<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Florida State Board of Conserv...
 Transmittal letter
 Contents
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Geology
 Quantitative studies
 Summary
 References
 Well logs
 Well records


FGS





STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION

DIVISION OF GEOLOGY




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert O. Vernon, Director




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 31




GROUND-WATER RESOURCES

OF

COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA




By
H. J. McCoy
U.S. Geological Survey


Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with
COLLIER COUNTY
the
CITY OF NAPLES
and the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Tallahassee
1962









AGRI-
CULTURAL
LIBRARY
FLORIDA STATE BOARD

OF

CONSERVATION






Farris Bryant
Governor


Tom Adams
Secretary of State




J. Edwin Larson
Treasurer




Thomas D. Bailey
Superintendent of Public Instruction


Richard Ervin
Attorney General




Ray E. Green
Comptroller




Doyle Conner
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. Randolph Hodges
Director








LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


vey

TALLAHASSEE

August 8, 1962

Honorable Farris Bryant, Chairman
Florida State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Governor Bryant:

The Division of Geology is publishing, as Florida Geological Survey
Report of Investigations No. 31, a report on the ground-water resources
of Collier County, prepared by Mr. H. J. McCoy, geologist with the
U. S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Naples, Collier
County, and this department.
The report recognizes two major aquifers as the source of ground
water in Collier County. The lower aquifer is highly mineralized, but
contains usable water, and the more shallow aquifer is the source of
large supplies, which are utilized by municipalities and domestic users.
Adequate supplies of fresh water are present in the Naples area and by
proper planning, these can be developed in an orderly manner and salt
water encroachment can be prevented.
Respectfully yours,
Robert O. Vernon
Director and State Geologist































Completed manuscript received
July 5, 1962
Published for the Florida Geological Survey
By Rose Printing Company
Tallahassee, Florida
August 8, 1962









CONTENTS


Page


Abstract
Introduction
Purpose and scope of investigation
Previous investigations
Well-numbering system
Acknowledgments
Geography
General features
Climate
Physiography and drainage
Geology
General statement
Miocene Series
Tampa Formation
Hawthorn Formation____
Tamiami Formation ___
Pliocene Series
Caloosahatchee Marl
Pleistocene and Recent Series __
Anastasia Formation
Fort Thompson Formation
Miami Oolite
Pleistocene. terraces and Recent deposits
Test-well drilling


Ground water


Principles of occurrence
Floridan aquifer
Piezometric surface
Recharge and discharge
Availability and use of ground wat
Shallow aquifer
Recharge and discharge
Water-level fluctuations
Availability and use of ground wat
Quantitative studies
Hydraulics of aquifers
Aquifer tests
Quality of water
Floridan aquifer
Shallow aquifer
Salt-water contamination
Recent and residual enroachment
Upward leakage


er __



:er





- - - .-


Summary
References
Well logs







ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure Page
1 Florida Peninsula showing location of Collier County -_ 3
2 Collier County showing location of wells and geologic sections
A-A' and B-B' facing 4
3 Collier County showing the geology exclusive of organic soils facing 6
4 Physiographic regions of Collier County 8
5 Map showing surficial flow in Collier County 9
6 Lithologic cross section along A-A' in figure 2 facing 12
7 Lithologic cross section along line B-B' in figure 2 facing 14
8 The piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer, July 6-17, 1961 _-- 19
9 Piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in Collier
County, 1960 facing 20
10 Map of Everglades showing location of wells and cross section along
line C-C' 21
11 Cross section along line C-C' in figure 10, showing amount of open hole
in wells 23
12 Northwestern Collier County showing locations of the Naples municipal
well fields, and geologic cross sections along lines D-D', E-E', and
F-F' ___ facing 24
13 Geologic cross section and chloride content of water along line D-D' in
figure 12 25
14 Geologic cross section and chloride content of water along line E-E' in
figure 12 26
15 Geologic cross section and chloride content of water along line F-F' in
figure 12 27
16 Hydrograph of well 610-147-14 showing daily high, monthly pumpage
from Naples well field, and daily rainfall at Naples, June 1958-
December 1960 28
17 Hydrographs of wells 606-120-1, 625-116-1, and 617-134-3, and daily
rainfall at Miles City and Lake Trafford, 1960 29
18 Water-level contour map of northwestern Collier County,
August 15, 1960 facing 30
19 Water-level contour map of northwestern Collier County,
March 29, 1960 facing 30
20 Graph showing annual pumpage from the Naples well fields, 1945-62 32
21 Naples well field area showing municipal supply wells and observation
weus 34
22 Graph showing drawdown in observation wells at the end of the 30-hour
aquifer test, January 9-10, 1959, and sketch showing wells used in the test 37
23 Idealized sketch showing flow in a leaky artesian aquifer system 38
24 Graph showing drawdowns in wells 610-147-9 and 610-147-15 during
aquifer test January 9-10, 1959, and theoretical drawdown for artesian,
water-table, and leaky-aquifer conditions 39
25 Sketch showing wells used in pumping test, April 8-10, 1960, and graph
showing drawdown at end of the 44-hour test 40
26 Drawdown and recovery of water level in well 629-127-3 showing effects
of pumping test, April 8-10, 1960 42
27 Northwestern Collier County showing chloride content of water from
selected wells and surface-water observation points facing 46
28 Idealized sketch of fresh-water and salt-water distribution in an uncon-
fined coastal aquifer to illustrate the Ghyben-Herzberg relation 52
29 Sketch showing the fresh-water- salt-water interface according to the
potential theory and the Ghyben-Herzberg principle 53








Table


SPage


1 Average monthly temperature at Naples and Everglades, the average
monthly rainfall at Naples, Everglades, Lake Trafford, and Miles City ._ 6
2 Chemical analyses of water from selected wells that penetrate the
Floridan aquifer in Collier County 45
3 Chemical analyses of water from selected wells that penetrate the shallow
aquifer in Collier County ______ 47
4 Chloride content in parts per million, from selected wells in north-
western Collier County ____ 48
5 Well records in Collier County, Florida .........-_-_.-.. .....66







GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF
COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
H. J. McCoy

ABSTRACT

Two major aquifers are the sources of ground-water supplies in Collier
County. 1 The lower is the Floridan aquifer, and wells penetrating it
throughout most of the county will flow. Except in the town of Ever-
glades, where it yields water containing about 800 ppm (parts per
million) of chloride, the Floridan aquifer produces water too highly
mineralized for most purposes. The main producing zones of the Floridan
aquifer in Collier County are the permeable limestones of the Tampa
Formation, of Early Miocene Age, and those in the lower part of the
Hawthorn Formation, of Middle Miocene Age. The fine sand and clay
section in the upper part of the Hawthorn Formation confines the Flori-
dan aquifer. The top of the aquifer is generally about 400 feet below the
land surface.
The chief source of fresh ground water in Collier County is an ex-
tensive shallow aquifer which extends from the land surface to a depth
of about 130 feet in the northwestern part of the county, to a depth of
about 90 feet in the southern part, and to a depth of about 60 feet in
the central and northeastern parts. The aquifer thins to a featheredge
along the eastern county boundary.
The permeable zones of the shallow aquifer are the Pamlico Sand
and solution-riddled limestones of the Anastasia Formation, of Pleistocene
Age, and the Tamiami Formation of Late Miocene Age. Semi-confining
layers of marl impede the vertical movement of water within the aquifer.
The shallow ground water in the southern coastal areas contains very
high concentrations of chloride as a result of sea-water encroachment.
The shallow water in the Naples area is of good quality, containing
about 250 ppm of dissolved solids. This is due in part to a high fresh-
water head adjacent to the coast and the resultant flushing of ground
water. In the areas inland from Naples the ground water contains greater
concentrations of chlorides and dissolved solids, which are due to residual

SThe classification and nomenclature of the rock units conform to the usage of
the Florida Geological Survey and also, except for the Tampa Formation and the
Ocala Group and its subdivisions, to that of the U.S. Geological Survey, which
regards the Tampa as the Tampa Limestone and the Ocala Group as two formations,
the Ocala Limestone and the Inglis Limestone. The Ocala Group as used by the
Florida Geological Survey includes the Crystal River, Williston, and Inglis Formations.







2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THITY-ONE

sea water and lack of flushing of the shallow aquifer. In the Immokalee
area, water from the shallow aquifer is potable but its quality varies
considerably with different well depths.
The coefficient of transmissibility of the shallow aquifer in the
Naples area ranges from 92,000 gpd (gallons per day) per foot to 180,000
gpd per foot and the coefficient of storage ranges from 0.001 to 0.004.
In the vicinity of Immokalee the coefficient of transmissibility is about
60,000 gpd per foot and the coefficient of storage is 0.0002.
Adequate supplies of fresh ground water are available in Naples
and vicinity, and these can be developed in an orderly manner to prevent
salt-water encroachment. Controlled drainage of inland areas can pro-
vide fresh water to replenish ground-water supplies of coastal areas as
urbanization expands.

INTRODUCTION
PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION
Since 1950 the population of the coastal areas of Collier County,
Florida (fig. 1), has increased rapidly. With this increase has come the
need for additional quantities of potable water. Recognizing this, the
Collier County Board of Commissioners, in cooperation with the city of
Naples, requested the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate the ground-
water resources of the county. Such an investigation was begun in
November 1959 by the Geological Survey in cooperation with Collier
County. An appreciable part of the data was obtained during a con-
tinuing cooperative program begun in 1951 with the city of Naples.
The investigation included the following phases: (1) assembling and
evaluating existing basic data; (2) obtaining data related to the availa-
bility and movement of ground water; (3) determining the hydrologic
and geologic characteristics of the subsurface materials; (4) determining
the chemical quality of ground water; and (5) preparing a report of the
results of the investigation.
The investigation was under the general supervision of Philip E. La-
Moreaux, former chief of the Ground Water Branch of the Geological
Survey, Washington, D. C., and under the immediate supervision of
M. I. Rorabaugh, district engineer, Tallahassee, and Howard Klein,
geologist, U.S. Geological Survey, Miami, Florida.

PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS
Two reports, "Ground-Water Resources of the Naples Area, Collier
County, Florida" in 1954 and "Ground-Water Resources of Northwest
Collier County, Florida" in 1961, summarize the geologic and hydrologic









GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 3


8 394' 3 82* 8 60 .
3'.


G E R G I A
GADSDEN 7 -- -- NASSAU
Tllh / MADISON HAMILTON / o Jocksonill |
-, UVAL I

LIBERTY" WAKULLA TAYLO I \ I --~ 0
STAYLOR II L
FRANKLIN 7o _



LEVY MARION 'I E
a Ocla O
I _________ OUS 29i,

< CITRUS LAKE_-
A (SEMINOLE


PASCO r




SDIAN RCVE

MANATEE! HARDEE OKEEIHOBEE
F1 .HIGHLANDS '
SARA DESOTO MARTIN




HEN, RY PALM BEACH







FFlMO CNROEr

25 0 25 50A 75 100 Miles









Figure 1. Florida Peninsula showing location of Collier County.
iEOI Y iEC
K.., LEE' .

-______________________________________^___ __________________
Fiue1 FoiaPeisl soigloainofClir ony







4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

conditions in northwestern Collier County. The U.S. Geological Survey
maintains water-level recording gages in the city of Naples well-field
area, in eastern Collier County near the Broward County boundary, and
east of Immokalee at the Hendry County boundary. Significant parts
of the 1954 and 1960 reports are incorporated in this report because
they pertain to the overall development of water resources .in north-
western Collier County.
WELL-NUMBERING SYSTEM
The well-numbering system used in this report is based on longitude
and latitude coordinates. As shown in figure 2, Collier County has been
divided into quadrangles by a grid of 1-minute parallels (of latitude)
and 1-minute meridians (of longitude). The well numbers were assigned
by their locations within the grid system. Each number consists of three
parts; the first part is the last degree digit and the 2-minute digits of
latitude, on the south side of the 1-minute quadrangle; the second part
is the last degree digit and the 2-minute digits of longitude on the east
side of the quadrangle; the third part is the order in which the well was
inventoried within the quadrangle. The first degree digit of north lati-
tude and west longitude is omitted because all wells have the same
digit. For example, well 609-147-17 designates the 17th well inventoried
in the quadrangle bounded by latitude 26009' on the south and longitude
81047' on the east.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Appreciation is expressed to Mr. W. H. Turner, Collier County en-
gineer, for his cooperation and courtesy throughout the investigation; to
Mr. W. F. Savidge, Naples Water Plant superintendent, for his coopera-
tion and information concerning ground-water use and proposed well-
field locations for the municipal water supply in and around Naples;
to the Collier Development Corporation for its cooperation in permitting
access to many unused wells on its properties; and to the residents of
Collier County for furnishing information about their wells. Thanks are
extended to the following well drillers of the area for information on the
subsurface geology and the depth, construction, and yield of wells:
Mr. Albert Miller of Fort Myers, Mr. James Whatley of Immokalee, and
Mr. Carl May of Naples.
GEOGRAPHY
GENERAL FEATURES
Collier County comprises 2,032 square miles in the southwestern part
of the Florida Peninsula (fig. 1.) Its population has increased from 6,488








26'41


I I I I


25'


I I I I II


I 1 1 I I I I I 1






EXPLANATION
Well and well number
A--A'
Line of section

0 I 2 3 4 5 mile,


IC 0 U N T Y


afford N I


r -__I /II-


L E N


ulLAND HEN


05' R8iOO'


1 II*~~ I I I I i I I 'l i 0 I I I ,, 55. I 0 I I 0 I 0


II I
-H E N D R Y Q 0 UNTY


COUNTY HENRY CONTY



COU-N Y- E
r _-Par 8*k-4


D R Y COUNTY


- I


I___ ._ I I COL ER COUN-TY-- -
A' 858 __ __ -t ', I^- - -^- -

Ij1 TI I __ __
GF 0_ L L-- IER C0U__
zI


_I __4_I _I
V I
LO

X I


]It III


o


~i~4il Imt ii2 112 Th I I iI I~ I I I hUi LLi 1 iiiI 11 IKI II lEWr i


r^'4nLJ A4 /


'IGPEhe J19At~ j ~',nb Ie&I rb4i I


Chon EVERGLADES


INSET C


Dam
t COPELAI


111


^JI


I I


X o
^


- I +


OCHOPEE


J I I I Tft-~~L ;


-- -- 1 -1--- -1


HYMV4 CO L L E R


W I rI


I I I I I I I I I I I I I


MO ROE
~ I I I I 1


I I I I I I I I


COUNTY
0 U N T Y. N_ _
__ Ii| C 16 0U IN IT IY


I I I I


5II0TI I lI I I I I I T I I T TI I T T i v-. .


Figure 2. Collier County showing location of wells and geologic sections
A-A' and B-B'


8152' 50' 45'
~p Ia


I II I


~- j


25*451 1 I I I I 1 I I
81"52' 50' 45'
Base taken from mops of the
Florida State Road Department


81"00'


80"50'


Ug I '


~ -


z^fm^A-~ r4


I ~ I 1 1 I~I t v I I I I I


L L


w Ii


~ PIINY rl Init LI I I I I (IL~h~~n)' ~I ) I ~j~sl ( ( ( ( ( ( / I ( I ( I ( ( I I I I ( ( I ( I ( ( I I Il


R~D/7~1T~.~RT~r 71TM~H~III I I I I I-h~- Ir I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I r r 1 I I I .


if~fe~iFP-~t-F-bLiH-~e~jt~j ' ' ' ' I -' I 1 "I~---CC


IIU z r I


ET Ici . .an1t ...


T e nn
0.
0,


t


"~


""~~$_ P214I( r !LC-


~auru


t-----


55' 80"50'


i ~~6~1 6124 lr2';sz i l i l i l I I I
3- -W -7
I/
B1"49 _81-24,' S1.23'5'



.2. 5.
14 *, 1 $ _

14 ~ 2.. 5'5f
714 2INSET B
'3 8 12 13le
9 26*09'


66
t2 z 24 9




112E 1 100140' 81-39,
.4 1 5'6
i --
9 ,Ns .4
8.1 .... 608 ~ 2'5~55




-
4 ,5o 2,-55 -



INSET C

I NSET 2607
INSET A


30'






25'






20'






15'






10'






05'






2600'


s


-R







L


-WU/ M/


i


Pif


Island


f.UL,







GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA


in 1950 to 15,753 in 1960, more than half of which is in the three principal
towns. Naples (fig. 2) has a population of 4,650, and its suburbs to the
north and east increase this figure to more than 9,000. During each winter
season a large number of tourists visit this coastal area. Immokalee has
a population of 4,800, which is increased periodically by the influx of
migrant farm laborers. The town of Everglades has decreased in popu-
lation from 800 in 1950 to 550 in 1960.
The principal occupation of the county is truck farming. The most
important crops are tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, and watermelons.
Cattle raising is carried on also. Tourism is important to the economy of
the area, particularly the coastal towns of Naples and Everglades. Oil
production adds considerably to the economy, as the only producing oil
field in Florida is located at Sunniland in central Collier County (fig. 2).
Quarrying of limestone for road and building materials is also a sizable
industry.
There are three major roads in Collier County (fig. 2); the Tamiami
Trail (U.S. Highway 41) is the main arterial road through the county.
State Highway 29 connects Everglades with Immokalee and Immokalee
with northern towns; and State Highway 846 connects Naples with Im-
mokalee and Immokalee with eastern towns. There are several unim-
proved roads, but a large part of the interior of the county can be reached
only by specially equipped vehicles.

CLIMATE
The climate of Collier County is humid subtropical but temperatures
are moderated by winds from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic
Ocean. Table 1 shows temperature and rainfall averages at weather sta-
tions within the county. The average annual temperature for coastal
Collier County is approximately 750F. The warmest months are usually
July and August. The humidity is high but frequent afternoon thunder-
showers prevent extremely high temperatures.
Rainfall records from the Naples, Everglades, and Lake Trafford
stations show that there is not a significant variation in the average
annual rainfall throughout much of the county, but that large differences
do occur during a single year. During the very wet year of 1959 the
Miles City station recorded 88.76 inches of rainfall, the greatest yearly
rainfall of record in the county, whereas the station at Everglades re-
corded 64.29 inches. That year also established a new high for Naples,
where 72.50 inches was recorded. Several dry years occurred during
which less than 85 inches fell.








6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THITY-ONE

TABLE 1. Average Monthly Temperature at Naples and Everglades, and
Average Monthly Rainfall at Naples, Everglades,
Lake Trafford, and Miles City

Temperature (*F)* Rainfall (inches)t
Month
Lake
Naples Everglades Naples Everglades Trafford Miles City

January......... 65.9 67.0 1.50 1.58 1.48 2.83
February....... 67.3 67.5 1.49 1.43 1.93 2.53
March.......... 72.1 70.4 2.28 2.21 2.83 4.41
April........... 74.1 73.9 2.54 2.63 2.79 3.39
May........... 77.3 77.5 4.15 4.63 5.02 8.15
June........... 81.3 81.0 7.81 8.87 6.29 9.64
July........... 82.7 82.2 8.65 8.40 7.94 10.29
August......... 83.3 82.9 7.97 7.27 6.87 8.54
September...... 82.3 82.1 9.93 9.75 8.99 9.46
October........ 77.4 78.2 5.77 4.24 6.19 7.16
November...... 71.9 72.1 1.51 1.24 1.28 1.38
December...... 67.3 68.2 1.27 1.35 2.05 2.32

Yearly average.. 75.1 75.2 54.84 53.78 53.86 74.06

Period of record, US. Weather Bureau, Naples, 1942-60; Everglades, 1926-60.
Period of record, U.S. Weather Bureau, Naples, 1943-60; Everglades, 1926-60; Lake Trafford,
1951-60: and Miles City. 1957-60.

PHYSIOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE

Collier County lies within the Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic
province (Meinzer, 1923, pl. 28). It is part of the Terraced Coastal
Lowlands physiographic region of Florida as subdivided by Puri and
Vernon (1959, p. 7, fig. 3).
The Terraced Coastal Lowlands were formed during the interglacial
stages of the Pleistocene Epoch, when sea level was much higher than
it is today and Florida was nearly covered by the ocean. When the sea re-
mained relatively stationary for a long period, current and wave action
developed relatively flat surfaces on the ocean floor. During the glacial
stages the sea retreated and the flat surfaces emerged as marine terraces
which had gentle seaward dips. Wave action at the inland margin of
the sea would generally cut a scarp or bench into the abutting landmass,
leaving a well-defined shoreline when the sea retreated. In many places,
however, either wave-cut benches were not formed or they were masked
by later deposition or the growth of vegetation.






EXPLANATION

N I I
Pamlico Sand
EL-

Talbot Formation z


Miami Oolite
0 10 miles
Ft, Thompson Formation


Anastasia Formation


,,. Caloosahatchee Marl <
dkalee *,
T/ 'i Format i
/ ///Tamiami Formation -
/ / 7:.\


Figure 8. Collier County showing the geology exclusive of organic soils.






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA


Cooke (1945, p. 245-248; 273-311) recognized seven terraces repre-
senting seven stands of the sea during Pleistocene time. Of these terraces
only the lowest two are within the surface altitudes of Collier County:
the Pamlico terrace at 25 feet above msl (mean sea level) and the
Talbot terrace at 25-42 feet above msl. Parker and Cooke (1944, p.24)
included a still lower shoreline, called Silver Bluff terrace, which is
recognizable along Biscayne Bay in Miami, Florida, where it cuts into
the rock at an altitude of 5 feet.
The writer was unable to distinguish any field evidence of the ancient
shorelines in Collier County. However, from aerial photographs and
topographic maps, a part of the Pamlico shoreline can be traced which
correlates with that of Parker and Cooke (1944, pl. 14). Parker and
Cooke (p. 26) indicated that during Pamlico time, while most of south
Florida was covered by the sea, an island existed south of the Caloosa-
hatchee River. This island was probably a remnant of the Talbot terrace
which stood between 25 and 42 feet above sea level. As can be seen
in figure 8, only a small part of the island extended into Collier County.
This island was referred to as Immokalee Island by Parker, et al.,
(1955, p. 189).
During the last glacial stage of the Pleistocene, the sea retreated to
about 25 feet below its present level and left many parallel beach ridges
and bars in southern Florida. Sand was transported southward beyond
Everglades and Marco Island and dunes were formed. Sand dunes are
the foundations of many of the islands in the Ten Thousand Islands area,
and the top of one dune on Marco Island stands 52 feet above sea level,
the highest land point in Collier County (Parker and Cooke, 1944, p. 26).
Davis (1943, fig. 1) divided Collier County into three physiographic
regions: the Flatlands, the Big Cypress Swamp, and the Southwest Coast
and Ten Thousand Islands (fig. 4). The Flatlands region contains a
great number of marshes and swamps, cypress stands, and open-water
depressions. These include the Corkscrew Marsh, Lake Trafford, and
the Okaloacoochee Slough (fig. 5). Numerous embayments, lagoons,
creeks, and rivers occur in this region along the Gulf of Mexico. The Big
Cypress Swamp covers the flat, poorly drained central and eastern parts
of the county and is characterized by swamps containing large cypress
trees, islands of pine forests, and wet marl prairies. Most of the region
is less than 15 feet above sea level. The Southwest Coast and Ten
Thousand Islands has many tidal streams, bays, lagoons, and thousands
of shoal-water islands. Much of the area is covered by mangrove swamps
and salt-water marshes.
Drainage in Collier County is sluggish, because of the general flat
topography, and is mainly through the interconnected sloughs (fig. 5).






8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETN TIRTY-ONE


Figure 4. Physiographic regions of Collier County.


There are many creeks and rivers along the coastline, but they do not
extend great distances inland. The principal drainage channels are the
Gordon River at Naples, the Barron River at Everglades, the Turner
River east of Everglades, and the Cocohatchee River in the northwestern
part of the county. Major canal construction has extended the drainage
of the Cocohatchee and Barron rivers considerable distances inland.
The digging of several major canals has altered the natural drainage
to some extent. The canal adjacent to the Tamiami Trail (U.S. Highway
41) acts chiefly to collect southward runoff from the Big Cypress Swamp
and distribute the water to the nearest outlets beneath the highway. It
has little effect on drainage except in areas where it joins streams that
discharge to the gulf, such as the Barron and Turner rivers. The recently
constructed borrow canals adjacent to State Highways 858 and 846


N






0 10 miles







GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 9


Figure 5. Surficial flow in Collier County.

constitute the beginning of a program of drainage and development in
northwestern Collier County. The canal adjacent to State Highway 846
connects with the Cocohatchee River and extends more than 12 miles
inland into frequently flooded areas, where land-surface elevations in
places exceed 15 feet.
The Barron River Canal probably diverts a sizable amount of water
from the Fakawatchee Swamp. Drainage in eastern and west-central
Collier County is so poor that the area remains flooded for long periods
after the end of each rainy season.
Deep Lake, one of five sinkhole lakes in southern Florida (Parker
and Cooke, 1944, p. 44) is just east of State Highway 29, and about 14
miles north of Everglades (fig. 2). It has vertical or overhanging sides to
depths ranging from 35 to 50 feet, below which it slopes gradually to
its deepest point of 95 feet. It resulted from underground solution and
collapse of limestone.


EXPLANATION
rect- -- --su l
Direction of surficiol flow


Naples






10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

GEOLOGY
GENERAL STATEMENT
The peninsula of Florida is an emerged part of a large extension of
the ancient continental landmass. The extension is called the Floridian
Plateau (Vaughan, 1910). The core of this plateau is formed of igneous
and metamorphic rocks known as the basement complex. Sedimentary
rocks overlying the core range in thickness from about 4,000 feet near the
center of the peninsula to more than 12,000 feet in Collier County
(Parker and Cooke, 1944, p. 18). The predominant materials in this
county to a depth of about 700 feet are sand, limestone, and clay; below
700 feet the rocks are chiefly limestone and dolomite.
The only producing oil field in Florida is located in Collier County,
near Sunniland (fig. 2). Oil was discovered at a depth of 11,626 feet,
where it is trapped in structural folds within the sediments of Trinity
Age in the Lower Cretaceous Series. The discovery well was completed
on September, 26, 1943, but was later abandoned. Additional wells were
drilled and the field is still producing. Oil-exploration wells drilled in
Collier County furnish valuable information for the study of the deep
structures and stratigraphy of southern Florida.
Rocks of Miocene Age and younger are the only materials in Collier
County that will yield water suitable for irrigation, municipal, or do-
mestic purposes. Older rocks of Oligocene and Eocene Age yield large
quantities of water to deep flowing wells, but the water is too highly
mineralized for ordinary uses. Therefore, only those formations that yield
water of fair to good quality or in usable quantities will be described here
in detail.
MIOCENE SERIES
TAMPA FORMATION
Cooke (1945, p. 111-115) defined the Tampa Formation as the Lower
Miocene sandy limestones that overlie the Suwannee Limestone of Oli-
gocene Age and grade upward into the younger Hawthorn Formation.
In Collier County, the Tampa Formation is represented primarily by a
sandy limestone or a calcareous sandstone. The sand is predominantly
quartz and occurs in pockets or thin beds, or is disseminated in the
limestone matrix. In well cuttings, the limestone varies from a dirty buff
color to a very light color. Some phosphatic material is associated with
the Tampa Formation in Collier County.
In oil-exploratory wells in the central part of the county, the Tampa
Formation is approximately 200 feet thick. In one well, near Sunniland,







GROUIND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 11

the top of the Tampa Formation was reached at a depth of 411 feet.
In well 609-115-1, 5 miles east of Miles City, the Tampa Formation
was penetrated in the interval between 400 and 578 feet below land
surface. In well 556-128-1 on the southern mainland and well 554-143-1
on Marco Island, the Tampa Formation was reached at depths of 376
and 350 feet, respectively. Several flowing wells in the Naples area
probably are of sufficient depth to penetrate the Tampa Formation, but
no record of the well cuttings is available. The 300-foot test well
616-141-2, 82 miles northeast of Naples, did not reach the Tampa
Formation (fig. 6).
In Collier County, the limestones of the Tampa Formation probably
are the chief source of the water yielded by flowing wells which pene-
trate the upper part of the Floridan aquifer, the principal artesian
system that underlies Florida (Parker, 1951, p. 831).

HAWTHORN FORMATION
The Middle Miocene Hawthorn Formation in Collier County overlies
the Tampa Formation and underlies the Tamiami Formation of Late
Miocene Age. It is composed predominantly of clay but it contains also
stringers or lenses of sand and gravel and thin layers of limestone and
shells. The limestones generally occur near the bottom of the formation.
The clay and sandy clay in the formation are relatively impermeable.
In places they resemble commercial modeling clay. Because of the char-
acteristic low permeability of the clay, the Hawthorn Formation forms
the main part of the confining section that caps the Floridan aquifer.
The boundary between the green clay of the Hawthorn Formation
and the gray-green silty, sandy clays of the overlying Tamiami Forma-
tion is very difficult, if not impossible, to determine from fossils. Lithologic
differences cannot be used to differentiate because there appears to
be a gradational zone between the Hawthorn Formation and the Tami-
ami Formation (figs. 6, 7). However, it is estimated by the author that
the Hawthorn Formation in Collier County ranges in thickness from
about 250 to 300 feet, and that the top of the formation ranges in depth
from less than 100 feet in the Sunniland-Immokalee area to more than
200 feet along the western coastal areas. Figure 7 shows the subsurface
lithology along line B-B' in figure 2.
Parker, et al., (1955, p. 84) stated that artesian wells penetrating
limestones in the lower part of the Hawthorn Formation in coastal
Collier County have water levels that correspond with those of deeper
wells. This indicates that the lower limestones of the Hawthorn Formation






12 FLORDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETN TIRTY-ONE

are interconnected with the main body of limestones of the Floridan
aquifer and they may be considered the top of the aquifer. However,
some of these wells probably extend into the Tampa Formation in order
that adequate yield may be obtained.
Information obtained by Klein (1954, p. 22) has shown that soft
limestones in the Hawthorn Formation at depths of 200 to 250 feet in the
Naples area yield low to moderate quantities of water. Wells tapping
these beds have water levels considerably lower than those of deeper
wells, and the contained water is more saline than water from the Flori-
dan aquifer. These relatively shallow limestones probably constitute a
separate artesian system.

TAMIAMI FORMATION
The Tamiami Formation as defined by Parker (1955, p. 85) includes
all the Upper Miocene deposits in southern Florida. It underlies nearly
all of Collier County (fig. 3), and in the southern and eastern parts of
the county it is exposed at the surface or is covered by a thin veneer of
youger deposits. Parker (1955, p. 85) indicated that the formation has
a maximum thickness of about 150 feet in southern Florida. The exact
thicknesses of the formation were not determined from test wells in
Collier County because Tamiami sediments are gradational with ,the
older Hawthorn sediments. Schroeder and Klein (1954, p. 4) suggested a
thickness of about 50 feet for the Tamiami Formation at Sunniland.
The Tamiami Formation is composed predominantly of tan to light
gray sandy and silty clay and shell marls. The lower part of the forma-
tion is chiefly shelly, fine sand and greenish clayey marls. These ma-
terials are of low permeability and constitute the upper part of the
confining beds of the Floridan aquifer.
The upper part of the Tamiami Formation throughout most of Collier
County is composed of relatively thin, solution-riddled, highly permeable
and very fossiliferous limestone. This limestone member appears to wedge
out a few miles west, south, and east of Immokalee, and according to
Schroeder and Klein (1954, p. 4) it does not occur near the Dade-Broward
County boundary. In well 625-116-1 (fig. 6), 9 miles east of Immoka-
lee at the Hendry County boundary, the limestone was penetrated at a
depth of 22 feet and was more than 82 feet thick. The shallow depth of
the wells immediately east of Immokalee indicates that the member
is thinning to the west. In the vicinity of Naples, the top of the lime-
stones of the Tamiami Formation ranges from about 25 to 55 feet below
the land surface. In southern and southeastern Collier County, it is ex-
posed at the surface or is overlain by a thin veneer of younger materials.

















