---- 118-146
Limestone, sandy, phosphatic; contains beach-worn shell
fragments (rubble bed) _.......-..... ........ -....--. 146- 151
Sand, mostly fine to medium, but some coarse grains, shell
fragments; contains few thin layers of sandstone ------- 151-203
Sandstone, very calcareous, shelly, phosphatic ..._-_.... 203- 220


WELL 613-007-1
Depth in feet
Material below land surface
Sand, quartz, tan, medium, iron-stained ..-...-....-........_.--- 0- 15
Limestone, soft, tan, oolitic; and hard, dense shelly limestone 15- 20
Sand, quartz, tan and cream, medium, subrounded, iron-
stained ___. ___ .-____ 20- 48
Limestone, hard, dense, tan to brown ...........-...... 48- 50
Sand, quartz, fine to very coarse and some shell fragments;
hard limestone layer at 61 feet ._ .--_-. 50- 76
Sand, quartz, fine to coarse, but mostly coarse; and inter-
bedded thin layers of hard shelly sandstone ...._ 76- 92







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 36 47

Sand, quartz, medium, subangular; and wave-worn shell
fragments, phosphatic _..._...._ ......... ....- _--.._............. 92 105
Limestone and sandstone, gray, porous, shelly, phosphatic
and containing heavy minerals .---............-..................------- 105- 135
Sand, quartz, mostly fine, silty, shelly, phosphatic, glau-
conitic; few thin sandstone layers ........--------.... ......-------. 135-188
Sandstone, very calcareous, shelly, porous -..--....................... 188 -195
Limestone, hard, dense, and shelly sandstone contains lenses
of sand ......-..-----......-- -- ..-....-.-..-...--.....----... ..-..-...--..-... 195- 213
Sand, quartz, gray, mostly fine, shelly and phosphatic con-
tains thin beds or lenses of sandstone -..--. -------------. 213-292
Limestone, hard, dense, shelly --....--...-- ....--- .--..-----........ .... 292-296
Limestone, sandy, fairly soft, shelly -.......--.................----------. 296 304










TABLE 4, Records of Wells in Northeastern Broward County
Usei A, air conditioning Da, disposal; Do, dounestl i In, indlutrial; Jr Irrlgation; LI, lawn Irruiation; N, none; 0, oblervatlon; I', publilu Iupply, B, stock; T, tewt well,
Remarkia Ca, complete aualysli; Cut, cuttings; W.l, aui.ltionul water-level duat available.

Casing Measuring point Water level Chloride content



Well T Remarks
number Location Owner P m ak
It +




618.005-1 500 ft. S. and 2,60 0 G. N. Earhart 00 .... ....................... ..... ....... ........ ........... 44 8-28-60 77 L
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 6, T. 49 S., R.
48 E.
.2 1,850 ft. S. and Donald Wilson 50 /.... I .1 .................. .... ........ .... .......... 22 3-28.60 77 LI
2,150 ft. W. of NE
cor., see. 6, T. 49
8., R. 48 E.
618-006.1 1,400 ft. S. and City of Pompano 90 .... 8 ........... .... ....... ...... ....... 118 8- 8.60 76 In
2,175 ft. E. of NW Beach
cor., see. 6, T. 49
8., R. 48 E.
.2 200 ft. S. and 900 Bernard Millman 70 -- 2 ........ ...... .... ........ ......- 80 8-28-60 76 Li
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 1, T. 49 S.,
R. 42 E.
-8 100 ft. N. and 500 J. P. Finnigan 210 .. .... ... .... .... 4,0 9.15-61 77 In
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec. 81,'T. 49 S.,
R. 48 E.
618-007-1 650 ft. N. and 775 U. S. Geological 804 803 8- Top of 8-inch 0.0 10.85 10.70 1- 8-61 82 1.12-61 77 T Ca, Cut
ft. W. of SE cor., Survey 2 casing collar 28 1- 8-61
sec. 85, T. 48 S., 29 4-17-61
R. 42 E. 28 9- 8-61
-2 700 ft. N. and 850 City of Pompano -190 180 12 ......... .... 18 3-14-60 77 P Ca, Pompano
ft. W. of SE cor., Beach ,20 5-24-60 No. 1
sec. 85, T. 48 S., 18 12- 2-60
R. 42 E. 20 7-25-61






618-007-8



-4



-5



618-008-1



-2



-8



-4



618-009-1



618-010-1



614-005-1


8,860 ft. N. and
8,775 ft. E. of SW
cor., see. 2, T. 49
S., R. 42 E.
150 ft. N. and 1,200
ft. W. of SE cor.,
see. 85, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
100 ft. N. and 1,225
ft. W. of SE cor.,
sec. 85, T. 48 S., R.
42 E.
2,750 ft. S. and
2,700 ft. E. of NW
cor., sec. 8, T. 49
S., R. 42 E.
8,250 ft. S. and
1,800 ft. W. of NE
cor., sec. 8, T. 49
S., R. 42 E.
1,650 ft. S. and
1,400 ft. W. of NE
cor., sec. 8, T. 49
S., R. 42 E.
1,550 ft. S. and
1,000 ft. W. of NE
cor., sec. 8, T. 49
S., R. 42 E.
1,825 ft. S. and 400
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 4, T. 49 S., R.
42 E.
700 ft. S. and 2,400
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 5, T. 49 S., R.
42 E.
1,425 ft. S. and
1,620 ft. E. of NW
cor., sec. 81, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.


J. I. and M. I.
Ogden


First Baptist
Church of
Pompano Beach

W. D. Green



Pompano Race-
ways, Inc.


U. S. Geological
Survey


Ready Mix Con-
crete Co.


Larry Marable



Pompano Race-
ways, Inc.


State of Florida



C. W. Hendricks


6 Top of 6-inch
cross


69



98



85







100



90



120



80



87


1%1



2



2







4



8



4



6



8


6.41



15.29







9.50


Top of 1%-
inch casing






Top of 2-inch
casing


2.82



11.51







4.75


6-29-60



6- 6-60







7-20-60


10-18-60







10-17-60
1-19-62


10-10-60







8- 2-60



8-29-60



10-18-40



3-24-60



8-16-60
11- 9-61


77







80



78







77



77







78



76


~


Destroyed



Do.
























Ca



Ca, Cut


I










TABUa 4. (Continued)


Well Locatl
number


Ion


1,810 ft. 8. and
8,070 ft. E. of NW
cor., see. 81, T. 48
S., R. 48 E.
1,400 ft. N. and
1,200 ft. E. of SW
cor., sec. 80, T. 48
S., R. 48 E.
1,075 ft. N. and
2,900 ft. E. of SW
cor., see. 26, T. 48
S.. R. 42 E.


Owner


H. F. Wiersch



Martin Michelson



U. S. Geological
Survey


1,405 ft. N. and 720 H. D. Thomas
ft. W. of SE cor.,
see. 86, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
725 ft. N. and 275 W. D. Bennett
ft. E. of SW cor.,
see. 81, T. 48 S.,
R. 48 E.

1,200 ft. N. and 950 City of Pompano
ft. of SW cor.,
sec. 25, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
2,640 ft. 8. and U. S. Geological
1,650 ft. E. of NW Survey
cor., see. 86, T. 48
S., R. 4 E.


Cuaing





- N


Measuring point




4 ,

t


Top of 2-inch
casing


1%' Top of 1%.
inch casing



1% 1 ---do....


Top of 1%.
inch casing


16.05


9.60



19.07



16.87


Water level


614-006-2



-8


Chloride content


0a
0


I


jib


8.12


5.95



16.48



12.07


1M


7-18-60


8-10-60



8-14-60



7-18-60


Remarks


Ca, Cut












W-1, partially
plugged at 12
feet


17,000


18
20


18
10
18
17
17
48
28


42
52
54
44
48
17



20


4.10-60



1-14-61
11. 9.61


8-10-60
10-21-60
1.10-61
4-17-61
9- 8-61
8-23-60
1-19-62


4-12-60
6- 1-60
7-18-60
10-18-60
5-15-61
6-15-60



6-18-60


L,,,


I


I-


I I







1,150 ft. N. and 826 Hugh Walter
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec. 81, T. 48 S.,
R. 48 E.


-6



-7



-8



614-007-1




-2



-8



-4



-6



-6



-7


1,175 ft. N. and
1,816 ft. W. of SE
cor., sec. 86, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
2,550 ft. S. and 750
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 86, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
25 ft. N. and 1,200
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec. 26, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.

425 ft. N. and 700
ft. W. of SE cor.,
sec. 26, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
425 ft. N. and 710
ft. W. of SE cor.,
sec. 26, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,000 ft. N. and 550
ft. W. of SE cor.,
sec. 26, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,500 ft. N. and 425
ft. W.of SE cor.,
sec. 26, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,476 ft. N. and 425
ft. W. of SE cor.,
sec. 26, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,495 ft. N. and 885
ft. W. of SE cor.,
see. 26, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.


Wilson



City of Pompano



U. S. Geological
Survey



City of Pompano



.........-do .-.......



U. S. Geological
Survey


City of Pompano



.............do..... _.....



U. S. Geological
Survey


185



61



90



220




140



191



21



100



154



21


2



2



8



2




16



2



1%



16



2



1%/4


Top of 2-inch
casing







Top of 2-inch
casing


Top of 1%-
inch casing


Top of air-line
hole in pump
base

Top of 2-inch
casing


Top of 11/-
inch casing


0.0 12.52








.6 20.70



.0 20.18



1.0 22.04



.0 20.85



1.0 20.79


4.89








14.97



14.98



18.75



14.47



14.89


6-29-60



6- 8-67
8-15-61


9-25-60
6- 6-61
9-18-61

8-10-60
10-21-60
1-10-61
4-17-61
9- 8-61
8-14-60



10-21-60



7-18-60



8-14-60
4-18-60
4-15-61

10-17.60



7-18-60


"" --


6-18-60








8-10-60



7-18-60



8-17-61



8-14-60



7-18-60


Ca, Cut




Pompano Prod.
No. 4






W-1



Pompano Prod.
No. 5












TABLE 4, (Continued)


Location


1,800 ft. N. and 675
ft. W. of SE cor.,
sec. 26, T. 48 8.,
R. 42 E.
1,000 ft. S. and 725
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 85, T. 48 8.,
R. 42 E.
1,010 ft. S. and 725
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 85, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,060 ft. S. and 975
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 85, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
2,150 ft. S. and 500
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 85, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
2,149 ft. S. and 497
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 85, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
2,140 ft. S. and 600
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 85, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.


Owner


...............do .. ........



City of Pompano



..............do. .. ...



U. S. Geological
Survey


City of Pompano



.............. do- .........



U. S. Geological
Survey


Casing Measuring point


16



2



4



16



2



11/


........... do..........



Top of air-line
hole in pump
base

Top of 2-inch
casing


Top of 2-inch
casing






Top of 2-inch
casing


Top of 11 -
inch casing


a



4 58? r
il 1


21.64



20.22



19.56



20.14


18.64



18.47


Water level Chloride content


0


-+0 B


- ".4 g f 1 I


16.32



20.76



15.98



14.01


12.65



18.25


7.18.60



8-16-61



8-14-60



7-18-60







2-12-61



7-18-60


7-18-60



3-18-60
4-18-60
8-11-60
4-15-61
10-21-60



7-12-60



3.18.60
4-18-60
4-16-61

10-21-60



7-18-60


Remarks




2 ___


Ca, Pompano
No. 8


Ca







Pompano Prod.
Well No. 2


Well
number


--"'" -" --'--""'-~"


--






-15 25 ft. N. and 2,650
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec. 26, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.


-16



-17



-18



-19



-20



-21



-22



-28



-24


2,500 ft. S. and
2,800 ft. E. of NW
cor., sec. 85, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,950 ft. N. and
2,400 ft. E. of SW
cor., sec. 85, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
760 ft. S. and 1,725
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 85, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,930 ft. S. and
1,680 ft. W. of NE
cor., sec. 85, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,160 ft. N. and
1,700 ft. W. of SE
cor., sec. 85, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,575 ft. N. and
1,100 ft. W. of SE
cor., sec. 85, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,590 ft. N. and
1,110 ft. W. of SE
cor., sec. 85, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,500 ft. S. and 825
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 86, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
75 ft. S. and 325
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 86, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.


.. ......... do ...............


City of Pompano



U. S. Geological
Survey


Alice Lewis



Acme Concrete,
Inc.


E. V. Jackson



J. I. and M. I.
Ogden


City of Pompano



........... do ............


143



16



65



00



27



180



85



90



115



115


2



1%







3



1V4



8



2



16



2



2


Top of 2-inch
casing


Top of 114-
inch casing


..... do .....







Top of 114-
inch casing






Top of 2-inch
casing


Top of 16-inch
casing


Top of 2-inch
casing


........... do ...........


0.0


17.72



15.77



11.86


10.20



20.42



10.10



18.07


10.78



9.57



8.70







10.06







14.75



14.60



13.40



13.05


4-18-60



7-19-60,



0-20-60







9-19-60







8-81-61



8-81-61



6-24-61



6-24-61


10-18-60



7-18-60



10-14-60



3- 8-60


7-27-61



7-27-61



5-22-61



6- 2-61


Complete analysis
available,
destroyed

Originally drilled
to 180 feet


Pompano No. 8,
Cut


586



90



+105



105


- :


--












TABLE 4. (Continued)


Location


75 ft. S. and 250
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sc. 86, T. 48 S.,
. 42 E.
50 ft. N. and 450
ft. E. of SW cor.,
see. 26, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
150 ft. N. and 425
ft. W. of SE cor.,
sea. 27, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
950 ft. N. and 850
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec. 85, T. 48 8.,
R. 42 E.
450 ft. N. and 400
ft. W. of SE cor.,
see. 27, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,900 ft. S. and
1,200 ft. W. of NE
cor., sec. 84, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,500 ft. S. and
1,276 ft. W. of NE
cor., see. 84, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.


Owner


...... -do ..............



E. W. Betts, et al.



English and Bscaic
Erwin


George Rawls



English and Bessie
Erwin


De Marco, Inc.



De Marco, Inc.


112



56



27



90



54



-856



160


Casing I


Measuring point


W4

s"


Top of 16-inch
casing


Top of 4-inch
casing


Top of pump
base


High point of
l%-h.nch
casing

Top of 1%-4
inch casing


.....................


I Water level I Chloride content


18.07



17.16



11.85


18.52



2.00



4.21



8.86



7.89


0-18-61



7. 2-60



4-18-60



5- 2-60



5.18-60


0-18-61


5-18-60



8- 8-60



8- 8-60


.25



614-008-1



-2



-8



.4



.5



.6


Remarks


Pompano No. 10
Cut


----"-~I-~


~---


---------------- ;.- -


I '







614-009-1



-2



614-010-1



-2



-8



-4



-6



614-011-1



-2



-8


125 ft. S. and 1,150
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 88, T. 48 S.,
R. 42E.
500 ft. S. and 200
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 84, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,700 ft. N. and 875
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec; 88, T. 48 S.,
R.:42 E.
1,600 ft. N. and 875
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec. 88 T. 48 S.,
B. 42 E.
1,600 ft. N. and.
1,700 ft. W. of SE
cor., sec. 29, T. 48
S., B. 42 E.
600 t. N. and 2,850
ft.' W. of SE cor.,
sec. 29, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,700 ft. S. and
2,900 ft. W. of NE
cor., sec. 82, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
2,725 ft. N. and 325
ft. W. of SE cor.,
sec. 81, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
60 ft. S. and 2,850
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 81, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
725 ft. N. and 1,550
ft. W. of SE cor.,
sec. 80, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.


Phillips Petroleum
Co., Inc.,


Broward County,
Farm Bureau


Collier City Water
Works, Inc.


......do .........



W. H. Blount



.-.. .do. ..............



Bateman Co., Inc.



......... do.............



Unknown



Moore


1/4


70



104



168



147



+100



65



+65



70



100



98


2



6



2



16



1% 4



3



2



12



8


15.91


17.81


4.49



6.82



8.97


7-19-60


4-18-60



5-16-60



5-16-60


Top of pump
base


10-14-60



4-11-60



4-11-60


82



22



82



80



86


Top of 13%-
inch casing
nipple

Top of 8-inch
casing


Top of 1l2-
inch nipple


........................


10-14-60



4-27-60



8- 8-60



8- 8-60



4-18.60


76 0



78 Do



78 P Ca



78 N



75 Ir



N



S N



0



74 Ir



75 Ir













TABSL 4. (Continued)

Cuasing Measuring point Water level Chloride content




Well Location Owner 8 o Rearks
numbe i l I ia 1_



____6 a & &. + A .i s & I S


1,900 ft N. and 975
ft W. of SE cor.,
see. 36. T. 48 .,
IL 41 E.
1,250 ft S. and 950
ft E. of NW cor.,
see. 36. T. 48 S.,
R. 41 E.
1,750 ft S. and
1,850 ft E. of NW
cor., see. 36, T. 48
S., RI 41 E.
300 ft S. and 1,100
ft E. of NW cor.,
see. 30, T. 48 S.,
R. 48 E.
2,200 ft N. and
2,190 ft E. of SW
cor., see. 30, T. 48
S., R 43 E.
2,200 ft N. and
2,100 ft.E. of SW
cor., see. 80, T. 48
S. R 43 E.
2,450 ft N. and
'2,100 ft. E of SW
or., sec. 80, T. 48
S., R. 43 E.


Margate Fire Dept



Margate Utilities



do -



U. S. Geological
Survey


C. B. Miles



E. J. Gaynor, III



Boyd Sleeth and
Pat Murray


114



120



117



14







55



4-65


1%


Top of 1%
inch easing










Top of 1%-
inch easing


11.96


6.76


9.2240


7-1840


76



30



32



18



1,120
1.060
840

150
112


84


10-11-60



9-12-61



9-12-61



7-18-60



3-22-60
8-11-60
4-1661

4-14-60
8- 561


10-18-40


0



P Margate No. 1



P Margate No. 3



0



Li



LI



i


614-012-1



-2



-3



615-005-1



-2



-3



-4







-5



-6



-7



-8



-9



-10



615-006-1



-2



-3


-4


2,960 ft. S. and
2,670 ft E. of NW
cor., sec. 80, T. 48
S., R 48E.
3,160 ft. and
2,720 ft. E. of NW
cor., see. 80, T. 48
S., B. 48 E.
8,060 ft. S. and
8,350 ft. of NW
cor., sec. 30, T. 48
S., I 43 E.
2,200 ft. S. and
2,760 ft. E. of NW
cor., sec. 30, T. 48
S., R. 43
1,400 ft. S. and
2,600 ft. E. of NW
cor., see. 30, T.48
S., R. 43 E.
1,410 ft. and
1,430 ft. E. of NW
cor., sec. 30, T. 48
S.,R. 42 E.
950 ft.N. and 900
ft. of SW cor.,
see. 19, T. 48 S.,
. 48 E.
2,800 ft N. and
1,275 ft E. of SW
cor., sec. 25, T. 48
S., R. 43 E.
2,110 ft N. and 10
it. W. of SE cor.,
sec. 25, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 .
1,835 ft N. and 730
ft E. of SW cor.,
sec. 30, T. 48 S.,
I. 43 E.


