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STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY



FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert O. Vernon, Director


REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


ALACHUA,


WATER RESOURCES
OF
BRADFORD, CLAY, AND
COUNTIES, FLORIDA


UNION


By
WILLIAM E. CLARK, RUFUS H. MUSGROVE,
CLARENCE G. MENKE, AND JOSEPH W. CAGLE, JR.


Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
TALLAHASSEE


Tallahassee
1964








AGRI.
CULTURAL

FLORIDA STATE BO!'d

OF

CONSERVATION





FARRIS BRYANT
Governor


TOM ADAMS
Secretary of State



J. EDWIN LARSON
Treasurer



THOMAS D. BAILEY
Superintendent of Public Instruction


RICHARD ERVIN
Attorney General



RAY E. GREEN
Comptroller



DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGES
Director









-LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


lorida geological Survey

ECallakassee

October 10, 1963

Honorable Farris Bryant, Chairman
Florida State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Governor Bryant:
The Division of Geology is publishing as Florida Geological
Survey Report of Investigations No. 35, a comprehensive report on
the water resources of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties,
Florida, which was prepared by William E. Clark, R. H. Musgrove,
Clarence G. Menke and Joseph W. Cagle, Jr., as part of a coopera-
tive program with this department.
These counties include one of the high pressure areas hn the
artesian system of Florida, and the study permits, for the first time,
when combined with studies being made in St. Johns, Flagler, and
Putnam counties to the east, the observation of important portions
of the ground-water cycle, ranging from recharge under water table
conditions through recharge to the artesian system, movements
toward the coast and discharge along the coast. It also permits the
observation of changes in the distribution of pressures of such a
system with the use of water along the coastal areas. We are
pleased to publish this timely information.

Respectfully yours,
Robert O. Vernon
Director and State Geologist


111






















































Completed manuscript received
May 9, 1963
Published for the Florida Geological Survey
By The E. O. Painter Printing Company
DeLand, Florida
Tallahassee
1964

iv










CONTENTS


Abstract I__ 1
Introduction ---- 4
Purpose and scope. _--._--___ 4
Previous investigations 6
,Methods of investigation ______ _- 7
Description of area _---- __________ 9
Topography _----
Geology ___ 11
Eocene Series --___ 12
Oligocene Series ________ 20
Miocene Series _____ 21
Miocene to Pleistocene (?) Series __ 23
Pleistocene Series __ ____ 24.
Pleistocene and Recent Series _____ 26
Structure ____ ____ 27
Climate _______ 28
Temperature __~_-__- _28
Rainfall 30
Surface water c___
St. Johns River -__-.____ ___ 37
Black Creek basin __ _____ 38
Santa Fe River basin _____- 50
Orange Creek basin -_ 56
Etonia Creek basin ___ 60
Quality of surface waters_______ 65
Introduction 65
Explanation of terms ____ 75
Water temperature ___ 76
Factors affecting chemical quality __ 77
Santa Fe River basin ____ 88
Black Creek basin ____--____ 93
North Fork Black Creek _____93
South Fork Black Creek 95
Etonia Creek basin _____ 99
Orange Creek basin ____. 99
Ground water __-- ___ __ 102
Limitations of yield_ __ ____- 103
Upper aquifers _- -__ -- 110
Water-table aquifer 110
Configuration of water table 112
Recharge and discharge 113
Fluctuation of the water table -- 113
Wells __ 115
Secondary artesian aquifers __- 115
Piezometric surfaces __115
Fluctuation of the piezometric surfaces 117
Movement ____ __ 118







Wells 118
Floridan aquifer 120
Hydraulic properties __ 120
Piezometric surface -_ 122
Recharge
Discharge __ 126
Discussion of Floridan aquifer by counties 127
Alachua County __--_ 127
Fluctuation of piezometric surface ___--127
Area of artesian flow _- 127
Analysis of pumping test ___127
Specific capacities of wells __ 131
Bradford County 134
Fluctuation of piezometric surface 134
Specific capacities of wells __ 134
Clay County 134
Fluctuation of piezometric surface 134
Area of artesian flow 134
Specific capacities of wells __ ____ 134
Union County --_ --_-_ 137
Fluctuation of piezometric surface ______ 137
Specific capacities of wells _____ 137
Quality of ground water ________ 138
Factors affecting chemical quality 139
Water-table aquifer 139
Secondary artesian aquifer 145
Floridan aquifer -__________ 147
Variability of water quality 148
Ground-water temperature -____ __----________151
Water use -__ _______152
Relation of water quality to water use 152
Domestic use and public supplies 153
Agricultural use ____ __ 155
Industrial use ____ ____ 157
Surface water -- _________________159
Ground water _______________160
Summary _______ 162
References ________ 166


ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page
1 Florida showing the locations of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and
Union counties --- __ 5
2 Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties, Florida, showing
the location of wells --___ facing 8
3 Explanation of well-numbering system 9
4 Generalized geologic map of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union
counties, Florida showing the approximate elevation of the top
of the Ocala Group and the locations of geologic sections __ Facing 12







5 West-east geologic section in Alachua, Bradford, and Clay coun-
ties, Florida, along line A-A' in figure 4 __- 13
6 West-east geologic section in Alachua, Bradford, and Clay
counties, Florida, along line B-B' in figure 4 ___ 14
7 Southwest-northwest geologic section in Alachua and Union
counties, Florida, along line C-C' in figure 4 __ 15
8 South-north geologic section in Alachua, Bradford, and Union
counties, Florida, along line D-D' in figure 4 __ __ 16
9 South-north geologic section in Alachua, Clay, and Bradford
counties, Florida along line E-E' in figure 4 17
10 Monthly mean temperatures 1912-1960,-at Gainesville, Florida 29
11 Rainfall at Gainesville, Florida, for the period 1900-60 30
12 Flow chart showing average flow of streams in Alachua, Brad-
ford, Clay, and Union counties, Florida ___ ---_----_-------------____ 36
13 Drainage map of the Black Creek basin showing data collection
sites __ ____ 38
14 Channel-bottom profiles of streams in the Black Creek basin 40
15 Average runoff in inches per year from areas within the Black
Creek basin ---____- ..._______-__-_.-__-...---. 41
16 Rainfall-runoff relation 42
17 Flow-duration curves for streams in the Black Creek basin 44
18 Discharge available without storage for South Fork Black
Creek near Penney Farms, -Florida (1939-60) --__-_------______. 45
19 Discharge available without storage for North Fork Black
Creek near Middleburg, Florida (1932-60) 45
20 Hydrographs of floods during May 20-25, 1959, in the Black
Creek basin _____------_ ____ 46
21 Flood frequency curves for the Black Creek basin 47
22 Depth contours of Whitmore Lake 48
23 Stage duration curve for Kingsley Lake (1947-60) 49
24 Depth contours of Kingsley Lake ___ 50
25 Drainage map of the Santa Fe River basin showing data
collection sites _51
26 Average runoff in inches per year from areas within the Santa
Fe River basin 52
27 Flow hydrographs for the Santa Fe River 53
28 Flow-duration curves for streams in the Santa Fe River basin __ 55
29 Stage graphs of Santa Fe Lake, Lake Sampson, and Lake Butler 56
30 Drainage map of the Orange Creek basin showing data collec-
tion sites _--. 57
31 Flow-duration curves for streams in the Orange Creek basin ___ 59
32 Stage-duration curves for Newnans Lake, Orange Lake, and
Lochloosa Lake _- ____ 61
33 Stage graphs for Newnans Lake _____ 62
34 Stage graphs for Orange Lake 62.
35 Stage graphs for Lochloosa Lake 63
36 Drainage map of the Etonia Creek basin showing data
collection sites ____ --- -4 64
37 Depth contours of Blue Pond 65
38 Depth contours of Sand Hill Lake ---- 66
39 Depth contours of Magnolia Lake .- -__-_-------------_____ 67







40 Depth contours of Crystal Lake _-__--- -- --- 68
41 Depth contours of Brooklyn Lake ----69
42 Depth contours of Keystone Lake -- ------ --70
43 Depth contours of Lake Geneva----- --------- 71
44 Depth contours of Loch Lommond ____ 72
45 Stage graphs of nine lakes near Keystone Heights, Florida 73
46 Profile of lakes near Keystone Heights, Florida 74
47 Water budget of Brooklyn Lake for the period October 1957
to September 1960 __ 74
48 Residue on evaporation at 1800C, hardness, and organic matter
in relation to specific conductance, Santa Fe River at Graham,
Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 -_---. ....-..--- 89
49 Specific conductance in relation to flow, Santa Fe River at
Graham, Florida July 1957 to September 1960 -____ 90
50 Cumulative frequency curve of specific conductance of selected
streams (periodic samples) ___ 91
51 Cumulative frequency curve of residue of selected streams
(periodic samples) ______--------- 92
52 Cumulative frequency curve of some of selected streams
(periodic samples) ----_-_. -------- _-_ _----- 93.. 93
53 Cumulative frequency curve of color of selected streams
(periodic samples) __-- ___ ____---_- 94
54 Residue on evaporation at 1800C, hardness, and organic matter
in relation to specific conductance, New River near Lake Butler,
Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 ____--- -- 95
55 Specific conductance in relation to flow, New River near Lake
Butler, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 --_____ 96
56 Cumulative frequency curves of selected characteristics of
water from New River near Lake Butler, Florida, October
1957 to September 1958 _____ __ ____ .__....._ .. 97
57 Residue on evaporation at 1800C, hardness, and organic matter
in relation to specific conductance, Santa Fe River at Worth-
ington, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 --_-- 98
58 Specific conductance in relation to flow, Santa Fe River at
Worthington, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 ___99
59 Cumulative frequency curves of selected characteristics of water
from Santa Fe River at Worthington, Florida, October 1957
to September 1958 -- 100
60 Residue on evaporation at 1800C, hardness, and organic matter
in relation to specific conductance, Olustee Creek near Provi-
dence, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 101
61 Specific conductance in relation to flow, Olustee Creek near
Providence, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 -----101
62 Residue on evaporation at 1800C, hardness, and organic matter
in relation to specific conductance, Santa Fe River at High
Springs, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 ____ 102
63 Specific conductance in relation to flow, Santa Fe River at High
Springs, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 103
64 Cumulative frequency curves of selected characteristics of water
from Santa Fe River near High Springs, Florida, October 1958
to September 1959 _____________ 104


viii








65 Residue on evaporation at 1800C, hardness, and organic matter
in relation to specific conductance, North Fork Black Creek near
Highland, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 -.._.-------------- 105
66 Residue on evaporation at 180-C, hardness, and organic matter
in relation to specific conductance, North Fork Black Creek near
Middleburg, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 106
67 Specific conductance in relation to flow, North Fork Black Creek
near Highland, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 __ 107
68 Specific conductance in relation to flow, North Fork Black Creek
near Middleburg, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 __-- ------ 107
69 Cumulative frequency curves of selected characteristics of water
from North Fork Black Creek near Highland, Florida, October
1958 to September 1959 108
70 Residue on evaporation at 1800C, hardness, and organic matter
in relation to specific conductance, South Fork Black Creek
near Penney Farms, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 ___ 109
71 Specific conductance in relation to flow, South Fork Black Creek
near Penney Farms, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 ._ 110
72 Cumulative frequency curves of selected characteristics of water
from South Fork Black Creek near Penney Farms, Florida,
October 1958 to September 1959 _____- --_- 111
73 Generalized geologic section from Archer to Orange Park,
Florida showing aquifers and the movement of water 112
74 Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties, Florida showing
generalized contours on the water table in the water-table
aquifer .. ---_ --- __-__- --.-------------___ -_--_ Facing 112
75 Hydrographs of wells 946-226-1, 000-232-1, 956-208-1, and
946-202-3 _._____114
76 Geologic sections showing typical water levels in wells tapping
different aquifers -__ --___ _______ ___ 116
77 Hydrograph of well 946-206-1 near Waldo, Florida 117
78 Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties, Florida showing
contours on the top of the Floridan aquifer 121
79 Semilog plot of residual drawdown versus the ratio of the
time since pumping started to the time since pumping stopped,
showing solution for coefficient of transmissibility -___- 122
80 Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties, Florida showing
contours on the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer
in June 1960 __ Facing 124
81 Hydrographs of wells 927-203-1, 929-213-1, 932-231-1, 936-236-1,
941-222-2, and 946-226-2 in Alachua County, Florida 128
82 Hydrographs of wells 948-231-2 and 949-236-2, in Alachua
County, Florida ________ 129
83 Southeastern Alachua County, Florida showing the approximate
area of artesian flow in June 1960 __ --- 130
84 Graph showing theoretical drawdowns in the vicinity of a well
pumping 1,000,000 gpd for selected periods 131
85 Clay County, Florida showing the decline of the piezometric
surface in eastern Clay County from June 1934 to June 1960 __ 136
86 Hydrographs of wells 959-140-1, 002-142-1, 006-149-1, and
003-151-1 in Clay County, Florida --- _____-- ----137







87 Clay County, Florida showing the approximate area in which
wells tapping the Floridan aquifer will flow, June 1960 __ 138
88 Hydrograph of well 007-222-1 in Union County, Florida and a
graph of monthly rainfall at High -Springs, Florida 142
89 Dissolved solids and hardness of water from the water-table
aquifer __ 144
90 Dissolved solids and hardness of water from the secondary ar-
tesian aquifers _______ 146
91 Dissolved solids and hardness of water from the Floridan aquifer 149
92 Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties, Florida showing.
centers of concentrated pumping and estimated use of ground
water in 1960 161



TABLES

Table Page
1 Geologic formations penetrated by water wells in Alachua,
Bradford, Clay, and Union counties, Florida ________ 18
2 Departure from average rainfall, in inches, at Gainesville, Florida 31
3 Locations of gaging stations, types of surface-water data col-
lected, and periods of records _-.---___.. __ ____ 32
4 Maximum, minimum, and average of observed daily water tem-
peratures of streams in Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union
counties, Florida ___ ~ _-.___ 76
5 Average, maximum, and minimum values observed for sub-
stances dissolved in streams and lakes __ ____...-__ 78
6 Specific capacities of wells tapping secondary artesian aquifers 119
7 Specific capacities of wells tapping the Floridan aquifer in
Alachua County, Florida _132 1i
8 Specific capacities of wells tapping the Floridan aquifer in
Bradford County, Florida ____ 135
9 Specific capacities of wells tapping the Floridan aquifer in
Clay County, Florida __ 140
10 Specific capacities of wells tapping the Floridan aquifer in
Union County, Florida _143 _1
11 Chemical quality of water tests commonly made for purposes
indicated ______ 152
12 Water-quality characteristics and their effects 154
13 Suggested water-quality tolerances ___ 158
14 Suggested water-quality tolerance for boiler feed water 159








PREFACE


This report was prepared by the Water Resources Division of
the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida
Geological Survey. The investigation was under the general
supervision of M. I. Rorabaugh, district engineer, Ground Water
Branch; A. 0. Patterson, district engineer, Surface Water Branch;
and J. W. Geurin, district chemist, succeeded by K. A. MacKichan,
district engineer, Quality of Water Branch, of the U. S. Geological
Survey.
The writers wish to express their appreciation to the citizens
of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union Counties for supplying
data and permitting the sampling and measuring of their wells
and to the well drillers for furnishing well cuttings, water-level
data, and other helpful information. Thanks are due the U. S. Soil
Conservation Service for its assistance in drilling a number of
shallow test wells and to Dr. E. C. Pirkle, of the University of
Florida, who furnished valuable geologic information.


















































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WATER RESOURCES
OF
ALACHUA, BRADFORD, CLAY, AND UNION
COUNTIES, FLORIDA

By

William E. Clark, Rufus H. Musgrove,
Clarence G. Menke, and Joseph W. Cagle, Jr.

ABSTRACT

Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties are within the
topographic division of Florida known as the Central Highlands,
except eastern Clay County which is a part of the Coastal Low-
lands. The most striking topographic features are: Trail Ridge,
which extends through the area in a north-south direction; high
swampy plains in the northwestern part of the area; rolling, slop-
ing, lands that are well dissected by stream channels in the eastern
part of the area; and lower, slightly rolling plains in southwestern
Alachua County, which are devoid of stream channels but which
are dotted with sinks and limerock pits.
The area is underlain by a series of limestones and dolomites
to depths of several thousand feet. The upper several hundred feet
of these beds include the Lake City Limestone and Avon Park
Limestone of Eocene age. The Ocala Group, the uppermost Eocene
unit, is exposed in southern and western Alachua County, but its
top is about 250 feet below sea level in eastern Clay County. In
the extreme southwestern corner of Alachua County the Ocala
Group is covered by about 35 feet of sands and clays of the Alachua
Formation of Miocene to Pleistocene age, but in other parts of the
area it is overlain by as much as 250 feet of relatively impervious
beds of clay, sandy clay, and limestone of the Hawthorn Formation
of Miocene age and by deposits of late Miocene age. In south-
western Clay County and southeastern Bradford County the Mio-
cene deposits are beneath about 90 feet of sand and clayey sand
that comprise the unnamed coarse plastics of Pleistocene age.
Elsewhere within the area, the Miocene deposits are overlain by a
series of higher terrace deposits of Pleistocene age and by a series
of lower terrace deposits of Pleistocene and Recent age. The
higher terraces are made up of the older Pleistocene terrace de-






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


posits which form most of the land surface in Bradford and Union
counties and extensive areas in Alachua and Clay counties. The
thickness of the older Pleistocene terrace deposits generally is 40
feet or less, but in some places it is as much as 130 feet. Pleistocene
and Recent sand, clay, and marl deposits cover older beds to depths
ranging generally up to 60 feet in Clay County. The principal
structure of the area is the Ocala uplift, whose crest transverses
southwestern Alachua County. The regional dip of formations on
the flank of the uplift is east-northeast at an average rate of about
6 feet per mile.
The average annual temperature at Gainesville is 700F. Only
rarely does the temperature reach 100F and only occasionally
does it drop into the teens. In fact, 280 frost-free days per year
can be expected.
Uneven distribution of rainfall causes most of the water prob-
lems in the area. On the average, the area receives 52 inches of
rainfall per year. However, there have been considerable variations
from the average which have caused both floods and droughts.
Minor seasonal floods are a common occurrence. The greatest floods
of record occurred in 1948-49. For the 6-year period ending in
1949 the excess rainfall at Gainesville was 45.87 inches.
The most severe drought of record occurred during 1954-57.
Rainfall at Gainesville was deficient by 22.66 inches during 1954-
56. Many of the streams reached their lowest flow of record and
several lakes lost most of their water during 1954-57. Orange
Lake in southern Alachua County was reduced to one-fifth of its
normal size, and Brooklyn Lake at Keystone Heights was reduced
to one-half of its normal size.
The average streamflow from the four counties is approximately
1,150 mgd (million gallons per day) and leaves the area through
four stream basins that originate within the area (Black Creek,
Santa Fe River, Orange Creek, and Etonia Creek). In addition,
the St. Johns River, the largest and longest river wholly within
Florida, flows northward along the eastern boundary of Clay
County and has an average flow of about 4,500 mgd at Green Cove
Springs.
Average runoff from the four counties is about 12 inches per
year but varies considerably from area to area. Average yearly
runoff from the Black Creek basin is 14.8 inches; from the Santa
Fe River basin, 22 inches; from the Orange Creek basin, 5 inches;
and from Etonia Creek basin, less than 5 inches. An intervening
segment of the Santa Fe River drainage area west of High Springs







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


has an average runoff of 85 inches per year, which is possibly the
highest runoff from any area in Florida.
There are more than 50 lakes in the four counties that exceed
0.02 square mile in size, the largest of which is 25.7 square miles
in size. The combined area of all these lakes is about 90 square
miles. The elevations above sea level of the lakes range from 57
feet for the lowest to 176 feet for the highest. Stages of some
lakes have fluctuated as much as 20 feet; others have fluctuated
only 3.5 feet. Soundings have been made in 9 lakes, the deepest of
which, Kingsley Lake, has a depth of 85 feet. The depths of most
of the lakes are in the range from 20 to 40 feet.
Concentration of substances dissolved in surface water ranged
from 10 to 299 ppm (parts per million). All surface water, except
in the Etonia Creek basin in southwestern Clay County, is colored.
The color intensity ranged from 0 to 1,000 platinum-cobalt scale
units. Except for the New River near Lake Butler and Santa Fe
River at High Springs, the surface water is characteristically
soft. Generally, the hardness (as calcium carbonate) is less than
50 ppm.
The two major sources of ground-water supplies in these
counties are the upper aquifers and the Floridan aquifer. The
upper aquifers are above the Floridan aquifer except where they
are absent in southern and western Alachua County.
The upper aquifers are composed of a water-table aquifer and
secondary artesian aquifers. The water-table aquifer consists
mostly of shallow sand or clayey sand of Miocene, Pleistocene, and
Pleistocene and Recent age. These sands, which are recharged
locally by rainfall, yield water to domestic wells. The secondary
artesian aquifers, which are sandwiched between the water-table
aquifer and the Floridan aquifer, consist chiefly of limestone layers
of the Hawthorn Formation or Choctawhatchee Formation. Prob-
ably more wells in these four counties withdraw water from
secondary artesian aquifers than from any other aquifer. These
aquifers supply sufficient water for domestic and livestock purposes.
The source of the largest supplies of ground water is the
Floridan aquifer, which consists mostly of limestones of Eocene
and Oligocene age. In the area west of a line running through
Gainesville in a southeast-northwest direction, water in the Flori-
dan aquifer is under water-table conditions; and in the area east
of this line the water is under artesian conditions. The piezometric
surface of the Floridan aquifer is. high near the junction of the
Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union county lines, indicating a






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


recharge area. The rate of recharge in this area is estimated to
be at least 1.8 inches of water per year. In southern and western
Alachua County where the Floridan aquifer is exposed; at least
10 inches of water per year percolates to the Floridan aquifer. The
principal area of artesian flow from the Floridan aquifer includes
most of northeastern Clay County and the low areas along the St.
Johns River, Black Creek, and Little Black Creek.
Although about 10 billion gallons of ground water were used in
the four counties in 1960, it is a relatively undeveloped resource.
Hundreds of millions of gallons of additional ground water a year
probably can be developed at almost any place in the four counties
if the development is based on sound scientific principles and
adequate hydrologic data.
Concentration of substances dissolved in ground water ranged
from 14 to 687 ppm. Except for the water in the water-table
aquifer, the ground water is characteristically moderately hard
to hard. Often the hardness is greater than 100 ppm. Except for
localized flat and swampy areas, the color intensity of the ground
water is generally 10 or less.
Iron in concentrations greater than 0.30 ppm occurs in both
surface waters and ground waters. The occurrence of iron in excess
of 0.30 ppm is less prevalent in water from the secondary artesian
aquifers and from the Floridan aquifer than from the water-table
aquifer.

INTRODUCTION

PURPOSE AND SCOPE

Water is a valuable natural resource in Alachua, Bradford,
Clay, and Union counties (fig. 1) but had been given little thought
by local residents before the severe drought of 1954-57. The
drought focused the attention of local officials upon the usable
water-supply limitations and the need for information concerning
the water resources in the area. This attention was stimulated by
the distressingly low water level of Brooklyn Lake near Keystone
Heights.
Local officials presented the problem to the State Legislature.
The Legislature provided funds to the Florida Geological Survey
for a water-resources investigation. With these funds from the
Florida Geological Survey and matching funds from the Federal
Government, a cooperative agreement was reached between the
Florida Geological Survey and the U. S. Geological Survey to
It








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


'V


0 o0 20 30 40 50mile


Bese token from 1933 edition of mop of
Florido by U.S. Geological Survey

Figure 1. Florida showing the locations of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and
Union counties.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


conduct the water-resources study. This report is to document the
results of the study for public use.
The investigation was designed to obtain data fundamental to
solving water problems of the area. These data are to be pub-
lished by the Florida Geological Survey in an Information Circular
entitled "Water-Resources Data of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and
Union Counties, Florida." Special attention was directed toward
the causes of the fluctuations of Brooklyn Lake during the
investigation, and the results of this part of the investigation are
published by the Florida Geological Survey in Report of Investiga-
tion 33, entitled "Hydrology of Brooklyn Lake Near Keystone
Heights, Florida."
High and low lake stages, floods, low streamflow, chemical
content of waters, low artesian pressures, decreased well yields,
and water temperatures are problems.
Questions most frequently asked about water and water supplies
are: (1) Where is a supply located? (2) How much is available?
(3) What are the fluctuations of this supply? (4) What causes the
fluctuations of a supply? and (5) What are the chemical and
physical characteristics of the supply? All these questions are best
answered by data on streamflow, lake and stream stages, areas and
depths of lakes, drainage areas, wells, geology, ground-water levels,
rainfall, and the physical and chemical character of water. These
measurements should be made over a long period of time, to include
both high-water and low-water conditions.

PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS

Records of streamflow have been collected by the U. S.
Geological Survey at various points in the area since 1927. These
records were published annually in a series of water-supply papers,
and a summary of these records through 1950 is published in
Water-Supply Paper 1304. The results of a low-flow study of
streams during April and May 1956 were given in a report by
Pride (1961). Pride (1958) reported on the frequency of floods
in this area. Black and Brown (1951) gave information about
the chemical quality of water in the area and other parts of Florida.
A series of water-supply papers contain measurements of
artesian pressure in several wells in northeastern Clay County.
Ground-water resources and geology of the four counties were
mentioned in a report by Matson and Sanford (1913). Artesian
water supply, well descriptions, measurements of water levels in
wells, and chemical analyses of water from wells were reported







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35


by Sellards and Gunter (1913). Stringfield (1936) reported well
locations and well descriptions, and prepared a piezometric map
of the principal artesian aquifer of the Florida Peninsula. Ferguson,
and others (1947) discussed some of the larger springs of Florida.
A report by Cooper and others (1953) includes a general
discussion of the water resources of these four counties. White
(1958) relates water resources to landforms of the peninsula and
makes brief references to Alachua County. The most comprehen-
sive geological reports are those of Cooke and Mossom (1929) and
Cooke (1945), both entitled "Geology of Florida," which describe
the formations that crop out in the four counties and give details
of their occurrence. A geological map of the surface formations
accompanies each of these reports. Vernon (1951) has drawn
structural maps that include Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union
counties. A geological map by Vernon (1951), revised from the
earlier map by Cooke (1945), shows the outcrop of the surface
formations. Pirkle (1956) has contributed papers on the geology
and physiography of Alachua County. A report by Puri (1957),
describes the Ocala Group and its fossils at several quarry
exposures in Alachua County and shows subsurface sections that
extend across parts of the four-county area. Puri and Vernon
(1959) give detailed descriptions of geologic sections and show
panel diagrams of the subsurface geology in the counties.

METHODS OF INVESTIGATION

The surface-water investigation consisted of collecting stage
records on lakes and streams; measuring the flow of streams;
sounding lakes with a sonic depth recorder; and determining the
limits of drainage areas.
Field mapping of the surface occurrence of the geologic forma-
tions was made by using rock outcrops in roadcuts, streams, and
channels; exposures in quarries and sinks; and the application of
such geologic aids as vegetation, topography, and surface drainage
features. The interpretation of the subsurface geology is based
on a microscopic examination of the character, composition, and
fossils of drill cuttings from approximately 70 wells and from
studies of numerous drillers' logs of wells.
I- The following data on existing wells were collected at the time
the wells were canvassed; drillers' logs, water use, yield of wells,
dimensions of casings, depth of wells, depth to water, and water
temperature. Water samples were also collected for chemical
.analyses. Figure 2 shows the locations of wells that were






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


inventoried. Figure 3 gives an explanation of the well-numbering
system and shows how a well may be located on the map by its
number.
A large part of the investigation was devoted to drilling and
collecting data from 84 test wells. Forty-two of the test wells
were 11/ -inches iin diameter and 50 feet or less in depth. Only
geologic samples were collected from these wells. Twenty-seven
of the test wells were 2 inches in diameter and were drilled near
Brooklyn Lake. Twelve of the 2-inch wells, which ranged from 28
to 67 feet in depth, were drilled to obtain water-level measure-
ments. The remaining 2-inch wells, which ranged in depth from
77 to 449 feet, were drilled to obtain water-level measurements,
water temperatures, geologic samples, and water samples. Four
6-inch wells were drilled near Brooklyn Lake to obtain geologic
samples, water-level measurements, and water samples. Nine
4-inch and two 8-inch wells were drilled to obtain geologic samples,
water samples, water-level measurements, and water temperatures.
Some of the test wells and some of the existing wells were
pumped or allowed to flow to obtaininformation on the yield of the
wells and to obtain information concerning the hydraulic charac-
teristics of the material that the wells penetrated. In addition,
the elevations of a number of the existing wells and a number of
the test wells were determined with either an engineer's level
or an altimeter.
Water levels and water temperatures were measured
periodically in a selected number of existing wells and in most
of the test wells. On a few key wells, automatic water-level
recorders were installed to obtain a continuous record of the
water-level fluctuations.
Water samples were collected and analyzed using standard
methods (Rainwater and Thatcher, 1960). Samples of water for
chemical analyses were taken at streamflow-measuring stations
when practical. The analyses of these samples were used to esti-
mate the quality of water at other locations. Water samples were
collected preferably from wells for which well depth, depth of
casing, geologic formation of materials, and elevation of the water
surface in the well were known. The analyses of these samples
were used to estimate the ground-water quality.

DESCRIPTION OF AREA

Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties are grouped
together in the northern part of peninsular Florida (fig. 1). The
'. j





I 4 30 2 0 4 0 AR U I


EXPLANATION
.2
Inventoried well and number

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0
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the Floridan aquifer


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the location of wells.


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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35


Figure 3. Explanation of well-numbering system.


area is in the vicinity of latitude 29050' N., longitude 82010' W.
It extends about 50 miles north-south and about 65 miles east-west.
The east edge of the area is 20 miles from the Atlantic Ocean and
the southwest corner is 30 miles from the Gulf of Mexico.
Trade, manufacturing, mining, agricultural, and governmental
operations are the main sources of income. Revenues associated
with recreational activities are increasing as the potential of the
area is recognized. Although no water is consumed by recreational
activity, more of the lakes are being used for this purpose as the






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


economy of the area expands. At present, the operations of
municipalities, mining, and agriculture require the largest
quantities of water in the area.
The four counties have an area of 2,023 square miles and had
a population of 103,800 in 1957. The area and the population density
of the counties are: Alachua, 892 square miles, 77 persons per
square mile; Clay 598 square miles, 26 persons per square mile;
Bradford, 293 square miles, 41 persons per square mile; and
Union, 240 square miles, 33 persons per square mile. The four
counties combined have 51 persons per square mile, whereas the
state as a whole has 76 persons per square mile. (The population
figures are from data by the Bureau of Business and Economic
Research, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida.)

TOPOGRAPHY

The area is within the topographic division of the state known
as the Central Highlands, except eastern Clay County, which is
in the Coastal Lowlands division (Cooke, 1945, p. 8, 10, 11). The
principal topographic features of the area are: Trail Ridge, which
extends through the area in a north-south direction; the high
swampy plains in central, north-central, and northwestern parts
of the area; the rolling, sloping lands in the eastern part of the
area which are well dissected by stream channels; and the slightly
rolling plain in southern and western Alachua County, which is
devoid of stream channels but which is dotted with sinks and lime-
rock pits.
Train Ridge extends from the lake region in the vicinity of
Keystone Heights in southwestern Clay County northward along
the Bradford-Clay County line. This ridge is a series of sandhills,
the highest of which (elevation 250 feet) is just south of Kingsley
Lake. From the highest point, the land slopes southward and fans
out into a wide area of sandhills, which is dotted with lakes, in the
vicinity of Keystone Heights. Farther south, in Putnam County,
the land is flat and has many shallow lakes.
North of Kingsley Lake, the ridge is narrow and generally is
less than a mile wide across the crest. It slopes downward slightly
to about 200 feet above msl (mean sea level) at the Baker County
line.
East of Trail Ridge, in Clay County, the land slopes toward the
St. Johns River for a distance of 20 to 25 miles. The land along
the St. Johns River in this area generally is less than 10 feet above
sea level. Many well-defined channels drain directly from the east







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


side of the ridge. Some of the headwater streams of the North
Fork Black Creek have channel slopes of 50 feet per mile.
The west side of Trail Ridge slopes steeply, as much as 100 feet
per mile, to a swampy plain. This plain extends over parts of
Alachua, Bradford, and Union counties and ranges generally from
125 to 175 feet above msl. No well-defined stream channels drain
the west side of the ridge; however, several streams originate in
areas occupied by the swampy plain.
In southern and western Alachua County the land is fairly flat
but there are gently rolling hills. This area is dotted with small
ponds and pits made by mining of limestone. A significant feature
of this area is the absence of stream channels.

GEOLOGY'

Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties are underlain by
several hundred feet of unconsolidated to semiconsolidated marine
and nonmarine deposits of sand, clay, marl, gravel, limestone, dolo-
mite, and dolomitic limestone. The oldest formation penetrated by
water wells in the four counties is the Lake City Limestone of
Eocene age. However, the Oldsmar Limestone of Eocene age, which
lies below the Lake City, probably is fresh water-bearing, at least
in part. The Oldsmar Limestone, at least in part, and the over-
lying younger formations contain fresh water, but several thou-
sand feet of older rocks of Tertiary and Cretaceous age that lie
below the Oldsmar contain highly mineralized water. Only the
fresh water-bearing formations are discussed in this report.
The Eocene Series comprises the Oldsmar Limestone, Lake City
Limestone, Avon Park Limestone, and Ocala Group; the Oligocene
Series is represented by the Suwannee Limestone; the Miocene
Series comprises the Hawthorn and Choctawhatchee Formation
and, in part, the Alachua Formation; the Pleistocene Series is
made up of the unnamed coarse clastics, the older Pleistocene
terrace deposits, and, in part, the Alachua Formation; and the
Pleistocene and Recent Series is made up of the younger marine
and estuarine terrace deposits. These deposits underlie a terrain
that is a series of marine terraces or plains; a hill and valley, and

'The stratigraphic nomenclature used in this report conforms to the usage
by Cooke (1945) with revisions by Vernon (1951) except that the Ocala
Limestone is referred to as the Ocala Group. The Ocala Group, and its
subdivisions as described by Puri (1953), has been adopted by the Geological
Survey of Florida. The Federal Geological Survey regards the Ocala as a
formation, the Ocala Limestone.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


hill and lake topography; and a limestone plain. Except for the
Inglis, Williston, and Crystal River Formations that compose the
Ocala Group, which is undifferentiated in this report, erosional
unconformities separate each formation. A generalized geologic
map (fig. 4), which is a modification of the previous geologic maps
of the area by Cooke and Mossom (1929), Cooke (1945), Vernon
(1951), and Puri and Vernon (1959), shows the surface occurrence
of the various formations. The oldest exposed rocks are limestones
of the Ocala Group, which crop out in southern and western Alachua
County.- The Hawthorn, Choctawhatchee, and Alachua Formations,
the unnamed coarse clastics, the older Pleistocene terrace deposits,
and the Pleistocene and Recent deposits are at the surface in other
parts of the four-county area. Geologic sections (figs. 5, 6, 7, 8,
and 9) show thickness, structure, topographic expression, and the
stratigraphic position and relationship of the formations.
The geologic formations penetrated by water wells in the four
counties are listed in table 1, which gives a brief description of
their thickness and physical character. The formations are grouped
according to their geologic age and are described from oldest to
youngest-that is, from the Oldsmar Limestone of Eocene age to
the Pleistocene and Recent deposits.

EOCENE SERIES

The Oldsmar Limestone, the lowermost formation of Eocene age,
lies at relatively great depths in .Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and
Union counties and is not penetrated by water wells in this area.
Although a few oil test wells penetrate the Oldsmar in the four
counties, the data from these wells are inconclusive relative to
the thickness and character of the formation. Vernon (1951, p.
87), however, describes the thickness and lithology of the Oldsmar,
based on oil test wells, in Levy County which adjoins Alachua
County on the southwest. Vernon states, regarding the Oldsmar,
that "it is composed essentially of fragmental marine limestones,
partially to completely dolomitized and containing irregular and
rare lenses of chert, impregnation of gypsum and thin shale beds."
The thickness of the formation in Levy County ranged from 380
to 568 feet in five test oil wells. The Oldsmar overlies the Cedar
Keys Limestone of Paleocene age.
The Lake City Limestone of Eocene age is the oldest formation
from which supplies of fresh ground water are obtained in the
area. The Lake City is nearest the surface along the crest of the
Ocala uplift in southwestern Alachua County where its top was







40 35' 30















I I













4






J0
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sasF '- S tccograpnc quadrangles
: '- .- C epcrtmen, mops


Figure 4. Generalized geologic map of Alachua, Bradford, Clay and Union
counties, Florida, showing the approximate elevation of the Ocala Group
and the location of geologic sections.


oc on


50n 45


40' 35' 830'

.-291

92 N





,!. i,
/




I.

















ITY
-2 8 '


















M i -
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ITY '.






ger ar.ine ond eBo-u r.oe-
lerroze deposits i S

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name coarse c5cst~cs
a-,

Alachuo Formaoion cr

octowhalcnee Formoton

Hao. norn rorrmoton '

Ocalo Group



























Figure 5. West-east geologic section in Alachua, Bradford, and Clay counties,
Florida along line A-A' in figure 4.































Figure 6. West-east geologic section in Alachua, Bradford, and Clay counties,
Florida, along line B-B' in figure 4.













S100- HAWTHORN FORMATION f
-- Jy -rHAWTHORN FORMATION
0-


I-,
0 OCALA GRO UP 0 LIMESTONE

100 OCALA GROUP



-300- PARK LIMESTONE |

- -400- 4 ~e ... .

CITY
-500 0 I 2 4 6 8 O1mlles LIMESTO NE

..J
" .600
Figure 7. Southwest-northeast geologic section in Alachua and Union counties,
Florida along line C-C' in figure 4.











ISTOC NE


4R


C I T Y


Ls

OLN
L I M E S T 0 N E "'--


0 1 2 4 6 8 I0miles
ENIMI


Figure 8. South-north geologic section in Alachua, Bradford, and Union
counties, Florida along line D-D' in figure 4.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


S/ HanthorneS

S i --- o 1b 0 l0 n0 o --- -



S0 HAWTHORN

-1200
O C A LA G R P
S-200z T 1,




1 -300
A V A ON P RK LM T O N
S: 2 4 6 F 10 miles
1 -400

Figure 9. South-north geologic section in Alachua, Clay, and Bradford
counties, Florida along line E-E' in figure 4.

penetrated by well 936-236-1, 21/2 miles south of Newberry, and
well 938-236-3, at Newberry, at 150 feet below msl and at 168 feet
below msl, respectively. On a line from southwest to northeast
across the four counties-that is, from the Ocala uplift, in the
direction of greatest dip of the beds-the top of the Lake City
lies at about 380 to 440 feet below msl at Gainesville, at about 600
feet below msl beneath the crest of Trail Ridge at Kingsley Lake,
and at about 700 feet below msl at Green Cove Springs (fig. 5, 6).
The Lake City Limestone overlies older Oldsmar Limestone of
Eocene age.
Drill cuttings were available from only a relatively few, widely
scattered wells penetrating the Lake City; therefore, the lithologic
character and composition of the Lake City Limestone could be
determined only generally. The cuttings show the formation to be
composed mostly of tan, gray, and brown, hard, finely crystalline
dolomite and dolomitic limestone. Included with these beds, how-
ever, are many softer laeraars of tan and gray, porous, fossiliferous
limestone and seams of peat or lignite. The Lake City is most
readily identified in drill samples with the first appearance of the
Foraminifera, Dictyoconus americanus (Cushman). Since no water
wells for which records were available were drilled through the
Lake City Limestone, the thickness of the formation was not
determined. The greatest penetration, 440 feet, was by well
938-221-1 at Gainesville.
The Avon Park Limestone, which overlies the Lake City Lime-
stone, is in the subsurface throughout the four counties. The








TAlltsI 1. (Ju0oloi'o o'rlmittloilN 'l)Iotr1to(d fly Watul, Woill Ini Alaclhui,
Brhadford, Clay, andi Union Countles, Florida,


Illtaxillll
l'Friinmation tlllck lieS IysiJlc
(tifet


Younger marine and istutlrinu
terrace duposit:j


Older IPelestocuno terrace deposits
SI-,-


Unnamed coarse elastics
H r .. -- -- -- --- -- -- -


Choctawhatchce
Formation


-1-


Hawthorn Formation


Oligocene Suwarnee Limestone


Crystal River Formation
Ocala Williston Formation
Group Inglis Formation
(Undifferentiated)


Avon Park Limestone


Lake City Limestone


I characteristics


Boerlr


PJ'lstocene
and
Recent


50



250


I I------ I


Limestone, white to tan, soft to hard, porous, in part
fossiliferous and dolomitic.

Limestone, white, cream and tan, soft, granular, porous,
fossiliferous, coquinoid in part. Some hard layers of
limestone and dolomitic limestone mostly in lower part.


Dolomite, dark brown and tan, granular, hard, dense to
210 porous; interbedded tan and cream limestone and
dolomitic limestone.

Limestone, dolomite, and dolomitic limestone, tan, grey,
450 and brown.


Quysterna






Quaternary


Pleistocene


Miocene


Sand and clayey sand, grey, brown anid black, (lisenil.
$0 nated oricanic matter, beds of clay naurl, and sandy clay,
Shell marl and concentrations of shell in some areas,

Sand, white to yellow, grey to black, clayey, organic
140 matter; varicolored clay, sandy clay and clayey sand,


Sand and clayey sand, varicolored, locally contains quartz
00 gravels, interbedded thin lenses of clay or kaolin.


S Sand, clay, and phosphate; boulders of siliceous lime-
S stone, flint and phosphate; vertebrate fossils.

Clay and mar], yellow to cream, Indurated in part, phos.
40 phate grains and pebbles, thin limestone and sand layers,
some shells.

Clay and sandy clay, varicolored, Interbedded sand and
sandy, phosphatic limestones; disseminated grains and
250 pebbles of phosphate. Very hard limestone, partly dolo-
mitic, in the lower part of the Hawthorn in some areas.


Tertiary


Eocene'


r







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


Avon Park in most parts of Alachua, Bradford, and Union counties
is chiefly a dark brown to tan, granular, hard, dense to porous
dolomite that in places contains a few beds of cream-colored lime-
stone. Geologic logs of representative wells in Clay County,
however, show many beds of tan, gray, or cream-colored, soft to
hard limestone and dolomitic limestone interlayered with the
brown dolomite. Although dolomitization has altered or destroyed
many of its fossils, the formation is generally fossiliferous and
carries a distinctive assemblage of "cone type" Foraminifera. The
Avon Park is thinnest beneath the crest and flank of the Ocala
uplift in southwestern Alachua County where it is nearest the
surface. At wells 936-236-1 and 938-236-3, near Newberry in south-
western Alachua County, the Avon Park has thicknesses of 100 and
110 feet, respectively. At test well 007-222-1, in Union County,
the Avon Park is 143 feet thick. The Avon Park is about 210 feet
thick at Gainesville and probably maintains a nearly equivalent
thickness in most other parts of the four counties. The geologic
sections (fig. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) show wells (in addition to the above)
that have penetrated as much as 140 feet of the formation.
Limestones of the Ocala Group have been subdivided and re-
named several times in recent years by different investigators. The
most recent classification is that of Puri (1957) of the Florida
Geological Survey, who divided the Ocala Group from oldest to
youngest, into the Inglis, Williston, and Crystal River Formations.
These formations are undifferentiated in this report. Limestones of
the Ocala Group, the oldest exposed rocks in the area, are at the
surface in southern and western Alachua County (fig. 4), but
they dip beneath younger formations in other parts of Alachua
County and in Bradford, Clay and Union counties. The Ocala
Group unconformably overlies the Avon Park limestone.
A limestone plain was formed where the Ocala Group is at the
surface. In the outcrop of the Ocala Group (fig. 4), the limestone
in most places is covered by a veneer of loose sands of older Pleis-
tocene terrace deposits. In a few places, however, the outcrop of
Ocala Group is covered by clayey sands and sandy clays, which are
a residuum of the younger Hawthorn and Alachua Formations. The
younger sediments over the limestone tend to mask irregularities
in the highly eroded surface of the Ocala Group. A karst
topography-which includes such features as filled and open sinks,
sinkhole lakes, solution pipes, basins, and prairies-is typical of
areas underlain by the Ocala Group.
The upper part of the Ocala Group is mostly a soft, white to
cream-colored, chalky, coquina limestone. The Ocala Group,







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


though it is in part a coquina throughout its thickness, grades
downward into alternating layers of hard and soft, tan to brown,
crystalline limestone and dolomitic limestone. Younger materials
consisting of sand, clay, and vertebrate fossils have filled sinks,
solution pipes, and depressions in the Ocala Group. In the outcrop
of the Ocala in Alachua County, sink-fill material was penetrated
by well 937-223-1 to a depth of about 200 feet, which is the
approximate depth to the base of the Ocala Group and by well
938-234-1 to a depth of at least 268 feet, which would be in the
Avon Park Limestone. In southwestern Clay County where the
Ocala Group is beneath younger sediments, well 947-202-13,
apparently penetrated a deep filled sink which was caused by a col-
lapse of limestones of Eocene age. The Ocala Group was
penetrated at a depth of 420 feet, whereas, the Ocala Group would
normally be penetrated at a depth of about 200 feet. Boulders and
irregular masses of chert or flint are common near the top of the
Ocala Group. Cavities up to 3 feet in depth are common and some
cavities as much as 40 feet in depth in the limestone in western
Alachua County have been reported by drillers.
The Ocala Group is thinnest beneath the crest and flank of the
Ocala uplift in southwestern Alachua County. At wells 936-236-1
and 938-236-3 near Newberry, the Ocala Group is 80 and 130 feet
thick, respectively. In other parts of the four counties, the Ocala
Group ranges in thickness from about 200 to 250 feet. In Alachua
County, the Ocala Group is as much as 220 feet thick, and in Clay
County the maximum thickness was logged 230 feet in well 958-
139-1 at Green Cove Springs, but it may be slightly thicker in the
northeastern part of Clay County. The Ocala is estimated to be 230
feet thick at Starke in Bradford County, and it may be as much
as 250 feet thick northwest of Starke and westward to the vicinity
of well 958-217-1. At test well 007-222-1 in Union County, the
Ocala was 245 feet thick and drillers' logs of wells at Raiford in
eastern Union County indicate an equivalent thickness in this area.

OLIGOCENE SERIES

Some boulders of the Suwannee Limestone of Oligocene age
were identified at the surface in western Alachua County but it was
not determined if the boulders were in place. The Suwannee is in
the subsurface north and northeast of Gainesville in Alachua
County, in places in northwestern Alachua County, in the approxi-
mate western one-fourth of Bradford County, and in most of Union
County west of Lake Butler. Available well data indicate that the







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


Suwannee is absent in most other parts of these counties and that
the formation is entirely absent in Clay County. The locations of
wells penetrating the Suwannee that were used to prepare a-
contour map of the top of the Floridan aquifer are shown in figure
78. The Suwannee Limestone is a residual material, and it probably
occurs only locally except in extreme northwestern Alachua County
and in western Union County where it seems to be continuous in
subsurface.
Owing to the lithologic similarity between the Suwannee Lime-
stone and limestones of the underlying Ocala Group, a separation
of these two units is often difficult except where diagnostic fossils
occur. The Suwannee is usually identified by its "cone type"
foraminifers. Generally, the formation is composed of hard and
soft beds of white, tan or cream-colored limestone that is dolomitic
and coquinoid in part. Also, some sand and silicified layers of
chert and flint are present. North and northeast of Gainesville in
Alachua County the Suwannee ranges in thickness from about 30
to 50 feet, and in western Union County and southwestern Bradford
County it generally ranges in thickness from 20 to 40 feet. In
northwestern Alachua and extreme southern Union counties the
formation probably ranges in thickness from 20 to 30 feet.