A~O

0- Mean
rL-










1-3








2sc


Land
_-,,


Sea t''




.1...J









I P l


JI CM
Cj oj U) I

ro cj (D 7D
to surface


Level "'il










I-.I:II


EXPLANATION
Lithologic Symbols


Sand Limestone


Clay
or
marl


Shells Phosphatic
material


0 I 2 3 miles
Scale


Figure 6. Lithologic cross section along line A-A' in figure 2.






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA


It is exposed in canals,and ditches, and is quarried extensively along U.S.
Highway 41 in the southern part of the county and along State Highway
29, principally in the vicinity of Sunniland. In the quarried areas the
limestone is characterized by the large echinoid Encope macrophora
tamiamiensis.
The Tamiami Formation is probably unconformable with overlying
younger sediments. Schroeder and Klein (1954, p. 4) described the sur-
face of the formation in the eastern part of the county as undulating and
dissected. They indicated also that the dissection occurred prior to
Pliocene deposition and possibly again during the Pleistocene.
The limestone of the Tamiami Formation forms the principal shallow
aquifer in Collier County. Its high permeability and widespread occur-
rence indicate its great importance in the development of large water
supplies in the county.

PLIOCENE SERIES
CALOOSAHATCHEE MARL
The Caloosahatchee Marl is predominantly a grayish green silty,
sandy, shell marl with interbedded layers of sand, silt, clay, and marl
(Parker, et al., 1955, p. 89). The formation rests unconformably on the
Tamiami Formation in the eastern part of Collier County (fig. 3). In
well 625-116-1, 9 miles east of Immokalee, 18 feet of gray sandy, shelly
marl was penetrated (fig. 6) which may represent the Caloosahatchee
Marl. It overlies solution-riddled limestone of the Tamiami Formation.
The generally low permeability of the Caloosahatchee Marl causes
wells drawing water from it to have low yields.

PLEISTOCENE AND RECENT SERIES
ANASTASIA FORMATION
The Anastasia Formation represents the marine deposits of pre-
Pamlico Age of the Pleistocene Series in Collier County. Parker, et al.,
(1955, pl. 4) indicated that the Anastasia Formation occurs in a band
about 5 to 6 miles wid' along the west coast of Collier County (fig. 3).
At its type locality, Anastasia Island near St. Augustine, the Anastasia
Formation is a coquinoid limestone. In Collier County, however, it ap-
pears as a light cream to light gray sandy limestone and tan shelly, sandy
marl containing many Chione cancellata.
Although the Anastasia Formation is present only in a small part of
Collier County (fig. 3), it causes much difficulty in well drilling. Many
small-diameter wells have been abandoned or restricted to shallow depths






14 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THITY-ONE


because drillers could not penetrate a hard, dense limestone in the
formation.
The Anastasia Formation is exposed along the canal banks on -the
north side of State Highway 846. Two miles east of the intersection
of State Highway 846 and U.S. Highway 41, the hard limestone of the
formation is very near the land surface and dips toward the Gulf of
Mexico. In well 613-148-1, the formation is 22 feet below land surface
and is probably about 15 feet thick (fig. 6).
The Anastasia Formation probably overlies the Tamiami -Formation
unconformably in most areas of the county. In the southern part of
Collier County along U.S. Highway 41 and in the Sunniland quarries,
very thin beds of hard tan limestone or sandstone, which contain abundant
Chione cancellata, overlie and fill depressions of the old eroded surface
of the Tamiami Formation. Parker, et al., (1955, p. 85) assigned this
limestone to be Anastasia Formation.
Limestones of the Anastasia Formation are generally permeable and
where they are thick, as at Naples, they form an important part of the
shallow aquifer.
FORT THOMPSON FORMATION
The Fort Thompson Formation is composed of alternating marine
and fresh-water deposits. The deposits consist of sand, marl, shell marl,
sandstone, and limestone of fresh-water and marine origin which were
deposited during one or several of the glacial stages of the Pleistocene
(Klein, 1954, p. 13). Any sequence of fresh-water and marine beds, or
fresh-water beds alone, older than Recent fresh-water deposits is con-
sidered as representing the Fort Thompson Formation of Pleistocene
Age. (See Schroeder and Klein, 1954, p. 5; Parker, et al., 1955, p. 90-99.)
The Fort Thompson Formation occurs in the eastern part of Collier
County (fig. 3) where it rests unconformably on the Tamiami Formation.
Test drilling indicated that along the eastern boundary of the county the
Fort Thompson Formation ranges in thickness from 3 to 9 feet (Schroeder
and Klein, 1954).
Klein (1954, p. 12-13) described a zone of fresh-water gastropods
overlying the Anastasia Formation in Naples. This zone may represent
or be equivalent to the uppermost zone of the Fort Thompson Formation.

MIAMI OOLITE
The southeast corner of Collier County is covered by the Miami
Oolite, a gray, porous, oolitic limestone (fig. 3). The contact between
the Miami Oolite and the underlying Tamiami Formation can be seen





(D
o B T


ro
0 CC

poc-
S0 surface m -

O Land
o N Mea n _sea level ---


.. -














---:A






6 .- -:-- .-.
-ecl_ -7.







-- Scal-


-er- EXPLANATION
Lithologic Symbols



-3'aC- __ Sand Limestone Clay Shells Phosphatic
Sor material
marl
-3 20-
'0 I 2 3 miles
-5 7 Scale


F r oo--i-gur 7L-c--= ci








Figure 7. Lithologic cross section along line B-B' in figure 2. |






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 15

in canal banks along U.S. Highway 41 a few miles west of the Dade
County boundary. The Miami Oolite in Collier County probably does
not exceed 5 feet in thickness, but it thickens eastward in Dade County,
where it forms an integral part of the Biscayne aquifer.

PLEISTOCENE TERRACES AND RECENT DEPOSITS
As discussed in the section on physiography, marine terraces were
formed by fluctuations of the sea level during interglacial stages of the
Pleistocene. When the ancient sea stood 42 feet above present sea
level, the Talbot terrace was formed. It is present in Collier County
only in the northern part, where its deposits blanket Immokalee Island
(fig. 3). Deposits of the Talbot terrace are characterized by very fine to
coarse quartz sand and some silt or clay. The sands of the Talbot For-
mation yield ample water to many shallow sand-point wells in the
vicinity of Immokalee.
The Pamlico Sand was deposited when the sea covered all the land
area of Collier County, which was less than 25 feet above present sea
level (fig. 3). In Collier County the Pamlico Sand is composed of fine
to medium quartz. The base of this sand is 10 to 15 feet below msl in
the Naples area where it immediately overlies the Anastasia Formation.
The uppermost material is white or light gray medium grained quartz
sand, which grades downward to a highly colored rust brown fine
grained quartz sand. The color is apparently caused by the vertical
migration of organic materials in percolating ground water (Klein, 1954,
p. 13). In the interior areas of Collier County, the Pamlico Sand forms
a thin blanket over the Tamiami Formation or the thin, hard limestone
layer of the Anastasia Formation (fig. 6). After the close of Pamlico time
the terrace surface was altered by winds to form dunes. These dunes are
greatly emphasized on Marco Island but are less noticeable along the
upper west coast of the county. The Pamlico Sand forms the top unit
of the shallow aquifer in Collier County.
Recent deposits are composed chiefly of organic materials, derived
from decayed vegetation, mixed with the terrace deposits. Thin accumu-
lations of peat and muck occur also in the Big Cypress Swamp where
they are mixed locally, in depressions, with marly and sandy materials.

TEST-WELL DRILLING
Twelve test wells were drilled in Collier County during the first year
of the investigation. The wells ranged in depth from 123 to 700 feet
below the land surface. The locations of the test wells were deter-
mined by the amount and distribution of geologic, hydrologic, and






16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

quality-of-water information obtained during the well inventory phase of
the investigation. The test wells were therefore drilled in areas where
information was scarce or nonexistent.
Samples of the materials penetrated by the test wells were taken at
5-foot intervals whenever possible. When a layer of permeable rock was
penetrated, a water sample was pumped from that layer. In thick perme-
able zones water samples were pumped at 10-foot intervals. When mate-
rial of low permeability was penetrated and its water yield was small,
water samples were collected from that depth by use of the bailer.
Several water samples from highly permeable zones were collected for
complete chemical analysis; all the water samples were analyzed for
chloride content.
Water-level measurements were made during the drilling of each
test well. An analysis of these water levels indicates differences in pres-
sure head within a given aquifer or between aquifers. When a permeable
zone was pumped, the yield of the well was estimated at that depth
and water-level measurements were made after pumping stopped to
determine the rate of recovery of the water level. The rate of recovery
is a factor in determining the relative permeability of the tested zone.
One test well, 5 miles east of Miles City, penetrated the Floridan
aquifer. This well was drilled to furnish data on the occurrence of rela-
tively fresh water in the aquifer in the southern part of the county.
During the period 1957-58, several exploratory wells were drilled in
the vicinity of Naples in cooperation with the city of Naples. These wells
were drilled to determine areas that might be developed as sources of
additional water for municipal supply, and to determine the extent of
salt-water encroachment from the Gulf of Mexico. They are also used
as water-level observation wells and are sampled at regular intervals to
determine changes in the salt content of the water.
Rock cuttings and water samples were collected during the drilling
of six privately owned wells. The logs of 18 wells are given in table 5.

GROUND WATER
PRINCIPLES OF OCCURRENCE
Ground water composes one part of the earth's water-circulating sys-
tem known as the hydrologic cycle. In this cycle water is taken from the
earth's surface into the atmosphere by evaporation. It condenses and
returns to the surface as precipitation. When it falls on land areas the
water moves downward under gravitational forces, seeking to fill all the
pore spaces of the host rock or soil. The portion of material that is filled






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 17

with water is called the zone of saturation. The pore spaces of the mate-
rial overlying the saturated zone are filled with water and air and this ma-
terial is called the zone of aeration. Water in the zone of saturation is
known as ground water; water in the zone of aeration is referred to as
vadose water (Meinzer, 1923, p. 29-32; 38-39; 76-83). The direction of
movement of vadose water is generally downward because of gravity.
Ground water occurs in permeable geologic formations called
aquifers. If water in the aquifer is unconfined, the upper surface of the
zone of saturation is under atmospheric pressure and is called the water
table. The direction of movement of ground water is controlled by the
slope of the water table.
Confined aquifers, also called artesian aquifers, occur where ground
water is confined by relatively impermeable formations and is under
pressure greater than atmospheric. The direction of movement of ground
water in an artesian aquifer is from points of high pressure to points of
low pressure. Water in a well penetrating a nonartesian aquifer will
rise no higher than the water table, whereas water in a well penetrating
an artesian aquifer will rise above the bottom of the confining formation
to a height determined by the hydrostatic pressure of the aquifer. The
height to which water will rise in tightly cased wells penetrating an
artesian aquifer is called the piezometric or pressure surface. If the pie-
zometric surface is above land surface, the water will flow from the well.
Unconfined or nonartesian aquifers are replenished by the down-
ward infiltration of rainfall, or downward seepage from lakes and
rivers. This replenishment, or recharge, generally occurs throughout the
extent of the aquifer. Confined or artesian aquifers can receive recharge
only in areas where the confining bed is absent, breached, or somewhat
permeable, and the recharge water has a greater head than the water
in the artesian aquifer.

FLORIDAN AQUIFER
Most of Florida is underlain by thick sections of permeable lime-
stones of Miocene and pre-Miocene Ages. These limestones form an
extensive artesian aquifer from which most of the large ground-water
supplies for the central and northern parts of Florida are obtained. String-
field (1936, p. 125-132, 146) described the aquifer and mapped the
piezometric surface in 1933 and 1934. The name "Floridan aquifer" was
introduced by Parker, et al., (1955, p. 189) to include all parts of the
thick permeable section of limestones of Middle and Late Eocene Age
and Oligocene Age, which constitute a single hydrologic unit, and the






18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BLLETIN TIRTY-ONE

Tampa Formation and permeable parts of the Hawthorn Formation
which form the top of the aquifer and which are in hydrologic contact
with the rest of the aquifer. The Floridan aquifer is confined by rela-
tively impermeable limestone layers in the Hawthorn Formation and by
the overlying clay and silt beds of the Hawthorn and Tamiami Formations.
The Floridan aquifer underlies all of Collier County. It slopes very
gently in a southerly direction in the county, and the top of the aquifer
is almost everywhere less than 400 feet below msl. The thickness of the
Floridan aquifer in Collier County is not known, but several wells 2,000
feet deep do not completely penetrate it. It yields large amounts of water
to wells by natural flow, but the water is usually so highly mineralized
that its use is limited.
The yield and pressure of the artesian water in the Floridan aquifer
vary with depth. Well 609-115-1, 5 miles east of Miles City, receives
water from two zones within the aquifer. The casing of the well is so
constructed that the two zones are independent of one another. The
upper part of the well is cased to 312 feet below the land surface and
has an open hole from 312 to 485 feet. The lower part of the well is cased
from land surface to 587 feet below the land surface and has an open
hole from 587 to 700 feet. Although each of the open-hole zones yielded
about the same quantity of water, there was a significant difference in
their pressures. On May 26, 1961, the water level of the shallow zone
was 30 feet above msl, whereas that of the deep zone was 52 feet above
msl. The magnitude of the head differential indicates that the material
between the two open-hole intervals is of relatively low permeability and
that the zones may be separate artesian systems.
Two wells in Goodland (fig. 2) also show differences in pressure
resulting from differences in depth. Well 555-139-2 is 540 feet deep and
has 179 feet of open hole. Well 555-139-5 is 342 feet deep and has 22 feet
of open hole. Their water pressures are respectively 33 and 26 feet above
msl.
In the Naples area, isolated lenses or stringers of limestone and shells
within the thick confining section of the Hawthorn Formation have
sufficient permeability to yield moderate quantities of water to relatively
shallow artesian wells. However, these units are not of great importance
because their yield to wells is small and the quality of the water is no
better than that from the Floridan aquifer.

PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE
The piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer is an imaginary sur-
face representing the pressure head of the confined water and is the









GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA


INTERIOR


85* 84 83*

EXPLANATION
Contour represents the height, in feet referred to mean sea level,
to which water would hove risen in lightly cased wells that
penetrate the major woaer-bearing formations in the Floridon
aquifer, July 6-17, 1961.
Contour interval 20 feel


C,
o


1 e i0 10 20 30 40 50 m iles
84 83 82* 81* 80"
Bose taken from 1933 edition of mop of Contours token from map series no.l
Florida by U.S. Geological Survey by Florida Geological Survey

Figure 8. The piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer, July 6-17, 1961.


UNITED


271


/






20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURvEY-BULLETI THRTY-ONE

height to which water will rise in tightly cased wells that penetrate the
aquifer. The configuration of the piezometric surface of the Floridan
aquifer in peninsular Florida is shown by the contour lines in figure 8.
The piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in Collier County
ranges from 22 feet above msl at Naples to 58 feet above msl in the
northern part of the county, north of Immokalee. It is higher than the land
surface in all parts of the county except the high sand dunes on Marco
Island. The piezometric surface slopes in a southwesterly direction to
the Gulf of Mexico (fig. 9). Ground water in the Floridan aquifer moves
downgradient from areas of high artesian pressure to areas of low artesian
pressure along flow lines which are perpendicular to the contour lines.
Therefore, the flow of ground water in the Floridan aquifer in Collier
County is generally to the southwest. The distortion of the regional pat-
tern of the piezometric surface in the area north of Immokalee is the
result of discharge of several flowing wells in that area.
In figure 9, the slope of the piezometric surface in the coastal and
adjacent areas is fairly steep, indicating discharge from the aquifer in
offshore areas. The average slope in the downgradient areas is about 1
foot per mile; in upgradient areas it decreases and averages about half a
foot per mile. The relatively equal spacing between contour lines
suggests that all the observation wells, measured for pressure readings
used in the preparation of figure 9, penetrate the Floridan aquifer.

RECHARGE AND DISCHARGE
The Floridan aquifer is replenished where the aquifer is at or near
the land surface, or where the altitude of the recharge water is higher than
the piezometric surface and the confining bed is thin, breached, or
relatively permeable. These areas are known as recharge areas. The
principal recharge area for central and southern Florida is Polk County
and vicinity, where the piezometric surface of the aquifer is highest, as
shown in figure 8. In some areas of Polk County, leaky confining beds
overlie the Floridan aquifer (Stewart, 1959, p. 55), and recharge water
under high head can infiltrate vertically from shallow water-bearing
materials to the Floridan aquifer which contains water under a lower
head.
The water level in the Floridan aquifer in Polk County and vicinity
is at a higher altitude than it is in the surrounding areas. The water in
the aquifer moves downgradient, perpendicular to the contour lines, to
points of discharge, principally springs and wells. Discharge by upward
leakage through the confining beds probably occurs in downgradient






952' 50 45' 40' 35' 30' 25' 20' 15' 10' 05' 8100' 55' 80050'
1_ 1 I i I I I I [ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I 1 1 26

N 9 .
SH E N\r R Y C 0 U N T Y
.-- ~EXPLANATION
SWell 30'
.3? [Ra *56
Upper number is well number
SLower number is water level, in
SCOUNTY MMOKALEE feet above mean sea level
0 1 2 3 4 5 miles U N T Y 25'
...... .. -- -
I Contour on the piezometric surface
S/ of the Floridan aquifer in feet
0 above mean sea level, 1960;
Dashed where inferred; contour
SI interval 5 feet 20
-. \ E Note:
---t L1E L R \ \ ** 1 E No upper number indicates well
inventoried in previous investigation

"- \H E N D R Y C O U N T Y



15'


\ \ \ \ *o ---- -







2 05
10
















'C
S I I I I I I I I I I I I





















52 50' 45 40 35' 30 25 20 15' 10 05' 80O' 55' 8050
Base taken from maps of the
COPELAND
















lorida StIse Road Department
Figure 9. Piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in Collier County, 1960.
(N EVERGLADES 5



o F 0 o L L E R C 0 U N T o
SMO N R O E C 0 U N T Y


-52 5o' 45' 40o' 30' o' 25' ,o 05o' 8100o' d' 80050'
Base token from mops of the
Florida State Road Department
Figure 9. Piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in Collier County, 1960.








GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 21

areas where the piezometric surface is higher than the water level of the
shallow materials.
Water is discharged from the aquifer in Collier County by about
50 flowing wells. There probably are others which have been capped and
abandoned for many years. The casings of abandoned wells deteriorate
and considerable leakage takes place in the subsurface through them.




25052'



02

C Municipal supply well
6 E and number

SPrivate supply well
and number
02 ( 0 1/2 mile





51'

oF
-S-







25050






81524' 81c23'

Figure 10. Map of Everglades showing location of wells and cross section along
line C-C'.
25050' -10_--
81024' S^ZS
Figure' 10. Map of Everglades showing location of wells and cross section along
line C-C'.






22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THRTY-ONE

The Floridan aquifer probably crops out on the ocean floor at a
considerable distance from the coast of Collier County. Because the arte-
sian pressure at the coast is high, 22 to 25 feet above msl, considerable
offshore discharge from the aquifer can be expected through submarine
springs.
As there is a large upward pressure gradient within the Floridan
aquifer, shown by water-level measurements in the test well east of
Miles City, water can be continuously discharged from the lower zones
through open well bores into shallow zones. This movement of water can
be extremely important in wells containing long intervals of open hole,
especially where the lower zones contain very highly mineralized water.

AVAILABILITY AND USE OF GROUND WATER
Ground water from the Floridan aquifer is available by natural flow
to wells throughout Collier County except on the high sand dunes of
Marco Island. However, its use is greatly limited because of its relatively
high mineral content. Generally, the water is too salty for most pur-
poses but it is used as a supplemental supply in irrigation systems.
About 40 percent of the flowing artesian wells in Collier County are in
the Immokalee area (fig. 2). Most of these wells were originally used
for irrigation but many have been abandoned or are used only as an
auxiliary supply. Several deep wells in the Naples area are used to
maintain lake levels and supply irrigation water. One artesian well in
downtown Naples was used for many years as a fire-protection well.
The town of Everglades obtains its water supply from four flowing
artesian wells which penetrate the Floridan aquifer (fig. 10). It is the
only place in southern Florida where the quality of the water from the
Floridan aquifer approaches the standards of the U.S. Public Health
Service for drinking water. Usually, wells penetrating the aquifer in the
area south of Lake Okeechobee yield water with a chloride content near
or greater than 1,000 ppm.
During the period 1927-29, four wells were drilled in the town of
Everglades to furnish the municipal supply. Well 551-123-1 was drilled
in the northern part of the town but was abandoned because of the poor
quality of the water. Wells 551-123-2, 3, and 4 were drilled approximately
half a mile south of well 551-123-1. The three wells in this field form a
triangle about 150 feet long on each side. In 1935, well 550-123-1 was
drilled about half a mile south of the well field. A year later, wells
551-123-2 and 3 were deepened to increase their yield. In 1961, water
supplies for the town were furnished by wells 551-123-2 and 3, and wells
551-123-4 and 550-123-1 were reserved for emergencies.





GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 23

S N

S Oi t o
SroT
O I 0I I I
-300-

-350 -
-30c ---------------------, _____



3 -450-

S-500- _- ---- \
L_ EXPLANATION
Z -550 Note: Wells 551-123-1 and 2 C
. -550- ore projected into cross Cosing
section at right angles
S-600- Open hole
0 0.1 mile /
-650 -
Figure 11. Cross section along line C-C' in figure 10, showing amount of open
hole in. wells.


Figure 11 is a cross section in Everglades. The casing bottoms and
total depths of the wells have been presented to show the differences
in construction. Lack of detailed information prohibits determining the
reasons for the differences in amount of open hole in wells relatively
close together.
In four wells, a formation described by the drillers as a water rock
or water shale was reached at a depth of about 380 feet. The presence
of this stratum is probably the reason that the casings in most of the wells
end above this depth. Wells 551-123-2 and 3 were drilled until caving
halted the operation. No explanation is given for the depths of the
other wells. After setting the casing, the driller probably continued to
make open hole until the desired yield was obtained. This supposition is
somewhat supported by the fact that all the wells mentioned above,
except 550-123-1, have been deepened, indicating that the initial flow
had decreased or had become inadequate to supply the demand.
Wells 554-122-1 and 556-128-1 are respectively 4 miles north and 7
miles northwest of Everglades (fig. 2). Both are flowing artesian wells
and yield water of the same salinity. The total depth of well 556-128-1 is
unknown, but it is probably no greater than that of the wells in the






24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

Everglades well field. Well 556-128-1 reached the dark green dense clay
of the Hawthorn Formation at a depth of 292 feet, and a light gray
limestone in the Floridan aquifer at 376 feet. The well was drilled to a
total depth of 392 feet. The materials penetrated in well 556-128-1 corre-
late very closely to those in well 551-123-6. Well 551-123-6 reached the
green clay at a depth of 275 feet and the limestone at 371 feet. The
salinity of the water from well 551-123-6 for the interval 371-414 feet
was considerably higher than that from well 556-128-1.

SHALLOW AQUIFER
The shallow aquifer is the principal source of fresh water in Collier
County. It is composed of the Pleistocene terrace sands, the Anastasia
Formation, and the upper permeable limestones of the Tamiami Forma-
tion. The lower parts of the Tamiami Formation, together with the im-
permeable sections of the Hawthorn Formation constitute the confining
layer for the Floridan aquifer.
The shallow aquifer has a maximum thickness of about 130 feet in
western Collier County, where the Pamlico Sand, the Anastasia Forma-
tion, and limestones of the Tamiami Formation are all present and are
fairly well interconnected. It thins eastward to a thickness of about 60,
feet near Sunniland, and wedges out near the Dade County boundary,
where the shallow materials are composed of marls and fine sand. In
southern Collier County, the shallow aquifer is composed entirely of
solution-riddled, highly permeable limestone of the Tamiami Formation
which extends to a depth of at least 90 feet below the land surface.
Test drilling and data on the depth and yield of existing wells in the
Immokalee area indicate a marked change in the lithology of the shal-
low aquifer in that area. The subsurface materials in the vicinity of
Immokalee are chiefly plastic sediments ranging from marls to very coarse
sands. No limestones of appreciable thickness or permeability were pene-
trated within the upper 100 feet of the section. Several beds or lenses of
coarse quartz sand occur in this upper section which would probably
yield large quantities of water to screened wells; however, most of the
wells of high yield penetrate limestones and shell beds at depths oL200,
feet or more. These deeper limestones may be interconnected with. the
shallow aquifer.
The thick section of plastics may be part of a frontal edge of a large
delta, which, according to Bishop (1956, p. 26), .extended southward
through Highlands County (on the north) during the Miocene Epoch. To
the east and west of the Immokalee area the plastic sediments grade into
/* ,,





(,(jIJfl I'
'^ ux~ rr'r


616-141-1


609-143-1


- -D'
609-141-1


EXPLANATION
LINE OF CROSS SECTION
D- -D'


WELL FIELDS
UNUSED IN USE PROPOSED



TEST AND OBSERVATION
WELL
e


0 I miles
i ~ ~ ll _


Figure 12. Northwestern Collier County showing locations of the Naples munici-
pal well fields and geologic cross sections along lines D-D', E-E', and F-F',


IF F(1


F19 617-146-1


616-145-1


/
612-146-1




I
I







1610-147-2


146-1


NAPL







GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA


Figure 13. Geologic cross section and chloride content of water along line D-D'
in figure 12.

permeable marine limestones which yield large quantities of water to
open-hole wells.
The shallow aquifer supplies large amounts of water for irrigation
throughout the county. The Pleistocene sands yield small amounts of
fresh water to very shallow wells on Marco Island.
During 1957-59, several exploratory wells were drilled east and north-
east of Naples in connection with the expansion of water facilities for
Naples (fig. 12). Figures 13, 14 and 15 show the lithology of the shallow
aquifer along the three cross-sectional lines indicated in figure 12. The
cross sections show that east of Naples the aquifer is compared almost
entirely of limestone. Northeast of Naples the aquifer becomes thinner
and the limestone is interbedded with sand and marl. The Pamlico Sand
(uppermost part of the aquifer), which is about 15 to 20 feet thick
in Naples, thins rapidly eastward.

RECHARGE AND DISCHARGE
The shallow aquifer is recharged principally by local rainfall that
percolates downward to the zone of saturation. During periods of high






26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE


Figure 14. Geologic cross section and chloride content of water along line E-E'
in figure 12.

water levels it is possible that canals and streams would afford some
recharge to the aquifer for a short time. Where impermeable layers are
present at or near the land surface, recharge by rainfall is restricted and
much potential recharge is lost by sheet flow to the streams, sloughs,
canals, and Gulf of Mexico.
In the Naples area, a confining bed of silt and marl occurs within
the shallow aquifer and impedes the downward infiltration of ground
water. Materials above the confining bed readily soak up and store a large
amount of rainfall. In much of the area northeast of Naples, a layer of very
hard, dense limestone of low permeability occurs at or immediately below
the land surface. The low permeability greatly decreases the amount of
downward infiltration to the aquifer, and as a result much of the water
in this area drains off as overland flow and does not recharge the aquifer.


SCLt IN FfT T









GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA


F 2o -


20
Mean sea


-30



-30 /
I3 E EXPLANATION
60 9j 78
S LIMESTONE
I- o S / /
S-- '/

-69 SHELLS
'.-100 LINECOLCf 3 +
'ri C"L011OD[ CON1TI NT N /P
-110 C-LORE.-00133 30131(1
-12 0 9.
-33o -,l4, / -


-140 1


16 0 0


level

-t 45





-176


^^ 7-


/ 666-

,/ z,<0o-


P/


/


Figure 15. Geologic cross section and chloride content of water along line F-F'
in figure 12.





Figures 16 and 17 show the effect of rainfall on water levels in obser-
vation wells penetrating the shallow aquifer in the county.

Well 610-147-14 (fig. 16) is in the Naples well field and is affected
by pumping. However, the altitude of the plotted daily highs correlates
closely with rainfall recorded at Naples. The graph of pumpage from the
well field shows that pumping magnifies the fluctuations, especially
during dry periods when pumping is increased.

Water levels in wells 617-134-3 and 625-116-1 are compared to rainfall
recorded at Lake Trafford (fig. 17). Well 617-134-3 is about 10 miles
southwest and well 625-116-1 is about 13 miles east of Lake Trafford.
Time lapses of several days can be noted between rains recorded and
rises in water levels. Some rains show little if any effect, indicating that
probably no rain fell in the vicinity of the well. The same situation appears
to be true for well 606-120-1 and Miles City (fig. 17). The hydrographs
show that some areas remain flooded for a considerable time during the
rainy season.


T F'
ID
+20
S -+10



-20
| -10
[ -M&
-530

-40
7 -60


-80





S -120
-130


-?6,













g . -- ....... t 9 = ---. ...


WELL 610-94, in N unicip el een n
0 v .. 4 11 _O__V "U, si l 1" p__ __ ,. ,_ ^ __ ___ J f. .flu L W R N LE.Au fl f N_.ov 9 9

.. ....... ..""......._1






WI, II II I.. ...





Tol i llt lll, llll lll. I i I..i, I.,l l .I l ..1 i ,.l,_, Mil__ i ,, L ,..ll .HUR. R CANE oowl,
Figure 16. Hydrograph of well 610-147-14 showing daily high, monthly pumpage
from Naples well field, and daily rainfall at Naples, June 1958-December 1960.
.j j
dc



W'
HIG
ECRERR
if! MOVEDCHl~I r'\ Fh-'' ---*----- --.
.j 251













from Naples well field, and daily rainfall at Naples, June 1958-December 1960.


C







w



b








GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA


MILES CITY





-2-
I


Well 625-116-1
0 -


I t




3-



S0 Well 617-134-3 ,

1-2 i V11



I LAKE TRAFFORD


0 1 1 I ,

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC-
1960
Figure 17. Hydrographs of wells 606-120-1, 625-116-1, and 617-134-3, and daily
rainfall at Miles City and Lake Trafford, 1960.

Ground-water losses from the shallow aquifer occur by natural dis-
charge into streams, drainage canals, and the Gulf of Mexico; by evapo-
transpiration; and by pumping from wells. Losses by natural discharge
are greatest during periods of high rainfall, when ground-water levels
are highest. Also, when ground-water levels are high many parts of the
county are flooded, and as a result the rate of evaporation increases.