R. B. Moore



Frank Bennett



W. W. Bivans



Michael Doyle



Al Aiudi



W. R. Zudrell



Broward Utilities



City of Pompano







U. S. Geological
Survey


20



18



56



39



-50



1,150



85



90



183


20



18







37







1.104



85







176


2



2



1%



1%



1%



16-
10


2



2



2


2.8



1.0







.0


14.90



16.41







10.34


22.4



8.88







5.90


6- 2-59



3-14-60







1-24-61


328



14



12



170
104


164
88


18



2,400



18
14
20

17
18
16
18
16
12
16
16


3-24-60



4-26-60



4-26-60



3-24-60
8-15-61



8-15-61


4-27-60







10-17-60
1- 2-61
1-10-61

3-10-60
8-11-60
4-15-61
11- 9-61
1-19-61
1-2461
4-17-61
9- 861


- I


Li



Li



N



Li



Li



Id



DI



0



Do



T


Top of 12-inch
flange


Top of 2-inch
casing






Top of 2-inch
casing collar


Cut, Floridan
aquifer


Originally drilled
to 147 feet






Ca, Cut








TABI' 4, (Continued)





Well
number Location


.5






*7


.8


*9


.10


-11


2,181 ft N, and 42
ft, W. of SW cor.,
see. 2, T. 48 S.,
R. 48 E.
500 ft. S. and 250
ft, E. of NW cor.,
see, 80, T. 48 S.,
R. 48 E.
B00 ft. S. and 50
ft. E. of NW cor.,
see 80, T. 48 S.,
R. 48 E.
500 ft. S. and 2,700
ft. W. of NE cor.,
see, 28, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
400 ft. S. and 1,400
ft W. of NE cor.,
see. 25, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
600 ft. S. and 1,100
ft. W. of NE cor.,
seo. 28, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,290 ft. N. and
1,210 ft. W. of SE
cor., see. 24, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.


Owner


City of Pompano


B. C. Wells


E. F. Smlchdt


R, J. Corcoran


Carson Spencer


Robert Davis


Broward Utilities


Cahsinu
jtult


Measuring point Water level


Top of pump
base


.......................


I
tit


...... Flowed


a j


10. .60


IF


Chloride content


17


20


20


18


18


24


18


8.10.00


8-80-00


8.28.00


4-11-60


4-11-00


4.20900


0-18-61


Remarks


Ca, Collier
Mannor No. 1


B


I I ,1 ~








-1



-1



615-007-1



-2



-8
















-7



.-8


2 1,240 ft. N. and
1,200 ft. W. of SE
cor., sec. 24, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
8 1,240 ft. N. and
1,100 ft. W. of SE
cor, sec. 24, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
2,950 ft. N. and 100
ft. W. of SE cor.,
sea. 26, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
2,940 ft. N. and 110
ft. W. of SE cor..
sec. 26, T. 48,S.,
R. 42 E.
2,941 ft. N. and 111
ft.'W. of SE cor.,
see. 26, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,825 ft. S. and 250
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 25, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,818 ft. S. and 258
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 25, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,820 ft. S. and 258
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 25, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,125 ft. S. and 800
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 25, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
825 ft. S. and 875
ft. E. of NW car.,
sec. 26, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.


..... .do._.-....






City of Pompano





...... do........

..-..... do ..........



... .do -.......



......_.... do ..........



..........do ........



........ do ........



........ .do ...... .__


6



8



16



2



2



16



2



2



2



2


Top of air-line
hole in pump
base

Top of 2-inch
casing


_ .. do



Top of air-line
hole in pump
base

Top of l-j-inch
casing collar


Top of 2-inch
casing




.--..... do __......
... ...do.-. ... .


1.0



1.0



.0



1.5



8.0



.0



1.0



1.0


20.88



19.66



18.66



21.29



22.62



10.64



20.10



21.17


15.18



12.44



12.44



10.56



12.82



12.96



12.20



18.10


3-16-61



8-14-60



8-14-60



8-16-61



8-14-60



8-14-60



7-18-60



3-14-60


19 9-18-61



18 9-18-61



18 8-14-60
18 4-15-60


18 10-17-60



19 10-17-60



22 4-18-60
16 9-18-60
18 11-14-60
16 4-15-61
20 6-16-60



20 5-16-60



16 10-17-60



18 10-17-60
16 1-10-61


77



77.



77



77



' 8



76



77



77



77



77


85



86





Collier Mannor
No. 2


Collier Mannor
No. 8


Pompano No. 6












Cut












Originally drilled
to 180 feet


Originally drilled
to 167 feet


I


I I I


-----1










TAp~B 4, (Continued)


Location


1,250 ft. S. and 100
ft. E. of NW cor.,
seo. 25, T. 48 8.,
R. 42 E.
50 ft. 5. and 2,000
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 26 T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E,
450 ft. S. and 8,600
ft. E. of NW cor.,
see. 26. T. 48 S..
R. 42 E.
2,440 ft. S. and 500
ft. W. of NE cor.,
see. 27. T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
2,440 ft. S. and 625
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 27, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
2,446 ft. S. and 495
ft. W. of NE cor.,
see. 27, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,200 ft. S. and 800
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 28, T. 48 8.,
R.42 E.


Owner


U. 8. Geological
Survey


Fairlawn Ceme-
tery, Inc.


Broward Utilities



Southern Wood
Ind., Inc.


Jacob McBride


B Id


Measurinl


Top of 1VA-
inch casing


Top of 6-inch
tee


Top of 6-inch
casing






Top of pump
base


Point W ter level



V ..II


19.21


8.00 15.97


14.06


12.89


5.41


2.50


7-18-60


4.26-60



4-25.60


5.16-60


Remarks


Chloride content


7-18-60



7-18-60
12- 2-60
9. 8.61
11- 9.61
0- 8-61


.10



-11



615-008-1



.2



-8



61500oo.1


8


---Ill-l.ll-C----.------II---:--- __ -L-


--





--


i:








-2



016-011-1



.2







-3



616-006-1



-2







.3



.4


100 ft. S. and 500
ft. E. of NW cor.,
see. 27, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
2,160 ft. N. and
2,860 ft. E. of SW
cor., sec. 19, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,500 ft. N. and
2,100 ft. E. of SW
cor.; sec. 19, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
2,200 ft. N. and
2,775 ft; E. of SW
cor., sec. 80, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,100 ft. N. and
1,600 ft. W., oi SE
cor., sec. 18, T. 48
S., R. 48 E.
8,600 ft. N. and
8,800 ft. E. of SW
cor., sec. 19, T. 48
S., R. 48 E.
1,600 ft. S. and
1,060 ft. E. of NW
cor., sec. 24, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,840 ft. S. and
1,125 ft. E. of NW
cor., sec. 24, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,326 ft. S. and
1,500 ft. W. of NE
cor., sec. 24, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
600 ft. N. and 2,850
ft. W. of SE cor.,
sec. 18, T. 48 S.,
R.'42 E.


Southern Factories,
Inc.


W. P. Brown



........._.do .......--.



Unknown



Pearl Dews



W. A. Arensen



W. D. McDoughald



................do...........



G. H. McCall



Town of Hillsboro
Beach


166



168



+200



54



67



20



02



62



71


Elev. equal to
lower lip of
discharge
pipe
Top of 12-inch
flange











Top of 1%4-
inch casing
collar










Top of 8-inch
casing


2.54



.73


5-16-60



8-31-60


12.14











9.06


2-24-60



6-16-60



6-16-60







8- 8-60



5-10-60







4-12-60



8.20-60
4-15-61


0-11-61


4-12-60


6-80-52


20.70


Hillsboro No. 1





I I









TAsLa 4, (Continued)


Location


700 ft. N. and 2,850
ft. W. of BE cor.,
see. 18, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
520 ft, N. and 2,550
ft. W. of SE cor.,
see. 18, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
8,200 ft. N. and 025
ft. E. of SW cor.,
soc. 16, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
25 ft. N. and 2,600
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec. 15, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
2,500 ft. N. and 225
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec. 15, T. 48 S.,
R..42 E.
750 ft. S. and 150
ft. E. of NW cor.,
see. 22, T. 48 S.,
R. 42E. *
1,000 ft. S. and
1,250 ft. E. of NW
cor., see. 20, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.


Owner


--.... do .........


R. H. Wright, Inc.


U. S. Geological
Survey


R. H. Wright, Inc.


A. A. Accardi


Mrs. H. L. Lyons


uuln Measuring point Water level Ohio


a .jjA- j11 t< j


I I -P
+I


Top of 1%-
inch casing


-6


616.008.1



-2


616.009-1


' : "
-2


616-010-1


; i '> '


16.71


7-19.60


5-81.60


ride content I


9-11.61


9-11-61


S. 4.60


7-19-60


a- 4.60


8-21-60
11- 9-61


Well
number


Top of 1%-
inch casing


Remarks


Hillsboro No. 1


Hillsboro No; 8


Two identical
wells tied to-
gether













( ,


--- ---









616-011-1



:616-012-1



617-005-1



-2



-8



017-006-1

, ,
.2



-82



-4



-56


2,475 ft. S. and 760
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 19, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.

1,550 ft. N. and 50
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec. 18, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.

950 ft. N. and 4,000
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec. 7, T. 48 S.,
R. 48 E.

800 ft. S. and 2,700
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 18, T. 48 S.,
R. 48 E.

2,150 ft. S. and
2,200 ft. E. of NW
cor., sec.. 18, T. 48
S., R. 48 E.
1,400 ft. N. and 800
ft.,W. of SE cor.,
see. 12, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E..
1,800 ft. N. and 800
ft. W. of SE cor.,
see. 12, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,400 ft. N. and 500
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec. 7, T. 48 S.,
R. 48 E.
1,400 ft. N. and
1,450 ft. W. of SE
cor., sec. 12, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
950 ft. N. and 800
ft. W. of SE cor.,
sec. 12. T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.


.............. do ...............



.............. do ...........


+200


24 Top of 24-inch --8.00
casing flange


U. S. Geological
Survey


G. J. Jeschke



Mr. Anderson



A. J. Forand



General Develop-
ment Co., Inc.


.. ...... do ......... ...


Top of 1l4-
inch casing


1%.



2







8



12



8



18



12


SI i ril


14.11


0.46



1.50


6-17-60



7-19-60


1- -61


7-19-60



8-16-60



6- 2-60



5- 2-60



4-11-60



4-11-60



4-11-60



9- 8-61



9- 8-61


Top of 12-inch
casing


Ca, Gen. Der.
No. 1


----Do .



Ca, Gen. Dev.
No.


Ca, Gen. Dev.
No. 4


Ca, Gen. Dev.
No. 5


I ' `









TABLE 4, (Continued)


Location


2,800 ft. N. and 175
ft.. of SW cor.,
see, 10, T. 48 S.,
R, 42 E.
850 ft. B. and 1,750
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 17, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
750 ft. B. and 1,150
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 17, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
900 ft. N. and 2,800
ft. E. of SW cor.,
see. 6, T. 48 B.,
R. 48 E.
1,400 ft. S. and
8,000 ft. E. of NW
cor., sec. 7, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,600 ft. S. and
1,480 ft. W. of NE
cor., sec. 1, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,690 ft. S. and
2,090 ft. W. of NE
cor., see. 1, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.


Owner


J. H. Doran, Inc.



P. C. Vinkemulder



........ do,...-..- .



Unknown



Sel Bon, Inc.



City of Deerfield
Beach


......... do-...


107



100



100



48



61



- 100



100


CaNintr Mufiuring point Water luvel Chlorilu content


Top of 4-inch
casing






Top of 4-inch
casing


Top of 2-Inch
casing


.1 '


16.68







11.98


1.88


5-13-60







7-18-60



8-15-60


8-28-60



7-15-61
9-16-61


5-18-60



10-10-60
0- 8-60


8-15-60



2-19-60



2-19-60


Well
number


617-009-1



617-010-1



-2



-618-005-1



-2



618-006-1



-2


Iemarks


Deerfield No. 4



Deerfield No. 5


VI








-8



-4







-2



618-008-1



S .2



618.010-1



'618-011-1



; -2



618-012-1


1,690 ft. S. and
2,540 ft. W. of NE
cor., sec. 1, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
170 ft. S. and 1,200
ft. W. of NE cor.,
see. 12, T. 48 S;.
R. 42 E.

1,650 ft. S. and
1,800 ft. E. of NW
cor., sec. 2, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
600 ft. N. and 800
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sea. 1, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
2,400 ft. S. and
1,600 ft. E. of NW
cor., see. 8, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,700 ft. S. and
2,575 ft. E. of NW
cor., see. 8, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,46'0 ft. N. and 450
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec. 4, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,200 ft. S. and
2,050 ft. E. of NW
cor., see. 6, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
25 ft. N. and 550
ft. W. of SE cor.,
sec. 6, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,800 ft. N. and 500
ft. E. of SW cor.,
see. 6, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.


8.00


Henry Myers



0. W. Goolsby



American Neigh-
bors, Inc.


0. W. Goolsby



.... ........ do .........



Earl Johns



John Thompson



H. D. and T. W.
Henson


Unknown


Deerfield No. 7


21



110



62



105



+100



100



125



100



85


12


1% 4



3
















2



2



2




1%,


Top of pump
base







Top of 1%.1
inch casing


Top of 1%. x
l1%-inch tee






....................



...-.. ...............



.......................



Top of 114.
inch casing


14.14


12.62
12.47






6.82



8.49


5-26-60
7-18-60







6- 6-60



2-22-60


5-11-60


8-16-61







2-22-60
10-10-60
4-15-61
11- 9-61





10-10-60



2-22-60
6- 1-60
11- 9-61

5-10-60
8-11-60
5-15-61

2-24-60
5-15-61


5-10-60



10-10-60
4-15-61


P



Do



S



N



S



S



S



S



In



0


17.63


,, .. ~


--


I









TABLE 4. (Continued)


Location


1,700 ft. N, and 200
ft. E, of SW cor.,
see. 6, T. 48 B.,
R. 42 E.
8,775 ft. S. and
1,100 ft. W, of NE
cor. se. 1, T. 48
S., R. 41 E.
1,000 ft. S. and
1,150 ft. W. of NE
cor., see. 6, T. 48
S., R. 48 E.
420 ft. 8. and 480
ft. W. of NE cor.,
see. 1, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
420 ft. S. and 580
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 1, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
50 ft. S. and 5
ft. E. of NW cor.,
see. 6, T. 48 S.,
R. 48 E.
1,250 ft. S. and
2,090 ft. W. of NE
or., se 1, T. 48
S.,R. 42 E.


Owner 1

'0- A


.---.do .... ....



U. S. Geological
Survey


City of Deerfield
Beach


City of Deerfield
Beach


- ....... do ........


1%



8



12



12



12


MeOuuring point Watur level


* ;0



H oi-
01 Rl" s


Top of 1'4-inch
casing nipple


Top of 114-
inch casing


8.00



.0


"'Z' "1""~1--


0.80



5.92


6-29-60



6-18-60


Chloride content


S82 5-10-60 76 Do


2-2.......60



2-28-60



2-23-60



2-28-60
2-28-60


Well
number


.2



.8



619-005-1



619-006-1



-2



-8.



-4


Romarks


Ca, Deerfeld
No. 1


Deerfield No. 2



Deerfield No. 8



Deerfeld No. 6


I


I


I


1








-5



.6



-7



-8



-9



-10



619-007-1


1,260 ft. S. and
2,640 ft. W. of NE
cor., sec. 1, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
50 ft. S. and 400
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 1, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.

1,240 ft. S. and
2,640 ft. W. of NE
cor., sec. 1, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,260 ft. S. and
2,640 ft. W. of NE
cor., sec. 1, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
950 ft. S. and 1,600
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 1, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.

980 ft. S. and 1,600
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 1, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
700 ft. S. and 8,250
ft. E. of NW cor.,
see. 2, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.


-- .do .-.-.



Edmond L.
McDonald


0.0


..--.do -.-.



American Neigh-
bors, Inc.


do .


Deerfeld No. 8



Deerfield No. 9


Top of 1%1-
inch air-line







Top of 6-inch
casing


___do ....



-___ do-.......-



.. do--..




Top of 1%-
inch tee


12.02







18.40



18.14



11.92



12.14



14.67


9.78








8.61



8.41



6.26



6.04



7.48


9-18-61








9-18-61



9-18-61



9-18-61



9-18-61



4-18-60


8-81-61



8-81-61


10-11-60


_ I I I


I _




Hydrology of the Biscayne aquifer in the Pompano Beach area, Broward County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 36 )
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PDF VIEWER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001223/00001
 Material Information
Title: Hydrology of the Biscayne aquifer in the Pompano Beach area, Broward County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 36 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Report of investigations 36 )
Uncontrolled: Biscayne aquifer in the Pompano Beach area
Physical Description: vi, 47, 20 p. : maps (part fold.) diagrs., tables. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Tarver, George R
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1964
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Hydrology -- Florida -- Broward County   ( lcsh )
Water-supply -- Florida -- Broward County   ( lcsh )
Salinity -- Florida -- Broward County   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "Prepared by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the city of Pompano Beach and the Florida Geological Survey."
General Note: "References": p. 43-44.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001774487
oclc - 01723165
notis - AJJ7743
lccn - a 64007287
System ID: UF00001223:00001

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FLRD GEOLOSk ( IC SUfRiW


COPYRIGHT NOTICE
[year of publication as printed] Florida Geological Survey [source text]


The Florida Geological Survey holds all rights to the source text of
this electronic resource on behalf of the State of Florida. The
Florida Geological Survey shall be considered the copyright holder
for the text of this publication.