MIOCENE SERIES

The Hawthorn Formation, a marine deposit of Miocene age,
underlies the four counties except in parts of southern and western
Alachua County. The Hawthorn crops out in Alachua County in
an isolated area around Micanopy and in an irregular pattern ex-
tending from Lochloosa Lake northwestward into northwestern
and north-central Alachua County. The formation also crops out
in southern Union County and southwestern Bradford County (fig.
4). The main body of the outcrop of the formation terminates in
Alachua County along a line of low southwestward-facing hills along
the edge of the plain formed by limestones of the Ocala Group.
Remnants of the Hawthorn, however, have filled sinks and formed
a thin mantle of sediment over the outcrop of the Ocala Group
(fig. 4). Much of the outcrop of the Hawthorn Formation is in an
area of relatively rugged hill and valley terrain, but in some of
the area the surface is gently rolling. Most of the Hawthorn out-
crop is covered by a veneer of loose sands of the older Pleistocene
terrace deposits. The Hawthorn Formation overlies the Ocala
Group and the Suwannee Limestone.
The Hawthorn consists chiefly of thick clays and sandy clays







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


that range in color from green to yellow and from gray to blue.
Layers or lenses of sand and relatively soft white to gray limestone
and sandy phosphatic limestone are interbedded with the clays.
Although pebbles and grains of phosphate having a tan, amber,
brown, or black color are usually -disseminated throughout the
formation, the pebbles and grains of phosphate seem to be con-
centrated at various levels. The lower part of the Hawthorn
contains beds of tan, gray, and grayish-green, dense, hard limestone
and dolomitic limestone, and interlayered clays. These beds occur
in approximately the eastern one-fourth of Alachua County, all of.
Bradford County except the extreme southwestern part including
Brooker, that part of Union County lying generally east of Lake
Butler, and all of Clay County. In Alachua County, the basal lime-
stones and clays are usually 15 to 20 feet thick; whereas in
Bradford, Clay and Union counties the basal limestones are from
20 to 30 feet thick except in places in eastern Clay County where
they are about 35 feet thick.
The Hawthorn Formation ranges in thickness in Alachua
County from a few feet where its outcrop merges with the Ocala
outcrop to about 200 feet in the northeastern part of the county
(sections A-A', D-D' in fig. 5, 8). The Hawthorn is as much as 160
feet thick in the vicinity of Gainesville. In most other parts of
Alachua County the formation is from 60 to 120 feet thick except
in the outcrop in the Micanopy area where its thickness probably
does not exceed 50 feet. In Union County, west of Lake Butler, the
Hawthorn is from 55 to 100 feet thick; but east of Lake Butler it
apparently is thicker because 265 feet of Hawthorn was penetrated
by well 004-211-3 at Raiford State Prison in extreme eastern Union
County. In southern Bradford County, at Brooker, only 85 feet
of the Hawthorn was penetrated by well 953-220-2, but in south-
eastern Bradford County 160 feet of Hawthorn was penetrated by
test well 952-204-1. At Starke and in most of central Bradford
County the formation is about 200 feet thick, but close to New
River and in the northern part of Bradford County it is 225 to
250 feet thick. In Clay County along the lines of sections A-A',.
B-B', and E-E' (fig. 5, 6, 9), the thickness ranges from 80 feet at
well 943-202-3 in the extreme southwestern part of Clay County
to 235 feet at well 958-159-1 near Kingsley Lake in west-central
Clay County. In southwestern Clay County the Hawthorn, as
shown by cuttings from scattered wells, has a maximum thickness
of about 160 feet. Drillers logs show that the formation is as
much as 250 feet thick at places in central snd northeastern Clay
County.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35


The relatively thick and impermeable Hawthorn sediments are
the principal confining beds that confine water under artesian
pressure in the Floridan aquifer.
The Hawthorn Formation is exposed in open sinks such as the
Devil's Mill Hopper near Gainesville in Alachua County and Brooks
Sink near Brooker in Bradford County. In the Devil's Mill Hopper
at least 115 feet of Hawthorn sediments are exposed (Cooke and
Mossom 1929, p. 129).
Beds of late Miocene age that crop out along the north and
south forks of Black Creek in north-central Clay County (fig. 4)
are referred to as the Choctawhatchee Formation in this report.
The outcrop of the Choctawhatchee is covered in most places by
a thin mantle of sediment of Pleistocene and Recent age. The
Choctawhatchee, which overlies the Hawthorn Formation, dips
beneath younger beds away from its outcrop. It is apparently con-
tinuous in the subsurface in most of Bradford County except for
that part generally west and southwest of Starke and Hampton,
most of Union County except south and west of test well 001-224-1,
most, if not all, of Clay County, and a part of eastern Alachua
County.
The Choctawhatchee Formation consists mostly of yellow and
cream-colored, soft, fossiliferous clay and partly indurated marl.
Thin beds of sand and thin beds of limestone are interlayered with
the clay and marl, and grains and pebbles of phosphate and silica
are disseminated in the beds. Owing to the abundant shell (mol-
lusks) content in some areas the name "shell marl" has been
-applied to the Choctawhatchee Formation. Drill cuttings examined
from representative wells show that in most areas in the four
counties the shells are few in number and are only poorly preserved
fragments, molds, or casts. However, the cuttings from some wells
in eastern Clay County, show concentrations of well-preserved
shells. The Choctawhatchee generally is 10 to 30 feet thick in the
four counties. However, along geologic section A-A' (fig. 5) the
formation is as much as 40 feet thick in east-central Bradford
County and central Clay County.

MIOCENE TO PLEISTOCENE (?) SERIES

The Alachua Formation of Miocene to Pleistocene age is exposed
Sin southwestern Alachua County where it forms low rolling sand-
hills over the eroded crest of the Ocala uplift (fig. 4). The
formation consists, in part if not entirely, of terrestrial deposits,
which in some places contain land-vertebrate fossils of various







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


types. The Alachua, whose surface is covered in most places by a
veneer of loose sands that presumably are older Pleistocene (?)
terrace deposits, lies on the highly eroded surface of the Ocala
Group.
Sand is one of the principal components of the formation and,
where the Alachua sediments are exposed in quarries, the sand is
generally in the upper part of the formation. The sand is white,
gray or buff except where it has been exposed and has weathered
to various shades of red. Interbedded with and commonly under-
lying the sands are varicolored clays, sandy clays, clayey sands,
and disseminated grains and pebbles of phosphate. Clays and
associated vertebrate fossils of the Alachua have accumulated in
many of the sinks and depressions in the underlying limestone.
Siliceous limestone and flint and phosphate boulders are scattered
throughout the formation. Boulders and plates of hard rock
phosphate in the Alachua Formation have been quarried extensively
in southwestern Alachua County. The Alachua Formation ranges
in thickness from 25 to 35 feet as indicated by well logs and quarry
exposures.
PLEISTOCENE SERIES
Clastic sediments in Clay and Bradford counties that in most
geologic references are placed in the Citronelle Formation of
Pliocene age have recently been tentatively reclassified by the
Florida Geological Survey. Puri and Vernon (1959, p. 128-129)
of the Florida Geological Survey have referred to these sediments
as "Unnamed coarse plastics" and have assigned them to the
Pleistocene Series pending further studies by the Florida Geological
Survey. These studies are expected to provide a formational name
for these beds and to establish their exact stratigraphic position.
The tentative nomenclature and age assigned to these beds by the
Florida Geological Survey are followed in this report.
The unnamed coarse plastics are exposed in southwestern Clay
and southeastern Bradford counties (fig. 4). Nearly all the out-
crop of the formation is covered by a veneer of sands of older
Pleistocene terrace deposits. The veneer ranges in thickness from
0 to 15 feet except north of the 29050' parallel where locally it may
be thicker. At the edge of the outcrop, the unnamed coarse plastics
terminate abruptly or thin to extinction beneath the younger
formations within a short distance. The outcrop of the deposits is
in hills and lakes except where the overlying veneer of older Pleis-
tocene terrace deposits is gently rolling. The unnamed coarse
plastics overlie the Choctawhatchee Formation.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35


The unnamed coarse plastics are a nonfossiliferous deltaic
deposit that is composed mostly of varicolored sand and clayey sand
that contains quartz gravels locally. Clay or kaolin that acts as a
binder is disseminated in the sands or is in thin beds. In the
vicinity of Brooklyn Lake, test wells penetrated as much as 16 feet
of red and yellow sandy clay in the upper part of the formation
overlying the varicolored sand and clayey sand. In most of the
outcrop north of Brooklyn Lake the red and yellow sediments seem
to be absent and in other parts of the outcrop the sediments, where
present, are chiefly clayey sands. The unnamed coarse plastics are
estimated to have maximum thickness of 90 feet where the deposit
underlies the higher parts of Trail Ridge, but elsewhere in its
outcrop the thickness probably does not exceed 70 feet. In south-
western Clay County, the formation ranged in thickness from 22
feet at test well 945-201-2 to 67 feet at test well 948-202-4. Out-
side of the outcrop of the unnamed coarse plastics (fig. 4) the
maximum thickness of the formation penetrated was 46 feet at
test well 943-202-3.
Several higher terraces, which are marine sediments that were
deposited during the early interglacial stages of the Pleistocene
Epoch, compose the older Pleistocene terrace deposits of this report.
Cooke (1945, p. 273-281) defined these higher terraces as "Early
Pleistocene Deposits" but Puri and Vernon (1959, p. 239-240)
include the higher terraces with several lower (younger) terraces
in the Pleistocene and Recent Series. No attempt was made to
separate the higher (early) Pleistocene deposits (terraces) that
are described by Cooke. The older Pleistocene terrace deposits are
exposed in central and eastern Alachua County and also crop out
in most of Bradford and Union counties and in western Clay
County (fig. 4). The deposits overlie the Hawthorn and Chocta-
whatchee Formations and the unnamed coarse plastics. Older
Pleistocene terrace deposits, consisting mostly of loose tan, yellow,
and gray sands that range in thickness up to 15 feet, cover the older
formations (except the Choctawhatchee Formation) as shown in
figure 4, but the loose sands were not mapped.
The older Pleistocene terrace-deposits may be divided into two
lithologic units-one predominantly sand and one predominantly
clay. The predominantly sand unit generally grades downward into
clayey sands and is the predominant material in the nearly enclosed
outcrop in central and southeastern Alachua County and eastern
Bradford and western Clay counties. These sands are usually dark
gray, brown, or black due to organic matter and iron-bearing
compounds, but they may be tan, yellow, or various shades of gray







26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

where they have been exposed. At a few places in the vicinity of
Gainesville the loose tan, yellow, and gray sands compose the
entire deposit but north of Gainesville these loose sands generally
are in the upper few feet of the beds above the darker colored
clayey sands. In Alachua County the composite thickness of these
beds ranges from about 20 to 45 feet. In eastern Bradford and
western Clay counties, the sands are 80 to 100 feet thick except
beneath the higher land surfaces where the maximum thickness is
about 140 feet.
The predominantly clay unit consists of mottled red, yellow, and
gray clay and sandy clay, which is exposed in many places in
Alachua, Bradford, and Union counties. It is in the upper part of
a sequence of beds that is different from those already described
and was the basis for mapping the older Pleistocene terrace deposits
in other parts of the outcrop that are not described above. These
mottled beds are mostly clay and sandy clay that range in thickness
from about 5 to 12 feet. They overlie tan, cream-colored, and pink
sands and clayey sands that contain layers of sandy clay and are
covered by a veneer of loose tan, yellow, gray, and white sand,
which is from 1 to 5 feet thick. The thickness of the composite
of these sediments is generally 40 feet or less but the beds are as
much as 50 feet thick in places. The sequence of beds, which
includes the mottled red, yellow, and gray sediments, is inter-
spersed with the predominant sand lithology in the outcrop in
central Alachua County, but in no particular pattern.
Puri and Vernon (1959, p. 128) have included a part of the
older Pleistocene terrace deposits-that is, exposures at the
Gainesville airport of mottled sandy clay and clayey sand-under a
description of the unnamed coarse clastics. Studies currently
(1961) being made by the Florida Geological Survey are expected
to define more accurately the stratigraphic position and relationship
of the sediments included here as the older Pleistocene terrace
deposits and of the Pleistocene deposits in Florida.

PLEISTOCENE AND RECENT SERIES

Several lower terraces formed during the later interglacial
stages of the Pleistocene Epoch are the younger marine and
estuarine terrace deposits of Pleistocene and Recent age. The
several lower terraces in Clay County named and referred to by
Cooke (1945, p. 281-311) as "Late Pleistocene deposits" are
undifferentiated in this report. The Pleistocene and Recent deposits







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


are exposed over parts of western and all of eastern Clay County
as a series of terraces or plains that drop successively lower east-
ward to the St. Johns River (fig. 4). These deposits overlie the
Choctawhatchee Formation and unnamed coarse clastics and over-
lap the older Pleistocene terrace deposits along their contact in
western Clay County. Sediments of Pleistocene and Recent age
that blanket the outcrop of the Choctawhatchee Formation to
depths ranging up to about 15 feet were not mapped.
The Pleistocene and Recent deposits are composed chiefly of
sands and clayey sands that probably contain many layers of clay,
marl, and sandy clay. The sands, clays, and marls are generally
dark gray, brown or black because of ferruginous minerals, dis-
seminated organic matter, and layers of peat and muck. Beds of
shell and shell marl that lie above the Choctawhatchee Formation
at some places in Clay County are tentatively included as part of
the Pleistocene and Recent deposits because of their stratigraphic
position. Drill cuttings from s6me wells in the vicinity of Green
Cove Springs in eastern Clay County indicate a concentration of
shells at places in this area; but in drill cuttings from wells at
Orange Park and from test well 952-147-2 south of Penney Farms,
the shells are intermixed with clayey materials as a shell marl.
The Pleistocene and Recent deposits average about 60 feet in
thickness, but the deposits are as much as 80 feet in thickness in
areas of high elevation.


STRUCTURE

The principal geologic structure of the area is the Ocala uplift,
an anticlinal fold or arch whose crest transverses southwestern
Alachua County. The folding has arched beds of Tertiary age and
has brought limestones of the Ocala Group to the surface or close
to the surface along the crest and flank of the uplift. The main
axis of the uplift lies several miles west of Alachua County and, in
general, parallels the north-south axis of the Florida Peninsula.
Geologic sections A-A', B-B', C-C', D-D', and E-E' (fig. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)
extend across parts of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties
in directions generally parallel or perpendicular to the axis of the
uplift. A structure contour map (fig. 4), which may be used to
determine the approximate depth to the top of the Ocala Group,
shows the configuration and elevation of the top of the Ocala Group.
The eroded and flattened crest of the Ocala uplift lies west of the
+40-foot contour (fig. 4) in southwestern Alachua County.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The regional dip of the Tertiary beds on the flank of the uplift
is east-northeast and averages about 6 feet per mile. Locally, how-
ever, the dip may be greater on the flanks or limbs of smaller or
lesser folds on the flank of the uplift or along zones of faulting. At
some places the dip of the strata decreases to form structural
terraces, and where the terraces have a local dip the structure is
a monocline (fig. 5).
The contour map and the geologic sections show several lesser
folds on the flank of the uplift that were formed probably by the
same structural forces that caused the Ocala uplift. The most
prominent of these lesser folds is one whose crest is in north-
eastern Alachua County in a triangle defined by Waldo, Melrose, and
Hawthorn. The configuration of the surface of the limestone
indicates that the structure is a double plunging fold that plunges
to the northwest and southeast. Such buried folds or structural
"highs" often have topographic expression at a land surface,
forming a hill or region of relatively great relief. This fold, whose
crest is at an elevation of at least 50 feet above msl, passes west
and southwest for a distance of about 5 miles into a downwarp or
basin-like structure whose trough is more than 130 feet lower.
The northeastern flank of the fold passes into the downwarp or
similar proportions in southwestern Clay County but the structure
here is made more complicated by other factors.
In the lake region of southwestern Clay County, as in other
parts of the four counties, the structural forces that caused the
folding doubtless also brought about some faulting or fracturing
of the rocks. In southwestern Clay County the relatively great
variation in the elevation of the top of limestones of the Ocala
Group within short distances (fig. 4) is attributed in part to a
slumping of the beds due to solution. The structure may also be
interpreted as representing small, tight folds with steeply dipping
limbs or the displacement of beds by faulting or fracturing.


CLIMATE

TEMPERATURE

According to the records of the U. S. Weather Bureau, the
average temperature at Gainesville is 70'F. Figure 10 shows, for
the 49-year period 1912-60, the average of the monthly mean
temperatures, the highest monthly mean temperature, and the
lowest monthly mean temperature. The graph also shows the







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35


201
Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
Figure 10. Monthly mean temperatures, 1912-60, at Gainesville, Florida.

average of the daily maximum and the average of the daily
minimum temperature for each month in 1960.
The average of the monthly mean temperatures ranged from
58.60F in December to 81.30F in August. The winter temperatures
are more erratic than the summer temperatures. In other words,
in the winter the area has periods of balmy weather followed by
short periods of freezing temperature.
The difference between the average of the daily maximum and
average of the daily minimum temperature in 1960 ranged from
20 to 280F. Only rarely does the temperature reach 1000F and
only occasionally does it drop into the teens. In fact, 280 frost-
free days can be expected annually.







30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

RAINFALL

Rainfall in the area is quite varied in both annual amounts and
seasonal distribution. Figure 11 shows the variations in yearly
amounts, the monthly minimums, the monthly averages, and the
monthly maximums at Gainesville for the period 1900-60. The
total annual rainfall at Gainesville for the period 1900-60 ranged
from 32.79 to 73.30 inches. In an average year the dry season is
from late October through May, the driest month being November.
Monthly total rainfall varied from none in March to 19.9 inches in
September. On the average the area receives over half of its annual
rainfall during the 4-month period June through September.


RflTUiSTnn
I- ~c~


22

j11


20
-- 1

"- --_ .


Figure 11. Rainfall at Gainesville, Fla. for the period 1900-60.

An outstanding feature of the rainfall regime is the rather
abrupt start of the rainy season; the average rainfall of June is
about double that of May. The rainy season at times extends into
October, but the latter part of October is usually dry.
The area's rainfall occurs as two general types (1) summer
rainfall which is mostly shower and thundershower activity; and
(2) winter and early spring rainfall which is more the widespread
general type associated with frontal activity. Most of the rain in
the summer is in the form of local showers and thundershowers.
It is not uncommon for 100 thundershowers per year to occur in
the area. Although these thundershowers are usually of short
duration, relatively large amounts of rain fall. Rainfalls in excess
of 6 inches have been observed during a 6-hour period.
Because most of the summer showers are local, large differences
in monthly and annual totals occur during the same periods at


-r
K


fi

~I1


1


v







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


different points in the area. To a large extent, however, these
differences are minimized when a comparison of long-term averages
is made; the maximum difference in the long-term average at
three stations-Raiford, Federal Point, and Gainesville-is less than
3 inches. The average annual rainfall in the area is 52.0 inches.
Extreme variations in annual rainfall totals can occur in con-
secutive years-the year 1953 ranks among the wettest since 1900,
while 1954 ranks among the driest of record. (Dry periods are
defined as those having below average rainfall and wet periods
as those having above average rainfall.) Periods of several wet
years or several dry years also can occur in succession. The period
of 1944-49 is the wettest of record in the area, and 1954-56 is the
driest. Table 2 shows the total departure from average rainfall
for several periods of extreme rainfall conditions at Gainesville.


TABLE 2. Departure from Average Rainfall, in Inches, At Gainesville, Florida.

Period Dry periods Wet periods

1906-11 (6 years) -44.01
1914-18 (5 years) -33.72
1928-30 (3 years) +18.24
1931-34 (4 years) -25.20
1944-49 (6 years) +45.87
1954-56 (3 years) -22.66



SURFACE WATER

Surface water is defined as water that can be seen on the surface
of the ground, such as that in lakes, streams, canals, springs and
that stored temporarily in other land depressions. In many in-
stances surface water and ground water are closely related. Many
surface-water bodies receive large quantities of water from the
ground; fdr example, springs have direct connections with ground-
water reservoirs. Streams and lakes can either gain or lose water
by way of the ground. The relation of surface water and ground
water is sometimes intricate. A lake can gain water from the
water-table aquifer at certain stages and lose water to the water-
table aquifer at other stages; or, gain water from the water-table
aquifer and at the same time lose water directly to the deeper
ground-water aquifer, if a lake bottom is penetrated by a sinkhole.












TAiLa 3, Location Of Gaging Stations, Types of Surface Water Data Collected
Ani Periods of Records,


Name and location


Site
No,

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
18


Drainage
area
(sq. ml.)


Ates Creek near Penney Farms, Fla.
Blue Pond near Keystone Heights, Fla.
Brooklyn Lake at Keystone Heights, Fla.
Brooklyn Lake outlet at Keystone Heights, Flu.
Bull Creek near Middleburg, Fla.
Butler Creek near Lake Butler, Fla.
Camps Canal near Rochelle, Fla.
Clarkes Creek near Green Cove Springs, Fla,
Cross Creek near Island Grove, Fla.
Deep Creek near Rodman, Fla,
Etonia Creek near Florahome, Fla.
Glen Springs near Gainesville, Fla.
Governors Creek at State Road 16 near Green Cove
Springs, Fla.
Green Cove Springs at Green Cove Springs, Fla.
Greens Creek near Penney Farms, Fla.
Hatchet Creek near Gainesville, Fla.
Heilbronn Springs 6 mi, N.W. of Starke, Fla.
Hogtown Creek npar Gainesville, Fla.
Kingsley Lake at Camp Blanding, Fla.
Lake Butler at Lake Butler, Fla.
Lake Geneva at Keystone Heights, Fla.


Type and period of record


40.8
.81
1.00
17.4
20.4
8
115
8.8


54.3
172



10.5


14.0
57


15.6
* 2.54
* .4

* 2.73


Periodic discharge, crest stages, 1057-00
Depth, stage, 1058.00
Depth, stage, 1057-00
Occasional discharge, 1050-00
Occasional discharge, crest stages, 1057-00
Occasional discharge, crest stages, 1957-00
Periodic discharge, 1048-52; daily stage and discharge, 1957-60
Occasional discharge, crest stages, 1057-60
Occasional discharge, 1042-47
Occasional discharge, crest stage, 1056-00
Daily stage and discharge, 1940-61
Occasional discharge, 1042-60

Occasional discharge, 1050
Occasional discharge, 1020-60
Periodic discharge, peak stags, 1057-60
Occasional discharge, peak stage 1948-60
Occasional discharge, 1946-60
Occasional discharge, peak stage, 1068-60
Depth, stage, 1945, 1947-60
Stage, 1957-60
Depth, stage, 1957-60


C,,


I__ __ I__ __I__ I_ ____ ___I__ -_ll-----IICl----I---


----


--






22
28
24
25
26
27
28
29
80
81
32
88
84
85
86
37
88
39
40
41
42
48
44
45
46
47


Lake Grandin near Interlachen, Fla.,
Lake Johnson near Keystone Heights, Fla.
Lake Sampson near Starke, Fla.
Little Hatchet Creek near Gainesville, FlA.
Little Orange Creek near Orange Springs,, Fla.
Loch Lommond near Keystone Heights, Fla.
'Lochloosa Creek at Grove Park, Fla.
Lochloosa Creek near Hawthorne, Fla.
Lochloosa Lake at Lochloosa, Fla.
Lochloosa Lake Outlet near Lochloosa, Fla.
Magnesia Springs near Hawthorne, Fla.
Magnolia Lake near Keystone Heights, Fla.
Magnolia Lake Outlet near Keystone Heights, Fla.
Newnans Lake near Gainesville, Fla.
New River near Lake Butler, Fla.
New River near Raiford, Fla.
North Fork Black Creek above Boggy Branch
North Fork Black Creek near Highlands, Fla.
North Fork Black Creek near Middleburg, Fla.
North Fork Black Creek at State Road 16, Fla.
Olustee Creek at Providence, Fla.
Orange Creek at Orange Springs, Fla.
Orange Lake at Orange Lake, Fla.
Orange Lake Outlet near Citra, Fla.
Ortega Creek near Jacksonville, Fla.
Pebble Lake near Keystone Heights, Fla.


* .55
S.74
* 3.24
10.9
78.9


84.7
48.8
*10.3




* .81
14.8
* 8.2
212
98.8
84.1
48.9
174
9.7
150
481
*25.7


27.8
* .01


Stage, 1957-60
Stage, 1945-60
Stage, 1957-60
Occasional discharge, 1947, 1956
Periodic discharge, 1947-52; occasional discharge, 1956
Depth, stage, 1959-60
Occasional discharge, 1947, 1956 ; periodic discharge, 1957-60
Periodic discharge, 1947-52
Stage, 1942-52, 1956-60
Daily stage and discharge, 1946-55
Occasional discharge, 1941-60
Depth, stage, 1958-60
Occasional discharge, 1956-60
Stage, 1945-52, 1957-60
Daily stage and discharge, 1950-60
Occasional discharge, 1957-60
Occasional discharge, 1958-60
Daily stage and discharge, 1957-60
Daily stage and discharge, 1981-60
Occasional discharge, 1956
Daily stage and discharge, 1957-60
Daily stage and discharge, 1942-52, 1955-60
Stage, 1945-60
Daily stage and discharge, 1946-55
Occasional discharge, 1956-60
Stage, 1945-50, 1952-58, 1954-60


I


n








O
*







CTI









CO
-I0
.0
z,


- ,'-----------~









TABI(E U,

White
No,

48
40
50
61
62
56
54
55
66
56
57
58
59
60

61
62
68
64
66
66
67
68
69
70


(C'ONTINUYl)),


Nuane aid location

Poe Springs near High Springs, 'la.
Prairie Creek at State Road 20 near (lainesvlle, i'lu.
River Styx near Micnopy, Flu,
Sampson River at Sanpson, Fla.
Sand Hill Lake near Keystone Helhts, Fla.
Santa Fe Lake near Keystone Heights, Fli.
Santa Fe River near Fort White, Fla.
Santa Fe River near Graham, Fla.
Santa Fe River near High Springs, Fla.
Santa Fe River at O'leno State Park, Fla.
Santa Fe River at State Road 238 at Brooker, Fla.
Santa Fe River at State Road 241 near Worthington,
Santa Fe River at U. S. Highway 301 near
Hampton, Fla.
Santa Fe River at Worthington, Fla,
South Fork Black Creek near Camp Blanding, Fla.
South Fork Black Creek near Penney Farms, Fla.
Swift Creek near Lake Butler, Fla.
Wadesboro Spring near Orange Park, Fla.
Water Oak Creek near Starke, Fla.
Whitmore Lake at Camp Blanding, Fla.
Worthington Springs at Worthington, Fla.
Yellow Water Creek at Duval-Clay Line, Fla.
Yellow Water Creek near Maxville, Fla.


I)rafiIaige
area
(sq. ill,)



Ill


(17,8
1.06
8.05
1,080
135
950


245
Fla. 670

115
680
34.8
184
27


20.7




61,2
25.7


*Area of lake surface


'Typue audl perlild of record

Occasional discharge, 1020U-10
Occuslonal discharge, 1047, 1948, 16(1
Occasional discharge, 1156(-65
Occasional discharge, 1057-(10
Depth, stage, 1957-60
Stage, 1057-60
Dally stage and discharge, 1027-20, 1032-00
Daily stage and discharge, 1057-60
Dally stage and discharge, 1931-00
Occasional discharge, 1061
Occasional discharge, 1066
Occasional discharge, 1066

Occasional discharge, 1956
Daily stage and discharge, 1981-60
Daily stage and discharge, 1957-60
Dally stage and discharge, 1930-60
Daily stage and discharge, 1957-60
Occasional discharge, 1946-60
Occasional discharge, 1957-60
Depth, 1960
Occasional discharge, 1946-60
Occasional discharge, 1956
Periodic discharge, crest stages, 1957-60







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


The extent to which this relationship affects a surface-water body
depends on the rate of exchange. Each body of water has individual
behavior characteristics. Rainfall is the only factor common to
all water bodies that contributes to these characteristics.
Most surface-water problems can be attributed to the uneven
distribution of rainfall. Floods and droughts occur in unpredictable
cycles that follow very closely periods of high and low rainfall.
At present (1961) there is no practical method of modifying or
controlling rainfall. Therefore, problems associated with floods
and droughts have to be dealt with by a system of lake and stream
controls.
Three useful figures expressing streamflow are: figures of
average flow, minimum flow, and maximum flow. The average flow
of a stream is an indication of its normal flow and also serves as
a guide in determining the quantity of water that is available over
a long period of time from a system having dams and storage
reservoirs.
Minimum flow is the limiting factor in the ultimate use of a
stream not having dams and storage reservoirs. Information on
maximum flows is important not only in planning the use of a
stream but also in determining the use of land adjoining the flood
plain and in the design of river appurtenances such as bridges.
Magnitudes, durations, and frequencies of low flows and high flows
are useful in planning the full use of a stream. If a damaging
flood or drought is of short duration and occurs at infrequent in-
tervals, it might be economically feasible to withstand the resultant
damage.
Data collected at a stream-gaging station or sampling site are
for a point on the stream and represent a composite of conditions
in the basin above that point. Data at any other point can be
estimated on the basis of station records. Table 3 gives the loca-
tions of gaging stations and types of surface-water data collected
within the four counties. Topography and geology are also im-
portant factors governing the behavior of a water body. By
applying hydrologic principles to these types of data, characteris-
tics of the water resources of an area can be determined. This
section of the report will answer many questions of this nature
on the surface-water resources of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and
Union counties.
The average streamflow from the four counties is approximately
1,150 mgd, excluding the flow of the St. Johns River. The average
streamflow from Union and Bradford counties and the northern
half of Alachua County which leaves the area by way of the Santa








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Fe River is about 710 mgd. On the average, about 97 mgd flow
from southeastern Alachua County through Orange Creek. The
average flow from Clay County is about 342 mgd through Black
Creek and small streams draining into St. Johns River from the
eastern edge of the county. The flow chart in figure 12 shows the
average flow of major streams in the area. Average yearly stream-
flows have been as little as one-third the average flows for the
periods of record and as much as 21/2 times the average flows for
the pEridds of record.
The St. Johns River is the largest source of surface water with-
in the four counties. It flows north along the eastern boundary
of Clay County and drains about 7,000 square miles upstream from
Green Cove Springs. At that point its average flow is about 4,500
mgd. The river is large enough to harbor a Navy base at Green
Cove Springs.
The average runoff from the area is about 12 inches per year,
which is less than one-fourth the average rainfall. The average
yearly rainfall is 52 inches. The portion of rainfall not accounted


Figure 12. Flow chart showing average flow of streams in Alachua, Bradford,
Clay, and Union counties, Florida.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


for as surface runoff is taken up by evaporation, transpiration, and
ground-water outflow.
An area of about 300 square miles in southwestern Alachua
County has no surface outflow. The few small streams in that
area terminate in sinkholes. Most of the rainfall on that area
leaves as underground flow.
There are more than 50 lakes in the four counties that exceed
0.02 square mile in size, the largest of which is 25.7 square miles
in size. The combined surface area of all these lakes is about
90 square miles or more than 4 percent of the total land area.
These lakes range in elevation from 57 feet above sea level for
the lowest to 176 feet above sea level for the highest. The ranges
of fluctuation in stage of these lakes are quite varied. Some of
the lakes have only minor seasonal fluctuations in stage, as little
as 3.5 feet, and others have varied in stage as much as 32 feet.
The greatest known lake depth is 85 feet.



ST. JOHNS RIVER

The St. Johns River flows northward 250 miles from its origin
in Indian River County to Jacksonville, then eastward for 25 miles
to the Atlantic. It is the largest and longest river wholly
within the state, and it is the third largest in the state in terms of
average flow. Its drainage area is 8,000 square miles.
The slope of the river is exceedingly mild. The maximum fall
during floods is only 27 feet throughout the total length of 275
miles. The river flow is affected by ocean tides as far upstream as
Lake George, 120 miles from the mouth, and even farther during
periods of low river stages and high tides. The normal tide range
at Jacksonville is about 2.0 feet and is only slightly less at Green
Cove Springs in Clay County, 50 miles from the mouth of the
river.
The St. Johns River forms the eastern boundary of Clay County.
The river in this vicinity is the collecting channel for all surface
flow from Clay County and is from 1 to 3 miles wide.
The flow of the St. Johns River at Green Cove Springs is
estimated to be 4,500 mgd. At DeLand, 85 miles farther upstream,
the average flow is 2,000 mgd. Although not a common occurrence,
a reverse flow-that is, flow in an upstream direction-at the rate
of 1,000 mgd has been measured at DeLand. The flow at Jackson-
ville reverses direction with each change of tide.








38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

BLACK CREEK BASIN

Black Creek, a tributary to the St. Johns River, has a drainage
area of 474 square miles. About 400 of the 598 square miles com-
posing Clay County are drained by Black Creek. The only major
part of the basin lying outside the county is the upper 74 square
miles of Yellow Water Creek, a tributary from the north. The
basin is about 16 miles wide and 30 miles long, the long axis lying
in a north-south direction. The basin is outlined in figure 13. The


r


BLACK CREEK BASIN


70
i Tl

i' 0 L CO


): T I
V46




"1- MIDDLEBURG





-) PENNEY
S *FA' <'RMS

L,- ;'-e (TN6



N"
N ," r
33


Figure 13. Drainage map of the Black Creek basin showing data-collection
sites.


,115 Lotion of data-colletion itles; number
raters t. S.i number. table 3







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35


two major tributaries in the basin, South Fork Black Creek and
North Fork Black Creek, join at the town of Middleburg to form
Black Creek. The stream then flows eastward and enters the St.
Johns River about 3 miles north of Green Cove Springs.
South Fork Black Creek heads in three small lakes in the Camp
Blanding Military Reservation which are Stevens Lake, Whitmore
Lake, and Varnes Lake. The major tributaries to the South Fork
are Ates Creek, Greens Creek, and Bull Creek.
North Fork Black Creek heads in Kingsley Lake, flows north-
ward for about 14 miles where it turns sharply to the southeast.
The larger tributaries enter from the west and north; the major
tributary is Yellow Water Creek that heads in a high, swampy
section of Duval County to the north.
The topography of the basin is hilly with the highest elevation
about 250 feet above msl near Kingsley Lake on the western
drainage divide and the lowest is less than 5 feet above msl at
the St. Johns River. Stream channels have slopes of from 5 to
30 feet per mile except in the lower reaches where the elevations
are near sea level. Figure 14 shows channel-bottom profiles of
streams in the Black Creek basin. Runoff within the basin varies
from area to area. Topography and geology cause these variations.
The average rainfall is equal for all areas within the basin.
Average runoff in inches per year from areas within the basin is
given in figure 15. Some of these figures were computed from
short-term records and can be used only as a guide for computing
runoff from ungaged areas. Runoff in inches is defined as the
depth to which an area would be covered if all the water draining
from it were distributed evenly over its surface. The term is used
for comparing runoff to rainfall. On the average, the basin re-
seives 52 inches of rainfall per year. A plot of the annual rainfall
at Glen St. Marys against the annual runoff for North Fork Black
Creek at Middleburg is shown in figure 16. This plot is only an
indication of the rainfall-runoff relation. Much of the scattering
of points in this illutration is caused by variations in the amount
of antecedent rainfall conditions and by uneven geographic dis-
tribution of rainfall. More runoff will result from a rain that falls
on an area that is wet from a previous rain than from one that is
not.
There are two areas within the basin that have extremely low
runoff, the headwaters of Yellow Water Creek and the headwaters
of North Fork Black Creek. Yellow Water Creek heads a high,
flat, swampy area. Rainon that area stands on the ground surface
for long periods and evaporation, transpiration, and seepage take






















































Vot CIe 6 i i e 0, m. i .lC. 0 ,i& d.S M M* h .t-I I I I I1 I
10 It 14 I IS tO t2 24 So tS 30 33 34 36 38 40 41 44 46 48
CHANNEL DISTANCE PROM MOUTH, IN MILES

Figure 14. Channel-bottom profiles of streams in the Black Creek basin.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35


Figure 15. Average runoff in inches per year from areas within the Black
Creek basin.
a heavy toll of water, which accounts for the low runoff of only
5 inches per year.
The headwater area of North Fork Black Creek, from which
the runoff is 7 inches per year as shown in figure 16, covers 9.7
square miles. About one-fourth (2.54 sq. mi.) of the area is
occupied by Kingsley Lake. A large part of the potential runoff
from this area evaporates from the lake surface.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


90


80


60


j5O --- r --
50

-U
z


40


z
Z


30
0 10 20
ANNUAL RUNOFF, IN
(NORTH FORK BLACK CREEK


40


INCHES
AT MIDDLEBURG)


Figure 16. Rainfall-runoff relation.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


Runoff from the South Fork is slightly higher than that from
the North Fork except during extremely wet years. The average
runoff from the South Fork is about 16.0 inches per year and from
the North Fork, about 13.7 inches per year. In 1955, the driest
year since records began in 1932, runoff from South Fork was 5.4
inches and from North Fork, 3.9 inches. In 1948, an extremely
wet year, the South Fork runoff was 30.6 inches and the North
Fork runoff was 34.4 inches.
Yearly average runoff from the entire basin has varied from
4.6 inches in 1955 to 33 inches in 1948. The average runoff from
the basin is estimated to be 14.8 inches per year, which is 28 per-
cent of the average rainfall of 52 inches. The remaining 37.2
inches of rainfall is taken up by evaporation, transpiration, and
seepage.
The average flow from the basin is 515 cfs (cubic feet per
second) (333 mgd), which is equivalent to 1.08 cfs per square
mile of drainage area. The South Fork contributes 225 cfs, or
1.17 cfs per square mile, and the North Fork contributes 200 cfs,
or 1.01 cfs per square mile. An average flow of about 90 cfs is
contributed by small tributaries below the confluence of North
Fork and South Fork.
Flow-duration curves for four stations in the Black Creek
basin are shown in figure 17. These curves were developed using
periods of records for the Penney Farms, Highland, and Camp
Blanding stations, which were extended to cover the period of the
Middleburg record, 1932-60. The flow-duration curves show the
percent of time a specified discharge has been equaled or exceeded
during the period of record. For example, in figure 18 the mean
daily flow of North Fork Black Creek near Middleburg equaled or
exceeded 6.8 cfs for 99 percent of the time during the period
1932-60 (10,596 days) or, on the average, less than 6.8 cfs
occurred 1 percent of the time, or once in 106 days. The flow-
duration curves do not give any information on the continuous
length of time that a specified discharge occurred.
The curves given in figures 18 and 19 show the discharge avail-
able without storage for the Penney Farms and Middleburg
stations, respectively. The upper curves in these illustrations show
the maximum number of consecutive days and months during
which the discharge was less than a given amount, and the lower
curves show the lowest average discharge for the period indicated.
For example, at the Middleburg station, 10 consecutive days was
the longest period that the discharge was 5.5 cfs or less, and the









44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


o10,000oao
GAGGING STATION
L SOUTH FORK BLACK CREEK
NEAR PENNEY FARMS, FLA.
2. NORTH FORK BLACK CREEK
,a000 NEAR MIDOLEBURG, FLA.
-3. SOUTH FORK BLACK CREEK
NEAR CAMP BLENDING, FLA.
3,000 -- 4. NORTH FORK BLACK CREEK
NEAR HIGHLAND, FLA.






i I '
2,000







,_-- : iV ------








'I ; o
-, *-=






20 1 i I-
,. _________L^l


*-- -- -___






0 C01 0, 02 0. I 2 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 90 95 98 99 9.5 99.9 9.99
PERCENT OF TIME DISCHARGE EQUALED OR EXCEEDED THAT SHOWN

Figure 17. Flow-duration curves for streams in the Black Creek basin.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35


300


,200

too


SO
80

60
. 50
3 An


10t I I I I I lII I I I I I 111111
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 89 12

Consecutive days Consecutive months
Figure 18. Discharge available without storage for South Fork Black Creek
near Penney Farms, Florida (1939-60).

200
too I I I 1 1 1 1 I I I 1



100
80

8 60

40 Maximum period
L40 of deficient flow



S20



10
S8-
S6C -


21 I I 1 1111 I I I I I 1 I111111
.1 2 3 4 6 8 10 20, 1 2 3 4 6 9 12,

Consecutive days Consecutive months
Figure 19. Discharge available without storage for North Fork Black Creek
near Middleburg, Florida (1932-60).







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


lowest average discharge for a 10-day period was 4.6 cfs. These
curves can be used advantageously for determining the adequacy
of a stream for a use when a continuous flow is required.
The seasonal variation of streamflow in the Black Creek basin
follows the variation of rainfall. High streamflow occurs sporadic-
ally in the summer months, June through August, as a result
of heavy, local thundershowers. More general rainfall, lasting for
longer periods, occur in September and October and is accom-
panied by high streamflow.
Although there has been some flood damage in the basin, there
is no record of any extremely-destructive floods. However, flood
damage in the past has been light because the land adjacent to
streams was sparsely settled and not because of an absence of
floods. Figure 20 shows four flood hydrographs for floods caused
by heavy rains on May 20 and 21, 1959. The relative magnitude
of floods will vary from area to area within the basin during a



S-1t1 Fort Blaokl C.
\ j MO P w" y Fa, ms, Fla











S\ H o foos Fd---- ok 1 oc--- Cek











Cr so.ek I Fa- UK t i ntl 2t sW p
Figure 20. Hydrographs of floods during May 20-25, 1959, in the Black



Creek basin.
20 2; 22 23 24 25
Figure 20. Hydrographs of floods during May 20-25, 1959, in the Black
Creek basin.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


heavy rainstorm. The flood in May 1959 inundated several
county bridges and washed out road embankments along the South
Fork Black Creek where the flooding was most severe. From
figure 21, which shows flood-frequency curves adapted from a
report by R. W. Pride (1958), U. S. Geological Survey, a peak
discharge of 2,000 cfs at the gaging station on South Fork Black
Creek near Camp Blanding (drainage area, 34.8 square miles) is
shown to be about a 3-year flood; that is, it will occur on the
average once in 3 years. And, the peak discharge of 1,760 cfs
on North Fork Black Creek near Highland (drainage area, 48.9
square miles) was less than a mean annual flood. A flood of this
magnitude could be expected to occur at the Highland station at a
frequency of less than 1 year.
Data have been collected on two of the four lakes in the basin
(Whitmore Lake and Kingsley Lake). Whitmore Lake was sounded
by a sonic depth recorder on May 11, 1960. From this sounding
the depth-contour map, figure 22, was derived. The maximum
depth found in this lake was 20 feet, with the exception of a small



o 15,000
o_
ii ------------ --_--
U, --- -_ _-- -- --
10,000 -
aL 6,000
8,000

6,000 -'


o 4,000 O
0,000
S3,000


2,000 0--
0 -- 100
U ,



1,000 1
20 30 40 50 60 80 100 200
DRAINAGE AREA, IN SQUARE MILES
Figure 21. Flood-frequency curves for the Black Creek basin.









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


R 23 E.


I'
%o






+--WHITMORE LAKE -
I (Clay County)
o00 0 o00 1000
t I i


1500 feet


14


Dota source: U.S. Geological Survey


R 23E.
Figure 22. Depth contours of Whitmore Lake.


15 Date of survey: May II, 1960
Contour interval: 10 feet


l i l l I I I I







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


176 --------- -_ __------------------------------
0

' 175


0 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
PERCENT OF TIME
Figure 23. Stage-duration curve for Kingsley Lake (1947-60).

hole near the north shore which was made by dredging. Based
on interpretations of the records from the sonic depth recorder
and visual observations of the shoreline, the lake bottom is com-
posed of sand overlain by a layer of silt and organic material.
Stage records have been collected on Kingsley Lake since
1945. The total range in stage since 1945 is 3.5 feet, which is
exceptionally small for a Florida lake. The surface outlet readily
conveys excess flood waters from the lake to North Fork Black
Creek, which prevents extremely high lake stages. The surrounding
shallow ground water readily replenishes the lake, which prevents
extremely low lake stages. The combination of replenishment
and removal of excess accounts for the favorable balance between
gain and loss of water and for the exceptionally small range in
stage. A stage-duration curve for Kingsley Lake is given in
figure 23.
Kingsley Lake, which is 85 feet deep, is possibly the deepest
lake in northern Florida (fig. 24). The lake is circular and the
bottom slopes uniformly from the shoreline at about 1 foot per 50
feet to the depth of 20 feet, then slopes more gradually to a depth
of about 30 feet, beyond which the slope increases to the maximum
depth of 85 feet. The bottom is formed of fine sand, but rock
possibly is exposed in the deepest hole.
The Black Creek basin is well dissected by stream channels
which carry copious quantities of water. Topography and stream-
flow lend themselves well to the construction of small dams and
reservoirs which would be ample for recreation and conservation
which would help to equalize the uneven distribution of streamflow.






50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


08000 W&3 ft fb* NOW OW 16 1 5


17 .o

/


I // I



KINGSLEY LAKE
m Ca l Co laW SN )
Canko me seI 28 1 27
... ... + ,- _- -- -+- -.

II t| nurge: t l iS p01 1 tals rW
R.23E.
Figure 24. Depth contours of Kingsley Lake.

SANTA FE RIVER BASIN

The Santa Fe River basin covers an area of 1,440 square miles.
Flow from the basin reaches the Gulf of Mexico by way of the
Suwannee River. The Santa Fe River starts in Santa Fe Lake and
flows generally westward, picking up flow from the tributaries,
Sampson River, New River, and Olustee Creek, before the river
disappears into a sinkhole at O'Ieno State Park, 5 miles north of
High Springs. The river emerges abruptly from the ground after
being underground for a distance of 3 miles. The entire northern
boundaries of Alachua and Gilchrist counties are formed by the
Santa Fe River. The basin is shown in figure 25.
The hydrology of the basin is very complex. The average run-
off from the basin is about 22 inches per year. However, average
runoff from subareas varies from 6 to 85 inches. Figure 26 shows
the wide variation in runoff. On the average the basin receives
52 inches of rainfall per year. The ratio of runoff to rainfall varies
by areas from about 1/10 to more than 11/2, which is an extreme
variation within an area of 1,440 square miles. Topography and
geology are among the causes of the unusual runoff conditions in
this basin.
Major changes in streamflow characteristics occur in the
vicinity of Oleno State Park. Above this point surface streams are






















I
0
0




0
O
zn
P
01


Figure 25. Drainage map of the Santa Fe River basin showing data-collection sites.








































10 IS MILES


Figure 26. Average runoff in inches per year from areas within the Santa
Fe River basin.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35 53

prevalent throughout Union and Bradford counties and the north-
ern part of Alachua County. The headwater tributaries along the
northern boundaries of Union and Bradford counties (Olustee
Creek, Swift Creek, and New River) are in a flat, swampy area.
There are several lakes in these two counties that are connected to
the system of streams by surface channels.
Below O'leno State Park there is a noticeable absence of surface
streams. The stream channel has been cut into porous limestones.
Sinkholes are prevalent and springs are numerous throughout this
area. From the point where the river emerges from the ground
downstream to the confluence with the Suwannee River, springs
are visible along the channel, usually flowing from circular pools
in the banks of the river. The large pickup in streamflow in this
vicinity comes from springs. The lower half of the basin is covered
with a relatively thin mantle of sands overlying porous limestone.
Rain on this area seeps directly into the ground or is carried by
short surface channels to sinkholes.
Flow characteristics above and below O'leno State Park are
shown by the hydrographs in figure 27. The flow of Santa Fe
River at Worthington is indicative of the hydrologic conditions
above the park and the flow of Santa Fe River near Fort White is
indicative of the hydrologic conditions in the lower basin. The
Worthington station measures flow from the upper 630 square
miles of the basin wherein surface streams receive a high rate of
direct runoff, respond rapidly to rainfall, and recede rapidly to a
low base flow. Streamflow at the Fort White station does not
respond to rainfall as quickly, stays up for longer periods after
rains, and has a much higher base flow. A comparison of extreme






2400 NEARR F WHITE \
1 I aI
i ... .. .. -- \-- r j \
2. 00






OCT. NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR. APR MAY JUNE J LY AUG. SEPT
WATER YEAR 1958
Figure 27. Flow hydrographs for the Santa Fe River.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


flows of the two stations will also point up the difference in stream-
flow characteristics. At the Worthington station the average flow
is 424 cfs, the maximum is 17,500 cfs, and the minimum is 0.5 cfs.
At the Fort White station the average flow is 1,576 cfs, the
maximum is 12,300 cfs, and the minimum is 609 cfs.
An average flow of 650 cfs enters the ground at O'leno State
Park. This flow comes from four streams: 130 cfs, or 20 percent,
from Olustee Creek; 240 cfs, or 37 percent, from New River; 100
cfs, or 15 percent, from Sampson River; and 180 cfs, or 28 percent,
from the main stem and smaller tributaries.
Flow measurements made February 24, 1961, above and below
the subterranean reach of channel showed a pickup in flow of 211
cfs in that 3-mile section; a flow of 574 cfs entered the ground and
785 cfs emerged from the ground. On the same day there was a
pickup in flow of 160 cfs between the lower end of the subterranean
reach and the High Springs gaging station on U. S. Highway 27,
a channel distance of 5.5 miles; and between the High Springs and
Fort White gaging stations, a channel distance of 7 miles, the
pickup was 750 cfs.
Flow-duration curves for seven stations in the Santa Fe River
basin are given in figure 28. Three of these stations, Santa Fe
River near Fort White, near High Springs, and at Worthington,
have records extending as far back as 1932; records for New
River near Lake Butler extend back to 1951; the other stations:
Santa Fe River near Graham, Olustee Creek near Providence, and
Swift Creek near Lake Butler, have only 3 years of records, 1958-
60. For the purpose of developing these flow-duration curves,
records for all the short-term stations were extended to cover
the period 1932-60. Although these flow-duration curves are not
frequency curves, they can be used, with fair reliability, to predict
the percent of time that a given discharge will be equaled or
exceeded in the future.
Lakes within this basin are a major part of the water resources.
There are eight lakes with surface areas of 0.4 square mile (250
acres) or larger. The largest is Santa Fe Lake with a surface area
of 8.05 square miles. Other lakes in the basin are Lake Altho,
Hampton Lake, Lake Sampson, Lake Rowell, Lake Crosby, Lake
Butler, and Swift Creek Pond. All these lakes are tributary lakes.
Records of stage have been collected on Santa Fe Lake, Lake
Sampson, and Lake Butler. Stage hydrographs for these lakes are
shown in figure 29. Lake Altho and Santa Fe Lake are connected
and probably exhibit similar stage characteristics. Lake Rowell,








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


ORAMAC AREA
L SAWA FERIVER WA









3J00 I- IIIYI v
FORT WHITE. FLA. 100
--. ATAF RIVER NEAR
HIGH prONS. FLA. 950
SM FE FINER AT
WORTHINGTON, FLA. 630

---. E RIVER NEAR

SL BU-TLE R, FA 22
-3. SANTA FE IWO NEMAR
GRJU4&% FL. 135~
































10.000t~ P ztzMNE FLA IS
LAKE BUTLER. 2A 27





3POO

zjpoo



A-








\xt


goo




'A X I i























0.,
















0.01 OZ5 02 05 1 2 3 to 20 30 40 50 60 7 80 so 95 o gas 9" 9


S0CHRGE EQUALED OR EXCEEDED THAT SHOWN


SFigure 28. Flow-duration curves for streams in the Santa Fe River basin.