30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

Transpiration by plants also account for large losses. Ground water dis-
charged by natural processes far exceeds the amount discharged by
pumping.
Ground-water use is greatest along the western coastal area and in
the northern part of Collier County. In the coastal area the rapid spread
of urbanization has increased the demand for municipal supplies (fig.
16). Several housing subdivisions are supplied by privately owned water
systems. Also, hundreds of small-diameter wells in the area are used
for lawn irrigation and individual household supplies where no municipal
supplies are available.
In northern Collier County scores of large-diameter wells are used
to irrigate truck crops. East of Immokalee wells yield as much as 1,000
gpm (gallons per minute), or more.
WATER-LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS
Fluctuations of the water table in the shallow aquifer reflect changes
in the amount of ground water in storage in the aquifer. Fluctuations
are caused by recharge by rainfall, and discharge by outflow from the
aquifer, evapotranspiration, and pumping of wells. Water levels in wells
near the coast are affected by gulf tides. Minor fluctuations in some areas
result from variations in atmospheric pressure. Rainfall, evapotranspira-
tion, and pumping are the most important factors in the fluctuation of
water levels in the shallow aquifer in Collier County. The hydrographs
in figures 16 and 17 show the fluctuations of water levels in different
areas of Collier County.
Water levels in several wells in northwestern Collier County were
measured to determine the altitude and configuration of the water table
during periods of high and low rainfall. These wells tap the uppermost
section of the aquifer. Figure 18 shows the approximate altitude and
configuration of the water table in the Naples area on August 15, 1960,
after a period of heavy rainfall. The configuration of the contours shows
that the aquifer is recharged by local rainfall. The steep water-table
gradient on the west side toward the gulf suggests that the sandy surface
material is only moderately permeable and can therefore retain large
amounts of ground water in storage. In general, the water table con-
forms to the topography of the area and the contours indicate that under-
flow is westward to the Gulf of Mexico, southward to Naples Bay and
the Naples well field, and eastward to the Gordon River drainageway.
Figure 19 shows the configuration and altitude of the water table on
March 29, 1960, after a period of deficient rainfall (Sherwood and Klein,
1960). The pattern is similar to that of August 15, 1960, but the altitude


































































EXPLANATION
*6.60
Observation well and
water-table altitude, in
feet, on August 15,-1960


Contour showing the
water-table altitude
in feet; dashed where
inferred; contour interval
2 feet; datum is mean
sea level.


0 I 2 miles


Figure 18. Water-level contour map of northwestern Collier County, August 15,
1960.


:LLIE R .C Prft'L-


NAPL


ss





























































EXPLANATION
*5 23
Observation well and
altitude of water table
....... -in .: feet2-March -29, 1961 -

Contour showing altitude
of water table in feet;
dashed where inferred;
contour interval 2 feet;
datum is mean sea level.


0 I 2 miles
.. _


Figure 19. Water-level contour map of northwestern Collier County, March 29,
1960.


L. ~. E


/
I
I


NAPI


y .. .. .. .. .






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 31

of the water surface is somewhat lower. Both contour maps show the
effect of pumping in the municipal well field, which is indicated by a shal-
low water-table depression in the northeastern part of the city.
Water-level measurements made during the drilling of test wells and
supply wells along the coastal area showed differences in head between
the upper and lower parts of the aquifer. Along the central part of the
ridge, the water levels in shallow wells (25-30 feet deep) ranged from
1 to 3 feet higher than the water levels in wells penetrating the deeper
part of the aquifer (60-100 feet deep). Such head differential causes
downward leakage of ground water. It is typical of the recharge areas,
and the magnitude of the differential is related to the degree of confine-
ment of the zone between the two parts of the aquifer. In the peripheral
areas where discharge from the aquifer takes place, the head relation-
ship is reversed; the water levels in deep wells range 1 to 2 feet higher
than those in the shallow wells and upward leakage occurs. In the munici-
pal well-field area, where wells 60 to 100 feet deep are heavily pumped,
water levels in the upper part of the aquifer are substantially higher
than those in the lower part and much of the ground water pumped is
supplied by downward leakage in the area of the cone of depression.
The graphs in figure 16 show the relationship between pumpage,
rainfall, and water-level fluctuations in well 610-147-14, in the Naples
well field, for the period June 1958 December 1960. Although the well
penetrates the lower part of the aquifer, the response of the water level
in the well to rainfall is rapid. Pumping is the major factor causing large
declines in the vicinity of the well field; other fluctuations such as those
caused by tides and variations in barometric pressure are minor.

AVAILABILITY AND USE OF GROUND WATER
The shallow aquifer is the prinicpal source of fresh ground water
in the county except for the area in the vicinity of Everglades. The
limestone of the Tamiami Formation is the chief water-bearing zone of
the aquifer in most of the county. On Marco Island, the Pamlico Sand pro-
vides the only obtainable potable ground-water supply.
The shallow aquifer yields ground water at various depths depending
on the location. In the west to west-central part of the county, it pro-
duces from a zone that ranges in depth from about 35 to 100 feet below
the land surface; in the central part, from 20 to 90 feet; in the northern
part, from shell beds and coarse sand lenses at various depths in the
Pleistocene terrace and other sediments; in the southern part, from land
surface to about 30 feet; and in the southeastern part, from about 20 to
25 feet.






32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE













130o0
-7
4C4--
500 ----- ----- --- ------ ------ _- -

(dQ~400 ---------------------------------7__ -----

0C
1 300--





9-4






80



5-

4
90- -





t50- -7-- --

4- /






20-


1946


1948


Figure 20. Graph showing annual pumpage from the Naples well fields, 1945-62.


Large quantities of ground water are obtained from the shallow
aquifer in the farm belt which stretches from Immokalee southwestward
to the Tamiami Trail (U.S. Highway 41) north of Naples. Irrigation wells


1950


1952


91 84 1956 IS58 1930 ..I 1






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 33

near the western edge of the farm belt are generally about 60 to 70
feet deep, but farther inland their maximum depth is about 100 feet.
The small community of Copeland obtains its water supply from the
limestone of the Tamiami Formation. Well 556-121-2, which supplies
Copeland, was drilled to a depth of 30 feet in 1945. At that time the
cypress lumber industry was near its peak and the population of Cope-
land was considerably greater than the 1960 population of 100 to 150.
During 1945 the well was pumped at an average rate of 75,000 gpd, or an
annual amount of 27.4 million gallons. The well was still in operation in
1961.
Before 1945, the municipal supply for Naples was obtained from one
6-inch and two 4-inch wells located in the southern part of the city,
between Naples Bay and the Gulf of Mexico (fig. 12). These wells were
closely spaced and were pumped heavily for short periods, which caused
salt water to move inland and upward and thus contaminate the aquifer.
During 1945-46, a new well field was established north of the original
well field. This field comprises 22 small-diameter wells (3- and 4-inch)
spaced 400 feet apart. To dimish the effect of large drawdowns of the
water levels, each well was pumped at a rate not to exceed 30 gpm. This
control of withdrawals distributed the effect of pumping over a large area
and reduced the hazard of salt-water encroachment. The annual pump-
age from this well field increased from about 33 million gallons in 1947
to 122 million gallons in 1954.
The city officials proposed the establishment of a new permanent
well field because of the constantly increasing demand for water (fig.
20), the high cost of pumping 22 wells, and the constant threat of salt-
water encroachment from the Gulf of Mexico and the Gordon River
into the field. Their objective was to establish a well field in the cypress
swamp area east and north of the city; but no data were available as to
the continuity of the aquifer and the quality of the ground water in that
area. The city officials believed that a productive field in this area
could furnish sufficient water for all the coastal ridge area of Collier
County. A new well field was developed in 1954 in the northeastern part
of the city (fig. 12), and further expansion of facilities would be inland.
Water-treatment plant No. 2 was built at this field.
In 1958, three wells were drilled northeast of water plant No. 2 to
supplement the supply from the well field. The layout of the present
well field with the extension wells is shown in figure 21. Total pumpage
from the well field and extension was 414 million gallons in 1960, more
than 25 percent above the total for 1959.












EXPLANATION
0
OBSERVATION WELL
*
SUPPLY WELL
A
RECORDING GAGE

Su-ui 6 IN T r 6
500 0 o i0


610-147-6


610-147-6 610-147-14
*' A
0610-147-13
0610-147-15
0610-147-7


e610-147-17


610-147-8
0


----7



CARIBBEAN /
GARDENS /


S 0610-147-5 / 610o
\,,,,--/






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 35

QUANTITATIVE STUDIES
HYDRAULICS OF AQUIFERS
When a well tapping a shallow aquifer begins to discharge, water is
removed form the aquifer surrounding the well and the water level is
lowered. The amount that the level is lowered at the well is called the
drawdown. The decline of the water table near the discharging well is
rapid and large but decreases rapidly outward from the well. An inverted
cone, centered at the discharging well, defines the dewatered part of
the aquifer and is referred to as the cone of depression or cone of influ-
ence. As the discharge continues at a constant rate, the cone spreads
outward, thereby diverting more water to the well.
If recharge is available and a sufficient amount can be diverted
toward the well to balance the withdrawal, the cone spreads no farther,
and the shape of the cone will remain constant. Deepening of the cone
will result if the discharge rate is increased or if another nearby well in the
aquifer begins discharging. When pumping from the well ceases, the water
level immediately starts to recover, rapidly at first, then at a slowly de-
creasing rate, to the static water level of the area.
The rate of drawdown and recovery in the vicinity of a well depends
in part upon the transmissibility of the aquifer. In an aquifer of high
transmissibility the drawdown is relatively small and the cone of depres-
sion is wide and shallow; in an aquifer of low transmissibility the draw-
down is relatively great and the cone is narrow and deep.
Unlike the effect of withdrawal from a water-table well, where the
result is a dewatering of the aquifer within the cone of depression, with-
drawal from an artesian well results in a lowering of pressure at the well,
and the effect, theoretically, is transmitted with the speed of sound
throughout the aquifer. In an artesian aquifer, water is released from
storage as a result of the compaction or squeezing of sediments when the
artesian pressure is lowered, and as a result of the slight expansion of
water itself. The basic principle of the cone of influence remains in effect
for both types of aquifers, but the cone develops more rapidly in an
artesian aquifer because the amount of water released from storage per
unit area is much smaller than that resulting from dewatering an uncon-
fined aquifer.
From data obtained by observing water levels in a pumped well and
observation wells in the cone of influence, the coefficients of transmissi-
bility and storage can be determined.
The coefficient of transmissibility is the capacity of an aquifer to
transmit water. It is expressed as the quantity of water, in gallons per





36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

day, that will move through a vertical section of the aquifer 1 foot wide
under a hydraulic gradient of 1 foot per foot (Theis, 1938, p. 892). The
coefficient of storage is a measure of the capacity of an aquifer to store
water and is defined as the volume of water released from or taken into
storage per unit surface area of the aquifer per unit change in the com-
ponent of head normal to that surface.
In aquifers where leakage occurs through semiconfining beds, a leak-
age coefficient can be determined. The leakage coefficient (Hantush,
1956, p. 702) characterizes the ability of semiconfining beds above or
below an aquifer to transmit water to the aquifer. It may be defined as
the quantity of water that crosses a unit area at the interface between
the main aquifer and its confining bed, if the difference between the
head in the main aquifer and in the beds supplying the leakage is unit.

AQUIFER TESTS
Seven aquifer tests were made in or near Collier County prior to this
investigation. Six of the tests were made in Naples in connection with
well-field development, and one was made at the county boundary east
of Immokalee. The first three tests were made in 1951-52 to determine
the safe rate of pumping from the well field in the southern part of the
city. From analyses of the water-level data obtained from these tests, a
coefficient of transmissibility of 92,000 gpd per foot and a coefficient of
storage of 0.001 were determined (Klein, 1954, p. 47).
Further studies in the area and a comparison of future water demands
and the availability of water indicated that the municipal supplies would
have to be extended northward where water levels were higher and
where the threat of salt-water contamination was less. In 1954, water
plant No. 2 (fig. 21) was built and the new well field was established
(fig. 12).
Aquifer tests made by Sherwood and Klein (1961) in the new field
indicated that the transmissibility -of the aquifer increased northward,
and in the proposed area of expansion (fig. 12) a coefficient of trans-
missibility of 185,000 gpd per foot was computed. The tests indicated that,
although the upper part of the aquifer contained semiconfining layers,
downward leakage was considerable when the well field was pumped.
This leakage reduced drawdowns in the lower, pumped zone of the
aquifer. The Gordon River, east of the well field was determined to be
a source of replenishment at times when the field was pumped heavily.
Figure 22 shows the drawdowns in observation wells at the end of
a 30-hour pumping test in the proposed area of development. The







GC.CUND-WsATr. I:EEOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 87


DISTANCE, IN FEET FROM PUMPING WELL

__o__-_ o CA
0

t-
w
u 0.5 -
U. 610-147-80 0610-147-9
Z: 610-147-170
I .0 610-147-7 0 -610147-18 _______
610-147-15
0 610-147-13
0


2. 1. ---- -- -_ -- ---- __ --- --

2.0


Figure 22. Graph showing drawdown in observation wells at the end of the 30-hour
aquifer test, January 9-10, 1959, and sketch showing wells used in the test.


drawdowns in wells between the pumped well and the Gordon River
were substantially less than in wells west of the pumped well. The coeffi-
cient of leakage computed for this test ranged from 0.001 to 0.008 gpd per
square foot per foot of head difference. In general, the coefficient
increased eastward.

In the ideal leaky-aquifer system (fig. 23) of Jacob (1946, p. 199) the
water table in the nonartesian aquifer is maintained at a constant level






38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE


WELL
WATER TABLE
PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE
NONARTESIAN AQUIFER

SEMIPERVIOUS
/ /CONFINING BED


<-- ARTESIAN AQUIFER


IMPERVIOUS BED



Figure 23. Idealized sketch showing flow in a leaky artesian aquifer system.


by recharge. Pumping from the artesian aquifer causes a cone of depres-
sion to form which expands until the amount of downward leakage
equals the amount of water withdrawn. In the Naples area. however, the
water table in the shallow sands of the upper zone is not maintained con-
stant due to insufficient recharge; therefore, the rate of downward leak-
age to the pumped zone will decline and the cone of depression will
continue to spread.
Figure 24 shows drawdown graphs of wells 610-147-9 and 610-147-15
during the aquifer test of January 1959 (fig. 22). The A curves repre-
sent the theoretical drawdown for artesian conditions with no recharge
and were computed from the coefficients of transmissibility and storage
determined from the aquifer tests. The B curves represent the theoretical
drawdowns for nonartesian conditions with no recharge and after ex-
tended time. The B curves were computed with a coefficient of storage
of 0.15 (characteristic of nonartesian aquifers) and a coefficient of trans-
missibility 10 percent higher than that determined from the test (to take
into account the transmissibility of the upper zone). The water levels
near the end of the test were constant, indicating leaky-aquifer condi-
tions and downward leakage was keeping pace with discharge. The C
curves are projections of the observed data and indicate the water level
would remain constant if sufficient recharge was available. The D curves







GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA


TIME,IN MINUTES,SINCE PUMPING BEGAN
In00 10 10000 looop


Sonth I yea


610-147-15
0.5------. ---^-- ------. ---- _l-,-_-. -__-









l.5----
US Z





0 610-1 47-9 C r e)






CURVE i
Theoretical drawdown, aote ble conditions
(norechorge)
CURVE i
Drowdown.leoky-oquifer conditions I .
Observed drawdown 'i i
.5 Theoretical drawdown(unlimited recharge) i
CURVE D
Theoretical drowdown.leokyaquifer conditions
(no recharge) .

Figure 24. Graph showing drawdowns in wells 610-147-9 and 610-147-15 during
aquifer test January 9-10, 1959, and theoretical drawdown for artesian, water-
table, and leaky-aquifer conditions.


represent the theoretical drawdown in a leaky aquifer with no recharge

and were computed from the coefficients of transmissibility and storage
determined from the test.
The drawdown caused by longtime pumping is reflected at the water

table, and is controlled by the coefficients of storage and transmissibility
of the upper and lower zones, and the availability of replenishment.
Cities along the lower east coast of Florida have developed large
water supplies by locating well fields near canals. These canals tap
large water reserves in inland areas and are controlled near their outlets


I


i orotv






40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

by salinity barriers (check dams). Water levels in the well fields are
maintained by infiltration from the canals into the aquifer. Because of
relatively high inland swamps draining toward the Gulf of Mexico and
the hydraulic characteristics of the shallow aquifer, large water supplies
can be obtained in northwestern Collier County by methods similar to
those used in southeastern Florida.
In June 1958, a pumping test on wells in the shallow aquifer was made
at the Collier County boundary, east of Immokalee (Klein, Litchtler, and
Schroeder, written communication). Wells 625-116-1 and -2 were used
as observation wells, and a large-diameter irrigation well just east of
the county boundary was pumped at 1,300 gpm. Analyses of the data
from the wells in Collier County indicated that the average coefficient
of transmissibility was 910,000 gpd per foot, the average coefficient of
storage was 0.00033 and the average coefficient of leakage was 0.000014
gpd per square foot per foot of vertical head.
The low permeability of the 15-foot layer of sandy clay that caps
the aquifer in this area (fig. 7) is indicated by the small coefficient of
leakage. The relatively low coefficient of storage indicates that artesian
conditions prevail in the aquifer. The high transmissibility of the aquifer

DISTANCE, IN FEET, FROM PUMPED WELL
100 1,000 10,000




629-126-1

1.0 ,


1.5 629-127-3./ 629-127-1
z ,629-127-2
(Pumped well) 0 400 800 feet
S2.Scale
>^ ^12 ^(Pu mped well) 0 40
o 629-127-3
0 2.0 N

2.5 629-127-1


3.0
629-126-1

3.5 I I I I I II I I I I I I I I

Figure 25. Sketch showing wells used in pumping test, April 8-10, 1960, and
graph showing drawdown at the end of the 44-hour test.






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA


and the large areal extent of the main limestone of the aquifer indicate
that very large quantities of water probably are available east and south-
east of Immokalee.
During April 8-10, 1960, a pumping test was made 5 miles northwest
of Immokalee. Figure 25 is a sketch showing the locations of the obser-
vation wells and the pumped well used during the test and a graph of
the drawdowns recorded at the end of the test.
Well 629-127-2 was pumped for 44 hours at 152 gpm. The water was
discharged into an adjacent drainage ditch which conveyed it from the
immediate area. Recording gages were installed on the three observation
wells to obtain a complete record of the water-level fluctuations-in the
wells. The gages were in operation a week before the test to
obtain background data on the natural fluctuations of the water level.
These background records were used to adjust the recorded drawdowns
obtained during the pumping period.
Figure 26 is a hydrograph of the uncorrected drawdown and recov-
ery data from well 629-127-3. Pumping of an irrigation well 1.9 miles
west of the test site started about 4 hours after the pumping test began;
however, the effect of this pumping is not apparent on the drawdown
curve of figure 26. The slight undulations on the hydrograph probably
are caused by variations in atmospheric pressure and evapotranspiration.
The drawdown data were adjusted to correct for the fluctuations
caused by factors other than pumping. Coefficients of transmissibility
and storage computed from this test were 58,000 gpd per foot and
0.00024, respectively, at well 629-127-1 and 62,000 gpd per foot and
0.00026, respectively, at well 629-127-3. These values are considerably
lower than those computed for the Naples area. The leakage coefficient
at the Immokalee site was computed at 0.00073 gpd per square foot per
foot of vertical head at well 629-127-1 and 0.00099 gpd per square foot
per foot of vertical head at well 629-127-3. These values also are much
lower than those computed for Naples and indicate more effective con-
fining layers above the main producing zone of the aquifer in the area
northwest of Immokalee. Therefore, in this area the main producing
zone receives less recharge by downward leakage than the main pro-
ducing zone in the Naples area. The low coefficients of storage in the
area indicate that the main producing zone is under artesian conditions.

QUALITY OF WATER
Aquifers in Collier County contain very large supplies of ground
water, but in many places the water is unsuitable for drinking as the result
of the high concentrations of undesirable minerals.




























pprorimoate time
9.6 frm pump topped

10,0-


10.2 -
104 e. t pump off
'9:33 AM i
10.6 r I I I \ -- I I I I I I I I I i -
12I5PM 3 6 9 12M 3 6 9 12N 3 6 9 12M 3 6 9 12N 3 6 9 12M 3 6 9 12N 3 6

Figure 26. Drawdown and recovery of water level in well 629-127-3 showing
effects of pumping test, April 8-10, 1960.


APRIL 12



time
started ,














9 12M 3 6 9 1115AM






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 43

The amount and character of the chemical constituents in ground
water are controlled for the most part by the composition of the rocks
through which the water passes; the temperature and pressure of the
water and the duration of contact with the rocks; and the amount of
material in solution or suspension. However, salt-water encroachment can
cause normally fresh ground water to become highly mineralized under
certain conditions.
Most drinking-water supplies in the United States conform to stand-
ards established by the U.S. Public Health Service. Below are some of
the more common constituents and the maximum limits recommended by
the U.S. Public Health Service (1961).

Chloride 250 ppm
Dissolved solids, desirable 500 ppm
Dissolved solids, permitted 1,000 ppm
Iron, manganese, together 0.3 ppm

Iron in quantities greater than that listed above is objectionable
because it imparts a disagreeable taste and it quickly discolors objects
with which it comes into contact. Its presence in ground water is unpre-
dictable as to both depth and location. Fortunately, iron can be removed
easily by aeration and filtration.
The amount of dissolved solids indicates the degree of mineraliza-
tion of ground water.
The words "salt water" as used in this report identify ground water
containing large amounts of chloride. About 91 percent of the dissolved-
solids content of sea water consists of chloride salts. Thus, determinations
of the chloride content of ground water are generally a reliable indication
of the extent to which normally fresh ground water has become con-
taminated with sea water.
Normal sea water has a chloride content of about 19,000 ppm. Some
individuals can taste the salt in water having a chloride content of 500
ppm. If a salty taste is not noticed at this concentration, the water may
have a "flat" taste. Most persons can detect salt in ground water having a
chloride content of 750 ppm or more.
Hardness is a measure of the calcium and magnesium content of
ground water and is customarily expressed as the equivalent of calcium
carbonate. Water having a hardness of less than 60 ppm is rated as soft;
of 60 to 120 ppm, as moderately hard; and of 120 to 200 ppm, as hard.
Water having a hardness of more than 200 ppm ordinarily requires soften-
ing for most uses.






44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

The pH indicates the acidity or alkalinity of the ground water. The
pH scale ranges from 0 to 14, with 7 indicating neutral water. Values less
than 7 denote increasing acidity, and those greater than 7 denote increas-
ing alkalinity.

FLORIDAN AQUIFER
Except in the town of Everglades and vicinity, the Floridan aquifer
in Collier County yields water undesirable for drinking. The chloride
content of the water generally is more than 1,000 ppm. Table 2 gives
the results of the chemical analysis of water samples from certain wells
in the Floridan aquifer.
The high mineralization in the water from the Floridan aquifer is due
to either, or to a combination, of the following factors: (1) Sea water
that was trapped in the sediments at the time they were deposited on
the floor of an ancient sea connatee or residual sea water); (2) sea water
that entered the aquifer during interglacial stages of the Pleistocene
Epoch, when most of Florida was covered by shallow seas; and (3) a
recent salt-water encroachment of the Floridan aquifer. The aquifer has
undergone flushing action, but considerable contaminants remain.
In the vicinity of the town of Everglades, the Floridan aquifer yields
relatively fresh water. In 1960, the chloride content of the water from
individual wells in the municipal well field ranged from 190 to 360 ppm,
and the water from well 550-123-1, south of the field, contained 240 ppm.
Following is a tabulation of the changes of chloride content of the water
from three wells in Everglades (fig. 10, 11):

Date Chloride content, in ppm
Well Well Well
550-123-1 551-123-2 551-123-3
Feb. 1949 __ 278 185
Aug. 1949 98
Apr. 1950 282 186
Jan. 1951 __ 287 186
Sept. 1951 285 192
Mar. 1952 99 295 195
Oct. 1952 95 190
Aug. 1954 106 255 _
Oct. 1959 240 350 _
May 1960 __ 360 190

The relatively low chloride content of water from wells 550-123-1 and
551-123-3 indicates some of the water moving southward from the












TABLE 2. Chemical Analyses of Water from Selected Wells that Penetrate the Floridan Aquifer in Collier County
(All results are in parts per million except thise for color, pH, and specific conductance)


Color


Date
sample
collected



10- 5-35

3-11-57

12- 3-56

4-28-50

4- 8-50

0-23-50

12-15-41


pH






7.7

8.0

7.0

8.0

7.4


Silica
(i802)



0.5

15

17

12

10

33


Iron
(Fe)


Cal-
cium
(Ca)


Bicar-
bonate
(HCOa)


Well
number



550-123-1........

551-123-6........

554-118-3 .......

554-143-1........

550-128-1........

600-115-1........

030-120-1........


Potas-
slum
(K)





20

25

200

1.5

37


Chlo- Flu-
ride cride
(Cl) (F)


Dis-
solved
solids



800

2,070

3,400

0,010

047

2,570


Depth
(feet)



503

530

446

402

302

485

566


0.06 20

.01 63

.02 00

.64 288


Mag-
nesium
(Mg)



26

76

117

167

44

03

99


Hard-
ness as
CaCO,



155

470

728

504

310

552

677


Sodium
(Na)



220

567

9600

1,000

245

725

433


Sulfate
(804)



197

212

455

488

00

372

302


__


0

15

0

0

2

5


106

000

1,400

2,800

310

085

820


0.7

1.0

.5

1.1

1.2


y 0




Specific o
conduct-
ance
(microhmoso
at 25C)




3,480

5,360

8,010

1,060

4,320 0
0
C:82
"........"" z





46 FLORDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLErIN THIRTY-ONE

recharge area (in central Florida) remains relatively uncontaminated
throughout its course to the south end of the peninsula. This fresh-water
zone may constitute only a very thin section of permeable limestone in
the uppermost part of the aquifer.
The increase in chloride content in recent years may be due to the
following: (1) Upward leakage of inferior water, under high pressure,
through open well bores to zones of fresh water under lower pressure,
during a long period of continued water use; (2) upward movement of
inferior water resulting from large drawdowns caused by heavy indus-
trial use of water from deep wells in an area about 2,000 feet north of the
well field.


SHALLOW AQUIFER
Ground-water samples were collected at different depths during the
drilling of test wells and from certain wells. The chemical analyses of the
ground water in the shallow aquifer in Collier County are shown in table
3. Ground-water samples for the analysis of chloride content were taken
from every well inventoried during the investigation. Water from the
aquifer is generally potable and could be used without treatment; how-
ever, it is hard and softeners are used in many systems.
In areas southeast of Naples and near Copeland, residents use com-
mercially bottled water for their drinking supply. This does not mean
that individual water supplies cannot be treated to supply potable ground
water, but rather the expense of treatment may exceed the cost of
bottled water. Ground-water supplies are still used for purposes other
than drinking.
Domestic ground-water supplies in the Immokalee area are obtained
generally from permeable beds in the Hawthorn Formation. This is prob-
ably due to the fact that the water from the Hawthorn beds has less
undesirable constituents such as iron and hardness. However, many wells
penetrating shallow sand or shelly material in the aquifer yield ground
water of good quality which does not require treatment.
The data from table 3 and the analyses reported by Klein (1954,
p. 38-40) show that ground water from the' shallow aquifer in the Naples
area is relatively high in mineral content except along and immediately
east of the coastal area. Figure 27 shows the approximate chloride con-
tent of water samples from wells and surface-water sampling points in
northwestern Collier County. The. complete results from the chloride
sampling are shown in table 4.






( J)I N


EXPLANATION


*,I
123
Well;upper number
is number of well,
lower umber is
depth o wel
5
Surface water
observation point
and station number


Chloride content
(parts per million)

O- 50

51-100

101-250

251-500

More than 500


0 miles


Figure 27, Northwestern Collier County showing chloride content of water from
selected wells and surface-water observation points,


14


3
70(


---~~
!r ka t


123


NAPL


N I I9
i"B191






















15'






















I10




lo'~


1136/






TABLE 3. Chemical Analyses of Water from Selected Wells that Penetrate the Shallow Aquifer in Collier County
(Results in parts per million except those for color, pH, and specific conductance)

Depth of Dis-
ample Date WiTvd Specie
Well below o l- Silica Ircn Cal- M Sodium Potas- Bicr- Sulfate Chlo- Flu- Nitrate solids Hard- coande
number land election (i02) (Fe) cum nmsi m (Na) dor booate (S04) ride oride (NO) (re- n as stance pH Color
(ft) ISM) at 25'C)


159-120-1 44 8-14-59 5.4 0.01 56 5.0 17 0.5 198 10 25 0.2 0.3 220 160 378 8.1 15
606-143-1 142 8-13-59 20 .02 140 15 75 3.0 374 11 180 .0 1.4 781 411 1,140 7.5 8
608-14-4 90 1-16-59 13 2.1 130 8.6 24 .0 386 4.0 48 .1 .0 492 360 747 8.0 0
608-147-22 40 1-11- ........ ................ ....... 4 ........ 314 4.5 2 ....... 1.0........ 244 64 7.7 .....
70 1-14-52 11.0 .10 69 3 8.8 .6 218 4.5 15 .1 .5 241 184 368 7.8 45
609-115-1 28 9- 2-59 10 1.9 144 2.1 1 .3 466 .2 25 .3 .8 478 368 708 7.0 8
609-120-1 90 8-20-59 11 .00 5I 7.7 12 .4 210 .0 15 .2 .1 207 166 364 7.5 5
609-141-1 41 7-16-58 17 .09 160 32 162 5.6 438 77 325 .2 1.5 1,000 731 1.720 7.3 20
609-143-1 44 7-17-58 12 .01 166 15 97 2.6 464 7.5 205 .3 .9 735 572 1,270 7.3 23
610-146-1 28 7-28-68 ........ ........ 119 6.6 35 .7 ........ 10 5 ....... ........ ........ 324 73.............
52 7-28-58 ........ ........ 148 13 102 2.7 ........ 43 202 ........................ 418 1,280 ..............
96 7-28-58 ................ 214 3 315 4.4 ........ 178 65 ........ ........ ........ 682 2,790 ...............
610-147-13 63 3-19-58 11.0 .27 72 .1 9.0 .9 220 1 18 .1 .7 225 ISO 394 7.6 28
612-146-1 85 7-30-58 ........ .03 103 8.0 4 2.3 ......... 10 92 ....................... 290 766 ........ ........
612-148-2 75 1-22-58 ........ .01 68 9 ........ ........ 252 3 15 .5 ......... 229 208 ............ 7.5 18
616-131-1 110 8-10-59 23 .01 70 15 40 4.6 308 14 41 .4 .2 365 236 609 8.1 15
616-141-2 46 7-28-59 10 2.3 170 6.3 26 .2 520 4.4 46 .0 .3 599 474 911 7.1 68
240 3-59 20 .76 196 89 631 21 236 440 1,150 .1 1.0 2,660 1,517 4,530 ....... 5
616-145-1 58 7-20-58 24 1.0 134 29 162 7.2 418 122 275 .3 .1 960 565 1.640 7.3 17
621-135-2 92 7-24-59 25 .78 72 16 39 4.0 336 11 32 .0 .6 370 246 625 7.6 2
625-116-1 54 3-10-55 17 .36 114 19 50 2.6 451 .1 69 .3 2.0 534 353 T87 7.3 75
625-124-1 282 5-16-58 30 .02 98 22 18 1.9 402 4.0 38 .2 .1 407 338 702 7.7 25

SSodium, potamium au odium (S ).