Under the Statutes of the State of Florida (FS 257.05; 257.105, and
377.075), the Florida Geologic Survey (Tallahassee, FL), publisher of
the Florida Geologic Survey, as a division of state government,
makes its documents public (i.e., published) and extends to the
state's official agencies and libraries, including the University of
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The Florida Geological Survey has made its publications available to
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The Florida Geological Survey reserves all rights to its publications.
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f4






STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY



FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert 0. Vernon, Director






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 36







HYDROLOGY OF THE BISCAYNE AQUIFER
IN THE
POMPANO BEACH AREA,
BROWARD COUNTY, FLORIDA

By
George R. Tarver


AL 2


Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the6
CITY OF POMPANO BEACH
and the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
f- :


Tallahassee
1964








AGiw-
CULTUA

FLORIDA STATE BO Y

OF

CONSERVATION





FARRIS BRYANT
Governor


TOM ADAMS
Secretary of State



J. EDWIN LARSON
Treasurer



THOMAS D. BAILEY
Superintendent of Public Instruction


RICHARD ERVIN
Attorney General



RAY E. GREEN
Comptroller



DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGES
Director







II






LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


florioa geological Survey

Callakassee

December 5, 1963

Honorable Farris Bryant, Chairman
Florida State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida
Dear Governor Bryant:
The Florida Geological Survey is publishing, as Report of In-
vestigations No. 36, a study of the "Hydrology of the Biscayne
Aquifer in the Pompano Beach Area, Broward County, Florida."
This study was prepared by Mr. George R. Tarver, geologist with
the U. S. Geological Survey, and its publication is quite timely.
The Biscayne aquifer is the only source of fresh ground water
in much of the southeastern part of Florida. The aquifer is ex-
tremely permeable, and many of the large wells may yield 2,000
gallons per minute, with less than 4 feet of drawdown. The
aquifer is composed of quartz sand, calcitic sandstone and sandy
limestone that extends from the land surface to depths of as much
as 400 feet. Replenishment of the ground water is largely from
rainfall, and, because of the extreme permeability of the forma-
tion, it is anticipated that increased use of water in the area in the
future will be offset through salvage from loss to evapo-
transpiration and transpiration.
The steadily increasing population in the southeastern area of
Florida will require large amounts of additional water in the
future, and the details of this study will help to meet these needs.
Respectfully yours,
Robert 0. Vernon
Director and State Geologist


















































Completed manuscript received
May 15, 1963
Published for the Florida Geological Survey
By The E. O. Painter Printing Company
DeLand, Florida
Tallahassee
1964

iv









TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Abstract --_ -- ..---...- ------------------ --_--- ---------- ----- ----- 1
Introduction -. ..---.------ ------- ._- -_--- ----............ 2
Purpose and scope -..--.. ---------------------------------...-_ ..-. -- 2
Previous investigations------__-- ---------------______-------- 2
Personnel and acknowledgments ---------------_----.. ---.---.. ----- 3
Well-numbering system ---..------------.--.--...-....-----......-. 3
Geography -------- --_- .----- ----- ----- 4
Location and general features ...------_--...- -..--...-........ 4
Population --. ... ----. -.. .. . ..------------------_..-... --- --------------. .. .. 4
Climate ..-- -- ---- -... --.. .-... --------..- ---------.................__ .. 4
Topography and drainage -------------------------------------- 4
Biscayne aquifer ------..-_------_--------------------------------- 7
Geologic formations composing the Biscayne aquifer --_------ 8
Tamiami Formation .....----.-------------------.----.---_-------- 8
Anastasia Formation ------------------------------------_----------.-._..-- 8
Miami Oolite ....---------------.------ --------.......---.. 9
Pamlico Sand ......-------.-------------- -----------9....... .___ 9
Ground water ---------- -- --------- 10
Occurrence of ground water ------ -- ---------- 10
Recharge and discharge -_ ----- .. ---.---. -.-- ... 10
Water use ....-------.. --... -- ---- --_--------- -------------.. 13
Water-level fluctuations _- ..---------------------.------- 16
Quality of water -.. .. -- -----------------.--------------.--.. .-- ---... .. 24
Salt-water contamination ..---.-----------------------...... 26
Quantitative studies .--.---------- ----------------------...... 32
Conclusions ....-...---------- --------------- ------- --- -.-- 39
References ._.---- 4--.--------------.. ----------------------------------- 43






ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page
1 Peninsular Florida showing location of Pompano Beach area 5
2 Parts of Broward and Palm Beach counties, showing canals
and levees of the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control
District ------ ... -------..._--.- ---- ..... --- ..--...-- --. -- 6
3 Northeastern Broward County showing locations of wells and
surface-water observation stations --.---.... ------.------------ Facing 8
4 Graphs of fluctuations of chloride content of the water from
the Pompano Canal and two finger canals ._-._-___--- 11
5 Northeastern Broward County showing the chloride content of
water samples from surface-water bodies June 5-6, 1961 -------. 12








ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued)

6 Graph showing monthly pumpage of municipal supplies in
northeastern Broward County ..---_______-- __------------ .. ..--------- 14
7 Monthly pumpage from the Pompano Beach well field and
monthly rainfall at Pompano Beach, 1957-60 _-------------- ---. 15
8 Hydrograph of well 614-007-11, daily municipal pumpage and
daily rainfall at Pompano Beach, Sept. 1960-Feb. 1961 ------ 17
9 Hydrographs of wells 614-007-11 and 614-008-1 at Pompano
Beach .--_. -.... .........-- --- ------- .........------- .....-- ......... ------- 18
10 Northeastern Broward County, showing contours on the water
table October 13, 1960, when water levels were high .--..-.------ ----. 19
11 Northeastern Broward County, showing contours on the water
table March 16, 1961, when water levels were about average --.---- 20
12 Northeastern Broward County, showing contours on the water
table August 15, 1961 ... --------------. --- -------- --- 21
13 Hydrographs of wells in northeastern Broward County _-- ------- 22
14 Hydrographs of Pompano Canal showing stage at several
locations during 1960-61 ...--.--------------- -------- 23
15 Fluctuations of chloride content of water from well 613-006-1
and water level in well 614-007-11 -_ ------------- ---- 28
16 Fluctuations of chloride content of water from uncontrolled
reaches of the Hillsboro and Pompano canals _-------- ...-------.----- 29
17 Fluctuations of chloride content of water from wells near
bodies of saline surface water ------- ---------- 30
18 Fluctuations of chloride content of water from wells distant
from bodies of saline surface water ..----.-- .. -------- ------. 30
19 Northeastern Broward County, showing the maximum chloride
content of water samples from wells and surface-water bodies,
1960-61 -----------_ ---------- ------- Facing 32
20 Sketch of pumping test sites in the Pompano Beach and Deer-
field Beach well fields ._ --------.---- ----- ---- --- 34
21 Logarithmic graphs of type curve and plot of s against r2/t
for observation wells 615-007-7, 615-007-8, and 615-006-2 --- ---- 35
22 Predicted drawdowns in the vicinity of a well discharging 1,000
gpm for selected periods of time --_ ------------------ 37
23 Predicted drawdowns in the vicinity of a well discharging at
selected times and rates ____ ----------------------- -- 38
24 Pompano Beach well-field area showing predicted levels after
pumping 20 mgd for 180 days without rainfall _---- --------- ----- 39


TABLES

Table Page
1 Average monthly temperature and rainfall at Pompano Beach
1950-60 ._______ ---..._ ...---.. .. ....._------- 7
2 Analyses of water from wells in northeastern Broward County -.... 25
3 Lithologic logs of test holes .. .. _-- _.------............-........--------- 45
4 Records of wells in northeastern Broward County -_ ------ 48









HYDROLOGY OF THE BISCAYNE AQUIFER
IN THE
POMPANO BEACH AREA,
BROWARD COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
George R. Tarver

ABSTRACT

The Biscayne aquifer is the only source of fresh ground water
in northeastern Broward County, Florida. The aquifer extends
from the land surface to a depth of about 400 feet and is composed
of quartz sand, calcareous sandstone, and sandy to nearly pure
limestone. Replenishment to the aquifer is chiefly by local rainfall.
The permeable rock zones are erratic in their occurrence within
the aquifer, but they are generally more prevalent and thicker at
greater depths. Small water supplies can be obtained from thin
permeable lenses that generally occur at depths less than 60 feet.
Large water supplies can be obtained from wells drilled to thick
permeable layers that occur at greater depths. Many of the large
wells yield 2,000 gpm (gallons per minute) with less than 4 feet of
drawdown.
Chemical analyses of ground-water samples show that the water
is hard and is high in iron content, but is easily treated. Periodic
analyses of the chloride content of the ground water show that
some areas near the Intracoastal Waterway and uncontrolled
reaches of major canals become increasingly salty when water
levels are lowered. Data collected from test wells indicate that
during 1960-61 salt-water encroachment was of no major signifi-
cance to the Pompano Beach well field.
Aquifer test data indicate that the coefficient of transmissibility
is about 1,500,000 gpd (gallons per day) per foot and the coefficient
of storage is about 0.30. The test data also indicate that the more
permeable rock layers act initially as an artesian system, but with
continued development change to water-table conditions, at which
time the entire aquifer reacts as a hydrologic unit.
Water-level, rainfall, salinity, and quantitative data indicate
that much larger quantities of water can be obtained from the
ridge area provided that well spacing is adequate, pumping is
regulated, and salt water in canals is controlled.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


INTRODUCTION

The population growth in southeastern Florida during recent
years has created numerous problems. One problem which has
plagued most of the coastal cities is supplying water to the
expanding population. The principal difficulty has been to locate
and produce water without inducing salt water into the well field
areas. Salt-water intrusion has occurred in several areas along the
lower east coast where water use has greatly increased. The
officials of Pompano Beach, cognizant of salt-water intrusion
problems in southeastern Florida and of the need for additional
data to solve their present and future problems, requested that
the U. S. Geological Survey make an investigation of the ground-
water resources of the area and furnished cooperative funds. The
Florida Geological Survey also furnished cooperative funds as part
of its program to appraise the water resources of Florida.

PURPOSE AND SCOPE

The purpose of the ground-water investigation was to determine,
insofar as possible, (1) the ground-water potential, (2) the quality
of the water, (3) the occurrence of saline water in the Biscayne
aquifer, (4) the hydraulic coefficients of the aquifer, and (5) the
relation of ground-water levels and salt-water movement in the
aquifer and in canals.
The study consisted of the following: (1) An inventory of wells,
(2) installation of two automatic water-level recording gages, (3)
installation of shallow wells for water-level observations, (4) drill-
ing of four deep test wells to determine the character of the
sediments and the quality of the water in the Biscayne aquifer,
(5) leveling to refer measuring points to mean sea level altitudes,
(6) periodic water-level measurements, (7) periodic determination
of the chloride content of water from wells and bodies of surface
water; and (8) pumping tests to determine the water transmitting
and storing properties of the aquifer.

PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS

No detailed investigation of the ground-water resources of the
Pompano area has been made previously. However, considerable
information on the hydrology and geology of the area has been
published by the Florida Geological Survey and the U. S. Geological
Survey. Most of the publications have been reviewed and some







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 36


of the data have been used in this report. Publications most
pertinent and frequently used are reports by Cooke (1945), Black
and Brown (1951), Parker and others (1955), Schroeder and
others (1958), and Sherwood (1959).

PERSONNEL AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The investigation was under the immediate supervision of M. I.
Rorabaugh, district engineer, Tallahassee, and Howard Klein,
geologist-in-charge, Miami, Florida, of the U. S. Geological Survey.
C. B. Sherwood of the U. S. Geological Survey gave much valuable
help and advice during the study.
The investigation was greatly aided by residents of the area
who furnished information on and permitted access to their wells.
The author further appreciates the information and aid given by
personnel of the city of Pompano Beach and other municipalities
in the area. Special acknowledgment is expressed to the Maxson
Well Drilling Co.; Philpott, Ross and Saarinen, consulting engi-
neers; and S. W. Wells of the General Development Corporation.

WELL-NUMBERING SYSTEM

The well-numbering system used in this report is based on
parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude which divide the
study area into 1-minute quadrangles. Each 1-minute quadrangle
is assigned a number consisting of the degree and minute of the
parallel on the south side of the quadrangle and the degree and
minute of the meridian on the east side of the quadrangle. Each
well number consists of three sets of digits separated by hyphens.
The first and second sets are the quadrangle number, abbreviated
to three digits by omitting the left digit of each latitude and
longitude value of the quadrangle number. The third set is the
number assigned consecutively to each well within the 1-minute
quadrangle as it was inventoried. For example, well 615-006-4
was the fourth well inventoried in the 1-minute quadrangle
bounded on the south by 26015' north latitude and on the east by
80006' west longitude.
The same system is used in numbering surface-water observa-
tion points, except the third set of digits is prefixed by the letters
"SW." For example, the stage of the Hillsboro Canal was measured
periodically on the upstream side of the locks and is designated by
the number 619-007-SW1. Wells and surface-water observation
points, referred to by number in the text, are located on figure 3.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


GEOGRAPHY

LOCATION AND GENERAL FEATURES

The Pompano Beach area in this report includes the area of
study shown in figure 1. The area comprises about 60 square miles
and is bounded on the north by the Hillsboro Canal, on the west
by the Everglades and Conservation area 2, on the south by Canal
C14 (Pompano Canal), and on the east by the Atlantic Ocean (fig.
2).

POPULATION

The area has experienced a tremendous influx of people since
1950. In 1950, Pompano Beach and Deerfield Beach had a combined
population of 7,770 and the entire study area probably had less
than 10,000 people. The area has changed from a rural economy
to a tourist and retirement center with a population of 60,000 in
1960, an increase of 600 percent in 10 years. The projected popu-
lation increase has been estimated at about 12 percent per year
during the 1960's.

CLIMATE

The climate of Pompano Beach is subtropical and generally
quite humid. The average monthly temperature ranges from
65.4F to 81.7'F. During the period 1950-60 the average tempera-
ture was 74'F, and the average monthly rainfall was 64 inches.
The highest temperature and heaviest rainfall generally occur
during May through October, and the lightest rainfall occurs
during the winter. The average temperature and rainfall data
given in table 1 were furnished by the U.S. Weather Bureau.

TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE

The study area is part of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, which is
bounded on the east by the Atlantic Ocean and on the west by the
Everglades. The land surface rises to about 22 feet above msl
(mean sea level) at the crest of the ridge, which is about 2 miles
inland and is parallel to the coast. The ridge is mantled by white
quartz sand, which is thickest at the crest and thins to less than
5 feet in the backswamp area where it is underlain by a thin
permeable limestone layer.









REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 36


->, ,


/. / o





Port npon B rea!
c *1 r Y. c -
or4
"6".








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4

























iken from 1933 edfton of mop of
by U S Geoloqicol Survey
Figure 1. Peninsular Florida showing location of Pompano Beach area.
,"4Vo, -. Nc 4 ,,,4





TOWARD Co./. "







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 2. Parts of Broward and Palm Beach counties showing canals and
levees of the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District.


West of the divide or crest of the ridge the land surface
descends rapidly to the backswamp area, which is about half a mile
west of the divide. The backswamp area slopes gently to the west
5 miles to the Everglades, and consists of swampy sloughs and low
intraswamp ridges.
Originally, the backswamp area remained wet for long periods,
being poorly drained by sloughs toward the west and by under-
ground flow toward the ocean. Subsequently, it was developed for
farming by the construction of a series of canals, ditches, dams,
and pumping stations to control water levels. Presently, the
backswamp area is irrigated and drained through secondary canals
which connect with the Hillsboro Canal on the north and the








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 36


TABLE 1. Average Monthly Temperature and Rainfall at Pompano Beach,
1950-60

Month Temperature OF Rainfall (inches)

January 65.4 2.02
February 67.6 2.34
March 69.5 3.00
April 73.7 4.25
May 76.9 5.49
June 79.8 7.19
July 81.2 5.99
August 81.7 6.90
September 80.6 10.60
October 76.6 9.10
November 72.1 3.48
December 67.1 3.40
Yearly average 74.4 63.76


Pompano Canal on the south. These major canals flow eastward to
the ocean (fig. 2).
The Hillsboro and Pompano canals drain water from the
Pompano Beach area and they are also a part of the Central and
Southern Florida Flood Control District network of canals that
drain parts of the Everglades. The flow of the Pompano Canal is
controlled by a spillway structure a short distance east of the
Florida East Coast Railroad, and a gated dam 2 miles farther up-
stream (fig. 3). During periods of heavy rainfall, these structures
are adjusted to prevent local flooding; however, during most of the
year they are operated to hold high stages in the canal. Major
floodwaters in the western area are removed by the diversion canal
south of the Pompano Canal (fig. 3), and through the Hillsboro
Canal in the northern part of the area. The Hillsboro Canal is
controlled 2 miles upstream from the Florida East Coast Railroad.
The west slope of the ridge area drains to the backswamp area;
the east slope of the ridge drains to the Intracoastal Waterway.
In recent years drainage east of the ridge divide has been highly
developed to accommodate urbanization, and the area now drains
to the Intracoastal Waterway through storm sewers, streets west
of U. S. Highway 1, and by a massive system of finger-canals east
of U. S. Highway 1 (fig. 3).

BISCAYNE AQUIFER

The Pompano Beach area is underlain by the Biscayne aquifer
which is composed chiefly, of permeable limestone, sandstone, and
sand that range in age from late Miocene through Pleistocene. The






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Biscayne aquifer is thickest near the coast, where its base is about
400 feet below msl, and it thins to the west. Hydrologically the
aquifer is a unit, but geologically it comprises the following
formations: Tamiami Formation, upper Miocene; Anastasia
Formation, Pleistocene; Miami Oolite, Pleistocene; and Pamlico
Sand, Pleistocene. The entire section of sediments in this area
probably is of marine origin. The Biscayne aquifer is underlain
to a depth of 950 feet by a massive section of marine sediments
of middle and early Miocene age that are predominantly greenish
sandy clay and marl of low permeability. This material forms the
upper confining layers for the Floridan aquifer, a regional artesian
system which, in the Pompano Beach area, yields salty water to
flowing wells.
Detailed lithologic logs of four test wells in the Pompano Beach
are a are given in the section of well logs.

GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS COMPOSING THE BISCAYNE
AQUIFER

TAMIAMI FORMATION

The Tamiami Formation is the oldest and lowest formation in
the Biscayne aquifer. As redefined by Parker (1951, p. 823), it
includes all the upper Miocene material in southern Florida. The
Tamiami Formation ranges in composition from pure quartz sand
to nearly pure limestone, which is generally white to gray in color.
Rock layers are formed at random depth but they cannot be corre-
lated over large areas because wedging and lensing of the sediments
is common. The percentage of carbonate material in the sediments
shows a general increase with depth.
The numerous indurated zones are quite permeable, and open-
end wells in the limestone layers are capable of yielding large
quantities of water. The formation is tapped by only a few wells
because equally good water and comparable yields can be obtained
from wells that penetrate shallower limestones in the Anastasia
Formation.

ANASTASIA FORMATION

The Anastasia Formation of Pleistocene age was named by
Sellards (1912, p. 18) after studying coquina pits at St. Augustine,
Florida. Since 1912, the formation has been noted along the coastal
ridge as far south as Dade County. In the Pompano Beach area









UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
U -' .-I


8013'


EXPLANATION
SI
Well and well number
Surface-water observation
station and number


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PALM BEACH COUNTY BOCA
HILLSBO O BEACH COUNTY ATN
L I L _1 C AN AL DAM C A

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Survey topographic quadrangles.
1 24,00


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Figure 3. Northeastern Broward County showing locations of wells and
surface-water observation stations.


nnondi'


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ei V IV"""'" .cl ~ cc-yhl


- F ~ ~-- Il I i c~. I-~I rr = I


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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 36


the formation overlies the Tamiami Formation and is covered by
the Pamlico Sand and the Miami Oolite. The Anastasia Formation,
as defined by Schroeder (1958, p. 21), includes all pre-Pamlico
marine deposits of Pleistocene age along the coastal areas. It
consists of heterogeneous mixtures of very fine to very coarse quartz
sand. finely broken shells, and redeposited calcium carbonate either
in the form of calcite crystals or as cryptocrystalline cementing
materials. The colors range from white to gray or tan.
The indurated zones are generally highly permeable and yield
very large quantities of water (2,000 gpm) to open-end wells. The
Anastasia Formation is the most important component of the
Biscayne aquifer in the Pompano Beach area.

MIAMI OOLITE

Miami Oolite was named by Sanford (1909, p. 211-214) and
redefined by Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 204-207) to include all
the oolitic limestone in southern Florida. The Miami Oolite of
Pleistocene age, overlies the Anastasia Formation in the Pompano
Beach area and is covered by the Pamlico Sand. It is fairly per-
sistent west of the coastal ridge but occurs discontinuously in the
ridge area along the Pompano and Hillsboro canals. The formation
is a sandy, oolitic limestone containing many pelecypod shells. It
is a white thin-bedded to massive, very permeable limestone which
may occur locally as a solid rock to a depth of 40 feet below the
land surface.
Where the rock is appreciably thick it is an excellent aquifer,
but because it is discontinuous very little water is derived from it.
The Miami Oolite is strip mined and used extensively as road base
building material, and decorative building stone.

PAMLICO SAND

The Pamlico Sand is a late Pleistocene terrace deposit of marine
origin. Parker and Cooke (1944, p. 74-75) extended the term
Pamlico Sand from North Carolina to southern Florida, and defined
it to include all the marine Pleistocene deposits younger than the
Anastasia Formation. The Pamlico Sand blankets the study area
except in the north-central part, where the Miami Oolite crops
out. The sand west of the ridge is generally 2 to 5 feet thick, and
on the ridge it attains a maximum thickness of 18 feet. It is very
fine to coarse, mostly of medium size, subangular, and contains
varying amounts of iron oxide.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Numerous sand-point wells completed in this material will yield
small quantities of water (50 gpm or less), which commonly has
a high iron content.

GROUND WATER

Ground water is the subsurface water in the zone of saturation,
the zone in which all pore spaces are filled with water under greater
than atmospheric pressure. The chief source of ground-water re-
plenishment in the Pompano Beach area is local rainfall. Part of
the rainfall is evaporated, part is absorbed by plants and transpired,
and a part is lost by surface runoff; the remainder infiltrates
downward to the zone of saturation. After entering the zone of
saturation, ground water flows by gravity from areas of recharge,
where water levels are high, to areas of discharge, where water
levels are low. A formation, group of formations, or part of a
formation within the zone of saturation that is capable of
transmitting water in usable quantities is called an aquifer.

OCCURRENCE OF GROUND WATER

Ground water in the Pompano Beach area occurs under both
water-table (nonartesian) conditions and artesian conditions.
Where water occurs in an unconfined aquifer and its upper surface
is free to rise and fall, the aquifer is referred to as a water-table
aquifer and its upper surface is the water table. In the Pompano
Beach area all fresh ground-water supplies are derived from the
Biscayne aquifer, a water-table aquifer.
Ground water contained in an aquifer that is confined by
impermeable beds, and that is under sufficient pressure to rise
above the top of the aquifer, is defined as artesian water. The
height to which the water will rise in a tightly cased well that
penetrates an artesian aquifer is the pressure, or piezometric,
surface. Artesian ground water occurs beneath the area but the
top of the artesian (Floridan) aquifer is about 950 feet deep and
contains salty water.

RECHARGE AND DISCHARGE

The Biscayne aquifer is recharged by rainfall and by surface
water pumped into the area through canals. About 50 percent of
the rainfall (estimated by Parker and others, 1955, p. 221, for a







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 36


1960 1961
MAR PR MAY IJUNEULY PT OCT. Nov C JAN F MRAPR MAYJU JUY AUGEPT


16 -
14C (A)



/ -61;5-008-SW 2
sIO ---- ---- __ __---
Q)0


- 4i0 i it


oI I
" 4 _____ __ -_- i _i
A 613-007-SW I ---

201


Figure 4. Graphs of fluctuations of chloride content of the water from the
Pompano Canal and two finger canals.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


a- r .a u S Go'o9cw
S24.3CO
Figure 5. Northeastern Broward County showing the chloride content of water
samples from surface-water bodies June 5-6, 1961.

similar area in North Miami), infiltrates to the zone of saturation
and becomes ground water. In the western part of the Pompano
Beach area great volumes of water are pumped through a system
of irrigation canals which maintain high ground-water levels during
the dry seasons. The pumping procedures are reversed during
rainy seasons to prevent flooding of croplands.
Discharge from the Biscayne aquifer occurs by evapotran-
spiration, by ground-water outflow to canals and to the ocean, and
by pumping from wells. Evapotranspiration and ground-water
outflow probably account for more than 80 percent of the total






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 36


discharge. The losses are greatest during the rainy season in late
spring to early fall when temperatures and water levels are highest.
Evidence of the discharge of ground water into canals is shown
by the periodic changes in the quality of the water in several
canals in the area. Figure 4 compares the chloride content of the
water from two observation stations (613-007-SW1 and 613-008-
SW2) along the lower controlled reach of the Pompano Canal
during 1960-61. Throughout most of the sampling period the water
at station 613-007-SW1 had a slightly lower chloride content than
the water at station 613-008-SW2. The chloride content is lowest
during the rainy seasons and highest during dry seasons. Water
moving from the west in the Pompano Canal generally contains
more salt than does the ground water in the Pompano Beach area.
During wet periods, such as July to October 1960, a large part of
the increased flow of the Pompano Canal was the result of heavy
ground-water discharge into the canal in the Pompano Beach area
which caused dilution of the canal water as it moved to the ocean.
During the ensuing dry season of 1961, a large part of the canal
flow was contributed by areas west of Pompano Beach, as a result
the chloride content of the canal water increased.
Figure 5 shows the chloride content of the surface water at
points in major canals, irrigation laterals, and ponds or rock pits
June 5-6, 1961. The distribution shows that the chlorides are
higher in the western areas than they are near the coast. In the
Hillsboro Canal, water entering the area from the west contained
74 ppm (parts per million) of chloride and was diluted by ground-
water discharge along the lower reach to 64 ppm at the control
dam. Similarly, the water in the Pompano Canal was diluted from
80 ppm of chloride at the western edge to 30 ppm above the control
in Pompano Beach.

WATER USE

The greatest use of ground water in northeastern Broward
County is for public supplies. During 1960-61 the total pumpage
for public supplies in the area was 7 to 8 billion gallons (fig. 6).
In 1961 the municipalities pumped about 4.3 billion gallons, at a
rate of about 12 mgd (million gallons per day); about one-half
was used for lawn irrigation.
The maximum withdrawals normally are during the winter
season, when the population is greatest, when the rainfall is least,
and when irrigation is heaviest. The normal condition seldom
exists; therefore, during some years the largest withdrawals are







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Hillsboro Beach
Margate

Deerfield Beach
Collier City
Broward Utilities
Pompano Beach


J F M A M JJ A S 0 N D J F M A M J J A S


1960


1961


Figure 6. Graph showing monthly pumpage of municipal supplies in north-
eastern Broward County.


450



400


350


300 F


250


200 F


50-


100 v


50 -


















25
z
20


15
05

Szi
5 P

O
01


Figure 7. Monthly pumpage from the Pompano Beach well field and monthly
rainfall at Pompano Beach, 1957-60.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


in the summer, when rainfall is deficient. Figure 7 shows the
monthly pumpage from the Pompano Beach well field and the
monthly rainfall at Pompano Beach. A relation between pumpage
and rainfall is evident. The graph also shows the large increase
in annual pumpage from 1957 to 1961. It is estimated that the
pumpage by 1970 will be twice that of 1961.
A large quantity of water is used by residents who irrigate
lawns from privately owned wells. The use of water for industry
is very small except for the seasonal use by the vegetable packing
plants in the western part of the area. Most water for crop irri-
gation in the west is obtained from surface-water sources.

WATER-LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS

Major fluctuations of ground-water level in the Pompano Beach
area are caused by recharge to and discharge from the Biscayne
aquifer. The magnitude of the fluctuations and the day-by-day
changes were determined from automatic recorders installed on
selected wells in Pompano Beach during 1960-61. Also, monthly
measurements of water level were made in wells of random depth
in the aquifer. The continuous water-level records provided informa-
tion on short term fluctuations and furnished a complete record
of the seasonal fluctuations. The periodic measurements provided
information to determine the configuration and altitude of the
water table at different times. The water-table maps were used to
determine areas of recharge and discharge, the direction of flow
in the aquifer, and changes in ground-water storage.
The most pronounced and rapid water-level fluctuations are
the result of recharge by rainfall and discharge by pumping. The
effect of recharge is shown in figure 8 by the rise of the water
table when appreciable rainfall occurs, such as on September 23
and October 22, 1960. The combined effect of discharge by evapo-
transpiration, ground-water outflow, and pumpage is indicated by
the relatively slow decline of the water table as compared to the
rapid rise caused by recharge. The effect of pumping ground water
on water levels is very pronounced near a discharging well, but
is included in and masked by the general effect of the other
discharge factors.
Figure 9 compares the hydrograph of well 614-007-11, in the
Pompano Beach well field, with that of well 614-008-1, nearly 1 mile
west of the well field. The rate of decline of the water level in well
614-007-11 is slightly more rapid than that in well 614-008-1 and
can be attributed to the effect of withdrawals in the well field. The





































Figure 8. Hydrograph of well 614-007-11, daily municipal pumpage and daily
rainfall at Pompano Beach, Sept. 1960-Feb. 1961.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1960 1961


A I i \J-~ ^- -
Si .ELL 614-007-l 1




Figure 9. Hydrographs of wells 614-007-11 and 614-008-1 at Pompano Beach.

rate of water-level recession in well 614-008-1 suggests no reflection
from well field pumping. The relative effect of pumping also is
suggested in part by a comparison of the range of fluctuations in
the two wells. The total range in well 614-007-11 was 9 feet,
whereas that in well 614-008-1 was slightly more than 6 feet. When
water levels are high, the effect of outflow to drainage canals has
some differential effect on the rates of decline; when water levels
are low, ground-water outflow to canals is reduced and the rate
of decline of water levels is reduced accordingly.
During September and October 1960, water levels in the area
generally rose about 5 feet as a result of heavy rainfall (fig. 8).
Very little water was pumped for irrigation and withdrawals from
the Pompano Beach well field were reduced to 3.5 mgd. During the
next 6 months, deficient rainfall and increased pumping for
irrigation and municipal purposes caused water levels to fall below
the pre-September levels.
Contour maps were prepared from water-level data in the
area to represent high, average, and low-water conditions in the
Biscayne aquifer for the period of record. Figure 10 represents the
approximate configuration and altitude of the water table on
October 13, 1960, when water levels were abnormally high owing to
the extremely heavy September rainfall. The map shows steep
ground-water gradients toward the Hillsboro Canal, the Intracoastal
Waterway, and the Pompano Canal, indicating heavy discharge of
ground water throughout the area.
The large depression in the water table in the center of the
area, between Powerline Road and the Seaboard Air Line Railroad,
is caused by heavy pumping from rock pits to lower water levels
so that the pits can be mined. The trough in the Water table, south-
west of the rock pits indicates that the canal that connects the
pits with the Pompano Canal was effectively draining ground
water from storage in the aquifer. Significant recharge was
j







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 36


'sa' 2 I 0' 0' o or 08o 06 0 800-o'
l fl.OOO.O ...,. I.
fast. ob,1 whe, n a t e.. r lvsb., w960

i P A L BEAC c o COUNTY onBOC
BAROWAR"
I/ ot w__'
DEERFI ELD BEACH

: -












B ..asr














....r.ing in the o wrnc p ts os st area, as indist mu h less
pr2 r dt Iit was in 1
5 fo/ / area., 7
/ : / r


8 13" 12" 09' 08 07' 06' 05
Bor M u.- t'"o U S GeG1eCl a i_ _' o7 0 -4

Figure 10. Northeastern Broward County showing contours on the water table
October 13, 1960, when water levels were high.
occurring int the northwestern part of the area, as indicated by the
large ground-water mound within the 13-foot contour. The close
spacing of the contours adjacent to the Hillsboro Canal, on' the,
north, suggests a thinning or a decrease in permeability of the
Biscayne aquifer.
Figure 11 represents the water table on March 16, 1961, when
water-level conditions were about average. The water-table
depression at the rock pits is still evident but it is much less
pronounced than it was in October 1960; however, the canal to the
southwest of the rock pits continues to drain ground- water from
storage from the adjacent area. The high ground-water mound






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 11. Northeastern Broward County showing contours on the water
table March 16, 19G1, when water levels were about average.

in the northwest has been dissipated and the 13-foot water-level
contour has shifted westward. The pattern of the contours indicates
that the northern reach of the canal adjacent to State Highway 7
was the main source of recharge to the Biscayne aquifer in the
Pompano Beach area. Canal C14 was completed by March 1961
and its flow was controlled by a dam a short distance downstream
from its confluence with the Pompano Canal and another located
at the Florida East Coast Railroad.
Within the Pompano Beach well field area, the water-table
contours show considerably more distortion as compared to the
contours for October 1960. The pronounced distortion is the result









REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 36 2]


' 12' 0 09 o 07' cc O5 "-C


I' 10 09' 08'


07' 06" OS 'r


S2 0


Figure 12. Northeastern Broward County showing contours on the water
table August 15, 1961.



of heavier pumping in the well field during March 1961 (about 8

mgd). The gradients toward the canals are less, indicating less

outflow than in October 1960.

Figure 12 represents the altitude and configuration of the water

table on August 15, 1961, when water levels were low as a result of

generally deficient rainfall. The general pattern of the contours is

about the same as that in March, but the distortion of the contours
in the vicinity of the Pompano Beach well field is more acute

because of the continuous heavy pumping throughout the period of

deficient rainfall. A noticeable distortion in the contours also occurs


13OW ft0n h0om USC Geclo00'a
S.'oy t"0o014 00O,0080:e$


ii I EXPLANATION
N ~l
i i I~r~ooo nmeon Al~ ~ gwt u~n1961


P A LM iBEACH COUNTY 130CA

B 0va R COUNT


DEER E tBEC
1~2 9





52


at
PANOd

9 SME.C H

MARGATEr
asy
i' ..., s ~ -17

P 0 U P AN 0 C A
32 r
C 14i
CANAL 6 ~ ~ ~ (I
65i bi
4~


'~C''5







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1960


1961


-i-- ... JAN. FEW FR A-.* IF
1- 618-012-1



121

S618-008-1I


I'-




-i J -r-Fit---
I -
S618-005-1










S1---- --











i6 5' -0 54
S,_ I "_ !Y16


7-


1960 1961


+ I I 616-01i-1
I r I I I I I I I


6611-0. 82
615-009-1


















614-007-3





614-006-5
2 -------- ^





7 -- j --II-__ --i--= =y -
, v _ _
,-^2 --- __^ ^ ^L

61"-007-3
10~ ~ ~ ~ ~, --- -- --- -- -- --



















:I': :: :

:I ==Z: :--.;


Figure 13. Hydrographs of wells in northeastern Broward County.

in the vicinity of the Deerfield Beach well field, about half a mile
west of the Florida East Coast Railroad, as a result of relatively
heavy pumping in the area.
The flat gradiert of the water table in the southeast indicates
that much of the water that normally moves toward the Intra-
coastal Waterway is being intercepted by the heavy withdrawals
in the Pompano Beach well field. Water levels in the western part
of the area remained relatively high during the period of record,
because of water-control activities in that area. Water levels are


~-I-W~G-M I I I


I I


Ir ' ''\' '


JulrJ~nr






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 36


Figure 14. Hydrographs of Pompano Canal showing stage at several locations
during 1960-61.

maintained at fairly constant altitude for agricultural purposes by
control dams in irrigation canals and by pumping water from the
west into the irrigation canals.
Representative water-level fluctuations throughout the study
area are shown by the hydrographs in figure 13. Hydrographs of
wells 618-012-1 and 616-012-1, located near the perimeter canal
(adjacent to State Highway 7) on the west side of the area show
relatively small ranges in fluctuations and continuous high water
levels as a result of the water-control practices in the area. Con-
versely, hydrographs of wells 614-007-3, in the Pompano Beach well
field, and 616-006-1, near the coast, show the large range of
fluctuations that occur in discharge and downgradient areas.
The hydrographs in figure 14 represent periodic water-stage
measurements at several locations in the Pompano Canal. The
largest fluctuations occur during the wet season when the control
dams are open to permit discharge of flood water. During the dry
period (1961) the controls were generally closed and water levels
were maintained relatively constant and high to furnish replenish-
ment by outflow into the aquifer. The difference between the paired
hydrographs indicates the ability to control water levels in the
Pompano Canal at desired heads. During the dry season high canal
stages are desirable but during flood period canal stages are lowered
to accommodate flood waters.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


QUALITY OF WATER

The chemical quality of ground water depends upon the amount
and type of constituents contained in the recharge, the composition
and solubility of the rocks through which the recharge moves, and
the presence of connate water in the aquifer. In the Pompanc
Beach area rainfall is the principal source of recharge. As the
rainfall infiltrates to the water table it acquires organic acids and
dissolves calcium carbonate from the rocks which imparts hardness
to the water. The occurrence of connate water and the encroach-
ment of sea water into the aquifer will be discussed under another
section.
Ground-water samples were collected from wells at several
locations and from different depths in some wells in the Biscayne
aquifer. The samples were analyzed by the U. S. Geological Survey
and are presented in table 2. Included also are other analyses made
by the General Development Corporation and the Florida State
Board of Health. The analyses show that the ground water is hard,
but is suitable for most uses, without being treated, or with
relatively simple treatment.
Iron derived from iron-bearing minerals within the aquifer or
from the action of iron-fixing bacteria is the most noticeable and
objectionable constituent in the ground water of this area. Un-
treated ground water used for lawn irrigation has caused iron
staining on shrubs, trees, sidewalks, and houses. In the samples
analyzed iron was present in amounts ranging from 0.01 to 4.3
ppm. Iron in concentrations in excess of 0.3 ppm is objectionable in
water used for public supply, and in concentrations in excess of
about 0.5 ppm it imparts a noticeable taste to the water. The
amount of dissolved iron in ground water in the area is very erratic
and cannot be predicted with any accuracy even for short distances
horizontally or vertically. Iron is most easily and inexpensively
removed by aeration and filtration in the large volumes used by
municipal supplies.
Hardness is caused by calcium and magnesium dissolved from
shell material, limestone, and dolomite in the aquifer. Water having
a hardness in excess of 120 ppm is considered hard. Hardness of
the water samples ranged from 22 to 316 ppm. The hardness is
generally low in the sand ridge area at shallow depths and generally
high in the west and at greater depths in the aquifer. This is com-
patible with the character of quartz sand which is the main
component of the aquifer at shallow depths in the ridge area and






TABLE 2. Analyses of Water from Wells in Northeastern Broward County
Analyses by U. S. Geological Survey. Chemical constituents are expressed in parts per million, except pH and color.

