<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Title Page
 Florida Board of Conservation
 Letter of transmittal
 Contents
 Abstract and introduction
 Geography
 Geology
 Hydrology
 Piezometric surface
 Salt-water occurrence
 Literature cited
 Copyright


FGS












Geohydrologic reconnaissance of Pasco and southern Hernando Counties, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 34 )
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001221/00001
 Material Information
Title: Geohydrologic reconnaissance of Pasco and southern Hernando Counties, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 34 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Report of investigations 34 )
Physical Description: vi, 28 p. : maps (1 fold.) diagrs, tables. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wetterhall, W. S
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1964
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Groundwater -- Florida -- Pasco County   ( lcsh )
Groundwater -- Florida -- Hernando County   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "Prepared by the United States Geoglogical Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey."
General Note: "Literature cited": p. 28.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000958541
oclc - 01750142
notis - AES1351
lccn - a 64007610
System ID: UF00001221:00001

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Florida Board of Conservation
        Page ii
    Letter of transmittal
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Abstract and introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 4
        Page 3
    Geography
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 3
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Geology
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 7
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Hydrology
        Page 13
        Page 12
    Piezometric surface
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Salt-water occurrence
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Literature cited
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Copyright
        Page 1
Full Text


STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY



FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert 0. Vernon, Director






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 34


GEOHYDROLOGIC RECONNAISSANCE
OF
PASCO AND SOUTHERN HERNANDO COUNTIES,
FLORIDA


By
W. S. Wetterhall


Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


TALLAHASSEE
1964









FLORIDA STATE BOARD

OF

CONSERVATION






FARRIS BRYANT
Governor


TOM ADAMS
Secretary of State




J. EDWIN LARSON
Treasurer



THOMAS D. BAILEY
Superintendent of Public Instruction


RICHARD ERVIN
Attorney General




RAY E. GREEN
Comptroller



DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGES
Director






LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Jlorida geological Survey

C&allakassee

October 10, 1963

Honorable Farris Bryant, Chairman
Florida State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Governor Bryant:

The Florida Geological Survey is publishing, as Report of
Investigations No. 34, a study on the "Geohydrologic Recon-
naissance of Pasco and Southern Hernando Counties, Florida."
This report was prepared by W. S. Wetterhall, a geologist with the
United States Geological Survey, as part of the cooperate
investigation of the water resources of Florida. The area of study
centers above a high point in the ground-water pressure system
of the Florida artesian aquifer, and it can be considered to be a
principal recharge area for much of the ground water of the
western Gulf Coast of the mid-peninsula.

The extensive and expanded use of ground water that has
paralleled the population growth along the Gulf Coast has made it
necessary to develop a greater knowledge of geology and hydrology
of Pasco and Hernando counties. This report presents this in-
formation in a comprehensive form.

Respectfully yours,
Robert 0. Vernon
Director and State Geologist
























































Completed manuscript received
February 8, 1963
Published for the Florida Geological Survey
By E. O. Painter Printing Co.
DeLand, Florida

iv








CONTENTS


Abstract ------_------- ----------------------. ........--- -....... 1
Introduction --_._------------------- ------..--... ---.....- .. 2
Purpose and scope ...........-----.. ---- ------.---- -------. -----... .-- 2
Acknowledgments --.._- ..- -------------------..-- 2
Previous reports .._ --...-...---------------------..... 2
Well and spring-numbering system .. ---------.--------------.------- 3
Geography _.._.. ... .. ---------------------------------------------------------- 3
Climate .-------- --- --- ------.................. 5
Topography ... ------------------------------ ---.--- .----------- -------...- 5
Drainage ..-.........- --------------------- ............... 6
Geology -_-.............-----_________............... 7
Geologic formations and their water-bearing characteristics-------- 8
Eocene Series .------......------.. ---.-------..---.. 8
Oligocene Series -............------ -------------- ----... 11
Miocene Series _--____ .____ ....------------------------------------- 11
Pleistocene and Recent Series -------.. ------------------------. 12
Hydrology .---..---_..___ _. ..... ------------------ ---............... ...... 12
Piezometric surface ........----.......... ------------------------- .................. 13
Salt-water occurrence --. ..--------------. ------..------- .......................------------... 14
Literature cited ------------------------- .------.- ...-.---- .. 28


ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page
1 Location of wells and springs and piezometric surface of the
Floridan aquifer in Pasco County and adjacent areas, Florida,
October 1960 .-----.. .._---- ------..-...-... -- Facing 2
2 Explanation of well and spring-numbering system .._ ___ 3
3 Location of study area --_.. -..... ___ ----................... 4
4 Discharge of springs 830-234-A and 831-234-A (Weekiwachee
Springs) and monthly rainfall at Brooksville __ 8
5 Geologic sections in Pasco and Hernando counties ------------ 10
6 Fluctuation of water levels in wells 815-226-1 and 816-211-1,
and monthly rainfall at St. Leo -__ __ ......-_ -..... .._______ 14
7 General relation between specific conductance and chloride
content for natural waters in west-central Florida _... ____ 15


TABLES

Table Page
1 Geologic formations and their water-bearing characteristics 9
2 Specific conductance of waters near the Gulf Coast of Pasco
and southern Hernando counties, Florida __ 16
3 Chemical analyses of waters from wells, springs, and streams
of Pasco and southern Hernando counties, Florida _..-.._.. .--- 17







4 Records of wells in Pasco and southern Hernando counties,
Florida __-___ .._ ____......... 18
5 Records of springs in Pasco and southern Hernando counties,
Florida -----.. .------ ............................ 27








GEOHYDROLOGIC RECONNAISSANCE
OF
PASCO AND SOUTHERN HERNANDO COUNTIES,
FLORIDA
By
W. S. Wetterhall
ABSTRACT
Pasco County lies in the coastal plain physiographic province.
The Brooksville Ridge, in the central part of the area, trends in a
north-westerly direction and reaches a maximum altitude of 301
feet. The ridge is flanked by the Withlacoochee River valley on the
east, the Hillsborough River valley on the south, and the Terraced
Coastal Lowlands on the west. Relatively sharp breaks in slope
occur at altitudes of about 25 feet and 100 feet which define the
Pamlico and Wicomico terraces. The Pamlico terrace extends into
the Gulf of Mexico to a submerged scarp at about 60 feet below
sea level. Sinkholes are widely distributed on both the land and
the submarine surfaces.
Surface drainage of the area is poorly developed. Northern
Pasco County and Hernando County are drained primarily by
underground seepage. This drainage is interrupted by prolonged
above-normal rainfall which raises the ground-water level so that
sinkholes that normally act as surface drains become springs and
add to the excessive surface water.
A thick section of limestone underlies the area. The upper few
hundred feet of limestone is comprised of the Tampa Limestone;
the Suwannee Limestone; the Crystal River, Williston, and Inglis
Formations; and the Avon Park and the Lake City Limestones.
These limestones form a gross hydrologic unit-the Floridan
aquifer-that is the source of practically all the water used in the
area. The limestones are generally permeable, but the highest
permeabilities usually occur in or near hard zones in the limestone.
These hard zones are common in the base of the Suwannee Lime-
stone, within the Inglis Formation, and from about 100 feet below
the top of the Avon Park Limestone through the Lake City
Limestone.
The highest points on the piezometric surface are near Dixie
at an altitude of about 101 feet, and near St. Leo at an altitude of
about 95 feet. These mounds are informally referred to as the
"Pasco High." Water moves from these piezometric highs to the






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Gulf of Mexico and to the Hillsborough and Withlacoochee rivers
through the Floridan aquifer.
Ground water in the area generally meets U.S. Public Health
Service drinking water standards except near the coast where
chlorides and sulfates may exceed tolerable limits.

INTRODUCTION

PURPOSE AND SCOPE

The extensive and expanding use of ground water for domestic,
municipal, industrial, and irrigation supplies has resulted in the
need for a greater knowledge of the geology and hydrology of Pasco
and southern Hernando counties. This report, prepared by the
U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological
Survey, will aid in the development of water supplies in the area.
A reconnaissance study was made from June 1960 to July 1961.
Geologic sections were constructed from well logs and the water-
bearing characteristics of the geologic formations were determined.
One hundred and eight wells and 16 springs were inventoried, and
water-level measurements were made to determine the piezometric
surface. Long-term water-level records are presented for two wells
in Pasco County. Water samples from wells, springs, and streams
were analyzed by the Quality of Water Branch, U. S. Geological
Survey. The discharge of springs was measured by the Surface
Water Branch of the U. S. Geological Survey and by the author.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author appreciates the cooperation of the well owners who
permitted access to their properties and wells. Well drillers who
contributed well data are Ben Lovelace and Co., F. A. May and Son,
and May Artesian Well Co., all of Tampa. Mr. Frank A. May
accompanied the author on a tour of the area and assisted him in
locating many wells. Colonel Conners, Commanding Officer, MacDill
Air Force Base, furnished a helicopter for use in locating offshore
springs.