PERCENT OF TM







56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


144


142
i _SAW I I- ITA FE LAXE

9 1959 19604




LAKE SAMPSON
134'

1321
____________ _______LE___UTLERt


I I I I I I I
1957 1958 1 1959 1960
Figure 29. Stage graphs of Santa Fe Lake, Lake Sampson, and Lake Butler.

Lake Crosby, and Lake Sampson are connected and exhibit similar
stage characteristics. Lake Sampson loses water not only through
its surface outlet but also through a drainage well on the western
shore of the lake.
Surface-water supplies within the Santa Fe River basin are
one of the area's major natural resources. -Bradford and Union
counties are well dissected by stream channels that carry copious
quantities of water. The high base flow in the lower reaches of
the basin is unparalled in the State. This is evidenced by the fact
that the area of 130 square miles west of High Springs has a runoff
of 85 inches per year, or more than 11/2 times the average rainfall.

ORANGE CREEK BASIN

The Orange Creek basin covers about 515 square miles situated
in three counties: Alachua, Marion, and 'Putnam. Three large
lakes (Orange Lake, Lochloosa Lake, and Newnans Lake) and
their tributaries and connecting channels form the drainage system
of the upper two-thirds of the basin which lies in Alachua County.
A large part of the streamflow in the upper part of the basin is
relegated to lake storage. The basin is shown in figure 30.
Hatchet Creek, a tributary to Newnans Lake, is the headwaters
of the basin. Flow from Newnans Lake reaches Orange Lake by






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


Figure 30. Di~ainage map of Orange Creek basin showing data-collection
sites.
way of Prairie Creek, Camps Canal, and River Styx. Camps Canal
connects Prairie Creek, the outlet channel from Newnans Lake, and
River Styx, the inflow channel to Orange Lake. Orange Lake and
Lochloosa Lake which are connected by Cross'Creek both have
surface outlets that form Orange Creek, a tributary to the Okla-
waha River. During periods of normal stages, Lochloosa Lake is
from 1/2 to 3/4 foot higher than Orange Lake. The combined drain-
age area of the two lakes above their outlets is 323 square miles.
There have been extended periods of no flow from Orange and






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Lochloosa Lakes. Flow from Lochloosa Lake outlet ceased in May
1954. Flow from Orange Lake outlet ceased in May 1955 when the
lake-surface elevation was about 55.0 feet. The levels of these lakes
remained below the elevations of their outlets until 1957. There
has been flow continuously throughout the period of record (1942-
52; 1955-60) at the gaging station on Orange Creek at Orange
Springs. The minimum flow there was 2.0 cfs for several days in
May and June 1956. Discharge-duration curves for Orange Creek,
Camps Canal, Orange Lake outlet, and Lochloosa Lake outlet are
given in figure 31. The basin slopes from an elevation of 190 feet
above sea level in the headwaters of Lochloosa Creek, a tributary to
Lochloosa Lake, to an elevation of about 30 feet near the mouth of
Orange Creek. Newnans Lake is about 9 feet higher than Orange
Lake and Lochloosa Lake is from /2 to 3/4 foot higher than Orange
Lake. The fall in water surface from Orange Lake to the gaging
station on Orange Creek at Orange Springs is about 30 feet.
Average runoff from all areas within the basin is about 5 inches
per year with exception of Little Orange Creek, a tributary enter-
ing below Orange Springs, from which the average runoff is about
8 inches per year.
Rainfall on the basin averages 52 inches per year. Five inches
runs off as surface flow. The remainder is taken up by evaporation,
transpiration, and seepage. Open lakes surfaces, from which there
is maximum evaporation, cover about 10 percent of the basin. Flat,
swampy areas, with luxuriant growths of vegetation, are numerous.
Rain on these areas runs off very slowly, allowing evaporation and
transpiration to take a heavy toll.
The elevation of the piezometric surface, that is, the pressure
surface of artesian ground water, is higher than ground level in
the northern three-fourths of the basin and lower than ground level
in the southern part of the basin. The presence of flowing springs,
such as Magnesia Springs north of Lochloosa Lake, Glen Springs
at Gainesville, and of several flowing wells along the northeastern
shore of Lochloosa Lake, attest to this fact. However, south of
Orange Lake this condition is reversed. A sinkhole on the south-
west shore of Orange Lake, at the town of Orange Lake, has been
known to take water from the lake for extended periods.
Water leaving Orange Lake through the sinkhole, coupled with
a statewide drought in 1954-57, caused the lake to be reduced from
a normal surface area of 25.7 square miles to one of about 5 square
miles. All lakes in the State were lowered to some extent by this
extreme drought which was the most severe and widespread in
the history of the State. However, Orange Lake was losing water










REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35


2,000




1,000
















too


001 005 0.2 05 1 2 5 to 20 30 40 50 60 TO 80


90 95 98 99 9S5 999 99.99


PERCENT OF TIME DISCHARGE EQUALED OR EXCEEDED THAT SHOWN

Figure 31. Flow-duration curves for streams in the Orange Creek basin.


-ORANGE CREEK AT ORANGE SPRINGS, FLA.
S -, Racord used: Oct. 1942-SepL 1952
SOct. 1955-Spt. 1960








I I I I II
CAMPS CANAL NEAR ROCHELLE, FLA.
ecord used: COt. 1957-spI. 1960
































LOHLOOSA LAKE OUTLET ORANGE LAKE OUTLET
NEAR LOCHLOOSA, FLA. AT ORANGE LAKE, FLA.
Record used: Oct. 1946-Spt 1955 Rectr used: Oct 1946-Sept 1955






,


0







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


into this sinkhole at a rate of 12 mgd on November 21, 1957, which
accounted for some of the lowering of Orange Lake.
Data for Newnans Lake, Orange Lake, and Lochloosa Lake, are
given in figures 32, 33, 34, and 35. The stage-duration curves in
figure 32 show the total percent of time that a stage was equaled
or exceeded during the period of record. The upper unshaded
portion of the graphs in figures 33, 34, and 35 represents the high-
est 25 percent of recorded stages. The lower unshaded portion
represents the lowest 25 percent of recorded- stages. The middle
shaded portion represents the range of the middle 50 percent of
recorded stages. These values are indicative of excessive, deficient,
and normal lake stages.


ETONIA CREEK BASIN

Etonia Creek, a tributary to Rice Creek, has a drainage area of
about 230 square miles. Rice Creek flows into the St. Johns River
north of Palatka. The upper 150 square miles of the basin contain
some 100 lakes. The largest of these is Lake Geneva which has an
area of 2.73 square miles. These lakes are situated in the south-
western corner of Clay County and the northwestern corner of
Putnam County. Many of these lakes have no surface outlets.
Some are connected by surface channels to Etonia Creek. The basin
is shown in figure 36.
Data have been collected on 11 lakes in this basin. The highest
lake, Blue Pond, is at an elevation of 174 feet above sea level. Lake
Grandin, at an elevation of 81 feet above sea level, is possibly the
lowest. Eight of these lakes have been sounded: Blue Pond, Sand
Hill Lake, Magnolia Lake, Crystal Lake, Brooklyn Lake, Keystone
Lake, Lake Geneva, and Loch Lommond. All lakes sounded have
maximum depths ranging from 25 feet for the shallowest to 47
feet for the deepest. Maps showing the depth contours of these
lakes are given in figures 37 through 44.
Some lakes in this area have a wide range of stage. The severe
drought of 1954-57 caused Brooklyn Lake at Keystone Heights to
be lowered 20 feet. Pebble Lake, a small lake in Gold Head Branch
State Park, had a 32-foot range of stage during the period from
1948 to 1956. However, some lakes in the area have less than a
5-foot range of stage. Stage graphs of nine lakes are given in
figure 45. The basic cause of all stage fluctuations is variations in
rainfall. However, on the average, all the basin receives the same
amount of rainfall, 52 inches per year. The reasons that some lakes











REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35

71
7; --- i --- i --- | --- i --- i ---- ---- ---- ---- ----



70



69



68







66
NEWNANS LAKE
Period of Record: Oct. 1946-Dec. 195
Aug. 1957-Dec. 1960
65



64



63 ---- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---



62--



61
LOCHLOOSA LAKE
Period of Rocord: Jly 1942-Dec. 1952
Oct. 1956-0Dec 1960
60








ORANGE LAKE
Perlod of Record: Jan. 1943-Dec. 1960




5.

56





54



53



52







50


K00 90


60 50, 40
'PERCENT OF TIME


Figure 32. Stage-duration curves for Newnans Lake, Orange Lake, and

Lochloosa Lake.


30 20 10 0








62 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY





67 -- I -" : .' .














67


66 DEFICIENT
z lower 25 percent






63 t "*i -- -- 1 -- -- 1 = I -- -- 1 -- -
JAN FEB MAR. APR. MAY JUN JUL. AUG. SEP. OCT. NOV. DEC.

Figure 33. State graphs for Newnans Lake.
760


















S EXCESSIVE S
59 upper 25 pere I I ... I rc







S' i 5
middle 50 percent





55



I DEICIENT
SIower 25 percent
I _--2pc










5DEFICIEN
z oe 5 ecn


JAN. FE MAR. APR. MAY JUN. JUL. AUG. SEP. OCT. NOV. DEC,

Figure 34. Stage graphs for Orange Lake.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35 63









S56








54



Figure 35. Stage graphs for Lochloosa Lake.


vary more than others are differences in topography and geologic
formations. Topography dictates which lakes are connected by
surface channels. Lakes in this basin are situated among high
sandhills that are from 130 to 210 feet above sea level. These hills











are as much as 70 feet above the adjacent lake surfaces. The
character, composition, thickness, structure, and extent of the
^ 5 '.' .... ;- .' ( ',.. '- --- ---'-.---."- -











underlying geologic formations, and their hydrologic properties, are
z




53 59-












controlling factors in the movement of water into and out of the
lake. Sands and clayey sands underlie the basin to a depth of as
much as 0 feet below the surface. Most lakes are believed to be



floored in these materials. The sands overlie thick, relatively
impervious clays and limestone.
Data have been collected on the six highest lakes that form the
headwaters of Etonia Creek: Blue Pond, Sand Hill Lake, Magnolia
Lake, Brooklyn Lake, Keystone Lake, and Lake Geneva. These
lakes are in Clay County near the town of Keystone Heights. A
profile of these lakes is given in figure 46.
During the statewide drought of 1954-57 all lakes in this area
receded to all-time low stages. Low stages affected the utility of
Brooklyn Lake possibly more than any other lake in this immediate
area. However, in 1958 the drought was broken by above-normal
rains and by 1959 Brooklyn Lake was filled to overflow capacity.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


r l 1tle f slla-cltlctlon itre; nuimer
ntre er site member, table 3


Ir


Figure 36. Drainage map of the Etonia Creek basin showing data-collection
sites.
A water budget for Brooklyn Lake for the period August 1957
to October 1960 was computed by Clark, Musgrove, Menke, and
Cagle (1963). This water budget showed that 22,000 acre-feet
of water entered Brooklyn Lake during that period as surface flow
through the channel from Magnolia Lake and that 8,000 acre-feet
of rain fell directly on the lake surface. Factors accounting for
the losses of water from the lake are seepage, 11,000 acre-feet;
evaporation, 7,000 acre-feet; and surface flow, 2,000 acre-feet.
During this period, the amount of water stored in the lake in-
creased 10,000 acre-feet. A schematic diagram of this water bud-
get is given in figure 47. The report by Clark, Musgrove, Menke,
and Cagle (1963) furnishes more detailed information on Brooklyn
Lake and surrounding lakes.
Many lakes in this area are landlocked and depend entirely on
rainfall directly on the surface of the lake and seepage from ground
to maintain their supply of water. Lake elevations are generally
lower to the south and southeast as the land elevations of the basin
become lower. However, the relative elevations of the lakes vary






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


Figure 37. Depth contours of Blue Pond.
locally. On January 27, 1961, the elevation of Hutchinson Lake,
a small landlocked lake immediately south of Lake Geneva, was
106.4 feet above sea level-0.8 foot higher than Lake Geneva.
Runoff from this basin is extremely low. Based on 21 months
of streamflow records collected at Florahome, the estimated average
runoff from a drainage area of 172 square miles is 4 inches per
year. Runoff is possibly higher in the lower part of the basin.
Seepage to the deep ground water, evaporation from lake surfaces,
and transpiration take most of the rain that falls on the upper
part of the basin.

QUALITY OF SURFACE WATERS

INTRODUCTION

A discussion of streamflow and lake levels in Alachua, Bradford,
Clay, and Union counties has been presented. In this section the
chemical quality of water in streams and lakes in those counties is









R ,3 E,

Elovall. o: 138.1 It above mI ean *eo level










..y .,o, )//^ \\ \ \
.29 t 1 I
IN 28











32 33 34

SAND HILL LA KE
(Cloy County) 10 "
1000 0 1iO0 2000 I 3000 feet -*

Date of survey: Nov. 28, 1960
S Contour Interval: 10 feet --- .
SDaota source: U.S. Geological Survey
R. 23 E.
Figure 38. Depth contours of Sand Hill Lake.





R.23E.
i-


,I,


5 1 s 40
// o. I





S\ z -


MAGNOLIA LAKE -- ..-
(Clay County) -- 'I -- -

r 9
Date of survey: Nov. 28, 1960
Contour interval: 10 feet Data source: U.S. Geological Survey
R. 23 E.
Figure 89. Depth contours of Magnolia Lake.







68 ,FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

R22E R23E

,. 36 31
cc--





,>, b


12



CRYSTAL LAKE
(Clay and Bradford Counties)
500 0 500 1000 1500 feet


Date of survey: May 10, 1960
Contour interval: 10 feet


I Data source: U S. Geological Survey
R22E. R.23E.
Figure 40. Depth contours of Crystal Lake.















E0
I-

I


z
01


Figure 41. Depth contours of Brooklyn Lake.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


R.23E.


sea level


'3?



I
-JI


~10


19


KEYSTONE LAKE
(Clay County)
200 0 200 400


Date of survey:
Contour interval:


April 26,
10 feet


1960






Data source: U.S. Geological Survey


R.23E.

Figure 42. Depth contours of Keystone Lake.


Elvoation:


600 felt


iLI L L 1 1 I











ii


36


LAKE GENEVA
(Cloy and Bradford Counties)
1000 0 1000 2000 3000 feet

Date of survey: April 26,27, 1960
Contour Interval: 10 feet

R.22E. R.23E.


28


0
cc


60

^ co


32

I


Data source: U. S. Geological Survey


Figure 43. Depth contours of Lake Geneva.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

R. 23 E.


Elevation: 95.4


feet above mean sea level



Ole


I 16
LOCH LOMMOND
(Clay County)
100 0 t100 00 300 400
I I I I I

Date of survey: May 10, 1960
Contour interval 10 foet


Datolo source: U.S. Geological Survey


R. 23 E.
Figure 44. Depth contours of Loch Lommond.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35 73






175 ~ ~ ~ ~ oP-_~~- -------------------~j--H-Q- ----------- *--
Blue Pond
170






135
Sand Hill Lake-

130


Magnolia Lake-
125






115
Brooklyn Lake


Pebble Lake

105







Lake Geneva

80
Johnson Lake

95 -- F --
90 CL soch Lommond









8 0 ----- -----------------------------


Figure 45. Stage graphs of nine lakes near Keystone Heights, Florida.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 46. Profile of lakes near Keystone Heights, Florida.


Figure 47. Water budget of Brooklyn Lake for
September 1960.


the period October 1957 to


WATER BUDGET






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


described. Just as the quantity of surface waters is variable, so
is the quality. Both nature and man contribute to the changes in
the concentration of matter dissolved in the waters of the area.
Through natural actions, minerals in the crust of the earth affect
the chemical content of the waters with which they come in contact.
Man's use of water and land affects both the chemical and the
sanitary quality. This report is concerned only with the chemical
and physical quality and contains no information on sanitary
aspects and suitability for use when such use is related to bacterio-
logical quality.

EXPLANATION OF TERMS

Concentration is a ratio or proportion. It can be expressed in
many different ways-parts per million, equivalents per million,
grains per gallon, etc. The use of parts per million for expressing
the results of water analyses has been so frequent that it has
become conventional; however, this does not imply superiority of
this ratio over other ratios for expressing quality of water. Con-
version from one unit to any other unit is possible with the proper
conversion factor. Because parts per million is used in this report
as a means of expressing analytical results, an example of its
magnitude is given. Water having a concentration of 1 ppm means
that 1 million pounds of such water contains 1 pound of material
dissolved in 999,999 pounds of water.
The color of water is compared to that of colored discs which
have been calibrated to correspond to the platinum-cobalt scale of
Hazen. The unit of color is that produced by 1 milligram of
platinum per liter.
Residue on evaporation at 1800C is the concentration of
substances dissolved in water that remain in a solid state at 180C.
The residue on evaporation at 180C includes organic matter and
mineral matter whenever both are present. Hardness of water is
the property of water attributable to the presence of calcium and
magnesium and is expressed as equivalent calcium carbonate.
Mineral matter is the concentration of dissolved inorganic earth
materials. The term organic matter refers to an estimate of the
concentration of dissolved organic matter. The concentration is
calculated by subtracting the mineral matter from the residue on
evaporation at 1800C. The organic matter which is leached from
vegetation characteristically colors natural waters. Whenever
organic matter is absent, residue on evaporation at 180C and
mineral matter become synonymous.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


WATER TEMPERATURE

The temperature of surface water generally varies with air
temperature, but it is sometimes influenced by ground-water inflow
and industrial activities, especially during low-flow periods. When
streams and lakes receive large quantities of ground-water inflow
during low-flow periods, the water temperatures tend to be higher
than air temperatures during winter months and lower than air
temperatures during summer months. Surface water temperatures
usually are increased after the water has been used for such pur-
poses as cooling and air conditioning. Large streams and lakes
usually have small diurnal variations in water temperatures,
whereas small streams may have a daily range of several degrees
and may follow closely the changes in air temperatures. Large
quantities of water on the earth's surface tend to moderate the
air temperature.
The observed water temperatures of streams and lakes in-
vestigated in Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties
generally were above 450F in the winter months and less than 850F
in the summer months. The observed daily water temperatures
of the Santa Fe River near High Springs, which receives large
quantities of ground-water inflow, ranged from 600 to 800F from
October 1959 to September 1960. This water would be desirable
for cooling and air conditioning. The daily water temperature
of the Santa Fe River at Worthington, which is mostly all surface
runoff, ranked from 410 to 84F. from July 1957 to September 1960.
Table 4 shows the maximums, minimums, and average observed

TABLE 4. Maximum, Minimum, and Average of Observed Daily Water
Temperatures of Streams in Alachua, Bradford, Clay and
Union Counties, Florida

Fahrenheit
Stream Max. Min. Average

1. New River near Lake Butler,
Aug. 1957-Sept. 1958 850 390 700
2. North Fork Black Creek near Highland,
Oct. 1958-Sept. 1959 800 400 640
3. Santa Fe River near High Springs.
Oct. 1959-Sept- 1960 800 600 720
4. Santa Fe River at Worthington,
Sept. 1957-Sept- 19601 840 400 660
5. North Fork Black Creek near
Penney Farms. Oct. 1958-Sept. 1959 810 500 690

IContinuous record.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


daily water temperatures of several streams in Alachua, Bradford,
Clay, and Union counties.

FACTORS AFFECTING. CHEMICAL QUALITY

Rain as it falls to earth contains little or no dissolved matter.
The mineral matter is usually limited to dissolved gases, notably
nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. In coastal areas, sodium
chloride may be deposited by rainfall and windblown spray. The
solvent action of water is greatly increased by the presence of
carbon dioxide, absorbed from the atmosphere and from the soil,
which enables it to break down nearly all minerals and form new
compounds. The amount and type of mineral matter taken into
solution by water depends, among other things, upon the availability
of carbon dioxide for the weathering process, the nature of the
minerals present, and the length of time the water is in contact
with the minerals.
As a stream flows from the higher to the lower regions of its
drainage basin, it receives the inflow of many tributaries and a
large amount of ground-water seepage. Solution of materials from
the streambed is aided by scouring of the bed, reaeration at the
surface, and the photosynthetic activity of aquatic growth.
Differences in the geology of various regions, variations in topo-
graphic features, and climatic conditions will affect the chemical
character of a surface stream at various points along its reach.
Human activities such as diversions, impoundments, and the
disposal of agricultural, industrial, and domestic wastes greatly
affect water quality in some areas.
Industrial and population expansion will play a dominant part
in an ever-increasing demand on the water resources of the area.
Increased use of water can logically be expected to affect the
chemical quality of surface water as it is used and reused by
industry, agriculture, and domestic service. Therefore the quality
of water in streams can vary greatly due to many manmade and
natural factors.
The chemical-quality data are considered to be representative
of the water quality of the streams during the period of study.
To describe the general water quality and the water-quality
variability of streams, the average, maximum, and minimum values
of chemical constituents and physical qualities were determined
for the period of July 1957 to September 1960. Table 5 is a tabu-
lation of the average, maximum, and minimum values for the period
of study.











TAIII, 5, Average, Maximum, Minimum Values Observed for Substances
Dissolved in Streams and ,Lakes
Chemical analyue- in nprts per million, July 1957 to September 1960 except as otherwise stated


SANTA FE LAKE NEAR MELROSE-Semi-annual

Average 76 1.6 0.08 2.3 1.2 7.8 0.4 4 4.2 12 0,1 0.8 82 44 1 11 8 62 6.7 26
Maximum 88 6.0 .00 8.0 1.7 7.8 .0 6 7.6 13 .1 1.0 88 54 8 12 10 66 6.0 45
Minimum 60 .0 .06 1.4 .6 6.8 .1 2 1.0 12 .0 .0 28 33 5 9 6 59 5.3 10

LITTLE SANTA FE LAKE NEAR MELROSE-Semi-annual


Average 70 2.8 3.8 1.2 0.7 .2 10 2.8 12 .1 .1 34 5 22 14 6 68 6.0 58
Maximum 86 7.5 8.4 1.7 7.8 .4 25 .0 12 .2 2 49 72 33 28 8 92 7.1
Minimum 54 .4 2.0 1.0 0.0 .1 4 .0 11 .0 .0 26 42 16 9 6 56 5.4 60


HAMPTON LAKE AT HAMPTON BEACH-Semi-annual

Average 68 1.8 .15 2.8 1.8 5.6 .3 2 7.4 9.6 .1 .2 30 50 22 11 9 60 5.1 27
Maximum 88 2.7 .26 8.6 1.6 6.4 .6 4 12 11 .2 .4 37 58 26 13 12 72 5.5 45
Minimum 57 1.0 .05 1.4 1.0 4.3 .0 1 1.6 8.0 .0 .0 19 37 18 9 6 46 4.9 10

SANTA FE RIVER AT GRAHAM---8 week intervals

Average 8.5 .38 8.3 1.9 6.2 .4 9 2.6 9.8 .2 .4 32 93 61 16 9 60 5.4 276
Maximum 8.6 .76 12 4.6 7.6 .8 44 8.8 16 .5 .7 73 138 99 49 14 120 6.4 500
Minimum .8 .18 1.2 .5 2.0 .0 0 .4 8.5 .1 .1 13 44 22 7 0 80 4.4 180







SAMPSON LAKE AT SAMPSON C.TY NEAR STARKE-Semi-annual

Average 76 2.8 0.19 7.8 1.8 9.8 1.0 11 15 8.6 0.2 0.2 0.0 61 90 31 26 16 112 6.2 93
Maximum 90 6.2 .21 9.6 3.6 15 1.6 20 24 11 .3 .5 .0 97 122 60 9 29 174 .9 260
Minimum 58 .7 .16 6.0 .5 2.2 .7 6 2.0 6.0 .1 .0 .0 37 68 16 19 8 74 5.9 15

SAMPSON RIVER AT GRAHAM-Semi-annual

Average 64 3.1 .24 7.6 2.6 10 .7 18 22 8.6 .2 .1 64 88 24 30 1 15 6.4 78
Maximum 80 8.8 .29 12 4.4 16 1.2 1 8 12 .3 .3 101 124 39 48 22 176 160
Minimum 49 2.5 .20 4.2 .9 6.4 .1 2 4.8 6.0 .1 .0 28 67 9 14 63 5.0 35

HATCHET CREEK NEAR CONFLUENCE OF SANTA FE RIVER NEAR GRAHAM-Semi-annual

Average 66 4.4 .38 8.9 1.5 8.6 .3 18 1.8 7.1 .2 30 59 38 16 5 7 .4 154
Maximum 78 9.2 .42 13 4.5 4.7 .9 5 8.5 9.5 .3 70 76 56 51 8 115 6.9 280
Minimum 54 1.8 .26 .4 .4 2.0 .0 0 .4 2.5 .1 .0 8 42 21 2 2 29 4.3 80

ROCKY CREEK NEAR LaCROSS-Semi-annual

Average 65 7.1 .82 7.4 2.8 5.6 1.5 22 0.0 12 .4 .0 64 86 32 80 12 90 6.3 101
Maximum 74 9.6 1.6 10 6.0 8.7 2.4 43 9.0 18 .4 .1 80 111 52 44 18 126 7.3 180
Minimum 55 8.4 .31 2.8 .9 2.9 .1 4 2.8 6.6 .2 .0 22 49 11 10 5 41 5.6 45

ALLIGATOR CREEK NEAR LAWTEY OFF STATE ROADS 16 AND 226-Semi-annual

Average 70 4.0 0.17 18 2.0 5.0 0.9 48 8.0 5.5 .4 .3 68 70 11 40 2 106 6.4 70
Maximum 86 5.0 .28 25 3.5 7.0 1.8 95 4.0 6.5 .7 .4 101 103 2 77 0 181 7.6 10
Minimum 55 2.9 .06 1.2 .4 3.1 .0 2 2.0 4.5 .2 .2 16 36 20 4 3 30 5.83 90

WATER OAK CREEK AT STATE ROAD 25 NEAR STARKE-Semi-annual

Average 68 0.4 .22 56.8 2,8 5.8 .7 25 2.0 8.8 .1 1 47 68 21 25 4 75 6.2 97
Maximum 82 18 .23 10 7.2 0.2 1.2 62 2.8 14 .2 2 4 110 25 54 6 143 7.0 110
SMinimum 56 2.8 .21 2.0 .2 2.8 .1 4 .8 8.8 .1 .0 15 86 16 6 2 31 5.6 90


111












TABLE 5. (CONTINUED).


LAKE BUTLER AT LAKE BUTLER-Semi-annual

Average 70 2.0 .18 2.6 1.2 5.4 0.5 5 4.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.1 28 50 82 12 7 57 5.7 655
Maximum 94 4.8 .24 8.2 1.0 7.8 .8 7 7.2 12 .2 .2 .8 89 72 87 10 11 72 6.1 70
Minimum 00 .7 .00 2.2 .5 8.5 .1 2 .8 6.0 .0 .0 .0 19 41 22 8 2 40 5.2 40

BUTLER CREEK NEAR LAKE BUTLER-Semi-annual

Average 61 2.9 .25 4.6 1.6 3.0 .2 12 2.9 8.1 .2 .4 .1 31 04 62 18 8 56 5.2 812
Maximum 76 8.8 .80 11 4.8 6.1 .7 40 8.0 10 .8 1.0 .2 65 146 81 45 12 104 6.6 600
Minimum 55 1.9 .17 1.6 .5 2.0 .0 0 .4 4.8 .1 .1 .0 16 65 47 7 6 88 4.7 180

NEW RIVER NEAR LAKE BUTLER

Average 70 7.2 8.8 3.3 6.4 0.7 88 4.2 9.9 .8 1.5 60 104 42 86 8 99 6.8 187
Maximum 85 18 80 10 15 2.8 114 11 20 .5 7.7 150 189 78 106 10 278 7.6 460
Minlinum 89 2.6 8.6 .2 2.0 .0 6 .4 8.8 .2 .0 21 64 13 18 8 88 5.8 90

SANTA FE RIVER AT WORTHINGTON-daily


Average
Maximum
Minimum


2Daily from July 1057 to September 1958, 6-8 week intervals October 1958 to September 1960,


66 7.8 6.4 2.6 6.5 .4 21 7.6 9.8 .2 .3 51 98 42 26 10 84 6.5 187
84 21 18 7.6 18 1.8 64 22 62 .5 1.7 107 187 98 76 20 204 7.4 860
40 1.9 3.2 .9 8.8 .0 0 .4 1.0 .0 .0 22 57 7 12 0 88 8.6 60







SWIFT CREEK NEAR PROVIDENCFE-Semi-annual

Average 64 5.6 0.86 8.2 2.0 4.2 0.2 7 2.2 8.5 02 0.1 0.4 80 79 49 16 10 51 5* .6 198
Maximum 78 8.7 .87 4.0 8.4 6.0 .4 10 8.5 18 .8 .1 .9 40 110 70 24 16 70 6.0 260
Minimum 55 3.0 .88 1.4 .9 2.5 .0 2 .8 3.8 .2 .0 .0 16 58 87 7 6 80 4.9 160

OLUSTEE CREEK NEAR PROVIDENCE-6-8 Week intervals

Average 68 5.1 .51 8.2 1.5 8.6 .8 8 1.7 7.7 .8 29 84 55 14 8 48 5.5 254
Maximum 80 11 1.6 6.6 8.8 5.7 .7 20 4.0 11 .4 1.8 44 108 80 26 14 71 6.6 440
Minimum 50 1.2 .28 1.8 .2 2.0 .0 2 .0 3.5 .2 .0 16 49 81 7 2 29 4.9 120

SANTA FE RIVER AT HIGH SPRINGS

S1 .. I I i in. o 4i o I o i 11i


Average 69 11 0.30 0.71
Maximum 80 20 .56 66 10
' Mf..mii. n a 11 fl8. 1-0


u.o 10luu 12, .o .i
1.0 168 69 16 .4 1.3
.0 16 4.8 8.0 .0 .0


260 299
32 62


62 206
0 19


70 482 8.8 280
6 57 6.4 5


. I** I I I a 1 I

NEWNANS LAKE NEAR GAINESVILLE-Semi-annual

Average 71 1.7 .88 4.0 1.8 5.4 .6 11 2.3 7.9 .2 1.0 .0 29 64 87 15 7 61 5.9 80
Maximum 88 8.0 .65 5.6 1.7 9.0 1.0 21 3.2 14 .8 4.4 .1 45 76 41 21 9 86 0.6 110
Minimum 55 .1 .14 8.2 .9 8.8 .0 4 1.2 2.5 .2 .0 .0 21 53 81 12 4 49 6.3 50

CAMPS CANAL NEAR ROCHELLE-Semi-annual

Average 69 1.9 .88 8.8 1.0 4.6 .2 8 2.5 8.2 .2 1.6 .2 28 52 19 18 7 55 5.7 85
Maximum 84 2.6 .66 4.4 1.1 5.2 .6 10 4.8 10 .2 4.6 82 64 88 15 9 68 5.9 110
Minimum 55 1.1 .08 8.2 .7 8.9 .0 4 .8 5.8 .1 .0 .0 24 29 5 12 4 48 5.5 60

LOCHLOOSA CREEK AT GROVE PARK-Semi-annual
i i I- ij I I I I I I I 1- I


Average 67
Maximum 88
Minimum 58


6.4 .28 8.6 1.0
11 .40 4.4 2.7
2.2 .07 2.0 1.0


.4 9 1.5 8.5 .2 .2 .4 82 74 42 17 9 68 5.7 177
.9 14 2.4 12 .8 .7 47 92 46 22 12 78 6.1 220
.0 4 .4 5.0 .2 .1 .0 17 60 89 9 6 40 5.4 160


2Daily October 1959 to September 1960, 6-8 week intervals July 1957 to September 1959.


------ -- ------ -------













TABLE 5, (CONTINUED).


LAKE LOCHLOOSA NEAR LOCHLOOSA-Semi-annual

Average 70 1.7 .20 12 2.0 6.6 0.5 37 7.0 12 0.2 0.6 0.0 63 77 21 40 9 112 6.7 45
Maximum 85 5.7 .56 15 3.8 7.8 1.0 50 12 16 .3 1.0 1.1 84 91 80 51 12 142 6.8 75
Minimum 59 .0 .06 8.0 1.7 5.8 .1 20 3.2 10 .2 .0 .0 44 49 6 29 5 88 6.6 15

ORANGE LAKE AT HEAGEY'S FISHING CAMP-Semi-annual

Average 60 1.4 .18 6.0 1.8 5.4 .0 20 2.0 8.8 .2 .4 37 57 20 28 6 71 6.4 52
Maximum 83 2.0 .16 7.6 1.7 6.8 .9 20 2.4 10 .3 .8 83 67 28 24 7 79 6.5 65
Minimum 58 .7 .10 6.0 1.1 4.8 .1 20 1.2 7.5 .2 .2 84 46 8 22 6 65 6.4 45

ORANGE LAKE NEAR BOARDMAN-Semi-annual

Average 78 8.3 .20 6.3 1.6 4.6 .4 20 1.0 8.4 .2 .8 87 58 28 22 6 71 6.4 62
Maximum 83 4.8 .28 6.8 1.0 4.7 .8 21 8.0 10 .8 1.3 42 66 80 25 8 88 6.5 80
Minimum 59 2.8 .16 6.0 1.2 4.6 .1 18 .8 7.0 .1 .2 33 49 16 20 4 61 6.8 g0

CRYSTAL LAKE NEAR KEYSTONE HEIGHTS-Semi-annual

Average 72 1.7 .04 2.6 .5 3.1 .5 8 2.4 4.5 .0 .1 .0 19 21 3 8 2 38 6.6 6
Maximum 88 4.4 .05 4.0 .7 8.8 1.0 183 8.5 5. .1 .2 .0 26 81 7 11 8 41 7.7 15
Minimum 61 .0 .02 1.4 .2 2.7 .0 3 1.6 3.5 .0 .0 .0 15 16 1 5 0 27 5.7 2







SAND HILL LAKE NEAR KEYSTONE HEIGHTS-Semi-annual

Average 74 2.5 0.9 0.9 0.5 8.2 0.1 8. 2.0 56.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 17 22 6 4 2 28 5.4 10
Maximum 87 4.0 .2 1.4 8.6 .4 4 8.5 5.8 .1 .2 .0 20 26 11 6 4 87 5.7 88
Minimum 55 1.3 .01 .4 .4 2.8 .0 1 .8 4.2 .0 .0 .0 14 16 2 4 0 24 4.8 2


MAGNOLIA LAKE NEAR KEYSTONE HEIGHTS-Semi-annual

Average 67 1.3 .05 1.0 .8 2.8 .1 8 2.4 4.6 .0 .1 .0 14 20 6 4 1 26 5.6 11
Maximum 88 1.9 .07 1.2 .6 2.9 .2 4 2.8 6.0 .1 .6 .0 15 28 14 4 2 28 6.1 20
Minimum 56 .8 .02 .8 .1 2.6 .0 2 1.8 4.0 .0 .0 .0 13 15 2 4 0 24 5.1 8


LAKE BROOKLYN NEAR KEYSTONE HEIGHTS-Semi-annual

Average 75 .0 .08 1.8 .7 3.6 .2 8 4.1 5.8 .0 .1 .0 18 23 6 6 4 85 5.5 4
Maximum 88 1.4 .05 1.6 1.2 4.4 .4 4 5.5 7.0 .1 .2 .1 21 84 18 9 8 41 5.7 10
Minimum 60 .2 .02 1.0 .2 2.6 .0 1 2.5 4.8 .0 .0 .0 14 19 1 4 2 26 5.1 2


LAKE GENEVA NEAR KEYSTONE HEIGHTS-Semi-annual

Average 70 .9 .01 1.3 1.1 6.1 .6 2 5.8 9.8 .1 .1 26 81 6 8 6 54 5.4 4
Maximum 88 2.6 .02 2.0 1.83 6.4r 1.0 4 6.8 10 .1 .2 28 84 8 8 7 s6 5.6 10
Minimum 60 .0 .00 .8 .7 5.6 .0 1 8.0 8.5 .0 .0 26 26 2 8 4 62 5.1 0


JOHNSON LAKE AT GOLD HEAD BRANCH STATE PARK NEAR KEYSTONE HEIGHTS-Semi-annual

Average 71 8.1 0.05 0.7 0.8 2.8 .1 8 2.5 3.7 .0 .1 .1 14 17 4 3 1 22 6.5 15
Maximum 84 8.8 .05 1.2 .5 2.4 .4 4 8.2 4.0 .1 .1 .2 20 20 6 4 8 24 5.09 80
Minimum 59 2.4 .04 .4 .2 2.0 .0 2 .0 8.2 .0 .0 .0 11, 14 1 2 0 20 5.2 5


PEBBLE LAKE NEAR KEYSTONE HEIGHTS-Semi-annual

Average 72 2.1 .08 .8 .8 2.5 .2 3 1.6 8.7 .1 .1 .2 18 14 2 4 1 22 5.6 4
Maximum 85 4.7 .05 1.0 .6 8.4 .5 4 2.8 4.0 .1 .4 .4 18 21 8 4 2 24 5.9 10
Minimum 61 1.0 .01 .8 .1 2.0 .0 2 .8 8.5 .0 .0 .0 10 10 0 8 0 19 5.2 0













TABLE 5, (CONTINUED),


HALL LAKE NEAR KEYSTONE HEIGHTS-Semi-annual

Average 71 0.0 .02 2.0 1,8 7.4 6.4 1 18 18 0.1 0.1 0.0 89 45 12 18 12 80 4.0 4
Maximum 81 1.1 .04 2.4 2,1 8.4 .0 2 16 14 .1 .2 .1 47 62 25 14 ,18 89 5.8 10
Minimum 50 .0 .01 1.0 1.6 0.1 .0 0 11 12 .1 .0 .0 85 87 8 11 10 74 4.7 0

SMITH LAKE NEAR KEYSTONE IIEIGHTS-Semf-annual

Average 72 .8 .08 2.9 2.1 11 ., 2 15 18 .1 .1 .0 52 64 12 16 15 108 5.2 5
Maximum 88 1.4 .04 8.6. 2.4 14 1.4 8 20 22 .2 .4 .1 68 74 14 19 18 128 5.6 10
Minimum 59 .0 .01 2.0 1.9 9.1 .0 1 8.8 14 .0 .0 .0 47 61 11 14 12 94 4.9, 0

LAKE GRANDIN NEAR INTERLACHEN-Semi-annual

Average 78 0.7 .08 2.0 1.2 5.9 0.1 5 5.5 0.7 .0 .1 .0 28 85 7 10 5 54 5,6 7
Maximum 86 1.5 .12 2.2 1.8 6.2 .8 6 64 10 .1 .2 .1 28 89 12 10 6 7 .7 10
Minimum 60 .0 .05 1.8 1.0 5.5 .0 4 4.0 9,5 .0 .1 .0 27 82 4 10 8 51 5.5 5

KINGSLEY LAKE NEAR CAMP BLANDING-Semi-annual

Average 78 1.1 .02 2.7 .9 5.8 .4 7 4.9 8.7 .1 .0 28 80 11 4 51 6.8 6
Maximum P2 1.0 .08 8.4 1.0 6.2 .6 8 5.6 10 .1 .1 82 87 7 12 5 57 6.8 8
Minimum 56 .8 .01 2.2 .7 4.7 .2 4 2.0 8.0 .0 .0 20 22 2 10 8 86 5.9 5
Minimum ___ -- 1 -- ------ ------ --- -- -- -- --- -- ----- -- -- __






NORTH FORK BLACK CREEK NEAR HIGHLANDS

Average 68 .8, 0.85 12 1.9 16 0.5 5 54 7.6 0.2 0.4 102 180 28 88 as88 178 5.8 94
Maximum 80 88 .54 82 .1 72 1.9 86 185 12 .4 8.6 816 886 62 102 98 492 6. 280
Minimum 82 .8 .20 2.4 .0 4.2 .0 0 4.0 8.8 .0 .0 26 54 0 8 0 40 4.4 5

YELLOW WATER BRANCH NEAR MAXVILLE--Semi-annual

Average 68 9.7 .82 0.4 2.1 8.9 1.9 84 8.9 14 .1 .4 .8 67 88 18 82 4 108 6.5 58
Maximum 76 1 .58 15 8.5 12 4.9 56 8.0 18 .2 1.7 1.1 96 114 29 50 6 154 7.1 110
Minimum 56 2.8 .21 1.6 .2 6 .0 8 1.2 4.5 .1 .0 .0 14 85 2 5 2 26 5.5 10

NORTH FORK BLACK CREEK NEAR MIDDLEBURG-6-8 week intervals

Average 62 7.1 87 8.6 1.8 9.8 0.5 18 28 8.4 ,2 .5 66 100 84 29 18 108 6.1 175
Maximum 75 11 .68 28 8.9 20 1.9 25 96 12 .4 1.7 170 184 66 86 68 270 6.8 1,000
Minimum 48 1.1 .16 .8 .0 8.2 .0 1 .8 8.5 .1 .1 20 59 9 8 6 88 4.7 6

ATES CREEK NEAR PENNEY FARMS-Semi-annual

Average 64 5.9 .82 1.9 .6 4.4 .1 8 1.7 7.6 .2 .2 .6 24 50 25 7 5 40 5.2 158
Maximum 7 7.9 .40 2.4 1.1 5.9 .4 5 8.2 10 8 .4 1.0 81 74 46 9 8 5 6.6 220
Minimum 52 2.9 .24 .8 .1 2.7 .0 1 .5 4.5 .1 .1 .4 14 80 8 4 2 27 4.7 ,80

GREEN'S CREEK NEAR PENNEY FARMS-Semi-annual

Average 68 7.9 .28 4.9 .7 5.6 .1 18 1.0 10 .1 .1 .1 87 60 26 15 4 60 6.1 82
Maximum 74 11 .27 9.2 1.6 7.0 .4 27 1.8 14 .2 .4 .2 48 78 26 26 6 80 6.8 110
Minimum 49 2.6 .17 1.6 .0 8.0 .0 0 .4 4.2 .1 .0 .0 12 86 24 4 2 81 4.7 60

BULL CREEK NEAR MIDDLEBURG--Semi-annual

Average 61 6.4 .28 4.8 1.5 8.8 .4 16 8.8 6.8 .2 .0 .8 85 57 26 17 4 62 6.8 126
Maximum 74 7.8 .26 7.6 2.2 4.6 1.0 81 5.0 9.0 .2 .1 .5 49 64 85 28 7 70 7.0 200
Minimum 61 8.1 .21 1.6 .6 2.0 .0 2 1.6 4.0 .2 .0 .2 18 53 21 6 2 80 5.1 70

Seomi-annual July, 1957 to September 1958, Daily October 1958 to September 1950, 6-8 week intervals October 1959 to September 1960.


- I I











TABLE 5, (CONTINUED),

HardneMi C
an CaCO 0







SOUTH FORK BLACK CREEK NEAR PENNEY FARMS4

Average 60 6.4 0.80 8.8 0.0 4.8 0.8 11 2.7 7.4 0.2 0.2 81 58 27 18 4 51 6.1 186
Maximum 82 18 .64 84 8.2 7.2 .7 90 22 12 .4 8.4 127 156 57 98 80 228 7.6 860
Minimum 50 1.4 .17 1.0 .1 1.8 .0 4 .0 8.0 .0 .0 12 28 8 8 0 18 5.8 10


DEEP CREEK NEAR RODMAN-Semi-annual

*Average 64 10 .17 16 4.9 8.4 .6 64 8.0 6.5 .2 .0 .2 76 91 16 58 6 124 7.2 98
Maximum 74 17 .24 10 6.2 8.8 1.6 87 6.0 6.5 .8 .1 .8 90 104 8 78 10 154 7.6 190
Minimum 57 4.5 .11 6.2 2.1 8.1 .1 20 .8 4.5 .1 .0 .0 82 71 4 24 2 56 6.7 85

SOUTH FORK BLACK CREEK NEAR CAMP LANDING S. R. 21

8/18/59 66 2.9 .14 5.8 .9 4.4 .0 12 8.6 7.0 .2 .0 81 46 15 18 8 62 6.5 50



CLARKS CREEK NEAR GREEN COVE SPRINGS

9/80/58 11 11 .7 6.2 3 2.2 9.0 .2 .0 .2 8 0 2 87 7.1 80



4Daily October 1958 to September 1059, 6-8 week intervals July 1957 to September 1958 and October 1959 to September 1960.







PETERS CREEK NEAR PENNEY FARMS

9/80/58 8.8 6.0 .6 4.8 .20 0.5 7.5 .2 .0 .- 18 1 58 6.8 40



BOGGY BRANCH NEAR CAMP BLENDING

12/17/57 6.6 .18 2.8 1.6 4.2 .0 7 8.5 9.0 .1 .1 .8 81 64 88 18 8 49 6.1 120
8/18/58 62 5.1 .08 2.6 1.0 5.4 .5 8 2.6 9.0 .2 .8 28 71 48 10 8 58 6.0 180


NORTH FORK BLACK CREEK UPSTREAM FROM CONFLUENCE OF BOGGY BRANCH

12/17/57 10 .10 18 4.7 20 .4 0 118 8.5 .2 .7 .0 172 190 1 52 52 288 4.4 80
8/18/58 8.0 .24 14 2.4 86 .3 2 106 8.2 .1 .7 .... 176 198 22 45 44 808 56.0 20








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


A section of this report describes the significance of water
quality in relation to water use (p. 152).
From the data which have been summarized in table 4, it can
be seen that the concentration of substances dissolved in the water
in streams of the area, during the period, seldom exceeded 200
ppm, except for the Santa Fe River at High Springs and the North
Fork Black Creek near Highland. During the period of study the
maximum concentration and the variability of the substances dis-
solved in the water of the streams at these two stations exceeded
all other stations throughout the area. Manmade factors added
to the natural factors in the North Fork Black Creek basin are
responsible for the higher maximum concentrations of substances
dissolved in the stream, whereas in the Santa Fe River basin
natural factors are almost entirely responsible. Other major
stream basins in the area for the most part show little or no effects
of manmade factors upon the concentration of substances dissolved
in the water.
There are other specific differences in water quality of different
stream basins to be noted. The differences include not only the
total concentration and variability of concentration but also the
different kinds of substances dissolved in the streams and their
frequency of occurrence.
For convenience, a description of water quality in each major
river basin follows.