Hardness
as CaCO,





010- 2 7 80 4 24 18 4 .0 3 414 9





614-006-1 8-10-60 158 77 8.5 .44 86 1.0 8.8 .6 118 8.6 1 .,2 .1 124 228 8,0 5
614-007-1 8-10-60 220 78 1.7 .0 8.4 0.2 12 .6 11 2.4 18 2 .1 8 116 98 5
01 g g 5 I 10 I c .


618-007-1 1- 4-61 304 77 7.5 4.8 P2 4.8 16.0 1.4 266 6 .2 .428 0. O 283 222 4 498 7.9 1
618-007-2 8-27-51 190 18.0 0.18 44 2.6 9.8 0.6 140 8.0 14 .1 1708 120 9 261 7.4 6
618-010-11 2- 5-67 80 74 2.4 118 4.9 393 3.0 33 .25 .. 414 316 6 6.9 22
614-006-1 8-10.60 158 77 3.6 .44 86 1.0 8.3 .6 118 8.6 18 .2 .1 124 94 2 228 8.0 5
614-007-1 8-10.60 220 78 1.7 .80 8.4 0.2 12 .6 11 2.4 18 .2 .1 58 22 0 116 9.8 5
614-007-2 1-24-61 140 77 7.8 .72 64 2.8 8.6 .6 164 10.0 14 .2 .4 182 146 12 316 7.9 10
614-007-9 8-28-61 108 12.0 .89 44 .26 9.2 .6 140 8.0 14 .3 .6 168 120 6 267 7.6 7
9-10-56 .. .... 18.0 .01 47 1.1 9.8 .8 140 12.0 16 .1 .4 182 122 8 291 7.8 5
614-007-10 9- 6-1 208 .. 14.0 .07 70 8.5 11.0 .7 222 6. 16 .4 .8 252 189 7 870 7.6 28
614-010-12 6-18-68 147 76 ..... 1.2 94 6.8 ...... .... 822 10.0 18 820 264 0 .. 6.9 10
6-18-58 168 74 .... .1 88 4.9 305 .0 17 .8 807 240 0 7.5 10
615-006-4 1-24-61 188 78 9.5 .67 52 2.1 7.7 .4 162 2.8 12 .8 .1 167 138 5 295 8.0 5
616-006-111 8- 5-66 90 76 .86 46 .9 .... .... 19 27.0 9 .15 .. 149 118 4 ... 7.6
617-006-12 2-24-55 178 75 ...... .4 51 2.9 .. .... 168 8.0 13 .5 ... 186 188 2 7. 7
8-22-66 7 ..... .45 0 2.4 ...... 166 6.0 9 .15 .- 188 16 0 ... 7.5 10
5-11-59 77 ...... 3 55 1.4 .... ... 180 .0 16 .1 188 144 4 7.3 5
11- 8-59 77 ...... 54 2.4 .... 188 20.0 17 .25 .. 17 146 0 ... 7.8 5
617-006-22 2-24-55 180 7 ..... .4 50 2.9 .... 168 85.0 15 .5 ... 164 18 0 7.6 6
5-11-59 77 ...... .4 8 .5 ...... .... 188 .0 14 .. 180 148 6 7.8 5
11- 3-59 77 ..... .3 6 2.4 ... 188 20.0 17 .85 170 148 0 .... 7.3 5
617-006-82 4-18-58 10 76 ...... .4 62 4.0 ......210 19.0 18 .2 .... 22 172 0 7.8 8
5-11-59 78 ...... .7 66 1.4 217 .0 14 .15 209 172 6 ... 7.2
11- 8-59 78 ...... .45 65 2.0 224 10.0 18 .25 ... 210 174 .- 7.8 7
617-006-42 11- 8-69 122 77 ..... .1 50 2.9 ...... 176 30.0 17 .35 .. 186 18 0 7.8 7
617-006-2 8-27-61 189 76 ...... 60 1.4 ...... 185 .0 22 .... 142 12 0 .. 7.4 10
619-006-11 1-16-52 80 78 ...... 1. 66 .0 ..... .. 193 .0 18 .1 .. 280 18 6 ...... 7.8 25

lAnalyses by Florida State Board of Health.
2Analyses by General Development Corporation.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


the shell beds and limestone which are the main components
throughout the aquifer in the western sections and at great depths
beneath the ridge.
The hydrogen-ion concentration (pH) is a measure of the acidity
or alkalinity of water. Distilled water has a pH value of 7.0 and
thus is neither acid nor alkaline; decreasing values below 7.0
denote increasing acidity and usually indicate a corrosive water;
conversely, increasing values above 7.0 denote increasing alkalinity.
The pH of the water analyzed ranged from 6.9 to 9.8 and is mostly
about 7.5, which is slightly alkaline and should be noncorrosive.
Color in water usually is derived from the decomposition of
organic matter. Peat and muck deposits are common in the
western part of the area and in buried mangrove swamps in the
east. Visible coloration of drinking water is undesirable. Water
having concentrations in excess of 20 units is considered by the
U. S. Public Health Service (1946) to be unsuitable for human
consumption. The range of concentration in this area is from 3
to 28 units. Highly colored water often retains an earthy odor
similar to the organic material from which the color was derived.
Part of the color of the water in this area is from iron. Color is
generally lower than 10 in the sand ridge area and generally high
in the west, where several large irrigation wells produce highly
colored water.
Dissolved hydrogen sulfide and methane gases were noted in
several wells. The gases are derived from the decomposition of
organic matter, and they impart undesirable odors. The odors are
easily removed by aeration.

SALT-WATER CONTAMINATION

Salt-water contamination in the Biscayne aquifer in north-
eastern Broward County could occur from two general sources:
(1) the direct encroachment of sea water into the coastal parts
of the aquifer or along uncontrolled canals; and (2) the upward
movement of saline water that may exist in beds below the
Biscayne aquifer. If saline water occurs in the underlying beds it
may be connate, trapped in the sediments when they were deposited,
or it may be sea water that infiltrated the beds during Pleistocene
interglacial stages when the ocean inundated the area several
times. During this study no certain evidence was found that
saline water exists within the aquifer beneath the sand ridge,
except for a few local areas immediately adjoining finger canals
in Pompano Beach. West of the ridge the chloride content of the







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 36


water increases slightly and is 30 to 40 ppm along State Highway
7. Farther west, the chloride content increases progressively west-
ward and with depth. Five miles west of State Highway 7 and 1.5
miles south of the Palm Beach County line a 104-foot well yielded
water containing 520 ppm of chloride. This increase of salinity
with depth is well defined by Parker and others (1955, p. 820),
who present several maps showing chloride concentrations in ground
water at different depths.
The local occurrences of saline water along the coastal finger
canals may be from downward infiltration of salt water from the
canals, or from the encroachment of sea water at depth in the
Biscayne aquifer. The system of uncontrolled finger canals has
lowered water levels along the coast to permit an inland extension
of sea water in the aquifer. Also, with the development of the
area and the increased use of water, much of the water that
normally would have discharged to the sea was intercepted
by municipal and irrigation wells, causing further lowering of water
levels and reduction of seaward flow.
The movement of salt and fresh water in a coastal aquifer is
controlled to a large degree by the relative height of the fresh
water above sea level and by the difference in the densities of fresh
and salt water. Under static conditions the relation is that of a
U-tube whose arms contain two fluids of different densities, and
it is expressed by the Ghyben-Herzberg principle (Brown, 1925,
p. 16-17) as follows:

h=-
g-1
where h = depth of fresh water below sea level
t = height of fresh water above sea level
g = specific gravity of sea water
1.0 = specific gravity of fresh water.

When the approximate value of the specific gravity of sea water
(1.025) is inserted in the equation, h=40t, or for every foot the
fresh water is above sea level, there will be 40 feet of fresh water
below sea level. This theoretical condition is modified somewhat
by the movement of the fresh water toward points of discharge,
by variations in the permeability of the aquifer materials, and by
the salinity of the sea water. The variations have only a minor
effect so the general relation is adequate for determining the
minimum depth at which salt water will occur in coastal parts of
the aquifer. One of the inconsistencies is the assumption that the
encroaching saline water has a specific gravity of 1.025. The







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


CHLORIDE i 50
WELL 613-006-
S12 --- --,--p--.- --100 --



t -J




~WATER LEVLL
S--WELL 614-007:11 30



Figure 15. Fluctuations of chloride content of water from well 613-006-1 and
water level in well 614-007-11.

inconsistency applies particularly to some of the finger canals that
are long and shallow. These canals receive much fresh water from
ground-water inflow which causes periodic dilution as shown by
two canals in figure 4b.
Because 91 percent of the dissolved constituents in sea water
are chloride salts, analyses of the chloride content of ground-
water samples can be reliably used to determine the extent of sea-
water encroachment in an aquifer. Salt-water encroachment occurs
in Pompano Beach adjacent to the uncontrolled finger canals that
dissect most of the area east of U. S. Highway 1. This system of
canals constitutes a persistent drain of ground water from storage,
thereby causing a general lowering of the water table to near sea
level during dry seasons. Also, it provides open channels for salt
water to move inland. Encroachment is indicated by the changes
in chloride content of the water from well 613-006-1, a 70-foot well
in the southern part of Pompano Beach (fig. 15).
Figure 15 also shows a comparison of the chloride content of
water from well 613-006-1 and the water-level fluctuations in well
614-007-11, less than a mile to the northwest. Well 613-006-1 is
flanked on three sides by tidal canals and is pumped heavily during
dry periods. The changes in the salinity of the water from the well
show an excellent correlation with water levels in the well less than







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 36


Figure 16. Fluctuations of chloride content of water from uncontrolled reaches
of the Hillsboro and Pompano canals.

a mile away. The aquifer in this area probably will become
progressively more saline as pumpage from Pompano Beach well
field increases and intercepts more of the natural ground-water
flow to the southeast.
Figure 16 shows the chloride content of water samples from the
observation stations immediately downstream (tidal reach) from
the lower control dams in the Hillsboro and Pompano canals. The
low chloride contents during most of 1960 are the result of the
nearly continuous discharge of fresh water through the control
dams. The two large increases in chloride content in 1961 occurred
when drought conditions prevailed, ground-water levels were low,
and little or no water was being discharged over the control dams.
Water from several wells near the coast showed very small
increases in chloride content during 1961 when rainfall was
deficient. The changes have a general correlation with water-level
fluctuations; that is, an increase in chloride occurs with a decrease
in water levels and vice versa. The four lower graphs in figure 17
show periodic chloride changes in two municipal wells (wells 617-
006-1 and 619-006-1) that are 4,400 and 2,400 feet, respectively,
from saline canals, and two private lawn-irrigation wells (wells
616-005-1 and 613-006-2) that are 200 and 1,000 feet, respectively,







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1960 1961
MAR APR MAY N Y AUG EPT.O NOV AN FLM MA APR MAY 2N= Y AG PT T
-6eW-006-6
-J


S-^ 615-006-5

^-- I I --7 ---- --7


619-006-1
3 ------ L ^-"- -


S616-oos-,-- F 6/ \

61600561-006-1

--'- -" -o-t,-1

Figure 17. Fluctuations of chloride content of water from wells near bodies
of saline surface water.


Figure 18. Fluctuations of chloride content of water from wells distant from
bodies of saline surface water.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 36


from saline canals. None of these supplies had a chloride content
that was in excess of the normal chloride content of the area,
indicating that seawater encroachment was not yet a problem in
these areas.
Another chloride graph in figure 17 is for the golf course
190-foot irrigation well (well 615-006-5) 900 feet from a saline
canal. The well was pumped heavily at regular intervals during
1961. The average water level near this well was about 3.5 feet
above msl during most of the summer of 1961. Pumping lowered
water levels nearly to sca level in the immediate vicinity of the well,
but only a small increase in chloride content was noted.
Analyses of water from wells farther from the coast (fig. 18),
similarly showed little or no variation in the chloride content during
the study. An exception was well 617-010-2, which showed an
increase from 26 ppm to 38 ppm. This change can be associated
with the reactivation of a large irrigation well in the immediate
vicinity.
In 1948, well 613-006-3 was drilled to salt water at a reported
depth of 210 feet. An analysis of the water in 1961 showed a con-
centration of 4,650 ppm of chloride. If future samples from this
well show increases in the chloride content, the increase may be
the result of the drainage effect of the uncontrolled part of the
Pompano Canal (and connected finger canals) to the south and
the series of finger canals to the northeast and the interception
of water by the Pompano Beach well field.
SWater samples for chloride analysis were collected periodically
from selected wells in the area; water samples from 15 of these
selected wells were analyzed each month to detect changes in the
chloride content. The maximum chloride content in each well was
used in the preparation of figure 19. Water samples also were
collected during the drilling of test holes to determine the variations
of chloride with depth in the Biscayne aquifer in areas between
the Pompano Beach well field and bodies of salt water.
Test well 613-007-1, located between the south edge of the
Pompano Beach well field and the lower control dam on the Pompano
Canal, was drilled to a depth of 304 feet. The average chloride
content of water samples from this well was 29 ppm, indicating
that the proper operation of the control dam was effectively main-
taining high water levels in the southern part of the area, thereby
preventing the inland movement of salt water from the controlled
reach of the canal.
Test well 615-006-4 was drilled to 183 feet below the land surface
near the upstream end of a long finger canal east of the Pompano






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Beach airport. Water from all zones sampled in this well contained
less than 25 ppm of chloride. Periodic analyses of water from this
well determine the effect that the adjacent tidal canal and the
heavy pumping at the golf course, immediately to the east, have
on the inland movement of salt water. Analyses of samples from
wells adjacent to and north of this finger canal show that salty
water occurs at relatively shallow depth in the aquifer. Also,
samples from wells in the southeastern part of Pompano Beach
indicate an inland extension of the salt front.
A potential area of salt-water encroachment could develop in
Deerfield Beach adjacent to the tidal reach of the Hillsboro Canal.
As shown in figure 19, water of high chloride content has occurred
in the canal as far upstream as the control dam. During low-water
periods, the effect of heavy pumping in the Deerfield Beach well
field, about half a mile south of the canal, could extend northward
to the canal and cause a reversal of the normal gradient and a
resultant southward migration of salt water. The distortion of the
2-foot contour in the Deerfield Beach area, in figure 12, suggests
that a gradient reversal might have been occurring in August 1961.


QUANTITATIVE STUDIES

Knowledge of the hydraulic properties of the aquifer of the
Pompano Beach area is essential to an evaluation of its ground-
water resources. The foremost hydraulic properties of an aquifer
are its ability to transmit and to store water. These properties are
expressed as the coefficients of transmissibility and storage. The
coefficient of transmissibility is defined by Theis (1938, p. 892) as
the number of gallons of water, at the prevailing water temperature,
that will move in 1 day through a vertical strip of the aquifer
having a width of 1 foot and a height equal to the saturated
thickness of the aquifer, under a hydraulic gradient of unity. The
coefficient of storage is defined as the volume of water released
from or taken into storage per unit surface area of the aquifer per
unit change in the component of head. Water transmitted through
overlying and underlying semiconfining materials into the principal
producing zone is termed leakage. The leakage coefficient (Hantush,
1956, p. 702) indicates the ability of semiconfining beds to transmit
water into the section being tested. It is defined as the rate at
which water moves through a unit area of the semiconfining bed,
if the head between the main aquifer and the bed supplying the
leakage is unity.





E
s



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f

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t






i




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


S 13' 12' 1' 10' 09' 08' 07' 06' 05' 8004'
262 uI 2621'
EXPLANAON1
N "0
Well )mpled prillodllly

In Srlt e p tr million.
Lowr number II te mpledi deoo, In
I ofl below land surfao c In Wells,
of below Waler SurlfCe G1o swrfo
dwaroen -o0'
P A L M BEACH COUNTY BOCA
HILLSBORO 1 CANAL N_ At I a/ RATON
BR OWA RD C UNTY ,

9 / t a 19'

DEERFIELD BEACH












Sa BEACH 1.









6 0 .