0









0


0





0
0
PT











TAB L 4. Chloride Content, in Parts Per Million, front Selected Wells in Northwestern Collier County
(Depth of sample given in feet below land surface)


Well number


605-14 ,-2.......... ......
605-143-3................
05-143-4 ................
6C5-144-2 ............... ..
607-145-1 ...............

607-146-2.................

60-141-1 .................
609-143-1......... .....
609-143-24................
609-14 -12 ................


610-146-12...............


610-147-5.................




610-147-6................
610-147-7 ................
610-147-9................
610-147-11 ............


Depth
(fees)


32
32
42
83
25
46
120
72
41
44
78
72



28
52
75



32
50
51
20
44
60


Date


1- 2-50
1- 2-50
1- 2-50
1- 2-50
11-17-58
11-17-58
1-16-50
1-16-50
7-14-58
7-17-58
5- 6-54
12-31-52
5-1-53
5- 6-54
2-28-55
7-28-58
7-28-58
2-28-55
3- 7-56
8- 5-58
5- 4-54
3-14-56
7-29-56
3-25-58
8-20-57
8-20-57
8-20-57


Chb>
ride


130
174
134
172
83
92
119
127
325
205
16
168
181
168
169
68
202
20
15
17
20
15
18
59
1,430
22
43


rDeth
(feet) Date


66





64
70






61










90
110
141


. . o ..


........ ..

11-17-58





7-14-58
7-17-58


3- 7-56
2-27-57
3-20-58

7-28-58

6- 8-59
12- 3-59
1- 6-60
3-29-60
3-14-56


1-19-59
8-20-57
8-20-57
8-20-57


Chlo- Depth
rild (fees) D)ate


153





445
580



182
190

242

26
16
15
24
13


59
24
385
385


92





144
123


96










156


. .. .... .. .




11-17-58





7-16-58
7-17-58


3-13-61
4-28-61
5- 2-61

7-28-58

8-15-60
3-13-61
4-28-61
5-19-61





8-21-57
5- 4-59
6- 8-59


Chlo-
Mde-
ride









304





885
1,750


158
156
170

655

34
22
34
36





965
352
340


Depth
(feet)









110


I -


Date









11-18-58






7-17-58


5- 8-61
6- 6-61
7-14-61

7-29-58

6-16-61
7-14-61
8-11-61






12- 3-59'
1- 6-60
3-29-60


Chlo-
rida









472



. ...... $


1,250


186
166
162

875 Z

30
28
30






615
470
1,020







610-147-12................ 17 8-21-57 29 61 8-21-57 73 100 8-22-57 69 ........ 3-26-58 72
40 8-21-57 23 80 8-22-57 55 133 8-22-57 67
610-147-13 ............... 16 3-19-68 18 24 3-19-58 19 63 3-19-58 18 ...........................
610-147-22 ............... 142 3-29-60 20 ........ 4-26-61 50 ......... 518-61 38 ....... 7-14-61 34
3-15-61 24 ........ 5- 2-61 26 ........ 6-16-61 32
610-147-23................. 64 3- 7-52 11 157 3-14-56 28 ........ 3-29-60 14 ........ 5-19-61 46
84 3- 7-52 8 ......... 3-20-58 25 ........ S-15-61 24 6-16-61 39 B
120 3-14-56 18 ........ 2-13-50 21 ....... 3-13-61 14 ........ 7-14-61 34
130 3-14-56 17 ........ 3- 4-59 17 ........ 4-26-61 58 ........ -11-61 34
140 3-14-56 16 ........ 12- 3-59 21
610-148-1................. 33 8-16-56 22 59 8-16-56 25 ........ ........ ... ................... ........
610-148-2....... .......... 60 8-16-56 18 166 5- 4-59 79 166 3-13-61 34 166 5-19-61 48
123 3-20-58 16 166 6- 8159 60 168 4-26-61 40 166 6-16-61 40
145 3-20-58 32 166 3-20-60 44 166 5- 2-61 42 166 7-14-61 38
166 3-20-58 85 166 8-15-60 68
610-148-................. 35 8-17-56 14 58 8-17-56 13 ........ ........... ...................... ... .. .
611-147-7................ 14 11-12-59 34 .. ............................... ............. .................
611-148-2 ................ 14 11-12-59 30 .................. .. .... ........ ....... ........................
612-146-1 ................. 28 7-29-58 67 72 7-30-58 78 100 7-30-58 97 123 7-30-58 151
48 7-29-58 90
612-147-1 ................. 55 11-13-58 28 ....................... ...... ............................. ......... ........
612-148-4 ................ 14 11-11-59 24 ............................................. ................................
61 -147-1................. 60 11-13-8 34 ... ............. ....... ...... ...... ... ... ............ ........
614-146-1...... ....... 20 11-18-68 70 61 11-18-58 176 82 11-18-58 260 103 11-19-58 260
614-147-1 ................ 60 11-13-58 38 ................. ......... ... .... ................. .......
614-147-2................. 14 11-11-59 19 ........ .. ..... ... .... .... .. ............ .0....
614-148-1.......... 14 11-11-59 18.,,..
614-148- 14 11-11-59 .................. 70 -29........-........ 190 ................... ......... ........
615-146-3................. 70 3-294f0 190
615-147-21................ 100 3-28-60 314 ................................................. ............. ........
015-147-2,................. 61 3-28-60 200.. ..... .. ... ... ......
615-147-3....... ....... 67 3-28-60 530 ........... ........ .... .. ...... ...... ...... ..... ..... ...
______--------------------------------------------










T'AmI. 4,-(Couthltlud)


Well lu1llllllB'1


015-147-4 ............... .



010-147-5 .................
010-141-1 ................



010-145-1. ... ... I .. .. .
010-140-2 .................
017-140-1 .................


Depth
(feit) Dato


D)opth
(foot)


72
45
14
20
25
40
58
50


)Data


38-2.i-60
3-20-110
11-11-50
7-18-58
7-20-50
7-20-50
7-20-58
8-28-00


Chla.
lido


101
200
51
87
28
40
275
200
45
51


I 1Chlo
Dato ride


Ohlo-
rido








72




044
000


I ~~~I---- r --II


1D2ate








7-20-50




12-21-58


20 1 11-21-58
44 11-24-58


00




80
82


Chll- Dopth
rhil (fout)


.'. .. .. .. .





140 2410




2,400 141


7-20-50




12-21-58
12-21-58


Depth
(foot)








140




100


1,150




2,100


8-8-50




12-21-58






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLTIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 51

Chemical analyses of water samples from wells along the coastal ridge
indicate the presence of a hard limestone water that is suitable, for most
uses, with or without chemical treatment. As ground water must seep
through a considerable thickness of sand and rock to reach the producing
zones in the aquifer, it is generally free of harmful bacteria and sus-
pended material. However, it dissolves some of the rocks through which
it moves and this action is aided by the presence of carbon dioxide
which is absorbed by rainfall from the atmosphere and from organic mate-
rial in the soil. Calcium and bicarbonate, from the solution on calcium
carbonate in the limestone, are the principal ions in ground water in most
of the coastal ridge area.
The high mineral content of the ground water east of the coastal
strip is due primarily to constituents derived from sea water, in addi-
tion to the calcium and bicarbonate derived from the limestone in the
aquifer. The chloride content of the water ranges from less than 100 ppm
to more than 2,000 ppm and may come from three possible sources: (1)
Direct movement inland from the sea and along tidal reaches of streams;
(2) residual sea water left in the sediments at the time of deposition or
during former invasions of the sea; and (3) upward movement of salty
water from deeper artesian aquifers.

SALT-WATER CONTAMINATION
Under normal conditions, coastal aquifers discharge fresh ground
water into the ocean at or seaward of the coastline. Large withdrawals of
ground water from these aquifers can cause the seaward movement to
decrease or reverse, thereby causing salt water to enter the aquifer and
move inland to contaminate the wells. This phenomenon is called salt-
water intrusion or salt-water encroachment.
Considerable study has been made of the phenomenon. The Ghyben-
Herzberg theory assumed (1) that an interface exists between fresh and
salt water due to the difference in their densities, (2) no flow is present
in either the fresh- or salt-water zone, and (3) the water table slopes
seaward. From these assumptions the following equation was developed:
hf
Z=
Ps-Pf
where Z = depth to salt water, in feet below mean sea level; hf = height
of fresh water, in feet above mean sea level; and Ps Pf = the difference
in densities of salt water and fresh water. If standard figures are inserted
for the two densities, the equation becomes:
Z = 40 hf







52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE


EXPLANATION
h heiqpn ot fresh wator. in
tfet above mean sea evel
i*depth to salt water, In feet
below mean sea level
Moflet, iIllustrate, how
relation wo'd 00per o reproduced
in loborttory.


SEA WATER

Figure 28. Idealized sketch of fresh-water and salt-water distribution in an uncon-
fined coastal aquifer to illustrate the Ghyben-Herzberg relation.


According to this principle, for every foot of fresh ground-water head
above mean sea level in coastal aquifers there will be 40 feet of fresh
water below mean sea level (fig. 28).
However, this principle assumes that the fresh water is static and for
this reason gives only approximately the position of the interface. An
exact equation for determining the shape and position of the interface
with a known rate of discharge of fresh water under one set of boundary
conditions (fig. 29) has been devised by Glover (1959) for an analogous
problem of free-surface gravity flow:

y'- 2Q x- Q2 =0
rk ^y2k
x = distance measured horizontally landward from shoreline (feet).
y = distance measured vertically downward from sea level (feet).
Q = fresh-water flow per unit length of shoreline (square feet per second).
k = permeability of the strata carrying the fresh-water flow (feet per sec-
ond).
-y = excess of the specific gravity of sea water over fresh water (dimension-
less).

Figure 29 is a comparison of Glover's interface with that of
Ghyben-Herzberg. Because the interface is in a hydrodynamic rather than
a hydrostatic balance, it is farther seaward.






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA


rfoce. Sea level'-


So t


water


(After Glover, 1959)
Figure 29. Sketch showing the fresh-water-salt-water interface according to the
potential theory and the Ghyben-Herzberg principle.

Kohout (1960) showed, from field observations made at Miami, that
the actual salt-water interface is farther seaward than is indicated by
either principle in figure 29, not only because of seaward flow of the
fresh ground water, but also because of the cyclic flow within the salt-
water front. Cooper (1959) expressed the hypothesis of salt-water cyclic
flow and referred to the salt-water-fresh-water contact not as an inter-
face but as a zone of diffusion wherein salt water moves inland along
the aquifer floor, moves upward into the zone of diffusion, and then
returns to the sea.
From the above brief and general history of salt-water encroachment
studies, it can be seen that the Ghyben-Herzberg relation will give the
maximum extent that the salt-water front will move inland under a
specific set of hydrologic conditions.
In Collier County, contamination of the ground water by salt-water
encroachment has occurred chiefly in coastal areas adjacent to major
streams and drainage canals that flow to the ocean. These waterways
enhance the possibility of sea-water encroachment in two ways: (1)
They lower ground-water levels, thereby reducing the fresh-water head
opposing the inland movement of sea water; and (2) they provide access
for sea water to move inland during dry periods.


~_~~_ ~_ ~ _






54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

RECENT AND RESIDUAL ENCROACHMENT
The Naples area is vulnerable to two types of salt-water contamina-
tion: (1) Sea water can move laterally inland directly from the Gulf of
Mexico, Naples Bay, and the lower part of the Gordon River that is
affected by tides; and (2) chemical analyses (table 3) indicate that salty
water at depth east of Naples is probably residual sea water trapped
during the deposition of the sediments or that it entered the sediments
when the sea covered the Naples area during Pleistocene time.
Examples of both types of encroachment are shown by data collected
during the drilling of well 610-147-11, east of the well-field extension and
near the upper tidal reach of the Gordon River (fig. 14, 15). Chloride
analyses of water samples taken from test well 610-147-11, as shown in
figure 14, indicate that salt water from the Gordon River had infiltrated
downward to a depth of about 25 feet below msl in the uppermost lime-
stone bed of the aquifer. The salt-water contamination from the
river was reported to have caused the loss of several rows of litchi trees
near the river in the Caribbean Botanical Gardens (fig. 21).
Litholigic and chloride data from well 610-147-11 (fig. 14, sec. E-E')
show that the uppermost layer of limestone is underlain by 10 feet of
marl which separates shallow water of high chloride content from deeper
water of low chloride content. The difference in the quality of the water
may be caused by either, or a combination, of the following factors:
(1) The marl layer is sufficiently impermeable to form an effective seal
between the upper and lower limestones; (2) well 610-147-11 is near the
Gordon River, a discharge area, and the pressure head in the lower part
of the aquifer is greater than it is in the shallow part, thus preventing the
downward movement of salty water.
The high chloride content below 130 feet in well 610-147-11 indicates
that salt water has moved inland beneath the Gordon River, presum-
ably as a result of local lowering of the ground-water levels in the adja-
cent drainage area. The fluctuation of chloride content of water sam-
ples collected periodically from a depth of 156 feet below the land
surface reflects the movement of the salt front deep in the aquifer in
response to changes in ground-water levels (table 3). The low chloride
content of the water at a depth of 135 feet in well 610-147-12 (table 4)
indicates that in 1958 the deep salt wedge had not reached that well.
The extent of the salt-water encroachment at depth in the Coco-
hatchee River basin has not been determined because of the lack of
deep observation wells near the lower reaches of the river. However,
the presence of water containing 664 ppm of chloride at a depth of 60






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 55

feet and 2,400 ppm of chloride at a depth of 103 feet below the land
surface in well 617-146-1 suggests the possibility of recent encroachment
beneath canals that extend inland from the river. A determination of the
origin of this high chloride content can be made by periodic sampling of
the well and complete chemical analysis of the water.
Extensive encroachment from the sea has not occurred west of the
well field, although water levels in the area are lowered by pumping
in the well field and numerous canals extend inland from the gulf. How-
ever, inland movement of salt water is indicated by a fluctuation of
chloride content of samples, taken periodically from March 1958 to July
1961, that ranged between 34 and 85 ppm at a depth of 166 feet in well
610-148-2.
Major encroachment probably is being retarded by the high ground-
water levels (fig. 16, 18, 19). The hydrographs of wells 610-148-2 and
610-147-11 correlate closely; accordingly, the long-term hydrograph of
well 610-147-11 (fig. 16) suggests that the water levels in well 610-148-2
probably averaged between 4 and 5 feet above sea level during the
period 1958 through September 1959, a period of heavy rainfall and above
normal ground-water levels. The head of fresh ground water above sea
level would indicate that fresh water extends to the base of the aquifer
at this point. Encroachment may be retarded also by beds of marl in the
aquifer, which probably extend seaward under the gulf.
Although the encroachment of salt water toward the well field has
been slight, the salt-water front near well 610-148-2 indicates that long-
term lowering of ground-water levels caused by extension of the canal
system or increased pumping during a long dry period might cause en-
croachment that would endanger the well field.
Because the chloride content of the water is an indicator of changes
in mineral content, the data in figure 27 show that highly mineralized
water occurs north of Naples near the Cocohatchee River and east of
the coastal ridge as much as 10 miles inland from the coast. Comparison
of water-level contour maps (fig. 18, 19) and the topography of the area
indicates that ground-water levels east of the ridge range from 5 to 15 feet
above sea level. The lines of equal chloride content in figures 13, 14, and
15 show that the chloride content of the ground water increases gradually
with depth in the eastern part of the area, but rather sharply in material
of low permeability near the bottom of the aquifer. The high water levels
and the inland location of the Big Cypress area indicate that the high
mineral content of the ground water in that area is not caused by the
recent encroachment of sea water. The high mineral content of ground
water in materials of low permeability in the lower part of the aquifer






56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

suggests that the source of contamination is connate salt water or upward
leakage from the deeper artesian aquifer.
Ground water in the shallow aquifer along the southwestern and
southern coast of Collier County is highly mineralized. The water levels
in the area are not high enough to impede salt-water intrusion from the
gulf.
Poor flushing of the ground water within the shallow aquifer probably
accounts for the high mineralization of the ground water in the interior
of the county. The lack of flushing is caused partly by dense beds of
relatively impermeable limestones at shallow depths retarding the infil-
tration of rainfall. Poor flushing because of retarded rainfall infiltration
is exhibited east of Naples where ground water from shallow depths has
a high chloride content and surface water has a low chloride content.
Also in this area, the water-table gradient is almost flat except adjacent
to tidal streams and Naples Bay. The data obtained from wells 616-141-1
and 616-141-2 indicate drainage in the inland areas can improve the
quality of the ground water in the shallow aquifer. Well 616-141-1 was
drilled July 18, 1958 near a drainage canal which had been completed
prior to that date. At a depth of 26 feet the chloride content of water
from the well was 87 ppm. Well 616-141-2 was drilled July 29, 1959 about
100 yards east and the same distance from the canal. At a depth of
26 feet the chloride content of water from the well was 38 ppm, indicat-
ing that the construction of the canal had steepened the water-table
gradient and caused considerable flushing during the 1-year period.

UPWARD LEAKAGE
Test-drilling information indicates that head differentials large enough
to cause upward leakage do not exist in the shallow aquifer in the county
except in the coastal ridge area in Naples. Moreover, in the central part
of the county, the chloride content of the ground water is relatively low
throughout the entire thickness of the aquifer, which indicates that
contamination would not take place even if upward leakage did exist.
Data pertaining to the possibility of upward leakage of salt water
from deep water-bearing strata were collected during the drilling of well
616-141-2 in the northwestern part and well 609-115-1 in the central
part of the county. Well 616-141-2 was drilled to a depth of 300 feet in
January 1959. The analyses of water samples collected at 46 feet and
240 feet below the land surface are given in table 3. Materials of very
low permeability were penetrated between the base of the shallow aquifer
(about 130 feet below the land surface) and a permeable bed at 230 to
240 feet below the land surface, from which the lower sample was taken.






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 57

Water levels measured as drilling progressed in the section of low perme-
ability ranged from 5.4 to 14.8 feet below the land surface. Water levels
in both the shallow aquifer and the lower permeable zone were less
than 1 foot below the land surface. Water-level measurements in all zones
were made under the same conditions. The extremely high mineral con-
tent of the lower sample from well 616-141-2 indicates a source for con-
tamination of the shallow aquifer from below but the head differential
between the two levels suggests that no upward flow was occurring.
Well 609-115-1 was drilled to a total depth of 700 feet in September
1959. When the well was 28 feet deep, the water level was 0.41 foot
below the land surface and the chloride content was 25 ppm. When
the well was 485 feet deep, the water level was 32 feet above the land
surface and the chloride content was 985 ppm. This indicates that up-
ward leakage can take place from the lower, more mineralized Floridan
aquifer into the overlying shallow aquifer if the confining beds separating
the two aquifers are thin. Leaky casing penetrating the Floridan aquifer
also can permit upward leakage.

SUMMARY
The Floridan aquifer underlies all of Collier County and wells pene-
trating the aquifer flow except in the area of high dunes on Marco
Island. However, except in the town of Everglades and vicinity, the
ground water from the Floridan aquifer is highly mineralized and unsuit-
able for drinking. The Tampa Formation of late Miocene Age is the chief
source of water for the Floridan aquifer in Collier County. The top of the
aquifer is about 400 feet below the land surface.
The shallow aquifer is the principal source of fresh ground water in
Collier County. It comprises the Pamlico Sand, Anastasia Formation, and
permeable limestones of the Tamiami Formation. Marl beds of varying
thicknesses in the upper portion of the aquifer restrict the vertical perme-
ability in certain parts of the county. The shallow aquifer extends from
the land surface to about 130 feet below in the northwestern part of
Collier County, to about 90 feet in the southern part, and to about 60
feet in the central and northeastern parts. The aquifer thins to a feather-
edge along the Dade-Broward County boundary.
Ground water in the shallow aquifer in the Naples area is of good
quality, containing about 250 ppm of dissolved solids. This is due in part
to the high fresh-water head adjacent to the coast and the resultant
flushing of ground water.
The ground water of the shallow aquifer in the same coastal communi-
ties in Collier County is unsuitable for drinking because of contamination






58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

by salt water. Ground water is available in the interior of the county but
it is highly mineralized owing to poor flushing of the aquifer. High con-
centrations of chloride in the area east and northeast of Naples are due
to poor flushing of the aquifer and to residual salt-water contamination.
The results of aquifer tests indicate that the shallow aquifer will pro-
duce large quantities of water with moderate drawdowns in water levels,
especially in areas where surface water can recharge the aquifer. The
topography, drainage pattern, and hydraulic characteristics of the shallow
aquifer in northwestern Collier County indicate that supplies equal to
present water needs can be developed along the eastern edge of the
coastal ridge and the adjacent drainageway. Additional supplies can be
developed from the same area by the use of infiltration in conjunction
with the drainage of inland areas. Present and future well fields may be
safeguarded from salt-control dams near the gulf in major streams.
A continuing appraisal of the quantity and quality of water in storage
in northwestern Collier County will be needed for the maximum develop-
ment of the area. The immediate need is for water-level and streamflow
data for use in the design of a comprehensive water-control system.
Studies of flood-control and drainage systems in southeastern Florida
have shown that, with proper location and operation of salinity controls
and carefully planned overall drainage systems, large inland areas can be
developed for urban or agricultural use without depletion of essential
ground-water resources.







GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA


REFERENCES


Bishop E. W.


1956 Geology and ground-water resources of Highlands County, Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 15.
Cooke, C. W. (also see Parker, G. G.)
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29.
Cooper, H. H., Jr.


1959


Davis, J. H.
1943

Ferguson, G.
Glover, R. E.
1959

Hantush, M.
1956

Jacob, C. E.
1946

Klein, Howar
1954

Kohout, F.
1960

Lichtler, W.


A hypothesis concerning the dynamic balance of fresh water and
salt water in a coastal aquifer: Jour. Geophys. Research, v. 64,
no. 4, p. 461-467.

The natural features of southern Florida, especially the vegetation
and the Everglades: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 25.
E. (see Parker, G. G.)

The pattern of fresh-water flow in a coastal aquifer: Jour. Geophys.
Research, v. 64, no. 4, p. 457-459.
C.
Analysis of data from pumping tests in leaky aquifers: Am. Geophys.
Union Trans., v. 87, no. 6, p. 702-714.

Radial flow in a leaky artesian aquifer: Am. Geophys. Union
Trans., v. 27, no. 2, p. 199.
rd (also see Schroeder, M. C.; Sherwood, C. B.)
Ground-water resources of the Naples area, Collier County, Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 11.
A.
Cyclic flow of salt water in the Biscayne aquifer of southeastern
Florida: Jour. Geophys. Research, v. 65, no. 7, p. 2133-2141.
F.


1960 Geology and ground-water resources of Martin County, Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 23.
Love, S. K. (see Parker, G. G.)
Meinzer, O. E.
1923 The occurrence of ground water in the United States, with a discus-
sion of principles; U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 489.
Parker, G. G.
1944 (and Cooke, C. W.) Late Cenozoic geology of southern Florida,
with a discussion of the ground water: Florida Geol. Survey Bull.
27.
1951 Geologic and hydrologic factors in the perennial yield of the
Biscayne aquifer: Am. Water Works Assoc. Jour., v. 43, p. 817-834.


Parker, G. G.
1955


(and Ferguson, G. E., Love, S. K., et al.) Water resources of
southeastern Florida, with special reference to the geology and
ground water of the Miami area: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply
Paper 1255.


;/







60 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE


Puri, H. S.
1959

Rorabaugh, M. ]
1956


Schroeder, M. C


(and Vernon, R. O.) Summary of the geology of Florida and a
guidebook to the classic exposures: Florida Geol. Survey Spec. Pub. 5.
I.
Ground water in northeastern Louisville, Kentucky, with reference
to induced infiltration: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1360-
B.
..J


1954 (and Klein, Howard) Geology of the western Everglades area,
southern Florida: U.S. Geol. Survey Circ. 314.
1961 (and Klein, Howard) Ground-water resources of northwestern Col-
lier County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 29.


Stewart, H. G., Jr.
1959 Interim report on the geology and ground-water resources of north-
western Polk County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 23.
Stringfield, V. T.
1936 Artesian water in the Florida peninsula: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-
Supply Paper, 773-C.
Theis, C. V.
1938 The significance and nature of the cone of depression in ground-
water bodies: Econ. Geology, v. 33, no. 8, p. 889-902.
Todd, D. K.
1959 Ground-water hydrology: New York, John Wiley & Sons.
U.S. Public Health Service.
1961 Drinking water standards: Am. Water Works Jour., v. 53, no. 8,
p. 939-945.
U.S. Public Health Service
1961 Drinking water standards: Am. Water Works Jour., v. 53, no. 8,
p. 939-945.
Vaughan, T. W.
1910 A contribution to the history of the Floridian Plateau: Carnegie
Inst. Washington Pub. 133, Papers Tortugas Lab., v. 4, p. 99-185.
Vernon, R. O. (see Puri, H. S.)







GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 61

WELL LOGS
WELL 554-143-1
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Beach sand, shell, and fill material ......................0............ .. 0- 13
Sand, quartz, fine, shelly, last 3 feet containing greenish marl ..... 13 33
Sand, quartz, fine; dark green marl, less shell than above ............ 33- 44
Limestone, gray to white, hard, shelly .................................. 44- 58
Limestone, tan to white, ranging from soft to very soft; light tan-
green marl streaks at 128 feet and 153 feet .............................. 58- 193
Sand, quartz, fine to coarse, cemented with CaCOa, quartz grains
are well rounded; greenish marl .......-.............. .......... .............. 193-273
Clay, green, marly, sandy, some shell from above; clay becomes
harder at 330 feet -...................... ............................ ......-------. 273 343
Limestone, yellow, crystalline; phosphatic material; some clay .... 343- 353
Limestone, white, shelly, phosphatic, marly; becomes softer at 373
feet .................................................................................. .. 353 404
WELL 556-128-1


Material


Depth, in feet
below land surface


Sand, quartz, marly ......-.............- .........------------- ..............-......-- 0- 12
Limestone, gray to white, shelly, Pecton shells ...................... .... 12 -162
Limestone, buff to gray; coarse, quartz sand; shell; marl ........... 162- 252
Limestone, buff to gray, shelly; green clay ...................................... 252 262
Clay, marly, sandy, bluish gray, shell -...... ............... ..............-...... 262-292
Clay, dense, tight dark green, becoming sandy at 325 feet, phos-
phatic at 348 feet, and hard zone at 365 .................................. 292- 376
Limestone, light gray to dirty white, marly, phosphatic ............... 376- 392
Note: Well was drilled with rotary drill rig. Samples were washed free of drilling
mud, thereby any sand or silt-size particles were removed.
WELL 559-120-1
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Sand, brown, organic, and limestone fill rock ............................... 0- 10
Limestone, light tan to white, soft, permeable ............................. 10- 44
Sand, quartz, fine to medium, brown; white limestone ..--------...... 44- 50
Sand, quartz, fine to medium, brown .................................... 50 150
Sand, quartz, fine to medium, brown; green clay ...................-....... 105- 126
WELL 606-143-1
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Limestone, light gray to buff, very hard, sandy, marly --.............. 0- 20
Shell, hash, cream to buff, marly, soft ...--..--------- ........................ 20- 30
Limestone, light tan, shelly, phosphatic; permeable ............ 30 60
Limestone, light gray, sandy, some shell, soft; hard zone at 100
feet -----................----.............------------- ----------------- ---- 60- 127
Limestone, light cream to dark gray, soft, sandy shelly ------... 127- 142







62 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ON.