PREVIOUS REPORTS

The geology of the area is discussed by Cooke (1945). String-
field (1936) discussed the water-bearing rocks and first described
the shape of the piezometric surface. Many other reports mention





82"50'


2


CITRUS SOUS'NTY
HERNANDO COUNTY
t Chossaowit ,ko
S amp
40U EXPLANATION -
.2
Well and well number
Spring and spring identification
letter
\ 27
Water level in feet above mean
sea level 22 0I1 0
35 ------ 2:-- __
3. ', 20-----.
Ccntour represents the piezometric surface
in feet above mean sea level October
1960 Dashed where inferred. Contour
interval 10 feet
0 1 2 4 miles
II-

030 t ',o Spriyw09L




SAri peak HER
A PSCO'0




Hudson




20'Ar R' 4h



N. t I~~ / ._ _
c-.ogk46 i- ,, ,






IN AS COUNTY
^ j-7^h 'i '-


30'


.... .J


L, Y21 4


25'


Y' 05____ __ 82000, _


I I _I II


20'


-I-I-rI/LI.;, id 1 i i 7 I ,1, 1A


T-


/L I:L!
/ ,J HRs^%f


II 4TT ii


/I/


I/I I(


Il/ COUNTY


kIJI//////l


1-.L1 1I


I
T


- I I ,


I5


'1IAt


jl-vaL. I.4k~erdell I


2
I .


I I I I Mg I I'V


F I HIi I I FI


Cdl,
-t CC,
~r dV~ -


zI+I I III


K1717 I 7/1.5i1


-ode CilUJI


NiSt I tSt'Leo7l


TI /F _____ 1I\IIL


I4T. T 6I OI_ II #-.IiL-K11


I D,1j I


L I l I


WTT,


'TI T'TI' hI 1'151,185Id Jgll


I I


15' I







|o


Croom
I


LLJ
M
K-- I-
z r~z~


zI


ri


( i 1 CO U TY


I T/_I/81 -1 %\ I jj]9JK I6o7114 11 1 ] jQ jI


71
IJ


um fi


L. Ii


IA I \


I I


III


-_L1JiLL' VA-K~1


0/ C-OUNTY
N T


iitLL1LkLen LI


4a.Kj~iI ~ yVILA


I I)


/I I


AI iI


4 I I I i I ; ;W 141 1 11 i /' 1 I


Vl I\ xt


4h~t~~l~rf~hI/KY1(T AVTh


f4'WAI~Al


i k I "-'- /- -I


II\1]T /~1 1,


*7 i' I4KF L\i__ iLJ 6fii


,T 17I,' V I I/ Li_ L I


15' 05' F' 82000 55'


Figure 1. Location of wells and springs and piezometric surface of the
Floridan aquifer in Pasco County and adjacent areas, Florida, October 1960.


V I


I


28043'


E I


J^/


I ~ W VWIiV I I


I i


EII1)1U1 II


Ifi I .Y>


-19Y


TT i i i i T ii i i i Uff--t-ki 1 -1, 1 i I L I I


ykZjii


1-vF-


01t


m


t


i ,


I P.F


,-. I


145 1 1) ITT-1 !,l


Ib --iiij hrhills


54r


i i i


| I I I I I I


15~E~1[3~P~R-


49 1 nsgI "
THi i I


I l I I I I I I I I ]


I I I i --Ar- i


r I I 1 i


I i =4 i T=!, %bl Hpq 3--, i i i


--t


I


I I I f ;. rn J.,'a h ri Ill


~-


- V-


I I


I I I


I I I MA 9- i i 6 ,,!


I


t I 7I--l


L I Il r


t


N^


'I I" i //A I I I i I i "\ 9l 8V-q I\'


I .1


I


T


I rl 1 1r~T


I


4 All#I- -- i--I--- t


I 7F I I I- I


I I--


1 v.4 41 6` 1 1 l!;Z


I y If I I / I I AI I "r I I I I


,Yr II IL lld lklT5


r//COUNTY
I. nm I I Do


i f I --i 1. i i i i 6-W


41-


t


I I I


f i


I I I I


I I


7 I/I-


i t (T 1 to1


I


I I I I


I I I I :il-i VA t- 1 1 1 --


I


I


i


I


I


. i i t- I .


1


I I I 1 11 1 1, i i i i Pkv i i --! i -d


P 1 0 L'P


4 1 I I I I t I I I Ili ; ; 1


-4


-F


/IV I I It I


t-


7


I 1 1 I h, 1i 1


-M


i i i i i


A i i IN i \j = 1 i 4 i i I / H. i I I i A, i 14 I I i i


fOl FV 1 734 d


t i t i I I I i


I.;.


!


I


I I


T T T l' rI f I II E ] [ Z


1 1 L/ I I I I r


I I I jo -


-t


. t I 1%


Ip


H i iff i :11 is i


1 1 1I 1Ie I-" 1I I\ 1


-


I I I I I I I


- im


-T-IK


R i | i I = I


- \i i r I -rt II o21


ti~t-e~tti~~-P


i i t i 1i-r


-i-


I


I L--tf


nce,


I- -


-- li I 1, -4 P i i t


I A'J ; I I


I .I I. .1


-1 I I -~ III-


LiL i I it


__14d





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 34


the geology or water resources of the area in a brief, general
manner.

WELL AND SPRING NUMBERING SYSTEM

Wells and springs inventoried during the study in Pasco and
southern Hernando counties are shown on figure 1. The latitude
and longitude location given by each well and spring number is
explained in figure 2.

GEOGRAPHY
,i / ,0 n '.',
The area of this report lies-between 280' and 28037' N. latitude
and between 8200' and 8252' W. longitude. It includes all of
Pasco County and the Southern part of Hernando County. (fig. 3).


Figure 2. Explanation of well and spring numbering system.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Area covered
in this report

0 0 JD 30 AD 50 ,im


Flone y uS G Sobrca


Figure 3. Location of study area.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 34


CLIMATE

The average annual rainfall on the area is about 55 inches. The
low, flat, coastal area receives about 52 inches and the ridge section
receives more than 56 inches. About 37 inches of rain falls during
the 5-month period-May through September. July, the wettest
month, averages more than 9 inches; November, the driest month,
averages about 2 inches.
Unusually heavy rainfall occurred in 1959 and 1960. An excess
of about 44 inches over normal rainfall for that period was measured
by the U. S. Weather Bureau at Chinsegut Hill near Brooksville.
Heavy rains, totalling 12.73 inches, fell in August 1959 and flooded
large areas. In March 1960, 17.70 inches of rain fell on the already
waterlogged area, submerging some roads to a depth of more than
10 feet and flooding areas that are normally dry even in very wet
periods.
The average annual temperature is about 72F. July, the warm-
est month, has an average temperature of about 81F, and January,
the coldest month, has an average temperature of about 62F.
From 341 to 350 days per year are free of killing frost at the
Chinsegut Hill weather station. The topography and the proximity
to a large body of water largely determine the minimum tempera-
ture and the number of frost-free days. Low areas not near lakes
or the Gulf of Mexico may expect an average of 341 frost-free days
per year, and a minimum temperature of 17F twice in 25 years or
a temperature of 25F or lower 23 times in 25 years. Higher areas
may expect an average of 350 frost-free days per year, and a
minimum of 220F twice in 25 years or a temperature of 250F or
lower 8 times in 25 years.

TOPOGRAPHY

The area lies in the Coastal Plain Province of Fenneman (1938),
and in the Tertiary Highlands, the River Valley Lowlands, and
the Terraced Coastal Lowlands of Vernon (1951). The Tertiary
Highlands form the northwest trending Brooksville Ridge, the
dominant topographic feature in the central part of the area. Con-
siderable local relief is developed along the ridge as a result of the
numerous sinkholes. Clay Hill, 6 miles northwest of Dade City,
reaches an altitude of 301 feet; whereas, Lake Dowling, a sink-
hole lake 0.7 mile north of Clay Hill, reaches an altitude of only
75 feet. East of the ridge the Withlacoochee River lowland reaches
an altitude of about 80 feet. The Withlacoochee River lowland is





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 34


the geology or water resources of the area in a brief, general
manner.

WELL AND SPRING NUMBERING SYSTEM

Wells and springs inventoried during the study in Pasco and
southern Hernando counties are shown on figure 1. The latitude
and longitude location given by each well and spring number is
explained in figure 2.

GEOGRAPHY
,i / ,0 n '.',
The area of this report lies-between 280' and 28037' N. latitude
and between 8200' and 8252' W. longitude. It includes all of
Pasco County and the Southern part of Hernando County. (fig. 3).