18'- -14'
SAMPNE P O O i











2' II 09' 08' 07'06'







2'09' 08' 07' 06' 05' 80004'
nes )barr ~rr?


a


ua, lwn ll irlll CV iIg CUal
Survey topo rophic quadrongles,


I h2 0. I


Figure 19. Northeastern Broward County, showing the maximum chloride
content of water samples from wells and surface-water bodies, 1960-61.























































































































































L :


___ ~,_,_____~yL-p~mc.rrui-.`i--`-c~-l~---l-







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 36


The hydraulic coefficients are generally determined by pumping
water from an aquifer and observing the effect of the withdrawal
on the water levels in adjacent areas. Normally one well is pumped,
and water levels in several nearby nonpumping wells are observed
to relate the lowering of water level to distance and time. This
lowering of water level has the general shape of an inverted cone
and is referred to as the cone of depression. The shape of the
cone of depression depends upon the rate and period of pumping,
the water-storing and transmitting properties of the aquifer, and
the natural changes in storage in the aquifer.
Pumping tests were made on wells in the Pompano Beach
municipal well field during early February 1961, and at the Deer-
field Beach municipal well field at the end of August 1961. Well
615-007-4 in the Pompano Beach well field was pumped at the rate of
2,000 gpm for 100 hours and the water was discharged to the water
plant. For a period of 3 days prior to the test, no wells were
pumped within a distance of 3,700 feet of well 615-007-4. Water-
level measurements made during the 3-day period showed that
antecedent water-level conditions were nearly stable, and the
effects of other pumping in the area were small. After pumping
started, water levels were measured in observation wells shown
in figure 20 to determine the drawdown of levels at different
distances from the pumped well. In the Deerfield Beach test, well
619-006-5 was pumped for 8 hours at the rate of 450 gpm and
drawdowns were measured in the observation wells as shown in
figure 20. No other pumping occurred within 2,000 feet of the
Deerfield Beach test site during the test.
In both the Pompano Beach and Deerfield Beach well field areas
the municipal wells are developed in a permeable rock zone that is
overlain by thick sections of sand, shells, or silt. In the Pompano
Beach area the overlying material is mostly clean sand, but in the
Deerfield Beach area the overlying material consists of less
permeable heterogeneous mixtures of silt and shell. Because of
the low permeability of the shallow sediments, the aquifer in Deer-
field Beach acts initially as an artesian system when pumping be-
gins, proceeds through a leaky-aquifer transitional condition, and
ultimately, with time, to a water-table system. The time required
for this transition to be completed may be a few hours or days,
depending upon the rate of pumping and the nature of the over-
lying semiconfining beds supplying the leakage.
The drawdown data obtained from the Pompano Beach test were
analyzed by the Theis graphical method as described by Wenzel
(1942, p. 87-89). This method is best applied when the following


* 33










FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


%615-007-8
POMPANO BEACH
WELL FIELD S615-007-7
561S-007-4,5,6

/\



'8615-007-1,2,3 ./3 50__1 o

/ -615-006-2


*614-007-2


EXPLANATION
0
PUMPING WELL
OBSERVATION WELL


I I
'----DEERFIELD BEACH ----
WELL FIELD D

619-006-5 100 Ft ---'"

6/009006-8
619-006-8


Figure 20. Sketch of pumping test sites in the Pompano Beach and Deerfield
Beach well fields.
ideal conditions are met: the aquifer is homogeneous, isotropic,
uniformly thick, really infinite, and receives no recharge; the well
being pumped has an infinitesimal diameter and penetrates the
entire thickness of the aquifer; the water is all discharged through
the pumped well and water taken from storage is. discharged
instantaneously with the decline in head. Not all these conditions
were met in the field, but the determined coefficients provide
valuable indications of the capacities of the aquifer. The coefficients
of transmissibility and storage can be computed from a series of


__








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 86 35

drawdown measurements made at different times in one observa-
tion well, or from drawdowns measured at one time in several
observation wells, by use of the following formula:


114.6 Q
8- >


00
c""
tl
U


114.6 Q
du -
T


W(u)


S 1.87 r- S
where U= --u
Tt
a = drawdown in feet
r = distance from the discharging well, in feet
Q = rate of discharge, in gallons per minute
t = time well was discharging, in days
T = coefficient of transmissibility, in gallons per day per foot
S = coefficient of storage.
The test data were plotted and matched with the type curve,
figure 21, The coefficient of transmissibility was computed to be
1,400,000 gpd per foot and the coefficient of storage was computed
to5 be 0.34. Analysis of the data by the straight line method
(Cooper and Jacob, 1946) resulted in a coefficient of transmissibility
of 1,500,000 gpd per foot land a coefficient of storage of 0.25.


S(SQUARE FEET PER DAY)
Figure 21. Logarithmic graphs of type curve and plot of s against r2/t for
observation wells 615-007-7, 615-007-8, and 615-006-2.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Because of the presence of semiconfining beds within the aquifer,
the Deerfield Beach pumping test was analyzed both by the Theis
method and by the leaky-aquifer method outlined by Hantush
(1956), which is based on the theory of ground-water flow in a
leaky artesian aquifer (Hantush and Jacob, 1955). The leaky-
aquifer method involves the same assumptions as does the Theis
method, except that the aquifer is assumed to be recharged by
leakage through semiconfining beds and the leakage rate is main-
tained by a constant head. This method also involves matching the
plotted data with a set of type curves developed by Cooper (in
press). At the Deerfield Beach test the coefficient of
transmissibility was computed to be 400,000 gpd per foot, the
coefficient of storage 0.0004, and the coefficient of leakage 3.6 gpd
per square foot per foot of head differential. The small
transmissibility in the Deerfield Beach area as compared with the
Pompano Beach area could be due to a thinning of the aquifer or a
general change in permeability, or a combination of both factors;
however, sufficient geologic information is not available to determine
the reasons for the lower transmissibility.
If it is assumed that ideal hydrologic conditions prevail in
Pompano Beach, theoretical drawdowns that would occur in the
vicinity of a pumped well can be computed by the Theis nonequi-
librium formula. The graphs in figures 22 and 23 were developed
for the Pompano Beach well field on the basis of a coefficient of
transmissibility of 1,500,000 gpd per foot and a coefficient of
storage of 0.30. Figure 22 shows the theoretical drawdowns caused
by pumping a well at a rate of 1,000 gpm for different periods. This
graph can be used to determine the drawdown that would be
expected with continuous pumping from storage, no rainfall or
recharge occurring, and natural discharge from the aquifer not
being affected. Figure 23 shows the drawdowns that would result
if the well were pumped at different rates for 1 and 10 days. This
graph can be used to determine the drawdown in other wells at anj'
distance for the times indicated. For a given time and distance,
the drawdown is proportional to the pumping rate.
Because the period of heaviest pumpage normally coincides with
the dry season in southeastern Florida, computations were made to
determine the overall drawdown caused by increased pumping from
the Pompano Beach well field during a prolonged drought. A water-
table contour map was constructed to show the effects of
withdrawing 20 mgd from the well field throughout a 6-month
rainless period.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 36


Figure 22. Predicted drawdowns in the vicinity of n well discharging 1,000
gpm for selected periods of time.

By use of a plotting method described by Conover and Reeder
(1962), the drawdown caused by each pumping well was plotted
on a grid system covering the area of influence, and summed to
determine the net effect of all pumpage. These net drawdowns
were superimposed on the water-level contour map for these
assumed conditions. Figure 24 shows the combined effect of
pumping 20 mgd (3 times the pumping rate for 1961) continuously
from the Pompano Beach well field for a 6-month prolonged
drought (no rainfall).
The predicted water levels may be lower than might actually
occur because the September 1961 water levels, selected to represent
the beginning of a dry season, were near record low after a 4-month
period of deficient rainfall. However, the total drawdown caused
by the 20 mgd pumping rate is in proportion to that shown at the
6.5 mgd rate in figure 12. Figure 24 shows that water levels in
the immediate vicinity of the municipal well field would be drawn
down to 2 feet below msl, and that diversion of ground water toward
the well field would result in a reduction of head along the coast and
along the lower reach of the Pompano Canal.
If this large increase in pumping were to lower water levels
permanently along the coast, a slow inland movement of salt water
could occur on a broad front in the aquifer and the well field would







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


DISTANCE


PING
DAY


FROM PUMPING WELL, IN FEET
500 1000


7


0



0.2



LLO4

z

0.6

0
0


Figure 23. Predicted drawdowns in the vicinity of a
selected times and rates.


well discharging at


be threatened. Thus, it would not be advisable to withdraw the
20 mgd without expanding the well field facilities. Expansion could
be northward, along the sandy ridge, or westward. The northward
extension of the field would have the advantage of the availability
of water of excellent quality, but ultimately the problem of salt-
water encroachment would recur.
A westward extension of the well field would take advantage
of the perennially high water levels maintained in the vicinity of
the controlled reaches of the Pompano Canal. Replenishment to
the field would be by continuous infiltration from the. canal, under
high gradients. The resulting drawdowns would be small, thereby
reducing any threat of salt-water encroachment. A disadvantage to
westward extension of the well field is the slightly inferior quality
of the ground water.


100


10.000


PUMF
ONE
A





---0
C)
0^


O


00


A =,=,


"


T







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 36


1 1/2 0


I mile


Figure 24. Pompano Beach well-field area showing predicted levels after
pumping 20 mgd for 180 days without rainfall.



CONCLUSIONS

The Biscayne aquifer is the only source of fresh ground water
in the Pompano Beach area. The chief source of recharge to the
aquifer is rainfall on the immediate area; an additional source is
the surface water pumped through canals into the western part
of the area for irrigation. The ground water is of good quality
except for the high iron content and the hardness and color, which
increase toward the west.
The aquifer is composed of marine deposits of quartz sand,
calcareous sandstones, and sandy to nearly pure limestones, which
extend from the land surface to a depth of about 400 feet. The
distribution of the -rock zones in the aquifer is erratic, but
generally, thin rock layers that are sufficiently permeable to supply







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


small water systems are present within the upper 60 feet. Thicker
rock zones from which large supplies can be developed by open-end
wells commonly occur at greater depths.
The water table has a gentle gradient from the interior to the
coast. Its configuration is greatly influenced by the Hillsboro and
Pompano canals and by pumping. Relatively high water levels
are maintained by the control structures in these canals, primarily
for irrigation purposes but also to retard the inland movement of
salt water. When pumping increases in future years, a large part
of the recharge to well fields will be from the controlled reaches of
the major canals. Pumping from the Pompano Beach well field
in 1961 has not lowered the water levels significantly to cause
appreciable inland movement of salt water. Future pumping at
greater rates could lower water levels to altitudes where sea water
would encroach into the aquifer.
Salt-water encroachment could occur from numerous tidal, salt-
water canals. The uncontrolled reaches of the Hillsboro and
Pompano canals are the most likely sources of encroachment,
because they allow salt water to extend appreciable distances inland
and they are adjacent to large well fields. The water from some
wells near the Intracoastal Waterway shows an increase in chloride
content when water levels are lowered. Salt-water encroachment
from subjacent beds is unlikely as no salt water was found by
drilling test holes into the lower zones of the Biscayne aquifer in
the Pompano Beach well field. Future threats of salt-water
encroachment could be diminished by controlling water levels in
canals at locations farther seaward, and by distributing the effect
of pumping more equally along the ridge area.
Pumping tests and water-level data indicate that much larger
quantities of ground water can be obtained in the ridge area, and
that even larger amounts could be produced farther west, with
little probability of salt-water encroachment.
Some of the major water problems that will face the city of
Pompano Beach in future years will be those problems associated
with rapid urbanization. As urbanization proceeds, water needs
will accelerate; at the same time, urbanization will require
drainage and flood control in the western part of the area. It is
important, therefore, to determine the effects that lowering water
levels in the west will have on the continued movement of water
eastward and on salt-water encroachment. These effects can be
evaluated by a continuing program of data collection and data
analysis on the availability of water. The continuing studies will '







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 36 41

point out changes in the hydrology of the area and will aid in
establishing an orderly program of water control and water
management in the area.









REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 36


REFERENCES

Black, A. P.
1951 (and Brown, Eugene) Chemical character of Florida's waters:
Florida State Board of Cons., Div. Water Survey and Research,
Paper 6.
Brown, Eugene (see Black. A. P.)
Brown, J. S.
1925 A study of coastal water, with special reference to Connecticut:
U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 537.
Conover, C. S.
1962 (and Reeder, H. 0.) Construction and use of special drawdown
scales for predicting water-level changes throughout heavily
pumped areas: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1545-C, p.
70-81 (in press).
Cooke, C. W. (also see Parker, G. G.)
1929 (and Mossom, Stuart) Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey
20th Ann. Rept., p. 29-227, 29 pl.
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29.
Cooper, H. H., Jr.
1946 (and Jacob, C. E.) A generalized graphical method for evaluating
formation constants and summarizing well-field history: Am.
Geophys. Union Trans., v. 27, no. 4, p. 526-534.
1962 Type curves for nonsteady radial flow in an infinite leaky
artesian aquifer, in methods of aquifer tests: U. S. Geol. Survey
Water-Supply Paper 1545-C, p. 88b-88q (in press).
Ferguson, G. E. (see Parker, G. G.)
Hantush, M. C.
1955 (and Jacob, C. E.) Nonsteady radial flow in an infinite leaky
aquifer: Am. Geophys. Union Trans., v. 36, no. 1, p. 95-100.
1956 Analysis of data from pumping tests in leaky aquifers: Am.
Geophys. Union Trans., v. 37, no. 6, p. 702-714.
Hoy, N. D. (see Schroeder, M. C.)
Jacob, C. E. (see Cooper, H. H.; Hantush, M. C.)
Klein, Howard (see Schroeder, M. C.)
Love, S. K. (see Parker, G. G.)
Mossom, Stuart (see Cooke, C. W.)
Parker, G. G.
1944 (and Cooke, C. W.) Late Cenozoic geology of southern Florida,
with a discussion of the ground water: Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 27.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1951 Geologic and hydrologic factors in the perennial yield of the
Biscayne aquifer: Am. Water Works Assoc. Jour., v. 43, no. 10.
1955 (and Ferguson, G. E., Love, S. K., and others) Water resources
of southeastern Florida, with special reference to the geology
and ground water of the Miami area: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-
Supply Paper 1255.
Reeder, H. O. (see Conover, C. S.)
Sanford, Samuel
1909 The topography and geology of southern Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey 2d Ann. Rept., p. 175-231.
Schroeder, M. C.
1958 (and Klein, Howard, and Hoy, N. D.) Biscayne aquifer of Dade
and Broward counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 17.
Sellards, E. H.
1912 The soils and other surface residual materials of Florida, their
origin, character, and the formations from which derived: Florida
Geol. Survey 4th Ann. Rept., p. 1-79.
Sherwood, C. B.
1959 Ground-water resources of the Oakland Park area of eastern
Broward County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 20.
Theis, C. V.
1938 The significance and nature of the cone of depression in ground-
water bodies: Econ. Geology, v. 33, no. 8.
Wenzel, L. K.
1942 Methods for determining permeability of water-bearing materials,
with special reference to discharging-well methods: U. S. Geol.
Survey Water-Supply Paper 887.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 36


TABLE 3. Lithologic Logs of Test Holes

WELL 615-006-4
Depth in feet
Material below land surface
Sand, quartz, gray to tan, very fine to very coarse, angular
to subrounded, iron-stained _---_. ............---------------------.. -- 0- 20
Sand, quartz, as above, slightly silty; and thin layer of
limestone ---- ----- ---...----........-........... .............-.. --................. 20- 30
Sand, quartz, white, medium, and tan, shelly limestone .-- 30- 40
Sand as above; and pink, sandy, shelly, very silty limestone 40- 43
Sand, quartz, white to gray, medium to coarse, mostly
coarse, slightly phosphatic -------------- --_____--..-- 43- 48
Sand as above; and dense, hard, shelly limestone .--..-...--- 48- 54
Limestone, white to tan, dense, shelly; some fine sand -...... 54- 59
Sand, quartz, white, fine, angular to subrounded, phosphatic
and white shelly limestone .--. .--..-.--.--..--. -... -- 59- 64
Limestone, white, crystalline, sandy, phosphatic .---.------- 64- 69
Sand, quartz, tan, mostly coarse and granular, slightly
phosphatic, partly indurated to sandstone -.---------...- 69- 78
Sand, quartz, white, mostly fine, silty, phosphatic; some
sandstone ...-- ---_..-......................--- ..-.- ......_ .....__..._..... 78 83
Sandstone composed of materials above ..-. --..--.----------_ 83- 88
Limestone, very sandy, white, shelly _--- --------- 88- 94
Sand, quartz, mostly fine but some very coarse grains,
calcareous and phosphatic ...----------....-------.---.. ----..----- 94- 99
Sand, fine to coarse, very calcareous, shelly, phosphatic 9-- 99-122
Marl, fresh-water? tan and brown, shelly, sandy; contains
some heavy minerals, wood material, and peat -- -----122 -124
Limestone, very sandy, shelly, phosphatic ----------.------ 124-135
Limestone, slightly sandy, shelly; sand, mostly medium,
very hard, 140-143 ..........--- ........-.-------........--...-----. 135 155
Limestone, almost pure, very slightly sandy; contains small
shell fragments ...----....-.._----..--.. -..--. .-----------.. ....---- 155 187

WELL 614-006-1
Depth in feet
Material below land surface
Sand, quartz, cream, very fine to coarse; small amount of
iron oxide .-..........---.._.......... ..------.-- ..-.... .. .. .----- 0- 10
Sand, quartz, fine to medium, angular and subangular, shelly
near bottom ---....--.....-........................... ....---.......------- 10- 20
Sand, as above; and thin layer of yellowish limestone at
25 feet ____ .. _... --------...___ ..--.....-... ...._..-- ...... .----- 20- 25
Sand, as above, shelly; contains phosphate and heavy
minerals ______________..._ .... ...._-__---__ 25- 42
Limestone, tan and cream, sandy, very hard at top; much
recrystalized calcite ____..-----..........-_.--- ..----.---. -.... .--- 42- 45






46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Limestone, white and cream, fairly pure, sugary to coarsely
crystalline; few shells --_ __-.-_ 45- 83
Sand, quartz, very fine to coarse, shelly; contains thin
interbedded white sandy limestone ...........- .... ................ 83- 115
Limestone, white and cream, sandy, shelly, slightly phos-
phatic, very hard at 130 feet .----...-..--..-.-...-....-- -..-- ...-- 115 -130
Limestone, white to tan, much recrystallized calcite, sandy,
shelly _.._._..._ .. ..... ...._............... 130 150
Sand, very fine to medium, angular, phosphatic, slightly
shelly _.._ ____. ... ... .... ......._......_. ...... 150-155
Limestone, white to cream, very sandy, shell fragments -.... 155 -157