WELL 607-145-1
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Sand, quartz, surface --------- 0- 9
Marl, dark, hard _____ __ 9- 13
Sand, quartz, fine to medium, marly, very shelly _.__ 13- 25
Limestone, white to dark gray, shelly sandy, permeable --....... 25- 92
Sand, quartz, very fine, gray to tan __= __ -- 92- 115
Sand, quartz, very fine to medium, tan to green, phosphatic ...--. 115- 141
WELL 609-115-1
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Sand, black, organic, marly, shelly -.... 0- 24
Sand, quartz, fine, shelly; small amount of limestone .......- ......- 24- 56
Sand, quartz, buff to pink, phosphatic; fossiliferous limestone .... 56- 66
Sand, quartz, very fine, shelly, phosphatic -- ---- 66- 76
Sand, quartz, fine to coarse, white to light gray phosphatic ...... 76- 112
Sand, quartz, very fine, phosphatic; green clay ..------.----..-....---.. 112- 132
Clay, green, tight; quartz sand, decreasing in lower part -............. 132 158
Clay, gray-green, hard; very coarse, phosphatic, quartz sand;
greenish material at 200 feet may be phosphatic, crystalline
limestone or iron-bearing silica -- -----..--- .. 158-238
Clay, gray-green, sandy, phosphatic, shelly --.. -......-.....-....... 238-244
Shell, hash; quartz sand loosely cemented with CaCO.; 3-foot thick
layer of clay at 261 feet _... --......- ------..------.......--....- 244-290
Clay, bluish green, sandy, shelly, phosphatic _---__- 290- 400
Limestone, light gray, friable or "rotten," shelly; abundance of
shell hash at 425-435 feet __ __- __-_ 400-485
Limestone, very light gray to cream, sandy, phosphatic ........--.-.. 485- 530
Limestone, light gray, shelly, phosphatic, clayey .... 530- 570
Clay, green, tight, shelly; light gray limestone ..---..--... ......-...... 570- 575
Limestone, light gray to white, phosphatic, clayey; varying amounts
of shell with depth; very hard limestone zone 3-4 feet thick at
587 feet -_____ -------___ .... -____- 575 700
WELL 609-120-1
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Limestone, light tan, very hard, fossiliferous; very hard ...... 0- 30
Limestone, white to light tan, shelly; pink coating on shells .-..-...- 30- 38
Limestone, white, phosphatic -__- _.--.-- 38- 40
Sand quartz, very fine, white 40- 72
Limestone, white to light gray phosphatic, sandy 72-103
Sand, quartz, silt-size to very coarse, clayey .- 103- 122
WELL 613-148-1
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Sand, fine to medium, brown; organic material -___ 0- 22
Limestone, light gray, sandy, shelly, marly 22- 44








GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA


Limestone, gray, sandy; greenish shelly clay; phosphatic nodules -__
Limestone, gray, shelly, sandy, phosphatic; permeable ....................
Limestone, white, friable, granular; permeable ..........--- ---............
Limestone, light gray, sandy, some shell ----.......................--- ------.....
Sand, quartz, fine to very fine, white ---...-.............................- .....
WELL 614-146-1

Material be
Sand, quartz, yellow ---....-.............--- .....---........-----------..
Sand, quartz, fine, gray; indurated gray limestone -................-
Limestone, gray, sandy, shelly, permeable ...-...-............... .......
Sand, quartz, fine, dark gray, phosphatic, marly -...........................
Limestone, dark gray, sandy, shelly -................- .......
Sand, quartz, medium, limy ... ---.---.--.------------


WELL 616-131-1

Material


he


Sand, dark-brown, organic -----......... ........ ....................
Limestone, sandy, light tan to gray --..-.....................---.. .............
Limestone, light gray, clay, sandy ---..--.-.. --.................--....
Clay, green, soft; light gray limestone ---..----..................................
Clay, green, soft, sandy, shelly ---..............----.---.. ---................
Limestone, light to dark gray, hard, shelly, phosphatic and sandy
in lower part; very permeable ------..................---..--.... ................--


WELL 616-141-2

Material bel
Limestone fill rock and sand ..........------........ ---------------
Shell, hash, cream colored; limestone, marly ---..--........................
Limestone, light cream, shelly, phosphatic ---....--...-....................
Limestone, white to dark gray; light green clay in varying
amounts ........... ------------------------------------------------
Limestone, gray, sandy; sand-filled cavity at 105 feet .....-..........----
Clay, gray-green, soft, sandy, phosphatic ...-...-..-.....................-------
Limestone, light cream, sandy, phosphatic -.--..-........................--- .....
Limestone, very shelly, clayey, and phosphatic; clay increasing -...
Limestone, white and gray, clayey, phosphatic .---............................
Clay, green, sandy, phosphatic; gray limestone ................................
Clay, green, sandy, hard ....................................................................
WELL 617-146-1


Material


be


44- 48
48- 72
72- 128
128-136
136 -142


Depth, in feet
low land surface
0- 4
4- 17
17- 39
39- 44
44- 85
8 115


Depth, in feet
low land surface
0- 10
10- 20
20- 40
40- 60
60- 80

80 -130


Depth, in feet
ow land surface
0- 10
10- 35
35- 46

46- 90
90 -150
150- 160
160 -170
170 220
220 -240
240 270
270-300

Depth, in feet
low land surface


Sand, quartz, dark, organic .------........----------.......- ......-.......... 0- 1
Limestone, gray, fossiliferous, very hard, impermeable ..--------... 1- 23
Sand, quartz, medium, gray to white, shelly; dark gray to tan
limestone ------------------------------------- ----------------------2. 23- 55
Clay, dark green --- ------------ ---- ---- 55- 75
Marl, green, shelly limestone in lower part; permeable ---.--..----..- 75- 94







64 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

Limestone, white; sandy in lower part; permeable -_____ ---- 94 121
Sand, quartz, very fine, white phosphatic --- 121 141

WELL 621-135-2
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Fill material __ __-- ____ 0- 10
Sand, quartz, medium, tan; gray limestone; shell in lower part --.. 10- 40
Clay, marly, shelly, greenish tan -__--_ ---_.- 40- 60
Limestone, dark gray, shelly, becoming sandy in lower part --...- 60- 90
Sand, quartz, very fine, limy, clayey, phosphatic .._-.....- 90- 95
Limestone, buff-colored, phosphatic, sandy, becoming shelly in last
7 feet; permeable -- ___ 95- 123

WELL 621-136-5
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Sand, quartz, fill material, and organic material ___ 0- 10
Shell, tan, hash, fill material ..__ ..... ........_ ...... 10- 20
Limestone, light gray and shell hash ____ 20- 30
Limestone, light gray, sandy, marly, becoming harder and darker
gray at bottom; permeable -------- 30- 55
Limestone, gray to white, with greenish gray clay, sand, and
phosphatic material in lower part; permeable _- 55-118
Sand, quartz, very fine; white and gray limestone fragments .--.. 118- 120
Sand, quartz, fine, white _____- -.-------- .------- 120- 130
WELL 622-125-2
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Sand, quartz, fine to medium, organic material 0_-_. ... 10
Sand, quartz, fine, gray, marly, phosphatic, clay in lower part __ 10- 35
Marl, sandy, green, phosphatic 35- 48
Limestone, white to gray; fine to medium quartz sand, abundance
of white and black shell fragments __-- 48- 53
Sandstone, probably CaCO, cement ____ 53- 60
Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, becoming finer 60- 120


WELL 625-123-3
I
Material bel
Surface sand, fill, and organic matter ..----- ....-----.... ......-..-
Sand, quartz, fine, dirty white, becoming whiter with depth; marl,
light brown, decreasing in amount with depth; phosphatic ma-
terial in lower part
Sand, quartz, fine, gray _____--_
Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, gray, phosphatic material
Sand, quartz, medium, poorly consolidated, marly _
Clay, greenish gray, sandy, marly, becomes green in lower part ..
Sand, quartz, coarse, marly; tightly cemented sandstone in lower
part


)epth, in feet
ow land surface
0- 10


10- 37
37- 70
70- 80
80- 90
90-110


110-129







GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA

Sand, quartz, medium, marly; semi-indurated gray limestone ...._- 129- 145
Sand, quartz, coarse; phosphatic material; dark green soft clay in
lower part .._.................. .__ .......... _. 145 171
Clay, sandy, dark green; phosphatic material ___ ..-.-__ .. 171- 175
Clay, sandy, light gray; white limestone ----_ ........-........... 175- 177
Limestone, white to buff, sandy, phosphatic material _.. 177- 190
Sand, quartz clear to gray, coarse; limestone fragments; phosphatic
material .-- ---____--..---..----- -----_ --..... 190 212


Clay, marly, light gray to green; fine to medium quartz sand;
phosphatic material ----......--...-....-- ...---- ......


212-303


WELL 626-123-1
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Sand, quartz, medium, brown, marly; organic material -___.._ 0- 10
Sand, quartz, medium, light brown, shelly, marly; becomes very
shelly in lower part ___......._ .............................. 10- 30
Sand, quartz, very fine, gray, phosphatic 30- 40
Sand, quartz, coarse, gray, clayey, phosphatic; contains corals;
sand becomes pebble size in lower part ----__.___- .------...... 40- 60
Sand, quartz, very fine, light gray, phosphatic; becomes coarser
with dark green marl in lower part --_.---. -_---_-----......._ ...... 60- 100
Sand, quartz, coarse to pebble-size; sandstone; shell fragments;
dark green marly clay -- -----....................____... -- .... 100-116
Sand, quartz, coarse to pebble-size; green marly clay -.----------. 116 140
Sand, quartz, very fine, gray, marly, clayey, phosphatic ...-----..... 140- 150

WELL 626-126-1
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Sand, quartz, fine to medium, white to gray --........_.. ....-. -. ... 0- 15
Sand, quartz, fine to very coarse, well rounded, white, becoming
finer in lower part ___ ____ 15- 41
Sand, quartz, fine, gray, with phosphatic material ---................. 41- 50
Sand, quartz, coarse to very coarse, white well rounded; phos-
phatic material ------......- ........ --.................-.... --...... --. 50- 73
Sand, quartz, gravel-size, white to gray; phosphatic material ------- 73- 85
Sand, quartz, fine to very fine, white to pink; green-blue clay;
light brown to buff marl ____.--- --________- ___ 85- 95
Sand, quartz, fine, marly __ ...___ .___. 95- 123








'I'Ausli 5, Well liucours In Colltier County, FloridU



Aquifer: I, shallow aquifer; F, Floridan aquifer, Remarks: W- is the Florida Geological Survey well number,
UseI PL, public supply; 0, observation; D, domestic; T, test (if not noted in remarks section, it refers to a well drilled for water and earth samples); Ir, Irrigation; 8, stock; In, Industrial,



Cuing Measuring point Water level Yield Chloride


Above
Year Depth Above Eleva or Tae.
Well Owner Driller com. ofwell Aqui- or tion below pera- Use Remarks
number pleted (feet) Depth Diam- fer below above (-) Date of Qal- Parts D.e ,ture
(feet) eter Description land meau mes measur- Ions per per sampled ('F)
(inches) surface sea uing met minute million
(feet) level point
(feet)


680--126-1 Humble Oil Co......


Atlantic Coast Line..

do ,,. ..., ,,...
J. Houghteling......

do............

Atlantic Coast Line..
J. Houghteling......

do..... .. ....


Mays Bros..........




B. and D. Well
Driller.... ........
do..... .....




B. and D. Well
Drillers ... ......
do............
....................

Driller ..........
do............


.................... J. H. W hatley......


Collier Corp........ .............
do............ ......., .........
do............ ...................
.................... J. M W hatley......


1941






1950
1982



1502
1052


56
106



56
55

660


20
20

1,110


48




40
.......


Top of 41-inch casing.

Top of 4-inch dis-
charge pipe........
do, ,........, .
Lower edge of 21-inch
elbow..............
Top of (-inch casing..

Land surface.........
Top of 3-inch
coupling ..........
Top of 6-inch casing..

Top of 6-inch dis-
charge pipe........

Top of 0-inch casing..
do.............

Top of galvanized ex-
tension on discharge
pipe ..............


1.0 ......


2.0 .......


1.5 ..
.5 .

.0 .... .

1.0 ...
1.3 ..


2.0 ...

.0 .
1.0 .. .
... .......


11.5 12-15-41


16.4
16.0

- 6.45
- 7.48

23.5

- 4.40
- 4.61
-4.74

21.8

-10.35
- 0.39



11.7


10- 9-50
10- 9-59

8-13-52
8-13-52

10- 9-50

8-13-52
8-13-52
10- 0-59

10- 9-50

5- 8-59
5- 8-50



10- 8-509


350 ...... .......... 82


150 825 10-0-59 80
1,030 10- 9-59 80


150


17

1,100

17


....
8-13-50

10- 0-50

8-13-52


....... 10- 0-59

48 5- 8-59
35 5- 8-59



1,100 10- 8-5


84.5



84.5


Oil exploratory
























Flowing wild


630-123-1

-2
-8

-4

630-122-1
-2

-3

629-120-1


629-127-1
-2
-8
-4




Collier Corp ............................

Bud Fredricks ...... Miller Bros.........
do............ do............

Atlantic Land and
Tn m-n.. V M W? htl .


629-124-1
-2



-2


62 -124-1
-2

627-127-1


.627-120-1



-i 3



S. .

2 -`127-1
620-127-1


62-126-1
, 2-1: 1 a
*' i'.j .i i


-2

,626-128-1
'626-121-1

S625-126-1
-2
-8
-4
-4


1 'l B


ey ......
.................... .......
.................... .......

Paul Dukes ......... .......
. ................... .......


Bud Fredricks......
do............




University of Florida
Agricultural Ex-
periment Station..
do............
....................


Stokes............. ......... ... .... ... ......
do............ ............. ....... .......


Frank Corbett...... ................... 1958

USGS........... Miller Bros......... 1959

Kenneth Glidden... ................... .......
Knox Blount........ Dave Buschmann.... 1057

USGS............. Miller Bros......... 1059

Collier Corp........ Ray Messer......... 1953

do............ Mays Bros.......... 1041
Tom Lynn.......... D. Buschmann...... 1057
R. M. Anderson.... do............ 1957


do........ ...


do...........


26

55
55


702



46-55
800?

750





184
184
682

80
35


40

123

258
230

153

33

753
227
65
35


304



80








168
,......
.,,,.,,


40

84


210

144

23

228
200
65
35


Top of 6-inch casing.,




Top of discharge
pipe..............
do............
do.............


.........surface......... ....
Land surface .0 38


Top of 4-inch dis-
charge pipe........


...... Land surface.........
...... ....................
F Top of 6-inch elbow...

S Top of 4-inch casing..
S Top of 4-inch un-
threaded casing....


S



F

S
S


Top of 2-inch casing..



La.. d ur c...........
.....................

Land surface .........


1.3 ...
2.0 .......
1.0 ......


2.0 I......


- 7.74 5- 8-50


...... ..........


20.0 10- 9-50
20:0 10- 9-59
24.0 10- 9-59


9.0 5- 7-59


16.1



-10.0

19.2

- 7.2f

- 5.91



- 5.2




- 4.34


.....Land .....surfac... ... .. ........ ... .. .......7
Land surface ........ 0 ...... -18.0 8- -67
............. ........ ....... ....... ..... .. .... ...


10- 8-59



5- -50

10- 8-59

6- 2-59

6- 2-59



0-23-59


700
.......


90
100



50


15






50


55


83

38
48


080
1,120
1,090

138
520


1,120




75
1,018

62

30

28

20

39
19


5- 8-60





10- 0-59
10- 9-59


5- 7-59
5- 7-59


10- 8-69




3-10-59
10- 8-59

6- 2-59

6- 2-59

3- 4-50

8-23-59

3-25-50
3-25-50


78.5



70
81
81

75
80


82.5






83


7-12-90 1....... .. ....... .....


25
...


23
42
25


3- 4-50
4- 5-509
4- 5-59


81


......


. Whatley..... .......
do............ 1987
do............ .....


Oil exploratory


1 I I










TAnLe 5. (Continued)


Cuiug Measuring point Water level Yield Chloride


Above
Year Depth Above Eleva- or Tern
Well Owner Driller corn of well Aqul. or tion below pera. Use lAmulk
number pleted (feet) Depth Diam- fer below above (-) Date of Gal- Parts Date ture
(feet) eter Description land mean meas- meuur. lons per per sampled ('F)
(inches) surface sea during ment minute million
(feet) level point
(feet)


H.E. McDaniel,...
do............
J. 0. Dupree........
Cha. Scott.........
L. H. Grous........
Lloyd Brown..... .

Collier County Board
of Public Instruction
do ............
Immokalee Gas.....
Mr. Shirlins........
Mrs. Betheas.......
do ... .......
do ............

Florida State Agri-
culture Marketing
Board............
J. M. Whatley......
Atlantio Coast Line..


..,,..............

D. Beschmann......
O. B. Fowler........
D. Busohmann......
J. M. Whatley......


Fred's Barn,......
J. M. Whatley......
do...........
D.Buschmann......
do............
do...........
do...........



J. M. Whatloy.....
do..........
.............. ,


625-126-8
-6
-7
-8
-0
-10

628-128-1

-2
-3
-4
-0
-6
-7

628-124-1


-2
-3

625-123-1
-2
-3
-3


1040

1057

1959
1088
1957
1095




1981


1047
1984
1054



1098

1010
1080
1050
1090
10980


125

180
210


103
......
70








208



24
20
254


s
8










F
S






S
S
F
F


8
8


Land surface......... ........ -13.5 4- -56
do...................... ..... 10.0 3-25-59
Top of 6-inch casing. 1.5 ...... .0 10-22-40


80
...oo



......


3-27-50
3-27-50
3-27-50
3-27-59
3-27-50
3-27-80


3-13-80
3-13-89
8-17-58
3-25-50
3-27-50
3-27-80
8-27-59


250 ...... ..............
100 1,040 3-2-0 ....
..... ...... ......... 78


Land surface....................... -10.881 7- 8-59 1....... 38 I 7- 8-50 1......


Collier Corp...... ......... ... .......
do.... .............. ........
USGS............ Miller Bros........


....... I .......... ..
........,....,,.....
... I ,... ........ I ,,....
.....................
............... ,..
.....................


... .. ... ....1. .....
. ,. ...............


.....................
.. .... ..............

.............,,,.....





02o-116-1

-2


' -9
624-126-1

-2
-83

,62-128-1

627133-1

622-125-1


-2
621-135-1
-2

-3
'-4

621-134-1

621-132-1

621-131-1
S -2
-3
-4
-6

621-180-1

620-185-1

610-180-1

618-184-1
-2


do...........

Collier Corp.........

Collier County Board
of Public instruction
Florida Forest Service
Mrs. Carl MoPhail...

Collier Corp ........

Hdmble Oil Co.....

Don Lucas.........
USGS.,........


Collier Corp........
USG8.............

Sam Shaw..........
do.. .........

Collier Corp........

do...... ....

do.. ..........
do ... ..... .
do.. .........
do...........
USGS..............

Collier County......

do............

Humble Oil Co......

Collier Corp........
do............


B. and D. Well
Drillers..........
....................


J. M. Whatloy......
D. Busebmann......
........ .........

............. o.

LofflandBros.......

........ ...........
Miller Bros.........


do s...........











or o ll.........
........... I........
....................












J. ........ ......
do... .. .......
.. .... .....o,, .
Miller Bros .........


....................




Dorris Ballow .......

J. M. Whatley ...... .
do ............ .


1052



1050
1968
1964



1940


1069



1069




















1940


64
61


278
107
100

37

12:210


120


60
129





84

116

92
112
105
105
130

82

03

11,000

18
31


22



218
104








112



120














123


4
4
2

60





2


8
2

8
8

4

8

8
8
8
8



2
8

8

20

8
8


8
8

S





8










8
8



8
8

8







8


0 1


Top of 8-inch casing..
Top of 2-inch casing..

Top of 8-inch casing..
do.............

Top of 8-inch casing.

do..... ........

do.............
do., ........ .,
do ..... ... ,
do...... .......


Top of 8-inch casing..

do.........

o. ... ... .....

Top of 8-inch casing..
do.............


Top of 6-inch casing..
Top casing..........


Land surface........
do..........


Top of 6-inch casing..

..................... .


..................... .


.0 ....
.6 .....


.0 ... .
.0 ... ..
.. ........


-2.77
-2.20


4.0
-3.0


-3.96








2.36
2.38




2.74

1.66

4.36
3.07
1.74



3.42

1.74



1.98
- 1.38


6-11-52
6-17-68


2- -60
1056
...... 1.

3-16-60



..........



3-24-59
7-24-69

..........


3-24-69

3-24-69

3-16-50
3-17-69
3-24-59
..........


3-17-59

3-23-69

.... ....


.5 .. .







.0 ......
.5.








.3


.6 .6 .....
.0 .......








....... .......

.05 ......
S.......


600



100


66
70


26
24
68

31



20
20


34
38




49

85

51
111
67

44

48

66



47
34


6-11-59 ......
6-17-68 ......


3-10-59
3-13-69
3-27-569

3-16-69



3-10-69
7-14-59


3-24-50
7-24-69

..........


3-24-59

3-24-69

3-16-59
3-17-69
3-24-59

7-21-59

3-17-59

3-23-69



3-10-50
3-16-59


T
Ir


PS
D
D

S

T

D
T


Ir
T




Ir

Ir

Ir
Ir
Ir

T

Ir

Ir

T

Ir
Ir


3-10-69 ......
3-16-60 .......


Oil exploratory,
W-2103

Chloride sample
taken at 50-3 .
foot interval

Chloride sample
taken at 86-93
foot interval


















Oil exploratory,
W-1886



i!










TAL N 5, (Continued)


Owner


Tony Roebough.....

do.. ..........
do... .........

Collier Corp.......:

Tony Rosbough .....
do.. ........
do............



do............

Mr. Baker..........

C. B. Lambertaons...

6-L Farms..........

John Pulling........
Palm River Estates..

UGS..............


Driller


Miller Bros.........

do...... ..
do. .........

Carl May .........

J. M. Whatley .....
do ...........
do......... .



do...........

Chb Rivere.........

do...........

Miller Bros.........

do ..... .
Chis Rivers.........

Carl May..........


Year Depth
com- of well
pleted (feet)


1058

1958












1956
1088

1058



1959


1960

1958


Casuis


Depth
(feet)


124

















42


Diam-
eter
(inches)


Measuring point



Above Eleva.
or tion
below above
Description land mean
surface sea
(feet) level


. ,,,.., ....... .. ,


..... ... ,,.*.. ,.. ,

Land surface .........
. ..* I *......... .. ......
Top of 6.inch casing.,





do ...., ..






.....................

Top of 13/-inch cuing


2,381


Water level I Yield


Above
or
below
(-) Date of
meas- measur-
uring ment
point
(feet)


25.0

- 5.03


..........




6-12-'01

5- 0-80


asl. Parts
lone per per
minute million


800

1,000
800



250
1,000




800

.......

**....,.


618-184-8

618-188-1
-2

617-140-1

617-184-1
-2
-8



617-182-1


616-148-1
616-148-1

4 016-147-1

S 16-146-1
-2

8: 6186145-1


56

50
37

2,100

785
61
71



43

80

43




290

275


Chloride


sampled


8-17-50

8-17-59
3-17-59

12-21-58

3-16-50
8-17-59
4-22-59



3-17-89

12-29-59

1- 5-60




3- 2-00


Well
number


8.2 I...... ....... .., ...... ......


Remarks


Equipped with
continuous
waterlevel
recorder


Tem.
pera.
ture
('F)


7-20-58 .....


I I I I I- I I 1------------- 1-----1------1 1 I I I I -I I





616-141-1 USGS.............. CarlMay ..........


do............ Miller Bros.........


do..........


615-149-1 Claude Grimm......
S -2, Mr. Van Camp......


US.GS.............

C. L.Foster........
Mks. Downing......
R.P. Boyd........
Myrtle E. Wilkens...
Mr. Kopen.........
M. A. Tropf.......
Earl Craig .........
do...........

Ralph May.........
do............
do............
do ............
6-L Farms..........
do ...........

do............
do............
do ............
John Pulling.......
do............
6-L Farms........

Collier Corp ...,,..

USGS..............


Doyle Hodges......


-2


616-136-1


do............

Chiz Rivers.........
do .......

USGS .... ........


Chia Rivers.........
do............
do... .......
Sweet..............

Chia Rivers........
do...........

do ............
Miller Bros ........
do ............
do............
do ............
do... .. ..... .

do............
do ............
do .... .......
do............
do ............
do. ...........

C. E, Failing Co ....

USGS.............


Carl May .........


1958

1050


1959

1960
1085


1959


1950






1060

1000
1950
19807
1960






1959
1969
1050

1959
1959


1959
1959'
1959


1989
1050
1942


1059


19088


51

300


130

60
40

11


51
48
35

56
53
41

100
61
07
72
45


65
65
65
65
70
30

1,100

11


65


9


61

282


125





0


42


do.............


Top of l-inch casing

.....................
... ....... ......,....
................, .,
......I.......... .
.... .........,.... ...
...... .......... ....
.....................
.....................




.... .................
.....................
....................


.....................
.........,..... .., ..
.. ..,.........,..
.....................
I ... I. ..... I..,....,I.

............,.......n
.....................


Top or t1,X[-Inch casingi


H Land surface.........


8- 4-590 ....... 1,100


.0


.0





1.33


- 5.56
- 2.67








.......


15.70 -


1- 5-60
8-15-60



..........
..........


..........


3-20-60
8-15-60


1,000


,, ,


100
,. .,


7-18-58 I......


.......I .301 8-10-60


1511-11-59


8- 3-50


8-10-89

12-20-69
12-29-569

11-11-69

12-20-59
12-20-50
12-20-60
12-29-59
1- -60
1- 5-60
1- 5-60
1- 5-60

3-28-60
3-28-60
3-28-60
3-20-60
3-20-00





3-20-60


...,I.....,


....... 2 S ............... ............... .... ........ ....... 38 11-13-59 ......


Casing broke at
21 foot
Chloride sample
taken it 230-
240 feet
interval



































Oil Exploratory


82
..





82


-2

S-s
S-

* : -6 '

615-120-1

614-148-1


014-147-1


I










TARIkI 5, (Continued)


Owner


Driller


USOS......... I.... UBGS............

Collier Corp........ Carl May..........


John S. Harris...... John S. Harris......

do.. ........ do............

do.. ......... do......... .

Collier Corp........ Carl May..........

David Veensehoten. ................. .

John Pulling........ ....................
do.... .. .... ............... .. ..
do........ ... ......... .......
U ............ .. UI SGS ..............

do .. .......... do...........


D. H. McBride...... Chia River.........
do.. ....... do............


Year Depth
com- of well
pleted (feet)


1950

1098








1900



1058
1088
1058
1958
1988
1989

1959


614-147-2

614-146-1


614-057-1

614-066-1

614-014-1

,613-148-1

613-147-1

612-148-1
-2
-3
-4

-5


612-147-1
-2


12

115


23





135



75
75
11
11




55
40


Casing Mesuring point Water level Yield Chloride


Above
Above Eleva. or Tem.
Aqul. or tion below pera- Use
Depth Diam- fer below above (-) Date of Gal. Parts Date ture
(feet) peter Description land mean mea- measure. lonm per per sampled ('F)
(inches) surface sea during ment minute million
(feet) level point
S(feet)


23

11

11

128






0




50
49


Top of I oh caing 03 11. -4.32 3-20-60 .......

...... I, ...... ...... I .,... I, ... ..' .... ..


.. ... .... I, .. .....



Land surface.........



.... .. .. ....... ....


Top of I-inch casing

do.... .......


.0






1.75

.5


18.43

10.88


- ,54






- 5.30
-2.14
- 5.71
- 1.80


8-10-60



..........


3-29-60
8-15-60
3-29-60
8-15-60


00
90
00


35

84

18
44
30
24




28
60


11-11-89 ......

11-18-80 ......








8-10-60.

11-13-88.

0- 4-50 ...
6- 4-8 ..
6- 4-80 ...
11-11-59 ......




11-13-58 ..
11-13-88 ..


Remarks


Chlorida ample
taken at a
depth of 82 ft.


Well
number


1985
1055


I


1 -1-1


I __ I I I i.






USGS............


do..........

John S. Harris......


USGS............. 1050


Carl May.......... 1058

do............ ......


612-146-1

612-053-1

612-052-1

611-148-1

S -2


,611-147-1
-2
-3
-4
-5


-7
,,,1, ,, --7


do.... ...... .


P. H. Gadsden, Jr...
Mr. Conrad.........
R. A. Walker.......
Robert Burgan......
Hole-in-the-Wall
Golf Course.......
S do..........
USGS.............


do...........


Bell Well Drilling....
Chiz Rivers.........
R. A. Walker.......
Robert Burgan......
Hartley's Water
System...........
do...........
USGS.............


8-1 Collier Corp........ Carl May..........
-2 do............. do...........


-3 do............ do............
-4 do............ do... .
-5 USGS .............. UGS..............


City of Naples......
do ... .....
do.... ......
do............
Caribbean Gardens..
UBGS.............


-7 Mrs.LawreneeTibbett....................
-8 I do ............. ........ .........


Carl May..........
do... ........
do...........
do .. .......
do............
do............


do........... ........ .......

USGS......... .... UBGS............


.......

1959

1959


1958
10508
1059









1956
1956




1054

1954
1056

1950
1954
1054
1056


11


123

75

11

11

11










11


54
00
1606

58
00
11


00
87

60
10-75
74
40
48


51
50
145

40
60
0
9


85
77



73

.,.....


100



11

0

0


2

1W

1 X






2
2



2
21


2
2





2
2
2
2




2

2
2



6
0
0
2
2
3


Top of 1%-inch casing


8


S







S


S
S
S
S

S
S
S



S
S
S


8
8


8
8
8
B .





8
8




S
8
S
S
8

S


Top of 1-inch easing












Tap of 13-inch casing
do.............

do....... .......
.....................







do.. ...............
.. o.. ......... ...

.....................
..... .............





Top of 1)-inch casing













Land surface........
Top of 2-inch casing..
T op of ...ch csi..
do.............

do .............
do .............
Top of l-inch cuing


.....................

.....................



Top of 2-inch casing..
Top of 3-inch cnsing..


13.43









15.33

15.08


....... .......

.75 11.26


.8 .
.0 .
1.7 8.55


.8 .......
.4 ......
.85 5.44


1- 5-60
3-20-60


12- 3-59
1- 5-60
8-29-60
8-15-60


..........

3-20-60
8-15-60

8-16-56
8-16-56
4-28-61
8-15-60
8-17-56
8-27-50
4-26-61
8-11-61


1....


- 3.25
- 4.30


75
50


75




500


-6,26
- 6.25
- b0o
-7.83
- 3.75


56


150





835

111


34
46
20
88

54
24
34


25

40
68

16
60






24


89


- 4.39
- 1.83

- 2.16
- 6.51
- 0.87
- 5.47
- 5,70
-12.00
- 5.03
- 3.04


.......1 4.74


11-11-5 ......


7-29-58


blolen








Stolen













Destroyed by
SRD


11-12-59

11-12-59


6- 4-50
6- 4-59
6- 4-59
6- 4-59

6- 8-59
6- 8-59
11-12-60


8-16-50

4-28-61
8-15-60

8-27-56
11-12-60







8-11-61


1-10-50


.0
3.18
.04


3-14-6 1....
































CaibbeaaC GardPu,.

Mrs.LawaestTlbbe t

CttynNa-iplis......
MiL.IawrmieTIbbett
do. ..........
Cit of Nappl......
def.......,....
do ...........
Mr. G.E. PFt....
Clr Thliner.......
reW. N4G.H .....
SCltTuiNal.e......


TAmLm 5. (Conlinued)








WeD Owner


Cuw lMay.
c i l ............
rfk ... .. .... ,,



...... ..... ..... .


a........ ...........
Carl ..Ma......
do.. ...
d o... ....


........... Miller ........

TUSG&............. S GS....S........

doa............ do.............

Chribbleaa Gaens.. Cut Mall y ..........


Ta a


flepth


elir- ai well
pfeted (fet)


. .. .., ..


...... 7.. .. 1

.... I

181


1 6 .. .... .
519




1056 6
1961 Il







10' I 11

195l 80t
1051, 54-40


,luini






Depth Diman for
(fet) ater
(inaheo)


11

14

29
I
.. ... .,

...







07
90



0
11


3



d:

2


2
8.
4

I


%Tpof X incal ainwr.









T'olp ofl 8alui aiuuini,.
T1p l of..-i.alainK...






Tapl ........8ina ui...

Tbpi of slinl aaaibi..

T.peof nd eau .k...
282ip ,mt .Lnel BQB'nI..


Abioye
: ,

aurlitu,
lut!

gif, it)
Brble)




7-









..7.

1.35



II (


i a .... ... 2.... .i

SLop afG ict anefu 1,.0

.EL ... .... ........ 2,.0

To i -mal ii........
collqe1 pioe'-...... .....,


* thin

Jilelil
;liell
Ishve
sMaU'
* feeD


.....,





....

11..01

113.81



J..4SS
0..33
St1. IS


Ldauu~viPy plrilrd


Driller


- 147.-9 M .aaiuMsTlbtd...................
-i dI ........... ..... .......... ....


t b'm rarwar


Above
nr Tdro.

( l-) ll te f Giul P artI Dut tuW
mu1le, nienuL.u iu Br pVit per iamplud ("f),
trihgi munui mintle inilllun
puoihw



... ... ..... ... .- W 1 .

.- $. -21 S -6l ........ .' ,.....
-. 8-15$-WiJ'


.. ..... .. : I. 1U ~I' -R .....

2S .-101. 2
4 1 9l-0-i0.....
... ........ ... ... 9 -5 ..
j,......... ,......... .. ........ 3B ll.-a ao ......
... ....... ... .... .. .......... 3;P S -ID!A T l
.... ......... ... .. l 3it a .1- .. .......
....... .. .. ... .... .......... .i M i St- X Si .......,..
......... .. ......... ... .... .... II8 "S-i- 1 ......

- 0i. 4ll a--8-
-15a.,l 4-a5B ....... 58 125.45
- 9,..9 B -85' .......... I 8-10lll-6

- 3!., 8;00-65

i) 4.. -5- 6- ............ ................

IRA S-2L'a-5l ...


AffiicBy
pu m"in


wel
; wIUI


'-- ----


1





1-0-146-r

610t S2-I

609-148-1
-2
-13
-4
-5

-6

-87
-91
-10
-11

-13




-2.

-34
609- 7-1

-62
-5

-S
-76
-6

-97
-10
-11
-12
-13
-14
-15


City of Naples......

USGS.............

City of Naples......
do............
Lawr neeTibbedtt...
JnE l Fiebhman...
Napls Beac Club
Ho d............
do ..........
do...........
B. W. Mots........
W. T. Thsdae .....
doa...........
USGS..............
Drher.............
UISGS..............
Naphs Beah Ciub
Hoe............