Figure 2. Explanation of well and spring numbering system.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


a series of interconnected swamps separated by ridges of low
relief. The west flank of the Brooksville Ridge drops rather steeply
to the Wicomico terrace (Vernon, 1951) at an altitude of about
100 feet. The broad plain of the Wicomico terrace is terminated
on the west by an escarpment above the Pamlico terrace (Vernon,
1951). The Pamlico terrace, at an altitude of about 25 feet, extends
beneath present sea level to a submerged shoreline. The submerged
part of the terrace is pocked by sinkholes and springs which retain
many of the features of those on the emergent part of the terrace.
A longshore current flowing northward in the Gulf of Mexico has
filled many of the sinks and sluggish springs with sand, but they
remain visible from the air as subrounded areas of different color
or texture on the gulf bottom.

DRAINAGE

A large percentage of the water that falls on the surface re-
turns to the atmosphere by evaporation and by transpiration of
plants. The remainder drains from the area through the lime-
stone that underlies the surface and through a few surface streams.
Streams form only where the water level in the limestone is near
the land surface or where material of low permeability overlies the
limestone.
The larger streams are the Anclote, Pithlachascotee, Withla-
coochee, and Hillsborough rivers (fig. 1). Tributaries of the
Hillsborough River drain most of the southeast and south-central
parts of the area. The Withlacoochee River and its tributaries
drain the area east of the ridge. The Pithlachascotee and Anclote
rivers drain the area that lies generally west of U. S. Highway 41
and south of State Highway 52.
Several small streams in the area terminate in sinkhole drains.
The largest of these is Bear Creek which heads near Bee Tree
Pond and ends, at normal flow, in Bear Sink about 7 miles to the
west. At high stage Bear Creek flows past Bear Sink, over a low
divide, under a bridge at State Highway 52, and into another sink
about 4,300 feet northwest of Bear Sink. When the flow of Bear
Creek exceeds the drainage capacity of the two sinkholes it flows
westward through a poorly developed channel, across U. S. High-
way 19 to the Gulf of Mexico.
During wet periods Pecks Sink, about 2.5 miles southwest of
Brooksville, drains approximately 10 square miles west of Brooks-
ville through a well developed stream channel. The water level of
the sinkhole is normally about 30 feet below land surface. During







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 34


the flood of 1959-60 the water level was about 5 feet above the
land surface.
Another sinkhole drain was noted about 4.5 miles east of U. S.
Highway 41 and half a mile north of the Pasco-Hernando County
line where a stream about 7 miles long drains several square miles
northeast of the sink. "Rocky Sink," 3.5 miles east of Port Richey,
drains several lakes in the surrounding area. Further investigation
will probably reveal other sinkhole drains. The rapid disposal of
surface water through sinkhole drains has precluded general
development of well defined streams. Surface drainage is poorly
developed and closed depressions that drain internally are common
in the drainage areas of the streams.
Subsurface drainage is adequate during periods of normal
rainfall, but during very wet periods, such as August 1959 to July
1960, the closed depressions become flooded and store large volumes
of water. Most of this water is released to the ground-water body,
raising the water level in the artesian aquifer. If the water level
is raised sufficiently, as in 1959 and 1960, some low-lying sink-
holes that normally drain off surface waters flow as springs. This
results in damage to roads, forests, and farm properties.
Most of the water that enters the ground-water system emerges
as springflow at or near the coast. Springflow generally increases
during wet periods but the increase in springflow seemingly is not
proportional to the increase in rainfall. The ratio of the annual
flow of Weekiwachee Springs to the annual rainfall at Brooksville
ranges from 1.54 to 5.20 cfs (cubic feet per second) per inch of
rainfall. The average annual ratio, based on 30 years of record, is
2.75 cfs per inch. The range in ratio of annual rainfall to annual
springflow may be in part due to lag effects and in part to other
factors such as rainfall intensity not presently evaluated. The
general relation of monthly rainfall to the flow of Weekiwatchee
Springs as measured periodically is illustrated in figure 4.
GEOLOGY
Pasco and Hernando counties are underlain by several thousand
feet of sedimentary rocks, principally limestones. The rocks con-
sidered in this report range in age from Eocene to Recent. The
geologic units and their hydrologic properties are summarized in
table 1. Figure 5, geologic sections in Pasco and Hernando
counties, shows the relative positions and thicknesses of the
formations studied. Formational contacts are probably uncon-
formable except the contact between the Williston and the Inglis
Foaifations which is conformable.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


r 110l A, 90 V R I I I J I U

IV





S Ronfo1 at nsegul ooksVi e)-- -
16 --- -- - - -- - - - -
l - i - -
a^4 4-4t- -TT- -- --


S i II i el


I


I I-I I ll ill II


Figure 4. Discharge of springs 830-234-A and 831-234-A (Weekiwachee
Springs) and monthly rainfall at Brooksville.

GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS AND THEIR WATER-BEARING
CHARACTERISTICS

EOCENE SERIES

The oldest formation to be considered in this report is the Lake
City Limestone of Eocene age. The Lake City Limestone is a soft
to hard, fossiliferous, brown limestone with dark brown beds of
dolomitic limestone at irregular intervals. The thickness of the
formation beneath Pasco and Hernando counties is about 500 feet.
The formation is, in part, highly permeable and will yield large
quantities of water to wells. The Lake City Limestone is not
commonly used as an aquifer because of its depth.
The Avon Park Limestone of Eocene age overlies the Lake City
Limestone. Lithologically it is very similar to the Lake City Lime-
stone. The thickness of the Avon Park Limestone in the area


il I II


t^t









TABLE 1. Geologic Formations and their Water-Bearing Characteristics1


Age Formation Lithology Quality of water Use

Recent and Undifferentiated Interbedded sand and clay up to Objectionable concentration of Only a few small domestic wells.
Pleistocene sand and clay 250 feet thick. iron and high organic color are
common.

Miocene Tampa Limestone e gray, sandy, fossiiferou Most domestic and many irrigations wells
limestone. produce water from the basal Suwannee
SGenerally satisfactory for domestic Limestone. Some wells in southwestern
Fossiliferous, yellow to white, fine- supplies without treatment. Pasco County produce water from the
Oligocene Suwannee Limestone grained limestone. Hard at Tampa Limestone if the Suwannee Lime-
bottom, stone contains salty water.

Crystal River
Formation Soft, chalky, white to tan co- Not well known but probably simi- Only a few wells produce water from
S- quinoid limestone. lar to water from Suwannee local cavities.
Williston Formation Limestone in most of area.

S In Hard, fossiliferous, brown to gray
Eocene Formation dolomiti limestone Contains more sulfate than water Most wells that produce more than 1,000
from overlying formations but gpm penetrate the Inglis Formation and/
Avon Park probably does not exceed public or part of the hard brown dolomitic
Limestone Soft to hard, fossiliferous, brown health limits in most of area. section of the Avon Park and Lake City
limestone with dark brown beds Limestones.
of dolomitic limestone. Some sa-
Lake City propel.
Limestone

iThe classification and nomenclature of rock units in this report conform to the usage of the Florida
Geological Survey and also, except for the Ocala Group and its subdivisions, with those of the U. S.
Geological Survey.













ot

Ion



AMPMA AN M U W M.A NA I L ITt It \ MIL A
100 -100
n .I OHMTAT N A .




-100 MS-- l ND Lt CIT LM TO TM
CAMtAL IM NIM -,N I L T, ^i -
AVY 1 AVON PARK ANDT"""M A o '




MIL TAMPA AND SUWANNE -MS
I CRITAL IVEM AND WILLISTON TAMPA A A-EE-- L sMI

LAME ._ -t1 1 EMPLANATIO1
SI AA LA i CITY LIM PAITON A LAE CITY LIETO E *300 le


11 1 000
A" p AID jc ^ tp''R^111 L ----- 5,-2i. \W0 C
tooi, t,& lION









C100- N6f,
MLLL. I t~ INiR aI I.... .