SANTA FE RIVER BASIN

Santa Fe Lake, Little Santa Fe Lake, and Hampton Lake
exhibit little difference in average water quality during the period
of this study.
Concentration of substances dissolved in the Santa Fe River
water at Graham averaged 93 ppm, about twice the concentration
of substances dissolved in the three lakes mentioned above. Inflow
from these three lakes and from swamps accounts for most of the
surface-water inflow to the Santa Fe River upstream from Graham.
The average concentration of mineral matter is about the same at
Graham as in the lakes; however, the range in mineral content is
much greater in the river, 60 ppm as compared to 20 ppm in the
lakes. Water entering the Santa Fe River from the swamps must be
high in color because color at Graham averaged 275, more. than
four times the color in the lakes. The average concentration of
iron in the Santa Fe River was 0.38 ppm, which is about 21/2 times









REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


the concentration in the lakes. Organic matter has a tendency to
stabilize iron in solution.
Residue on evaporation at 180C, hardness, and organic matter
in relation to specific conductance have been plotted in figure 48.
The substances most likely to affect the usefulness of water are
those shown in figure 48 and iron. A large part of the time the
dissolved substances are mostly organic matter (fig. 48). The
mineral matter (difference between organic matter and residue on
evaporation at 180C) is primarily calcium and magnesium bi-
carbonates.
Specific conductance and discharge have been plotted in figure
49. In general, specific conductance is less at high flow than at low
flow; however, the exact relationship is not apparent, as demon-
strated by the scatter of points in figure 49.
The cumulative frequency of specific conductance, residue on
evaporation at 180C, sum of determined constituents, and color
are shown in figures 50, 51, 52, and 53. These curves are based on
intermittent sampling between October 1958 and September 1959.
A cumulative frequency curve shows the percentage of samples
having a characteristic equal to or less than the indicated amount.
The average concentration of each mineral in the Santa Fe
River except chloride shows a small increase between Worthington
and Graham. Chloride concentration decreased slightly. The

140

120 Residue on evaporation
at 1800 C
Z 100 Hardness (calcium plus
0 magnesium as calcium
_J carbonate)
S80 / Organic matter
w / /
60

40

20
e
20 ~ 0--- e -- -- -- -


0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE IN MICROMHOS
AT 250 C
Figure 48. Residue on evaporation at 1800C, hardness, and organic matter
in relation to specific conductance, Santa Fe River at Graham, Florida, July
1957 to September 1960.










FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


In


10 20 30 40 60 80 100 200 300 400 600 800
FLOW,IN CUBIC FEET PER SECOND

Figure 49. Specific conductance in relation to flow, Santa Fe River at Graham,
Florida, July 1957 to September 1960.

average concentration of substances dissolved in the water is about
the same at Worthington and at Graham, but at Worthington the
water contains more mineral matter and less organic matter than
at Graham. Inflow from tributaries between Graham and Worth-
ington is small and has a minor effect upon water quality. New
River is one of the largest tributaries to the Santa Fe River
upstream from Worthington. It has more effect on the water
quality than any other tributary.
Water samples were collected daily from New River near Lake
Butler from July 1957 to September 1958 and intermittently from
September 1958 to July 1960. The concentrations of several
constituents in these samples were plotted against conductance
(fig. 54).
The variation of conductance with flow was plotted in figure
55 and cumulative frequency curves for several constituents were
plotted in figure 56.
Samples were collected daily from the Santa Fe River at
Worthington from July 1957 to September 1960. Several constitu-
ents have been plotted against specific conductance in figure 57.
The relation between conductance and flow is shown in figure
58. Cumulative frequency curves are shown in figure 59.
Olustee Creek, which enters the Santa Fe River below Worth-
ington, has an average flow of about one-half that of New River.


150

s
100
0 80
4
0
I 60


40

z 30
4
I.-
o 20
u
o
CL
0
tU
0.
(0


__ 7 _









REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35


Olustee Creek near Providence, 1958-59 water year
Santa Fe River at Graham, 1958-59 water year
North Fork Black Creek near Middleburg,1958-59 water year


I 2 5 10


30 50 70 90
PERCENT OF SAMPLES


Figure 50. Cumulative frequency curve of specific conductance of selected
streams (periodic samples).



The average concentration of substances dissolved in Olustee Creek
water near Providence is about 10 to 15 percent less than that in
the Santa Fe River water at Worthington. The concentration of
dissolved matter in Olustee Creek water averaged 84 ppm, of which
29 ppm was mineral matter and 55 ppm was organic matter. The
chemical character of the water is shown graphically in figures
50-53 and 60-61.


135


125
o
0

,<








W
o 105
0


z



S75
z
85




I 65

035
C.)
o

- 55


45


35








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Oiustee Creek near Providence, 1958-59 water year
Santa Fe River at Graham, 1958-59 water year
North Fork Black Creek near Middleburg, 1958-59 water year


1 2 5 10 30 50 70 90
PERCENT OF SAMPLES


Figure 51. Cumulative


frequency curve of residue
(periodic samples).


of selected streams


The average concentration of substances dissolved in the Santa
Fe River water at High Springs was 193 ppm. At this station the
water is more mineralized than at any place upstream. Calcium
plus magnesium bicarbonate and, to a lesser extent, calcium sulfate
accounts for most of the increase. Organic matter is a little less
concentrated in the river at this station. The chemical character of
the water is shown graphically in figures 62 to 64.
Natural factors are sufficiently different within the Santa Fe
River basin to cause most of the water-quality variations observed.
Streams tend to have increasing concentrations of substances dis-
solved in the water at successive downstream locations. The range
in concentration also increases.
Color would probably be the most objectionable characteristic
of water in the Santa Fe River basin for most water uses. The
second most objectionable characteristic would probably be iron,
and the third most objectionable characteristic would probably be
hardness.


z
o 140
-z

120
iu

CL
n (OO


z 80
0
a
cD 60
I-
4
W 40


=r 20








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35


A Olustee Creek near Providence,1958-59 water year
* Santa Fe River at Graham,1958-59 water year
* North Fork Black Creek near Middleburg,1958-59 water year



---~/--






--,./---
^_^r====:==:




^^mJzzd


I 2 5 10


30 50 70
PERCENT OF SAMPLES


Figure 52. Cumulative frequency curve of selected streams (periodic samples).


BLACK CREEK BASIN

NORTH FORK BLACK CREEK

The concentration of dissolved substances in the water of the
head of North Fork Black Creek averaged about 30 ppm and
fluctuated through a range of about 15 ppm. There was little
organic matter present. The concentration of mineral matter
(dissolved substances less organic matter) averaged 28 ppm and
ranged from 20 to 32 ppm. The water contained negligible con-
centrations of iron and was very soft.
From Kingsley Lake to Boggy Branch, the water flows through
swampy areas and color increased to 100 units or more, but there
was little change in the concentration of mineral matter.
From Boggy Branch to near Highland the average concentration
of substances dissolved in the water increased from about 30 to


70

z 60
0
5_
s 50
w
c, 40
I-

30

20








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


450

CO
I-
- 400


350
C,
_3 300


S250

z
- 200
-J

z 150

0
- 100
o 100
0


30 50 70 90


PERCENT OF SAMPLES
Figure 53. Cumulative frequency curve of color of selected streams (periodic
samples).



130 ppm. The concentration ranged from 54 to 336 ppm near
Highland. The average concentration decreased from about 130
ppm near Highland to about 100 ppm near Middleburg. The
chemical character of waters of North Fork Black Creek basin is
shown in figures 50 to 53 and 65 to 69.
Both natural and manmade factors significantly affected the
water quality of North Fork Black Creek water. Under conditions
similar to those during this study period color, iron, hardness, and
pH would often be objectionable for many water uses.


A Olustee Creek near Providence, 1958-59 water year
* Santa Fe River at Graham, 1958-59 water year
* North Fork Black Creek near Middleburg, 1958-59 water year


S I I t I i I I




















== =' =


50


I









REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


200

180

160


0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240
SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE IN MICROMHOS AT 250C


260 280


Residue on evaporation at 180 C
e Hardness (calcium plus magnesium as calcium carbonate)
/ Organic matter
Figure 54. Residue on evaporation at 1800C, hardness, and organic matter
in relation to specific conductance, New River near Lake Butler, Florida,
July 1957 to September 1960.


SOUTH FORK BLACK CREEK

The average concentration of substances dissolved in the waters
of Ates Creek, Greens Creek, and Bull Creek, was 50 ppm, 60 ppm,
and 57 ppm, respectively (table 5). The average condition for Ates
Creek was characterized by mineral matter and organic matter each
equaling about 50 percent of the substances dissolved in the water.
The average water-quality conditions for Green Creek and Bull
Creek were characterized by about 10 ppm more mineral matter
than organic matter.
The chemical character of South Fork Black Creek near Penney
Farms, downstream from the junction of Ates and Greens creeks
but upstream from the junction of Bull Creek, was about the
same as the average of the tributaries above Penney Farms; con-
centrations of mineral matter and organic matter were about equal


//
/
"e ee


z
0
= 120



noo
80

60


























so. . .
S *
S .o0ee 0 ,
S .. *. .

S *
S, .. : .. : .

r ------ V o* -- --
..._ . 00" 1 0

*_ 0. ee






20 30 40 60 80 100 200 300 400 600 800 1,700
FLOW, IN CUBIC FEET PER SECOND

Figure 55. Specific conductance in relation to flow, New River near Lake
Butler, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


IS(


150 .----


130--




910 -_


70---


50 A Residue on evaporation at 180C
U Sum of determined constituents
*ar _- -'-- -- -- l -I I- I__ __ I __


I 2 5 10


30 50 70 90
PERCENT OF TIME


260F--------------
*/
H ------* _





Io- / __
100- ----- ---- _
170 __





110 -/-- -

e.z/: zzl
^ : _ _ _
t


2 5 10 30 50 70
PERCENT OF TIME


99 999


Figure 56. Cumulative frequency curves of selected characteristics of water
from New River near Lake Butler, Florida, October 1957 to September 1958.


993


* Color
* Specific conductance


350


320-







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


140

120 -








40 --- I ~~--- -




0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220
SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE IN MICROMHOS AT 250 C


'If -~ _i i _I


\A_
VIA


7-


/~


. Residue on evaporation
at 180 C
e Hardness(calcium plus
magnesium as calcium
carbonate)
/ Organic matter


0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE IN MICROMHOS AT 250C


Figure 57. Residue
relation to specific


on evaporation at 1800C, hardness, and organic matter in
conductance, Santa Fe River at Worthington, Florida,
July 1957 to September 1960.


and totaled 58 ppm. The fluctuations in chemical characteristics
observed near Penney Farms were more than twice those observed
for any tributary waters. The chemical character of the water is
shown graphically in figures 70 to 72.
Natural factors are the principal cause of water-quality
variability in the South Fork Black Creek basin; however, there
are, occasionally, minor effects from manmade factors.


100

80


40


&*" l. .


0/ /


I


na i







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35 99

WSOO ----IngItonIlorida Ju 1957- Ito Sep4 1 1 60 I

ThI mw i t i or most4i





J I I
water uses probably; ... are color and iron. The average hardness, as

1 I' 1 44 1t1 1 i I L





calcium carbonate, was low, 13 ppm.I
FLOWNIN CUBIC FEET PER SECOND
Figure 58. Specific conductance i onrelation to flow, Santa Fe River at
S Worthington, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960.


The most objectionable water-quality characteristics for most
water uses probably are color and iron. The average hardness, as
calcium carbonate, was low, 13 ppm.

ETONIA CREEK BASIN

Water from lakes and streams in Etonia Creek basin in Clay
County is good. The concentration of substances dissolved in Lake
Geneva averaged about 31 ppm, in Hall Lake about 45 ppm, and
in Smith Lake about 64 ppm (table 5). Many of the lakes in the
basin contained less than 30 ppm. The range in concentrations
was small, 25 ppm in Hall Lake and 15 ppm or less in most other
lakes.
Organic matter was almost absent from the lakes and streams
in the basin, and concentrations of iron were hardly significant in
most samples.
Natural factors determine water quality in Etonia Creek basin.

ORANGE CREEK BASIN

The average concentration of substances dissolved in Lochloosa
Creek at Grove Park was about 74 ppm. The average concentration
of organic matter was about 10 ppm more than the average
concentration of mineral matter. The average concentration of
substances dissolved in Lochloosa Lake was about the same" as that
in Lochloosa Creek at Grove Park, but the range in concentrations
was a little greater in Lake Lochloosa.
Waters from Newnans Lake, Camps Canal, and Orange Lake
are very similar. The average concentration of substances dissolved







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


I 2 5 10 30 50 70 90 99 9
PERCENT OF TIME

160 I III I 1 1

0 Color _
0 Specific conductance
-----_^_ _


2401





160 /

120 '-----


80 -- -- --- -

-4 .e I


t 2 5 10


30 50 70. 90


999


PERCENT OF TIME
Figure 59. Cumulative frequency curves of selected characteristics of water
from Santa Fe River at Worthington, Florida, October 1957 to September
1958.


100


3

3









REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35


101


300

280

260-

240 -

220 -

200 -



160 -


120 -



80I

60

40

20 I
:~~~~~~ a""^^L^ Z^L^


0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 3
SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE IN MICROMHOS AT 25"C
Residue on evaporation at 180 C
Hardness (calcium plus magnesium as calcium carbonate
,Organic matter

Figure 60. Residue on evaporation at 1800C, hardness, and organic matter
in relation to specific conductance, Olustee Creek near Providence, Florida,
July 1957 to September 1960.


300

200


so



S60



S830


&i 20


10


S-- I










__ _H I._ 1
i I I I L i









S4 6 7 8910 20 30 40 60 80 10 200 300 50000 700 O00 2000 4S
FLOW,IN CUBIC FEET PER SECOND


000


Figure 61. Specific conductance in relation to flow, Olustee Creek near
Providence, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960.


z

M
i


{
a:
uj


0,


I







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


z
o_
0
__ .80 /
I Residue on evaporation at 1800C
w 60 e Hardness (calcium plus magnesium
a.. / as calcium carbonate) '
cn
S40- -- / Organic matter
n / J /
20--- -- 9l ---


0 20 40 60 80 100
SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE IN MICROMHOS AT 250 C
Figure 62. Residue on evaporation at 1800C, hardness, and organic matter
in relation to specific conductance, Santa Fe River at High Springs, Florida,
July 1957 to September 1960.

in each was 64 ppm or less. Coloring organic matter was more
variable in Newnans Lake and Camps Canal. Orange Lake becomes
more mineralized during extreme droughts. Concentration of dis-
solved matter may be as much as 150 ppm in the area of the large
sinkhole at the southwestern edge of the lake.
Natural factors determine water quality in the Orange Creek
basin. Except for color and iron, the water would be suitable for
most uses.

GROUND WATER

Ground water is the subsurface water in the zone of saturation
-the zone in which all pore spaces are completely filled with water.
The zone of saturation is the reservoir from which all water from
springs and wells is derived. The term "aquifer" is defined as a
layer of material or a group of layers, in the zone of saturation,
that is permeable enough to readily yield usable quantities of water
to wells or springs.
Ground water may occur under either water-table or artesian
conditions. Where it is unconfined, its surface is free to rise and
fall and it is under water-table conditions. The water table is the
upper surface of the zone of saturation, except where that surface
is formed by a relatively impermeably material such as clay. Where


102







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


0 400
.. ...
to.

S300

9 O *.. .. .or .

o a **
S .: .




C.) gee og
S .

Che 0 "e ... t n .

8 ATOS .
g 80- --- ------- --0-a----- -
8 100-------



o0-- 60


0 4
o the 0t m i
w

40 I I __ I ----_-- 1 ---_
60 80 100 200 300 400 600
FLOW,IN CUBIC FEET PER SECOND
Figure 63. Specific conductance in relation to flow, Santa Fe River at High
Springs, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960.

ground water is confined in an aquifer under pressure by a relatively
impermeable overlying material, it is under artesian conditions.
The term "artesian" is applied to water that is under sufficient
pressure to rise above the base of the confining material. Thus,
artesian water does not necessarily rise above the land surface.
The piezometric surface of an artesian aquifer is the surface to
which water would rise in tightly cased wells that are open to the
aquifer.

LIMITATIONS OF YIELD

The amount of water that can be pumped from a well may be
limited by any of several factors. In general, the yield is determined
by the extent to which water levels may be lowered without


103








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


5 I II
A Residue on evaporation at 180C
0 Sum of determined constituents









150
221__0_0_5-











200 7-------------5
175






100 -




r -;_ -


5 10


30 50 70
PERCENT OF TIME


400.

0 Color
360 S
Specific conductance


cn 320
z
a- 280
o

IN W 240
-j
2 0n 0oo
o
I-j
a 160

I 120

8i
a1 80


90 99 999


~i 17


i T -
__L____ i_-_______





i~~~ ~ *; ^ J _





.._ ^ -- -- -

I ~ J9 I


I 5 10 30 50 70 90. 99 99.9
PERCENT OF TIME
Figure 64. Cumulative frequency curves of selected characteristics of water
from Santa Fe River near High Springs, Florida, October 1958 to September
1959.


104








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


Residue on evaporation at 1806C
Hardness (calcium plus magnesium as calcium carbonate)
/ Organic matter
240 --I

220

200

180

160
180-----------------------------------------------------------------------

o
140


P 100


60
IA" I 4I I
j 140 ------------------------------------- ----:----------------








40
Florida, July 1957 to September 1960.














of obtaining it prohibitive, or causing the well to fail. Lowering
i0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360
SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE IN MICROMHOS AT 250C
Figure 65. Residue on evaporation at 1800C, hardness, and organic matter
in relation to specific conductance, North Fork Black Creek near Highland,
Florida, July 1957 to September 1960.



adversely affecting the quality of the water, or making the cost
of obtaining it prohibitive, or causing the well to fail. Lowering
of the water level inevitably accompanies pumping and is necessary
to cause water to flow into the well from surrounding formations.
The amount of lowering (or the drawdown) is approximately pro-
portional to the rate of pumping.
The relationship between the rate of pumping and the drawdown
in a well is often used to estimate the drawdown in or the yield
of a well. This relationship is called the specific capacity of a well
and is controlled by several factors; principally the ease with which
the aquifer transmits water, the capacity of the aquifer to store
water, the well construction, the conditions under which water is
recharged to the aquifer and discharged from the aquifer, and the
length of pumping time.
The specific capacity is the pumping rate divided by the draw-
down. For example, if a well is pumped at the rate of 200 gpm
(gallons per minute) and if the water level is lowered 20 feet, its


105







106 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

200


leo-- ---------------------- --- --- ---
180

160

140



W too

S80/

60

40
4 10-- -- ----- -- -- -A- -- --; -- -- -- -- -- --





20 ---


0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300
SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE IN MICROMHOS AT 25*C
SResidue on evaporation at 180*C
Hardness (calcium plus magnesium as calcium carbonate)
60 -- -- -- ---, --/ -- -- -- -- -











/ Organic matter
40 --- -- -- -- -- -/ -- -- -- -- -










Figure 66. Residue on evaporation at 18000, hardness, and organic matter
in relation to specific conductance, North Fork Black Creek near Middleburg,
Florida, July 1957 to September 1960.

specific capacity is 10 gpm per foot of drawdown. Accordingly, if
the specific capacity of a well is 10 gpm per foot of drawdown, the
implication is, within certain limits, the yield of the well will be
increased 10 gpm for each additional foot of drawdown.
The drawdown may, however, be limited to the amount which
if exceeded would allow saline or highly mineralized water to move
into the well. The possibility of the drawdown being limited by the
intrusion of saline or highly mineralized water is greater in very
deep wells that have penetrated relatively impermeable zones in
the lower part of the aquifer than in shallower wells.
The ultimate drawdown in a well, other things being equal,
depends on how the drawdowns affect the recharge to the aquifer
and the discharge from the aquifer. Under natural conditions be-
fore withdrawals begin, the recharge to an aquifer is balanced by
the discharge from the aquifer, except for temporary differences
due to changes in the amount of water stored in the aquifer. After
pumping from the well begins, the natural balance is upset. For a








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


60 80 100 200 ;
FLOW,IN CUBIC FEET PER SECOND


107


1,000 1500


Figure 67. Specific conductance in relation to flow, North Fork Black Creek
Near Highland, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960.


200


*o I vi
100
80



40 --- I ____!__-- __ -
40
30 -


30 40


60 80 100 200 300
FLOW,IN CUBIC FEET PER SECOND


800


SFigure 68. Specific conductance in relation to flow, North Fork Black Creek
near Middleburg, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


320


280


240

z
o
200
-5JO


( 160
0-
w
O,
!,-
I 120


80


40
e.

8o





0




540


480
Un
I-
z 420

0
S360



O

2240
0



0
U
I 180
z
5 120
J
a.

60


0


I 2 5 10 30 50 70
PERCENT OF TIME


90 99 99.9


Figure 69. Cumulative frequency curves of selected characteristics of water
from North Fork Black Creek near Highland, Florida, October 1958 to
September 1959.


I 2 5 10 30 50 70 90 99 99.9
PERCENT OF TIME


108








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35 109

160IS---

140

120 ----- ----------------------
120

S100
dIOO---------------------------------------------r-----Rsdea vprto t1
1 Residue on evaporation at 180C
- 80 Hardness (calcium plus magnesium
S" as calcium carbonate)
O s *O / Organic matter
0. .


SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE IN MICROMHOS AT 25*C


ou------- --- -- -- ----- -- ---
z

40
w
I-

0 o 4 3 0 10 10 140 160 10 200 220 240
SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE IN MICROMHOS AT 250C
Figure 70. Residue on evaporation at 1800C, hardness, and organic matter
in relation to specific conductance, South Fork Black Creek near Penney
Farms, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960.

time after pumping begins, practically all of the water is pumped
from storage in the aquifer immediately surrounding the well. The
pumping of water from storage lowers the water level, and thereby
creates a cone of depression around the well. As pumping continues,
the cone of depression deepens and broadens until ultimately a new
balance is established wherein the rate of recharge is once more
equal to the rate of natural discharge, plus the rate of withdrawals.
The new balance may occur through an increase in the rate of
recharge if circumstances are favorable, to a decrease in the rate
of natural discharge, or to a combination of these changes. When
recharge once again balances discharge, the decline of the water
levels due to pumping ceases, and the water levels once again
become stable, except for fluctuations due to natural causes such
as intermittent rainfall.
The ultimate drawdown in a well therefore is less where the
conditions are favorable for the cone of depression to induce ad-
ditional recharge to the aquifer, or where the conditions are







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FLOW, MCUIC FEET PER SECOND
Figure 71. Specific conductance in relation to flow, South Fork Black Creek
near Penney Farms, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960.

favorable for the cone of depression to intercept natural discharge
from the aquifer, or both.
Ground water for the purposes of this report is divided into
that in the upper aquifers and into that in the Floridan aquifer.

UPPER AQUIFERS

The upper aquifers in this report refer to those aquifers above
the Floridan aquifer. Water in the upper aquifers 'is under both
water-table and artesian conditions. The uppermost aquifer above
the Floridan in which the water is generally under water-table
conditions is referred to as the water-table aquifer, and those
aquifers between the water-table aquifer and the Floridan aquifer
in which the water is generally under artesian conditions are
referred to as secondary artesian aquifers. (fig. 73).

WATER-TABLE AQUIFER

The water-table aquifer, which is the uppermost aquifer in the
four counties, consists chiefly of sand and clayey sand of Miocene,
Pleistocene, and Pleistocene and Recent age that contains water in
most places under water-table conditions. In the vicinity of Key-
stone Heights the aquifer also includes limestones of the
Choctawhatchee Formation. The aquifer along Trail Ridge north
of Kingsley Lake consists chiefly of sandof Kigle Lae t el a f the older Pleistocene
terrace deposits and has a maximum thickness of about 130 feet.
South of Kingsley Lake in the area where Trail Ridge fans out


110









REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35


&130- &Residue on evaporation at 180"C
@Sum of determined constituents

z 110

0 90
n-

--_ -/-T
5 70-- ---- -


50


111


30 ---------


10 --- --__

0.1 2 5 10 30 50 70 90 99 99
PERCENT OF TIME


25

olor
200-- _-_ ___l>r
0 Specific conductance

175 0/ "


50 if i_


125


00


75


50---A,*


25


I 2 5 10


30 50 70
PERCENT OF TIME


.9


99 99.9


Figure 72. Cumulative frequency curves of selected characteristics of water
from South Fork Black Creek near Penney Farms, Florida, October 1958 to
September 1959.


2




1-
z
o:

0I
u






0
w




C.)


z
i--
a-


I







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


- -,


L-C yX


EXPLANATION
Arrow indicates direction in
which water is moving
E,,.


oco or sc*.
c L- O Mro s u 0 24 6miles


"C> < J /



n P~Confinin c



bed
Figure 73. Generalized geologic section Arche rangePa Floridaface






showing aquifers and the movement of water.
U, -150-




into a series of hills and lakes, the aquifer is generally 70 feet or





less in thickness. East of Trail Ridge in Clay County, the aquifer is
0._ FLORIDAN A.UIF






madigure up of73. Generalized geologic the Peis tocene and Recent deposits and
averages abshowing aquifers and the ovss. emest and southwest of Trail
into a series of hills and lakes, the aquifer is generally 70 feet or


Ridge in thickness. East of Trail Ridge in Clay Counties the aquifer is
made up of sands of the older Pleistocene and terrace deposits andin
averages about 50 feet in thickness. West and southwest of Trail
Ridge in Alachua, Bradford, and Union counties the aquifer is
made up of sands of the older Pleistocene terrace deposits and, in
most places, is about 40 feet thick. In Alachua, Bradford, and
Union counties in the area that has been mapped as the outcrop
area of the Hawthorn Formation (fig. 4), the aquifer consists of a
few feet of sands of the older Pleistocene deposits that overlie the
Hawthorn Formation and perhaps thin sand or limestone layers
near the top of the Hawthorn. The aquifer is absent in southern
and western Alachua County (fig.74).

CONFIGURATION OF THE WATER TABLE

Figure 74 shows generalized contour lines on the water table.
The contour lines-that is lines connecting points of equal eleva-
tion-show the approximate configuration of the water table. The
contours show that beneath most of Trail Ridge the water table
is more than 200 feet above sea level and that in an area north


112




Xl _U Xl L U- U- 82'XO ,


`* ^ ^ ^


an from u SGS topograohic quadrangles
S,.da Slolate Rood Department maps

Figure 74. Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties, Florida, showing
generalized contours on the water table in the water-table aquifer.


.i:: I 1 T 1 1 I i i i i 1 1 1177-1~ i t 111 : i 11 ~ li. ` I i 1-T I i -- --


45 40 35 30 2b 20 5


0 1 05 82ogg


50 45' 40' 35' 8130'




CO0I)NTY N
COUNTY ANGE


f "'-'







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35


of Gainesville the water table is more than 150 feet above sea level.
The contours show that the water table generally slopes to the
east and to the west from Trail Ridge north of Sand Hill Lake and
to the southeast and to the southwest of Trail Ridge near Sand
Hill Lake.
The water table conforms in a general way to the topography of
the land surface. The water table is higher beneath hills than
beneath valleys, but the depth to water below the surface of the
land is usually greater beneath hills than beneath valleys. The
water table is, on the average, more than 20 feet below the land
surface beneath the hills of the lake area near Keystone Heights.
The water table is usually less than 10 feet below the surface in
Bradford and Union counties and in Clay County east of Trail
Ridge. In Alachua County the water table is usually less than 5
feet below the surface.
RECHARGE AND DISCHARGE
Rainfall replenishes the aquifer by percolating downward to
the water table. In addition, a small amount of water recharges the
aquifer by seeping upward through intervening confining beds
where the "piezometric surfaces of the lower aquifers are above
the water table.
Water in the aquifer moves from places of recharge to places of
discharge. Part of the water that leaves the aquifer is discharged
either by evaporation from the surface of the land or by transpira-
tion of the vegetation. A part is withdrawn from wells, and a part
seeps downward' through intervening clay layers into the lower
aquifers where the water table is higher than the piezometric
surfaces of the lower aquifers.
Water is also discharged from the aquifer into the lakes and
streams as indicated by the map of the water table (fig. 74). Water
in the aquifer moves laterally in a direction that is down gradient
and at right angle's to contours on the water table. The contours
indicate that water from the aquifer is being discharged into the
St. Johns River, Black Creek, Santa Fe River, and Hatchet Creek.
They also indicate that water is being discharged into Sand Hill
Lake and probably into Newnans Lake.
FLUCTUATION OF THE WATER TABLE
Figure 75 shows hydrographs of four wells that tap the water-
table aquifer. During 1958 and 1959 the water table, as shown by
the water levels in wells 946-226-1, 000-232-1, and 956-208-1,
fluctuated about 4 feet. The water levels fluctuated in response


113







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


154

152

150

(48

146

144

142

140
134

132

130

128
118

116

114

112

110

108

106

104


1957


1958


1959


1960


Figure 75. Hydrographs


of wells 946-226-1, 000-282-1, 956-208-1, and
946-202-3.


-- I--I IT" I




Well 946-226-1,
3 miles southeast of Alachua.
SWell 000-232-1,
II miles west of Lake Butler





Well 956-208-1,
-2.3miles northwest __
of Starke




Well 946-202-3,
-at Keystone Heights










I 1 1 I I \ \ \I -


114







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35


to variations in rainfall. During periods of above-average rainfall
the water table rose, and during periods of below-average rainfall
the water table declined. Unlike the water levels in the other wells
the water level in well 946-202-3 steadily rose more than 10 feet
in response to the rising level of nearby lakes.

WELLS

The water-table aquifer, in most places, will yield sufficient
water for domestic purposes from shallow dug or sandpoint wells.
The amount of water that can be pumped from wells tapping the
water-table aquifer is limited by the amount that the water level
in the well can be lowered before the well fails. Where the aquifer
consists of only a few feet of clayey sand, only meager supplies of
water can be withdrawn from the aquifer. Where the aquifer
consists of many feet of relatively coarse sand, larger supplies,
sufficient for domestic and stock purposes, may be withdrawn.

SECONDARY ARTESIAN AQUIFERS

The secondary artesian aquifers are sandwiched between the
water-table aquifer and the Floridan aquifer. The water contained
in the secondary artesian aquifers is generally under artesian
conditions.
These aquifers are chiefly limestone layers and sand layers in
the Hawthorn Formation. Except for the Brooklyn Lake area,
limestone layers and shell beds in the Choetawhatchee Formation
probably are secondary artesian aquifers. The limestone layers
in the Hawthorn Formation ordinarily range in thickness from a
few inches to as much as 6 feet. Some of the layers are dense and
yield little water; others are porous and readily release water to
wells. Although the limestone layers in the Hawthorn Formation
are limited in area, they are probably connected with other perme-
able zones of material such as sand layers.

PIEZOMETRIC SURFACES

The piezometric surfaces of the secondary artesian aquifers
usually lie between the water table and the piezometric surface of
the Floridan aquifer. Figure 76 shows the piezometric surface of
different aquifers measured when well 000-210-2, which is about
5 miles northwest of Starke, was drilled. The fact that the
piezometric surfaces of the deeper secondary artesian aquifers
were lower than the piezometric surfaces of the shallower secondary


115










116 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY












0-
m -





150-









300 0
i i- -.i i -- 3-- i i -T .

-I















C 0
5 [4-L~r44~I [ [q [ [ i I III








350 r..x


S nLC Llay LImeton








Note: Open well bore ind c ed by broken line.








Figure 76. Geologic sections showing typical water levels in wells tapping
different aquifer.
In Io Li1son
I O [ o %.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


artesian aquifers is typical of the area in which the water table is
higher than the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer.
In the areas where the piezometric surface of the Floridan
aquifer is higher than the water table the piezometric surfaces of
the secondary artesian aquifers are generally higher in the deeper
aquifers than in the shallower aquifers. These areas are in and
near the areas shown in figures 83 and 87 where wells tapping the
Floridan aquifer will flow. Figure 76 shows typical positions of
water levels in wells tapping different aquifers in this area. Wells
tapping secondary artesian aquifers will flow over most of the area
where wells tapping the Floridan aquifer will flow. The area is
somewhat smaller for the shallower secondary artesian aquifers
than for the deeper aquifers.

FLUCTUATION OF THE PIEZOMETRIC SURFACES

Figure 77 shows a hydrograph of well 946-206-1, which taps a
secondary artesian aquifer. The water level in the well, which
reflects the piezometric surface of a secondary artesian aquifer,
rose more than 4 feet between late 1958 and mid 1960.
The piezofhetric surfaces of the secondary artesian aquifers
fluctuate with the variations in recharge and discharge of the


- 88
a(


C
S87


E
6
< 86
o
0

S85
C

> 84

8)

S83


1958


1959


1960


Figure 77. Hydrograph of well 946-206-1 near Waldo, Florida.


I I I 1 t i I I I I I 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 i 1 i i 1 i I








Well 946-206-1,
4.4 miles east of Waldo







IIIII1 II I I11111111111 I I1 I IIII 1I


117







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


aquifers. The piezometric surface of the uppermost secondary
artesian aquifer probably fluctuates principally with the water table
of the water-table aquifer, and the piezometric surface of the lower-
most secondary artesian aquifer probably fluctuates principally with
the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer.

MOVEMENT

The water in the secondary artesian aquifers is derived chiefly
from the water-table aquifer and from the Floridan aquifer. Water
in the secondary artesian aquifers is also discharged chiefly into
the water-table and the Floridan aquifers. Where the piezometric
surfaces of the upper aquifers are above the piezometric surface
of the Floridan aquifer, water seeps slowly downward through the
intervening clay layers and secondary artesian aquifers into the
Floridan aquifer (fig. 73). Where the piezometric surface of the
Floridan aquifer is higher than the piezometric surfaces of the
upper aquifers, water seeps upward through the intervening clay
layers into the secondary artesian aquifers and the water-table
aquifer.

WELLS

Probably more wells in these four counties draw water from
secondary artesian aquifers than from either the water-table or
Floridan aquifer. Most of the wells drawing water from these
aquifers are used for domestic or stock purposes and are in the
areas where the piezometric surfaces of the secondary artesian
aquifers are above the piezometric surfaces of the Floridan aquifer.
The wells, which are from 2 to 4 inches in diameter, are usually
cased only to the first rock below which the material will not cave.
The wells are then completed by drilling an open hole below the
casing.
The amount of water that can be pumped from wells tapping
secondary artesian aquifers is limited by the amount that the water
level in the well can be lowered before the well fails.
Table 6 shows the specific capacities of five wells tapping'
secondary artesian aquifers in Clay County and four wells tapping
secondary artesian aquifers in Alachua County. The specific
capacities of these wells indicate that they will produce enough
water for domestic use and other small supplies.
Supplies adequate for irrigation probably can be developed
from some of these aquifers. Permeable beds in the Choctawhat-


118











TABLE 6. Specific Capacities of Wells Tapping Secondary Artesian Aquifers


I -
a
CA Vb


ALACHUA COUNTY


Remarks


k

h ia
Pot

0^
P'.


3 0.0 2
4 9.84 48
4 15 12
4 9.44 12
3 15 1.-i


i 10 Reported by driller
,- 0.2 Do.
1 Do.
2 Do.
2.0 10 Do.
.M


CLAY COUNTY


Well
number


I

02


*s-
&


o


'I


A


s~ s8
k I i


931-206-1
940-218-1
940.220-1
940-220-2
942-206-1


55
130
68
60
60


30
73
69
48
60










FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


chee Formation may yield larger amounts of water in northern
and eastern Clay County. In addition, shell beds of Pleistocene
and Recent age may provide a dependable but small supply for
irrigation in eastern Clay County.

FLORIDAN AQUIFER

The Floridan aquifer, the most productive aquifer in the four
counties, consists-of several hundred feet of interbedded soft,
porous limestone and hard, dense limestone and dolomite. The
aquifer, which underlies most of the state, consists in these
counties of beds of Eocene age (Ocala Group, Avon Park Limestone,
Lake City Limestone, and, at least in part, the Oldsmar Limestone),
Oligocene age (Suwannee Limestone), and Miocene age (limestones
in the lower part of the Hawthorn Formation). These limestones
and dolomites, as far as is known, act as a hydrologic unit in these
counties.
The contours on the map in figure 78 show the approximate
elevation and configuration of the top of the Floridan aquifer.
From southern and western Alachua County where limestones
of the Ocala Group, a part of the Floridan aquifer, are at or near
the surface, the aquifer dips to the northeast so that at Orange
Park (fig. 78) the aquifer is covered by almost 300 feet of material.
Relatively impermeable beds in the overlying Hawthorn Formation
confine the water under artesian pressure in the Floridan aquifer.

HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES

The Floridan aquifer transmits water easier and stores more
fresh water than any other aquifer in the four counties. Thej
Floridan aquifer, which consists of a thick section of alternating.
layers of soft and hard limestone and dolomite, contains fresh
water for at least several hundred feet. At a depth, however, which
is estimated to be more than 2,000 feet in these counties, the lime-
stones and dolomites probably contain either saline or highly
mineralized water. Probably, relatively impermeable layers in the
aquifer impede the vertical flow of water. The limestones and
dolomites, as a unit, have a high permeability in a lateral direction
and a low permeability in a vertical direction.
Water in the Floridan aquifer is under both water-table and
artesian conditions. In the area west of the dotted line shown on
the map in figure 8t) the water in the aquifer is under water-table
conditions; and in the area east of this line, the water is under -


120





















r e I





Ua T lEXPLAN l aI
Is r


co "u ont tol Colt ,zon hel 1ii

29 LmGo.r 0 in im pcoo vx
5 ....... ..












Figure 78. Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties, Florida, showing
contours on the top of the Floridan aquifer. t








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


artesian conditions. The water level in the aquifer is approximately
at the base of the confining bed along this line. As the water
levels decline the line shifts to the east, and as the water levels--
rise the line shifts to the west.
The Floridan aquifer transmits water from areas of recharge
to areas of discharge, stores water when the recharge exceeds the
discharge and releases water when the discharge exceeds the re-
charge. The coefficient of transmissibility, which is a measure of the
capacity of an aquifer to transmit water, is defined as the quantity
of water, in gallons a day, that will move through a vertical section
of the aquifer 1-foot wide under a unit hydraulic gradient.
The coefficient of storage, which is a measure of the capacity of an
aquifer to store water, is the volume of water released from or
taken into storage per unit surface area of the aquifer per unit
change in head. Where artesian conditions exist, the capacity, of
an aquifer to store additional water is relatively small, being in
the order of several hundred or several thousand times smaller
than the capacity of an aquifer where water-table conditions exist.
A test for determining the coefficient of transmissibility was
made on well 942-216-2, which is about 5 miles northeast of Gaines-
ville. The test consisted of pumping well 942-216-2 at the rate of
350 gpm and of measuring the recovery of the water level in the
well after the pumping stopped. (Wenzel, 1942, p. 95-96).
The results of this test are shown in figure 79. The coefficient
of transmissibility at well 942-216-2 was computed to be 160,000
gpd (gallons per day) per foot. Because well 942-216-2 penetrated
only about 200 feet of the aquifer, the coefficient probably is a

0 1
Well 942-216-2
T- 264= 160,000 gpd/t
where,
0 350 Qpm
(O *s 0.56 ft

SI log cycle





I 10 100 1,000
/j ratio of time since pumping started to time since pumping stopped
Figure 79. Semilog plot of residual drawdown versus the ratio of the time
since pumping started to the time since pumping stopped, showing solution
for coefficient of transmissibility.


122








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


measure of the capacity of only the upper part of the aquifer to
transmit water. Although the coefficient of storage could not be
determined from this test, it is small, being in the order of 0.0001.

PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE

The contour lines on the map of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and
Union counties in figure 80 represent the approximate height, in
feet above sea level, of the static water levels in June 1960 in
tightly cased wells penetrating the Floridan aquifer. Thus, in that
part of the aquifer where the water is confined, the contours in-
dicate the elevation to which water will rise in a tightly cased
well; and in that part of the aquifer where the water is not confined,
the contours indicate the elevation of the water table. The surface
represented by the contour lines, which was first mapped by
Stringfield (1936, pl. 12), is known as the piezometric surface.
The most outstanding feature of the map of the piezometric
surface in the four counties is the piezometric high that is
approximately centered around Keystone Heights. A 90-foot
contour encloses an area of about 40 square miles around Keystone
Heights, and an 80-foot contour encloses an area of about 360
square miles. East of the 80-foot contour the piezometric surface
slopes to an elevation of less than 40 feet in eastern Clay County
near the St. Johns River. South of the 80-foot contour the
piezometric surface slopes to about 60 feet above sea level near
Lochloosa Lake, and west of the 80-foot contour in Alachua
County the piezometric surface slopes to an elevation of about 35
feet near the Santa Fe River.
North and northwest of the high the piezometric surface slopes
to a relatively flat surface of 60 to 70 feet above sea level. This
fiat surface includes the western half of Bradford County, the
eastern half of Union County, and the northwestern part of Clay
County. From the flat surface the piezometric surface slopes to
the west to an elevation of about 40 feet in western Union County
and to the east to an elevation of about 40 feet in eastern Clay
County. A depression in the piezometric surface at Gainesville is
probably caused by heavy pumping, and a depression near Green
Cove Springs is probably caused by pumping and springflow.
RECHARGE

Ground water in these counties is replenished by rainfall within
the counties. Water recharges the Floridan aquifer by -leaking
through the confining beds, by percolating through breaches in the


123






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


confining beds, and by percolating directly into the aquifer .where
no confining bed exists.
Over most of the four counties water seeps into the Floridan
aquifer through the blanket of relatively impervious material that--
confines water in the aquifer under pressure (fig. 73). Where' the
piezometric surfaces of the upper aquifers are higher than the
piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer, water seeps through
the confining beds into the Floridan aquifer. The piezometric sur-"
faces of the upper aquifers are above the piezometric surface of
the Floridan aquifer in Bradford and Union counties and in more
than half of Alachua and Clay counties.
Where the confining beds have been breached, appreciable'
quantities of water may reach the aquifer. Near Gainesville, Hog-
town Creek flows directly into the aquifer through Hogtown Sink;
and, at one time, Prairie Creek flowed into the aquifer through--
Alachua Sink. In addition, water from Orange Lake has been
observed recharging the Floridan aquifer through a sink in the,
southwestern part of the lake.
At many other places the confining bed has been breached by
sinkholes. Breaches in the clay confining beds are indicated by the
many sinkholes and lakes dotting the area. These sinkholes form
when materials overlying limestone caverns collapse. As the ma- I
trial washes into the sinks, they become partially clogged and!
form lakes. A large number of these lakes are in the area of the
piezometric high near Keystone Heights.
The rate of recharge to the Floridan aquifer in a 525 square
mile area of the piezometric high that is enclosed by the 75-foot
contour was estimated (fig. 80). The rate of recharge minus the
rate of withdrawals in this area is equal to the. rate that water in
the aquifer moves across the contour, except for temporary
differences due to changes in the amount of water stored in the
aquifer.
The rate of flow of water across the contour is equal to:
Q =TIL
Where
Q = rate of flow across the contour
T = average coefficient of transmissibility across the contour
I = average hydraulic gradient across the contour
L = Length of contour
The average coefficient of transmissibility across the countour"
was assumed to be -160,000 gpd per foot, the value obtained from


124




40 35' 30' 25- I- 20-~ 15 5'800


11 I 11111111 111 1 1 111 1 I I i i I I i 1


40 35 30 25 20' 15'


L IIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIII I I I I
te broken tram U S S G ooophic quodrongles
-' do State Road Deportmden maps
Figure 80. Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties, Florida, showing
contours on the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in June 1960.


I0' 05' 8200n'


55' 50' 45' 40' 35 81*30

58-5
S 403 2


If COUNTY /w-jI^^ *L78IA /j




O 55o3 1_43-3 3- 5
49:13
4513 423 3
2 2 _




ID BURG493 4 1 4








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


the test on well 942-216-2. The average hydraulic gradient at the
75-foot contour was determined by measuring the area between the
70- and the 80-foot contour and by dividing this area by the
product of the length of the 75-foot contour, 95 miles, and the
decline, 10 feet, of the piezometric surface between the contours.
The estimated rate of recharge minus the rate of withdrawals
from the Floridan aquifer in the area enclosed by the 75-foot
contour was 36 mgd or 56 cfs. The estimated rate of withdrawals
in the area enclosed by the 75-foot contour is roughly 9 mgd or
14 cfs. The estimated rate of recharge in the area within the
contour is therefore 45 mgd or 70 cfs. This rate of recharge is
equal to about 1.8 inches of water per year over 525 square miles.
The actual rate of recharge to the aquifer is probably higher
than the rate of recharge that was estimated in the above manner.
- The coefficient of transmissibility that was used in the computation
is probably less than that of the entire aquifer because the co-
efficient was determined from a test on a well that penetrated
only the upper 200 feet of the aquifer. Large quantities of water,
moreover, may have moved across the contour through solution
channels. The estimated rate of recharge, though probably low,
shows that large amounts of water enter the Floridan aquifer in
the area of the piezometric high and that the amount is probably
not less than 45 mgd.
Another area in which large amounts of water enter the
Floridan aquifer is a 300 square mile area in southern and western
Alachua County where limestones of the Ocala Group are at or near
the surface (fig. 4). In this area water percolates downward as
shown by the absence of surface drainage.
Of the rain that falls in southwestern Alachua County, part is
evaporated from the surface of the land, part is transpired by
vegetation, and the remainder percolates to the water table. The
rainfall in southwestern Alachua County was about 67 inches in
1959. This rainfall is the average of the measured rainfall at the
Florida Forest Service's Archer and Forest Grove rain gages after
the measured rainfall at these gages had been multiplied by a
coefficient to make the rainfall compatible with that measured by
nearby U. S. Weather Bureau gages. The evapotranspiration in
southwestern Alachua County was computed according to
Thornthwaite's method to be about 40 inches in 1959 (Thornthwaite
and Mather, 1955, p. 22-23). The remainder of the water, about 25
inches, percolated to the water table.
The average rate of recharge in southwestern Alachua County
is doubtless less than the rate of recharge in 1959. The average


125








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


rainfall at Gainesville is 51 inches per year; whereas, the rainfall
in southwestern Alachua County was 67 inches in 1959. The average
rate of recharge is estimated to be at least 10 inches per year. If
the average rate of recharge were 10 inches per year, the average
rate of recharge in southwestern Alachua County would be almost
one-half mgd per square mile.

DISCHARGE

Of the hundreds of millions of gallons of water a day that enter
the Floridan aquifer in the four counties, only a part is discharged
in the counties. A large part, moving in the direction of the
hydraulic gradient, is discharged outside these counties through
the aquifer. The contours of the piezometric surface (fig. 80)
show that the piezometric surface is lower in all adjacent counties
except possibly Putnam, Baker, and Columbia. Ground water that
does not leave the area through the aquifer is discharged from
the aquifer by leakage into the upper aquifers, flow from springs,
flow into lakes and streams, or is withdrawn through wells.
Water is discharged from the Floridan aquifer into lakes and
streams in the southern and western part of Alachua County
where the Floridan aquifer is at or near the land surface. In the
southern part of Alachua County ground water is discharged into
a few of the lakes that occupy depressions in the Floridan aquifer.
Lochloosa Lake is, in part, fed by water from the Floridan aquifer;
and, at times, Orange Lake probably receives water from the
Floridan aquifer. A large part of the water, however, moves from
the area to be discharged into streams that have cut into the
aquifer.
A large amount of water is discharged from the Floridan aquifer
into the Santa Fe River. The Santa Fe River, which flows for
several miles underground near High Springs, is fed by ground
water during periods of low flow, but water moves from the river
into the Floridan aquifer during periods of rising river stages and
re-enters the river during periods of falling river stages (Cooper,
Kenner, and Brown, 1953, p. 150-151, pl. 9.4, 9.5). Furthermore,
hundreds of millions of gallons of water a day flow from the
Floridan aquifer into the Santa Fe River between 'the gaging
stations near High Springs and Fort White.
Water leaks into the upper aquifers where the piezometric
surface of the Floridan aquifer is higher than the water table or
artesian pressures of the upper aquifers (fig. 73). Upward leakage
occurs in the low areas along the St. Johns River, in the valleys'


126








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


of Black Creek and its tributaries, and near Lochloosa Creek. In
these areas water also moves up in wells that tap the Floridan and
are not cased off by the upper aquifers. Foster (1961) estimated
that in eastern Clay County about 30 mgd moves from the Floridan
into the upper aquifers through wells.
Water escapes from the Floridan aquifer through many springs.
Poe Springs, which is near the town of High Springs, has the largest
flow of any spring in the area. The flow of this spring has been
measured to be as little as 20 mgd and to be as much as 59 mgd.
Other springs in the area that seem to derive their flow from the
Floridan aquifer are Green Cove Springs and Wadesboro Springs
in Clay County and Magnesia Springs in Alachua County.