CSy of Napte ......
do0...........
daI...........
do .........
da...........
do...........
do..........
do..........
da...........
dSo...........
John rOing.........
do...........
Carver NegroSciooal
W.R. Roier..... .
J.G.Simpte........


do............ Joe Maharry........
do ...................... .........
do...... ..... ........ .. .........


Carl May..........

USG..............

Joe Maharre.......
do. ..........
tJe Townsend......
S do...........





SC...................
Aubrey Cooper.....
do ...........


dioIerBrof........

SJ.P.Maharrey......


dos...........
dol........
d ...........






doL........


do ............
J. P. Maartey......
John P in........
...........I........


198o



1951
1949
1980



1930
1980






1900
1930
1950
1901
1951
1952



1983
19O1

1951
1951
1961


1949
1949

1950
1980
1903

1939
1980
1961


1946
1949
... ...


120





99
74

55





63
451
63!
83
73
40'
71



TI
90


63


63
73
73





08;
790



38
60
33

13





43


I- I .


99

SO

ST

60
80








62

69

82












701


75
so2
... ...


Top of abi a uins...




i ... ........... ....... .
pi o 4-inh cnega ..







Topttof 4Pai o 6c-in.i
.a.... ............

d L. ....... .. ..




et. .......... .





Bottom ip, of -inhal
nipple' an elbow.....


d li -Z -3 I..........


Top ci 8ef c'4n g et....

Top, of 6* clk ueinta...




d. ........ ,.....



.... ................,..


lbp. off -tac.i uing,,...

Tprl) o. 6in ca ......


2..$


i..........5
1..6


i..........


..94



.. .....
..1
L54







2A


- LO.. a- L6-fl




-... x,,,. ... ........ a ,
- alo'i a3- 8-E


- 8L..I ..- 4..Ln



- 7.80 E-1.-82

- 7.A6 1-2$- 4

I.. ... ....


2S
22'
i.............

. ..... o, ,

....... ...,
....... ... ..
.....



.o.......



..oo.. .,
,, ..... o o



... .




... .. ,
..

.. .






....


.a;
M3:

1B


8i


27

1411
231t

20
SiS






28

25'




2 1

12


25


0F.5
1.51
1,,9
I1.6







11,.
1.7

2.


84804

(III11


.-. T.-R. TS..S

SL- ;H ism
S-61- 8


s8-a-l 80)

- -61 ... .....

t-12-f6 2
92411) 1



-8-111-811



'- 7-fi l ,
8- 5F-B11 I0 Cl.5

7-311 fl- ...l .



8;-138B ZS-0
8-7-fl 7)



8- -Tr8 I4
- Tr811 SS







8 ..... ...
8- 5J-BIll 78;


- 7..81


-112.4
-11Jl.80
- 91.2111





.- 3.,,9.



- I.9I


- 2,83'
- 250


34-13-61





3- 7-8111









8- 8-Sll

8- 8;-51J

3- 8-51


SEEN


Tt1 ~ tli
remaalhrar~










TABLI 5, (Continued)



Casing Measuring point Water level Yield Chloride


Above
Year Depth Above Eleva. or Tem-
Wll Owner Driller com. of well Aqui. or tion below per. Us Remarks
number plted (feet) Degth Diam- for below above (-) Date of Gal- Puts Date ture
(feet) eter Description land mean meas- measur- lon per per sampled (F)
(inches) surface sea uring ment minute million
(feet) level point
(feet)


J. a. Smpl .......

Neapolitan Enter-
prima............

R Lehman.......
J. Sample........

City of Naples......
do...........
do...........
do...........

Naples Swamp
Buggy Amn......

City of Naples......

do............

USGS.............

do............


Chis Riven.........


Joe Maharrey.......

do............
Miller Bros........
do.. .........
Bert Dudley........


....................

C. W. May.........

do............

Miller Bros.........

do............


1949


1081

1037
1949


1951
1952
1983



1957

1958

1958

1959

1950


62 1......


63

72
52

68
78
113
57




123

144

122

485
700


63
112
37




104

80

82

312
587


Top of 3-inch nipple
on 6.inch caing....

....... ..... ........


Bottom lip of 6-inch
tee ...............
Top of 4-inch caing,.
Top of 2-inch easing..
do ..........







..... ... ..



Land surface.........
do.............


0.7





.3

2.0
1.7
,,, ..


15
15


-7.21





-3.31

- 4.84
-13.91












16
38


8- 7-11





8-23-51

1-10-52
1-17-52












5-21-61
5-21-61


5
12


18

18

43
10
16
448





1.750

885

15

985
1,950


8- 8-51

8- 9-51

8-21-51
8-16-51
1-10-52
1-17-52





7-17-58

8-14-58

8-20-59

9-23-59
10- 8-59


78

80

..
....
...


Supplies 3 homes
anda nursery


PS

T

T

T

T Single well con-
...... struted to
perform as two
well of differ-
ent depths


-21
-22

-23
-24
-25
-26

609-145-1


609-143-1

609-141-1

609-120-1

609-115-1





608-148-r"
-2
-8
-4

-5
-6
-7
-8
-9
.-10
-11

608-147-1
-2
-3
-4
S -5

-7
-8-
.; .. .. -0
-10
-11

S -12




-23




-21

-22


-26

-26


C. L. Yonze.......
City of Naples......
do...........
do...........
do...........
do............
Jack Prince.........
Naples Supply Co...
John Polling........
Trails End Motel....
City Ice and Fuel Co.
Combe Fish Co......
City Ice and Fuel Co.
do............
City of Naples......
do............
do............
do............
do. ..........
Sea Shell Motel.....
City of Naples......
do...........
A. Dimeola.........
City of Naples......
do...........
do...........


....................
Joe Mahnrrey.......
do..........
do............
do............
do.... .. ..

Joe Mha..........ey.........



Joe Maharrey.......
..... ..............
....do.. ....... .....
............. ......




............ .... ...
....................







Chi Rive..................
Joe Maharrey.......
dole Br..........
do ..........
do ............
do ............


Chi Rivers.........
Joe Maharrey .......
Miller Broe.........
Chiz Rivers .........
B. Dudley..........
do.. ........
do............


Clam Canning Plant. ...................
J. L. Kirk.......... Aubrey Cooper......


L. A. Orick......... Chiz Rivers.........
Ad Miller......... Aubrey Cooper......
J. E. Turner........ Jeff Townsend......
C. J. Sumerall. C. J. Summerall.....
R 0. Clark......... Aubrey Cooper......
Roy Brack...... do............
William Storter..... Jeff Townsend......
H. M. McClaskey... Aubrey Cooper......
H. C. Shrieri....... do............
L F. Grimes........ do...........
R. L. Williams...... J. P. Maharrey......


1949
1950
1950
1949
1950
1950
1949
1951
1951
1951
1951

1940






1930
1950
1939
1951
1930

1940
1922
1941
1981
1951
1951
1951

1939
1952
1949
1953
1952
1952

1981


52
60
42
42
42
42
45
40
42
46



110
73
73
63
73
63
27
70
33
75
73

73

66
72
81
40
76
78
540
70
55
33
22
69
63
42


66
64







70
70




60
60
78
27
74
68
300
69

27
19
82


i


.. ,.. ...............
.......I........ ....
.....................

... ................
.....................

....... ... ..........
.....................
.....................
.....................

T.............. .c...

.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
...........,.........
. ... .. .............
.....................
..T ..................
................

..o.... .... .......
.....................
.....................


- 3.78







21.5
- 4.28


........ .
..........
..........
1-18-52
1-14-52
.......... .
.......... .


.......... .


.......... .......

.......... .......
.... .... ..... ,
.......... .....
.......... .......,
.......... .......
.......... .......
..... ..... .......
........ ... ...... .

,.......... .......
,,I,,..... ...... I


.......... .......
.......... .......,

.......... .......
.......... .......
.......... .......
. ....... .... ...
.......... .......
.... I..... .......
.......... .......

.......... .. .

8- 9-51 ......

.......... .......
.......... .......


31
408
215
15
14
113
442
242
17
118
21

22
43
43
25
41
25
19
45
32
89

270
167
200

16
31
15
12
27
2,180
27
148



49

168


8- a0-1
9-26-51
9-26-51
9-26-51
9-26-1
9-26-51
9-26-1
4-29-52
4-29-M5
4-29-52
..........

7-31-48
7-81-46
8- 7-51
8- 7-61
8- 7-81
8-31-46
8- 8-51
8- 8-851
8-8-51
8- 8-51
..........
8- 9-51
8- 9-81
8- 9-51

10-11-51
10-12-51
10-12-51
8-16-51
10-17-51
12-17-81
1-14-52
3-11-52


5-25-53

8- 9-81


1.81














.0


.....................
,,,,. ,,. ...... .....

Top of 5-inch coupling
Top of 2-inch casing..
............... ......
.....................


.....................


1.0
1.6


S3
80
79

82
80
79






78

79
79
78.6
78
79
80

80
8D
'79

79
78
















78
77
77


Fire well












TAMsLU 5. (Continued)



('uiu Measuring point Water level Yield Chloride


Above
Year Depth Above Eleva. or Temn.
Well Owner Driller com- of well Aqui. or tlon below pers- Use Remarks
number pleted (feet) Depth Diam. fer below above (-) Date of Cal. Parts Date ture
(feet) eter Description land mean mess. measur- lons er per sampled (OF)
(inches) surface ea uriog meat minute million
(feet) level point
(feet)


C. A. Newell........
do.......... .
John Townsend.....
C. M. Townsend....
Rev. Walton........
Aubrey Cooper. ...
do............


, ............. .....
Chis Rivers.........
do ............

Aubrey Cooper......
do............


J3 Sample........ J. P. Maharrey......

V. L. Belding....... ............


Tom Hamilton......
Glades Motel.......
Roland Weeks ......
Thomas Weeks......
Hampton...........
Dick Townsend....

Collier Development
Corp...........

W. B. Uihlein.......


606-148-1 I USGS..............


Carl May..........
do............
Chis Rivers........
Carl May..........
do............
do...........


do............

Richards .........

Miller Bros.........


1953
1953







1952






1958
1055
1955



1958

1937

1959
1980


60
72


63
72
54

300

235

95
105
18
43
43



120


, ...... ..

.. .. ...........
.....................
, ..................




,o,,,, ...... I,, .,,
.....................

.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................

.... .. ,......, .,,. ...,


... ...
.. '






18.0


..........
..........
I .... I....
..........
..........

5-21-61


30
70



1,000


79
79
87
127
54

2,040

4,400

80
119
266
296


1-16-590
1-16-59
1-16-59
1-16-59
1-16-59

2-11-52

11-13-51

1-16-59
1-16-50
1-16-69
1-16-59

..........


270 11-17-58

1,960 8- 9-51


Flowing well


608-140-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7

007-148-1

607-147-1

607-146-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6

607-145-1


606-148-1





606-120-1 Collier Development
Corp............


605-148-1

605-144-1
-2

605-143-1
-2
-3
-4

604-144-1

604-148-1.
-2
-3
-4
-58
-6
-7
S-8

:603-141-1
-2
.-3
-4
-5

602-142-1
-2
-3

602-141-1

559-120-1

558-143-1


A.Nystrom.........

John Sekford......
Albert Anderson.....

Jack Cannon.......
George Nemchik....
Travis Bickford....
I. 0. Edwards......


Charles McCool.... H. R. Snowball.....


William French.....
J. G. Breau........
Sdo... .........
do...........
do............
J. H. Gaunt........
S do............
Claude Hunter......

L. L Lach.........
do..... .......
do.. .........
do............
do............

Barefoot Williams...
Carl Puebbas........
J.. Breau.........


do............
C. W. May.........
do...... ...
do............
do........ ...
do............
do............
H. R. Snowball.....

C. W. May.........
do............
do. ........
do...........
do............

Chis Rivers.........

H.R. Snowball.....


L.L. Loach......... C. W. May.........

USGS.............. Miller Bros.........


Miller Brcs.........

....................
Chis Rivers.........

do.. ...... ,.
do... .......
do............
C. W. May.........


G. L. Lowenstein.... ellog............. ....


1049

1958

1956

1957
1957
1958

1054
1958

1958
1958
19588

1054
1954


1958

1958
1958

1958
1958

1954



1958

1959


45

220

33
83


82
82
42

30

25
32
32
22
27
20
30
34

31
34
30
30
28

16

27

42

127

*800-
900


213


30


32

38

30

25
32
32
22
22
20
30
34

34
34
34
34
34

11

27

38

126


4

4

2
2

2
2
2
2

2

2
2
2
4
4
6
6
2

2
2
2
2
4

2

2

2

2

6


Top of 2-inch casing..

Top of 2-inch vertical
tee..............


.. ....... ........
... ......... .......
... .......... .......
.....................

.... ......

.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
...........I.........
.....................


...... I- 1.35


2.0 1 10-


..........
..........


..........
..........
..........
..........

2-12-59
2-12-59
2-12-59
2-12-59
2-12-59

12-30-58
..........
..........


8-17-59 1......


240

130
172

92
130
174
134

800

68
82


78

88
56

220
314
238
204
156

760

424



31


14.5 1 10-28-40 1...... .....


Top of 2-inch casing.. 43 .......
do .. ......... .2 ......
do............. 83 .......
do............ 1.0 ......
Top of 4-inch casing. .97 ......

Top of 2-inch tee..... 1.5 ......
.................... ....... .......
..................... ....... .......,


6-16-51

1-20-52

1- 2-59
1- 2-59

1- 2-59
1- 2-59
1- 2-59
1- 2-59

1- 2-59

12-31-58
12-31-58
..........

12-31-58
..........
12-31-58
1- 2-59

2-12-59
2-12-59
2-12-59
2-12-59
2-12-59

2-12-50
..........
12-30-58


.......-
8-14-59 .


0

Ir

D
D

D
D
D
D

D,






Ir
Ir
Ir
D

0
0
0

0

D

Ir

0

T


D


Equipped with
recorder












Not used for
drinking


















Flowing well


Salty from 28
feet downward



'Exact depth of
well unknown


cc


-2.46
-2.33
- 2.4
-2.61
- 2.87

- 2.72

.....,.












TABI.B 5, (Continued)


Cuing Meauring point Water level Yield Chloride


Above
Year Depth Above Eleva. or Tern.
Well Owner Driller com. of well Aqul- or tion below pera- Use Remarks
number pleted (feet) Depth Diam- for below above (-) Date of Gal. Parts Date ture
(feet) eter Description land mean mess. measur- lon pr per sampled ('F)
(Inches) surface sea during ment minute million
(feet) level point
(feet)


U.8-148-2 MarooHighland,Iuc,. Carl May..........


Collier Corp........ Humble Oil Co......


850-143-1 ................... ........ ...........
-2 Barron Collier...... ..................
-3 Richard Brooks..... ................

650-142-1 J. M. Barfield...... Miller Bros.........
-2 Maroo Island School. ...................

550-128-1 L. G.Ncrris....... J. M. Whatley......


Lee Tidewater
Cypress Co.......
do...........

Collier Development
Corp.............
J. M. Barfeld.......
Naples Construction
Co..... ......


1052






1020


1059


Humble Oil Co.. .......
.................... 1945


1959


::::12.1


200-300
22

302


300


5






4
2

4


440 ........... .
30 15 3


13 ....... 2
22 ....... 1

20 ....... 1,


8


F?
S

F


F

B


S
S


. ................ I ....... ....... ..... .... 17,200


Surface...... ......... ..... 0.0 10-28-40 ....... .....
... ..... ......... ....... ........ ... .......... ....... 3


Top of 4-inch casing,.


Top of -inch casing.. 1. .......
..,. ,... ......., ..... ....... .


Top of curbing....... 1
.. ...... ,...... .....


833.5


4-10-50


10-28-40

.,.... .


2,550
75

330


Flow 2,810
50 27




...... 02
..... 23


3


5-57 ......


5-11-50

10-28-40
5-11-59

4- 8-59


78
786


78.5


78


7-25-46 75
7-28-46 77


.......... 78
10-28-40 .....

5-11-9 ....


Chloride les
than 40 ppm
to depth of 20.
feet
Log in Collier
County engi
neor's flo




Flowing
*200/day

Flowing


57-129-1'


.


32.0. 7-25-46
..... ..........


... ..............
....................

....................


2 j..:..... -11.4





Collier Development
Corp.............
H. F. Pettit........

U.S. Air Force......


Mr. Kiceo..........

Al Groseman,......
City of Caxambae,..


55--i8=-1 ..oiirie DevelUuyv~ ul
Corp.............

-2 do........... .
-3 Ken Fogetad .......


1940
1046


Libby and Freeman.........
Paul Lawrence ..... .......

J. M. Whatley and
Miller Bros....... 1059

M iller ............. ... .... .


do...........
' t t


G.B. Patrick....... .................
do........... ............ ....


Collier Development
. Corp........ ..

Ralph Brown.......
Sdo,. .. ... .
K.. a. Hoy..........


0. L. Norman.......
Frank Noyres.......
Andersen..........


554-142-1

-2-
-3

554-140-1
-2

S54-122-1


554-118-1
-2
-3

5853-118-1

* 551-123-1

-2
-3

-4
-5
-6

550-128-1


...,...



1037

1039



1030
1930

1045


1083
1027

1086


1057


1935


540 361
13 ......


370
377

407
375

804


375


450
450
446

14


Libby and Freeman..

Humble Oil Co......
.. ....... ,....... .


'


7
2


0
3


8

6

4


3/4
1




6
.3
3

2


0

6

8
3
8


6


Land surface.........


F Top of 3-inch elbow...
S ..... .......... ...

Top of 0-inch valve
F flange ...........
F Top of k1-inch valve


F Top of 8-inch casing..


.0 20:;


-4.7





34.5


6-20-50
0-20-50


4-27-59


500


6-20-01 1......


2.90 lis 19.2 12-21-49
... .I. .., I, ... ,. ,,,,


Cente. r of goc....... ,5 5.0 0 1 ... .. 1...
Center of gage ....... 8.5 5.0 34,0 10-20-40 ....... 1,450


Top of well..........


....,................


Top of casing...,....


Surface.............


1.3 ....... 1.0 6- 4-46 ....... 4,800


2.4


4.0


15,4


10- -59


6- -61


200


1,650
100

360
121
1,440
885


240


12-21-49

12-21-49
12-21-49


80
,,,,,,


E. A. Griffin........ E. AGriffin........

Lee County Light & Maharrey and
Power Co ....... Norman..........
City of Everglades... Miller..............
do............ Maharroy and
Norman.......,.
do............ ..... ......... ...
do ............ ....... ...........
do........... Miller Brcs.... ..

City of Everglades.. Maharray and
Norman..........


1,700

4,000
80


8,800
2,250


2,700

2,680

2,590
70

37



388


4-27-59

10-28-40

1-10-47
10-28-40

10-28-40
...,.....,


5-19-60 1......


Well never con-
pleted

Two wellein
manifold 20
feet apart
Flowing
do.


Flowing

Abandoned-
flowing
Flowing






Flowing

Flowing'
do.
do.'


PS

D
D


PS


In
D

D, In


In
PS

PS
PS

In


PS


10-29-40

11- 2-51


0-18-48
5-19-60

5-10-60
10-26-50
1935
10- -50


72


78


10-26-509 ......


00


0-20-50 79 ......
6-20-50 78.2 ......


12x12 foot curig......
12x12 foot curbing ....


..0-.. 8-4..... ....
10-28-40 .......












TAwhi 5. (Continued)



Cuaing Meuuring point Water level Yield Chloride


Abcve
Year Depth Above Eleva. or Tern
Well Owner Driller corm of well Aqu.- or tion below perto UVe Remarks
number pleted (feet) Depth Diam- fer below above (-) Date of Gal- Parts Date ture
(feet) peter Description land mean mea- meuur. lono per per ampled ('F)
(inches) surface sea uring meant minute million
(feet) level point
(feet)

9- E-1 USED............ USED............. ....... 38 ....... ....... .... ..................... ....... ..................... ......... ............ ....... T UBEDNo.
L .9. Log on
Sfiln Codlier
County engi-
-nes ri g off
4M-121-1 G.Hamilton....... Libby and Freeman.. 1049 484 436 5 F Topof.inch eaang.. 1.5 ....... 81.5 8-1-49 400 1,250 8-16-49 ...... D
S-2 Ted Bmallwood................................ 456 417 8 F ........ ....... ...... ............. ................. 700 8-18-49 ...... D
-' 3 do ........... LibbyandFreeman.. 1949 47 ....... 4 F ................ ........................... 950 9-19-49 ...... D
-4 Collier County...... ................ ......... 430 .. ... 6 F ..................... ....... ........ ... .... ..... 400 2-20-7 ............


: :
: ~ :
I r~~

'' i
''r 'v
bi.: ..


c~; li~
jl::~ .,


if

I *




': I


i :.
~I I I



"';




Ground-water resources of Collier County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 31 )
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS DOWNLOADS PDF VIEWER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001218/00001
 Material Information
Title: Ground-water resources of Collier County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 31 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Report of investigations 31 )
Physical Description: vii, 82 p. : maps (part fold.) diagrs., tables. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: McCoy, H. J ( Henry Jack )
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1962
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Groundwater -- Florida -- Collier County   ( lcsh )
Geology -- Florida -- Collier County   ( lcsh )
Water-supply -- Florida -- Collier County   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: "References": p. 59-60.
General Note: "Prepared by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with Collier County, the city of Naples, and the Florida Geological Survey."
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000958545
oclc - 02421599
notis - AES1355
lccn - a 63007127
System ID: UF00001218:00001

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

00002thm ( JPG )

( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Florida State Board of Conservation
        Page ii
    Transmittal letter
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Abstract
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Figure 2
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Figure 3
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Geology
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Figure 4
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Figure 5
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Figure 9
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Figure 12
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Figure 18
        Figure 19
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Quantitative studies
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Figure 27
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Summary
        Page 58
        Page 57
    References
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Well logs
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Well records
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
Full Text






FLRD GEOLIOWC( ICA SURflViEWY~


COPYRIGHT NOTICE
[year of publication as printed] Florida Geological Survey [source text]


The Florida Geological Survey holds all rights to the source text of
this electronic resource on behalf of the State of Florida. The
Florida Geological Survey shall be considered the copyright holder
for the text of this publication.

Under the Statutes of the State of Florida (FS 257.05; 257.105, and
377.075), the Florida Geologic Survey (Tallahassee, FL), publisher of
the Florida Geologic Survey, as a division of state government,
makes its documents public (i.e., published) and extends to the
state's official agencies and libraries, including the University of
Florida's Smathers Libraries, rights of reproduction.

The Florida Geological Survey has made its publications available to
the University of Florida, on behalf of the State University System of
Florida, for the purpose of digitization and Internet distribution.

The Florida Geological Survey reserves all rights to its publications.
All uses, excluding those made under "fair use" provisions of U.S.
copyright legislation (U.S. Code, Title 17, Section 107), are
restricted. Contact the Florida Geological Survey for additional
information and permissions.






STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert 0. Vernon, Director




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 31




GROUND-WATER RESOURCES

OF

COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA




By
H. J. McCoy
U.S. Geological Survey


Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with
COLLIER COUNTY
the
CITY OF NAPLES
and the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Tallahassee
1962








AGRI-

CULTURAL
LIBRARY
FLORIDA STATE BOARD

OF

CONSERVATION






Farris Bryant
Governor


Tom Adams
Secretary of State




J. Edwin Larson
Treasurer




Thomas D. Bailey
Superintendent of Public Instruction


Richard Ervin
Attorney General




Ray E. Green
Comptroller




Doyle Conner
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. Randolph Hodges
Director








LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


TALLAHASSEE

August 8, 1962

Honorable Farris Bryant, Chairman
Florida State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Governor Bryant:

The Division of Geology is publishing, as Florida Geological Survey
Report of Investigations No. 31, a report on the ground-water resources
of Collier County, prepared by Mr. H. J. McCoy, geologist with the
U. S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Naples, Collier
County, and this department.
The report recognizes two major aquifers as the source of ground
water in Collier County. The lower aquifer is highly mineralized, but
contains usable water, and the more shallow aquifer is the source of
large supplies, which are utilized by municipalities and domestic users.
Adequate supplies of fresh water are present in the Naples area and by
proper planning, these can be developed in an orderly manner and salt
water encroachment can be prevented.
Respectfully yours,
Robert 0. Vernon
Director and State Geologist































Completed manuscript received
July 5, 1962
Published for the Florida Geological Survey
By Rose Printing Company
Tallahassee, Florida
August 8, 1962









CONTENTS


Page


Abstract
Introduction
Purpose and scope of investigation
Previous investigations
Well-numbering system
Acknowledgments
Geography
General features
Climate
Physiography and drainage
Geology
General statement
Miocene Series
Tampa Formation
Hawthorn Formation
Tamiami Formation
Pliocene Series
Caloosahatchee Marl
Pleistocene and Recent Series
Anastasia Formation
Fort Thompson Formation
Miami Oolite --
Pleistocene. terraces and Recent deposits
Test-well drilling


Ground water


Principles of occurrence
Floridan aquifer
Piezometric surface
Recharge and discharge
Availability and use of ground wat
Shallow aquifer
Recharge and discharge
Water-level fluctuations
Availability and use of ground wat
Quantitative studies
Hydraulics of aquifers
Aquifer tests
Quality of water
Floridan aquifer
Shallow aquifer
Salt-water contamination
Recent and residual enroachment
Upward leakage


er __



:er





- - - .-


Summary
References
Well logs







ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure Page
1 Florida Peninsula showing location of Collier County 3
2 Collier County showing location of wells and geologic sections
A-A' and B-B' facing 4
3 Collier County showing the geology exclusive of organic soils facing 6
4 Physiographic regions of Collier County 8
5 Map showing surficial flow in Collier County 9
6 Lithologic cross section along A-A' in figure 2 facing 12
7 Lithologic cross section along line B-B' in figure 2 facing 14
8 The piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer, July 6-17, 1961 __. 19
9 Piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in Collier
County, 1960 facing 20
10 Map of Everglades showing location of wells and cross section along
line C-C' 21
11 Cross section along line C-C' in figure 10, showing amount of open hole
in wells 23
12 Northwestern Collier County showing locations of the Naples municipal
well fields, and geologic cross sections along lines D-D', E-E', and
F-F' facing 24
13 Geologic cross section and chloride content of water along line D-D' in
figure 12 25
14 Geologic cross section and chloride content of water along line E-E' in
figure 12 26
15 Geologic cross section and chloride content of water along line F-F' in
figure 12 27
16 Hydrograph of well 610-147-14 showing daily high, monthly pumpage
from Naples well field, and daily rainfall at Naples, June 1958-
December 1960 28
17 Hydrographs of wells 606-120-1, 625-116-1, and 617-134-3, and daily
rainfall at Miles City and Lake Trafford, 1960 29
18 Water-level contour map of northwestern Collier County,
August 15, 1960 facing 30
19 Water-level contour map of northwestern Collier County,
March 29, 1960 _____ facing 30
20 Graph showing annual pumpage from the Naples well fields, 1945-62 32
21 Naples well field area showing municipal supply wells and observation
weus 34
22 Graph showing drawdown in observation wells at the end of the 30-hour
aquifer test, January 9-10, 1959, and sketch showing wells used in the test 37
23 Idealized sketch showing flow in a leaky artesian aquifer system 38
24 Graph showing drawdowns in wells 610-147-9 and 610-147-15 during
aquifer test January 9-10, 1959, and theoretical drawdown for artesian,
water-table, and leaky-aquifer conditions 39
25 Sketch showing wells used in pumping test, April 8-10, 1960, and graph
showing drawdown at end of the 44-hour test 40
26 Drawdown and recovery of water level in well 629-127-3 showing effects
of pumping test, April 8-10, 1960 42
27 Northwestern Collier County showing chloride content of water from
selected wells and surface-water observation points facing 46
28 Idealized sketch of fresh-water and salt-water distribution in an uncon-
fined coastal aquifer to illustrate the Ghyben-Herzberg relation 52
29 Sketch showing the fresh-water salt-water interface according to the
potential theory and the Ghyben-Herzberg principle 53








Table


SPage


1 Average monthly temperature at Naples and Everglades, the average
monthly rainfall at Naples, Everglades, Lake Trafford, and Miles City 6
2 Chemical analyses of water from selected wells that penetrate the
Floridan aquifer in Collier County 45
3 Chemical analyses of water from selected wells that penetrate the shallow
aquifer in Collier County 47
4 Chloride content in parts per million, from selected wells in. north-
western Collier County 48
5 Well records in Collier County, Florida .........._._ 66










GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF
COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
H. J. McCoy

ABSTRACT

Two major aquifers are the sources of ground-water supplies in Collier
County. The lower is the Floridan aquifer, and wells penetrating it
throughout most of the county will flow. Except in the town of Ever-
glades, where it yields water containing about 800 ppm (parts per
million) of chloride, the Floridan aquifer produces water too highly
mineralized for most purposes. The main producing zones of the Floridan
aquifer in Collier County are the permeable limestones of the Tampa
Formation, of Early Miocene Age, and those in the lower part of the
Hawthorn Formation, of Middle Miocene Age. The fine sand and clay
section in the upper part of the Hawthorn Formation confines the Flori-
dan aquifer. The top of the aquifer is generally about 400 feet below the
land surface.
The chief source of fresh ground water in Collier County is an ex-
tensive shallow aquifer which extends from the land surface to a depth
of about 130 feet in the northwestern part of the county, to a depth of
about 90 feet in the southern part, and to a depth of about 60 feet in
the central and northeastern parts. The aquifer thins to a featheredge
along the eastern county boundary.
The permeable zones of the shallow aquifer are the Pamlico Sand
and solution-riddled limestones of the Anastasia Formation, of Pleistocene
Age, and the Tamiami Formation of Late Miocene Age. Semi-confining
layers of marl impede the vertical movement of water within the aquifer.
The shallow ground water in the southern coastal areas contains very
high concentrations of chloride as a result of sea-water encroachment.
The shallow water in the Naples area is of good quality, containing
about 250 ppm of dissolved solids. This is due in part to a high fresh-
water head adjacent to the coast and the resultant flushing of ground
water. In the areas inland from Naples the ground water contains greater
concentrations of chlorides and dissolved solids, which are due to residual

The classification and nomenclature of the rock units conform to the usage of
the Florida Geological Survey and also, except for the Tampa Formation and the
Ocala Group and its subdivisions, to that of the U.S. Geological Survey, which
regards the Tampa as the Tampa Limestone and the Ocala Group as two formations,
the Ocala Limestone and the Inglis Limestone. The Ocala Group as used by the
Florida Geological Survey includes the Crystal River, Williston, and Inglis Formations.