-400 T1 Alt TONE MI IlIIOT A W16 I SIO
.Non ----......... I ll ,.o" ..1 1.92A ,__, ......I o. -.
o a" Q --" ""c


le 6 G e lo AVON PARK AND LANE Cit LIMCSTON dS A c u t e
0#-300 1 0 A

0 I g u 4 75 G i s t i4ei t cri a IaTdI

Figure 5. Geologic sections in Pasco and Hernando counties.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 34


the flood of 1959-60 the water level was about 5 feet above the
land surface.
Another sinkhole drain was noted about 4.5 miles east of U. S.
Highway 41 and half a mile north of the Pasco-Hernando County
line where a stream about 7 miles long drains several square miles
northeast of the sink. "Rocky Sink," 3.5 miles east of Port Richey,
drains several lakes in the surrounding area. Further investigation
will probably reveal other sinkhole drains. The rapid disposal of
surface water through sinkhole drains has precluded general
development of well defined streams. Surface drainage is poorly
developed and closed depressions that drain internally are common
in the drainage areas of the streams.
Subsurface drainage is adequate during periods of normal
rainfall, but during very wet periods, such as August 1959 to July
1960, the closed depressions become flooded and store large volumes
of water. Most of this water is released to the ground-water body,
raising the water level in the artesian aquifer. If the water level
is raised sufficiently, as in 1959 and 1960, some low-lying sink-
holes that normally drain off surface waters flow as springs. This
results in damage to roads, forests, and farm properties.
Most of the water that enters the ground-water system emerges
as springflow at or near the coast. Springflow generally increases
during wet periods but the increase in springflow seemingly is not
proportional to the increase in rainfall. The ratio of the annual
flow of Weekiwachee Springs to the annual rainfall at Brooksville
ranges from 1.54 to 5.20 cfs (cubic feet per second) per inch of
rainfall. The average annual ratio, based on 30 years of record, is
2.75 cfs per inch. The range in ratio of annual rainfall to annual
springflow may be in part due to lag effects and in part to other
factors such as rainfall intensity not presently evaluated. The
general relation of monthly rainfall to the flow of Weekiwatchee
Springs as measured periodically is illustrated in figure 4.
GEOLOGY
Pasco and Hernando counties are underlain by several thousand
feet of sedimentary rocks, principally limestones. The rocks con-
sidered in this report range in age from Eocene to Recent. The
geologic units and their hydrologic properties are summarized in
table 1. Figure 5, geologic sections in Pasco and Hernando
counties, shows the relative positions and thicknesses of the
formations studied. Formational contacts are probably uncon-
formable except the contact between the Williston and the Inglis
Foaifations which is conformable.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 34


ranges from about 50 to about 500 feet. The dolomitic zone about
100 feet below the top of the formation is highly permeable and
yields large quantities of water to wells.
The Ocala Group of late Eocene age is composed of the Inglis,
Williston, and Crystal River Formations. The Inglis Formation, a
brown to gray. fossiliferous, hard dolomitic limestone, overlies
the Avon Park Limestone and in thearea attains a thickness of 40
to 60 feet. The formation is highly permeable over much of the
area and yields large quantities of water to wells. Wells that
produce more than 1,000 gpm (gallons per minute) generally
penetrate the Inglis Formation.
The Inglis Formation is overlain by the Williston Formation
which is in turn overlain by the Crystal River Formation. Due to
their lithologic and hydrologic similarity the Williston and Crystal
River Formations were not differentiated in this study. Litho-
logically the formations are generally white to tan, soft, chalky,
coquinoid limestone, composed of the remains of foraminifers and
other fossil lnnsely cemented in a calcareous matrix. The
formations attain a thickness of about 100-150 feet. The Williston
and Crystal River Formations are not an important source of water
in the area. Only a few wells produce water from cavities in
these formations.

OLIGOCENE SERIES

The Suwannee Limestone of Oligocene age overlies the Crystal
River Formation. The formation is generally a white to yellow,
fine-grained, fossiliferous limestone. The lower part of the
formation is generally harder, denser, and less fossiliferous than
the upper part. The Suwannee Limestone is a very permeable,
productive aquifer. Most domestic and many irrigation wells
produce from the lower part of the Suwannee Limestone.

MIOCENE SERIES

The Tampa Limestone of Miocene age overlies the Suwannee
Limestone. The Tampa Limestone is a white to gray, sandy,
fossiliferous limestone. The thickness of the formation in the area
is erratic because both the top and bottom surfaces are irregular
erosional surfaces. The Tampa Limestone is not a major source
of water in Pasco and Hernando counties; however, some wells in
southwestern Pasco County produce water from the formation
when the underlying Suwannee Limestone contains salty water.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


SPLEISTOCENE AND RECENT SERIES

Undifferentiated deposits of sand and clay of Pleistocene and
Recent age overlie the Tampa Limestone. These sediments consist
of interbedded sands and clays which reach a maximum thickness
of 250 feet. A few small domestic wells produce water from the
(and. The water generally contains an objectionable concentration
of on and is likely to be highly colored.

HYDROLOGY

The principal artesian aquifer in the area is the Floridan
aquifer which underlies all of Florida and parts of the adjacent
states. The Floridan aquifer in the area of this report is comprised
of all or a part of the Lake City Limestone, the Avon Park Lime-
stone, the Inglis, Williston, and Crystal River Formations, and
the Suwannee and Tampa Limestones.
Horizontal layering and vertical jointing of the limestones
result in varying horizontal and vertical permeabilities. Vertical
permeability depends primarily on the size and distribution of
vertical joints which vary in size from small cracks to solution-
enlarged pipes more than 100 feet in diameter. Hard zones in the
limestones are capable of maintaining small or large openings, but
small openings in the soft coquinoid and pasty limestones generally
are filled by the surrounding material. Larger openings which
locally penetrate the softer zones result from collapse or solution
of the limestones. Thus hard layers are favorable for the vertical
movement of water and the softer layers tend to restrict vertical
movement of water. The irregular distribution of vertical perme-
ability in the discharge areas results in well-defined springs instead
of large areas of seepage. In recharge areas drain sinks and deep
sand-filled solution pipes represent the areas of high vertical
permeability.
Horizontal permeability is restricted principally to hard zones
in the limestones. Differences in permeability are reflected in the
amount of water that can be produced from a given zone and in
the relative water levels at various depths in areas of recharge
or discharge of large volumes of water. Hard, competent, and
highly permeable zones are found at random in the lithologically
variable Tampa Limestone, in the basal 40 or 50 feet of the
Suwannee Limestone, in the Inglis Formation, 100 feet or more
below the top of the Avon Park Limestone, and in the Lake City
Limestone to an undetermined depth. The water-bearing zones







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 34


in the Inglis Formation and the Avon Park and Lake City Lime-
stones are referred to by well drillers as the "hard brown"
limestone. Locally, other parts of the formations may yield
substantial quantities of water but more than 90 percent of the
industrial, irrigation, and public supply wells in the area produce
water from hard zones.

PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE

The piezometric surface of an aquifer is the imaginary surface
to which water will rise in tightly cased wells that penetrate the
artesian aquifer. The shape of the piezometric surface of the
Floridan aquifer in Pasco County and adjacent areas in October
1960 is shown in figure 1.
Piezometric highs occur near Dixie and St. Leo. The highest
point, near Dixie, was about 101 feet above sea level and the high
near St. Leo was about 95 feet above sea level in October 1960.
These highs were mapped as a single high by Stringfield (1936)
and have long been informally referred to as the "Pasco High." A
broad nose on the southwest flank of the high, near Lutz, probably
becomes a third high point during periods of low water levels.
Ground water moves down the hydraulic gradient, hence
perpendicular to the contour lines shown in figure 1. Thus, water
moves away from the local piezometric highs in all directions
toward the rivers and the Gulf of Mexico. Ultimately all of the
ground water, except that lost en route by evaporation and
transpiration, flows to the Gulf of Mexico.
Changing rates of replenishment and discharge cause the
piezometric surface to rise and fall and to change shape. The
amount of rise and fall is indicated by the fluctuation of water
levels in wells 815-226-1 and 816-211-1 (fig. 6). Highest water
levels occur during periods of high rainfall and low water levels
occur during periods of drought. The piezometric surface shown
in figure 1 reflects the extremely high rate of precipitation during
1959 and 1960. During dry periods water levels near the piezo-
metric highs probably decline about 20 feet. Water level
fluctuations generally decrease toward the coast and the Withlacoo-
chee and Hillsborough rivers since there are discharge areas and
areas of flatter hydraulic gradients.
Recharge to the aquifer by rainfall is by direct movement of
surface water into drain sinks, by downward percolation through
the overlying sand and clay, and by lateral movement along the
hydraulic gradient. Where the sands and clays overlying the






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


SPLEISTOCENE AND RECENT SERIES

Undifferentiated deposits of sand and clay of Pleistocene and
Recent age overlie the Tampa Limestone. These sediments consist
of interbedded sands and clays which reach a maximum thickness
of 250 feet. A few small domestic wells produce water from the
(and. The water generally contains an objectionable concentration
of on and is likely to be highly colored.