DISCUSSION OF FLORIDAN AQUIFER BY COUNTIES

ALACHUA COUNTY

Fluctuation of piezometric surface: Figure 81 shows hydro-
graphs of six wells tapping the Floridan aquifer in Alachua County.
These wells are in or near the area where the Floridan aquifer is at
or near the surface (fig. 4). The water levels in these wells
'fluctuated from 4 to 8 feet between late 1958 and mid 1960. The
fluctuations were caused chiefly by changes in the rate of recharge
to and discharge from the aquifer, owing to fluctuations in the rate
of rainfall and in the rate of. evapotranspiration.
A hydrograph of well 948-231-2, which is 1.5 miles northwest of
Alachua, and a hydrograph of well 949-236-2, which is at High
Springs, is shown in figure 82. The sharp rise in the water levels
of the two wells in March 1959 was probably caused in part by a
high stage of the Santa Fe River.
Area of artesian flow: Artesian wells will flow where the
piezometric surface is higher than the land surface. Figure 83
shows the approximate area in Alachua County in which wells
tapping the Floridan aquifer would flow in June 1960. The area
includes the low land along Lochloosa Creek and extends from
Lochloosa Lake to State Highway 20. The area also includes the
low land adjacent to the east and west shores of the lake. Wells
will also flow in the eastern part of Orange Lake or in the prairie
east of Orange Lake, which was once a part of the lake.
Analysis of pumping test: The results of the pumping test on
well 942-216-2, which is about 5 miles northeast of Gainesville,
showed that at well 942-216-2 the coefficient of transmissibility of


127








128


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Well 927-203-1,10 miles
south of Hawthorne /


f


60





SWell 929-213-1, 3.5 miles
5 56 east of Miconopy



c
E
52 Well 932-231-1, at-- Well 941-222-2,
Archer //3 miles northwest of
o Gainesville

Z 50
c
-48
SWell 936-236-1,
2.5 miles south
of Newberry
S46 -_______________


44

Well 946-226-2, 3 miles
i southeast of Alachua
42
I
I
/

J FMAMJ A S ONDJ FMAMJJ JASOND J F M AMJ J ASO ND
1958 1959 1960
Figure 81. Hydrographs of wells 927-203-1, 929-213-1, 932-231-1, 936-236-1,
941-222-2, and 946-226-2 in Alachua County, Florida.

the upper part of the Floridan aquifer is about 160,000 gpd per
foot. The water in the Floridan aquifer at well 942-216-2 is under
artesian conditions; therefore, the order of magnitude of the co-
efficient of storage of the aquifer at well 942-216-2 is about 0.0001.
Figure 84 shows a graph of the theoretical drawdown in an
infinite aquifer in the vicinity of a well from which water is being
withdrawn at the rate of 1,000,000 gpd from storage within the"


Cd


L 'J








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


41



40


o>
) 39

C
E 38

0


a)
37

05



35
*O


1958 1959
Figure 82. Hydrographs of wells 948-231-2 and
County, Florida


1960
949-236-2, in Alachua


aquifer (Theis, 1935, p. 519-524). The aquifer is assumed to have
a coefficient of transmissibility of 160,000 gpd per foot and a
coefficient of storage of 0.0001. The drawdown is proportional to
the rate of pumping. If the well were being pumped at the rate of
100,000 gpd, for example, the drawdown would be one-tenth of
that shown in figure 84.
One of the assumptions on which the drawdowns shown in
figure 84 are based is that the water being withdrawn from the
well is derived from storage in the aquifer. Actually, the draw-
down will stabilize when the cone of depression has induced enough
additional recharge or intercepted enough natural discharge to


129


Well 948-231-2, 1.5 miles
northwest of Alachua



















Well 949-236-2, at
High Springs



I I 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I







130 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


8215' 10' 05' 82001'

HAWTHORNE









30'














2\5' I' 05' 82001'
Area o al






area of artesian flow in June 1960.


equal the rate at which water is being withdrawn from the well.
How long a well in this area must be pumped before the drawdown
in the well will stabilize was not studied, but it is probably less
than a year and doubtless less than 10 years.
When more than one well is being pumped, well interference
results. Well interference refers to the fact that pumping one well
causes a drawdown or a lowering of the water level in nearby
wells. The magnitude of the interference between wells depends
upon many factors; but, in general, the interference is large where
wells are closely spaced and small where they are far apart. The
magnitude of the interference between wells, in fact, varies more
or less with the logarithm of the distance between the wells. For








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


0.1 1 10 00
Distance, in feet from pumping well
Figure 84. Graph showing theoretical drawdowns in the v
pumping 1,000,000 gpd for selected periods.


1,000


vicinity of a well


example, as can be determined from figure 84, if two wells spaced
1,000 feet from each other are pumped at the rate of 1,000,000
gpd each for a day, the drawdown in each well would be increased
about 3 feet because of the pumping of the other well.
Specific capacities of wells: Table 7 lists the specific capacities
of 23 wells in Alachua County. The specific capacities of wells in
'western Alachua County generally were higher than the specific
/ capacities of wells in central and eastern Alachua County. The
i specific capacities in western Alachua County ranged from 29 to
20,000 gpm per foot of drawdown; whereas, the specific capacities
of wells in central and eastern Alachua County ranged from 2 to
700.
- Some of the wells, especially those with very high specific ca-
iacities, probably penetrate cavities. Most of the wells having
comparatively low specific capacities are in central or eastern
Alachua County and tap less than 100 feet of the aquifer.


C _______ -------_-_----------- _-----_
Computation based on.
2 Discharge (0) I,O000.00Ogpd
Transmissibility (T) 160,000 gpd/ft.
3 Storage (S). x I T4















IC
14
4------------------- --- ---3-----i



14- ---------- --------^ ^------

15. ^ ^ ^~zz


10,000


131











TABLE 7. Specific Capacities of Wells Tapping the Floridan Aquifer in
Alachua County, Florida




nWell Remarks
number 8| ^ | g




080-216-1 67 55 4 81.6 2 10 .... 5 Reported by driller
986-286-1 251 186 8 25.57 20.70 590 7.00 29 Measured by USGS
087-205.1 205 110 8 34 4.8 350 8 70 Reported by owner
937.205-1 205 110 8 34 4.5 350 .5 80 Measured by USGS
987-219-1 870 116 16 50 10 250 ... 25 Reported by driller
987-282-1 144 90 10 40.70 .20 400 .8 2.000 Measured by USGS;
pumping level seemed
to have stabilized
988-217-1 79 50 3 81 3 10 -- 8 Reported by driller
988-219-4 407 -- 18 16 1,000 -- 60 Do.
988-219-6 464 178 30 98.2 7 5,100 -- 700 Do.
988-219-8 748 152 24 95.24 12.7 4,300 6.6 840 Do.
988-219-9 750 168 24 88.23 12.0 4,500 6.8 880 Do.
988-221-1 916 290 20 32.8 5 3,200 -- 600 Do.
988-221-2 700 ;88 20 25.5 7 2,700 400 Do.
088-286-2 120 80 12 88.40 0.08 500 0.2 20,000 Measured by USGS
940-217-1 368 205 10 117 22 500 -- 20 Reported by driller
940-221-2 814 167 6 128.71 14.19 100 4.8 7 Measured by USGS
941-220-1 195 121 4 121 6 20 3 reported by driller


I_ _





TABLE 7. (Continued)


Well t y l
number

SPS
00


U
04.


Pt


u


s'-
a
p4


U


UF
rj


Remarks


942-216-2 850 160 12 87.84 10.22 850 7.7 84 Measured by USGS
942-216-8 522 158 20 90.10 61 2,000 40 Reported by driller
943-207-1 160 95 4 81 6 15 2 Do.
047-210-1 255 175 6 80.89 1.8 860 .4 190 Measured by USGS
949-285-2 800 250 10 87.84 .26 420 .6 1,600 Measured by USGS;
pumping level seemed
to have stabilized
951-285-1 225 48 4 14.14 .02 25 .1 1,000 Reported by 4riller







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


BRADFORD COUNTY

Fluctuation of the piezometric surface: Although no water
levels in wells tapping the Floridan aquifer in Bradford County
have been measured for a significant period of time, the piezo-
metric surface in Bradford County probably fluctuated approxi-
mately the same as the piezometric surface in nearby counties. The
piezometric surface in Bradford County, in other words, probably
fluctuated 3 or 4 feet in 1959 and 1960.
Specific capacities of wells: Table 8 gives the specific capacities
of several wells tapping the Floridan aquifer in Bradford County.
The specific capacities ranged from 25 to 210 gpm per foot of draw-
down and averaged 78.

CLAY COUNTY

Fluctuation of the piezometric surface: Figure 85 shows the
decline of the piezometric surface in northeastern and eastern Clay
County between June 1934 and June 1960. Figure 86 shows the
fluctuation of the water level in four wells tapping the Floridan
aquifer in Clay County. Most of the decline in the water levels is
probably due to withdrawals from wells in the Jacksonville area.
The decline in the water levels, as shown in figure 86, began
in about 1948 and continued until about 1956. Since 1956, the
water levels have risen 3 or 4 feet. The decline from June 1934 to
June 1960 was about 18 feet in Orange Park and about 14 feet
near Green Cove Springs.
Area of artesian flow: The area in Clay County in which wells
tapping the Floridan aquifer will flow is shown in figure 87. The
area was determined by comparing the elevation of the land sur-
face from topographic maps with the elevation of the piezometric
surface as shown in figure 80.
As may be seen from figure 87, the principal areas of artesian
flow are along the St. Johns River and in the low areas near Black
Creek and its tributaries. Most of northeastern Clay County,
including those low areas near Black Creek and Little Black Creek,
is in the area of flow. This area extends along Black Creek and
up North Fork Black Creek. It also extends along South Fork
Black Creek and along Greens Creek.
Specific capacities of wells: Table 9 gives the specific capacities
of 33 wells in Clay County. The specific capacities were lower in
eastern and northeastern Clay County than they were in western


134












TABLE 8. Specific Capacities of Wells Tapping the Floridan Aquifer
in Bradford County, Florida








to have stabili s ed
956-Well 607 20 94.04 48 2 0 Remarks
number t period




951-208-1 228 105 6 68.82 5 125 -- 25 Reported by driller
055-219-1 175 117 10 78.01 .70 150 0.5 210 Measured by USGS;
pumping level seemed
to have stabilized
0956-206-6 503 278 10 93.19 10 600 .. 60 Reported by driller
956-206-7 607 280 18 94.04 48 2,900 60 Reported by consulting
engineers; *sustained
period
002-208-1 725 830 16 180 40 2,200 3.8 65 Measured by USGS;
pumping level seemed
to have stabilized
008-208-1 774 442 16 125.51 36.22 2,200 .5 61 Do.
008-211-1 700 275 12 --- 18.1 1,000 .2 76 Do.









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


82CS' 82*00'


55' 50' 45' 40' 35' 81'*30'


i I I I I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I I I I


-5 -10 -
DUVAL COUNTY
CLAY COUNTY




r II-- ie*J.i


IV \

""4







=1 .. .w ,/
*: .
S~ KL l^ 4
siift*







.J^. ) l8
1 '~gtit#


CLAY COUNTY'
,i'U TNANM COUNTY


,'3 /' Well
-12
S! Number shows decline of the
s -?'piezometric surface, in feet;
>, J e is estimated decline

') Contour line connects points of
equal decline in the piezometric
surface from June 1934 to
June 1960. Dashed line repre-
sents inferred position of contour
Contour interval 5 feet
S0 I 2 3 4 5 miles
I I I I I


Figure 85. Clay County, Florida, showing the decline of the piezometric
surface in eastern Clay County from June 1934 to June 1960.

Clay County. The specific capacities of wells in eastern and north-
eastern Clay County ranged from 2 to 60 gpm per foot of drawdown
and averaged 12; whereas the specific capacity of wells in western
Clay County ranged from 22 to 300 gpm per foot of drawdown and
averaged 120.


136


30*00'





55'





50'





45'





40'





29035'


"' 1
~1









I


_~I___ _








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35


137


76------------------------r--- -
72 ---- ----. Well 003-151-1,- -
-/ o Middleburg
68


I. \ -"-I.




S- --- --
52

S48 -------
Well 002-142- 1 1
2.5 m les north of Green Core SpIrngs




326------------------- ----_---
40 -----_ _^ mL Y _





Well 959-140-1,
of Green Cove Sprin g s
28------
193 1940 1945 1950 199 196
Figure 86. Hydrographs of wells 959-140-1, 002-142-1, 006-149-1, and
003-151-1 in Clay County, Florida.








UNION COUNTY

Fluctuation of piezometric surface: The piezometric surface in
Union County fluctuates chiefly with variations in rainfall. As
shown in figure 88, the water level in well 007-222-1, which reflects
the piezometric surface in the Floridan aquifer, fluctuated about
4 feet during 1959 and 1960 in response chiefly to variations in
rainfall.
Specific capacities of wells: Table 10 gives the specific capacities
of seven wells in Union County. The specific capacities ranged
from 60 to 360 gpm per foot of drawdown and averaged 145.







138 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

8ea 82*o' 5' 5' s45 40d 35' 8'30.,
3C-s I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 t_ '


DUVA L COUNTY







MIDDLEBURG


3cC 1- 3o*oo
SLAY' ,COUNTY (; 0UNYN,0




















4' Area where wells topping the

-oFlaridan aquifer will flowe.,..



Vf ^ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 29 40'
82CS 82"00 55' 51 45' 40 35' 8 '

Figure 87. Clay County, Florida showing the approximate area in which
wells tapping the Floridan aquifer will flow, June 1960.


QUALITY OF GROUND WATER

Just as the quantity of ground water is variable, so is its
quality. Both nature and man affect the amount of the matter
dissolved in the ground water of the area. Water dissolves
minerals from the earth's crust; the amount and kind of dissolved
material depends on time of contact and the composition of the
earth's crust. Man's use of water and land affect both the chemical
and the sanitary quality. This report is concerned only with the








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


chemical and physical quality and contains no information on the
sanitary aspects and suitability for use when such is related to
bacteriological quality.

FACTORS AFFECTING CHEMICAL QUALITY

Generally rain contains a small amount of dissolved matter,
mostly dissolved gases such as nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.
In coastal areas much sodium chloride may be carried by rainfall
and windblown spray. The solvent action of water is greatly
increased by the presence of carbon dioxide which is absorbed from
the atmosphere and from the soil. The amount and type of mineral
matter taken into solution by water depends, among other things,
upon the availability of carbon dioxide for the weathering process,
the nature of the minerals present, and the length of time the
water is in contact with the minerals. The longer the water is in
contact with a given soil or rock, the more mineralized it becomes.
The solution of material is often further affected by the biological
activity of plants and soil bacteria.
Demand for water for industrial and domestic use will increase
as the area develops. Increased use and re-use of the water can
logically be expected to affect the chemical quality of ground water.
Therefore, it is evident that both manmade factors and natural
factors cause variations in the quality of ground water.
The chemical quality data are considered a good evaluation of
the ground-water quality at the time of sampling. The data do
not show the variation of quality with time. There are indications
that variation with time is significant in a few places.
Ground-water quality is discussed by aquifer; water-table
aquifer, secondary artesian aquifer, and Floridan aquifer.

WATER-TABLE AQUIFER

Residue on evaporation at 180C was determined on all samples
with color intensity exceeding 10, and on 24 additional samples
with color intensity less than 10 units. Of the 119 samples from
wells drawing water from the water-table aquifer, the color in-
tensity of 12 samples was greater than 10 units. In the other
samples (color intensity no greater than 10 units), the concentra-
tions of mineral matter were calculated from partial analyses and
assumed to be approximately equal to the residue on evaporation at
180C. The calculated and determined mineral matter ranged
from 17 to 302. ppm. The sum of the determined constituents is


139











TABLE 9, Specific Capacities of Wells Tapping the Floridan Aquifer in
Clay County, Florida



a" S
Well Remarks
number a UP it



046-202.4 492 180 8 61.27 18 550 1 80 Reported by driller
949-158-1 450 .... 10 .... 4 1,200 2 800 Reported by owner
049-158.2 460 218 10 -- 4 1,140 2 300 Do.
.950.137-2 400 .- 4 +14 14 23 .1 2 Measured by USGS
051-187-1 860 80 6 +10 19 160 .1 8 Do.
053-138-1 494 274 4 +25 24 240 .1 10 Do.
956-139.1 89 200 6 +16 10 180 .1 20 Do.
956-158.2 580 358 10 88 23.5 800 84 From records of U.S.
Army
956-159-1 718 312 10 151 10 800 80 Do.
956-i59.2 695 292 12 117 20 800 40 Do.
956-159-8 581 316 10 84.5 5 800 160 Do.
957-157-1 680 877 10 78.0 36 800 22 Do.
958-189-1 650 276 8 to 6 +16 19.5 500 .7 26 From records of U.S.
Navy
958-157-1 685 342 12 74 8.5 800 280 From records of U.S.
Army
958-1584a 661 380 10 91.0 4.5 800 180 From records of U.S.
Army
958-158-2 719 376 10 86.0 27 800 30 Do.








TABLE 9. (Continued)


I.. 5 a0E bd
v1 0
m .a a s
v, rr -
$ a pP.-


117
10
+81
+26
+40
+50
+26
+26
+86
+27
+22
+28
+26
+85
+22
+34


800
1,000
140
60
220
120
80
500
180
860
200
70
100
915
40
60
1,800


80
22
5
2
6
8
8
20
5
15
10
3
4
80
2 .
2
60


Well
number


08
a
5 i
a5. ~


958-1560-1
059-141-3
002-142-1
008-145-2
004-149-1
004-150-1
005-141-1
006-145-2
006-147-1
006-149-1
006-149-2
006-150-2
009-142-1
009-142-2
010-142-1
010-142-2
010-142-4


524
605
400
479
675
475
525
496
850
481
580
600
450
600
450
450
405


420
72









219
80
157
200


296
815
300
335


12'
12
6
8 to 2
4 to 8
3 to 2
8 to 2
6

8
4


2
3


3 to 2
4
8


TABLE 9. (Continued)


Remarks





Do.
Reported by driller
Measured by USGS
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Measured by USGS
Reported by driller
Measured by USGS
Do.
Reported by driller







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


67

4)
-66
0

S65
E

o 64
o
0


c 63


S62
0


Well 007-222-1)
8 miles north of Lake Butler





Monthly Rainfall at
High Springs

n -- ~^~^'r7


ili.7"ii /i


1958


1959


1960


Figure 88. Hydrograph of well 007-222-1 in Union County, Florida, and a
graph of monthly rainfall at High Springs, Florida


greatest in the northern part of the area and least in the south-
western and southeastern parts (fig. 89).
Silica was determined in 120 of the same samples. The con-
centration of silica was equal to or less than 10 ppm in 85 of the
118 samples. The concentrations ranged from 0.0 to 58 ppm.
Samples collected from iron determinations were filtered in the
field. The concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 6.4 ppm.
Concentrations of iron in 46 of the 119 samples exceeded 0.30 ppm.


142













TABLE 10. Specific Capacities of Wells Tapping the Floridan Aquifer in
Union County, Florida



W e l l .9e a
number a 4 8 Remarks




957-228-2 291 103 10 78.85 1.98 600 0.60 800 Measured by USGS;
pumping level seemed
to have stabilized
957-227-1 830 125 10 87.49 9.86 600 .27 60 Do.
001-219-1 857 .- 12 66.89 10 600 60 Reported by driller
001-219-1 857 .- 12 66.89 5.60 600 .25 110 Measured by USGS
001-219-2 402 30 10 60 6 350 -5 60 Reported by driller
004-211-1 612 280 12 to 10 71.6 19.6 1,386 _- 70 Do.
007-222-1 724 694 8 87.90 .94 340 16.6 360 Measured by USGS;
pumping level seemed
to have stabilized


0.







O
I-



Cn









144 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY





ORANGE 200
PPARK
'1 /50
UNION J/ i

LAKE Y- LAWTEYv j C L-A Y ^ /00
U A INGt PEN FARMS \
STARKE GR EEN
s.alt BR FO D Z I50
7 BOOKERR 'Z
", Rive, in
50 SPR04N~S % KEYSTIONE


EXPLANATION
--50--
Lines connect points of opproximote
equal dissolved solids. Contour
interval 50 ports per million.


EXPLANATION
-/00 .
Lines connect points of approximate
equol hardness. Hardness is ex-
pressed as CoCO3 in ports per
million Contour interval 100 ppm


- __, ARCH-ER

L-_----- -


Figure 89. Dissolved solids and hardness of water from the water-table
aquifer.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


Hardness ranged from 3 to 246 ppm. Of the 117 hardness
values determined, 73 were less than 50 ppm, 12 were between 50
and 100 ppm, and 32 were greater than 100 ppm. The water in the
northern part of the area is most likely to be hard (fig. 89). The
hardest water entered the water-table aquifer from the underlying
secondary artesian aquifers.
Sodium was estimated or determined to be 10 ppm or less in
23 of the samples. Estimated and determined sodium concentra-
tions ranged from about 1.5 to 62 ppm.
Some samples contained unusual concentrations of potassium;
concentrations range from 0.0 to 29 ppm. Some samples containing
unusual concentrations of potassium have rather high concen-
trations of nitrate.
Bicarbonate is often the dominant substance in water samples
from the water-table aquifer, and also from the secondary artesian
aquifers and the Floridan aquifer. The concentrations of
bicarbonate ranged from 0 to 324 ppm. Of the 121 samples from
the water-table aquifer, 39 contained bicarbonate in excess of
100 ppm.
Sulfate concentrations were 10 ppm or less in 40 of the 56
samples-concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 72 ppm.
Chloride ranged from about 1.5 to 92 ppm. Chloride was 10 ppm
or less in 35 of the 71 samples.
Fluboide exceeded 1.5 ppm in 6 of the 118 samples and ranged
from 0.0 to 3.1 ppm.
Nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.0 to 119 ppm. Nitrate
concentrations in 33 of the 61 samples were 1.0 ppm or less and
exceeded 10 ppm in 17 samples.

SECONDARY ARTESIAN AQUIFERS

Residue on evaporation at 1800C was determined for all
samples with color intensity exceeding 10 units. Of the 144
samples taken from wells drawing water from the secondary
artesian aquifers, the color intensity of 4 samples was greater
than 10. In the other samples (color intensity no greater than 10),
the concentration of mineral matter was calculated from partial
analyses and assumed to be approximately equal to the residue on
evaporation at 180C. The calculated and determined mineral
matter ranged from 29 to 363 ppm. Mineral content of the water
is greatest in the vicinity of Starke (fig. 90).
Silica was determined in 143 of the same samples. The
concentration of silica was equal to or less than 10 ppm in only


145









146 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY







N I ON


/ em,,v. .P I
I / KINGSLEY \4Y


7 nooKtn X
E C) skyKcaSTONE
Sin v 50 prts r mion
WEIGHTS5


ALACHUA
GIiNE$ L L E EXPLANATION
rLines connect points of approximate
Equal dissolved solids. Contour
.p AN"E\R interval 50 ports per million
a CKER Lake


EXPLANATION
/00-
Lines connect points of approximate
equal hardness Hardness is ex-
pressed as CoCOs in ports per
million, Contour interval 50 ppm.


Figure 90. Dissolved solids and hardness of water from the secondary artesian
aquifers.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 85


23 of the 143 samples. The concentrations ranged from 0.5 to
73 ppm.
Samples for iron determination were collected in separate
containers after filtering with millipore filters. Concentrations
ranged from 0.02 to 3.9 ppm. Concentration of iron in 23 of the
140 samples exceeded 0.30 ppm.
Hardness ranged from 4 to 248 ppm. Of the 143 hardness
values determined, 8 were less than 50 ppm, 31 were 50 to 100
ppm, and 104 were greater than 100 ppm. In general, the hardest
water occurs in the northern part of the area (fig. 90).
Sodium was estimated or determined to be 10 ppm or less in
2 of 22 samples. Estimated and determined sodium concentrations
ranged from about 4.2 to 56 ppm.
Bicarbonate is often the dominant substance present in water
samples from the secondary artesian aquifers, and also from the
water-table aquifer and the Floridan aquifer. The concentrations
of bicarbonate ranged from 14 to 326 ppm. Of the 143 samples
from the secondary artesian aquifers, 110 contained bicarbonate
in excess of 100 ppm.
Sulfate concentrations were 10 ppm or less in 59 of the 66
samples. Concentrations ranged from 0.0 to 12 ppm.
Chloride ranged from about 4.5 to 84 ppm. Chloride was 10
ppm or less in 16 of the 35 samples.
Fluoride exceeded 1.5 ppm in 6 of the 142 samples. The
concentrations ranged from 0.0 to 2.1 ppm. Waters containing
fluoride in concentrations greater than 1.5 ppm were from wells
in Clay County.
Nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.0 to 37 ppm. Nitrate
concentrations in 8 of the 15 samples were 1.0 ppm or less and 10
ppm or greater in 2 samples.

FLORIDAN AQUIFER

Residue on evaporation at 180C was determined for all samples
with color intensity exceeding 10 units, and for 22 additional
samples with color intensity less than 10. Of the 244 samples
taken from wells drawing water from the Floridan aquifer, the
color intensity of 8 samples was greater than 10. In the other
samples (color no greater than 10), the concentration of mineral
matter was calculated from partial analyses and assumed to be
approximately equal to the residue on evaporation at 1800C.
The calculated and determined mineral matter ranged from 33 to
687 ppm. The highest concentration of dissolved solids occurs


147







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


south of Gainesville. Water in southeastern Clay County is also
high in dissolved solids (fig. 91).
Silica was determined in 241 of the same samples. The con-
centrations of silica were equal to or less than 10 ppm in 60 of the
241 samples. The concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 51 ppm.
Samples collected for iron determinations were filtered in the
field. Concentrations ranged from 0.00 to 7.3 ppm. Concentrations
of iron in 23 of the 231 samples exceeded 0.30 ppm.
Hardness ranged from 10 to 519 ppm. Of the 239 hardness
values determined, 9 were less than 50 ppm, 66 were 50 to 100 ppm,
and 164 were greater than 100 ppm.
The water from the Floridan aquifer is fairly uniform in
hardness. Hardness exceeds 200 ppm in a small area in south-
eastern Clay County and in northwestern and southern Alachua
County (fig. 91).
Sodium was estimated or determined to be 10 ppm or less in
28 of the 47 samples. Estimated and determined sodium concentra-
tions ranged from about 3.5 or less to 92 ppm.
Some samples contained unusual concentrations of potassium;
concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 8.9 ppm. In some samples con-
taining unusual potassium concentrations, nitrate concentrations
were rather high.
Bicarbonate is often the dominant substance present in water
samples from the Floridan aquifer, and also from the secondary
artesian aquifers and the water-table aquifer. The concentrations
of bicarbonate ranged from 21 to 430 ppm. Of the 243 samples
from the Floridan aquifer 180 contained bicarbonate in excess of
100 ppm.
Sulfate concentrations were 10 ppm or less in 88 of the 148
samples. Concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 344 ppm.
Chloride ranged from about 2.5 to 145 ppm. Chloride was 10
ppm or less in 52 of the 82 samples.
Fluoride exceeded 1.5 ppm in 1 of the 240 samples. The concen-
tration ranged from 0.0 to 2.2 ppm.
Nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.0 to 60 ppm. Nitrate
concentrations were 1.0 ppm or less in 43 of the 51 samples and
10 ppm or greater in 3 samples.

VARIABILITY OF WATER QUALITY

The variation in water quality within the aquifer is due mostly
to natural factors. Concentration of dissolved substances generally
increases progressively with depth to near the bottom of the


148










REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


149


EXPLANATION
--50--
Lines connect points ol apprxmnrate
equal dissolved solids Contour
interval 50 parts per million,


5 EXPLANATION
---/00-
Lines connect points of approximate
equal hardness. Hardness is ex-
pressed as COCO3 in ports per
million, Contour interval 100 ppm.


Figure 91. Dissolved solids and hardness of water from the Floridan
aquifer.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Hawthorn Formation. Then the concentration of dissolved sub-
stances decreases, reaching a minimum in the Ocala Group and
Avon Park Limestone, and possibly in the Lake City Limestone.
These trends in concentration appear related to different recharge
rates, to solubility of geologic materials, and in some places to
upward movement of artesian water from the Floridan aquifer.
The depth at which the concentration of dissolved substances
increases continuously with increasing depth was not observed
in the area. The deepest well from which a sample was analyzed
is 850 feet. The well is at Green Cove Springs, is cased to 400 feet,
and had 139 ppm of dissolved substances in the water.
The variation in the type of dissolved substances and their
concentration appears to be associated with major formational
changes. For example, a marked increase in calcium and sulfate
was observed in the zone near the top of the Ocala Group and near
the top of the Avon Park Limestone. The calcium and sulfate are
apparently dissolved from gypsum sediments.
Silica in water tends to increase with depth at least to the
bottom of the Hawthorn Formation. Sands, clays, and limestones
are potential sources of silica. The weathering of clays may
explain the trend of higher silica concentrations with depth.
The iron in the water, besides being localized, tends to decrease
with depth. Probably the most important iron-dissolving environ-
ments are biological activity and decaying organic matter,
producing abundant carbon dioxide to enrich percolating water,
although other favorable iron-dissolving environments are possible.
The detailed chemistry of iron is complex and has been the subject
of recent researches (Hem, 1960a, 1960b, 1960c; Hem and Cropper,
1959; Hem and Skougstad, 1960; and Oborn, 1960a and 1960b).
Generally the concentration of calcium plus magnesium in
water from limestone is chemically equivalent to the amounts of
carbonate plus bicarbonate. If the water is from a zone enriched
with gypsum sediments, the concentration of calcium plus mag-
nesium is in general chemically equivalent to the sum of carbonate,
bicarbonate, and sulfate. Whereas the solubility of calcium and
magnesium carbonates in water depends on the presence of
dissolved carbon dioxide, the solubility of calcium sulfate is
relatively unaffected by its presence.
Gypsum is not the only source of sulfates in water. The action
of certain bacteria on sulfur-bearing compounds produces water-
soluble sulfates.
Sodium and potassium differ markedly in at least one geochemi-
cal aspect. Potassium is absorbed by clays at a considerably more


150







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


rapid rate than sodium. The area contains many clay deposits;
therefore, one would expect water of the total mineral content
found in this area to contain no more than 1 or 2 ppm potassium.
Greater concentrations are probably caused by man. Sodium and
chloride in water can be of either natural or manmade origin.
For the most part they are probably of natural origin. Sodium
tends to increase slightly with depth.
Low concentrations of nitrate are common in water. In con-
centrations greater than 10 ppm, it is probably caused by man.
Nitrate concentration decreases with depth. In the Floridan
aquifer only about 1 percent of the water samples contained
nitrate in excess of 10 ppm. The greater and more frequent
concentrations of nitrate at shallow depths is further evidence of
its origin from man-made factors.
Color is more prevalent and intense at shallow depths. It is
caused by the presence of organic matter leached from vegetation
or peat beds. Swamp areas are the principal contributors to color
of water.
For most water uses, the objectionable quality characteristics
of water from the water-table aquifer are probably iron, calcium
and magnesium hardness, and nitrate-in certain localized areas.
Although apparently not extensive, color in water from the water-
table aquifer is troublesome in certain localities.
Iron concentrations greater than 0.30 ppm are less frequent
in the water-table aquifer than in the secondary artesian aquifer
and therefore the water from the water-table aquifer is of better
quality for most uses. Secondary artesian aquifer water is harder
but less colored than water-table aquifer water.
In the Floridan aquifer, both water supply and water quality
are generally better than that in the other aquifers. Hardness is
the most frequent undesirable characteristic. Objectionable con-
centrations of iron for most uses are infrequent. Sulfate may be
at objectionable levels in a few places. The water is colored by
organic substances in only a few places.
Some wells may be cased to avoid water containing undesirable
concentrations of constituents.

GROUND-WATER TEMPERATURE

The temperature of ground water is not so variable as that of
surface water, except in very shallow wells. Ground-water
temperatures generally increase with depth at a rate of about 1F
for each 50 to 100 feet. The temperature of the ground water in


151









152 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties averaged about
740F, which is 4 degrees higher than the mean annual air
temperature at Gainesville. The ground-water temperature in
the shallow aquifer varied with the air temperature and the
temperature in the Floridan aquifer remained about constant
at a given location and depth. The deepest well where water
temperature was measured is 962 feet deep (well 938-221-1). The
temperature, which may have been high due to the injection of
hot air-conditioning water into the aquifer nearby, was 800F on
November 11, 1957. The water temperature in wells 002-203-1,
725 feet deep, and 003-203-1, 774 feet deep, was 700F.

WATER USE

RELATION OF WATER QUALITY TO WATER USE

The suitability of water for specific uses can be determined
by comparing the concentrations of constituents in water with
the tolerable concentration of each constituent. Table 11 shows

TABLE 11. Chemical Quality of Water Tests Commonly1 Made
for Purposes Indicated

Test A II C D
1. Bacteriological examinations .-.. .. .... .. ...... ...
2. Organic nitrogen ....... ..... ..... ---- .... .. ......
:. Albuminoid nitrogen .... ...... ... ......
4. Ammonia nitrogen
5. Nitrate
6. Taste and odor ... ..
7. B. O. D.
6. Dissolved oxygen ........
9. Oxygen consumed .. .
to. Turbidity
t1. Manganese
12. Iron ..... .. ..... .
13. Fluoride ..
14. Color
15. pH
Id. Nitrate. ........
17. Chloride
Is. Carbonate and bicarbonate ....................
19. Dissolved solid .
it. Hardnessn.. .
21. Sulfate
22. Magnesium
2:. Calcium ..........
24. Specflic conductance...
25. Sodium
26. Potassium ......
27. Silica ........
24. Boron

A. Teats for determining sanitary quality of potable or polluted waters.
B. Tests for determining suitability of water for industrial uses.
C. Tests for determining the suitability of water for agricultural uses.
D. Tests for determinlning gological relations of natural surface and ground waters.

aPennsylvania Dept. of Commerce State Planning Board, Chemical Character of Surface
Waters in Pennsylvania, W. F. White. Jr.. 1946-49.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


the physical, bacteriological, and chemical properties usually tested
for several general uses.
The effect of the physical and chemical properties of each con-
stituent varies with its concentration and the concentration of
other constituents.
The source, or cause, and the effects of each constituent
determined during this study are summarized in table 12.
If a water does not have the physical and chemical properties
desired for a specific use, it may be treated to produce the desired
properties. The water to be treated must be tested in order to
determine the kind and extent of treatment necessary.


DOMESTIC USE AND PUBLIC SUPPLIES

Water used in the home should be free from turbidity, un-
pleasant taste, odor, harmful micro-organisms, color, concentrations
of chemicals harmful to health, chemicals harmful to water-
conducting and water-containing equipment, and chemicals harmful
to everyday household activities involving the use of water.
Standards for drinking water quality are frequently quoted
throughout the country. In 1914 the U. S. Public Health Service
established standards to control quality of water supplied by
interstate common carriers for drinking and for use in culinary
processes. The most recent revision of the standards was made in
1961. Drinking water supplied by interstate common carriers and
public water supplies are often tailored to satisfy the requirements
of many water users. Therefore, the standards are more stringent
than is usually necessary for domestic and other uses.
The U. S. Public Health Service standards are recommended
rather than enforced, but the quality of most public supplies and
of many domestic supplies meets the requirements. They are not
enforced for two reasons: (1) Some areas have no water meeting
the requirements without costly treatment-in these areas water
exceeding the recommended limits has been used during individuals'
entire lifetimes without adverse effects; (2) some constituents have
not been studied in sufficient detail to prove conclusively that they
are harmful if exceeding the recommended limits.
Limits for fluoride, lead, arsenic, selenium, and chromium set
by the U. S. Public Health Service are shown below and should
not be exceeded because these elements are toxic at greater con-
centrations. At concentrations up to the limits shown, no toxic
effects are to be expected. The presence of fluoride in concentrations


153










154


TABLE 12.

Constituent


Manganese tMn)


Calcium (Ca)


Mainesium (Mir)

Sodium, Na)


Potassium (K)

Bicarbonate (HCO,)
Carbonate (CO,)

Sulfat (SO.)

Chloride tCl)

Fluoride F)



Nitrate (NO,)


Htarlness a CaCO,


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Water-Quality Characteristics and Their Effects


Source and/or solubility Effects

Most abundant element in earth's Causes scale in boiler and deposits
crust resistant to solution, on turbine blades.

Very abundant element, readily Stains laundry and porcelain, bad
precipitates as hydroxide. taste.

Less abundant than iron, present Stains laundry and porcelain, bad
in lower concentrations, taste.

Dissolved from most rock. especi-
ally limestone and dolomite. Causes hardness, forms boiler scale,
Helps maintain good soil structure
Dissolved from rocks, Industrial and permeability.
wastes.

Injurious to soils and crops, and
Dissolved from rocks, industrial certain physioloslcal condition in
wastes. man.

Abundant, but not very soluble in Causes foaming in boilers, stimu-
rocks and soils. plates plankton growth.

Abundant and soluble from lime- Causes foaming in boilers and em-
stone. dolomite, and soils. brittlement of boiler steel.

Sedimentary rocks, mine water. Excess: cathartic, taste.
and industrial wastes.

Rocks, soils, industrial wastes. Unpleasant taste, increases cor-
sewage, brines. sea water. rosiveness.

Not very abundant, sparingly solu-
ble. seldom found in industrial Over 1.5 ppm causes mottling of
wastes except as spillage, some children's teeth, 0.88 to 1.1 ppm aid
sewage. in preventing tooth decay.

Rocks. soil. sewage, industrial dictates pollution, causes
waste. normal decomposition. bac- High indicates pollution, causes
teria. methemaglobanemia n Infants.

Excessive soap consumption, scale
in pipes interferes in industrial
processes.
up to 60 ppm-soft
60 to 120 ppm-moderately hard
120 to 200 ppm-hard
over 200 ppm-very hard


up to 1.5 ppm is beneficial; there is no known benefit from the
other four metals.
Concentrations in excess of the following ,limits constitute a
basis for rejection of water for domestic or public consumption:


Fluoride
Lead
Arsenic
Selenium
Chromium, hexavalent


ppm
1.7
.05
.05
.01
.05








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


Of the substances listed above, only fluoride was determined in
a large number (500) of samples. Significant concentrations of
arsenic, selenium, and chromium were not expected and, therefore,
were not determined. "Total heavy metals" were determined in
about 70 samples from about 35 test wells, drilled during the
study period. "Total heavy metals" were due mostly to the
presence of zinc.
Suggested upper limits of concentration for the following
constituents are less restrictive than those for the foregoing
elements:


ppm
Copper 1.0
Iron .3
Manganese .05
Nitrate' 45
Magnesium 125
Zinc 5.0
Chloride 250
Sulfate 250
Phenolic compounds
(as phenol) .001
Total dissolved solids
(good quality) 500

'Effects of nitrate in water were reported
by Comley, 1945; and later by Waring, 1949;
Bash, 1950; Maxcy, 1950. Through these
studies the limits of concentration were
established.


Except for color, iron, hardness, and, occasionally, nitrate, the
observed concentrations were within the limits shown above. The
tests that were made relate only to the chemical and physical
suitability of water in the area; they are in no way related to the
sanitary condition of the water.

AGRICULTURAL USE

Agricultural uses include water consumed by livestock, the
irrigation of crops, and operation of machinery.
Water for consumption by stock is subject to the same limi-
tations as those applicable to water for consumption by people.
However, water of poorer quality is satisfactory for most animals.


155








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Water-quality standards for stock water supplies are relatively
few. The Department of Agriculture of western Australia (1950)
published the following limits for dissolved solids concentration in
water for stock:



Type of stock Dissolved solids

(ppm)
Poultry 2,860
Pigs 4,290
Horses 6,435
Cattle (dairy) 7,150
Cattle (beef) 10,000
Adult sheep 12,900



According to other investigators, concentrations up to 15,000
ppm are safe for limited periods; but probably, for best growth
and development of the animals, water quality with concentration
of dissolved solids less than the recommended upper limits is
desirable.
Observed maximum concentration of substances dissolved in
waters in this area was usually less than 500 ppm.
Toxic limits of fluoride for some animals have been recom-
mended by various authorities. The Florida State Board of
Health reported the following limits (1953).



Fluoride
(ppm) Reported effects
Livestock drinking water 1.0 Harmless to cattle
Do 4.0 Hogs, etc.-severe mottling of
teeth
Do 6.0- 16 Cows-mottled teeth
Do 18 Cows-slowly increasing
fluorosis
Do 55 Cows-disliked water
Do 200 Rabbits-lethal
Fish 100 Goldfish-survived over 4 days
Do 504 Daphnia magna toxicity
threshold


156







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


Ground water contained the highest concentration of fluoride
but it was less than 2.0 ppm in most samples.
In evaluating the usefulness of water for irrigation, the
chemical quality is important. Factors to be considered are total
concentration of dissolved matter, concentrations of individual
constituents, and the relative proportions of some constituents.
Many investigators have studied quality criteria for irrigation
water. Analyses made during this survey show that the water in
the area is good for irrigation.

INDUSTRIAL USE

The quality requirements for industrial water supplies range
widely, and almost every industrial application had different
standards. For some uses, such as single-pass condensing or cooling,
or for the concentrating of ores, chemical quality is not particularly
critical and almost any water may be used. At the opposite extreme,
the manufacture of high-grade paper and pharmaceuticals requires
water of very high quality. Modern maximum-pressure steam
boilers may require makeup water that contains less dissolved
matter than the average distilled water of commerce.
It is technically possible to treat any water to make it
satisfactory for any special use; however, extensive treatment
may not be economical.
Moore (1941) gives quality tolerance for boiler feed water and
water for certain industrial uses (tables 13, 14). The California
State Water Pollution Control Board (1952) also reported quality
tolerance for industrial water.
Temperature of water and its fluctuation with season are
important if the water is used for cooling. Ground water is
desirable for cooling because of its relatively constant temperature.
Industries use a large part of the total water used in the United
States today. However, much of the industrial use is noncon-
sumptive; that is, the water is not evaporated or incorporated into
the finished product but is released, possibly with an increased
load of dissolved material or possibly with very little difference
in composition from the original water. Many industries have
resorted to re-use of water that in former years might have been
allowed to flow down the sewer or into a surface stream.
Recirculation generally concentrates the dissolved material.
Eventually, increased recirculation of industrial water will result
in a higher average dissolved-solids concentration in industrial
effluents, although the volume of such effluents may be reduced.


157









TAa.LE 13. Suggested Water-Quality Tolerances
(Allowable limits in parts per million)


Tur.
Industry or use bidlty


Air conditioning
Baking
Brewing:
Light beer
Dark beer
Canning:
Legumes
General
Carbonated beverages
Confectionery
Cooling
Food: General
Tee
Laundering
Plastics, clear
uncolored
Paper and pulp:
Croundwood
Kraft pulp
Soda and sulfite
High-~rade liht
papers
Bayon (viscose):
Pulp production

Manufacture
Tanning

Textiles: General
Dyeing
Wool scouring
Cotton bandage


1o


10
10

10
10
2

50



15
5
2


25
15
6


.3
20

5
5
5


liardnes.
Color ae CaCO,


10


25-75
250

50

-s6
50



180
100
100
50

8

55
50-135


Man.
Iron genes. Total
as Fe a u n Siolids


..... *0.6 0.5 .....
..2 .2

S.1 .1 I 500


.1 1,0UUU


'.2
* .2
.2
.3
'.2
.2
'.2
S.2
o .02

*1.0
.2
.1
S.1

.05

.0
.2

.25
c .25
'.0
* .2


.0U
.05

.03

.0
.2

.25
.25
.0
.2


Alkalinity Odor Hydrogen
as CaCO, Taste sulfide


t
hy

to
by


low
low

low
low

low
low
low
low
low
low


aMoore. E. W., Progress report of the committee on quality tolerances of wal
Jour. New England Water Works Assoc., voL 54, p. 271, 1940.
bp indicates that potable water, conforming to U.S.P.H.S. standards, is necessary.
'Limit given applies to both iron alone and the sum of iron and manganese.


er for industrial uses:





"


75
150



50-100














total 50;
droxide 8

tal 135:
droxide 8


low


Other requirement


No corrosivenes, slime formation
P.

P. NaCI les than 275 ppm (pH
6.5-7.0)
P. NaC less than 275 ppm (pH
7.0 or more).
P.
P.
P. Organic color plus oxygen con-
sumed less than 10 ppm.
P. pH above 7.0 for hard candy.
No corrosiveness, slime formation.
P.
P. SiO, less than 10 ppm.




No grit. corrceivenese.





AlO, less than 8 ppm, SiO, less
than 25 ppm, Cu less than 5 ppm.
pH 7.8 to 8.3.



Constant composition. Residual
alumina less than 0.5 ppm.


-~ -~-


5

2

20
15
10
5

5


10-100

20
5-20
70
5








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35 159

TABLE 14. Suggested Water-Quality Tolerance For Boiler Feed Water'
(Allowable limits in parts per million)

Pressure (pal)
0-160 150-250 250-400 Over 400

Turbidity ... ......... ........ .... 20 10 5 1
Color ......................... .. ...... 80 40 5 2
Oxygen consumed .......... ..... 15 10 4 3
Dissolved oxygen ....-........ .................-..... 1.4 .14 .0 .0
Hydrogen sulfide (H,1r)..-... .. ... ........ ;3 0 0
Total hardness as CaCO, --....-..-...... ....... .. o80 40 10 2
Sulfate-carbonnto ratio (A.S.M.E.)
(N ,804 : Na2CO,) ----......-...-........... 2...... :1 2:1 3:1 3:1
Aluminum oxide (AlgO ) ......... .... 5 .5 .05 .01
Silica (SI1 ,) .................... .......... ..... 40 20 5 1
Blcarbonato (HCO,)2 .. ...... ................. 50 o30 5 0
Carbonate (CO,) ............................. 200 100 40 20
Hydroxide (OH1) ..... 50 40 30 15
Total solids4 ............... 3,000-G00 2.500-500 1.00-100 50
pH value (minimum) 8...............0 8.4 0.0 9.6

IMoore, E. W.. Progress report of the committee on quality tolerances of water for Indus-
trial uses: Jour. New England Water Works Assoc., v. 54, p. 203. 1040.
2Limits applicable only to feed water entering boiler, not to original water supply.
:iExcept when odor in live steam would be objectionable.
4Depends on deslan of boiler.

In highly developed industrial areas, water-quality problems and
waste-disposal problems can be expected to increase in complexity
and severity as a result of the closer approach to maximum
utilization of water.
Neither water problems nor waste disposal problems of a severe
nature have been experienced in this area. However, waste material
discharged into North Fork Black Creek alters water quality
downstream from Boggy Branch. Wastes also affect the quality
of small streams.

SURFACE WATER

Only a small part of the area's surface waters is being used.
Recreation, navigation, irrigation, and commercial fishing are the
main uses at present (1961). Except for irrigation, for which
only a small amount of surface water is being used, all these uses
are nonconsumptive. Small quantities of water for irrigation are
taken from some lakes and from the Santa Fe River. The full
potential of the surface waters is far from being realized.
Recreation is by far the greatest use. All lakes in the area
are suitable for one or more of the following uses; fishing,
swimming, boating, and allied recreational activities. The lakes
and streams abound with several varieties of fish. Fish camps
offer facilities for sport fishing along the St. Johns River, Orange







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Lake, Lochloosa Lake, Newnans Lake, Santa Fe Lake, and several
of the other larger lakes. Subdivisions are being developed on
many lakes, offering lakefront home sites.
The St. Johns River is used for navigation, commercial fishing,
pleasure boating, and sport fishing. A channel depth of 12 feet is
maintained as far upstream as Lake Monroe at Sanford, 160 miles
above the mouth. The river at Green Cove Springs, 50 miles above
the mouth, harbors a Navy base.