2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TmrTY-ONE

sea water and lack of flushing of the shallow aquifer. In the Immokalee
area, water from the shallow aquifer is potable but its quality varies
considerably with different well depths.
The coefficient of transmissibility of the shallow aquifer in the
Naples area ranges from 92,000 gpd (gallons per day) per foot to 180,000
gpd per foot and the coefficient of storage ranges from 0.001 to 0.004.
In the vicinity of Immokalee the coefficient of transmissibility is about
60,000 gpd per foot and the coefficient of storage is 0.0002.
Adequate supplies of fresh ground water are available in Naples
and vicinity, and these can be developed in an orderly manner to prevent
salt-water encroachment. Controlled drainage of inland areas can pro-
vide fresh water to replenish ground-water supplies of coastal areas as
urbanization expands.
INTRODUCTION
PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION
Since 1950 the population of the coastal areas of Collier County,
Florida (fig. 1), has increased rapidly. With this increase has come the
need for additional quantities of potable water. Recognizing this, the
Collier County Board of Commissioners, in cooperation with the city of
Naples, requested the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate the ground-
water resources of the county. Such an investigation was begun in
November 1959 by the Geological Survey in cooperation with Collier
County. An appreciable part of the data was obtained during a con-
tinuing cooperative program begun in 1951 with the city of Naples.
The investigation included the following phases: (1) assembling and
evaluating existing basic data; (2) obtaining data related to the availa-
bility and movement of ground water; (3) determining the hydrologic
and geologic characteristics of the subsurface materials; (4) determining
the chemical quality of ground water; and (5) preparing a report of the
results of the investigation.
The investigation was under the general supervision of Philip E. La-
Moreaux, former chief of the Ground Water Branch of the Geological
Survey, Washington, D. C., and under the immediate supervision of
M. I. Rorabaugh, district engineer, Tallahassee, and Howard Klein,
geologist, U.S. Geological Survey, Miami, Florida.

PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS
Two reports, "Ground-Water Resources of the Naples Area, Collier
County, Florida" in 1954 and "Ground-Water Resources of Northwest
Collier County, Florida" in 1961, summarize the geologic and hydrologic






2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TmrTY-ONE

sea water and lack of flushing of the shallow aquifer. In the Immokalee
area, water from the shallow aquifer is potable but its quality varies
considerably with different well depths.
The coefficient of transmissibility of the shallow aquifer in the
Naples area ranges from 92,000 gpd (gallons per day) per foot to 180,000
gpd per foot and the coefficient of storage ranges from 0.001 to 0.004.
In the vicinity of Immokalee the coefficient of transmissibility is about
60,000 gpd per foot and the coefficient of storage is 0.0002.
Adequate supplies of fresh ground water are available in Naples
and vicinity, and these can be developed in an orderly manner to prevent
salt-water encroachment. Controlled drainage of inland areas can pro-
vide fresh water to replenish ground-water supplies of coastal areas as
urbanization expands.
INTRODUCTION
PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION
Since 1950 the population of the coastal areas of Collier County,
Florida (fig. 1), has increased rapidly. With this increase has come the
need for additional quantities of potable water. Recognizing this, the
Collier County Board of Commissioners, in cooperation with the city of
Naples, requested the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate the ground-
water resources of the county. Such an investigation was begun in
November 1959 by the Geological Survey in cooperation with Collier
County. An appreciable part of the data was obtained during a con-
tinuing cooperative program begun in 1951 with the city of Naples.
The investigation included the following phases: (1) assembling and
evaluating existing basic data; (2) obtaining data related to the availa-
bility and movement of ground water; (3) determining the hydrologic
and geologic characteristics of the subsurface materials; (4) determining
the chemical quality of ground water; and (5) preparing a report of the
results of the investigation.
The investigation was under the general supervision of Philip E. La-
Moreaux, former chief of the Ground Water Branch of the Geological
Survey, Washington, D. C., and under the immediate supervision of
M. I. Rorabaugh, district engineer, Tallahassee, and Howard Klein,
geologist, U.S. Geological Survey, Miami, Florida.

PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS
Two reports, "Ground-Water Resources of the Naples Area, Collier
County, Florida" in 1954 and "Ground-Water Resources of Northwest
Collier County, Florida" in 1961, summarize the geologic and hydrologic









GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 3


85 34' 33 82* 8 60


SG E O R G I A
GADSDEN -- NASSAU
f 'ITs lls.pm /s MADISON HAMILTON / oV Jockso-vll |
-, UVAL I

LIBERTY" WAKULLA TAYLO I \ I --~ 0
STAYLOR I Y
FRANKLIN 7. o 0




S LEVY MARIO:N '

I _________ OUS 29i,

CITRUS LAKE -
A (SEMINOLE
HERNANM ORANGE

PASCO r


---- --- - -HOILLSBOROUGH'OSGEOLA 2B
T\Tmpao POL K

SNIAN LIVER

MANATEE! HARDEE OKEEIHOBEE
I .ST. LUCIE
F1 .HIGHLANDS '
SARA DESOTO MARTIN




L' HENRY PALM BEACH









25 0u 25 50F7s 100 il o









Figure 1. Florida Peninsula showing location of Collier County.







4 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

conditions in northwestern Collier County. The U.S. Geological Survey
maintains water-level recording gages in the city of Naples well-field
area, in eastern Collier County near the Broward County boundary, and
east of Immokalee at the Hendry County boundary. Significant parts
of the 1954 and 1960 reports are incorporated in this report because
they pertain to the overall development of water resources .in north-
western Collier County.
WELL-NUMBERING SYSTEM
The well-numbering system used in this report is based on longitude
and latitude coordinates. As shown in figure 2, Collier County has been
divided into quadrangles by a grid of 1-minute parallels (of latitude)
and 1-minute meridians (of longitude). The well numbers were assigned
by their locations within the grid system. Each number consists of three
parts; the first part is the last degree digit and the 2-minute digits of
latitude, on the south side of the 1-minute quadrangle; the second part
is the last degree digit and the 2-minute digits of longitude on the east
side of the quadrangle; the third part is the order in which the well was
inventoried within the quadrangle. The first degree digit of north lati-
tude and west longitude is omitted because all wells have the same
digit. For example, well 609-147-17 designates the 17th well inventoried
in the quadrangle bounded by latitude 26009' on the south and longitude
81047' on the east.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Appreciation is expressed to Mr. W. H. Turner, Collier County en-
gineer, for his cooperation and courtesy throughout the investigation; to
Mr. W. F. Savidge, Naples Water Plant superintendent, for his coopera-
tion and information concerning ground-water use and proposed well-
field locations for the municipal water supply in and around Naples;
to the Collier Development Corporation for its cooperation in permitting
access to many unused wells on its properties; and to the residents of
Collier County for furnishing information about their wells. Thanks are
extended to the following well drillers of the area for information on the
subsurface geology and the depth, construction, and yield of wells:
Mr. Albert Miller of Fort Myers, Mr. James Whatley of Immokalee, and
Mr. Carl May of Naples.
GEOGRAPHY
GENERAL FEATURES
Collier County comprises 2,032 square miles in the southwestern part
of the Florida Peninsula (fig. 1.) Its population has increased from 6,488







264


I I I I


25'


I I I I I I


I 1 1 I I I I I 1






EXPLANATION
Well and well number
A -A'
Line of section

0 I 2 3 4 5 mile,


IC 0 U N T Y


afford N I


I -__ _


I E .
1 1-


LAl H E N '-1_


-OLLIER E N


05' Ri8OO'


I *1~~ ,I I~ ~~ ~~~ : ,I I I i i0I I I 0 0 0 .. ... .. I oI


II I
-H E N D R Y Q 0 UNTY


COUNTY HENRY CONTY



COU-N Y- E
r _-Par 8*k-4


D R Y COUNTY


- I


A 8 I1 -. .- -I I -
G 0 L L IE R C 0 U N' T Y I
1j_ I ___ 1



IF^ ^ __ -____ __ -_-- j-- ^ __
zI


_I __4_I _I
V I
LO

X I


]It III


o I


iD -- -


~i~4il Imt ii2 112 Th I I iI I~ I I I hUi LLi 1 iiiI 11 IKI II lEWr i


r^'4nLJ A4 /


'~~ J~A~j~'P,n IeI bl6i


Chon EVERGLADES


INSET C


t COPELAN


111


^JI


I I


X no


- I


OCHOPEE


J I I I Tf7--~~L ;


-- ~~1~1~1


HYMV4 CO L L E R


W I rI


I I


1 I


Il l l l I l l l


COUNTY
0 U N T Y. N_ _
__ Ii| C 16 0U IN IT IY


I I I I


5II0TI I lI I I I I I T I I T TI I T T i v-. .


Figure 2. Collier County showing location of wells and geologic sections
A-A' and B-B'


8152' 50' 45'


III


_ ~MarCC\
Island/


25 4 1 1 I I I I I I I
81"52' 50' 45'
Base taken from mops of the
Florida State Road Department


8100'


80"50'


~I


Ug I '


~ -


z^fm^A-~ r4


I ~ I 1 1 I~I t v I I I I I


L L


w Ii


~ PIINY rl Init LI I I I I (IL~h~~n)' .I ) I ~j~sl ( ( ( ( ( ( / I ( I ( I ( ( I I I I ( ( I ( I ( ( I I (!


R~D/7~1T~.~RT~r 71TM~H~III I I I I I-h~- Ir I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I r r 1 I I I .


if~fe~iFP-~t-F-bLiH-~e~jt~j ' ' ' ' I -' I 1 "I~---CC


IIU z r I


ET . .. .


.,,


"~~-"


"" ~ $_ --P2 4I( r !LC-


~auru


t-----


55' 80o5'


BI*5 8*4e e 788 48
26"'





21 4 1


14 2 25 5f
o-










I 2. -


30'






25'






20'






15'












05'





2600'


s


-WU/ M/


i


Pif~t


i


Island


f.UL,







GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA


in 1950 to 15,753 in 1960, more than half of which is in the three principal
towns. Naples (fig. 2) has a population of 4,650, and its suburbs to the
north and east increase this figure to more than 9,000. During each winter
season a large number of tourists visit this coastal area. Immokalee has
a population of 4,800, which is increased periodically by the influx of
migrant farm laborers. The town of Everglades has decreased in popu-
lation from 800 in 1950 to 550 in 1960.
The principal occupation of the county is truck farming. The most
important crops are tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, and watermelons.
Cattle raising is carried on also. Tourism is important to the economy of
the area, particularly the coastal towns of Naples and Everglades. Oil
production adds considerably to the economy, as the only producing oil
field in Florida is located at Sunniland in central Collier County (fig. 2).
Quarrying of limestone for road and building materials is also a sizable
industry.
There are three major roads in Collier County (fig. 2); the Tamiami
Trail (U.S. Highway 41) is the main arterial road through the county.
State Highway 29 connects Everglades with Immokalee and Immokalee
with northern towns; and State Highway 846 connects Naples with Im-
mokalee and Immokalee with eastern towns. There are several unim-
proved roads, but a large part of the interior of the county can be reached
only by specially equipped vehicles.

CLIMATE
The climate of Collier County is humid subtropical but temperatures
are moderated by winds from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic
Ocean. Table 1 shows temperature and rainfall averages at weather sta-
tions within the county. The average annual temperature for coastal
Collier County is approximately 750F. The warmest months are usually
July and August. The humidity is high but frequent afternoon thunder-
showers prevent extremely high temperatures.
Rainfall records from the Naples, Everglades, and Lake Trafford
stations show that there is not a significant variation in the average
annual rainfall throughout much of the county, but that large differences
do occur during a single year. During the very wet year of 1959 the
Miles City station recorded 88.76 inches of rainfall, the greatest yearly
rainfall of record in the county, whereas the station at Everglades re-
corded 64.29 inches. That year also established a new high for Naples,
where 72.50 inches was recorded. Several dry years occurred during
which less than 85 inches fell.








6 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THmRTY-ONE

TABLE 1. Average Monthly Temperature at Naples and Everglades, and
Average Monthly Rainfall at Naples, Everglades,
Lake Trafford, and Miles City

Temperature (*F)* Rainfall (inches)t
Month
Lake
Naples Everglades Naples Everglades Trafford Miles City

January........ 65.9 67.0 1.50 1.58 1.48 2.83
February....... 67.3 67.5 1.49 1.43 1.93 2.53
March......... 72.1 70.4 2.28 2.21 2.83 4.41
April........... 74.1 73.9 2.54 2.63 2.79 3.39
May........... 77.3 77.5 4.15 4.63 5.02 8.15
June........... 81.3 81.0 7.81 8.87 6.29 9.64
July........... 82.7 82.2 8.65 8.40 7.94 10.29
August......... 83.3 82.9 7.97 7.27 6.87 8.54
September...... 82.3 82.1 9.93 9.75 8.99 9.46
October........ 77.4 78.2 5.77 4.24 6.19 7.16
November...... 71.9 72.1 1.51 1.24 1.28 1.38
December...... 67.3 68.2 1.27 1.35 2.05 2.32

Yearly average.. 75.1 75.2 54.84 53.78 53.86 74.06

Period of record, U.S. Weather Bureau, Naples, 1942-60; Everglades, 1926-60.
Period of record, U.S. Weather Bureau, Naples, 1943-60; Everglades, 1926-60; Lake Trafford,
1951-60: and Miles City. 1957-60.

PHYSIOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE

Collier County lies within the Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic
province (Meinzer, 1923, pl. 28). It is part of the Terraced Coastal
Lowlands physiographic region of Florida as subdivided by Puri and
Vernon (1959, p. 7, fig. 3).
The Terraced Coastal Lowlands were formed during the interglacial
stages of the Pleistocene Epoch, when sea level was much higher than
it is today and Florida was nearly covered by the ocean. When the sea re-
mained relatively stationary for a long period, current and wave action
developed relatively flat surfaces on the ocean floor. During the glacial
stages the sea retreated and the flat surfaces emerged as marine terraces
which had gentle seaward dips. Wave action at the inland margin of
the sea would generally cut a scarp or bench into the abutting landmass,
leaving a well-defined shoreline when the sea retreated. In many places,
however, either wave-cut benches were not formed or they were masked
by later deposition or the growth of vegetation.






EXPLANATION

N I I
Pamlico Sand


Talbot Formation z


Miami Oolite
0 10 miles
Ft, Thompson Formation


S .| '1 Anastasia Formation


Caloosahatchee Marl <
okalee *, H
T/ QFormation
/ ///Tamiami Formation -
/ / 7:.\


Figure 8. Collier County showing the geology exclusive of organic soils.






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA


Cooke (1945, p. 245-248; 273-311) recognized seven terraces repre-
senting seven stands of the sea during Pleistocene time. Of these terraces
only the lowest two are within the surface altitudes of Collier County:
the Pamlico terrace at 25 feet above msl (mean sea level) and the
Talbot terrace at 25-42 feet above msl. Parker and Cooke (1944, p.24)
included a still lower shoreline, called Silver Bluff terrace, which is
recognizable along Biscayne Bay in Miami, Florida, where it cuts into
the rock at an altitude of 5 feet.
The writer was unable to distinguish any field evidence of the ancient
shorelines in Collier County. However, from aerial photographs and
topographic maps, a part of the Pamlico shoreline can be traced which
correlates with that of Parker and Cooke (1944, pl. 14). Parker and
Cooke (p. 26) indicated that during Pamlico time, while most of south
Florida was covered by the sea, an island existed south of the Caloosa-
hatchee River. This island was probably a remnant of the Talbot terrace
which stood between 25 and 42 feet above sea level. As can be seen
in figure 8, only a small part of the island extended into Collier County.
This island was referred to as Immokalee Island by Parker, et al.,
(1955, p. 189).
During the last glacial stage of the Pleistocene, the sea retreated to
about 25 feet below its present level and left many parallel beach ridges
and bars in southern Florida. Sand was transported southward beyond
Everglades and Marco Island and dunes were formed. Sand dunes are
the foundations of many of the islands in the Ten Thousand Islands area,
and the top of one dune on Marco Island stands 52 feet above sea level,
the highest land point in Collier County (Parker and Cooke, 1944, p. 26).
Davis (1943, fig. 1) divided Collier County into three physiographic
regions: the Flatlands, the Big Cypress Swamp, and the Southwest Coast
and Ten Thousand Islands (fig. 4). The Flatlands region contains a
great number of marshes and swamps, cypress stands, and open-water
depressions. These include the Corkscrew Marsh, Lake Trafford, and
the Okaloacoochee Slough (fig. 5). Numerous embayments, lagoons,
creeks, and rivers occur in this region along the Gulf of Mexico. The Big
Cypress Swamp covers the flat, poorly drained central and eastern parts
of the county and is characterized by swamps containing large cypress
trees, islands of pine forests, and wet marl prairies. Most of the region
is less than 15 feet above sea level. The Southwest Coast and Ten
Thousand Islands has many tidal streams, bays, lagoons, and thousands
of shoal-water islands. Much of the area is covered by mangrove swamps
and salt-water marshes.
Drainage in Collier County is sluggish, because of the general flat
topography, and is mainly through the interconnected sloughs (fig. 5).






8 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETN TnRTY-ONE


Figure 4. Physiographic regions of Collier County.


There are many creeks and rivers along the coastline, but they do not
extend great distances inland. The principal drainage channels are the
Gordon River at Naples, the Barron River at Everglades, the Turner
River east of Everglades, and the Cocohatchee River in the northwestern
part of the county. Major canal construction has extended the drainage
of the Cocohatchee and Barron rivers considerable distances inland.
The digging of several major canals has altered the natural drainage
to some extent. The canal adjacent to the Tamiami Trail (U.S. Highway
41) acts chiefly to collect southward runoff from the Big Cypress Swamp
and distribute the water to the nearest outlets beneath the highway. It
has little effect on drainage except in areas where it joins streams that
discharge to the gulf, such as the Barron and Turner rivers. The recently
constructed borrow canals adjacent to State Highways 858 and 846


N





0 10 miles







GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 9


Figure 5. Surficial flow in Collier County.

constitute the beginning of a program of drainage and development in
northwestern Collier County. The canal adjacent to State Highway 846
connects with the Cocohatchee River and extends more than 12 miles
inland into frequently flooded areas, where land-surface elevations in
places exceed 15 feet.
The Barron River Canal probably diverts a sizable amount of water
from the Fakawatchee Swamp. Drainage in eastern and west-central
Collier County is so poor that the area remains flooded for long periods
after the end of each rainy season.
Deep Lake, one of five sinkhole lakes in southern Florida (Parker
and Cooke, 1944, p. 44) is just east of State Highway 29, and about 14
miles north of Everglades (fig. 2). It has vertical or overhanging sides to
depths ranging from 35 to 50 feet, below which it slopes gradually to
its deepest point of 95 feet. It resulted from underground solution and
collapse of limestone.


EXPLANATION
-Direction of surficiol flow
Direction of surficiol flow


Naples






10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THmRTY-ONE

GEOLOGY
GENERAL STATEMENT
The peninsula of Florida is an emerged part of a large extension of
the ancient continental landmass. The extension is called the Floridian
Plateau (Vaughan, 1910). The core of this plateau is formed of igneous
and metamorphic rocks known as the basement complex. Sedimentary
rocks overlying the core range in thickness from about 4,000 feet near the
center of the peninsula to more than 12,000 feet in Collier County
(Parker and Cooke, 1944, p. 18). The predominant materials in this
county to a depth of about 700 feet are sand, limestone, and clay; below
700 feet the rocks are chiefly limestone and dolomite.
The only producing oil field in Florida is located in Collier County,
near Sunniland (fig. 2). Oil was discovered at a depth of 11,626 feet,
where it is trapped in structural folds within the sediments of Trinity
Age in the Lower Cretaceous Series. The discovery well was completed
on September, 26, 1943, but was later abandoned. Additional wells were
drilled and the field is still producing. Oil-exploration wells drilled in
Collier County furnish valuable information for the study of the deep
structures and stratigraphy of southern Florida.
Rocks of Miocene Age and younger are the only materials in Collier
County that will yield water suitable for irrigation, municipal, or do-
mestic purposes. Older rocks of Oligocene and Eocene Age yield large
quantities of water to deep flowing wells, but the water is too highly
mineralized for ordinary uses. Therefore, only those formations that yield
water of fair to good quality or in usable quantities will be described here
in detail.
MIOCENE SERIES
TAMPA FORMATION
Cooke (1945, p. 111-115) defined the Tampa Formation as the Lower
Miocene sandy limestones that overlie the Suwannee Limestone of Oli-
gocene Age and grade upward into the younger Hawthorn Formation.
In Collier County, the Tampa Formation is represented primarily by a
sandy limestone or a calcareous sandstone. The sand is predominantly
quartz and occurs in pockets or thin beds, or is disseminated in the
limestone matrix. In well cuttings, the limestone varies from a dirty buff
color to a very light color. Some phosphatic material is associated with
the Tampa Formation in Collier County.
In oil-exploratory wells in the central part of the county, the Tampa
Formation is approximately 200 feet thick. In one well, near Sunniland,







GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 11

the top of the Tampa Formation was reached at a depth of 411 feet.
In well 609-115-1, 5 miles east of Miles City, the Tampa Formation
was penetrated in the interval between 400 and 578 feet below land
surface. In well 556-128-1 on the southern mainland and well 554-143-1
on Marco Island, the Tampa Formation was reached at depths of 376
and 350 feet, respectively. Several flowing wells in the Naples area
probably are of sufficient depth to penetrate the Tampa Formation, but
no record of the well cuttings is available. The 300-foot test well
616-141-2, 8,2 miles northeast of Naples, did not reach the Tampa
Formation (fig. 6).
In Collier County, the limestones of the Tampa Formation probably
are the chief source of the water yielded by flowing wells which pene-
trate the upper part of the Floridan aquifer, the principal artesian
system that underlies Florida (Parker, 1951, p. 831).

HAWTHORN FORMATION
The Middle Miocene Hawthorn Formation in Collier County overlies
the Tampa Formation and underlies the Tamiami Formation of Late
Miocene Age. It is composed predominantly of clay but it contains also
stringers or lenses of sand and gravel and thin layers of limestone and
shells. The limestones generally occur near the bottom of the formation.
The clay and sandy clay in the formation are relatively impermeable.
In places they resemble commercial modeling clay. Because of the char-
acteristic low permeability of the clay, the Hawthorn Formation forms
the main part of the confining section that caps the Floridan aquifer.
The boundary between the green clay of the Hawthorn Formation
and the gray-green silty, sandy clays of the overlying Tamiami Forma-
tion is very difficult, if not impossible, to determine from fossils. Lithologic
differences cannot be used to differentiate because there appears to
be a gradational zone between the Hawthorn Formation and the Tami-
ami Formation (figs. 6, 7). However, it is estimated by the author that
the Hawthorn Formation in Collier County ranges in thickness from
about 250 to 300 feet, and that the top of the formation ranges in depth
from less than 100 feet in the Sunniland-Immokalee area to more than
200 feet along the western coastal areas. Figure 7 shows the subsurface
lithology along line B-B' in figure 2.
Parker, et al., (1955, p. 84) stated that artesian wells penetrating
limestones in the lower part of the Hawthorn Formation in coastal
Collier County have water levels that correspond with those of deeper
wells. This indicates that the lower limestones of the Hawthorn Formation






12 FLOmDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

are interconnected with the main body of limestones of the Floridan
aquifer and they may be considered the top of the aquifer. However,
some of these wells probably extend into the Tampa Formation in order
that adequate yield may be obtained.
Information obtained by Klein (1954, p. 22) has ,shown that soft
limestones in the Hawthorn Formation at depths of 200 to 250 feet in the
Naples area yield low to moderate quantities of water. Wells tapping
these beds have water levels considerably lower than those of deeper
wells, and the contained water is more saline than water from the Flori-
dan aquifer. These relatively shallow limestones probably constitute a
separate artesian system.

TAMIAMI FORMATION
The Tamiami Formation as defined by Parker (1955, p. 85) includes
all the Upper Miocene deposits in southern Florida. It underlies nearly
all of Collier County (fig. 3), and in the southern and eastern parts of
the county it is exposed at the surface or is covered by a thin veneer of
y ger deposits. Parker (1955, p. 85) indicated that the formation has
a maximum thickness of about 150 feet in southern Florida. The exact
thicknesses of the formation were not determined from test wells in
Collier County because Tamiami sediments are gradational with ,the
older Hawthorn sediments. Schroeder and Klein (1954, p. 4) suggested a
thickness of about 50 feet for the Tamiami Formation at Sunniland.
The Tamiami Formation is composed predominantly of tan to light
gray sandy and silty clay and shell marls. The lower part of the forma-
tion is chiefly shelly, fine sand and greenish clayey marls. These ma-
terials are of low permeability and constitute the upper part of the
confining beds of the Floridan aquifer.
The upper part of the Tamiami Formation throughout most of Collier
County is composed of relatively thin, solution-riddled, highly permeable
and very fossiliferous limestone. This limestone member appears to wedge
out a few miles west, south, and east of Immokalee, and according to
Schroeder and Klein (1954, p. 4) it does not occur near the Dade-Broward
County boundary. In well 625-116-1 (fig. 6), 9 miles east of Immoka-
lee at the Hendry County boundary, the limestone was penetrated at a
depth of 22 feet and was more than 82 feet thick. The shallow depth of
the wells immediately east of Immokalee indicates that the member
is thinning to the west. In the vicinity of Naples, the top of the lime-
stones of the Tamiami Formation ranges from about 25 to 55 feet below
the land surface. In southern and southeastern Collier County, it is ex-
posed at the surface or is overlain by a thin veneer of younger materials.


















0- Mean




13;F


Land


Sea t''





.1..1T








I P l


JI CM
C, oj n UI
m CM cj CD 7

S OJ (M (D
surface


Level .- i










........ M.M


EXPLANATION
Lithologic Symbols


Sand Limestone


Clay
or
marl


Shells Phosphatic
material


0 I 2 miles
Scale


Figure 6. Lithologic cross section along line A-A' in figure 2.






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA


It is exposed in canals ,and ditches, and is quarried extensively along U.S.
Highway 41 in the southern part of the county and along State Highway
29, principally in the vicinity of Sunniland. In the quarried areas the
limestone is characterized by the large echinoid Encope macrophora
tamiamiensis.
The Tamiami Formation is probably unconformable with overlying
younger sediments. Schroeder and Klein (1954, p. 4) described the sur-
face of the formation in the eastern part of the county as undulating and
dissected. They indicated also that the dissection occurred prior to
Pliocene deposition and possibly again during the Pleistocene.
The limestone of the Tamiami Formation forms the principal shallow
aquifer in Collier County. Its high permeability and widespread occur-
rence indicate its great importance in the development of large water
supplies in the county.

PLIOCENE SERIES
CALOOSAHATCHEE MARL
The Caloosahatchee Marl is predominantly a grayish green silty,
sandy, shell marl with interbedded layers of sand, silt, clay, and marl
(Parker, et al., 1955, p. 89). The formation rests unconformably on the
Tamiami Formation in the eastern part of Collier County (fig. 3). In
well 625-116-1, 9 miles east of Immokalee, 18 feet of gray sandy, shelly
marl was penetrated (fig. 6) which may represent the Caloosahatchee
Marl. It overlies solution-riddled limestone of the Tamiami Formation.
The generally low permeability of the Caloosahatchee Marl causes
wells drawing water from it to have low yields.

PLEISTOCENE AND RECENT SERIES
ANASTASIA FORMATION
The Anastasia Formation represents the marine deposits of pre-
Pamlico Age of the Pleistocene Series in Collier County. Parker, et al.,
(1955, pl. 4) indicated that the Anastasia Formation occurs in a band
about 5 to 6 miles wide along the west coast of Collier County (fig. 3).
At its type locality, Anastasia Island near St. Augustine, the Anastasia
Formation is a coquinoid limestone. In Collier County, however, it ap-
pears as a light cream to light gray sandy limestone and tan shelly, sandy
marl containing many Chione cancellata.
Although the Anastasia Formation is present only in a small part of
Collier County (fig. 3), it causes much difficulty in well drilling. Many
small-diameter wells have been abandoned or restricted to shallow depths






14 FLORDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETI THmrTY-ONE


because drillers could not penetrate a hard, dense limestone in the
formation.
The Anastasia Formation is exposed along the canal banks on -the
north side of State Highway 846. Two miles east of the intersection
of State Highway 846 and U.S. Highway 41, the hard limestone of the
formation is very near the land surface and dips toward the Oulf of
Mexico. In well 613-148-1, the formation is 22 feet below land surface
and is probably about 15 feet thick (fig. 6).
The Anastasia Formation probably overlies the Tamiami -Formation
unconformably in most areas of the county. In the southern part of
Collier County along U.S. Highway 41 and in the Sunniland quarries,
very thin beds of hard tan limestone or sandstone, which contain abundant
Chione cancellata, overlie and fill depressions of the old eroded surface
of the Tamiami Formation. Parker, et al., (1955, p. 85) assigned this
limestone to be Anastasia Formation.
Limestones of the Anastasia Formation are generally permeable and
where they are thick, as at Naples, they form an important part of the
shallow aquifer.
FORT THOMPSON FORMATION
The Fort Thompson Formation is composed of alternating marine
and fresh-water deposits. The deposits consist of sand, marl, shell marl,
sandstone, and limestone of fresh-water and marine origin which were
deposited during one or several of the glacial stages of the Pleistocene
(Klein, 1954, p. 13). Any sequence of fresh-water and marine beds, or
fresh-water beds alone, older than Recent fresh-water deposits is con-
sidered as representing the Fort Thompson Formation of :Pleistocene
Age. (See Schroeder and Klein, 1954, p. 5; Parker, et al., 1955, p. 90-99.)
The Fort Thompson Formation occurs in the eastern part of Collier
County (fig. 3) where it rests unconformably on the Tamiami Formation.
Test drilling indicated that along the eastern boundary of the county the
Fort Thompson Formation ranges in thickness from 3 to 9 feet (Schroeder
and Klein, 1954).
Klein (1954, p. 12-13) described a zone of fresh-water gastropods
overlying the Anastasia Formation in Naples. This zone may represent
or be equivalent to the uppermost zone of the Fort Thompson Formation.

MIAMI OOLITE
The southeast corner of Collier County is covered by the Miami
Oolite, a gray, porous, oolitic limestone (fig. 3). The contact between
the Miami Oolite and the underlying Tamiami Formation can be seen





(D
-o- Bo T

Oo
0 CM

poc-
O, Sandn Lmso -lS lsPos....Land
,______" Mean sea level .. --- ..






























.Sca-
-:sA-









er-- EXPLANATION
Lithologic Symbols


-3'aC- __ Sand Limestone Clay Shells Phosphatic
S--- or material
marl
-320-
'0 I 2 3 miles
-5 7 Scale











Figure 7. Lithologic cross section along line B-B' in figure 2.






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 15

in canal banks along U.S. Highway 41 a few miles west of the Dade
County boundary. The Miami Oolite in Collier County probably does
not exceed 5 feet in thickness, but it thickens eastward in Dade County,
where it forms an integral part of the Biscayne aquifer.

PLEISTOCENE TERRACES AND RECENT DEPOSITS
As discussed in the section on physiography, marine terraces were
formed by fluctuations of the sea level during interglacial stages of the
Pleistocene. When the ancient sea stood 42 feet above present sea
level, the Talbot terrace was formed. It is present in Collier County
only in the northern part, where its deposits blanket Immokalee Island
(fig. 3). Deposits of the Talbot terrace are characterized by very fine to
coarse quartz sand and some silt or clay. The sands of the Talbot For-
mation yield ample water to many shallow sand-point wells in the
vicinity of Immokalee.
The Pamlico Sand was deposited when the sea covered all the land
area of Collier County, which was less than 25 feet above present sea
level (fig. 3). In Collier County the Pamlico Sand is composed of fine
to medium quartz. The base of this sand is 10 to 15 feet below msl in
the Naples area where it immediately overlies the Anastasia Formation.
The uppermost material is white or light gray medium grained quartz
sand, which grades downward to a highly colored rust brown fine
grained quartz sand. The color is apparently caused by the vertical
migration of organic materials in percolating ground water (Klein, 1954,
p. 13). In the interior areas of Collier County, the Pamlico Sand forms
a thin blanket over the Tamiami Formation or the thin, hard limestone
layer of the Anastasia Formation (fig. 6). After the close of Pamlico time
the terrace surface was altered by winds to form dunes. These dunes are
greatly emphasized on Marco Island but are less noticeable along the
upper west coast of the county. The Pamlico Sand forms the top unit
of the shallow aquifer in Collier County.
Recent deposits are composed chiefly of organic materials, derived
from decayed vegetation, mixed with the terrace deposits. Thin accumu-
lations of peat and muck occur also in the Big Cypress Swamp where
they are mixed locally, in depressions, with marly and sandy materials.