HYDROLOGY

The principal artesian aquifer in the area is the Floridan
aquifer which underlies all of Florida and parts of the adjacent
states. The Floridan aquifer in the area of this report is comprised
of all or a part of the Lake City Limestone, the Avon Park Lime-
stone, the Inglis, Williston, and Crystal River Formations, and
the Suwannee and Tampa Limestones.
Horizontal layering and vertical jointing of the limestones
result in varying horizontal and vertical permeabilities. Vertical
permeability depends primarily on the size and distribution of
vertical joints which vary in size from small cracks to solution-
enlarged pipes more than 100 feet in diameter. Hard zones in the
limestones are capable of maintaining small or large openings, but
small openings in the soft coquinoid and pasty limestones generally
are filled by the surrounding material. Larger openings which
locally penetrate the softer zones result from collapse or solution
of the limestones. Thus hard layers are favorable for the vertical
movement of water and the softer layers tend to restrict vertical
movement of water. The irregular distribution of vertical perme-
ability in the discharge areas results in well-defined springs instead
of large areas of seepage. In recharge areas drain sinks and deep
sand-filled solution pipes represent the areas of high vertical
permeability.
Horizontal permeability is restricted principally to hard zones
in the limestones. Differences in permeability are reflected in the
amount of water that can be produced from a given zone and in
the relative water levels at various depths in areas of recharge
or discharge of large volumes of water. Hard, competent, and
highly permeable zones are found at random in the lithologically
variable Tampa Limestone, in the basal 40 or 50 feet of the
Suwannee Limestone, in the Inglis Formation, 100 feet or more
below the top of the Avon Park Limestone, and in the Lake City
Limestone to an undetermined depth. The water-bearing zones







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 34


in the Inglis Formation and the Avon Park and Lake City Lime-
stones are referred to by well drillers as the "hard brown"
limestone. Locally, other parts of the formations may yield
substantial quantities of water but more than 90 percent of the
industrial, irrigation, and public supply wells in the area produce
water from hard zones.

PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE

The piezometric surface of an aquifer is the imaginary surface
to which water will rise in tightly cased wells that penetrate the
artesian aquifer. The shape of the piezometric surface of the
Floridan aquifer in Pasco County and adjacent areas in October
1960 is shown in figure 1.
Piezometric highs occur near Dixie and St. Leo. The highest
point, near Dixie, was about 101 feet above sea level and the high
near St. Leo was about 95 feet above sea level in October 1960.
These highs were mapped as a single high by Stringfield (1936)
and have long been informally referred to as the "Pasco High." A
broad nose on the southwest flank of the high, near Lutz, probably
becomes a third high point during periods of low water levels.
Ground water moves down the hydraulic gradient, hence
perpendicular to the contour lines shown in figure 1. Thus, water
moves away from the local piezometric highs in all directions
toward the rivers and the Gulf of Mexico. Ultimately all of the
ground water, except that lost en route by evaporation and
transpiration, flows to the Gulf of Mexico.
Changing rates of replenishment and discharge cause the
piezometric surface to rise and fall and to change shape. The
amount of rise and fall is indicated by the fluctuation of water
levels in wells 815-226-1 and 816-211-1 (fig. 6). Highest water
levels occur during periods of high rainfall and low water levels
occur during periods of drought. The piezometric surface shown
in figure 1 reflects the extremely high rate of precipitation during
1959 and 1960. During dry periods water levels near the piezo-
metric highs probably decline about 20 feet. Water level
fluctuations generally decrease toward the coast and the Withlacoo-
chee and Hillsborough rivers since there are discharge areas and
areas of flatter hydraulic gradients.
Recharge to the aquifer by rainfall is by direct movement of
surface water into drain sinks, by downward percolation through
the overlying sand and clay, and by lateral movement along the
hydraulic gradient. Where the sands and clays overlying the







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


- 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
-54- 1
5 816-211-1
-60


- A "


-A


-74 ....--


-2
i t 1 8l5-226-1 1 | .








-: :1 i I lid -
I a rlai~rd^


945E


Fr60


Figure 6. Fluctuation of water levels in wells 815-226-1 and 816-211-1, and
monthly rainfall at St. Leo.
limestones are thick and continuous, drain sinks are probably the
most important method of disposal of surface water and,
consequently, of recharge to the aquifer. Where the sands and
clays are thin, or not continuous, the rainfall enters the aquifer
directly. Either avenue of recharge of the aquifer allows rapid
movement of ground water and accounts for the short term
water-level fluctuations of large magnitude.

SALT-WATER OCCURRENCE

Salt water occurs in the Floridan aquifer along the coastal
"area. The salt water may be the result of recent encroachment of
sea water or it may be sea water trapped in the sediments during
the Pleistocene Epoch when sea level was higher than at present.
In the aquifer along the coast the salt-water fresh-water contact
grades through a zone of diffusion in which the water gradually
increases in salinity with depth and toward the coast. When the


9 1940"







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


- 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
-54- 1
5 816-211-1
-60


- A "


-A


-74 ....--


-2
i t 1 8l5-226-1 1 | .








-: :1 i I lid -
I a rlai~rd^


945E


Fr60


Figure 6. Fluctuation of water levels in wells 815-226-1 and 816-211-1, and
monthly rainfall at St. Leo.
limestones are thick and continuous, drain sinks are probably the
most important method of disposal of surface water and,
consequently, of recharge to the aquifer. Where the sands and
clays are thin, or not continuous, the rainfall enters the aquifer
directly. Either avenue of recharge of the aquifer allows rapid
movement of ground water and accounts for the short term
water-level fluctuations of large magnitude.

SALT-WATER OCCURRENCE

Salt water occurs in the Floridan aquifer along the coastal
"area. The salt water may be the result of recent encroachment of
sea water or it may be sea water trapped in the sediments during
the Pleistocene Epoch when sea level was higher than at present.
In the aquifer along the coast the salt-water fresh-water contact
grades through a zone of diffusion in which the water gradually
increases in salinity with depth and toward the coast. When the


9 1940"







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 34


natural conditions are disturbed and piezometric pressures are
reduced the salt water moves landward. In addition to the
landward movement induced by lowered pressures, natural vertical
and horizontal cavities, abandoned wel, and salt-water canals are
avenues for salt-water encroachment.
Intruded salt water may not be vertically continuous in
aquifer. Vertical layering or "zonation" of the aquifer allowed h
water to occur between layers of relatively salty wv as
demonstrated in well 822-241-1 at Hudson. This well was initially
drilled to a depth of 84 feet and cased only a few feet. Water from
the well tasted salty but not as salty as sea water. The casing
was then driven to about 84 feet where the water tasted fresh
(zone used for domestic supply in nearby well). The well was
then deepened to 164 feet and the casing driven to 126 feet. The
water from this zone contains 14,100 ppm (parts per million)
chloride.
.Zones of potable ground water may be found along the coast
under conditions similar to those in well 822-241-1. Such hydrologic
circumstances make continued yield of large amounts of potable
water from wells in these zones highly speculative.
/The most reliable indicator of salt-water intrusion is the chloride
content of water. Normally the chloride content of fresh water in
this area is less than 20 ppm. The chloride content of water in
west-central Florida is generally related to specific conductance as
100.000 .........-. ,/... ,




S14000



-4






1001 10 100 1,000 10,000 *10000C
Chloride (ppm)
Figure 7. General relation between specific conductance and chloride content
for natural waters in west-central Florida.








16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


shown in figure The specific conductance of near-coastal ground
waters in the area is given in table 2. The table includes the results
of surface water because surface streams commonly result from
the discharge of ground water in the area. 1Iigh concentrations
of sulfate may rarely lead to inference o too high a chloride
content from the specific conductance of a water. Therefore, the
specific conductances probably indicate only the maximum chloride
concentration in the uncontrolled measurements reported in table 2.
The chemical quality of ground and surface waters is given in
table 3. All of the water samples analyzed except those from well
822-241-1 and springs 817-243-A and 823-241-A meet the drinking
water standards of the U. S. Public Health Service.

TABLE 2. Specific Conductance of Waters Near the Gulf Coast of Pasco and
Southern Hernando Counties, Florida

Specific
Conductance
(micromhos Date Description of Sampling Point
at 250C)

200 11-23-60 A creek at a culvert on U. S. 19. 1.2 miles north of the Pithlachas-
cotee River.
1,200 11-23-60 A small creek at a culvert under a graded road 1,500 feet west
of U. S. 19 and 700 feet east of spring 817-243-A.
2.050 11-23-60 Spring 817-242-A.
320 12- 1-60 A creek as a culvert under a paved road 1,200 feet west of U. S.
19 and 1.65 miles south of State Road 52.
6.300 11-28-60 Spring 823-241-A.
6.700 12- 1-60 Do.
320 12- 1-60 A small spring in the side of a canal 1,800 feet west of U. S. 19,
2.4 miles south of Aripeaka.
550 12-16-60 A cut into rock 400 feet south of State Road 50, 3 miles west
of U. S. 19.
2,600 12-16-60 Spring 832-237-A.
4.100 12-16-60 A drain culvert under old State Road 50, 3.9 miles west of U. S. 19
and 200 feet south of State Road 50.
2.300 12-16-60 Spring 832-237-B.
8.500 12-16-60 A culvert under State Road 50, 0.1 mile west of Spring 832-237-B.
320 12-16-60 Weekiwachee River at State Road 595 bridge.
1.600 12-16-60 Jenkins Creek, north branch under bridge in State Road 595 about
0.75 mile south of the Weekiwachee River. (Flowing rapidly
toward the Gulf of Mexico.)
1.400 12-16-60 Jenkins Creek, south branch under bridge in State Road 595 about
0.95 mile south of the Weekiwachee River. (Flowing sluggishly
toward the Gulf of Mexico.)
4.000 12-16-60 A creek under bridge in State Road 595, 1.8 miles south of the
Weekiwachee River. (No observable flow.)
11,000 12-16-60 A creek under bridge in .State Road 595, 2.2 miles south of the
Weekiwachee River. (Flowing rapidly toward the Gulf of Mexico.)
8.500 12-16-63 A creek under bridge in State Road 595, 2.4 miles south of the
Weekiwachee River. (Flowing slowly toward the Gulf of Mexico.)