GROUND WATER

Ground water, one of the most valuable natural resources of
Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties, differs from most
other natural resources in that ground water is a renewable
resource. In fact, hundreds of millions of gallons of water recharge
the Floridan aquifer in these counties each day.
Almost all rural homes, industries, and municipalities depend
on ground water for their water supply. Ground water is widely
used for two reasons. First, the chemical character and tempera-
ture are usually constant, and second, ground water is readily
accessible. Moreover, in large areas in Clay County, the water is
delivered to the user under pressure so that he is spared the
expense of pumping it.
Many of the smaller supplies of water are taken from the
upper aquifers; whereas, the larger supplies are taken from the
Floridan aquifer. Probably, less water is taken from the water-
table aquifer than from any other aquifer. The water-table
aquifer supplies water to only a few dug wells and wells with sand
points. Many domestic supplies are withdrawn from wells tapping
secondary artesian aquifers; in fact, more than half of the wells
in the four counties probably tap secondary artesian aquifers.
All the larger users of water, however, draw their supplies from
the Floridan aquifer. These users include municipalities, irrigators,
and industries.
It is estimated that in 1960 about 4,000 million gallons of
ground water were used in Alachua County, about 2,300 million
gallons in Bradford County, about 3,800 million gallons in Clay
County, and about 230 million gallons in Union County. Figure 92
shows the centers of heavy pumping and the estimated use of
ground water in 1960.
Despite the wide use of ground water, it is a relatively un-
developed resource in these counties. Hundreds of millions of


160







f'I W 3 SW a 9 o or -


Figure 92. Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties, Florida, showing
centers of concentrated pumping and estimated use of ground water in 1960.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


gallons a year of additional water can be developed from the
Floridan aquifer at almost any place in the four counties if the
development is based on sound scientific principles and adequate
hydrologic data.

SUMMARY

The oldest formation penetrated by water wells in the area is
the Lake City Limestone of Eocene age. The Lake City and the
overlying Avon Park Limestone of Eocene age lie at relatively great
depths in subsurface. The uppermost Eocene unit, the Ocala
Group is exposed in southern and western Alachua County.
The Ocala Group is overlain by relatively thick and impervious
deposits of Miocene age. The Miocene deposits, composed mostly of
clay and sandy clay, confine water in formations of Eocene age
under artesian pressure in most of the four-county area. The most
extensive confining bed is the Hawthorn Formation of Miocene
age which has a maximum thickness of about 250 feet.
Deposits of sand and clayey sand that compose the unnamed
coarse plastics of Pleistocene age overlie the Miocene deposits in
southwestern Clay and southeastern Bradford Counties. In other
parts of the four counties several higher terraces of Pleistocene
age that are the older Pleistocene and Recent deposits are over
the Miocene. The older Pleistocene terrace deposits, which are as
much as 140 feet thick, have wide surface distribution in the four
counties, and the Pleistocene and Recent deposits, which generally
are 60 feet or less in thickness, cover older formations in Clay
County.
The crest of a major structure, the Ocala uplift, transverses
southwestern Alachua County. The formations dip away from the
Ocala uplift to the east-northeast and have a regional average
dip of about 6 feet per mile.
The average streamflow from the four counties is approxi-
mately 1,150 mgd, which comes from four river basins; Black
Creek, Santa Fe River, Orange Creek, and Etonia Creek. In
addition to these, the St. Johns River borders Clay County on the
east and has an estimated average flow at Green Cove Springs of
about 4,500 mgd. An area of about 300 square miles in south-
western Alachua County has no surface outflow. Rainfall on that
area seeps directly into the ground or is collected in sinkholes.
The average runoff from the four counties is about 12 inches per
year, or about one-fourth the average rainfall.


162







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


Average flow from the Black Creek basin in Clay County is
515 cfs (330 mgd). The South Fork Black Creek contributes 225
cfs, the North Fork Black Creek contributes 200 cfs, and small
tributaries below the confluence of the two forks contribute 90 cfs.
Average runoff from the basin is 14.8 inches per year. However,
runoff varies from area to area within the basin. The average
runoff from the South Fork is about 16.0 inches per year and from
the North Fork, about 13.7 inches per year.
The Santa Fe River has a drainage area of 1,440 square miles.
Included in this area are Bradford County, Union County, and
the northern part of Alachua County. The average flow from the
basin is about 2,400 cfs (1,550 mgd). The river disappears into
a sinkhole at O'leno State Park, 5 miles north of High Springs.
Above this point, the drainage area is about 800 square miles and
the average flow from the area is 650 cfs. Average runoff from
the basin is about 22 inches per year. However, average runoff
from areas within the basin varies from 6 to 85 inches per year.
Runoff from the basin above O'leno State Park is about 11 inches
per year, and average runoff from the area below O'leno State
Park is about 27 inches per year. The area of 130 square miles
between the High Springs and Fort White gaging stations has an
average runoff of 85 inches per year, or over 11/ times the
average rainfall. The high base flow in the lower basin comes
from springs and ground-water inflow.
The average flow from the Orange Creek basin is about 230
cfs (150 mgd). Within this basin are three large lakes that cover
44 square miles: Orange Lake, 25.7 square miles; Lochloosa Lake,
10.3 square miles; and Newnans Lake, 8.2 square miles. Much of
the streamflow in the upper two-thirds of the basin is relegated
to storage within these lakes. Average runoff from the basin is
about 5 inches per year.
Runoff from the Etonia Creek basin is extremely low, probably
less than 5 inches per year from the entire basin. Even though
the runoff is low, the area has much to offer in the way of water
resources. The upper 150 square miles of the basin, in south-
western Clay County and northwestern Putnam, contains some
100 lakes. Most of these lakes are perennial although the stages
of some vary considerably from dry seasons to wet seasons. These
lakes, which have elevations from about 80 feet to 174 feet above
sea level, are situated in a group of sandhills.
The upper aquifers, which are above the Floridan aquifer, are
present everywhere in the four counties except in southern and


163







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


western Alachua County. The upper aquifers are composed of a
water-table aquifer and several secondary artesian aquifers. The
water-table aquifer consists of shallow sand or clayey sand of
Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, or Recent age that contain water,
except locally, under water-table conditions. The water-table
aquifer in most places will yield sufficient water for domestic
purposes from shallow dug or sand-point wells.
The secondary artesian aquifers, which are sandwiched between
the water-table aquifer and the Floridan aquifer, consist of lime-
stone layers and sand layers of the Hawthorn Formation, limestone
layers of the Choctawhatchee Formation, and perhaps shell beds
in eastern Clay County of Pleistocene and Recent age. The
piezometric surfaces of the secondary artesian aquifers lie between
the water table of the water-table aquifer and the piezometric
surface of the Floridan aquifer. Probably more wells in the four
counties draw water from a secondary artesian aquifer than draw
water from the water-table aquifer or the Floridan aquifer. The
secondary artesian aquifers will produce enough water for do-
mestic use and other small supplies.
The Floridan aquifer consists of several hundred feet of
interbedded soft porous limestone and hard dense limestone and
dolomite of Eocene age, Oligocene age, and Miocene age that, as
far as is known, act as a hydrologic unit. The Floridan aquifer,
as a whole, probably has a high permeability in a lateral direction
and a low permeability in a vertical direction. Water in the Floridan
aquifer is under artesian conditions east of a line running through
Gainesville in a southeast-northwest direction, and under water-
table conditions west of this line.
Water recharges the Floridan aquifer by leaking through the
confining beds, by percolating through breaches in the confining
beds, and by direct percolation into the aquifer where no confining
bed exists. At least 45 mgd of water recharge the Floridan aquifer
in a 525-square mile area in the vicinity of Keystone Heights. At
least one-half mgd of water percolate to the Floridan aquifer in a
300 square mile area in southern and western Alachua County
where the Floridan aquifer is at or near the surface.
The specific capacities of 5 wells tapping the Floridan aquifer
in western Alachua County ranged from 29 to 20,000 gpm per
foot of drawdown; the specific capacities of 18 wells in central and
eastern Alachua County ranged from 2 to 700 gpm per foot of
drawdown. The specific capacities of 7 wells tapping the Floridan
aquifer in Bradford County ranged from 25 to 210 gpm per foot
of drawdown and averaged 78. The specific capacities of 21 wells


164







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


tapping the Floridan aquifer in eastern and northern Clay County
ranged from 2 to 60 gpm per foot of drawdown and averaged about
12; the specific capacities of 12 wells in western Clay County ranged
from 22 to 300 gpm per foot of drawdown and averaged about
120. The specific capacities of 7 wells in Union County ranged
from 60 to 360 and averaged 145 gpm per foot of drawdown.
From June 1934 to June 1960 the piezometric surface of the
Floridan aquifer declined about 18 feet at Orange Park and about
14 feet near Green Cove Springs.
Hundreds of millions of gallons of additional water a year
can probably be developed from the Floridan aquifer at almost any
place in the four counties if the development is based on sound
scientific principles and adequate hydrologic data.
Except for the Etonia Creek basin in southwestern Clay County,
the surface waters in the area are persistently colored and often
contain iron in excess of 0.30 ppm. The surface waters are generally
soft and the hardness as calcium carbonate usually is less than
50 ppm. Occasionally, the hardness as calcium carbonate exceeds
100 ppm in New River water near Lake Butler. The hardness as
calcium carbonate often exceeds 100 ppm in the Santa Fe River
water at High Springs.
In contrast to surface waters, ground waters have color in-
tensities of 10 units or less, except in localized areas. In the water-
table aquifer, concentrations of iron in excess of 0.30 ppm were
observed in about 38 percent of the samples. Iron in excess of
0.30 ppm was observed in about 16 percent of the samples from
the secondary artesian aquifer and in about 10 percent of the
samples from the Floridan aquifer. Hardness as calcium
carbonate is typically the dominant characteristic in ground water,
except where the water-table aquifer is chiefly sand.
As a rule, the concentration of substances dissolved in streams
is much less than the concentration of substances dissolved in
ground water, except for water in the sand aquifers of the water-
table aquifer.
The concentration of substances dissolved in ground waters
seldom exceeded 500 ppm and usually was less than 300 ppm. The
range of concentration values for streams and ground water over-
lap. The concentration ranges for streams and aquifers overlap
because the water in streams and aquifers are mixtures in varying
proportions of rainwater, direct runoff water from the surface,
and water from aquifers.


165








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


REFERENCES

Black, A. P.
1951 (and Brown, Eugene) Chemical character of Florida's waters-
1951: Florida State Board Cons., Div. Water Survey and Research
Paper 6.

Brown, Eugene (see Black, A. P.; Cooper, H. H.)

Cagle, J. W., Jr. (see Clark, W. E.)

California State Water Pollution Control Board
1952 Water quality criteria: California State Water Pollution Control
Board pub. 3.
1954 Report on the investigation of travel of pollution: California
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Christiansen, J. E. (see Magistad, O. C.)

Clark, W. E.
1963 (Musgrove, R. H., Menke, C. G., and Cagle, J. W., Jr.) Hydrology
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Colby, B. R. (see Gatewood, J. S.)

Cooke, C. W.
1929 (and Mossom, Stuart) Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey
20th Ann. Rept., p. 29-227.
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29.

Cooper, H. H., Jr.
1953 (and Kenner, W. E., and Brown, Eugene) Ground water in
central and northern Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 10.

Crooks, J. W. (see Pride, R. W.)

Cropper, W. H. (see Hem, J. D.)

Eaton, F. M.
1935 Boron in soils and irrigation waters and its effect on plants:
U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 448, p. 1-133.
1942 Toxicity and accumulation of chloride and sulfate salts in plants
Jour. Agr. Research 64, p. 357-399.
1950 Significance of carbonates in irrigation water: Soil Sci., v. 69,
p. 123-133.

Ferguson, G. E. (also see Parker, G. G.)
1947 (and Lingham, C. W., Love S. K., and Vernon, R. 0.) Springs
of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 31.


166








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


Florida State Board of Health
1953 Peace and Alafia Rivers, stream sanitation studies, 1950-53, v.
1, The Alafia River: Jacksonville, Fla.
1960 Some physical and chemical characteristics of selected Florida
waters: Jacksonville, Fla., Bur. of Sanitary Eng., Div. Water
Supply.
Foster, J. B.
1961 Well design as a factor contributing to water losses from the
Floridan aquifer-eastern Clay County, Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Inf. Circ. 35.
Gatewood, J. S.
1950 (Robinson, T. W., Colby, B. R., Hem, J. D., and Halpenny, L. C.)
Use of water by bottom-land vegetation in Lower Safford Valley,
Arizona: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1103.
Gunter, Herman (see Sellards, E. H.)

Halpenny, L. C. (see Gatewood, J. S.)

Headley, F. B. (see Scofield, C. S.)

Hem, J. S. (also see Gatewood, J. S.)
1959 Study of interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural
water: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1473.
1959 (and Cropper, W. H.) Survey of ferrous-ferric chemical equi-
libria and redox potentials: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply
Paper 1459-A.
1960 (and Skougstad, M. W.) Co-precipitation effects in solutions
containing ferrous, ferric and cupric ions: U. S. Geol. Survey
Water-Supply Paper 1459-E.
1960 Restraints on dissolved ferrous iron imposed by bicarbonate,
redox potential, and pH: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper
1459-B.
1960 Some chemical relationships among sulfur species and dissolved
ferrous iron: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1459-C.
1960 Complexes of ferrous iron with tannic acid: U. S. Geol. Survey
Water-Supply Paper 1459-D.

Kenner, W. E. (see Cooper, H. H.)

Kohler, M. A.
1954 Lake and pan evaporation, in Water-loss investigations: Lake
Hefner studies, technical report: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper
269, p. 127-148.

Langbein, W. B. (see Leopold, L. B.)

Lingham, C. W. (see Ferguson, G. E.)

Leopold, L. B.
1960 (and Langbein, W. B.) A primer on water: U. S. Dept of
Interior.


167








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Love, S. K. (see Ferguson, G. E.; Parker, G. G.)

Masictad, 0. C.
1944 (and Christiansen, J. E.) Saline soils, their nature and manage-
ment: U. S. Dept. Agr. Circ. 707, p. 8-9.

Mather, J. R. (see Thornthwaite, C. W.)
Matson, G. E.
1913 (and Sanford, Samuel) Geology and ground water of Florida:
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Menke, C. G. (see Clark, W. E.)

Mossom, Stuart (see Cooke, C. W.)

Musgrove, R. H. (see Clark, W. E.)


Oborn, E. T.
1960a A survey of pertinent biochemical literature: U. S.
Water-Supply Paper 1469-F.
1960b Iron content of selected water and land plants:
Survey Water-Supply Paper 1459-G.


Parker, G. G.
1955




Pirkle, E. C.


Geol. Survey

U. S. Geol.


(Ferguson, G. E., Love, S. K. and others) Water resources of
southeastern Florida, with special reference to the geology and
ground water of the Miami area: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-
Supply Paper 1255.


1956 Notes on physiographic features of Alachua County, Florida:
Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., v. 19, no. 2-3, p. 168-182.
1956 The Hawthorn and Alachua formations of Alachua County,
Florida: Quart. Jour. Florida Acad. Sci., v. 19, no. 4, p. 197-240.


Pride, R. W.
1958 Floods in Florida magnitude and frequency: U. S. Geol. Survey
open-file report.
1961 (and Crooks, J. W.) Drought of 1954-56-Its effect on Florida's
surface-water resources: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 26.

President's Water Resources Policy Commission
1950 A water policy for the American people: General Rept., v. 1,
p. 152-153.

Puri, H. S.
1957 Stratigraphy and zonation of the Ocala Group: Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 38.
1959 (and Vernon, R. 0.) Summary of the geology of Florida and a
guidebook to the classic exposures: Florida Geol. Survey Spec.
Pub. no. 5.


Robinson, T. W. (see Gatewood, J. S.)


168







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35


169


Rainwater, F. H.
1960 (and Thatcher, L. L.) Methods for collection and analysis of
water samples: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1454.

Sanford, Samuel (see Matson, G. E.)

Scofield, C. S.
1921 (and Headley, F. B.) Quality of irrigation water in relation to
reclamation: Jour. Agr. Research 21, p. 265-278.
1936 The salinity of irrigation water: Smithsonian Inst. Ann. Rept.,
1935, p. 275-287.
1949 Trends of irrigation development in the United States: Sym-
posium Am. Chem. Soc., p. 1-11 (mimeographed).

Sellards, E. H.
1913 (and Gunter, Herman) The artesian water supply of eastern and
southern Florida: Florida Geol. Survey 5th Ann. Rept., p. 103-290.

Skougstad, M. W. (see Hem, J. D.)

Stringfield, V. T.
1936 Artesian water in the Florida Peninsula: U. S. Geol. Survey
Water-Supply Paper 773-C.

Thatcher, L. L. (see Rainwater, F. H.)


Theis, C. V.
1935


The relation between the lowering of the piezometric surface
and the rate and duration of discharge of a well using ground-
water storage: Am. Geophys. Union Trans., v. 16, p. 519-524.


Thorne, D. W. (see Thorne, J. P.)


Thorne, J. P.
1951 (and Thorne, D. W.) Irrigation waters of Utah: Utah Agr.
Expt. Sta. Bull. 349.

Thornthwaite, C. W.
1955 (and Mather, J. R.) The water balance: Publications in
climatology, v. 8, no. 1, Drexel Institute of Technology, Cunterton,
New Jersey. *

U. S. Department of Agriculture
1955 Water, the 1955 yearbook of agriculture: Washington, U. S.
Govt. Printing Office, 731 p.
1957 Soil, the 1957 yearbook of agriculture: Washington, U. S.
Govt. Printing Office, 784 p.

U. S. Geological Survey
1954 Quality of water for irrigation, Western United States: U. S.
Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1264.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


U. S. Salinity Laboratory Staff
1954 Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils: U. S. Dept.
Agr. Handbook 60.
Vernon, R. O. (also see Ferguson, G. E.; Puri, H. S.)
1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy Counties, Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 88.
Wenzel, L. K.
1942 Methods for determining permeability of water-bearing materials:
U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 887.
White, W. A.
1958 Some geomorphic features of central peninsular Florida: Florida
Geol. Survey Bull. 41.
White, W. F.
1946 Chemical character of surface water in Pennsylvania; 1946:
Pennsylvania Dept. of Com., State Planning Board.
1949 Chemical character of surface water in Pennsylvania; 1949:
Pennsylvania Dept. of Com., State Planning Board.
Wilcox, L. V.
1948 The quality of water for irrigation use: U. S. Dept. of Agr. Tech.
Bull. 962, p. 1-40.


170




Water resources of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union Counties, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 35 )
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 Material Information
Title: Water resources of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union Counties, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 35 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Report of investigations 35 )
Physical Description: xi, 170 p. : illus., maps. (part fold.) diagra., tables. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Clark, William E
Geological Survey (U.S.)
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Place of Publication: Tallahasse
Publication Date: 1964
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STATE
STATE BOARD
DIVISION


OF FLORIDA
OF CONSERVATION
OF GEOLOGY


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert O. Vernon, Director






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35







WATER RESOURCES
OF
ALACHUA, BRADFORD, CLAY, AND UNION
COUNTIES, FLORIDA


WILLIAM E. CLARK, RUFUS H. MUSGROVE,
CLARENCE G. MENKE, AND JOSEPH W. CAGLE, JR.









Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
TALLAHASSEE

Tallahassee
1964








AGRI.
CULTURAL

FLORIDA STATE BO!'d

OF

CONSERVATION





FARRIS BRYANT
Governor


TOM ADAMS
Secretary of State



J. EDWIN LARSON
Treasurer



THOMAS D. BAILEY
Superintendent of Public Instruction


RICHARD ERVIN
Attorney General



RAY E. GREEN
Comptroller



DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGES
Director









LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


ioriaa geological Survey

Callakassee

October 10, 1963

Honorable Farris Bryant, Chairman
Florida State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Governor Bryant:
The Division of Geology is publishing as Florida Geological
Survey Report of Investigations No. 35, a comprehensive report on
the water resources of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties,
Florida, which was prepared by William E. Clark, R. H. Musgrove,
Clarence G. Menke and Joseph W. Cagle, Jr., as part of a coopera-
tive program with this department.
These counties include one of the high pressure areas hn the
artesian system of Florida, and the study permits, for the first time,
when combined with studies being made in St. Johns, Flagler, and
Putnam counties to the east, the observation of important portions
of the ground-water cycle, ranging from recharge under water table
conditions through recharge to the artesian system, movements
toward the coast and discharge along the coast. It also permits the
observation of changes in the distribution of pressures of such a
system with the use of water along the coastal areas. We are
pleased to publish this timely information.

Respectfully yours,
Robert O. Vernon
Director and State Geologist


iii






















































Completed manuscript received
May 9, 1963
Published for the Florida Geological Survey
By The E. O. Painter Printing Company
DeLand, Florida
Tallahassee
1964

iv










CONTENTS


Abstract I__ 1
Introduction ---- 4
Purpose and scope. _--._--___ 4
Previous investigations 6
,Methods of investigation ______ _- 7
Description of area _---- __________ 9
Topography _----
Geology ___ 11
Eocene Series --___ 12
Oligocene Series ________ 20
Miocene Series _____ 21
Miocene to Pleistocene (?) Series __ 23
Pleistocene Series __ ____ 24.
Pleistocene and Recent Series _____ 26
Structure ____ ____ 27
Climate _______ 28
Temperature __~_-__- _28
Rainfall 30
Surface water c___
St. Johns River -__-.____ ___ 37
Black Creek basin __ _____ 38
Santa Fe River basin _____- 50
Orange Creek basin -_ 56
Etonia Creek basin ___ 60
Quality of surface waters_______ 65
Introduction 65
Explanation of terms ____ 75
Water temperature ___ 76
Factors affecting chemical quality __ 77
Santa Fe River basin ____ 88
Black Creek basin ____--____ 93
North Fork Black Creek _____93
South Fork Black Creek 95
Etonia Creek basin _____ 99
Orange Creek basin ____. 99
Ground water __-- ___ __ 102
Limitations of yield_ __ ____- 103
Upper aquifers _- -__ -- 110
Water-table aquifer 110
Configuration of water table 112
Recharge and discharge 113
Fluctuation of the water table -- 113
Wells __ 115
Secondary artesian aquifers __- 115
Piezometric surfaces __115
Fluctuation of the piezometric surfaces 117
Movement ____ __ 118







Wells _118
Floridan aquifer 120
Hydraulic properties __ 120
Piezometric surface __ 122
Recharge
Discharge ___ 126
Discussion of Floridan aquifer by counties 127
Alachua County __--____ 127
Fluctuation of piezometric surface _-__--127
Area of artesian flow _- 127
Analysis of pumping test ____127
Specific capacities of wells __ 131
Bradford County 134
Fluctuation of piezometric surface 134
Specific capacities of wells __ 134
Clay County 134
Fluctuation of piezometric surface 134
Area of artesian flow __ 134
Specific capacities of wells __ _______ 134
Union County -_ __-- -- 137
Fluctuation of piezometric surface _____ 137
Specific capacities of wells _____ 137
Quality of ground water ________ 138
Factors affecting chemical quality 139
Water-table aquifer 139
Secondary artesian aquifer 145
Floridan aquifer -__________ 147
Variability of water quality 148
Ground-water temperature 15i
Water use -__ ________152
Relation of water quality to water use ________ 152
Domestic use and public supplies 153
Agricultural use __ __ 155
Industrial use ____ ____ 157
Surface water -______- ___________ _159
Ground water _______________160
Summary _______ 162
References ___-_--- 166


ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page
1 Florida showing the locations of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and
Union counties _------__ 5
2 Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties, Florida, showing
the location of wells --___ facing 8
3 Explanation of well-numbering system 9
4 Generalized geologic map of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union
counties, Florida showing the approximate elevation of the top
of the Ocala Group and the locations of geologic sections __ Facing 12







5 West-east geologic section in Alachua, Bradford, and Clay coun-
ties, Florida, along line A-A' in figure 4 __- 13
6 West-east geologic section in Alachua, Bradford, and Clay
counties, Florida, along line B-B' in figure 4 ___ 14
7 Southwest-northwest geologic section in Alachua and Union
counties, Florida, along line C-C' in figure 4 __ 15
8 South-north geologic section in Alachua, Bradford, and Union
counties, Florida, along line D-D' in figure 4 __ __ 16
9 South-north geologic section in Alachua, Clay, and Bradford
counties, Florida along line E-E' in figure 4 17
10 Monthly mean temperatures 1912-1960,-at Gainesville, Florida 29
11 Rainfall at Gainesville, Florida, for the period 1900-60 30
12 Flow chart showing average flow of streams in Alachua, Brad-
ford, Clay, and Union counties, Florida ___ ---_----_-------------____ 36
13 Drainage map of the Black Creek basin showing data collection
sites __ ____ 38
14 Channel-bottom profiles of streams in the Black Creek basin 40
15 Average runoff in inches per year from areas within the Black
Creek basin ---____- ..._______-__-_.-__-...---. 41
16 Rainfall-runoff relation 42
17 Flow-duration curves for streams in the Black Creek basin 44
18 Discharge available without storage for South Fork Black
Creek near Penney Farms, -Florida (1939-60) --__-_------______. 45
19 Discharge available without storage for North Fork Black
Creek near Middleburg, Florida (1932-60) 45
20 Hydrographs of floods during May 20-25, 1959, in the Black
Creek basin _____------_ ____ 46
21 Flood frequency curves for the Black Creek basin 47
22 Depth contours of Whitmore Lake 48
23 Stage duration curve for Kingsley Lake (1947-60) 49
24 Depth contours of Kingsley Lake ___ 50
25 Drainage map of the Santa Fe River basin showing data
collection sites _51
26 Average runoff in inches per year from areas within the Santa
Fe River basin 52
27 Flow hydrographs for the Santa Fe River 53
28 Flow-duration curves for streams in the Santa Fe River basin __ 55
29 Stage graphs of Santa Fe Lake, Lake Sampson, and Lake Butler 56
30 Drainage map of the Orange Creek basin showing data collec-
tion sites _--. 57
31 Flow-duration curves for streams in the Orange Creek basin ___ 59
32 Stage-duration curves for Newnans Lake, Orange Lake, and
Lochloosa Lake _- ____ 61
33 Stage graphs for Newnans Lake _____ 62
34 Stage graphs for Orange Lake 62.
35 Stage graphs for Lochloosa Lake 63
36 Drainage map of the Etonia Creek basin showing data
collection sites ____ --- -4 64
37 Depth contours of Blue Pond 65
38 Depth contours of Sand Hill Lake ---- 66
39 Depth contours of Magnolia Lake .- -__-_-------------_____ 67







40 Depth contours of Crystal Lake _-__--- -- --- 68
41 Depth contours of Brooklyn Lake ----69
42 Depth contours of Keystone Lake -- ------ --70
43 Depth contours of Lake Geneva----- --------- 71
44 Depth contours of Loch Lommond ____ 72
45 Stage graphs of nine lakes near Keystone Heights, Florida 73
46 Profile of lakes near Keystone Heights, Florida 74
47 Water budget of Brooklyn Lake for the period October 1957
to September 1960 __ 74
48 Residue on evaporation at 1800C, hardness, and organic matter
in relation to specific conductance, Santa Fe River at Graham,
Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 -_---. ....-..--- 89
49 Specific conductance in relation to flow, Santa Fe River at
Graham, Florida July 1957 to September 1960 -____ 90
50 Cumulative frequency curve of specific conductance of selected
streams (periodic samples) ___ 91
51 Cumulative frequency curve of residue of selected streams
(periodic samples) ______--------- 92
52 Cumulative frequency curve of some of selected streams
(periodic samples) ----_-_. -------- _-_ _----- 93.. 93
53 Cumulative frequency curve of color of selected streams
(periodic samples) __-- ___ ____---_- 94
54 Residue on evaporation at 1800C, hardness, and organic matter
in relation to specific conductance, New River near Lake Butler,
Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 ____--- -- 95
55 Specific conductance in relation to flow, New River near Lake
Butler, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 --_____ 96
56 Cumulative frequency curves of selected characteristics of
water from New River near Lake Butler, Florida, October
1957 to September 1958 _____ __ ____ .__....._ .. 97
57 Residue on evaporation at 1800C, hardness, and organic matter
in relation to specific conductance, Santa Fe River at Worth-
ington, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 --_-- 98
58 Specific conductance in relation to flow, Santa Fe River at
Worthington, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 ___99
59 Cumulative frequency curves of selected characteristics of water
from Santa Fe River at Worthington, Florida, October 1957
to September 1958 -- 100
60 Residue on evaporation at 1800C, hardness, and organic matter
in relation to specific conductance, Olustee Creek near Provi-
dence, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 101
61 Specific conductance in relation to flow, Olustee Creek near
Providence, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 -----101
62 Residue on evaporation at 1800C, hardness, and organic matter
in relation to specific conductance, Santa Fe River at High
Springs, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 ____ 102
63 Specific conductance in relation to flow, Santa Fe River at High
Springs, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 103
64 Cumulative frequency curves of selected characteristics of water
from Santa Fe River near High Springs, Florida, October 1958
to September 1959 _____________ 104


viii








65 Residue on evaporation at 1800C, hardness, and organic matter
in relation to specific conductance, North Fork Black Creek near
Highland, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 -.._.-----------.-- 105
66 Residue on evaporation at 180-C, hardness, and organic matter
in relation to specific conductance, North Fork Black Creek near
Middleburg, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 106
67 Specific conductance in relation to flow, North Fork Black Creek
near Highland, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 __ 107
68 Specific conductance in relation to flow, North Fork Black Creek
near Middleburg, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 __-- ------ 107
69 Cumulative frequency curves of selected characteristics of water
from North Fork Black Creek near Highland, Florida, October
1958 to September 1959 108
70 Residue on evaporation at 1800C, hardness, and organic matter
in relation to specific conductance, South Fork Black Creek
near Penney Farms, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 ___ 109
71 Specific conductance in relation to flow, South Fork Black Creek
near Penney Farms, Florida, July 1957 to September 1960 ._ 110
72 Cumulative frequency curves of selected characteristics of water
from South Fork Black Creek near Penney Farms, Florida,
October 1958 to September 1959 _____- --_- 111
73 Generalized geologic section from Archer to Orange Park,
Florida showing aquifers and the movement of water 112
74 Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties, Florida showing
generalized contours on the water table in the water-table
aquifer ..---- ----__ __ .___ ..- ...---_--___ ___ Facing 112
75 Hydrographs of wells 946-226-1, 000-232-1, 956-208-1, and
946-202-3 _._____114
76 Geologic sections showing typical water levels in wells tapping
different aquifers --__ --____ ______ _- 116
77 Hydrograph of well 946-206-1 near Waldo, Florida 117
78 Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties, Florida showing
contours on the top of the Floridan aquifer 121
79 Semilog plot of residual drawdown versus the ratio of the
time since pumping started to the time since pumping stopped,
showing solution for coefficient of transmissibility -___- 122
80 Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties, Florida showing
contours on the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer
in June 1960 __ Facing 124
81 Hydrographs of wells 927-203-1, 929-213-1, 932-231-1, 936-236-1,
941-222-2, and 946-226-2 in Alachua County, Florida 128
82 Hydrographs of wells 948-231-2 and 949-236-2, in Alachua
County, Florida ____129
83 Southeastern Alachua County, Florida showing the approximate
area of artesian flow in June 1960 __--- 130
84 Graph showing theoretical drawdowns in the vicinity of a well
pumping 1,000,000 gpd for selected periods 131
85 Clay County, Florida showing the decline of the piezometric
surface in eastern Clay County from June 1934 to June 1960 __ 136
86 Hydrographs of wells 959-140-1, 002-142-1, 006-149-1, and
003-151-1 in Clay County, Florida --- _____-- ----137


ix







87 Clay County, Florida showing the approximate area in which
wells tapping the Floridan aquifer will flow, June 1960 138
88 Hydrograph of well 007-222-1 in Union County, Florida and a
graph of monthly rainfall at High -Springs, Florida 142
89 Dissolved solids and hardness of water from the water-table
aquifer __ 144
90 Dissolved solids and hardness of water from the secondary ar-
tesian aquifers _______ 146
91 Dissolved solids and hardness of water from the Floridan aquifer 149
92 Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties, Florida showing.
centers of concentrated pumping and estimated use of ground
water in 1960 161



TABLES

Table Page
1 Geologic formations penetrated by water wells in Alachua,
Bradford, Clay, and Union counties, Florida 18
2 Departure from average rainfall, in inches, at Gainesville, Florida 31
3 Locations of gaging stations, types of surface-water data col-
lected, and periods of records _-----___.. __ ____ 32
4 Maximum, minimum, and average of observed daily water tem-
peratures of streams in Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union
counties, Florida ___ ~ _-.___ 76
5 Average, maximum, and minimum values observed for sub-
stances dissolved in streams and lakes __ ____...-__ 78
6 Specific capacities of wells tapping secondary artesian aquifers 119
7 Specific capacities of wells tapping the Floridan aquifer in
Alachua County, Florida __132
8 Specific capacities of wells tapping the Floridan aquifer in
Bradford County, Florida ____ 135
9 Specific capacities of wells tapping the Floridan aquifer in
Clay County, Florida ___ 140
10 Specific capacities of wells tapping the Floridan aquifer in
Union County, Florida __ 143
11 Chemical quality of water tests commonly made for purposes
indicated ______ 152
12 Water-quality characteristics and their effects 154
13 Suggested water-quality tolerances ___ 158
14 Suggested water-quality tolerance for boiler feed water 159








PREFACE


This report was prepared by the Water Resources Division of
the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida
Geological Survey. The investigation was under the general
supervision of M. I. Rorabaugh, district engineer, Ground Water
Branch; A. 0. Patterson, district engineer, Surface Water Branch;
and J. W. Geurin, district chemist, succeeded by K. A. MacKichan,
district engineer, Quality of Water Branch, of the U. S. Geological
Survey.
The writers wish to express their appreciation to the citizens
of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union Counties for supplying
data and permitting the sampling and measuring of their wells
and to the well drillers for furnishing well cuttings, water-level
data, and other helpful information. Thanks are due the U. S. Soil
Conservation Service for its assistance in drilling a number of
shallow test wells and to Dr. E. C. Pirkle, of the University of
Florida, who furnished valuable geologic information.


















































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WATER RESOURCES
OF
ALACHUA, BRADFORD, CLAY, AND UNION
COUNTIES, FLORIDA

By

William E. Clark, Rufus H. Musgrove,
Clarence G. Menke, and Joseph W. Cagle, Jr.

ABSTRACT

Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties are within the
topographic division of Florida known as the Central Highlands,
except eastern Clay County which is a part of the Coastal Low-
lands. The most striking topographic features are: Trail Ridge,
which extends through the area in a north-south direction; high
swampy plains in the northwestern part of the area; rolling, slop-
ing, lands that are well dissected by stream channels in the eastern
part of the area; and lower, slightly rolling plains in southwestern
Alachua County, which are devoid of stream channels but which
are dotted with sinks and limerock pits.
The area is underlain by a series of limestones and dolomites
to depths of several thousand feet. The upper several hundred feet
of these beds include the Lake City Limestone and Avon Park
Limestone of Eocene age. The Ocala Group, the uppermost Eocene
unit, is exposed in southern and western Alachua County, but its
top is about 250 feet below sea level in eastern Clay County. In
the extreme southwestern corner of Alachua County the Ocala
Group is covered by about 35 feet of sands and clays of the Alachua
Formation of Miocene to Pleistocene age, but in other parts of the
area it is overlain by as much as 250 feet of relatively impervious
beds of clay, sandy clay, and limestone of the Hawthorn Formation
of Miocene age and by deposits of late Miocene age. In south-
western Clay County and southeastern Bradford County the Mio-
cene deposits are beneath about 90 feet of sand and clayey sand
that comprise the unnamed coarse plastics of Pleistocene age.
Elsewhere within the area, the Miocene deposits are overlain by a
series of higher terrace deposits of Pleistocene age and by a series
of lower terrace deposits of Pleistocene and Recent age. The
higher terraces are made up of the older Pleistocene terrace de-






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


posits which form most of the land surface in Bradford and Union
counties and extensive areas in Alachua and Clay counties. The
thickness of the older Pleistocene terrace deposits generally is 40
feet or less, but in some places it is as much as 130 feet. Pleistocene
and Recent sand, clay, and marl deposits cover older beds to depths
ranging generally up to 60 feet in Clay County. The principal
structure of the area is the Ocala uplift, whose crest transverses
southwestern Alachua County. The regional dip of formations on
the flank of the uplift is east-northeast at an average rate of about
6 feet per mile.
The average annual temperature at Gainesville is 700F. Only
rarely does the temperature reach 100F and only occasionally
does it drop into the teens. In fact, 280 frost-free days per year
can be expected.
Uneven distribution of rainfall causes most of the water prob-
lems in the area. On the average, the area receives 52 inches of
rainfall per year. However, there have been considerable variations
from the average which have caused both floods and droughts.
Minor seasonal floods are a common occurrence. The greatest floods
of record occurred in 1948-49. For the 6-year period ending in
1949 the excess rainfall at Gainesville was 45.87 inches.
The most severe drought of record occurred during 1954-57.
Rainfall at Gainesville was deficient by 22.66 inches during 1954-
56. Many of the streams reached their lowest flow of record and
several lakes lost most of their water during 1954-57. Orange
Lake in southern Alachua County was reduced to one-fifth of its
normal size, and Brooklyn Lake at Keystone Heights was reduced
to one-half of its normal size.
The average streamflow from the four counties is approximately
1,150 mgd (million gallons per day) and leaves the area through
four stream basins that originate within the area (Black Creek,
Santa Fe River, Orange Creek, and Etonia Creek). In addition,
the St. Johns River, the largest and longest river wholly within
Florida, flows northward along the eastern boundary of Clay
County and has an average flow of about 4,500 mgd at Green Cove
Springs.
Average runoff from the four counties is about 12 inches per
year but varies considerably from area to area. Average yearly
runoff from the Black Creek basin is 14.8 inches; from the Santa
Fe River basin, 22 inches; from the Orange Creek basin, 5 inches;
and from Etonia Creek basin, less than 5 inches. An intervening
segment of the Santa Fe River drainage area west of High Springs







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


has an average runoff of 85 inches per year, which is possibly the
highest runoff from any area in Florida.
There are more than 50 lakes in the four counties that exceed
0.02 square mile in size, the largest of which is 25.7 square miles
in size. The combined area of all these lakes is about 90 square
miles. The elevations above sea level of the lakes range from 57
feet for the lowest to 176 feet for the highest. Stages of some
lakes have fluctuated as much as 20 feet; others have fluctuated
only 3.5 feet. Soundings have been made in 9 lakes, the deepest of
which, Kingsley Lake, has a depth of 85 feet. The depths of most
of the lakes are in the range from 20 to 40 feet.
Concentration of substances dissolved in surface water ranged
from 10 to 299 ppm (parts per million). All surface water, except
in the Etonia Creek basin in southwestern Clay County, is colored.
The color intensity ranged from 0 to 1,000 platinum-cobalt scale
units. Except for the New River near Lake Butler and Santa Fe
River at High Springs, the surface water is characteristically
soft. Generally, the hardness (as calcium carbonate) is less than
50 ppm.
The two major sources of ground-water supplies in these
counties are the upper aquifers and the Floridan aquifer. The
upper aquifers are above the Floridan aquifer except where they
are absent in southern and western Alachua County.
The upper aquifers are composed of a water-table aquifer and
secondary artesian aquifers. The water-table aquifer consists
mostly of shallow sand or clayey sand of Miocene, Pleistocene, and
Pleistocene and Recent age. These sands, which are recharged
locally by rainfall, yield water to domestic wells. The secondary
artesian aquifers, which are sandwiched between the water-table
aquifer and the Floridan aquifer, consist chiefly of limestone layers
of the Hawthorn Formation or Choctawhatchee Formation. Prob-
ably more wells in these four counties withdraw water from
secondary artesian aquifers than from any other aquifer. These
aquifers supply sufficient water for domestic and livestock purposes.
The source of the largest supplies of ground water is the
Floridan aquifer, which consists mostly of limestones of Eocene
and Oligocene age. In the area west of a line running through
Gainesville in a southeast-northwest direction, water in the Flori-
dan aquifer is under water-table conditions; and in the area east
of this line the water is under artesian conditions. The piezometric
surface of the Floridan aquifer is. high near the junction of the
Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union county lines, indicating a






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


recharge area. The rate of recharge in this area is estimated to
be at least 1.8 inches of water per year. In southern and western
Alachua County where the Floridan aquifer is exposed; at least
10 inches of water per year percolates to the Floridan aquifer. The
principal area of artesian flow from the Floridan aquifer includes
most of northeastern Clay County and the low areas along the St.
Johns River, Black Creek, and Little Black Creek.
Although about 10 billion gallons of ground water were used in
the four counties in 1960, it is a relatively undeveloped resource.
Hundreds of millions of gallons of additional ground water a year
probably can be developed at almost any place in the four counties
if the development is based on sound scientific principles and
adequate hydrologic data.
Concentration of substances dissolved in ground water ranged
from 14 to 687 ppm. Except for the water in the water-table
aquifer, the ground water is characteristically moderately hard
to hard. Often the hardness is greater than 100 ppm. Except for
localized flat and swampy areas, the color intensity of the ground
water is generally 10 or less.
Iron in concentrations greater than 0.30 ppm occurs in both
surface waters and ground waters. The occurrence of iron in excess
of 0.30 ppm is less prevalent in water from the secondary artesian
aquifers and from the Floridan aquifer than from the water-table
aquifer.

INTRODUCTION

PURPOSE AND SCOPE

Water is a valuable natural resource in Alachua, Bradford,
Clay, and Union counties (fig. 1) but had been given little thought
by local residents before the severe drought of 1954-57. The
drought focused the attention of local officials upon the usable
water-supply limitations and the need for information concerning
the water resources in the area. This attention was stimulated by
the distressingly low water level of Brooklyn Lake near Keystone
Heights.
Local officials presented the problem to the State Legislature.
The Legislature provided funds to the Florida Geological Survey
for a water-resources investigation. With these funds from the
Florida Geological Survey and matching funds from the Federal
Government, a cooperative agreement was reached between the
Florida Geological Survey and the U. S. Geological Survey to
It






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


/


0 D 30 40 50 milne


Figure 1. Florida showing the locations of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and
Union counties.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


conduct the water-resources study. This report is to document the
results of the study for public use.
The investigation was designed to obtain data fundamental to
solving water problems of the area. These data are to be pub-
lished by the Florida Geological Survey in an Information Circular
entitled "Water-Resources Data of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and
Union Counties, Florida." Special attention was directed toward
the causes of the fluctuations of Brooklyn Lake during the
investigation, and the results of this part of the investigation are
published by the Florida Geological Survey in Report of Investiga-
tion 33, entitled "Hydrology of Brooklyn Lake Near Keystone
Heights, Florida."
High and low lake stages, floods, low streamflow, chemical
content of waters, low artesian pressures, decreased well yields,
and water temperatures are problems.
Questions most frequently asked about water and water supplies
are: (1) Where is a supply located? (2) How much is available?
(3) What are the fluctuations of this supply? (4) What causes the
fluctuations of a supply? and (5) What are the chemical and
physical characteristics of the supply? All these questions are best
answered by data on streamflow, lake and stream stages, areas and
depths of lakes, drainage areas, wells, geology, ground-water levels,
rainfall, and the physical and chemical character of water. These
measurements should be made over a long period of time, to include
both high-water and low-water conditions.

PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS

Records of streamflow have been collected by the U. S.
Geological Survey at various points in the area since 1927. These
records were published annually in a series of water-supply papers,
and a summary of these records through 1950 is published in
Water-Supply Paper 1304. The results of a low-flow study of
streams during April and May 1956 were given in a report by
Pride (1961). Pride (1958) reported on the frequency of floods
in this area. Black and Brown (1951) gave information about
the chemical quality of water in the area and other parts of Florida.
A series of water-supply papers contain measurements of
artesian pressure in several wells in northeastern Clay County.
Ground-water resources and geology of the four counties were
mentioned in a report by Matson and Sanford (1913). Artesian
water supply, well descriptions, measurements of water levels in
wells, and chemical analyses of water from wells were reported







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35 7

by Sellards and Gunter (1913). Stringfield (1936) reported well
locations and well descriptions, and prepared a piezometric map
of the principal artesian aquifer of the Florida Peninsula. Ferguson,
and others (1947) discussed some of the larger springs of Florida.
A report by Cooper and others (1953) includes a general
discussion of the water resources of these four counties. White
(1958) relates water resources to landforms of the peninsula and
makes brief references to Alachua County. The most comprehen-
sive geological reports are those of Cooke and Mossom (1929) and
Cooke (1945), both entitled "Geology of Florida," which describe
the formations that crop out in the four counties and give details
of their occurrence. A geological map of the surface formations
accompanies each of these reports. Vernon (1951) has drawn
structural maps that include Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union
counties. A geological map by Vernon (1951), revised from the
earlier map by Cooke (1945), shows the outcrop of the surface
formations. Pirkle (1956) has contributed papers on the geology
and physiography of Alachua County. A report by Puri (1957),
describes the Ocala Group and its fossils at several quarry
exposures in Alachua County and shows subsurface sections that
extend across parts of the four-county area. Puri and Vernon
(1959) give detailed descriptions of geologic sections and show
panel diagrams of the subsurface geology in the counties.

METHODS OF INVESTIGATION

The surface-water investigation consisted of collecting stage
records on lakes and streams; measuring the flow of streams;
sounding lakes with a sonic depth recorder; and determining the
limits of drainage areas.
Field mapping of the surface occurrence of the geologic forma-
tions was made by using rock outcrops in roadcuts, streams, and
channels; exposures in quarries and sinks; and the application of
such geologic aids as vegetation, topography, and surface drainage
features. The interpretation of the subsurface geology is based
on a microscopic examination of the character, composition, and
fossils of drill cuttings from approximately 70 wells and from
studies of numerous drillers' logs of wells.
The following data on existing wells were collected at the time
the wells were canvassed; drillers' logs, water use, yield of wells,
dimensions of casings, depth of wells, depth to water, and water
temperature. Water samples were also collected for chemical
.analyses. Figure 2 shows the locations of wells that were






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


inventoried. Figure 3 gives an explanation of the well-numbering
system and shows how a well may be located on the map by its
number.
A large part of the investigation was devoted to drilling and
collecting data from 84 test wells. Forty-two of the test wells
were 11/ -inches iin diameter and 50 feet or less in depth. Only
geologic samples were collected from these wells. Twenty-seven
of the test wells were 2 inches in diameter and were drilled near
Brooklyn Lake. Twelve of the 2-inch wells, which ranged from 28
to 67 feet in depth, were drilled to obtain water-level measure-
ments. The remaining 2-inch wells, which ranged in depth from
77 to 449 feet, were drilled to obtain water-level measurements,
water temperatures, geologic samples, and water samples. Four
6-inch wells were drilled near Brooklyn Lake to obtain geologic
samples, water-level measurements, and water samples. Nine
4-inch and two 8-inch wells were drilled to obtain geologic samples,
water samples, water-level measurements, and water temperatures.
Some of the test wells and some of the existing wells were
pumped or allowed to flow to obtaininformation on the yield of the
wells and to obtain information concerning the hydraulic charac-
teristics of the material that the wells penetrated. In addition,
the elevations of a number of the existing wells and a number of
the test wells were determined with either an engineer's level
or an altimeter.
Water levels and water temperatures were measured
periodically in a selected number of existing wells and in most
of the test wells. On a few key wells, automatic water-level
recorders were installed to obtain a continuous record of the
water-level fluctuations.
Water samples were collected and analyzed using standard
methods (Rainwater and Thatcher, 1960). Samples of water for
chemical analyses were taken at streamflow-measuring stations
when practical. The analyses of these samples were used to esti-
mate the quality of water at other locations. Water samples were
collected preferably from wells for which well depth, depth of
casing, geologic formation of materials, and elevation of the water
surface in the well were known. The analyses of these samples
were used to estimate the ground-water quality.

DESCRIPTION OF AREA

Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties are grouped
together in the northern part of peninsular Florida (fig. 1). The
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the location of wells.


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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35


Figure 3. Explanation of well-numbering system.


area is in the vicinity of latitude 29050' N., longitude 82010' W.
It extends about 50 miles north-south and about 65 miles east-west.
The east edge of the area is 20 miles from the Atlantic Ocean and
the southwest corner is 30 miles from the Gulf of Mexico.
Trade, manufacturing, mining, agricultural, and governmental
operations are the main sources of income. Revenues associated
with recreational activities are increasing as the potential of the
area is recognized. Although no water is consumed by recreational
activity, more of the lakes are being used for this purpose as the






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


economy of the area expands. At present, the operations of
municipalities, mining, and agriculture require the largest
quantities of water in the area.
The four counties have an area of 2,023 square miles and had
a population of 103,800 in 1957. The area and the population density
of the counties are: Alachua, 892 square miles, 77 persons per
square mile; Clay 598 square miles, 26 persons per square mile;
Bradford, 293 square miles, 41 persons per square mile; and
Union, 240 square miles, 33 persons per square mile. The four
counties combined have 51 persons per square mile, whereas the
state as a whole has 76 persons per square mile. (The population
figures are from data by the Bureau of Business and Economic
Research, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida.)