WELL 614-007-1
Depth in feet
Material below land surface
Sand, quartz, fine to medium, subrounded, clear, frosted and
and iron-stained; bottom 2 feet shelly, sandy limestone .... 0- 20
Sand, quartz, fine to coarse, angular to subrounded, silty ...- 20- 58
Limestone, white and cream, very sandy, slightly phosphatic
and iron-stained ..-_-_..--..._ _.-----....... _... _............... ........-- 58- 65
Sand, quartz, tan and white; contains specks of phosphate
and limonite -_ ...- _- ..- ...- ..............-------- ... 65- 71
Sandstone, cream, very calcareous, poorly indurated, phos-
phatic --._-.---- _----..- -- -..-._--- i71- 82
Sand, fine to medium at top, becoming very coarse near
bottom, shelly, white; bottom shows traces of peat ..... ... 82-103
Sandstone, very calcareous, shelly, phosphatic; some in-
clusions appear oolitic -....-... ...........-...-... ................ 103- 118
Sand, quartz, mostly medium to very coarse, slightly marly,
phosphatic, shelly; bottom 2 feet indurated ---- ----_.---- 118-146
Limestone, sandy, phosphatic; contains beach-worn shell
fragments (rubble bed) _.......-..... ........ -....--. 146- 151
Sand, mostly fine to medium, but some coarse grains, shell
fragments; contains few thin layers of sandstone ------- 151-203
Sandstone, very calcareous, shelly, phosphatic ..._-_.... 203- 220


WELL 613-007-1
Depth in feet
Material below land surface
Sand, quartz, tan, medium, iron-stained ..-...-....-........_.--- 0- 15
Limestone, soft, tan, oolitic; and hard, dense shelly limestone 15- 20
Sand, quartz, tan and cream, medium, subrounded, iron-
stained ___. ___ .-____ 20- 48
Limestone, hard, dense, tan to brown ...........-...... 48- 50
Sand, quartz, fine to very coarse and some shell fragments;
hard limestone layer at 61 feet ._ .--_-. 50- 76
Sand, quartz, fine to coarse, but mostly coarse; and inter-
bedded thin layers of hard shelly sandstone ...._ 76- 92







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 36 47

Sand, quartz, medium, subangular; and wave-worn shell
fragments, phosphatic _..._...._ ......... ....- _--.._............. 92 105
Limestone and sandstone, gray, porous, shelly, phosphatic
and containing heavy minerals .---............-..................------- 105- 135
Sand, quartz, mostly fine, silty, shelly, phosphatic, glau-
conitic; few thin sandstone layers ........--------.... ......-------. 135-188
Sandstone, very calcareous, shelly, porous -..--....................... 188 -195
Limestone, hard, dense, and shelly sandstone contains lenses
of sand ......-..-----......-- -- ..-....-.-..-...--.....----... ..-..-...--..-... 195- 213
Sand, quartz, gray, mostly fine, shelly and phosphatic con-
tains thin beds or lenses of sandstone -..--. -------------. 213-292
Limestone, hard, dense, shelly --....--...-- ....--- .--..-----........ .... 292-296
Limestone, sandy, fairly soft, shelly -.......--.................----------. 296 304










TABLE 4, Records of Wells in Northeastern Broward County
Usei A, air conditioning Da, disposal; Do, dounestl i In, indlutrial; Jr Irrlgation; LI, lawn Irruiation; N, none; 0, oblervatlon; I', publilu Iupply, B, stock; T, tewt well,
Remarkia Ca, complete aualysli; Cut, cuttings; W.l, aui.ltionul water-level duat available.

Casing Measuring point Water level Chloride content



Well T Remarks
number Location Owner P m ak
It +




618.005-1 500 ft. S. and 2,60 0 G. N. Earhart 00 .... ....................... ..... ....... ........ ........... 44 8-28-60 77 L
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 6, T. 49 S., R.
48 E.
.2 1,850 ft. S. and Donald Wilson 50 /.... I .1 .................. .... ........ .... .......... 22 3-28.60 77 LI
2,150 ft. W. of NE
cor., see. 6, T. 49
8., R. 48 E.
618-006.1 1,400 ft. S. and City of Pompano 90 .... 8 ........... .... ....... ...... ....... 118 8- 8.60 76 In
2,175 ft. E. of NW Beach
cor., see. 6, T. 49
8., R. 48 E.
.2 200 ft. S. and 900 Bernard Millman 70 -- 2 ........ ...... .... ........ ......- 80 8-28-60 76 Li
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 1, T. 49 S.,
R. 42 E.
-8 100 ft. N. and 500 J. P. Finnigan 210 .. .... ... .... .... 4,0 9.15-61 77 In
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec. 81,'T. 49 S.,
R. 48 E.
618-007-1 650 ft. N. and 775 U. S. Geological 804 803 8- Top of 8-inch 0.0 10.85 10.70 1- 8-61 82 1.12-61 77 T Ca, Cut
ft. W. of SE cor., Survey 2 casing collar 28 1- 8-61
sec. 85, T. 48 S., 29 4-17-61
R. 42 E. 28 9- 8-61
-2 700 ft. N. and 850 City of Pompano -190 180 12 ......... .... 18 3-14-60 77 P Ca, Pompano
ft. W. of SE cor., Beach ,20 5-24-60 No. 1
sec. 85, T. 48 S., 18 12- 2-60
R. 42 E. 20 7-25-61






618-007-8



-4



-5



618-008-1



-2



-8



-4



618-009-1



618-010-1



614-005-1


8,860 ft. N. and
8,775 ft. E. of SW
cor., see. 2, T. 49
S., R. 42 E.
150 ft. N. and 1,200
ft. W. of SE cor.,
see. 85, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
100 ft. N. and 1,225
ft. W. of SE cor.,
sec. 85, T. 48 S., R.
42 E.
2,750 ft. S. and
2,700 ft. E. of NW
cor., sec. 8, T. 49
S., R. 42 E.
8,250 ft. S. and
1,800 ft. W. of NE
cor., sec. 8, T. 49
S., R. 42 E.
1,650 ft. S. and
1,400 ft. W. of NE
cor., sec. 8, T. 49
S., R. 42 E.
1,550 ft. S. and
1,000 ft. W. of NE
cor., sec. 8, T. 49
S., R. 42 E.
1,825 ft. S. and 400
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 4, T. 49 S., R.
42 E.
700 ft. S. and 2,400
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 5, T. 49 S., R.
42 E.
1,425 ft. S. and
1,620 ft. E. of NW
cor., sec. 81, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.


J. I. and M. I.
Ogden


First Baptist
Church of
Pompano Beach

W. D. Green



Pompano Race-
ways, Inc.


U. S. Geological
Survey


Ready Mix Con-
crete Co.


Larry Marable



Pompano Race-
ways, Inc.


State of Florida



C. W. Hendricks


6 Top of 6-inch
cross


69



98



85







100



90



120



80



87


1%1



2



2







4



8



4



6



8


6.41



15.29







9.50


Top of 1%-
inch casing






Top of 2-inch
casing


2.82



11.51







4.75


6-29-60



6- 6-60







7-20-60


10-18-60







10-17-60
1-19-62


10-10-60







8- 2-60



8-29-60



10-18-40



3-24-60



8-16-60
11- 9-61


77







80



78







77



77







78



76


~


Destroyed



Do.
























Ca



Ca, Cut


I










TABUa 4. (Continued)


Well Locatl
number


Ion


1,810 ft. 8. and
8,070 ft. E. of NW
cor., see. 81, T. 48
S., R. 48 E.
1,400 ft. N. and
1,200 ft. E. of SW
cor., sec. 80, T. 48
S., R. 48 E.
1,075 ft. N. and
2,900 ft. E. of SW
cor., see. 26, T. 48
S.. R. 42 E.


Owner


H. F. Wiersch



Martin Michelson



U. S. Geological
Survey


1,405 ft. N. and 720 H. D. Thomas
ft. W. of SE cor.,
see. 86, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
725 ft. N. and 275 W. D. Bennett
ft. E. of SW cor.,
see. 81, T. 48 S.,
R. 48 E.

1,200 ft. N. and 950 City of Pompano
ft. of SW cor.,
sec. 25, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
2,640 ft. 8. and U. S. Geological
1,650 ft. E. of NW Survey
cor., see. 86, T. 48
S., R. 4 E.


Cuaing





- N


Measuring point




4 ,

t


Top of 2-inch
casing


1%' Top of 1%.
inch casing



1% 1 ---do....


Top of 1%.
inch casing


16.05


9.60



19.07



16.87


Water level


614-006-2



-8


Chloride content


0a
0


I


jib


8.12


5.95



16.48



12.07


1M


7-18-60


8-10-60



8-14-60



7-18-60


Remarks


Ca, Cut












W-1, partially
plugged at 12
feet


17,000


18
20


18
10
18
17
17
48
28


42
52
54
44
48
17



20


4.10-60



1-14-61
11. 9.61


8-10-60
10-21-60
1.10-61
4-17-61
9- 8-61
8-23-60
1-19-62


4-12-60
6- 1-60
7-18-60
10-18-60
5-15-61
6-15-60



6-18-60


L,,,


I


I-


I I







1,150 ft. N. and 826 Hugh Walter
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec. 81, T. 48 S.,
R. 48 E.


-6



-7



-8



614-007-1




-2



-8



-4



-6



-6



-7


1,175 ft. N. and
1,816 ft. W. of SE
cor., sec. 86, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
2,550 ft. S. and 750
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 86, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
25 ft. N. and 1,200
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec. 26, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.

425 ft. N. and 700
ft. W. of SE cor.,
sec. 26, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
425 ft. N. and 710
ft. W. of SE cor.,
sec. 26, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,000 ft. N. and 550
ft. W. of SE cor.,
sec. 26, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,500 ft. N. and 425
ft. W.of SE cor.,
sec. 26, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,476 ft. N. and 425
ft. W. of SE cor.,
sec. 26, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,495 ft. N. and 885
ft. W. of SE cor.,
see. 26, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.


Wilson



City of Pompano



U. S. Geological
Survey



City of Pompano



.........-do .-.......



U. S. Geological
Survey


City of Pompano



.............do..... _.....



U. S. Geological
Survey


185



61



90



220




140



191



21



100



154



21


2



2



8



2




16



2



1%



16



2



1%/4


Top of 2-inch
casing







Top of 2-inch
casing


Top of 1%-
inch casing


Top of air-line
hole in pump
base

Top of 2-inch
casing


Top of 11/-
inch casing


0.0 12.52








.6 20.70



.0 20.18



1.0 22.04



.0 20.85



1.0 20.79


4.89








14.97



14.98



18.75



14.47



14.89


6-29-60



6- 8-67
8-15-61


9-25-60
6- 6-61
9-18-61

8-10-60
10-21-60
1-10-61
4-17-61
9- 8-61
8-14-60



10-21-60



7-18-60



8-14-60
4-18-60
4-15-61

10-17.60



7-18-60


"" --


6-18-60








8-10-60



7-18-60



8-17-61



8-14-60



7-18-60


Ca, Cut




Pompano Prod.
No. 4






W-1



Pompano Prod.
No. 5












TABLE 4, (Continued)


Location


1,800 ft. N. and 675
ft. W. of SE cor.,
sec. 26, T. 48 8.,
R. 42 E.
1,000 ft. S. and 725
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 85, T. 48 8.,
R. 42 E.
1,010 ft. S. and 725
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 85, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,060 ft. S. and 975
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 85, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
2,150 ft. S. and 500
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 85, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
2,149 ft. S. and 497
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 85, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
2,140 ft. S. and 600
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 85, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.


Owner


...............do .. ........



City of Pompano



..............do. .. ...



U. S. Geological
Survey


City of Pompano



.............. do- .........



U. S. Geological
Survey


Casing Measuring point


16



2



4



16



2



11/


........... do..........



Top of air-line
hole in pump
base

Top of 2-inch
casing


Top of 2-inch
casing






Top of 2-inch
casing


Top of 11 -
inch casing


a



4 58? r
il 1


21.64



20.22



19.56



20.14


18.64



18.47


Water level Chloride content


0


-+0 B


- ".4 g f 1 I


16.32



20.76



15.98



14.01


12.65



18.25


7.18.60



8-16-61



8-14-60



7-18-60







2-12-61



7-18-60


7-18-60



3-18-60
4-18-60
8-11-60
4-15-61
10-21-60



7-12-60



3.18.60
4-18-60
4-16-61

10-21-60



7-18-60


Remarks




2 ___


Ca, Pompano
No. 8


Ca







Pompano Prod.
Well No. 2


Well
number


--"'" -" --'--""'-~"


--






-15 25 ft. N. and 2,650
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec. 26, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.


-16



-17



-18



-19



-20



-21



-22



-28



-24


2,500 ft. S. and
2,800 ft. E. of NW
cor., sec. 85, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,950 ft. N. and
2,400 ft. E. of SW
cor., sec. 85, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
760 ft. S. and 1,725
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 85, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,930 ft. S. and
1,680 ft. W. of NE
cor., sec. 85, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,160 ft. N. and
1,700 ft. W. of SE
cor., sec. 85, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,575 ft. N. and
1,100 ft. W. of SE
cor., sec. 85, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,590 ft. N. and
1,110 ft. W. of SE
cor., sec. 85, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,500 ft. S. and 825
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 86, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
75 ft. S. and 325
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 86, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.


.. ......... do ...............


City of Pompano



U. S. Geological
Survey


Alice Lewis



Acme Concrete,
Inc.


E. V. Jackson



J. I. and M. I.
Ogden


City of Pompano



........... do ............


143



16



65



00



27



180



85



90



115



115


2



1%







3



1V4



8



2



16



2



2


Top of 2-inch
casing


Top of 114-
inch casing


..... do .....







Top of 114-
inch casing






Top of 2-inch
casing


Top of 16-inch
casing


Top of 2-inch
casing


........... do ...........


0.0


17.72



15.77



11.86


10.20



20.42



10.10



18.07


10.78



9.57



8.70







10.06







14.75



14.60



13.40



13.05


4-18-60



7-19-60,



0-20-60







9-19-60







8-81-61



8-81-61



6-24-61



6-24-61


10-18-60



7-18-60



10-14-60



3- 8-60


7-27-61



7-27-61



5-22-61



6- 2-61


Complete analysis
available,
destroyed

Originally drilled
to 180 feet


Pompano No. 8,
Cut


586



90



+105



105


- :


--












TABLE 4. (Continued)


Location


75 ft. S. and 250
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sc. 86, T. 48 S.,
. 42 E.
50 ft. N. and 450
ft. E. of SW cor.,
see. 26, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
150 ft. N. and 425
ft. W. of SE cor.,
sea. 27, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
950 ft. N. and 850
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec. 85, T. 48 8.,
R. 42 E.
450 ft. N. and 400
ft. W. of SE cor.,
see. 27, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,900 ft. S. and
1,200 ft. W. of NE
cor., sec. 84, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,500 ft. S. and
1,276 ft. W. of NE
cor., see. 84, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.


Owner


...... -do ..............



E. W. Betts, et al.



English and Bscaic
Erwin


George Rawls



English and Bessie
Erwin


De Marco, Inc.



De Marco, Inc.


112



56



27



90



54



-856



160


Casing I


Measuring point


W4

s"


Top of 16-inch
casing


Top of 4-inch
casing


Top of pump
base


High point of
l%-h.nch
casing

Top of 1%-4
inch casing


.....................


I Water level I Chloride content


18.07



17.16



11.85


18.52



2.00



4.21



8.86



7.89


0-18-61



7. 2-60



4-18-60



5- 2-60



5.18-60


0-18-61


5-18-60



8- 8-60



8- 8-60


.25



614-008-1



-2



-8



.4



.5



.6


Remarks


Pompano No. 10
Cut


----"-~I-~


~---


---------------- ;.- -


I '







614-009-1



-2



614-010-1



-2



-8



-4



-6



614-011-1



-2



-8


125 ft. S. and 1,150
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 88, T. 48 S.,
R. 42E.
500 ft. S. and 200
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 84, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,700 ft. N. and 875
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec; 88, T. 48 S.,
R.:42 E.
1,600 ft. N. and 875
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec. 88 T. 48 S.,
B. 42 E.
1,600 ft. N. and.
1,700 ft. W. of SE
cor., sec. 29, T. 48
S., B. 42 E.
600 t. N. and 2,850
ft.' W. of SE cor.,
sec. 29, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,700 ft. S. and
2,900 ft. W. of NE
cor., sec. 82, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
2,725 ft. N. and 325
ft. W. of SE cor.,
sec. 81, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
60 ft. S. and 2,850
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 81, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
725 ft. N. and 1,550
ft. W. of SE cor.,
sec. 80, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.


Phillips Petroleum
Co., Inc.,


Broward County,
Farm Bureau


Collier City Water
Works, Inc.


......do .........



W. H. Blount



.-.. .do. ..............



Bateman Co., Inc.



......... do.............



Unknown



Moore


1/4


70



104



168



147



+100



65



+65



70



100



98


2



6



2



16



1% 4



3



2



12



8


15.91


17.81


4.49



6.82



8.97


7-19-60


4-18-60



5-16-60



5-16-60


Top of pump
base


10-14-60



4-11-60



4-11-60


82



22



82



80



86


Top of 13%-
inch casing
nipple

Top of 8-inch
casing


Top of 1l2-
inch nipple


........................


10-14-60



4-27-60



8- 8-60



8- 8-60



4-18.60


76 0



78 Do



78 P Ca



78 N



75 Ir



N



S N



0



74 Ir



75 Ir













TABSL 4. (Continued)

Cuasing Measuring point Water level Chloride content




Well Location Owner 8 o Rearks
numbe i l I ia 1_



____6 a & &. + A .i s & I S


1,900 ft N. and 975
ft W. of SE cor.,
see. 36. T. 48 .,
IL 41 E.
1,250 ft S. and 950
ft E. of NW cor.,
see. 36. T. 48 S.,
R. 41 E.
1,750 ft S. and
1,850 ft E. of NW
cor., see. 36, T. 48
S., RI 41 E.
300 ft S. and 1,100
ft E. of NW cor.,
see. 30, T. 48 S.,
R. 48 E.
2,200 ft N. and
2,190 ft E. of SW
cor., see. 30, T. 48
S., R 43 E.
2,200 ft N. and
2,100 ft.E. of SW
cor., see. 80, T. 48
S. R 43 E.
2,450 ft N. and
'2,100 ft. E of SW
or., sec. 80, T. 48
S., R. 43 E.