TABLE 3. Chemical Analyses of Waters from Wells, Springs, and Streams of Pasco
and Southern Hernando Counties, Florida
(Results in parts per million except color, pH, and specific conductance. Analyses by U.S. Geological Survey.)
Water-bearing formation: A, Avon Park Limestone; I, Inglis Formation; S, Suwannee Limestone; T. Tampa Limestone.,
Hardness
as CaCO 3

0 -o -.
Source of .
Sample a D 84


S
s
s
S, T,
S
S
I
I
A


Spring number:
812-289-A
817-248-A
828-241-A
827-288-A
880-284-A
881-284-A

Streams:
Pithlachascotee River
near New Port
Richey
Withlacoochee River
near Dade City
near Trilby
at Rerdell
at Croom


7-12-60
7-12-60
7-11-60
7-21-60
7-12-60
7-18-60
8-10-60
9- 8-60
1-25-84




5- 8-56
11-28-60
11-28-60
7-18-60
6-14-60
5- 2.56



5- 8-56



8-18-58
8-25-58
8-25-58
5- 2-56


76
76

76
78
74




75
74
75
75


2.9 n.48 8.0
4.0 n.28 16
8.2 a.82 14
4.3 .01 54


i4.


2.8 4.2 .4



1.2 4.7 .0
1.7 4.7 '.0
1.7 8.6 .1
3.8 6.4 .4


88
180
186
198
160
124
190
66
142




204
184
172
104
150
166



175



23
54
44
178


is6~


10



6.4
6.8
5.0
6.5


7.0
81
2.0
9.0
14,100
4.0
18
2.0
5.4




8.5
7.900
2,100
5.0
4.0
5.0



7.5



6.5
7.0
6.5
9.0


0.8



.8
.2
.2
.2


110
156
110
164
4,700
107
172
54
276




164
2,680
885
90
128
148



156


88
8
0
2
4,560
6
16
0





0
2,560
744.
5
5
12



12



6
4
6
.4


284
863
220
822
36,800
206
848
113





818
21,800
7,200
176
824
288


7.0
7.1
7.8
7.8
7.2.
7.8
7.1
7.1





7.7
7.1
7.2
7.1
7.6
7.9


812 7.9 10



66.9 7.1 150
112 6.7 160
96.8 6.7 150
810 8.0 5


Well number:
816-240-1
816-242-1
818-286-2
819-220-1
822-241-1
826-288-1
885-226-1
885-288-1
887-221-1


a Total Iron












TAHBI 4,--Recolds of Wells in Pasco and Southern Hoernanlo Countisc, Florida
Altitude e, estimated from tuopographio 1map or determined by hand level,
Water leverle Measured water levels are giveln to the nearest 0,1 touot reported water levels are given
to the nearest foot,
Use: D, domestic or commerolal; I, Industrial; Irirrigatlon; 0, observation; P, public supply; R, return
or drainage; 8, stock watering; T, test hole; U, unused.
Remarks; Numbers preceded by W- or by Wgl- are Florida Geological Survey well numbers.


SI Owner


s I


Jim Walter

G. T. Rowland


1. A. Krusen



E. N. Crowder

Odessa Groves Inc.

Boyd and Mitchell
Fla. State Rd. Dept.
Frank Wilson
G. L. Henley

.......... do ..................
R. C. Bigby


1060

1050


1054





1054

1954
1055
1944
1956

1057

1942


Caulng Water level





0 4 a %
1 4; 1. U 1


Bn



145




48
56


75

40

......


07



75

51e

87
70
70
60e

70
53e
.....


7.4
8.0
15


0-18.00
10-21.60
1.10.00


11.15.54
6.17.00
0.20-60
10-21-60
7.11-60
10-21-60
9-17-57
10-22-00


4-11-55
9-26-57
9-255-7
10.22-60
0-25657
S0-18-67
10-22-60


U

D, S



Ir


Ir

Ir

T
P
D
Ir

D
D, S


Remarks


Four wells within 100 feet
of this well were abandoned
because of quicksand.
W-3404. Drawdown 5 feet
when pumping'1,000 gpm at
510 feet depth:.

Drawdown 88 feet while
pumping 650 gpm.



W-4645
W-8512.


SW

SE


NE


e"


Well
number


810-207-1

810.-08.1


810-210-1



810.224-1

810-285.1

810.288-1
811-211-1
811-228-1
811-229-1

811-229.2
811-282-1


I Ie








811-284-1
811-285-1
811-285-2
811-286-1

811-244-1

812-214-1
812-216-1
812-227-1

812-248-1

818-201-1


NW
SW
NW
NE

NE

NW
SW
SW

NE

SW

NW


SW



SW
SE

NW
SW





SE


SW
NW
SE
SE

SE

NE
SW
NW

NE

NE

NW


SW



SE
SE

SW
NE





NW


26
26
26
26

20

26
26
26

26

26

26


26



26
20

20
25


26


25


R. C. Bigby
J. B. Starkey
C. A. Rudisill
W. H. Mitchell

A. H. Snell

J. M. McLeod
T. J. Griffin
D. D. Covington

Mr. Harvey

U.S. Geological
Survey
City of Zephyrhills


........... do .................



Zelma Geiger
Immer and Co.

Louis Schroeder
C. C. Cone





U.S. Geological
Survey


1942
1937
1952
1056

1958

1969




1956




1942


1942



1946











1950


58
58
62
47e

15e



75e
75

49e

105e

79


81



9le
76

101e
lOle
80





84


7.4
16.6
8.8
3.9
5.0
4.4
6.2
8.3
8.7
18
7.7
34.2
85.2
2.2
2.5
12


18



18.6
9.4
8.9
18.8
5.4





3.4
2.8


880



40
1,000

414
49





200


818-218-1
818-222-1

814-219-1
815-226-1





816-206-1


9-18-57
9-19-57
9-18-57
9-19-57
10-22-60
9-20-57
10-22-60
10-25-60
10-25-60
10-29-56
10-18-00
9-20-57
10-22-60
8- 4-59
10-18-60
8-28-42


9.11-42



10-25-60
7-22-60
10-21-60
10-2-600
10-19-60





7-30-59
10-18-60


D, S

D,Ir
Ir

Ir
Ir

U
U
Ir

Ir




P


P



U
Ir, S

Ir

0





0


W-5852. Water temperature
74OF, 8-7-50.
W-658. Standby well. Draw-
down 12 feet after pumping
250 gpm for 8 hours.
W-662. Standby well. Draw-
down 2.8 feet when pumped
at 50 gpm, 4.8 at 100 gpm,
and 10.8 at 200 gpm.






Pasco County well 18 in
U.S. Geol. Survey Water.
Supply Paper 778-0. Well
also reported in annual
water-level measurements by
the U.S. Geol. Survey. Water
temperature 76OF, 7-80-59.


~-'--- --- --










TABLK 4, (Continued)


Owner


A. Messick





R. A. Wilson

P. Massey




City of Port Richey


I. A. Krusen


Barber Sand Co.



H. B. Bozeman
Cicero Kirkland
Ray Townsend


Cualtig



ii -,5

Bji j C


816-211-1





816.210.1

816-240-1




816-242-1


g1 -011.1


1,008





048

270




200


957


255



114
88
80


NE





SE

SE




SE


SE


SW



NW
SE
SE


I 20


Watur level



114


NE





NE

NW




NW


NE.


SW



NE
SW
NW


50.7


25





25

25




25


25


25



25
25
25


10-18-00


7.21.60
10.10.00
-44
7-12-60
10-18-00



6-28-55
7-12-60
10-18-60
5. 5.50
6.25-00
10-19.60




10-20-60
10-27-60
10-27-590
10-18-60


Remarks


U

Ir




P


Ir

I



D, Ir
U
U


Pasco County well 16 In
U.S. Geol, Survey Water.
Supply Paper 778-0, Well
also reported in annual
water.level measurements by
U.S. Geol. Survey. Measured
depth 145 feet.
Interval 78 to 00 not cased.