TOPOGRAPHY

The area is within the topographic division of the state known
as the Central Highlands, except eastern Clay County, which is
in the Coastal Lowlands division (Cooke, 1945, p. 8, 10, 11). The
principal topographic features of the area are: Trail Ridge, which
extends through the area in a north-south direction; the high
swampy plains in central, north-central, and northwestern parts
of the area; the rolling, sloping lands in the eastern part of the
area which are well dissected by stream channels; and the slightly
rolling plain in southern and western Alachua County, which is
devoid of stream channels but which is dotted with sinks and lime-
rock pits.
Train Ridge extends from the lake region in the vicinity of
Keystone Heights in southwestern Clay County northward along
the Bradford-Clay County line. This ridge is a series of sandhills,
the highest of which (elevation 250 feet) is just south of Kingsley
Lake. From the highest point, the land slopes southward and fans
out into a wide area of sandhills, which is dotted with lakes, in the
vicinity of Keystone Heights. Farther south, in Putnam County,
the land is flat and has many shallow lakes.
North of Kingsley Lake, the ridge is narrow and generally is
less than a mile wide across the crest. It slopes downward slightly
to about 200 feet above msl (mean sea level) at the Baker County
line.
East of Trail Ridge, in Clay County, the land slopes toward the
St. Johns River for a distance of 20 to 25 miles. The land along
the St. Johns River in this area generally is less than 10 feet above
sea level. Many well-defined channels drain directly from the east







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


side of the ridge. Some of the headwater streams of the North
Fork Black Creek have channel slopes of 50 feet per mile.
The west side of Trail Ridge slopes steeply, as much as 100 feet
per mile, to a swampy plain. This plain extends over parts of
Alachua, Bradford, and Union counties and ranges generally from
125 to 175 feet above msl. No well-defined stream channels drain
the west side of the ridge; however, several streams originate in
areas occupied by the swampy plain.
In southern and western Alachua County the land is fairly flat
but there are gently rolling hills. This area is dotted with small
ponds and pits made by mining of limestone. A significant feature
of this area is the absence of stream channels.

GEOLOGY'

Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties are underlain by
several hundred feet of unconsolidated to semiconsolidated marine
and nonmarine deposits of sand, clay, marl, gravel, limestone, dolo-
mite, and dolomitic limestone. The oldest formation penetrated by
water wells in the four counties is the Lake City Limestone of
Eocene age. However, the Oldsmar Limestone of Eocene age, which
lies below the Lake City, probably is fresh water-bearing, at least
in part. The Oldsmar Limestone, at least in part, and the over-
lying younger formations contain fresh water, but several thou-
sand feet of older rocks of Tertiary and Cretaceous age that lie
below the Oldsmar contain highly mineralized water. Only the
fresh water-bearing formations are discussed in this report.
The Eocene Series comprises the Oldsmar Limestone, Lake City
Limestone, Avon Park Limestone, and Ocala Group; the Oligocene
Series is represented by the Suwannee Limestone; the Miocene
Series comprises the Hawthorn and Choctawhatchee Formation
and, in part, the Alachua Formation; the Pleistocene Series is
made up of the unnamed coarse clastics, the older Pleistocene
terrace deposits, and, in part, the Alachua Formation; and the
Pleistocene and Recent Series is made up of the younger marine
and estuarine terrace deposits. These deposits underlie a terrain
that is a series of marine terraces or plains; a hill and valley, and

'The stratigraphic nomenclature used in this report conforms to the usage
by Cooke (1945) with revisions by Vernon (1951) except that the Ocala
Limestone is referred to as the Ocala Group. The Ocala Group, and its
subdivisions as described by Puri (1953), has been adopted by the Geological
Survey of Florida. The Federal Geological Survey regards the Ocala as a
formation, the Ocala Limestone.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


hill and lake topography; and a limestone plain. Except for the
Inglis, Williston, and Crystal River Formations that compose the
Ocala Group, which is undifferentiated in this report, erosional
unconformities separate each formation. A generalized geologic
map (fig. 4), which is a modification of the previous geologic maps
of the area by Cooke and Mossom (1929), Cooke (1945), Vernon
(1951), and Puri and Vernon (1959), shows the surface occurrence
of the various formations. The oldest exposed rocks are limestones
of the Ocala Group, which crop out in southern and western Alachua
County.- The Hawthorn, Choctawhatchee, and Alachua Formations,
the unnamed coarse clastics, the older Pleistocene terrace deposits,
and the Pleistocene and Recent deposits are at the surface in other
parts of the four-county area. Geologic sections (figs. 5, 6, 7, 8,
and 9) show thickness, structure, topographic expression, and the
stratigraphic position and relationship of the formations.
The geologic formations penetrated by water wells in the four
counties are listed in table 1, which gives a brief description of
their thickness and physical character. The formations are grouped
according to their geologic age and are described from oldest to
youngest-that is, from the Oldsmar Limestone of Eocene age to
the Pleistocene and Recent deposits.

EOCENE SERIES

The Oldsmar Limestone, the lowermost formation of Eocene age,
lies at relatively great depths in .Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and
Union counties and is not penetrated by water wells in this area.
Although a few oil test wells penetrate the Oldsmar in the four
counties, the data from these wells are inconclusive relative to
the thickness and character of the formation. Vernon (1951, p.
87), however, describes the thickness and lithology of the Oldsmar,
based on oil test wells, in Levy County which adjoins Alachua
County on the southwest. Vernon states, regarding the Oldsmar,
that "it is composed essentially of fragmental marine limestones,
partially to completely dolomitized and containing irregular and
rare lenses of chert, impregnation of gypsum and thin shale beds."
The thickness of the formation in Levy County ranged from 380
to 568 feet in five test oil wells. The Oldsmar overlies the Cedar
Keys Limestone of Paleocene age.
The Lake City Limestone of Eocene age is the oldest formation
from which supplies of fresh ground water are obtained in the
area. The Lake City is nearest the surface along the crest of the
Ocala uplift in southwestern Alachua County where its top was


























































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Figure 4. Generalized geologic map of Alachua, Bradford, Clay and Union
counties, Florida, showing the approximate elevation of the Ocala Group
and the location of geologic sections.


SI I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I _; I i I I I I i


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Figure 5. West-east geologic section in Alachua, Bradford, and Clay counties,
Florida along line A-A' in figure 4.































Figure 6. West-east geologic section in Alachua, Bradford, and Clay counties,
Florida, along line B-B' in figure 4.













S100- HAWTHORN FORMATION f
-- Jy -rHAWTHORN FORMATION
0-


I-,
0 OCALA GRO UP 0 LIMESTONE

100 OCALA GROUP



-300- PARK LIMESTONE |

- -400- 4 ~e ... .

CITY
-500 0 I 2 4 6 8 O1mlles LIMESTO NE

..J
" .600
Figure 7. Southwest-northeast geologic section in Alachua and Union counties,
Florida along line C-C' in figure 4.











ISTOC NE


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OLN
L I M E S T 0 N E "'--


0 1 2 4 6 8 I0miles
ENIMI


Figure 8. South-north geologic section in Alachua, Bradford, and Union
counties, Florida along line D-D' in figure 4.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


I 000. | |
1 1 0 I I


S 0: -HAWT O FOR to HAWTHORN
o0 ,_ HAWTHORN
FORMATION
S -100 .
O C A L A G R O U P
-200

2 -300
A V O N P A R K LI M E ST O N E
0 1 2 4 6 8 0 miles
id -400
Figure 9. South-north geologic section in Alachua, Clay, and Bradford
counties, Florida along line E-E' in figure 4.

penetrated by well 936-236-1, 21/2 miles south of Newberry, and
well 938-236-3, at Newberry, at 150 feet below msl and at 168 feet
below msl, respectively. On a line from southwest to northeast
across the four counties-that is, from the Ocala uplift, in the
direction of greatest dip of the beds-the top of the Lake City
lies at about 380 to 440 feet below msl at Gainesville, at about 600
feet below msl beneath the crest of Trail Ridge at Kingsley Lake,
and at about 700 feet below msl at Green Cove Springs (fig. 5, 6).
The Lake City Limestone overlies older Oldsmar Limestone of
Eocene age.
Drill cuttings were available from only a relatively few, widely
scattered wells penetrating the Lake City; therefore, the lithologic
character and composition of the Lake City Limestone could be
determined only generally. The cuttings show the formation to be
composed mostly of tan, gray, and brown, hard, finely crystalline
dolomite and dolomitic limestone. Included with these beds, how-
ever, are many softer layers of tan and gray, porous, fossiliferous
limestone and seams of peat or lignite. The Lake City is most
readily identified in drill samples with the first appearance of the
Foraminifera, Dictyoconus americanus (Cushman). Since no water
wells for which records were available were drilled through the
Lake City Limestone, the thickness of the formation was not
determined. The greatest penetration, 440 feet, was by well
938-221-1 at Gainesville.
The Avon Park Limestone, which overlies the Lake City Lime-
stone, is in the subsurface throughout the four counties. The














tyusteuin Berls


Pleltocenee
and
Recent


Quaternary



















Tertiary


Pleistocene


Miocene


Oligocene


Eocene'


'TAlIXt 1. (juologCyioc F lorm llo leiOtriated fly WAt(er Wull In Alachuu,
Ilradtford, Clay, andi Union Counitloa, Florida,


lstimtlnluil
l,'lill~ilt hI l thicknuessB ylll ci
( feet I


Younger nir1ine and etuliarinu
terrace delpouit:


Older P!elstocunu terrace depositl


Unnamed coarse plastics

Choctahatchc


Choctawhatchee
Formation



Hawthorn Formation


Suwarnee Limestone


Crystal River Formation
Ocala Williston Formation
Group Inglis Formation
(Undifferentiated)


I1 chllun&cterilties


Sand and clayey sund, jrey, brown and black, disemil.
tO nuted organic matter beds of clay naurl, and sandy clay,
Shell marl and concentrationH of shell in some areas,

4 Sand, white to yellow, grey to black, olayey, organic
4 matter; varicolored clay, sandy clay and clayey sand.


Sand and clayey sand, varicolored, locally contains quarts
00 gravels, interbedded thin lenses of clay or kaolin,


Sand, clay, and phosphate; boulders of siliceous lime.
6 stone, flint and phosphate; vertebrate fossils.


Clay and marl, yellow to cream Indurated in part, phos.
40 phate grains and pebbles, thin limestone and sand layers,
some shells,

1- Clay and sandy clay, varicolored, Interbedded sand and
Sandy, phophohatic limestone; disseminated grains and
250 pebbles of phosphate. Very hard limestone, partly dolo-
mitic, in the lower part of the Hawthorn in some areas.


Limestone, white to tan, soft to hard, porous, in part
fossiliferous and dolomitic.


Limestone, white, cream and tan, soft, granular, porous,
250 fossiliferous, coquinoid in part. Some hard layers of
limestone and dolomitic limestone mostly in lower part.


S Dolomite, dark brown and tan, granular, hard, dense to
210 porous; interbedded tan and cream limestone and
dolomitic limestone.


Lake City Limestone 450


Limestone, dolomite, and dolomitic limestone, tan, grey,
and brown.


Avon Park Limestone


i I I


-


m
s
j
ee
r







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


Avon Park in most parts of Alachua, Bradford, and Union counties
is chiefly a dark brown to tan, granular, hard, dense to porous
dolomite that in places contains a few beds of cream-colored lime-
stone. Geologic logs of representative wells in Clay County,
however, show many beds of tan, gray, or cream-colored, soft to
hard limestone and dolomitic limestone interlayered with the
brown dolomite. Although dolomitization has altered or destroyed
many of its fossils, the formation is generally fossiliferous and
carries a distinctive assemblage of "cone type" Foraminifera. The
Avon Park is thinnest beneath the crest and flank of the Ocala
uplift in southwestern Alachua County where it is nearest the
surface. At wells 936-236-1 and 938-236-3, near Newberry in south-
western Alachua County, the Avon Park has thicknesses of 100 and
110 feet, respectively. At test well 007-222-1, in Union County,
the Avon Park is 143 feet thick. The Avon Park is about 210 feet
thick at Gainesville and probably maintains a nearly equivalent
thickness in most other parts of the four counties. The geologic
sections (fig. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) show wells (in addition to the above)
that have penetrated as much as 140 feet of the formation.
Limestones of the Ocala Group have been subdivided and re-
named several times in recent years by different investigators. The
most recent classification is that of Puri (1957) of the Florida
Geological Survey, who divided the Ocala Group from oldest to
youngest, into the Inglis, Williston, and Crystal River Formations.
These formations are undifferentiated in this report. Limestones of
the Ocala Group, the oldest exposed rocks in the area, are at the
surface in southern and western Alachua County (fig. 4), but
they dip beneath younger formations in other parts of Alachua
County and in Bradford, Clay and Union counties. The Ocala
Group unconformably overlies the Avon Park limestone.
A limestone plain was formed where the Ocala Group is at the
surface. In the outcrop of the Ocala Group (fig. 4), the limestone
in most places is covered by a veneer of loose sands of older Pleis-
tocene terrace deposits. In a few places, however, the outcrop of
Ocala Group is covered by clayey sands and sandy clays, which are
a residuum of the younger Hawthorn and Alachua Formations. The
younger sediments over the limestone tend to mask irregularities
in the highly eroded surface of the Ocala Group. A karst
topography-which includes such features as filled and open sinks,
sinkhole lakes, solution pipes, basins, and prairies-is typical of
areas underlain by the Ocala Group.
The upper part of the Ocala Group is mostly a soft, white to
cream-colored, chalky, coquina limestone. The Ocala Group,







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


though it is in part a coquina throughout its thickness, grades
downward into alternating layers of hard and soft, tan to brown,
crystalline limestone and dolomitic limestone. Younger materials
consisting of sand, clay, and vertebrate fossils have filled sinks,
solution pipes, and depressions in the Ocala Group. In the outcrop
of the Ocala in Alachua County, sink-fill material was penetrated
by well 937-223-1 to a depth of about 200 feet, which is the
approximate depth to the base of the Ocala Group and by well
938-234-1 to a depth of at least 268 feet, which would be in the
Avon Park Limestone. In southwestern Clay County where the
Ocala Group is beneath younger sediments, well 947-202-13,
apparently penetrated a deep filled sink which was caused by a col-
lapse of limestones of Eocene age. The Ocala Group was
penetrated at a depth of 420 feet, whereas, the Ocala Group would
normally be penetrated at a depth of about 200 feet. Boulders and
irregular masses of chert or flint are common near the top of the
Ocala Group. Cavities up to 3 feet in depth are common and some
cavities as much as 40 feet in depth in the limestone in western
Alachua County have been reported by drillers.
The Ocala Group is thinnest beneath the crest and flank of the
Ocala uplift in southwestern Alachua County. At wells 936-236-1
and 938-236-3 near Newberry, the Ocala Group is 80 and 130 feet
thick, respectively. In other parts of the four counties, the Ocala
Group ranges in thickness from about 200 to 250 feet. In Alachua
County, the Ocala Group is as much as 220 feet thick, and in Clay
County the maximum thickness was logged 230 feet in well 958-
139-1 at Green Cove Springs, but it may be slightly thicker in the
northeastern part of Clay County. The Ocala is estimated to be 230
feet thick at Starke in Bradford County, and it may be as much
as 250 feet thick northwest of Starke and westward to the vicinity
of well 958-217-1. At test well 007-222-1 in Union County, the
Ocala was 245 feet thick and drillers' logs of wells at Raiford in
eastern Union County indicate an equivalent thickness in this area.

OLIGOCENE SERIES

Some boulders of the Suwannee Limestone of Oligocene age
were identified at the surface in western Alachua County but it was
not determined if the boulders were in place. The Suwannee is in
the subsurface north and northeast of Gainesville in Alachua
County, in places in northwestern Alachua County, in the approxi-
mate western one-fourth of Bradford County, and in most of Union
County west of Lake Butler. Available well data indicate that the







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


Suwannee is absent in most other parts of these counties and that
the formation is entirely absent in Clay County. The locations of
wells penetrating the Suwannee that were used to prepare a-
contour map of the top of the Floridan aquifer are shown in figure
78. The Suwannee Limestone is a residual material, and it probably
occurs only locally except in extreme northwestern Alachua County
and in western Union County where it seems to be continuous in
subsurface.
Owing to the lithologic similarity between the Suwannee Lime-
stone and limestones of the underlying Ocala Group, a separation
of these two units is often difficult except where diagnostic fossils
occur. The Suwannee is usually identified by its "cone type"
foraminifers. Generally, the formation is composed of hard and
soft beds of white, tan or cream-colored limestone that is dolomitic
and coquinoid in part. Also, some sand and silicified layers of
chert and flint are present. North and northeast of Gainesville in
Alachua County the Suwannee ranges in thickness from about 30
to 50 feet, and in western Union County and southwestern Bradford
County it generally ranges in thickness from 20 to 40 feet. In
northwestern Alachua and extreme southern Union counties the
formation probably ranges in thickness from 20 to 30 feet.

MIOCENE SERIES

The Hawthorn Formation, a marine deposit of Miocene age,
underlies the four counties except in parts of southern and western
Alachua County. The Hawthorn crops out in Alachua County in
an isolated area around Micanopy and in an irregular pattern ex-
tending from Lochloosa Lake northwestward into northwestern
and north-central Alachua County. The formation also crops out
in southern Union County and southwestern Bradford County (fig.
4). The main body of the outcrop of the formation terminates in
Alachua County along a line of low southwestward-facing hills along
the edge of the plain formed by limestones of the Ocala Group.
Remnants of the Hawthorn, however, have filled sinks and formed
a thin mantle of sediment over the outcrop of the Ocala Group
(fig. 4). Much of the outcrop of the Hawthorn Formation is in an
area of relatively rugged hill and valley terrain, but in some of
the area the surface is gently rolling. Most of the Hawthorn out-
crop is covered by a veneer of loose sands of the older Pleistocene
terrace deposits. The Hawthorn Formation overlies the Ocala
Group and the Suwannee Limestone.
The Hawthorn consists chiefly of thick clays and sandy clays







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


that range in color from green to yellow and from gray to blue.
Layers or lenses of sand and relatively soft white to gray limestone
and sandy phosphatic limestone are interbedded with the clays.
Although pebbles and grains of phosphate having a tan, amber,
brown, or black color are usually -disseminated throughout the
formation, the pebbles and grains of phosphate seem to be con-
centrated at various levels. The lower part of the Hawthorn
contains beds of tan, gray, and grayish-green, dense, hard limestone
and dolomitic limestone, and interlayered clays. These beds occur
in approximately the eastern one-fourth of Alachua County, all of.
Bradford County except the extreme southwestern part including
Brooker, that part of Union County lying generally east of Lake
Butler, and all of Clay County. In Alachua County, the basal lime-
stones and clays are usually 15 to 20 feet thick; whereas in
Bradford, Clay and Union counties the basal limestones are from
20 to 30 feet thick except in places in eastern Clay County where
they are about 35 feet thick.
The Hawthorn Formation ranges in thickness in Alachua
County from a few feet where its outcrop merges with the Ocala
outcrop to about 200 feet in the northeastern part of the county
(sections A-A', D-D' in fig. 5, 8). The Hawthorn is as much as 160
feet thick in the vicinity of Gainesville. In most other parts of
Alachua County the formation is from 60 to 120 feet thick except
in the outcrop in the Micanopy area where its thickness probably
does not exceed 50 feet. In Union County, west of Lake Butler, the
Hawthorn is from 55 to 100 feet thick; but east of Lake Butler it
apparently is thicker because 265 feet of Hawthorn was penetrated
by well 004-211-3 at Raiford State Prison in extreme eastern Union
County. In southern Bradford County, at Brooker, only 85 feet
of the Hawthorn was penetrated by well 953-220-2, but in south-
eastern Bradford County 160 feet of Hawthorn was penetrated by
test well 952-204-1. At Starke and in most of central Bradford
County the formation is about 200 feet thick, but close to New
River and in the northern part of Bradford County it is 225 to
250 feet thick. In Clay County along the lines of sections A-A',.
B-B', and E-E' (fig. 5, 6, 9), the thickness ranges from 80 feet at
well 943-202-3 in the extreme southwestern part of Clay County
to 235 feet at well 958-159-1 near Kingsley Lake in west-central
Clay County. In southwestern Clay County the Hawthorn, as
shown by cuttings from scattered wells, has a maximum thickness
of about 160 feet. Drillers logs show that the formation is as
much as 250 feet thick at places in central snd northeastern Clay
County.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35


The relatively thick and impermeable Hawthorn sediments are
the principal confining beds that confine water under artesian
pressure in the Floridan aquifer.
The Hawthorn Formation is exposed in open sinks such as the
Devil's Mill Hopper near Gainesville in Alachua County and Brooks
Sink near Brooker in Bradford County. In the Devil's Mill Hopper
at least 115 feet of Hawthorn sediments are exposed (Cooke and
Mossom 1929, p. 129).
Beds of late Miocene age that crop out along the north and
south forks of Black Creek in north-central Clay County (fig. 4)
are referred to as the Choctawhatchee Formation in this report.
The outcrop of the Choctawhatchee is covered in most places by
a thin mantle of sediment of Pleistocene and Recent age. The
Choctawhatchee, which overlies the Hawthorn Formation, dips
beneath younger beds away from its outcrop. It is apparently con-
tinuous in the subsurface in most of Bradford County except for
that part generally west and southwest of Starke and Hampton,
most of Union County except south and west of test well 001-224-1,
most, if not all, of Clay County, and a part of eastern Alachua
County.
The Choctawhatchee Formation consists mostly of yellow and
cream-colored, soft, fossiliferous clay and partly indurated marl.
Thin beds of sand and thin beds of limestone are interlayered with
the clay and marl, and grains and pebbles of phosphate and silica
are disseminated in the beds. Owing to the abundant shell (mol-
lusks) content in some areas the name "shell marl" has been
-applied to the Choctawhatchee Formation. Drill cuttings examined
from representative wells show that in most areas in the four
counties the shells are few in number and are only poorly preserved
fragments, molds, or casts. However, the cuttings from some wells
in eastern Clay County, show concentrations of well-preserved
shells. The Choctawhatchee generally is 10 to 30 feet thick in the
four counties. However, along geologic section A-A' (fig. 5) the
formation is as much as 40 feet thick in east-central Bradford
County and central Clay County.

MIOCENE TO PLEISTOCENE (?) SERIES

The Alachua Formation of Miocene to Pleistocene age is exposed
Sin southwestern Alachua County where it forms low rolling sand-
hills over the eroded crest of the Ocala uplift (fig. 4). The
formation consists, in part if not entirely, of terrestrial deposits,
which in some places contain land-vertebrate fossils of various







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


types. The Alachua, whose surface is covered in most places by a
veneer of loose sands that presumably are older Pleistocene (?)
terrace deposits, lies on the highly eroded surface of the Ocala
Group.
Sand is one of the principal components of the formation and,
where the Alachua sediments are exposed in quarries, the sand is
generally in the upper part of the formation. The sand is white,
gray or buff except where it has been exposed and has weathered
to various shades of red. Interbedded with and commonly under-
lying the sands are varicolored clays, sandy clays, clayey sands,
and disseminated grains and pebbles of phosphate. Clays and
associated vertebrate fossils of the Alachua have accumulated in
many of the sinks and depressions in the underlying limestone.
Siliceous limestone and flint and phosphate boulders are scattered
throughout the formation. Boulders and plates of hard rock
phosphate in the Alachua Formation have been quarried extensively
in southwestern Alachua County. The Alachua Formation ranges
in thickness from 25 to 35 feet as indicated by well logs and quarry
exposures.
PLEISTOCENE SERIES
Clastic sediments in Clay and Bradford counties that in most
geologic references are placed in the Citronelle Formation of
Pliocene age have recently been tentatively reclassified by the
Florida Geological Survey. Puri and Vernon (1959, p. 128-129)
of the Florida Geological Survey have referred to these sediments
as "Unnamed coarse plastics" and have assigned them to the
Pleistocene Series pending further studies by the Florida Geological
Survey. These studies are expected to provide a formational name
for these beds and to establish their exact stratigraphic position.
The tentative nomenclature and age assigned to these beds by the
Florida Geological Survey are followed in this report.
The unnamed coarse plastics are exposed in southwestern Clay
and southeastern Bradford counties (fig. 4). Nearly all the out-
crop of the formation is covered by a veneer of sands of older
Pleistocene terrace deposits. The veneer ranges in thickness from
0 to 15 feet except north of the 29050' parallel where locally it may
be thicker. At the edge of the outcrop, the unnamed coarse plastics
terminate abruptly or thin to extinction beneath the younger
formations within a short distance. The outcrop of the deposits is
in hills and lakes except where the overlying veneer of older Pleis-
tocene terrace deposits is gently rolling. The unnamed coarse
plastics overlie the Choctawhatchee Formation.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35


The unnamed coarse plastics are a nonfossiliferous deltaic
deposit that is composed mostly of varicolored sand and clayey sand
that contains quartz gravels locally. Clay or kaolin that acts as a
binder is disseminated in the sands or is in thin beds. In the
vicinity of Brooklyn Lake, test wells penetrated as much as 16 feet
of red and yellow sandy clay in the upper part of the formation
overlying the varicolored sand and clayey sand. In most of the
outcrop north of Brooklyn Lake the red and yellow sediments seem
to be absent and in other parts of the outcrop the sediments, where
present, are chiefly clayey sands. The unnamed coarse plastics are
estimated to have maximum thickness of 90 feet where the deposit
underlies the higher parts of Trail Ridge, but elsewhere in its
outcrop the thickness probably does not exceed 70 feet. In south-
western Clay County, the formation ranged in thickness from 22
feet at test well 945-201-2 to 67 feet at test well 948-202-4. Out-
side of the outcrop of the unnamed coarse plastics (fig. 4) the
maximum thickness of the formation penetrated was 46 feet at
test well 943-202-3.
Several higher terraces, which are marine sediments that were
deposited during the early interglacial stages of the Pleistocene
Epoch, compose the older Pleistocene terrace deposits of this report.
Cooke (1945, p. 273-281) defined these higher terraces as "Early
Pleistocene Deposits" but Puri and Vernon (1959, p. 239-240)
include the higher terraces with several lower (younger) terraces
in the Pleistocene and Recent Series. No attempt was made to
separate the higher (early) Pleistocene deposits (terraces) that
are described by Cooke. The older Pleistocene terrace deposits are
exposed in central and eastern Alachua County and also crop out
in most of Bradford and Union counties and in western Clay
County (fig. 4). The deposits overlie the Hawthorn and Chocta-
whatchee Formations and the unnamed coarse plastics. Older
Pleistocene terrace deposits, consisting mostly of loose tan, yellow,
and gray sands that range in thickness up to 15 feet, cover the older
formations (except the Choctawhatchee Formation) as shown in
figure 4, but the loose sands were not mapped.
The older Pleistocene terrace-deposits may be divided into two
lithologic units-one predominantly sand and one predominantly
clay. The predominantly sand unit generally grades downward into
clayey sands and is the predominant material in the nearly enclosed
outcrop in central and southeastern Alachua County and eastern
Bradford and western Clay counties. These sands are usually dark
gray, brown, or black due to organic matter and iron-bearing
compounds, but they may be tan, yellow, or various shades of gray







26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

where they have been exposed. At a few places in the vicinity of
Gainesville the loose tan, yellow, and gray sands compose the
entire deposit but north of Gainesville these loose sands generally
are in the upper few feet of the beds above the darker colored
clayey sands. In Alachua County the composite thickness of these
beds ranges from about 20 to 45 feet. In eastern Bradford and
western Clay counties, the sands are 80 to 100 feet thick except
beneath the higher land surfaces where the maximum thickness is
about 140 feet.
The predominantly clay unit consists of mottled red, yellow, and
gray clay and sandy clay, which is exposed in many places in
Alachua, Bradford, and Union counties. It is in the upper part of
a sequence of beds that is different from those already described
and was the basis for mapping the older Pleistocene terrace deposits
in other parts of the outcrop that are not described above. These
mottled beds are mostly clay and sandy clay that range in thickness
from about 5 to 12 feet. They overlie tan, cream-colored, and pink
sands and clayey sands that contain layers of sandy clay and are
covered by a veneer of loose tan, yellow, gray, and white sand,
which is from 1 to 5 feet thick. The thickness of the composite
of these sediments is generally 40 feet or less but the beds are as
much as 50 feet thick in places. The sequence of beds, which
includes the mottled red, yellow, and gray sediments, is inter-
spersed with the predominant sand lithology in the outcrop in
central Alachua County, but in no particular pattern.
Puri and Vernon (1959, p. 128) have included a part of the
older Pleistocene terrace deposits-that is, exposures at the
Gainesville airport of mottled sandy clay and clayey sand-under a
description of the unnamed coarse clastics. Studies currently
(1961) being made by the Florida Geological Survey are expected
to define more accurately the stratigraphic position and relationship
of the sediments included here as the older Pleistocene terrace
deposits and of the Pleistocene deposits in Florida.

PLEISTOCENE AND RECENT SERIES

Several lower terraces formed during the later interglacial
stages of the Pleistocene Epoch are the younger marine and
estuarine terrace deposits of Pleistocene and Recent age. The
several lower terraces in Clay County named and referred to by
Cooke (1945, p. 281-311) as "Late Pleistocene deposits" are
undifferentiated in this report. The Pleistocene and Recent deposits







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


are exposed over parts of western and all of eastern Clay County
as a series of terraces or plains that drop successively lower east-
ward to the St. Johns River (fig. 4). These deposits overlie the
Choctawhatchee Formation and unnamed coarse clastics and over-
lap the older Pleistocene terrace deposits along their contact in
western Clay County. Sediments of Pleistocene and Recent age
that blanket the outcrop of the Choctawhatchee Formation to
depths ranging up to about 15 feet were not mapped.
The Pleistocene and Recent deposits are composed chiefly of
sands and clayey sands that probably contain many layers of clay,
marl, and sandy clay. The sands, clays, and marls are generally
dark gray, brown or black because of ferruginous minerals, dis-
seminated organic matter, and layers of peat and muck. Beds of
shell and shell marl that lie above the Choctawhatchee Formation
at some places in Clay County are tentatively included as part of
the Pleistocene and Recent deposits because of their stratigraphic
position. Drill cuttings from s6me wells in the vicinity of Green
Cove Springs in eastern Clay County indicate a concentration of
shells at places in this area; but in drill cuttings from wells at
Orange Park and from test well 952-147-2 south of Penney Farms,
the shells are intermixed with clayey materials as a shell marl.
The Pleistocene and Recent deposits average about 60 feet in
thickness, but the deposits are as much as 80 feet in thickness in
areas of high elevation.


STRUCTURE

The principal geologic structure of the area is the Ocala uplift,
an anticlinal fold or arch whose crest transverses southwestern
Alachua County. The folding has arched beds of Tertiary age and
has brought limestones of the Ocala Group to the surface or close
to the surface along the crest and flank of the uplift. The main
axis of the uplift lies several miles west of Alachua County and, in
general, parallels the north-south axis of the Florida Peninsula.
Geologic sections A-A', B-B', C-C', D-D', and E-E' (fig. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)
extend across parts of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties
in directions generally parallel or perpendicular to the axis of the
uplift. A structure contour map (fig. 4), which may be used to
determine the approximate depth to the top of the Ocala Group,
shows the configuration and elevation of the top of the Ocala Group.
The eroded and flattened crest of the Ocala uplift lies west of the
+40-foot contour (fig. 4) in southwestern Alachua County.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The regional dip of the Tertiary beds on the flank of the uplift
is east-northeast and averages about 6 feet per mile. Locally, how-
ever, the dip may be greater on the flanks or limbs of smaller or
lesser folds on the flank of the uplift or along zones of faulting. At
some places the dip of the strata decreases to form structural
terraces, and where the terraces have a local dip the structure is
a monocline (fig. 5).
The contour map and the geologic sections show several lesser
folds on the flank of the uplift that were formed probably by the
same structural forces that caused the Ocala uplift. The most
prominent of these lesser folds is one whose crest is in north-
eastern Alachua County in a triangle defined by Waldo, Melrose, and
Hawthorn. The configuration of the surface of the limestone
indicates that the structure is a double plunging fold that plunges
to the northwest and southeast. Such buried folds or structural
"highs" often have topographic expression at a land surface,
forming a hill or region of relatively great relief. This fold, whose
crest is at an elevation of at least 50 feet above msl, passes west
and southwest for a distance of about 5 miles into a downwarp or
basin-like structure whose trough is more than 130 feet lower.
The northeastern flank of the fold passes into the downwarp or
similar proportions in southwestern Clay County but the structure
here is made more complicated by other factors.
In the lake region of southwestern Clay County, as in other
parts of the four counties, the structural forces that caused the
folding doubtless also brought about some faulting or fracturing
of the rocks. In southwestern Clay County the relatively great
variation in the elevation of the top of limestones of the Ocala
Group within short distances (fig. 4) is attributed in part to a
slumping of the beds due to solution. The structure may also be
interpreted as representing small, tight folds with steeply dipping
limbs or the displacement of beds by faulting or fracturing.


CLIMATE

TEMPERATURE

According to the records of the U. S. Weather Bureau, the
average temperature at Gainesville is 70'F. Figure 10 shows, for
the 49-year period 1912-60, the average of the monthly mean
temperatures, the highest monthly mean temperature, and the
lowest monthly mean temperature. The graph also shows the







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35


201
Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
Figure 10. Monthly mean temperatures, 1912-60, at Gainesville, Florida.

average of the daily maximum and the average of the daily
minimum temperature for each month in 1960.
The average of the monthly mean temperatures ranged from
58.60F in December to 81.30F in August. The winter temperatures
are more erratic than the summer temperatures. In other words,
in the winter the area has periods of balmy weather followed by
short periods of freezing temperature.
The difference between the average of the daily maximum and
average of the daily minimum temperature in 1960 ranged from
20 to 280F. Only rarely does the temperature reach 1000F and
only occasionally does it drop into the teens. In fact, 280 frost-
free days can be expected annually.







30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

RAINFALL

Rainfall in the area is quite varied in both annual amounts and
seasonal distribution. Figure 11 shows the variations in yearly
amounts, the monthly minimums, the monthly averages, and the
monthly maximums at Gainesville for the period 1900-60. The
total annual rainfall at Gainesville for the period 1900-60 ranged
from 32.79 to 73.30 inches. In an average year the dry season is
from late October through May, the driest month being November.
Monthly total rainfall varied from none in March to 19.9 inches in
September. On the average the area receives over half of its annual
rainfall during the 4-month period June through September.


RflTUiSTnn
I- ~c~


22

j11


20
-- 1

"- --_ .


Figure 11. Rainfall at Gainesville, Fla. for the period 1900-60.

An outstanding feature of the rainfall regime is the rather
abrupt start of the rainy season; the average rainfall of June is
about double that of May. The rainy season at times extends into
October, but the latter part of October is usually dry.
The area's rainfall occurs as two general types (1) summer
rainfall which is mostly shower and thundershower activity; and
(2) winter and early spring rainfall which is more the widespread
general type associated with frontal activity. Most of the rain in
the summer is in the form of local showers and thundershowers.
It is not uncommon for 100 thundershowers per year to occur in
the area. Although these thundershowers are usually of short
duration, relatively large amounts of rain fall. Rainfalls in excess
of 6 inches have been observed during a 6-hour period.
Because most of the summer showers are local, large differences
in monthly and annual totals occur during the same periods at


-r
K


fi

~I1


1


v







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


different points in the area. To a large extent, however, these
differences are minimized when a comparison of long-term averages
is made; the maximum difference in the long-term average at
three stations-Raiford, Federal Point, and Gainesville-is less than
3 inches. The average annual rainfall in the area is 52.0 inches.
Extreme variations in annual rainfall totals can occur in con-
secutive years-the year 1953 ranks among the wettest since 1900,
while 1954 ranks among the driest of record. (Dry periods are
defined as those having below average rainfall and wet periods
as those having above average rainfall.) Periods of several wet
years or several dry years also can occur in succession. The period
of 1944-49 is the wettest of record in the area, and 1954-56 is the
driest. Table 2 shows the total departure from average rainfall
for several periods of extreme rainfall conditions at Gainesville.


TABLE 2. Departure from Average Rainfall, in Inches, At Gainesville, Florida.

Period Dry periods Wet periods

1906-11 (6 years) -44.01
1914-18 (5 years) -33.72
1928-30 (3 years) +18.24
1931-34 (4 years) -25.20
1944-49 (6 years) +45.87
1954-56 (3 years) -22.66



SURFACE WATER

Surface water is defined as water that can be seen on the surface
of the ground, such as that in lakes, streams, canals, springs and
that stored temporarily in other land depressions. In many in-
stances surface water and ground water are closely related. Many
surface-water bodies receive large quantities of water from the
ground; fdr example, springs have direct connections with ground-
water reservoirs. Streams and lakes can either gain or lose water
by way of the ground. The relation of surface water and ground
water is sometimes intricate. A lake can gain water from the
water-table aquifer at certain stages and lose water to the water-
table aquifer at other stages; or, gain water from the water-table
aquifer and at the same time lose water directly to the deeper
ground-water aquifer, if a lake bottom is penetrated by a sinkhole.












TAiLa 3, Location Of Gaging Stations, Types of Surface Water Data Collected
Ani Periods of Records,


Name and location


Site
No,

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
18


Drainage
area
(sq. ml.)


Ates Creek near Penney Farms, Fla.
Blue Pond near Keystone Heights, Fla.
Brooklyn Lake at Keystone Heights, Fla.
Brooklyn Lake outlet at Keystone Heights, Flu.
Bull Creek near Middleburg, Fla.
Butler Creek near Lake Butler, Fla.
Camps Canal near Rochelle, Fla.
Clarkes Creek near Green Cove Springs, Fla,
Cross Creek near Island Grove, Fla.
Deep Creek near Rodman, Fla,
Etonia Creek near Florahome, Fla.
Glen Springs near Gainesville, Fla.
Governors Creek at State Road 16 near Green Cove
Springs, Fla.
Green Cove Springs at Green Cove Springs, Fla.
Greens Creek near Penney Farms, Fla.
Hatchet Creek near Gainesville, Fla.
Heilbronn Springs 6 mi, N.W. of Starke, Fla.
Hogtown Creek npar Gainesville, Fla.
Kingsley Lake at Camp Blanding, Fla.
Lake Butler at Lake Butler, Fla.
Lake Geneva at Keystone Heights, Fla.


Type and period of record


40.8
.81
1.00
17.4
20.4
8
115
8.8


54.3
172



10.5


14.0
57


15.6
* 2.54
* .4

* 2.73


Periodic discharge, crest stages, 1057-00
Depth, stage, 1058.00
Depth, stage, 1057-00
Occasional discharge, 1050-00
Occasional discharge, crest stages, 1057-00
Occasional discharge, crest stages, 1957-00
Periodic discharge, 1048-52; daily stage and discharge, 1957-60
Occasional discharge, crest stages, 1057-60
Occasional discharge, 1042-47
Occasional discharge, crest stage, 1056-00
Daily stage and discharge, 1940-61
Occasional discharge, 1042-60

Occasional discharge, 1050
Occasional discharge, 1020-60
Periodic discharge, peak stags, 1057-60
Occasional discharge, peak stage 1948-60
Occasional discharge, 1946-60
Occasional discharge, peak stage, 1068-60
Depth, stage, 1945, 1947-60
Stage, 1957-60
Depth, stage, 1957-60


C,,


I__ __ I__ __I__ I_ ____ ___I__ -_ll-----IICl----I---


----


--






22
28
24
25
26
27
28
29
80
81
32
88
84
85
86
37
88
39
40
41
42
48
44
45
46
47


Lake Grandin near Interlachen, Fla.,
Lake Johnson near Keystone Heights, Fla.
Lake Sampson near Starke, Fla.
Little Hatchet Creek near Gainesville, FlA.
Little Orange Creek near Orange Springs,, Fla.
Loch Lommond near Keystone Heights, Fla.
'Lochloosa Creek at Grove Park, Fla.
Lochloosa Creek near Hawthorne, Fla.
Lochloosa Lake at Lochloosa, Fla.
Lochloosa Lake Outlet near Lochloosa, Fla.
Magnesia Springs near Hawthorne, Fla.
Magnolia Lake near Keystone Heights, Fla.
Magnolia Lake Outlet near Keystone Heights, Fla.
Newnans Lake near Gainesville, Fla.
New River near Lake Butler, Fla.
New River near Raiford, Fla.
North Fork Black Creek above Boggy Branch
North Fork Black Creek near Highlands, Fla.
North Fork Black Creek near Middleburg, Fla.
North Fork Black Creek at State Road 16, Fla.
Olustee Creek at Providence, Fla.
Orange Creek at Orange Springs, Fla.
Orange Lake at Orange Lake, Fla.
Orange Lake Outlet near Citra, Fla.
Ortega Creek near Jacksonville, Fla.
Pebble Lake near Keystone Heights, Fla.


* .55
S.74
* 3.24
10.9
78.9


84.7
48.8
*10.3




* .81
14.8
* 8.2
212
98.8
84.1
48.9
174
9.7
150
481
*25.7


27.8
* .01


Stage, 1957-60
Stage, 1945-60
Stage, 1957-60
Occasional discharge, 1947, 1956
Periodic discharge, 1947-52; occasional discharge, 1956
Depth, stage, 1959-60
Occasional discharge, 1947, 1956 ; periodic discharge, 1957-60
Periodic discharge, 1947-52
Stage, 1942-52, 1956-60
Daily stage and discharge, 1946-55
Occasional discharge, 1941-60
Depth, stage, 1958-60
Occasional discharge, 1956-60
Stage, 1945-52, 1957-60
Daily stage and discharge, 1950-60
Occasional discharge, 1957-60
Occasional discharge, 1958-60
Daily stage and discharge, 1957-60
Daily stage and discharge, 1981-60
Occasional discharge, 1956
Daily stage and discharge, 1957-60
Daily stage and discharge, 1942-52, 1955-60
Stage, 1945-60
Daily stage and discharge, 1946-55
Occasional discharge, 1956-60
Stage, 1945-50, 1952-58, 1954-60


I


n








O
*







CTI









CO
-I0
.0
z,


- ,'-----------~









TABI(E U,

White
No,

48
40
50
61
62
56
54
55
66
56
57
58
59
60

61
62
68
64
66
66
67
68
69
70


(C'ONTINUYl)),


Nuane aid location

Poe Springs near High Springs, 'la.
Prairie Creek at State Road 20 near (lainesvlle, i'lu.
River Styx near Micnopy, Flu,
Sampson River at Sanpson, Fla.
Sand Hill Lake near Keystone Helhts, Fla.
Santa Fe Lake near Keystone Heights, Fli.
Santa Fe River near Fort White, Fla.
Santa Fe River near Graham, Fla.
Santa Fe River near High Springs, Fla.
Santa Fe River at O'leno State Park, Fla.
Santa Fe River at State Road 238 at Brooker, Fla.
Santa Fe River at State Road 241 near Worthington,
Santa Fe River at U. S. Highway 301 near
Hampton, Fla.
Santa Fe River at Worthington, Fla,
South Fork Black Creek near Camp Blanding, Fla.
South Fork Black Creek near Penney Farms, Fla.
Swift Creek near Lake Butler, Fla.
Wadesboro Spring near Orange Park, Fla.
Water Oak Creek near Starke, Fla.
Whitmore Lake at Camp Blanding, Fla.
Worthington Springs at Worthington, Fla.
Yellow Water Creek at Duval-Clay Line, Fla.
Yellow Water Creek near Maxville, Fla.


I)rafiIaige
area
(sq. ill,)



Ill


(17,8
1.06
8.05
1,080
135
950


245
Fla. 670

115
680
34.8
184
27


20.7




61,2
25.7


*Area of lake surface


'Typue audl perlild of record

Occasional discharge, 1020U-10
Occuslonal discharge, 1047, 1948, 16(1
Occasional discharge, 1156(-65
Occasional discharge, 1057-(10
Depth, stage, 1957-60
Stage, 1057-60
Dally stage and discharge, 1027-20, 1032-00
Daily stage and discharge, 1057-60
Dally stage and discharge, 1931-00
Occasional discharge, 1061
Occasional discharge, 1066
Occasional discharge, 1066

Occasional discharge, 1956
Daily stage and discharge, 1981-60
Daily stage and discharge, 1957-60
Dally stage and discharge, 1930-60
Daily stage and discharge, 1957-60
Occasional discharge, 1946-60
Occasional discharge, 1957-60
Depth, 1960
Occasional discharge, 1946-60
Occasional discharge, 1956
Periodic discharge, crest stages, 1957-60







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


The extent to which this relationship affects a surface-water body
depends on the rate of exchange. Each body of water has individual
behavior characteristics. Rainfall is the only factor common to
all water bodies that contributes to these characteristics.
Most surface-water problems can be attributed to the uneven
distribution of rainfall. Floods and droughts occur in unpredictable
cycles that follow very closely periods of high and low rainfall.
At present (1961) there is no practical method of modifying or
controlling rainfall. Therefore, problems associated with floods
and droughts have to be dealt with by a system of lake and stream
controls.
Three useful figures expressing streamflow are: figures of
average flow, minimum flow, and maximum flow. The average flow
of a stream is an indication of its normal flow and also serves as
a guide in determining the quantity of water that is available over
a long period of time from a system having dams and storage
reservoirs.
Minimum flow is the limiting factor in the ultimate use of a
stream not having dams and storage reservoirs. Information on
maximum flows is important not only in planning the use of a
stream but also in determining the use of land adjoining the flood
plain and in the design of river appurtenances such as bridges.
Magnitudes, durations, and frequencies of low flows and high flows
are useful in planning the full use of a stream. If a damaging
flood or drought is of short duration and occurs at infrequent in-
tervals, it might be economically feasible to withstand the resultant
damage.
Data collected at a stream-gaging station or sampling site are
for a point on the stream and represent a composite of conditions
in the basin above that point. Data at any other point can be
estimated on the basis of station records. Table 3 gives the loca-
tions of gaging stations and types of surface-water data collected
within the four counties. Topography and geology are also im-
portant factors governing the behavior of a water body. By
applying hydrologic principles to these types of data, characteris-
tics of the water resources of an area can be determined. This
section of the report will answer many questions of this nature
on the surface-water resources of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and
Union counties.
The average streamflow from the four counties is approximately
1,150 mgd, excluding the flow of the St. Johns River. The average
streamflow from Union and Bradford counties and the northern
half of Alachua County which leaves the area by way of the Santa








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Fe River is about 710 mgd. On the average, about 97 mgd flow
from southeastern Alachua County through Orange Creek. The
average flow from Clay County is about 342 mgd through Black
Creek and small streams draining into St. Johns River from the
eastern edge of the county. The flow chart in figure 12 shows the
average flow of major streams in the area. Average yearly stream-
flows have been as little as one-third the average flows for the
periods of record and as much as 21/2 times the average flows for
the pEridds of record.
The St. Johns River is the largest source of surface water with-
in the four counties. It flows north along the eastern boundary
of Clay County and drains about 7,000 square miles upstream from
Green Cove Springs. At that point its average flow is about 4,500
mgd. The river is large enough to harbor a Navy base at Green
Cove Springs.
The average runoff from the area is about 12 inches per year,
which is less than one-fourth the average rainfall. The average
yearly rainfall is 52 inches. The portion of rainfall not accounted


Figure 12. Flow chart showing average flow of streams in Alachua, Bradford,
Clay, and Union counties, Florida.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


for as surface runoff is taken up by evaporation, transpiration, and
ground-water outflow.
An area of about 300 square miles in southwestern Alachua
County has no surface outflow. The few small streams in that
area terminate in sinkholes. Most of the rainfall on that area
leaves as underground flow.
There are more than 50 lakes in the four counties that exceed
0.02 square mile in size, the largest of which is 25.7 square miles
in size. The combined surface area of all these lakes is about
90 square miles or more than 4 percent of the total land area.
These lakes range in elevation from 57 feet above sea level for
the lowest to 176 feet above sea level for the highest. The ranges
of fluctuation in stage of these lakes are quite varied. Some of
the lakes have only minor seasonal fluctuations in stage, as little
as 3.5 feet, and others have varied in stage as much as 32 feet.
The greatest known lake depth is 85 feet.