Margate Fire Dept



Margate Utilities



do -



U. S. Geological
Survey


C. B. Miles



E. J. Gaynor, III



Boyd Sleeth and
Pat Murray


114



120



117



14







55



4-65


1%


Top of 1%
inch easing










Top of 1%-
inch easing


11.96


6.76


9.2240


7-1840


76



30



32



18



1,120
1.060
840

150
112


84


10-11-60



9-12-61



9-12-61



7-18-60



3-22-60
8-11-60
4-1661

4-14-60
8- 561


10-18-40


0



P Margate No. 1



P Margate No. 3



0



Li



LI



i


614-012-1



-2



-3



615-005-1



-2



-3



-4






-5



.6



-7



-8



S 9



-10



615-006-1



-2



-3


-4


2,960 ft. S. and
2,670 ft E. of NW
cor., sec. 80, T. 48
S., 48 E.
8,160 ft. and
2,720 ft. E. of NW
cor., see. 80, T. 48
S., EB 48 E.
3,060 ft. S. and
83,50 ft E. of NW
cor., sec. 30, T. 48
S., I 48 E.
2,200 ft. S. and
2,760 ft. E. of NW
cor., sec. 30, T. 48
S., L 48 E.
1,400 ft S. and
2,600 ft. of NW
cor., sec. 30, T. 48
S.., 43 E.
1,410 ft. S. and
1,430 ft. E. of N
cor., sec. 30, T. 48
S.,L. 42 E.
950 ft.N. and 900
ft. of SW cor.,
see. 19, T. 48 S.,
. 48 E.
2,800 ft N. and
1,275 ft E. of SW
cor., sec. 25, T. 48
S., R. 48 E
2,110 ft N. and 10
ft. W. of SE cor.,
sec. 25, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,835 ft N. and 730
ft E. of SW cor.,
sec. 30, T. 48 S.,
R. 43 E.


R. B. Moore



Frank Bennett



W. W. Bivans



Michael Doyle



Al Aiudi



W. R. Zudrell



Broward Utilities



City of Pompano







U. S. Geological
Survey


20



18



56



39



-50



1,150



85



90



183


20



18







37







1.104



85







176


2



2



1%



1%



1%



16-
10


2



2



2


2.8



1.0







.0


14.90



16.41







10.34


22.4



8.88







5.90


6- 2-59



3-14-60







1-24-61


828



14



12



170
104


164
88


18



2,400



18
14
20

17
18
16
18
16
12
16
16


3-24-60



4-26-60



4-26-60



3-24-60
8-15-61



8-1561


4-27-60







10-17-60
1- 2-61
1-10-61

3-10-60
8-11-60
4-15-61
11- 9-61
1-19-61
1-2461
4-17-61
9- 861


77



78



77



77







77



73



77



16



78


Top of 12-inch
flange


Top of 2-inch
casing






Top of 2-inch
casing collar


__ _


Cut, Floridan
aquifer


Originally drilled
to 147 feet






Ca, Cut








TABI' 4, (Continued)





Well
number Location


.5






*7


.8


*9


.10


-11


2,181 ft N, and 42
ft, W. of SW cor.,
see. 2, T. 48 S.,
R. 48 E.
500 ft. S. and 250
ft, E. of NW cor.,
see, 80, T. 48 S.,
R. 48 E.
B00 ft. S. and 50
ft. E. of NW cor.,
see 80, T. 48 S.,
R. 48 E.
500 ft. S. and 2,700
ft. W. of NE cor.,
see, 28, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
400 ft. S. and 1,400
ft W. of NE cor.,
see. 25, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
600 ft. S. and 1,100
ft. W. of NE cor.,
seo. 28, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,290 ft. N. and
1,210 ft. W. of SE
cor., see. 24, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.


Owner


City of Pompano


B. C. Wells


E. F. Smlchdt


R, J. Corcoran


Carson Spencer


Robert Davis


Broward Utilities


Cahsinu
jtult


Measuring point Water level


Top of pump
base


.......................


I
tit


...... Flowed


a j


10. .60


IF


Chloride content


17


20


20


18


18


24


18


8.10.00


8-80-00


8.28.00


4-11-60


4-11-00


4.20900


0-18-61


Remarks


Ca, Collier
Mannor No. 1


B


I I ,1 ~







-1



-1



615-007-1



-2



-8



.-4



-5



-6



.8
-7



-8


2 1,240 ft. N. and
1,200 ft. W. of SE
cor., sec. 24, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
8 1,240 ft. N. and
1,100 ft. W. of SE
cor, sec. 24, T. 48
S., R. 42 IE.
2,960 ft. N. and 100
ft. W. of SE cor.,
seo. 26, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.

2,940 ft. N. and 110
ft. W. of SE cor..
sec. 26, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
2,941 ft. N. and 111
ft. W. of SE cor.,
sec. 26, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,825 ft. S. and 250
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 25, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,818 ft. S. and 258
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 25, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,820 ft. S. and 258
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 25, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,125 ft. S. and 800
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 25, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
825 ft. S. and 875
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 26, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.


..... .do._.-..._






City of Pompano



-- -_do....

_.__-do_..--.

..-.... do ..........



.... do -.......



.......... do ..........





....--...do .........





............do- ...... ...


6



8



16



2



2



16



2



2



2



2


Top of air-line
hole in pump
base

Top of 2-inch
casing


_ .. do



Top of air-line
hole in pump
base

Top of V1-inch
casing collar


Top of 2-inch
casing


--... do .....



......._ do........


1.0



1.0



.0



1.5



8.0



.0



1.0



1.0


20.88



19.66



18.66



21.29



22.62



10.64



20.10



21.17


15.18



12.44



12.44



10.56



12.82



12.96



12.20



18.10





3-16-61



8-14-60



8-14-60



8-16-61



8-14-60



8-14-60



7-18-60



3-14-60


19



18



18
18


18



19



22
16
18
16
20



20



16



18
16


--


9-18-61



9-18-61



8-14-60
4-15-60


10-17-60



10-17-60



4-18-60
9-18-60
11-14-60
4-15-61
6-16-60



5-16-60



10-17-60



10-17-60
1-10-61


I


Collier Mannor
No. 2


Collier Mannor
No. 8


Pompano No. 6












Cut












Originally drilled
to 130 feet


Originally drilled
to 167 feet










TAp~B 4, (Continued)


Location


1,250 ft. S. and 100
ft. E. of NW cor.,
seo. 25, T. 48 8.,
R. 42 E.
50 ft. 5. and 2,000
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 26 T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E,
450 ft. S. and 8,600
ft. E. of NW cor.,
see. 26. T. 48 S..
R. 42 E.
2,440 ft. S. and 500
ft. W. of NE cor.,
see. 27. T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
2,440 ft. S. and 625
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 27, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
2,446 ft. S. and 495
ft. W. of NE cor.,
see. 27, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,200 ft. S. and 800
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 28, T. 48 8.,
R.42 E.


Owner


U. 8. Geological
Survey


Fairlawn Ceme-
tery, Inc.


Broward Utilities



Southern Wood
Ind., Inc.


Jacob McBride


B Id


Measurinl


Top of 1VA-
inch casing


Top of 6-inch
tee


Top of 6-inch
casing






Top of pump
base


Point W ter level



V ..II


19.21


8.00 15.97


14.06


12.89


5.41


2.50


7-18-60


4.26-60



4-25.60


5.16-60


Remarks


Chloride content


7-18-60



7-18-60
12- 2-60
9. 8.61
11- 9.61
0- 8-61


.10



-11



615-008-1



.2



-8



61500oo.1


8


---Ill-l.ll-C----.------II---:--- __ -L-


--





--


i:







-2



016-011-1



.2







616-005-1



-2



616-006-1



-2



.3



.4


100 ft. S. and 500
ft. E. of NW cor.,
see. 27, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
2,160 ft. N. and
2,850 ft. E. of SW
cor., sec. 19, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,500 ft. N. and
2,100 ft. E. of SW
cor., sec. 19, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.

2,200 ft. N. and
2,775 ft; E. of SW
cor., sec. 80, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,100 ft. N. and
1,600 ft. W., oi SE
cor., sec. 18, T. 48
S., R. 48 E.
8,600 ft. N. and
8,800 ft. E. of SW
cor., sec. 19, T. 48
S., R. 48 E.
1,600 ft. S. and
1,060 ft. E. of NW
cor., sec. 24, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,840 ft. S. and
1,125 ft. E. of NW
cor., sec. 24, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,325 ft. S. and
1,500 ft. W. of NE
cor., sec. 24, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
600 ft. N. and 2,850
ft. W. of SE cor.,
dec. 18, T. 48 S.,
R.'42 E.


Southern Factories,
Inc.


W. P. Brown



........._.do .......--.



Unknown



Pearl Dews



W. A. Arensen



W. D. McDoughald



................do...........



G. H. McCall



Town of Hillsboro
Beach


166



168



+200



54



67



20



02



62



71


2



12



12



12



2



2



1%1



2



2



8


Elev. equal to
lower lip of
discharge
pipe
Top of 12-inch
flange











Top of 1%4-
inch casing
collar










Top of 8-inch
casing


5.16-60



8-31-60


2-24-60



6-16-60



6-16-60







8- 8-60



5-10-60







4-12-60



8.29-60
4-15-61


0-11-61


4-12-60


6-80-52


20.70


12.14











9.06


Hillsboro No. 1


I









TAsLa 4, (Continued)


Location


700 ft. N. and 2,850
ft. W. of BE cor.,
see. 18, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
520 ft, N. and 2,550
ft. W. of SE cor.,
see. 18, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
8,200 ft. N. and 025
ft. E. of SW cor.,
soc. 16, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
25 ft. N. and 2,600
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec. 15, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
2,500 ft. N. and 225
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec. 15, T. 48 S.,
R..42 E.
750 ft. S. and 150
ft. E. of NW cor.,
see. 22, T. 48 S.,
R. 42E. *
1,000 ft. S. and
1,250 ft. E. of NW
cor., see. 20, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.


Owner


--.... do .........


R. H. Wright, Inc.


U. S. Geological
Survey


R. H. Wright, Inc.


A. A. Accardi


Mrs. H. L. Lyons


uuln Measuring point Water level Ohio


a .jjA- j11 t< j


I I -P
+I


Top of 1%-
inch casing


-6


616.008.1



-2


616.009-1


' : "
-2


616-010-1


; i '> '


16.71


7-19.60


5-81.60


ride content I


9-11.61


9-11-61


S. 4.60


7-19-60


a- 4.60


8-21-60
11- 9-61


Well
number


Top of 1%-
inch casing


Remarks


Hillsboro No. 1


Hillsboro No; 8


Two identical
wells tied to-
gether













( ,


--- ---







616-011-1



:616-012-1



617-005-1



-2



-8



017-006-1

, ,
.2



-82



-4



-56


2,475 ft. S. and 760
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 19, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.

1,550 ft. N. and 50
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec. 18, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.

950 ft. N. and 4,000
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec. 7, T. 48 S.,
R. 48 E.

800 ft. S. and 2,700
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 18, T. 48 S.,
R. 48 E.

2,150 ft. S. and
2,200 ft. E. of NW
cor., sec.. 18, T. 48
S., R. 48 E.
1,400 ft. N. and 800
ft.,W. of SE cor.,
see. 12, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E..
1,800 ft. N. and 800
ft. W. of SE cor.,
see. 12, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
1,400 ft. N. and 500
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec. 7, T. 48 S.,
R. 48 E.
1,400 ft. N. and
1,450 ft. W. of SE
cor., sec. 12, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
950 ft. N. and 800
ft. W. of SE cor.,
sec. 12. T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.


.............. do ...............



.............. do ...........


+200


24 Top of 24-inch --8.00
casing flange


U. S. Geological
Survey


G. J. Jeschke



Mr. Anderson



A. J. Forand



General Develop-
ment Co., Inc.


.. ...... do ......... ...


Top of 1l4-
inch casing


1%.



2







8



12



8



18



12


SI i ril


14.11


0.46



1.50


6-17-60



7-19-60


1- -61


7-19-60



8-16-60



6- 2-60



5- 2-60



4-11-60



4-11-60



4-11-60



9- 8-61



9- 8-61


Top of 12-inch
casing


Ca, Gen. Der.
No. 1


----Do .



Ca, Gen. Dev.
No.


Ca, Gen. Dev.
No. 4


Ca, Gen. Dev.
No. 5


I ' `









TABLE 4, (Continued)


Location


2,800 ft. N. and 175
ft.. of SW cor.,
see, 10, T. 48 S.,
R, 42 E.
850 ft. B. and 1,750
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 17, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
750 ft. B. and 1,150
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 17, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
900 ft. N. and 2,800
ft. E. of SW cor.,
see. 6, T. 48 B.,
R. 48 E.
1,400 ft. S. and
8,000 ft. E. of NW
cor., sec. 7, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,600 ft. S. and
1,480 ft. W. of NE
cor., sec. 1, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,690 ft. S. and
2,090 ft. W. of NE
cor., see. 1, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.


Owner


J. H. Doran, Inc.



P. C. Vinkemulder



........ do,...-..- .



Unknown



Sel Bon, Inc.



City of Deerfield
Beach


......... do-...


107



100



100



48



61



- 100



100


CaNintr Mufiuring point Water luvel Chlorilu content


Top of 4-inch
casing






Top of 4-inch
casing


Top of 2-Inch
casing


.1 '


16.68







11.98


1.88


5-13-60







7-18-60



8-15-60


8-28-60



7-15-61
9-16-61


5-18-60



10-10-60
0- 8-60


8-15-60



2-19-60



2-19-60


Well
number


617-009-1



617-010-1



-2



-618-005-1



-2



618-006-1



-2


Iemarks


Deerfield No. 4



Deerfield No. 5


VI






-8 1,690 ft. S. and ....
2,540 ft. W. of NE
cor., sec. 1, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
-4 170 ft. S. and 1,200 Hi
ft. W. of NE cor.,
see. 12. T. 48 S;.
R. 42 E.
618-007-1 1,650 ft. S. and 0.
S1,800 ft. E. of NW
cor., see. 2, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
-2 600 ft. N. and 800 A
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec. 1, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
618-008-1 2,400 ft. S. and 0.
1,600 ft. E. of NW
cor., sec. 8, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
2 1i700 ft. S. and
I 2,575 ft. E..of NW
cor., see. 8, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
618-010-1 1,450 ft. N. and 450 Ea
ft. E. of SW cor.,
sec. 4, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
618-011-1 1,200 ft. S. and Jot
2,050 ft. E. of NW
cor., sec. 6, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
-2 25 ft. N. and 550 H.
ft. W. of SE cor.,
Ssee. 6, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
618-012-1 1,800 ft. N. and 500 Un
ft E. Eof SW cor.,
sec. 6, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.


nry Myers



W. Goolsby



nerican Neigh-
bors, Inc.


W. Goolsby



......... do ........



rl Johns



n Thompson



D. and T. W.
Ienson


known


Deerfield No. 7


80



21



110



62



105



100



+100



125



-100



85


12



11,



3



1%/



1%



3



2



2



2



1%


Top of pump
base






Top of 1%.
inch casing


Top of 1%- x
1%-inch tee






.....................







.......................



Top of 114.
inch casing


1.85


12.62
12.47






6.82



3.49


5-26-60
7-18-60






6- 6-60



2-22-60


5-11-60


26







14
12
14
14





12



84
36
60

88
80
40

84
82


82



82
84


8-16-61







2-22-60
10-10-60
4-15-61
11- 9-61





10-10-60



2-22-60
6- 1-60
11- 9-61

5-10-60
8-11-60
5-15-61

2-24-60
5-15-61


5-10-60



10-10-60
4-15-61


14.14


17.63


8.00


--


P



Do



S



N



S




S


S



S



In



0









TABLE 4. (Continued)


Location


1,700 ft. N, and 200
ft. E, of SW cor.,
see. 6, T. 48 B.,
R. 42 E.
8,775 ft. S. and
1,100 ft. W, of NE
cor. se. 1, T. 48
S., R. 41 E.
1,000 ft. S. and
1,150 ft. W. of NE
cor., see. 6, T. 48
S., R. 48 E.
420 ft. 8. and 480
ft. W. of NE cor.,
see. 1, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
420 ft. S. and 580
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 1, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
50 ft. S. and 5
ft. E. of NW cor.,
see. 6, T. 48 S.,
R. 48 E.
1,250 ft. S. and
2,090 ft. W. of NE
or., se 1, T. 48
S.,R. 42 E.


Owner 1

'0- A


.---.do .... ....



U. S. Geological
Survey


City of Deerfield
Beach


City of Deerfield
Beach


- ....... do ........


1%



8



12



12



12


MeOuuring point Watur level


* ;0



H oi-
01 Rl" s


Top of 1'4-inch
casing nipple


Top of 114-
inch casing


8.00



.0


"'Z' "1""~1--


0.80



5.92


6-29-60



6-18-60


Chloride content


S82 5-10-60 76 Do


2-2.......60



2-28-60



2-23-60



2-28-60
2-28-60


Well
number


.2



.8



619-005-1



619-006-1



-2



-8.



-4


Romarks


Ca, Deerfeld
No. 1


Deerfield No. 2



Deerfield No. 8



Deerfeld No. 6


I


I


I


1






-5



.6



-7



-8



-9



-10



619-007-1


1,260 ft. S. and
2,640 ft. W. of NE
cor., sec. 1, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
50 ft. S. and 400
ft. W. of NE cor.,
sec. 1, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.

1,240 ft. S. and
2,640 ft. W. of NE
cor., sec. 1, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
1,260 ft. S. and
2,640 ft. W. of NE
cor., sec. 1, T. 48
S., R. 42 E.
950 ft. S. and 1,600
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 1, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.

980 ft. S. and 1,600
ft. E. of NW cor.,
sec. 1, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.
700 ft. S. and 8,250
ft. E. of NW cor.,
see. 2, T. 48 S.,
R. 42 E.


-- .do .-.-.



Edmond L.
McDonald


0.0


..--.do -.-.



American Neigh-
bors, Inc.


do .


Top of 1%1-
inch air-line







Top of 6-inch
casing


___do ....



-___ do-.......-



.. do--..




Top of 1%-
inch tee


12.02







18.40



18.14



11.92



12.14



14.67


9.78








8.61



8.41



6.26



6.04



7.48


9-18-61








9-18-61



9-18-61



9-18-61



9-18-61



4-18-60


8-81-61



8-81-61


Deerfeld No. 8



Deerfield No. 9


10-11-60


_ I I I


I _