Cavity 224 to 276 feet.
Pumps muddy water after
several minutes pumping at
800 gpm, then clear water.
Water temperature 75.50p,
7.12-60.

W-8570.


W-2160: see remarks for
817-211-2.
When 817-211-2 is pumped
at 800 gpm, water level in
817-211-1 is drawn down 5
feet in 5 minutes,


Well
number


1044




1055


1950


1959



1057


1048


817-211-2



817-212-1
817-215-1
818-209-1


8/0

12/10




10


18


6



4
2
2


121

46




22


225


05e



175
110
147


88.0
81.7
86
21.7
17.4



15
18.7
10.6
168
167.2
168.4




74.6
24.0e
67.7
65.6


-- --


i I


i


I
3








818-212-1
818-286-1

818-286-2
818-240-1




818-240-2


819-211-1
819-211-2

819-214-1
819-220-1


NW
SW

SW
NW




NW


NW
NE

SE
NW

SW

NE


NE


NE


SE

SE

NE


25
25

25
25


NE
SE

SE
SE




SE


SW
SE

NW
SW

SE

NE


SE


NW


SW

NE


21
16

16
14




14


.11
10

7
8

5

8


2


8


84

82

81


21
17

17
16


H. B. Bozeman
William Pomella

.......... do .................
Jasmine Lakes
Service, Inc.



........... do ...............


C. W. Hall
Minute-Maid Groves
Corp.
L. C. Hawes
R. E. McKendree

H. Kent

Evans Properties,
Inc.

Town of Sun Antonio


Clyde McKendree


1956
1960

1960
1960




1960


1957







1957



1928




1054


1959


817
188

84

845



517


116



585
128


680
475



886


108

80

87

280


4
2

2





5/4


8
8?

12
4


8

12


12





8



4


100





199



195


75




48


47
297



90


42

44


156
46




37



86e




149

228e
112


77
79e



168e


80

17

82e

92e


71.4e
8.0
6.0


19
21.2



17.8
17.8

62
72.0
66.7
188.1
29.6
27.2
7
11.8
18
4.2
2.2
79.2
75.5
70.2
8
8.0
8.0
14.4e
12.8
8.0
8.0
20.7
10.4


10-26-60
7-11-60
10-18-60


5-12-60
7-14-60



9- 2-60
10-18-60

3- -59
12- 4-59
10-18-60
10-26-60
7-21-60
10-19-60
12-18-57
10-18-60
7-27-57
10-15-69
10-18-60
4-28-85
7-21-60
10-19-60
4- 5-50
10- 6-60
10-19-60
7-18-60
10-19-60
10-28-59
10-18-60
10-28-59
10-18-60


U
U

D

P



T


D
Ir

Ir
D


U
I



P


U

P

U

D


W-5889. Drawdown 49 feet
after pumping 250 gpm for
11 hours at depth 295, 46
feet after pumping 200 gpm
for 8 hours at depth 845.
Drawdown 20 feet after
pumping 100 gpm for -1
hour.


820-211-1


820-216-1


820-228-1


820-241-1

821-207-1.

821-208-1


21
21

21
20

18

21


20


19


16 Del Mar Corp.

22 Cummer Cypress Co.

22 MacBrian


W-4468. Reported
2,000 gpm.


Pasco County
W.S.P. 778-C.


Zo


24

24

24


yield,


well 5 in


W-6271. Drawdown 0.5 foot
after pumping 800 gpm for
24 hours.










TAiLl 4, (Continued)


Owner


J, L. Cone



H, A. Rouland

........ do ..................
Frank Collura



Wlthlacoochee River
Electric Coop.
Anthony Barthle

Hamilton Growers,
Inc.
........ do.......do ............
Ralph Cooper



Sickler and Tipton
Swartsell Groves,
Inc.
Cummer Cypress Co.


1056



1048



1052





1054

1057

1057
1959


jg f


614


27

84
78



188


126
820

844
164




800

so


12


4

4
6


86
21



112


56
158

155
126




86

._...


Water level
Va
1 ^ 44
OR At


"88


10

11
76e



150


123e
22



5



144
80

88e


11
8,8
+ 0,0


7.7
7.0
8
+ 0.0
+ 2.7
70

72.4
70.0
34
87.2
10.5
5.1
20.8
8.7
4.2


57.0
12.8
7.4
10.1
7.9


.56
6-25.60
10-18-00

7-18.60
10-18-60
-52
10-27-50
10-18.60
5.28.52

10-15-50
10-18-60
-54
10-28-60
7-14-60
10-17-60
7-14-60
7-12-60
10-18-60


10-28-60
7-14-60
10-17-60
11-18-68
10-17-60


D

U


R

D, S

Ir

U
D



U
Ir

U


Remarks


Water contains objection-
able concentration of iron.
Well contaminated by kero-
sene.


Well entered 80-foot cavity
at 40 feet depth, under 2
feet of limestone. Water
temperature 740F.









Fresh water at 84 feet was
cased off. Supplies salt
water for shrimp tank.
Temperature 74 F, 7-12-60.


Reported yield, 1,200 gpm.


Well
number


821.284-1



821-241.1

821-241-2
822.210-1


J22-212-1 I SE


I


10

16
21



21

20

17

17
16



20
17

22


27

27
26



28

27

2A

29
27



18
17

10


822.218-1

822-287-1

\/ 822-287-2
822-241-1



828-215-1
828-287-1

824-206-1


NW

C

SE
NW



NW
SW

NE


SW

NE
SW



SW
SW

SW


I I





I I







824-211-1



824-220-1
825-215-1

825-215-2


826-218-1

825.222-1



825-280-1

826-208-1

826-211-1

826-288-1


826-288-2
826-234-1
826-288-1

827-210.1

827-219-1

827-220-1


1959


NW
SW
SW

NW


NE

C



NW

NW

SE

NE


NW
NW
SW

NW

SE

NE


SE

SW.
NW
NE

SW


NE

NE



NE

NE

NE

NW


SW
SE
SE

NW

NW

SE


4

4
4
6


Tom Priest

M. Z. Johnston
... ........ ........
Sky View Groves, Inc.

Clay Hill Nursery


Evans Properties,
Inc.
J. A. Barthle



C. T. Irwin

Cummer Cypress Co.

Fla. State Rd. Dept.

El Pico Ranch


-..... do ...............
......... do ................
Harold Wallace

Cummer Cypress Co.

L. C. Hawes

.......... do ...................


1057




1044

1951



1960




1949

1955



1955
1950


.......

1057

1952


171

188


890

450


850

126



93

29

226


481

461
248
101

184


900

800


42. 12-18-59


80

90+


180

200


150

52



87




40


82

65
85
68




118


117e

145
102
295

288


209e

118



77

77

80


88




18

80


210

220


42.8
87.7
49.1e
11.6
186

206.1
201.7

108.2

41.1
41.6


28.4
22.8
11.7
8.8
8.3
6.4
18
8.0
2.8




.2
.1
12.0
10.6
123
113.2
188
135.0


12-18-59
10-17-60
10-28-60
10-28-60
-67

6-20-60
10-21-60

10-28-60

9-20-60
10-19060


6-25-60
10-18-60
11-18-68
10-17-68
10-28-69
10-17-60
9- -55
6-25-60
10-18-60




7-18-60
10-17-60
10-29-69
10-17-60
-57
10-21-60
-59
6-24-60


8

2

6


12

12
12
2



6
16

6


D

D, S
S
D

D


Ir

U



D

S, O

0


U





D

0


Ir


Yields 2 gpm (est.) at 140
feet, 10 gpm at 180 feet.
Water level in chert at 160
feet was 100 feet below
surface.



Well blows gas in dry per-
iods. Water muddy when 18
Mile Pond drains into sink.
hole.









Drawdown 60 feet when
pumped at 1,500 gpm,






Nearby well pumping,


r I I
--311-~--1-" ~. II I Il -- --I










TARIB 4, (Continued)


Owner


10 Andy Oradec, Jr.

22 E. H. l]oyette

21 W. R. McElroy

18 City of Brooksville


22 Florida Forest
Service


20 Wayne Thomas

20 R. O. Mountain






20 P. Mountain


17 Bartelt Brothers


1024




1060

1042








1946






1956


1060
1960
......


120?

88

05


251

97



456

7C0







422


170


CaieblnY


4




8

2


8
4



8
10
10








8


60


80

78





104







108


60
.....-


60

74



186e

225


Water level


a. *V

sji ]


NW

8E

SE

SE


NE



NE

NW


10.20.50
10-18-60
0. 8.50
10-17-60
6-14.60
0.14.00
10-10-00
9-14-42
8. 9-60
10-19.60
5-20-50
10-17-60


6-15-60
10-17-60
12- -46






4.28-56
6-20-60
10-19-60
6-22-60
9- 7-60
10-18-60


D, S

0

D


U

0
.....