ST. JOHNS RIVER

The St. Johns River flows northward 250 miles from its origin
in Indian River County to Jacksonville, then eastward for 25 miles
to the Atlantic. It is the largest and longest river wholly
within the state, and it is the third largest in the state in terms of
average flow. Its drainage area is 8,000 square miles.
The slope of the river is exceedingly mild. The maximum fall
during floods is only 27 feet throughout the total length of 275
miles. The river flow is affected by ocean tides as far upstream as
Lake George, 120 miles from the mouth, and even farther during
periods of low river stages and high tides. The normal tide range
at Jacksonville is about 2.0 feet and is only slightly less at Green
Cove Springs in Clay County, 50 miles from the mouth of the
river.
The St. Johns River forms the eastern boundary of Clay County.
The river in this vicinity is the collecting channel for all surface
flow from Clay County and is from 1 to 3 miles wide.
The flow of the St. Johns River at Green Cove Springs is
estimated to be 4,500 mgd. At DeLand, 85 miles farther upstream,
the average flow is 2,000 mgd. Although not a common occurrence,
a reverse flow-that is, flow in an upstream direction-at the rate
of 1,000 mgd has been measured at DeLand. The flow at Jackson-
ville reverses direction with each change of tide.








38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

BLACK CREEK BASIN

Black Creek, a tributary to the St. Johns River, has a drainage
area of 474 square miles. About 400 of the 598 square miles com-
posing Clay County are drained by Black Creek. The only major
part of the basin lying outside the county is the upper 74 square
miles of Yellow Water Creek, a tributary from the north. The
basin is about 16 miles wide and 30 miles long, the long axis lying
in a north-south direction. The basin is outlined in figure 13. The


r


BLACK CREEK BASIN


70
i Tl

i' 0 L CO


): T I
V46




"1- MIDDLEBURG





-) PENNEY
S *FA' <'RMS

L,- ;'-e (TN6



N"
N ," r
33


Figure 13. Drainage map of the Black Creek basin showing data-collection
sites.


,115 Lotion of data-colletion itles; number
raters t. S.i number. table 3







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35


two major tributaries in the basin, South Fork Black Creek and
North Fork Black Creek, join at the town of Middleburg to form
Black Creek. The stream then flows eastward and enters the St.
Johns River about 3 miles north of Green Cove Springs.
South Fork Black Creek heads in three small lakes in the Camp
Blanding Military Reservation which are Stevens Lake, Whitmore
Lake, and Varnes Lake. The major tributaries to the South Fork
are Ates Creek, Greens Creek, and Bull Creek.
North Fork Black Creek heads in Kingsley Lake, flows north-
ward for about 14 miles where it turns sharply to the southeast.
The larger tributaries enter from the west and north; the major
tributary is Yellow Water Creek that heads in a high, swampy
section of Duval County to the north.
The topography of the basin is hilly with the highest elevation
about 250 feet above msl near Kingsley Lake on the western
drainage divide and the lowest is less than 5 feet above msl at
the St. Johns River. Stream channels have slopes of from 5 to
30 feet per mile except in the lower reaches where the elevations
are near sea level. Figure 14 shows channel-bottom profiles of
streams in the Black Creek basin. Runoff within the basin varies
from area to area. Topography and geology cause these variations.
The average rainfall is equal for all areas within the basin.
Average runoff in inches per year from areas within the basin is
given in figure 15. Some of these figures were computed from
short-term records and can be used only as a guide for computing
runoff from ungaged areas. Runoff in inches is defined as the
depth to which an area would be covered if all the water draining
from it were distributed evenly over its surface. The term is used
for comparing runoff to rainfall. On the average, the basin re-
seives 52 inches of rainfall per year. A plot of the annual rainfall
at Glen St. Marys against the annual runoff for North Fork Black
Creek at Middleburg is shown in figure 16. This plot is only an
indication of the rainfall-runoff relation. Much of the scattering
of points in this illutration is caused by variations in the amount
of antecedent rainfall conditions and by uneven geographic dis-
tribution of rainfall. More runoff will result from a rain that falls
on an area that is wet from a previous rain than from one that is
not.
There are two areas within the basin that have extremely low
runoff, the headwaters of Yellow Water Creek and the headwaters
of North Fork Black Creek. Yellow Water Creek heads a high,
flat, swampy area. Rainon that area stands on the ground surface
for long periods and evaporation, transpiration, and seepage take
























































,,- d-- -- -- --- ---,- I I ---- ---- ---- ----____ _________--- I I _
1 04 a a
nHotefl hite I m ml dnu iw i u< ,SC, s AX Mnirui cotni
4 0 B 10 It 14 IS I1S 0 2e 24 16 2i 30 32 34 3 38 40 42 44 46 46
CHANNEL DISTANCE PROM MOUTH, IN MILIS

Figure 14. Channel-bottom profiles of streams in the Black Creek basin.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35


Figure 15. Average runoff in inches per year from areas within the Black
Creek basin.
a heavy toll of water, which accounts for the low runoff of only
5 inches per year.
The headwater area of North Fork Black Creek, from which
the runoff is 7 inches per year as shown in figure 16, covers 9.7
square miles. About one-fourth (2.54 sq. mi.) of the area is
occupied by Kingsley Lake. A large part of the potential runoff
from this area evaporates from the lake surface.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


90


80


60


j5O --- r --
50

-U
z


40


z
Z


30
0 10 20
ANNUAL RUNOFF, IN
(NORTH FORK BLACK CREEK


40


INCHES
AT MIDDLEBURG)


Figure 16. Rainfall-runoff relation.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


Runoff from the South Fork is slightly higher than that from
the North Fork except during extremely wet years. The average
runoff from the South Fork is about 16.0 inches per year and from
the North Fork, about 13.7 inches per year. In 1955, the driest
year since records began in 1932, runoff from South Fork was 5.4
inches and from North Fork, 3.9 inches. In 1948, an extremely
wet year, the South Fork runoff was 30.6 inches and the North
Fork runoff was 34.4 inches.
Yearly average runoff from the entire basin has varied from
4.6 inches in 1955 to 33 inches in 1948. The average runoff from
the basin is estimated to be 14.8 inches per year, which is 28 per-
cent of the average rainfall of 52 inches. The remaining 37.2
inches of rainfall is taken up by evaporation, transpiration, and
seepage.
The average flow from the basin is 515 cfs (cubic feet per
second) (333 mgd), which is equivalent to 1.08 cfs per square
mile of drainage area. The South Fork contributes 225 cfs, or
1.17 cfs per square mile, and the North Fork contributes 200 cfs,
or 1.01 cfs per square mile. An average flow of about 90 cfs is
contributed by small tributaries below the confluence of North
Fork and South Fork.
Flow-duration curves for four stations in the Black Creek
basin are shown in figure 17. These curves were developed using
periods of records for the Penney Farms, Highland, and Camp
Blanding stations, which were extended to cover the period of the
Middleburg record, 1932-60. The flow-duration curves show the
percent of time a specified discharge has been equaled or exceeded
during the period of record. For example, in figure 18 the mean
daily flow of North Fork Black Creek near Middleburg equaled or
exceeded 6.8 cfs for 99 percent of the time during the period
1932-60 (10,596 days) or, on the average, less than 6.8 cfs
occurred 1 percent of the time, or once in 106 days. The flow-
duration curves do not give any information on the continuous
length of time that a specified discharge occurred.
The curves given in figures 18 and 19 show the discharge avail-
able without storage for the Penney Farms and Middleburg
stations, respectively. The upper curves in these illustrations show
the maximum number of consecutive days and months during
which the discharge was less than a given amount, and the lower
curves show the lowest average discharge for the period indicated.
For example, at the Middleburg station, 10 consecutive days was
the longest period that the discharge was 5.5 cfs or less, and the









44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


o10,000oao
GAGGING STATION
L SOUTH FORK BLACK CREEK
NEAR PENNEY FARMS, FLA.
2. NORTH FORK BLACK CREEK
,a000 NEAR MIDOLEBURG, FLA.
-3. SOUTH FORK BLACK CREEK
NEAR CAMP BLENDING, FLA.
3,000 -- 4. NORTH FORK BLACK CREEK
NEAR HIGHLAND, FLA.






i I '
2,000







,_-- : iV ------








'I ; o
-, *-=






20 1 i I-
,. _________L^l


*-- -- -___






0 C01 0, 02 0. I 2 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 90 95 98 99 9.5 99.9 9.99
PERCENT OF TIME DISCHARGE EQUALED OR EXCEEDED THAT SHOWN

Figure 17. Flow-duration curves for streams in the Black Creek basin.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35


300


,200

too


SO
80

60
. 50
3 An


10t I I I I I lII I I I I I 111111
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 89 12

Consecutive days Consecutive months
Figure 18. Discharge available without storage for South Fork Black Creek
near Penney Farms, Florida (1939-60).

200
too I I I 1 1 1 1 I I I 1



100
80

8 60

40 Maximum period
L40 of deficient flow



S20



10
S8-
S6C -


21 I I 1 1111 I I I I I 1 I111111
.1 2 3 4 6 8 10 20, 1 2 3 4 6 9 12,

Consecutive days Consecutive months
Figure 19. Discharge available without storage for North Fork Black Creek
near Middleburg, Florida (1932-60).







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


lowest average discharge for a 10-day period was 4.6 cfs. These
curves can be used advantageously for determining the adequacy
of a stream for a use when a continuous flow is required.
The seasonal variation of streamflow in the Black Creek basin
follows the variation of rainfall. High streamflow occurs sporadic-
ally in the summer months, June through August, as a result
of heavy, local thundershowers. More general rainfall, lasting for
longer periods, occur in September and October and is accom-
panied by high streamflow.
Although there has been some flood damage in the basin, there
is no record of any extremely-destructive floods. However, flood
damage in the past has been light because the land adjacent to
streams was sparsely settled and not because of an absence of
floods. Figure 20 shows four flood hydrographs for floods caused
by heavy rains on May 20 and 21, 1959. The relative magnitude
of floods will vary from area to area within the basin during a



S-1t1 Fort Blaokl C.
\ j MO P w" y Fa, ms, Fla











S\ H o foos Fd---- ok 1 oc--- Cek











Cr so.ek I Fa- UK t i ntl 2t sW p
Figure 20. Hydrographs of floods during May 20-25, 1959, in the Black



Creek basin.
20 2; 22 23 24 25
Figure 20. Hydrographs of floods during May 20-25, 1959, in the Black
Creek basin.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


heavy rainstorm. The flood in May 1959 inundated several
county bridges and washed out road embankments along the South
Fork Black Creek where the flooding was most severe. From
figure 21, which shows flood-frequency curves adapted from a
report by R. W. Pride (1958), U. S. Geological Survey, a peak
discharge of 2,000 cfs at the gaging station on South Fork Black
Creek near Camp Blanding (drainage area, 34.8 square miles) is
shown to be about a 3-year flood; that is, it will occur on the
average once in 3 years. And, the peak discharge of 1,760 cfs
on North Fork Black Creek near Highland (drainage area, 48.9
square miles) was less than a mean annual flood. A flood of this
magnitude could be expected to occur at the Highland station at a
frequency of less than 1 year.
Data have been collected on two of the four lakes in the basin
(Whitmore Lake and Kingsley Lake). Whitmore Lake was sounded
by a sonic depth recorder on May 11, 1960. From this sounding
the depth-contour map, figure 22, was derived. The maximum
depth found in this lake was 20 feet, with the exception of a small



o 15,000
o_
ii ------------ --_--
U, --- -_ _-- -- --
10,000 -
aL 6,000
8,000

6,000 -'


o 4,000 O
0,000
S3,000


2,000 0--
0 -- 100
U ,



1,000 1
20 30 40 50 60 80 100 200
DRAINAGE AREA, IN SQUARE MILES
Figure 21. Flood-frequency curves for the Black Creek basin.









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


R 23 E.


I'
%o






+--WHITMORE LAKE -
I (Clay County)
o00 0 o00 1000
t I i


1500 feet


14


Dota source: U.S. Geological Survey


R 23E.
Figure 22. Depth contours of Whitmore Lake.


15 Date of survey: May II, 1960
Contour interval: 10 feet


l i l l I I I I







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


176 --------- -_ __------------------------------
0

' 175


0 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
PERCENT OF TIME
Figure 23. Stage-duration curve for Kingsley Lake (1947-60).

hole near the north shore which was made by dredging. Based
on interpretations of the records from the sonic depth recorder
and visual observations of the shoreline, the lake bottom is com-
posed of sand overlain by a layer of silt and organic material.
Stage records have been collected on Kingsley Lake since
1945. The total range in stage since 1945 is 3.5 feet, which is
exceptionally small for a Florida lake. The surface outlet readily
conveys excess flood waters from the lake to North Fork Black
Creek, which prevents extremely high lake stages. The surrounding
shallow ground water readily replenishes the lake, which prevents
extremely low lake stages. The combination of replenishment
and removal of excess accounts for the favorable balance between
gain and loss of water and for the exceptionally small range in
stage. A stage-duration curve for Kingsley Lake is given in
figure 23.
Kingsley Lake, which is 85 feet deep, is possibly the deepest
lake in northern Florida (fig. 24). The lake is circular and the
bottom slopes uniformly from the shoreline at about 1 foot per 50
feet to the depth of 20 feet, then slopes more gradually to a depth
of about 30 feet, beyond which the slope increases to the maximum
depth of 85 feet. The bottom is formed of fine sand, but rock
possibly is exposed in the deepest hole.
The Black Creek basin is well dissected by stream channels
which carry copious quantities of water. Topography and stream-
flow lend themselves well to the construction of small dams and
reservoirs which would be ample for recreation and conservation
which would help to equalize the uneven distribution of streamflow.






50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


08000 W&3 ft fb* NOW OW 16 1 5


17 .o

/


I // I



KINGSLEY LAKE
m Ca l Co laW SN )
Canko me seI 28 1 27
... ... + ,- _- -- -+- -.

II t| nurge: t l iS p01 1 tals rW
R.23E.
Figure 24. Depth contours of Kingsley Lake.

SANTA FE RIVER BASIN

The Santa Fe River basin covers an area of 1,440 square miles.
Flow from the basin reaches the Gulf of Mexico by way of the
Suwannee River. The Santa Fe River starts in Santa Fe Lake and
flows generally westward, picking up flow from the tributaries,
Sampson River, New River, and Olustee Creek, before the river
disappears into a sinkhole at O'Ieno State Park, 5 miles north of
High Springs. The river emerges abruptly from the ground after
being underground for a distance of 3 miles. The entire northern
boundaries of Alachua and Gilchrist counties are formed by the
Santa Fe River. The basin is shown in figure 25.
The hydrology of the basin is very complex. The average run-
off from the basin is about 22 inches per year. However, average
runoff from subareas varies from 6 to 85 inches. Figure 26 shows
the wide variation in runoff. On the average the basin receives
52 inches of rainfall per year. The ratio of runoff to rainfall varies
by areas from about 1/10 to more than 11/2, which is an extreme
variation within an area of 1,440 square miles. Topography and
geology are among the causes of the unusual runoff conditions in
this basin.
Major changes in streamflow characteristics occur in the
vicinity of Oleno State Park. Above this point surface streams are






















I
0
0




0
O
zn
P
01


Figure 25. Drainage map of the Santa Fe River basin showing data-collection sites.


















31 85
/* 44 FIN

.../ -"

19




0 5 10 I1 MILES

Figure 26. Average runoff in inches per year from areas within the Santa
Fe River basin.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35 53

prevalent throughout Union and Bradford counties and the north-
ern part of Alachua County. The headwater tributaries along the
northern boundaries of Union and Bradford counties (Olustee
Creek, Swift Creek, and New River) are in a flat, swampy area.
There are several lakes in these two counties that are connected to
the system of streams by surface channels.
Below O'leno State Park there is a noticeable absence of surface
streams. The stream channel has been cut into porous limestones.
Sinkholes are prevalent and springs are numerous throughout this
area. From the point where the river emerges from the ground
downstream to the confluence with the Suwannee River, springs
are visible along the channel, usually flowing from circular pools
in the banks of the river. The large pickup in streamflow in this
vicinity comes from springs. The lower half of the basin is covered
with a relatively thin mantle of sands overlying porous limestone.
Rain on this area seeps directly into the ground or is carried by
short surface channels to sinkholes.
Flow characteristics above and below O'leno State Park are
shown by the hydrographs in figure 27. The flow of Santa Fe
River at Worthington is indicative of the hydrologic conditions
above the park and the flow of Santa Fe River near Fort White is
indicative of the hydrologic conditions in the lower basin. The
Worthington station measures flow from the upper 630 square
miles of the basin wherein surface streams receive a high rate of
direct runoff, respond rapidly to rainfall, and recede rapidly to a
low base flow. Streamflow at the Fort White station does not
respond to rainfall as quickly, stays up for longer periods after
rains, and has a much higher base flow. A comparison of extreme






2400 NEARR F WHITE \
1 I aI
i ... .. .. -- \-- r j \
2. 00






OCT. NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR. APR MAY JUNE J LY AUG. SEPT
WATER YEAR 1958
Figure 27. Flow hydrographs for the Santa Fe River.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


flows of the two stations will also point up the difference in stream-
flow characteristics. At the Worthington station the average flow
is 424 cfs, the maximum is 17,500 cfs, and the minimum is 0.5 cfs.
At the Fort White station the average flow is 1,576 cfs, the
maximum is 12,300 cfs, and the minimum is 609 cfs.
An average flow of 650 cfs enters the ground at O'leno State
Park. This flow comes from four streams: 130 cfs, or 20 percent,
from Olustee Creek; 240 cfs, or 37 percent, from New River; 100
cfs, or 15 percent, from Sampson River; and 180 cfs, or 28 percent,
from the main stem and smaller tributaries.
Flow measurements made February 24, 1961, above and below
the subterranean reach of channel showed a pickup in flow of 211
cfs in that 3-mile section; a flow of 574 cfs entered the ground and
785 cfs emerged from the ground. On the same day there was a
pickup in flow of 160 cfs between the lower end of the subterranean
reach and the High Springs gaging station on U. S. Highway 27,
a channel distance of 5.5 miles; and between the High Springs and
Fort White gaging stations, a channel distance of 7 miles, the
pickup was 750 cfs.
Flow-duration curves for seven stations in the Santa Fe River
basin are given in figure 28. Three of these stations, Santa Fe
River near Fort White, near High Springs, and at Worthington,
have records extending as far back as 1932; records for New
River near Lake Butler extend back to 1951; the other stations:
Santa Fe River near Graham, Olustee Creek near Providence, and
Swift Creek near Lake Butler, have only 3 years of records, 1958-
60. For the purpose of developing these flow-duration curves,
records for all the short-term stations were extended to cover
the period 1932-60. Although these flow-duration curves are not
frequency curves, they can be used, with fair reliability, to predict
the percent of time that a given discharge will be equaled or
exceeded in the future.
Lakes within this basin are a major part of the water resources.
There are eight lakes with surface areas of 0.4 square mile (250
acres) or larger. The largest is Santa Fe Lake with a surface area
of 8.05 square miles. Other lakes in the basin are Lake Altho,
Hampton Lake, Lake Sampson, Lake Rowell, Lake Crosby, Lake
Butler, and Swift Creek Pond. All these lakes are tributary lakes.
Records of stage have been collected on Santa Fe Lake, Lake
Sampson, and Lake Butler. Stage hydrographs for these lakes are
shown in figure 29. Lake Altho and Santa Fe Lake are connected
and probably exhibit similar stage characteristics. Lake Rowell,







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


ORAPOZE AREA
GAOM4 STAMON SQ
L SANTA FE VER
FORT WTE. FLA. 1.090
-- A A FE RVE NEAR
I SPRGS0. FL. 950
-- 3 SANTMA FE RVER AT
WORTNGrTON. FLA. 30
---. EW VE NEAR
LAKE BUTLER. FLA. 212
SANTA FE RWER NEAR
GRAHAM. FL. 1 3S
CLUSTEE CREEK NEAR
PROVm ENCE, FLA 150
L- SIEFT CREEK NEAR
LAKE BUTLER. FLAL 27


H il
300 : ::I: 1


















** ------ -
I i






oo I \ \







,20 i I __


























o.2






0o1 0.05o o2 0.5 5 1 2 5 Io 2o 30 40 50 o so so o s9_ 90 "S 5 9%9
-----zz.ii.11 L-l _

_ _ _._- _^






I. -- I --- -


Figure 28. Flow-duration curves or streams in the Santa e River basic

Figure 28. Flow-duration curves for streams in the Santa Fe River basin.


20,000


L9







56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


144


142
i _SAW I I- ITA FE LAXE

9 1959 19604




LAKE SAMPSON
134'

1321
____________ _______LE___UTLERt


I I I I I I I
1957 1958 1 1959 1960
Figure 29. Stage graphs of Santa Fe Lake, Lake Sampson, and Lake Butler.

Lake Crosby, and Lake Sampson are connected and exhibit similar
stage characteristics. Lake Sampson loses water not only through
its surface outlet but also through a drainage well on the western
shore of the lake.
Surface-water supplies within the Santa Fe River basin are
one of the area's major natural resources. -Bradford and Union
counties are well dissected by stream channels that carry copious
quantities of water. The high base flow in the lower reaches of
the basin is unparalled in the State. This is evidenced by the fact
that the area of 130 square miles west of High Springs has a runoff
of 85 inches per year, or more than 11/2 times the average rainfall.

ORANGE CREEK BASIN

The Orange Creek basin covers about 515 square miles situated
in three counties: Alachua, Marion, and 'Putnam. Three large
lakes (Orange Lake, Lochloosa Lake, and Newnans Lake) and
their tributaries and connecting channels form the drainage system
of the upper two-thirds of the basin which lies in Alachua County.
A large part of the streamflow in the upper part of the basin is
relegated to lake storage. The basin is shown in figure 30.
Hatchet Creek, a tributary to Newnans Lake, is the headwaters
of the basin. Flow from Newnans Lake reaches Orange Lake by






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


Figure 30. Drainage map of Orange Creek basin showing data-collection
sites.
way of Prairie Creek, Camps Canal, and River Styx. Camps Canal
connects Prairie Creek, the outlet channel from Newnans Lake, and
River Styx, the inflow channel to Orange Lake. Orange Lake and
Lochloosa Lake which are connected by Cross'Creek both have
surface outlets that form Orange Creek, a tributary to the Okla-
waha River. During periods of normal stages, Lochloosa Lake is
from 1/2 to 3/4 foot higher than Orange Lake. The combined drain-
age area of the two lakes above their outlets is 323 square miles.
There have been extended periods of no flow from Orange and






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Lochloosa Lakes. Flow from Lochloosa Lake outlet ceased in May
1954. Flow from Orange Lake outlet ceased in May 1955 when the
lake-surface elevation was about 55.0 feet. The levels of these lakes
remained below the elevations of their outlets until 1957. There
has been flow continuously throughout the period of record (1942-
52; 1955-60) at the gaging station on Orange Creek at Orange
Springs. The minimum flow there was 2.0 cfs for several days in
May and June 1956. Discharge-duration curves for Orange Creek,
Camps Canal, Orange Lake outlet, and Lochloosa Lake outlet are
given in figure 31. The basin slopes from an elevation of 190 feet
above sea level in the headwaters of Lochloosa Creek, a tributary to
Lochloosa Lake, to an elevation of about 30 feet near the mouth of
Orange Creek. Newnans Lake is about 9 feet higher than Orange
Lake and Lochloosa Lake is from /2 to 3/4 foot higher than Orange
Lake. The fall in water surface from Orange Lake to the gaging
station on Orange Creek at Orange Springs is about 30 feet.
Average runoff from all areas within the basin is about 5 inches
per year with exception of Little Orange Creek, a tributary enter-
ing below Orange Springs, from which the average runoff is about
8 inches per year.
Rainfall on the basin averages 52 inches per year. Five inches
runs off as surface flow. The remainder is taken up by evaporation,
transpiration, and seepage. Open lakes surfaces, from which there
is maximum evaporation, cover about 10 percent of the basin. Flat,
swampy areas, with luxuriant growths of vegetation, are numerous.
Rain on these areas runs off very slowly, allowing evaporation and
transpiration to take a heavy toll.
The elevation of the piezometric surface, that is, the pressure
surface of artesian ground water, is higher than ground level in
the northern three-fourths of the basin and lower than ground level
in the southern part of the basin. The presence of flowing springs,
such as Magnesia Springs north of Lochloosa Lake, Glen Springs
at Gainesville, and of several flowing wells along the northeastern
shore of Lochloosa Lake, attest to this fact. However, south of
Orange Lake this condition is reversed. A sinkhole on the south-
west shore of Orange Lake, at the town of Orange Lake, has been
known to take water from the lake for extended periods.
Water leaving Orange Lake through the sinkhole, coupled with
a statewide drought in 1954-57, caused the lake to be reduced from
a normal surface area of 25.7 square miles to one of about 5 square
miles. All lakes in the State were lowered to some extent by this
extreme drought which was the most severe and widespread in
the history of the State. However, Orange Lake was losing water










REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35


2,000




1,000
















too


001 005 0.2 05 1 2 5 to 20 30 40 50 60 TO 80


90 95 98 99 9S5 999 99.99


PERCENT OF TIME DISCHARGE EQUALED OR EXCEEDED THAT SHOWN

Figure 31. Flow-duration curves for streams in the Orange Creek basin.


-ORANGE CREEK AT ORANGE SPRINGS, FLA.
S -, Racord used: Oct. 1942-SepL 1952
SOct. 1955-Spt. 1960








I I I I II
CAMPS CANAL NEAR ROCHELLE, FLA.
ecord used: COt. 1957-spI. 1960
































LOHLOOSA LAKE OUTLET ORANGE LAKE OUTLET
NEAR LOCHLOOSA, FLA. AT ORANGE LAKE, FLA.
Record used: Oct. 1946-Spt 1955 Rectr used: Oct 1946-Sept 1955






,


0







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


into this sinkhole at a rate of 12 mgd on November 21, 1957, which
accounted for some of the lowering of Orange Lake.
Data for Newnans Lake, Orange Lake, and Lochloosa Lake, are
given in figures 32, 33, 34, and 35. The stage-duration curves in
figure 32 show the total percent of time that a stage was equaled
or exceeded during the period of record. The upper unshaded
portion of the graphs in figures 33, 34, and 35 represents the high-
est 25 percent of recorded stages. The lower unshaded portion
represents the lowest 25 percent of recorded- stages. The middle
shaded portion represents the range of the middle 50 percent of
recorded stages. These values are indicative of excessive, deficient,
and normal lake stages.


ETONIA CREEK BASIN

Etonia Creek, a tributary to Rice Creek, has a drainage area of
about 230 square miles. Rice Creek flows into the St. Johns River
north of Palatka. The upper 150 square miles of the basin contain
some 100 lakes. The largest of these is Lake Geneva which has an
area of 2.73 square miles. These lakes are situated in the south-
western corner of Clay County and the northwestern corner of
Putnam County. Many of these lakes have no surface outlets.
Some are connected by surface channels to Etonia Creek. The basin
is shown in figure 36.
Data have been collected on 11 lakes in this basin. The highest
lake, Blue Pond, is at an elevation of 174 feet above sea level. Lake
Grandin, at an elevation of 81 feet above sea level, is possibly the
lowest. Eight of these lakes have been sounded: Blue Pond, Sand
Hill Lake, Magnolia Lake, Crystal Lake, Brooklyn Lake, Keystone
Lake, Lake Geneva, and Loch Lommond. All lakes sounded have
maximum depths ranging from 25 feet for the shallowest to 47
feet for the deepest. Maps showing the depth contours of these
lakes are given in figures 37 through 44.
Some lakes in this area have a wide range of stage. The severe
drought of 1954-57 caused Brooklyn Lake at Keystone Heights to
be lowered 20 feet. Pebble Lake, a small lake in Gold Head Branch
State Park, had a 32-foot range of stage during the period from
1948 to 1956. However, some lakes in the area have less than a
5-foot range of stage. Stage graphs of nine lakes are given in
figure 45. The basic cause of all stage fluctuations is variations in
rainfall. However, on the average, all the basin receives the same
amount of rainfall, 52 inches per year. The reasons that some lakes











REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35

71
7; --- i --- i --- | --- i --- i ---- ---- ---- ---- ----



70



69



68







66
NEWNANS LAKE
Period of Record: Oct. 1946-Dec. 195
Aug. 1957-Dec. 1960
65



64



63 ---- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---



62--



61
LOCHLOOSA LAKE
Period of Rocord: Jly 1942-Dec. 1952
Oct. 1956-0Dec 1960
60








ORANGE LAKE
Perlod of Record: Jan. 1943-Dec. 1960




5.

56





54



53



52







50


K00 90


60 50, 40
'PERCENT OF TIME


Figure 32. Stage-duration curves for Newnans Lake, Orange Lake, and

Lochloosa Lake.


30 20 10 0










FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


~ 70 -c~F5






617
un NT.r "

-.Upper 25 percent



a) J green ,;v, .












64
lower 2 percent

In 7 i.. a i ,

646

CI


JAN. FEB MAR. APR. MAY JUN JUL. AUG. SEP. OCT.

Figure 33. State graphs for Newnans Lake.


n4
'n 58


NOV. DEC.


JAN. FE MAR APR. MAY JUN. JUL. AUG. SEP. OCT. NOV. DEC.

Figure 34. Stage graphs for Orange Lake.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35 63









S56








54



Figure 35. Stage graphs for Lochloosa Lake.


vary more than others are differences in topography and geologic
formations. Topography dictates which lakes are connected by
surface channels. Lakes in this basin are situated among high
sandhills that are from 130 to 210 feet above sea level. These hills











are as much as 70 feet above the adjacent lake surfaces. The
character, composition, thickness, structure, and extent of the
^ 5 '.' .... ;- .' ( ',.. '- --- ---'-.---."- -











underlying geologic formations, and their hydrologic properties, are
z




53 59-












controlling factors in the movement of water into and out of the
lake. Sands and clayey sands underlie the basin to a depth of as
much as 0 feet below the surface. Most lakes are believed to be



floored in these materials. The sands overlie thick, relatively
impervious clays and limestone.
Data have been collected on the six highest lakes that form the
headwaters of Etonia Creek: Blue Pond, Sand Hill Lake, Magnolia
Lake, Brooklyn Lake, Keystone Lake, and Lake Geneva. These
lakes are in Clay County near the town of Keystone Heights. A
profile of these lakes is given in figure 46.
During the statewide drought of 1954-57 all lakes in this area
receded to all-time low stages. Low stages affected the utility of
Brooklyn Lake possibly more than any other lake in this immediate
area. However, in 1958 the drought was broken by above-normal
rains and by 1959 Brooklyn Lake was filled to overflow capacity.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 36. Drainage map of the Etonia Creek basin showing data-collection
sites.
A water budget for Brooklyn Lake for the period August 1957
to October 1960 was computed by Clark, Musgrove, Menke, and
Cagle (1963). This water budget showed that 22,000 acre-feet
of water entered Brooklyn Lake during that period as surface flow
through the channel from Magnolia Lake and that 8,000 acre-feet
of rain fell directly on the lake surface. Factors accounting for
the losses of water from the lake are seepage, 11,000 acre-feet;
evaporation, 7,000 acre-feet; and surface flow, 2,000 acre-feet.
During this period, the amount of water stored in the lake in-
creased 10,000 acre-feet. A schematic diagram of this water bud-
get is given in figure 47. The report by Clark, Musgrove, Menke,
and Cagle (1963) furnishes more detailed information on Brooklyn
Lake and surrounding lakes.
Many lakes in this area are landlocked and depend entirely on
rainfall directly on the surface of the lake and seepage from ground
to maintain their supply of water. Lake elevations are generally
lower to the south and southeast as the land elevations of the basin
become lower. However, the relative elevations of the lakes vary


SL tIo *t data-colleclltion tle; number
rnrter to aille inmner, table 3


Lr
I /
CY






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


Figure 37. Depth contours of Blue Pond.
locally. On January 27, 1961, the elevation of Hutchinson Lake,
a small landlocked lake immediately south of Lake Geneva, was
106.4 feet above sea level-0.8 foot higher than Lake Geneva.
Runoff from this basin is extremely low. Based on 21 months
of streamflow records collected at Florahome, the estimated average
runoff from a drainage area of 172 square miles is 4 inches per
year. Runoff is possibly higher in the lower part of the basin.
Seepage to the deep ground water, evaporation from lake surfaces,
and transpiration take most of the rain that falls on the upper
part of the basin.

QUALITY OF SURFACE WATERS

INTRODUCTION

A discussion of streamflow and lake levels in Alachua, Bradford,
Clay, and Union counties has been presented. In this section the
chemical quality of water in streams and lakes in those counties is









R ,3 E,

Elovall. o: 138.1 It above mI ean *eo level










..y .,o, )//^ \\ \ \
.29 t 1 I
IN 28











32 33 34

SAND HILL LA KE
(Cloy County) 10 "
1000 0 1iO0 2000 I 3000 feet -*

Date of survey: Nov. 28, 1960
S Contour Interval: 10 feet --- .
SDaota source: U.S. Geological Survey
R. 23 E.
Figure 38. Depth contours of Sand Hill Lake.





R.23E.
i-


,I,


5 1 s 40
// o. I





S\ z -


MAGNOLIA LAKE -- ..-
(Clay County) -- 'I -- -

r 9
Date of survey: Nov. 28, 1960
Contour interval: 10 feet Data source: U.S. Geological Survey
R. 23 E.
Figure 89. Depth contours of Magnolia Lake.







68 ,FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

R22E R23E

,. 36 31
cc--





,>, b


12



CRYSTAL LAKE
(Clay and Bradford Counties)
500 0 500 1000 1500 feet


Date of survey: May 10, 1960
Contour interval: 10 feet


I Data source: U S. Geological Survey
R22E. R.23E.
Figure 40. Depth contours of Crystal Lake.






R 22E R 2.3E


0




-BROOKLYN LAKE
(Clay and Bradford Counties )
1000 0 1000 o000 flit
I I I I --
Dote of survey: April 25, 1960 9
Contour Interval: 10 feet
IR __
R22E. R23E.


17 16

%p





II


".121

20 21

I Cola source: U. S. Geological Survey
,,,, _,,!


Figure 41. Depth contours of Brooklyn Lake.


'I


p..



0o
-4







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


R.23E.


sea level


'3?



I
-JI


~10


19


KEYSTONE LAKE
(Clay County)
200 0 200 400


Date of survey:
Contour interval:


April 26,
10 feet


1960






Data source: U.S. Geological Survey


R.23E.

Figure 42. Depth contours of Keystone Lake.


Elvoation:


600 felt


iLI L L 1 1 I











ii


36


LAKE GENEVA
(Cloy and Bradford Counties)
1000 0 1000 2000 3000 feet

Date of survey: April 26,27, 1960
Contour Interval: 10 feet

R.22E. R.23E.


28


0
cc


60

^ co


32

I


Data source: U. S. Geological Survey


Figure 43. Depth contours of Lake Geneva.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

R. 23 E.


ee above mean sea level



,-" <


I


16


LOCH LOMMOND
(Clay County)
100 0 to1 200 300 400
I I I I I

Date of survey: May 10, 1960
Contour interval 10 feet


Datol source: U.S. Geological Survey


R. 23 E.
Figure 44. Depth contours of Loch Lommond.


Elevation: 95.4





17


I
I
I
I
I








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 35 73






175 ~ ~ ~ ~ oP-_~~- -------------------~j--H-Q- ----------- *--
Blue Pond
170






135
Sand Hill Lake-

130


Magnolia Lake-
125






115
Brooklyn Lake


Pebble Lake

105







Lake Geneva

80
Johnson Lake

95 -- F --
90 CL soch Lommond









8 0 ----- -----------------------------


Figure 45. Stage graphs of nine lakes near Keystone Heights, Florida.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 46. Profile of lakes near Keystone Heights, Florida.


Figure 47. Water budget of Brooklyn Lake for
September 1960.


the period October 1957 to


WATER BUDGET






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


described. Just as the quantity of surface waters is variable, so
is the quality. Both nature and man contribute to the changes in
the concentration of matter dissolved in the waters of the area.
Through natural actions, minerals in the crust of the earth affect
the chemical content of the waters with which they come in contact.
Man's use of water and land affects both the chemical and the
sanitary quality. This report is concerned only with the chemical
and physical quality and contains no information on sanitary
aspects and suitability for use when such use is related to bacterio-
logical quality.

EXPLANATION OF TERMS

Concentration is a ratio or proportion. It can be expressed in
many different ways-parts per million, equivalents per million,
grains per gallon, etc. The use of parts per million for expressing
the results of water analyses has been so frequent that it has
become conventional; however, this does not imply superiority of
this ratio over other ratios for expressing quality of water. Con-
version from one unit to any other unit is possible with the proper
conversion factor. Because parts per million is used in this report
as a means of expressing analytical results, an example of its
magnitude is given. Water having a concentration of 1 ppm means
that 1 million pounds of such water contains 1 pound of material
dissolved in 999,999 pounds of water.
The color of water is compared to that of colored discs which
have been calibrated to correspond to the platinum-cobalt scale of
Hazen. The unit of color is that produced by 1 milligram of
platinum per liter.
Residue on evaporation at 1800C is the concentration of
substances dissolved in water that remain in a solid state at 180C.
The residue on evaporation at 180C includes organic matter and
mineral matter whenever both are present. Hardness of water is
the property of water attributable to the presence of calcium and
magnesium and is expressed as equivalent calcium carbonate.
Mineral matter is the concentration of dissolved inorganic earth
materials. The term organic matter refers to an estimate of the
concentration of dissolved organic matter. The concentration is
calculated by subtracting the mineral matter from the residue on
evaporation at 1800C. The organic matter which is leached from
vegetation characteristically colors natural waters. Whenever
organic matter is absent, residue on evaporation at 180C and
mineral matter become synonymous.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


WATER TEMPERATURE

The temperature of surface water generally varies with air
temperature, but it is sometimes influenced by ground-water inflow
and industrial activities, especially during low-flow periods. When
streams and lakes receive large quantities of ground-water inflow
during low-flow periods, the water temperatures tend to be higher
than air temperatures during winter months and lower than air
temperatures during summer months. Surface water temperatures
usually are increased after the water has been used for such pur-
poses as cooling and air conditioning. Large streams and lakes
usually have small diurnal variations in water temperatures,
whereas small streams may have a daily range of several degrees
and may follow closely the changes in air temperatures. Large
quantities of water on the earth's surface tend to moderate the
air temperature.
The observed water temperatures of streams and lakes in-
vestigated in Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties
generally were above 450F in the winter months and less than 850F
in the summer months. The observed daily water temperatures
of the Santa Fe River near High Springs, which receives large
quantities of ground-water inflow, ranged from 600 to 800F from
October 1959 to September 1960. This water would be desirable
for cooling and air conditioning. The daily water temperature
of the Santa Fe River at Worthington, which is mostly all surface
runoff, ranked from 410 to 84F. from July 1957 to September 1960.
Table 4 shows the maximums, minimums, and average observed

TABLE 4. Maximum, Minimum, and Average of Observed Daily Water
Temperatures of Streams in Alachua, Bradford, Clay and
Union Counties, Florida

Fahrenheit
Stream Max. Min. Average

1. New River near Lake Butler,
Aug. 1957-Sept. 1958 850 390 700
2. North Fork Black Creek near Highland,
Oct. 1958-Sept. 1959 800 400 640
3. Santa Fe River near High Springs.
Oct. 1959-Sept- 1960 800 600 720
4. Santa Fe River at Worthington,
Sept. 1957-Sept- 19601 840 400 660
5. North Fork Black Creek near
Penney Farms. Oct. 1958-Sept. 1959 810 500 690

IContinuous record.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 35


daily water temperatures of several streams in Alachua, Bradford,
Clay, and Union counties.

FACTORS AFFECTING. CHEMICAL QUALITY

Rain as it falls to earth contains little or no dissolved matter.
The mineral matter is usually limited to dissolved gases, notably
nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. In coastal areas, sodium
chloride may be deposited by rainfall and windblown spray. The
solvent action of water is greatly increased by the presence of
carbon dioxide, absorbed from the atmosphere and from the soil,
which enables it to break down nearly all minerals and form new
compounds. The amount and type of mineral matter taken into
solution by water depends, among other things, upon the availability
of carbon dioxide for the weathering process, the nature of the
minerals present, and the length of time the water is in contact
with the minerals.
As a stream flows from the higher to the lower regions of its
drainage basin, it receives the inflow of many tributaries and a
large amount of ground-water seepage. Solution of materials from
the streambed is aided by scouring of the bed, reaeration at the
surface, and the photosynthetic activity of aquatic growth.
Differences in the geology of various regions, variations in topo-
graphic features, and climatic conditions will affect the chemical
character of a surface stream at various points along its reach.
Human activities such as diversions, impoundments, and the
disposal of agricultural, industrial, and domestic wastes greatly
affect water quality in some areas.
Industrial and population expansion will play a dominant part
in an ever-increasing demand on the water resources of the area.
Increased use of water can logically be expected to affect the
chemical quality of surface water as it is used and reused by
industry, agriculture, and domestic service. Therefore the quality
of water in streams can vary greatly due to many manmade and
natural factors.
The chemical-quality data are considered to be representative
of the water quality of the streams during the period of study.
To describe the general water quality and the water-quality
variability of streams, the average, maximum, and minimum values
of chemical constituents and physical qualities were determined
for the period of July 1957 to September 1960. Table 5 is a tabu-
lation of the average, maximum, and minimum values for the period
of study.











TAIII, 5, Average, Maximum, Minimum Values Observed for Substances
Dissolved in Streams and ,Lakes
Chemical analyue- in nprts per million, July 1957 to September 1960 except as otherwise stated


SANTA FE LAKE NEAR MELROSE-Semi-annual

Average 76 1.6 0.08 2.3 1.2 7.8 0.4 4 4.2 12 0,1 0.8 82 44 1 11 8 62 6.7 26
Maximum 88 6.0 .00 8.0 1.7 7.8 .0 6 7.6 13 .1 1.0 88 54 8 12 10 66 6.0 45
Minimum 60 .0 .06 1.4 .6 6.8 .1 2 1.0 12 .0 .0 28 33 5 9 6 59 5.3 10

LITTLE SANTA FE LAKE NEAR MELROSE-Semi-annual


Average 70 2.8 3.8 1.2 0.7 .2 10 2.8 12 .1 .1 34 5 22 14 6 68 6.0 58
Maximum 86 7.5 8.4 1.7 7.8 .4 25 .0 12 .2 2 49 72 33 28 8 92 7.1
Minimum 54 .4 2.0 1.0 0.0 .1 4 .0 11 .0 .0 26 42 16 9 6 56 5.4 60


HAMPTON LAKE AT HAMPTON BEACH-Semi-annual

Average 68 1.8 .15 2.8 1.8 5.6 .3 2 7.4 9.6 .1 .2 30 50 22 11 9 60 5.1 27
Maximum 88 2.7 .26 8.6 1.6 6.4 .6 4 12 11 .2 .4 37 58 26 13 12 72 5.5 45
Minimum 57 1.0 .05 1.4 1.0 4.3 .0 1 1.6 8.0 .0 .0 19 37 18 9 6 46 4.9 10

SANTA FE RIVER AT GRAHAM---8 week intervals

Average 8.5 .38 8.3 1.9 6.2 .4 9 2.6 9.8 .2 .4 32 93 61 16 9 60 5.4 276
Maximum 8.6 .76 12 4.6 7.6 .8 44 8.8 16 .5 .7 73 138 99 49 14 120 6.4 500
Minimum .8 .18 1.2 .5 2.0 .0 0 .4 8.5 .1 .1 13 44 22 7 0 80 4.4 180







SAMPSON LAKE AT SAMPSON C.TY NEAR STARKE-Semi-annual

Average 76 2.8 0.19 7.8 1.8 9.8 1.0 11 15 8.6 0.2 0.2 0.0 61 90 31 26 16 112 6.2 93
Maximum 90 6.2 .21 9.6 3.6 15 1.6 20 24 11 .3 .5 .0 97 122 60 9 29 174 .9 260
Minimum 58 .7 .16 6.0 .5 2.2 .7 6 2.0 6.0 .1 .0 .0 37 68 16 19 8 74 5.9 15

SAMPSON RIVER AT GRAHAM-Semi-annual

Average 64 3.1 .24 7.6 2.6 10 .7 18 22 8.6 .2 .1 64 88 24 30 1 15 6.4 78
Maximum 80 8.8 .29 12 4.4 16 1.2 1 8 12 .3 .3 101 124 39 48 22 176 160
Minimum 49 2.5 .20 4.2 .9 6.4 .1 2 4.8 6.0 .1 .0 28 67 9 14 63 5.0 35

HATCHET CREEK NEAR CONFLUENCE OF SANTA FE RIVER NEAR GRAHAM-Semi-annual

Average 66 4.4 .38 8.9 1.5 8.6 .3 18 1.8 7.1 .2 30 59 38 16 5 7 .4 154
Maximum 78 9.2 .42 13 4.5 4.7 .9 5 8.5 9.5 .3 70 76 56 51 8 115 6.9 280
Minimum 54 1.8 .26 .4 .4 2.0 .0 0 .4 2.5 .1 .0 8 42 21 2 2 29 4.3 80

ROCKY CREEK NEAR LaCROSS-Semi-annual

Average 65 7.1 .82 7.4 2.8 5.6 1.5 22 0.0 12 .4 .0 64 86 32 80 12 90 6.3 101
Maximum 74 9.6 1.6 10 6.0 8.7 2.4 43 9.0 18 .4 .1 80 111 52 44 18 126 7.3 180
Minimum 55 8.4 .31 2.8 .9 2.9 .1 4 2.8 6.6 .2 .0 22 49 11 10 5 41 5.6 45

ALLIGATOR CREEK NEAR LAWTEY OFF STATE ROADS 16 AND 226-Semi-annual

Average 70 4.0 0.17 18 2.0 5.0 0.9 48 8.0 5.5 .4 .3 68 70 11 40 2 106 6.4 70
Maximum 86 5.0 .28 25 3.5 7.0 1.8 95 4.0 6.5 .7 .4 101 103 2 77 0 181 7.6 10
Minimum 55 2.9 .06 1.2 .4 3.1 .0 2 2.0 4.5 .2 .2 16 36 20 4 3 30 5.83 90

WATER OAK CREEK AT STATE ROAD 25 NEAR STARKE-Semi-annual

Average 68 0.4 .22 56.8 2,8 5.8 .7 25 2.0 8.8 .1 1 47 68 21 25 4 75 6.2 97
Maximum 82 18 .23 10 7.2 0.2 1.2 62 2.8 14 .2 2 4 110 25 54 6 143 7.0 110
SMinimum 56 2.8 .21 2.0 .2 2.8 .1 4 .8 8.8 .1 .0 15 86 16 6 2 31 5.6 90


111












TABLE 5. (CONTINUED).


LAKE BUTLER AT LAKE BUTLER-Semi-annual

Average 70 2.0 .18 2.6 1.2 5.4 0.5 5 4.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.1 28 50 82 12 7 57 5.7 655
Maximum 94 4.8 .24 8.2 1.0 7.8 .8 7 7.2 12 .2 .2 .8 89 72 87 10 11 72 6.1 70
Minimum 00 .7 .00 2.2 .5 8.5 .1 2 .8 6.0 .0 .0 .0 19 41 22 8 2 40 5.2 40

BUTLER CREEK NEAR LAKE BUTLER-Semi-annual

Average 61 2.9 .25 4.6 1.6 3.0 .2 12 2.9 8.1 .2 .4 .1 31 04 62 18 8 56 5.2 812
Maximum 76 8.8 .80 11 4.8 6.1 .7 40 8.0 10 .8 1.0 .2 65 146 81 45 12 104 6.6 600
Minimum 55 1.9 .17 1.6 .5 2.0 .0 0 .4 4.8 .1 .1 .0 16 65 47 7 6 88 4.7 180

NEW RIVER NEAR LAKE BUTLER

Average 70 7.2 8.8 3.3 6.4 0.7 88 4.2 9.9 .8 1.5 60 104 42 86 8 99 6.8 187
Maximum 85 18 80 10 15 2.8 114 11 20 .5 7.7 150 189 78 106 10 278 7.6 460
Minlinum 89 2.6 8.6 .2 2.0 .0 6 .4 8.8 .2 .0 21 64 13 18 8 88 5.8 90

SANTA FE RIVER AT WORTHINGTON-daily


Average
Maximum
Minimum


2Daily from July 1057 to September 1958, 6-8 week intervals October 1958 to September 1960,


66 7.8 6.4 2.6 6.5 .4 21 7.6 9.8 .2 .3 51 98 42 26 10 84 6.5 187
84 21 18 7.6 18 1.8 64 22 62 .5 1.7 107 187 98 76 20 204 7.4 860
40 1.9 3.2 .9 8.8 .0 0 .4 1.0 .0 .0 22 57 7 12 0 88 8.6 60