Remarks


Pumping level,







W-708. Drawdown 11% feet
when pumped at 220 gpm.
Drawdown 6 feet after
pumping 80 fpm for 1 hour.
Water temperature 720F,
5-29-69.



Cavity 752 to 760. Draw-
down 86 feet when pumped
at 825 spm at 400-foot
depth; 86 feet when pumped
at 410 gpm at 600-foot
depth; 0 feet when pumped
at 560 gpm at 752-foot
depth.


827-227-1

828-203-1

.28.211-1

828-227-1


829-206-1



829-216-1

829-218-1






829-219-1


829-285-1


SW

SW

SW

SE


SW



SE

NE


28

28

28

28


28



23

23






28


28


Well
number


Supplies Unit 1 of Weeki.
wachee Woodlands Subdi-
vision, Drawdown 8 feet
after pumping 800 gpm for
24 hours.


124.0
118.2
161






155
160.9
170.4
21
17.1
17.2


15

18


9



14

16






8


15


SE I SE


D, Ir


~I


i


I- -'


- --- --- ---- ----- -- ------ ----








880-210-1

880-210-2
881-224-1

881-228-1

881-282-1




881-284-1




882-287-1

882-288-1

888-217-1
884-222-1



884-289.1




885-226.1


885-228-1


1957

1955
1960


SE

SE
NE

SE

SE




SW




SE

SE

NE
SE



NW




NW


NE


SW

SW
SW

NE

NE




NE


2

2
88

85

6




2




29

19

22
11



18




7


11


28

28
22

22

238




28



22

22

22
22



22




22


22


21 Ridge Manor Estates

21 .. .. do .....................
19 Florida Highway
Patrol
18 Burton Hanson

18 Larry Die Polder




17 Florida Inland
Theaters, Inc.



17 Presbyterian Youth
Camp
17 M. L. Abbot

20 M. C. Henderson
19 DaMac Utilities Corp.



16 J. C. Plummer




19 Camp Concrete
Rock Co.

18 Sunshine State
Groves, Inc.


1,800

820



116

60


150

188
190+

85

40


_ I 27.7


89e

85e
99e

84

28





18



9

18

100e

92


6





141

155


27.7
26.2
84
44.0

89.6
89.4
+ 0.8
+ 1.0


5 -56
0.8 8-14-60
0.8 10-17-60


4.2
4.2
15.8
15.6
46.4
51
41.1
88.6

8.2
1.7




184
129.2
106.7
128


9- 8-60
10-17-60
9- 7-60
10-17-60
10-19-60
6. 5-58
9-12.60
10-19-60

9- 8-60
10-17-60




2-25-57
8-10-60
10-17-60
1-28-60


P

P
D

U

D


U

D




P


U








Ir


11. 6-59
10-17-60
9- -55
10-19-60

8-11-60
10-17.60
8-11.60
10-17-60


1956





1960

1960
1958


1988

1960


W-4410.

W-8675.
Drilled in filled sinkhole.




Measured depth 25 feet.
Cavity at bottom of well.
Water level in well was 0.82
foot above water level of
nearby sinkhole which was
flowing 8 cfs (estimated).

Wgi-708. Drawdown 15 feet
when pumped at 200 gpm.
Hole reduced to 4 inches at
288 feet depth.








Drawdown 15 feet after
pumping 500 gpm for 1
hour.
Water too salty for live
shrimp tank. Ten other
wells on Pine Island from
20 to 176 feet deep have
produced water high in chlo-
ride and, iron.

Reported yield, 2,600 gpm.

Drawdown 15 feet after
pumping 1,800 gpm for 1
hour,


75

64

418

887


184





800

1,210


8

8

4

10


2






12
12


I I











TABLE 4, (Continued)

OuniniI Water level



W el Owner Remarks
numberI I ,-~_ 1 ] _


Sunshine State
Groves, Inc.

F. Halnes


Seaboard Railroad


U.S. Department of
Agriculture


1088


225


65


281

804


70 .58
60.2 8.10-60 Ir
57,1 1017.00 .....
4 0. .60 .....
1.1 0. 8.60 D
0.7 10-17.60 .
08 12. 4.56
50.8 8-11-60 D
48,2 10-17.60
227 -88 I W-274.


0


22


18


885-280.1


885-288-1


886.224-1


887-221.1





TABLE 5. Records of Springs in Pasco and Southern Hernando Counties, Florida

Flow Chloride content


Spring b a oRemarks
number Name Location Remarks


Q 11


810.211-A
812-280-A

817-242-A
S817-248-A
'"20.248-A

4'822-242-A

',"822.242-B

828-241-A

824-289-A
.sd28.-248.A

827-288-A

880-284-A
881-284.A

882-287-A
882-287.B

882.287.0


Crystal Spring
Seven Springs

None
Salt Spring
None

Cedar Island Spring

..........do.............

Horseshoe Spring

None
The Jewflsh Hole

None

Little Spring
Weekiwachee
Spring
Salt Spring
Mud River Spring or
Sulphur Spring
None


SWYINW% see. 85, T. 26 S., R. 21 E.
NWNW% see. 24, T. 26 S., R. 16 E.

NE1%NWA sec. 21, T. 25 S., R. 16 E.
NEISE% sea. 20, T. 25 S., R. 16 E.
SENWI% sec. 5, T. 25 S., R. 16 E.

NWSEI sec. 21, T. 24 S., R. 16 E.

NWASEA sec. 21, T. 24 S., R. 16 E.

SW1NEA sec. 15, T. 24 S., R. 16 E.

NWNW4 sec. 18, T. 24 S., R. 16 E.
see. 5, T. 24 S., R. 16 E.

NWI/SE1/ see. 80, T. 28 S., R. 16 E.

NWISWJ se.e 2, T. 28 S., R. 17 E.
SWANEI sec. 2, T. 28 S., R. 17 E.

NEI NEI sec. 29, T. 22 S., R. 17 E.
NENW% see. 20, T. 22 S., R. 17 E.

SE1jSW~ sec. 20, T. 22 S., R. 17 E.


10-24-60
5- 8.46
12-16-60


11-28-60
..............


............



11-28-60

12- 1.60



7-18.60

8- 8-61
11- 4-60


5- 8-86
..............
..............
11-28-60
12- 5-60

12- 5-60
12-11-60
12-11-60

11-28-60
12- 1-60
12- 1-60
12- 5-60

7-18-60

6-14-60
8-14.60

11-28-60
12-16-60


12-10-60


..........
8.5
..........


7,900
10,000

5,000
8,000
10,000

2,100
2,800
80
4,200

5

4
5

7,900
0,500


2,800


74









68
68
71





58


78
76
76
15

71
69


Submarine opening. No detec-
table flow 12.5-60.
Submarine opening 22 ft. deep,
below mean tide.
Submarine opening 27 ft. deep,
below mean tide.




Submarine opening. Detectable
"slick" over spring 12.5-60.
Alligators lose epidermis when
kept in this water 5 or 6 days.


168 cfs average flow or period
January 1981 to December 1946.


a Composite flow of springs 880-284-A and 881-284-A,


1

17.6
11258

24.7
129

8


..............

..............


I


----






28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

LITERATURE CITED

Cooke, C. W.
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29.
Fenneman, N. M.
1938 Physiography of eastern United States: McGraw Hill, New
York, p. 47.
Stringfield, V. T.
1936 Artesian water in the Florida Peninsula: U. S. Geol. Survey
Water-Supply Paper 773-C.
Vernon, R. O.
1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy Counties, Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 33.









































































































4










FLRD GEOLOSk ( IC SUfRiW


COPYRIGHT NOTICE
[year of publication as printed] Florida Geological Survey [source text]


The Florida Geological Survey holds all rights to the source text of
this electronic resource on behalf of the State of Florida. The
Florida Geological Survey shall be considered the copyright holder
for the text of this publication.

Under the Statutes of the State of Florida (FS 257.05; 257.105, and
377.075), the Florida Geologic Survey (Tallahassee, FL), publisher of
the Florida Geologic Survey, as a division of state government,
makes its documents public (i.e., published) and extends to the
state's official agencies and libraries, including the University of
Florida's Smathers Libraries, rights of reproduction.

The Florida Geological Survey has made its publications available to
the University of Florida, on behalf of the State University System of
Florida, for the purpose of digitization and Internet distribution.

The Florida Geological Survey reserves all rights to its publications.
All uses, excluding those made under "fair use" provisions of U.S.
copyright legislation (U.S. Code, Title 17, Section 107), are
restricted. Contact the Florida Geological Survey for additional
information and permissions.