TEST-WELL DRILLING
Twelve test wells were drilled in Collier County during the first year
of the investigation. The wells ranged in depth from 123 to 700 feet
below the land surface. The locations of the test wells were deter-
mined by the amount and distribution of geologic, hydrologic, and






16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THARTY-ONE

quality-of-water information obtained during the well inventory phase of
the investigation. The test wells were therefore drilled in areas where
information was scarce or nonexistent.
Samples of the materials penetrated by the test wells were taken at
5-foot intervals whenever possible. When a layer of permeable rock was
penetrated, a water sample was pumped from that layer. In thick perme-
able zones water samples were pumped at 10-foot intervals. When mate-
rial of low permeability was penetrated and its water yield was small,
water samples were collected from that depth by use of the bailer.
Several water samples from highly permeable zones were collected for
complete chemical analysis; all the water samples were analyzed for
chloride content.
Water-level measurements were made during the drilling of each
test well. An analysis of these water levels indicates differences in pres-
sure head within a given aquifer or between aquifers. When a permeable
zone was pumped, the yield of the well was estimated at that depth
and water-level measurements were made after pumping stopped to
determine the rate of recovery of the water level. The rate of recovery
is a factor in determining the relative permeability of the tested zone.
One test well, 5 miles east of Miles City, penetrated the Floridan
aquifer. This well was drilled to furnish data on the occurrence of rela-
tively fresh water in the aquifer in the southern part of the county.
During the period 1957-58, several exploratory wells were drilled in
the vicinity of Naples in cooperation with the city of Naples. These wells
were drilled to determine areas that might be developed as sources of
additional water for municipal supply, and to determine the extent of
salt-water encroachment from the Gulf of Mexico. They are also used
as water-level observation wells and are sampled at regular intervals to
determine changes in the salt content of the water.
Rock cuttings and water samples were collected during the drilling
of six privately owned wells. The logs of 18 wells are given in table 5.

GROUND WATER
PRINCIPLES OF OCCURRENCE
Ground water composes one part of the earth's water-circulating sys-
tem known as the hydrologic cycle. In this cycle water is taken from the
earth's surface into the atmosphere by evaporation. It condenses and
returns to the surface as precipitation. When it falls on land areas the
water moves downward under gravitational forces, seeking to fill all the
pore spaces of the host rock or soil. The portion of material that is filled






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 17

with water is called the zone of saturation. The pore spaces of the mate-
rial overlying the saturated zone are filled with water and air and this ma-
terial is called the zone of aeration. Water in the zone of saturation is
known as ground water; water in the zone of aeration is referred to as
vadose water (Meinzer, 1923, p. 29-32; 38-39; 76-83). The direction of
movement of vadose water is generally downward because of gravity.
Ground water occurs in permeable geologic formations called
aquifers. If water in the aquifer is unconfined, the upper surface of the
zone of saturation is under atmospheric pressure and is called the water
table. The direction of movement of ground water is controlled by the
slope of the water table.
Confined aquifers, also called artesian aquifers, occur where ground
water is confined by relatively impermeable formations and is under
pressure greater than atmospheric. The direction of movement of ground
water in an artesian aquifer is from points of high pressure to points of
low pressure. Water in a well penetrating a nonartesian aquifer will
rise no higher than the water table, whereas water in a well penetrating
an artesian aquifer will rise above the bottom of the confining formation
to a height determined by the hydrostatic pressure of the aquifer. The
height to which water will rise in tightly cased wells penetrating an
artesian aquifer is called the piezometric or pressure surface. If the pie-
zometric surface is above land surface, the water will flow from the well.
Unconfined or nonartesian aquifers are replenished by the down-
ward infiltration of rainfall, or downward seepage from lakes and
rivers. This replenishment, or recharge, generally occurs throughout the
extent of the aquifer. Confined or artesian aquifers can receive recharge
only in areas where the confining bed is absent, breached, or somewhat
permeable, and the recharge water has a greater head than the water
in the artesian aquifer.

FLORIDAN AQUIFER
Most of Florida is underlain by thick sections of permeable lime-
stones of Miocene and pre-Miocene Ages. These limestones form an
extensive artesian aquifer from which most of the large ground-water
supplies for the central and northern parts of Florida are obtained. String-
field (1936, p. 125-132, 146) described the aquifer and mapped the
piezometric surface in 1933 and 1934. The name "Floridan aquifer" was
introduced by Parker, et al., (1955, p. 189) to include all parts of the
thick permeable section of limestones of Middle and Late Eocene Age
and Oligocene Age, which constitute a single hydrologic unit, and the






18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SUTVEY-BuLETIN TmRTY-ONE

Tampa Formation and permeable parts of the Hawthorn Formation
which form the top of the aquifer and which are in hydrologic contact
with the rest of the aquifer. The Floridan aquifer is confined by rela-
tively impermeable limestone layers in the Hawthorn Formation and by
the overlying clay and silt beds of the Hawthorn and Tamiami Formations.
The Floridan aquifer underlies all of Collier County. It slopes very
gently in a southerly direction in the county, and the top of the aquifer
is almost everywhere less than 400 feet below msl. The thickness of the
Floridan aquifer in Collier County is not known, but several wells 2,000
feet deep do not completely penetrate it. It yields large amounts of water
to wells by natural flow, but the water is usually so highly mineralized
that its use is limited.
The yield and pressure of the artesian water in the Floridan aquifer
vary with depth. Well 609-115-1, 5 miles east of Miles City, receives
water from two zones within the aquifer. The casing of the well is so
constructed that the two zones are independent of one another. The
upper part of the well is cased to 312 feet below the land surface and
has an open hole from 312 to 485 feet. The lower part of the well is cased
from land surface to 587 feet below the land surface and has an open
hole from 587 to 700 feet. Although each of the open-hole zones yielded
about the same quantity of water, there was a significant difference in
their pressures. On May 26, 1961, the water level of the shallow zone
was 30 feet above msl, whereas that of the deep zone was 52 feet above
msl. The magnitude of the head differential indicates that the material
between the two open-hole intervals is of relatively low permeability and
that the zones may be separate artesian systems.
Two wells in Goodland (fig. 2) also show differences in pressure
resulting from differences in depth. Well 555-139-2 is 540 feet deep and
has 179 feet of open hole. Well 555-139-5 is 342 feet deep and has 22 feet
of open hole. Their water pressures are respectively 33 and 26 feet above
ms].
In the Naples area, isolated lenses or stringers of limestone and shells
within the thick confining section of the Hawthorn Formation have
sufficient permeability to yield moderate quantities of water to relatively
shallow artesian wells. However, these units are not of great importance
because their yield to wells is small and the quality of the water is no
better than that from the Floridan aquifer.

PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE
The piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer is an imaginary sur-
face representing the pressure head of the confined water and is the









GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA


INTERIOR


85* 84 83*

EXPLANATION
Contour represents the height, in feet referred to mean sea level,
to which water would hove risen in tightly cased wells that
penetrate the major woaer-bearing formations in the Floridan
aquifer, July 6-17, 1961.
Contour interval 20 feel


*6.



C,
C'


1 0 10 20 30 40 50 miles


I 84 833 82* 81* 80*
Bose taken from 1933 edition of mop of Contours taken from map series no.1
Florida by U.S. Geological Survey by Florida Geological Survey

Figure 8. The piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer, July 6-17, 1961.


UNITED


271.


/






20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULETMI THiTY-ONE

height to which water will rise in tightly cased wells that penetrate the
aquifer. The configuration of the piezometric surface of the Floridan
aquifer in peninsular Florida is shown by the contour lines in figure 8.
The piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in Collier County
ranges from 22 feet above msl at Naples to 58 feet above msl in the
northern part of the county, north of Immokalee. It is higher than the land
surface in all parts of the county except the high sand dunes on Marco
Island. The piezometric surface slopes in a southwesterly direction to
the Gulf of Mexico (fig. 9). Ground water in the Floridan aquifer moves
downgradient from areas of high artesian pressure to areas of low artesian
pressure along flow lines which are perpendicular to the contour lines.
Therefore, the flow of ground water in the Floridan aquifer in Collier
County is generally to the southwest. The distortion of the regional pat-
tern of the piezometric surface in the area north of Immokalee is the
result of discharge of several flowing wells in that area.
In figure 9, the slope of the piezometric surface in the coastal and
adjacent areas is fairly steep, indicating discharge from the aquifer in
offshore areas. The average slope in the downgradient areas is about 1
foot per mile; in upgradient areas it decreases and averages about half a
foot per mile. The relatively equal spacing between contour lines
suggests that all the observation wells, measured for pressure readings
used in the preparation of figure 9, penetrate the Floridan aquifer.

RECHARGE AND DISCHARGE
The Floridan aquifer is replenished where the aquifer is at or near
the land surface, or where the altitude of the recharge water is higher than
the piezometric surface and the confining bed is thin, breached, or
relatively permeable. These areas are known as recharge areas. The
principal recharge area for central and southern Florida is Polk County
and vicinity, where the piezometric surface of the aquifer is highest, as
shown in figure 8. In some areas of Polk County, leaky confining beds
overlie the Floridan aquifer (Stewart, 1959, p. 55), and recharge water
under high head can infiltrate vertically from shallow water-bearing
materials to the Floridan aquifer which contains water under a lower
head.
The water level in the Floridan aquifer in Polk County and vicinity
is at a higher altitude than it is in the surrounding areas. The water in
the aquifer moves downgradient, perpendicular to the contour lines, to
points of discharge, principally springs and wells. Discharge by upward
leakage through the confining beds probably occurs in downgradient






952 50 45' 40' 35' 30' 25' 20' 15' 10' 05' 8100' 55' 80050'
1_ 1 I i I I I I [ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I 1 1 26

N 1 .7
,H E Nr R Y C 0 U N T Y
S- EXPLANATION
3P Well30'
.3? [Ra *56
Upper number is well number
Lower number is water level, in
r COUNTY MMOKALEE feet above mean sea level
0 1 2 3 4 miles C U N T Y 55 25'
...... .. -- -
I Contour on the piezometric surface
S/ of the Floridan aquifer in feet
0 |above mean sea level, 1960;
Sdashed where inferred; contour
S interval 5 feet 20
/ \.L\ E E Note:
-- E R No upper number indicates well
inventoried in previous investigation

"-"\'5 ~H E N D R Y C O U N T Y
\ \ \ CO L I E R COUNTY I

-\ \ \ \ \ I/






N 0




0


S--5 o 26


c OPELAND
41

Is n I Ud Z












Figure 9. Piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in Collier County, 1960.
Figure 9. Piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in Collier County, 1960.







GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 21

areas where the piezometric surface is higher than the water level of the
shallow materials.
Water is discharged from the aquifer in Collier County by about
50 flowing wells. There probably are others which have been capped and
abandoned for many years. The casings of abandoned wells deteriorate
and considerable leakage takes place in the subsurface through them.




25052'



02
C .2 Municipal supply well
6 E and number

Private supply well
and number
02 ( 0 1/2 mile





51'
chi Scale

















025500



81024' 8123'

Figure 10. Map of Everglades showing location of wells and cross section along
line C-C'.






22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TRmTY-ONE

The Floridan aquifer probably crops out on the ocean floor at a
considerable distance from the coast of Collier County. Because the arte-
sian pressure at the coast is high, 22 to 25 feet above msl, considerable
offshore discharge from the aquifer can be expected through submarine
springs.
As there is a large upward pressure gradient within the Floridan
aquifer, shown by water-level measurements in the test well east of
Miles City, water can be continuously discharged from the lower zones
through open well bores into shallow zones. This movement of water can
be extremely important in wells containing long intervals of open hole,
especially where the lower zones contain very highly mineralized water.

AVAILABILITY AND USE OF GROUND WATER
Ground water from the Floridan aquifer is available by natural flow
to wells throughout Collier County except on the high sand dunes of
Marco Island. However, its use is greatly limited because of its relatively
high mineral content. Generally, the water is too salty for most pur-
poses but it is used as a supplemental supply in irrigation systems.
About 40 percent of the flowing artesian wells in Collier County are in
the Immokalee area (fig. 2). Most of these wells were originally used
for irrigation but many have been abandoned or are used only as an
auxiliary supply. Several deep wells in the Naples area are used to
maintain lake levels and supply irrigation water. One artesian well in
downtown Naples was used for many years as a fire-protection well.
The town of Everglades obtains its water supply from four flowing
artesian wells which penetrate the Floridan aquifer (fig. 10). It is the
only place in southern Florida where the quality of the water from the
Floridan aquifer approaches the standards of the U.S. Public Health
Service for drinking water. Usually, wells penetrating the aquifer in the
area south of Lake Okeechobee yield water with a chloride content near
or greater than 1,000 ppm.
During the period 1927-29, four wells were drilled in the town of
Everglades to furnish the municipal supply. Well 551-123-1 was drilled
in the northern part of the town but was abandoned because of the poor
quality of the water. Wells 551-123-2, 3, and 4 were drilled approximately
half a mile south of well 551-123-1. The three wells in this field form a
triangle about 150 feet long on each side. In 1935, well 550-123-1 was
drilled about half a mile south of the well field. A year later, wells
551-123-2 and 3 were deepened to increase their yield. In 1961, water
supplies for the town were furnished by wells 551-123-2 and 3, and wells
551-123-4 and 550-123-1 were reserved for emergencies.





GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 23

S N

S ro T
O I 0I I I
-300-

-350 -
S -- 1 I ;: -
z -400 -

S-450-

S-500- _- ---- \
L_ EXPLANATION
Z -550 Note: Wells 551-123-1 and 2 C
S-550- ore projected into cross Cosing
section at right angles
S-600- Open hole
0 0.1 mile /
-650 -
Figure 11. Cross section along line C-C' in figure 10, showing amount of open
hole in. wells.


Figure 11 is a cross section in Everglades. The casing bottoms and
total depths of the wells have been presented to show the differences
in construction. Lack of detailed information prohibits determining the
reasons for the differences in amount of open hole in wells relatively
close together.
In four wells, a formation described by the drillers as a water rock
or water shale was reached at a depth of about 380 feet. The presence
of this stratum is probably the reason that the casings in most of the wells
end above this depth. Wells 551-123-2 and 3 were drilled until caving
halted the operation. No explanation is given for the depths of the
other wells. After setting the casing, the driller probably continued to
make open hole until the desired yield was obtained. This supposition is
somewhat supported by the fact that all the wells mentioned above,
except 550-123-1, have been deepened, indicating that the initial flow
had decreased or had become inadequate to supply the demand.
Wells 554-122-1 and 556-128-1 are respectively 4 miles north and 7
miles northwest of Everglades (fig. 2). Both are flowing artesian wells
and yield water of the same salinity. The total depth of well 556-128-1 is
unknown, but it is probably no greater than that of the wells in the





24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLEN THIRTY-ONE

Everglades well field. Well 556-128-1 reached the dark green dense clay
of the Hawthorn Formation at a depth of 292 feet, and a light gray
limestone in the Floridan aquifer at 376 feet. The well was drilled to a
total depth of 392 feet. The materials penetrated in well 556-128-1 corre-
late very closely to those in well 551-123-6. Well 551-123-6 reached the
green clay at a depth of 275 feet and the limestone at 3871 feet. The
salinity of the water from well 551-123-6 for the interval 371-414 feet
was considerably higher than that from well 556-128-1.

SHALLOW AQUIFER
The shallow aquifer is the principal source of fresh water in Collier
County. It is composed of the Pleistocene terrace sands, the Anastasia
Formation, and the upper permeable limestones of the Tamiami Forma-
tion. The lower parts of the Tamiami Formation, together with the im-
permeable sections of the Hawthorn Formation constitute the confining
layer for the Floridan aquifer.
The shallow aquifer has a maximum thickness of about 130 feet in
western Collier County, where the Pamlico Sand, the Anastasia Forma-
tion, and limestones of the Tamiami Formation are all present and are
fairly well interconnected. It thins eastward to a thickness of about 60,
feet near Sunniland, and wedges out near the Dade County boundary,
where the shallow materials are composed of marls and fine sand. In
southern Collier County, the shallow aquifer is composed entirely of
solution-riddled, highly permeable limestone of the Tamiami Formation
which extends to a depth of at least 90 feet below the land surface.
Test drilling and data on the depth and yield of existing wells in the
Immokalee area indicate a marked change in the lithology of the shal-
low aquifer in that area. The subsurface materials in the vicinity of
Immokalee are chiefly plastic sediments ranging from marls to very coarse
sands. No limestones of appreciable thickness or permeability were pene-
trated within the upper 100 feet of the section. Several beds or lenses of
coarse quartz sand occur in this upper section which would probably
yield large quantities of water to screened wells; however, most of the
wells of high yield penetrate limestones and shell beds at depths oL200,
feet or more. These deeper limestones may be interconnected with. the
shallow aquifer.
The thick section of plastics may be part of a frontal edge of a large
delta, which, according to Bishop (1956, p. 26), .extended southward
through Highlands County (on the north) during the Miocene Epoch. To
the east and west of the Immokalee area the plastic sediments grade into
/* ,,





(,(jIJfl I'
'^ ux~ rr'r


616-141-1


609-143-1


9-D'
609-141-1


EXPLANATION
LINE OF CROSS SECTION
D- -D'


WELL FIELDS
UNUSED IN USE PROPOSED



TEST AND OBSERVATION
WELL
e


0 I miles


Figure 12. Northwestern Collier County showing locations of the Naples munici-
pal well fields and geologic cross sections along lines D-D', E-E', and F-F'.


IF F(1


F19 617-146-1


616-145-1


/
612-146-1






I





1610-147-2


146-1


NAPL







GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA


Figure 13. Geologic cross section and chloride content of water along line D-D'
in figure 12.

permeable marine limestones which yield large quantities of water to
open-hole wells.
The shallow aquifer supplies large amounts of water for irrigation
throughout the county. The Pleistocene sands yield small amounts of
fresh water to very shallow wells on Marco Island.
During 1957-59, several exploratory wells were drilled east and north-
east of Naples in connection with the expansion of water facilities for
Naples (fig. 12). Figures 13, 14 and 15 show the lithology of the shallow
aquifer along the three cross-sectional lines indicated in figure 12. The
cross sections show that east of Naples the aquifer is compared almost
entirely of limestone. Northeast of Naples the aquifer becomes thinner
and the limestone is interbedded with sand and marl. The Pamlico Sand
(uppermost part of the aquifer), which is about 15 to 20 feet thick
in Naples, thins rapidly eastward.

RECHARGE AND DISCHARGE
The shallow aquifer is recharged principally by local rainfall that
percolates downward to the zone of saturation. During periods of high






26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THITY-ONE


Figure 14. Geologic cross section and chloride content of water along line E-E'
in figure 12.

water levels it is possible that canals and streams would afford some
recharge to the aquifer for a short time. Where impermeable layers are
present at or near the land surface, recharge by rainfall is restricted and
much potential recharge is lost by sheet flow to the streams, sloughs,
canals, and Gulf of Mexico.
In the Naples area, a confining bed of silt and marl occurs within
the shallow aquifer and impedes the downward infiltration of ground
water. Materials above the confining bed readily soak up and store a large
amount of rainfall. In much of the area northeast of Naples, a layer of very
hard, dense limestone of low permeability occurs at or immediately below
the land surface. The low permeability greatly decreases the amount of
downward infiltration to the aquifer, and as a result much of the water
in this area drains off as overland flow and does not recharge the aquifer.


SCLt IN FfT T
A 45o i~ooo .voo S5








GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA


F 2 N -
7

20
Mean sea



-30
'3.1 oo
~-40 /,_Oa
6 -13 E EXPLANATION
N60 j 78
ze LIMESTONE
+-0 fl / /


-9-0
. CONTENTION PP /
-v,o |- 1- / I


-140 /

-160 0 SAL
-I o I0Nj l S3 51 / ~
Al 336 lt'~73/ -




-160 [


level
-0 45..




-i_ ?7 ."
-176

7 --


666-
/

/
,/ z,<0o-


/


I/


Figure 15. Geologic cross section and chloride content of water along line F-F'
in figure 12.




Figures 16 and 17 show the effect of rainfall on water levels in obser-
vation wells penetrating the shallow aquifer in the county.

Well 610-147-14 (fig. 16) is in the Naples well field and is affected
by pumping. However, the altitude of the plotted daily highs correlates
closely with rainfall recorded at Naples. The graph of pumpage from the
well field shows that pumping magnifies the fluctuations, especially
during dry periods when pumping is increased.

Water levels in wells 617-134-3 and 625-116-1 are compared to rainfall
recorded at Lake Trafford (fig. 17). Well 617-134-3 is about 10 miles
southwest and well 625-116-1 is about 13 miles east of Lake Trafford.
Time lapses of several days can be noted between rains recorded and
rises in water levels. Some rains show little if any effect, indicating that
probably no rain fell in the vicinity of the well. The same situation appears
to be true for well 606-120-1 and Miles City (fig. 17). The hydrographs
show that some areas remain flooded for a considerable time during the
rainy season.


T F'
ID
+ 20
- +10


-10
-20
-30
-40
-.,

-50
7 -60

-80
I -0

-110

S -120
-130


-?6,








1958 1959 196)
E 1 1 in.. 411. m i l eUP, sftenc n '* flu WA .N l '^ A f p' f Nov C19 9


4C
oil-- ... ..-- ... .---- ------ .





H.jG





K WELL 610-147-14, in Napl Municipl well-fieldl extenson

2.0 l I / IGAG INSTALL A .






Tol i llt lll. llll lll. I i I..i, I.,l l .I l ..1 i ,.l,_, Mil__ i ,, L ,..ll .HUR. R CANE oowl,
Figure 16. Hydrograph of well 610-147-14 showing daily high, monthly pumrnpage
from Naples well field, and daily rainfall at Naples, June 1958-December 1960.


C




C











6







GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA


1 ellw 606-120-I I !




-7

MILES CITY
i I I



Well 625- 116-1 ... I







I tt
0-2







51-_ ____ -
0 Well 617-134-3

1-2 i V11



I LAKE TRAFFORD
c3-
2-

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC
1960
Figure 17. Hydrographs of wells 606-120-1, 625-116-1, and 617-134-3, and daily
rainfall at Miles City and Lake Trafford, 1960.

Ground-water losses from the shallow aquifer occur by natural dis-
charge into streams, drainage canals, and the Gulf of Mexico; by evapo-
transpiration; and by pumping from wells. Losses by natural discharge
are greatest during periods of high rainfall, when ground-water levels
are highest. Also, when ground-water levels are high many parts of the
county are flooded, and as a result the rate of evaporation increases.






30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURvEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

Transpiration by plants also account for large losses. Ground water dis-
charged by natural processes far exceeds the amount discharged by
pumping.
Ground-water use is greatest along the western coastal area and in
the northern part of Collier County. In the coastal area the rapid spread
of urbanization has increased the demand for municipal supplies (fig.
16). Several housing subdivisions are supplied by privately owned water
systems. Also, hundreds of small-diameter wells in the area are used
for lawn irrigation and individual household supplies where no municipal
supplies are available.
In northern Collier County scores of large-diameter wells are used
to irrigate truck crops. East of Immokalee wells yield as much as 1,000
gpm (gallons per minute), or more.
WATER-LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS
Fluctuations of the water table in the shallow aquifer reflect changes
in the amount of ground water in storage in the aquifer. Fluctuations
are caused by recharge by rainfall, and discharge by outflow from the
aquifer, evapotranspiration, and pumping of wells. Water levels in wells
near the coast are affected by gulf tides. Minor fluctuations in some areas
result from variations in atmospheric pressure. Rainfall, evapotranspira-
tion, and pumping are the most important factors in the fluctuation of
water levels in the shallow aquifer in Collier County. The hydrographs
in figures 16 and 17 show the fluctuations of water levels in different
areas of Collier County.
Water levels in several wells in northwestern Collier County were
measured to determine the altitude and configuration of the water table
during periods of high and low rainfall. These wells tap the uppermost
section of the aquifer. Figure 18 shows the approximate altitude and
configuration of the water table in the Naples area on August 15, 1960,
after a period of heavy rainfall. The configuration of the contours shows
that the aquifer is recharged by local rainfall. The steep water-table
gradient on the west side toward the gulf suggests that the sandy surface
material is only moderately permeable and can therefore retain large
amounts of ground water in storage. In general, the water table con-
forms to the topography of the area and the contours indicate that under-
flow is westward to the Gulf of Mexico, southward to Naples Bay and
the Naples well field, and eastward to the Gordon River drainageway.
Figure 19 shows the configuration and altitude of the water table on
March 29, 1960, after a period of deficient rainfall (Sherwood and Klein,
1960). The pattern is similar to that of August 15, 1960, but the altitude










































































EXPLANATION
*6.60
Observation well and
water-table altitude, in
feet, on August 15,-1960


Contour showing the
water-table altitude
in feet; dashed where
inferred; contour interval
2 feet, datum is mean
sea level.


0 Imiles


Figure 18. Water-level contour map of northwestern Collier County, August 15,
1960.


LtE.
,- ,-
LLI~R '.,Cj ~Pd rf tt~'.L -


NAPL


T .:,..
50
s























































EXPLANATION
*5 23
Observation well and
altitude of water table
S.... .-.in .feet,-March 29, 1961 -

Contour showing altitude
of water table in feet;
dashed where inferred;
contour interval 2 feet;
datum is mean sea level.


0 I 2 miles


Figure 19. Water-level contour map of northwestern Collier County, March 29,
1960.


L. j .


/

I
\
\


NAPI


y ..........






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 31

of the water surface is somewhat lower. Both contour maps show the
effect of pumping in the municipal well field, which is indicated by a shal-
low water-table depression in the northeastern part of the city.
Water-level measurements made during the drilling of test wells and
supply wells along the coastal area showed differences in head between
the upper and lower parts of the aquifer. Along the central part of the
ridge, the water levels in shallow wells (25-30 feet deep) ranged from
1 to 3 feet higher than the water levels in wells penetrating the deeper
part of the aquifer (60-100 feet deep). Such head differential causes
downward leakage of ground water. It is typical of the recharge areas,
and the magnitude of the differential is related to the degree of confine-
ment of the zone between the two parts of the aquifer. In the peripheral
areas where discharge from the aquifer takes place, the head relation-
ship is reversed; the water levels in deep wells range 1 to 2 feet higher
than those in the shallow wells and upward leakage occurs. In the munici-
pal well-field area, where wells 60 to 100 feet deep are heavily pumped,
water levels in the upper part of the aquifer are substantially higher
than those in the lower part and much of the ground water pumped is
supplied by downward leakage in the area of the cone of depression.
The graphs in figure 16 show the relationship between pumpage,
rainfall, and water-level fluctuations in well 610-147-14, in the Naples
well field, for the period June 1958 December 1960. Although the well
penetrates the lower part of the aquifer, the response of the water level
in the well to rainfall is rapid. Pumping is the major factor causing large
declines in the vicinity of the well field; other fluctuations such as those
caused by tides and variations in barometric pressure are minor.

AVAILABILITY AND USE OF GROUND WATER
The shallow aquifer is the prinicpal source of fresh ground water
in the county except for the area in the vicinity of Everglades. The
limestone of the Tamiami Formation is the chief water-bearing zone of
the aquifer in most of the county. On Marco Island, the Pamlico Sand pro-
vides the only obtainable potable ground-water supply.
The shallow aquifer yields ground water at various depths depending
on the location. In the west to west-central part of the county, it pro-
duces from a zone that ranges in depth from about 35 to 100 feet below
the land surface; in the central part, from 20 to 90 feet; in the northern
part, from shell beds and coarse sand lenses at various depths in the
Pleistocene terrace and other sediments; in the southern part, from land
surface to about 30 feet; and in the southeastern part, from about 20 to
25 feet.






32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE











130o0
-7
4C4--
500 ----- ----- --- ------ ------ _- -

(dQ~400 ---------------------------------7__ -----



0
1 300--







9-





60 A


,4
9I0- -- -y-- -- -




t 50- 7-- --

4- /





20-


1946


1948


Figure 20. Graph showing annual pumpage from the Naples well fields, 1945-62.


Large quantities of ground water are obtained from the shallow
aquifer in the farm belt which stretches from Immokalee southwestward
to the Tamiami Trail (U.S. Highway 41) north of Naples. Irrigation wells


1950


1952


91 84 1956 IS58 1930 ..I 1






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 33

near the western edge of the farm belt are generally about 60 to 70
feet deep, but farther inland their maximum depth is about 100 feet.
The small community of Copeland obtains its water supply from the
limestone of the Tamiami Formation. Well 556-121-2, which supplies
Copeland, was drilled to a depth of 30 feet in 1945. At that time the
cypress lumber industry was near its peak and the population of Cope-
land was considerably greater than the 1960 population of 100 to 150.
During 1945 the well was pumped at an average rate of 75,000 gpd, or an
annual amount of 27.4 million gallons. The well was still in operation in
1961.
Before 1945, the municipal supply for Naples was obtained from one
6-inch and two 4-inch wells located in the southern part of the city,
between Naples Bay and the Gulf of Mexico (fig. 12). These wells were
closely spaced and were pumped heavily for short periods, which caused
salt water to move inland and upward and thus contaminate the aquifer.
During 1945-46, a new well field was established north of the original
well field. This field comprises 22 small-diameter wells (3- and 4-inch)
spaced 400 feet apart. To dimish the effect of large drawdowns of the
water levels, each well was pumped at a rate not to exceed 30 gpm. This
control of withdrawals distributed the effect of pumping over a large area
and reduced the hazard of salt-water encroachment. The annual pump-
age from this well field increased from about 33 million gallons in 1947
to 122 million gallons in 1954.
The city officials proposed the establishment of a new permanent
well field because of the constantly increasing demand for water (fig.
20), the high cost of pumping 22 wells, and the constant threat of salt-
water encroachment from the Gulf of Mexico and the Gordon River
into the field. Their objective was to establish a well field in the cypress
swamp area east and north of the city; but no data were available as to
the continuity of the aquifer and the quality of the ground water in that
area. The city officials believed that a productive field in this area
could furnish sufficient water for all the coastal ridge area of Collier
County. A new well field was developed in 1954 in the northeastern part
of the city (fig. 12), and further expansion of facilities would be inland.
Water-treatment plant No. 2 was built at this field.
In 1958, three wells were drilled northeast of water plant No. 2 to
supplement the supply from the well field. The layout of the present
well field with the extension wells is shown in figure 21. Total pumpage
from the well field and extension was 414 million gallons in 1960, more
than 25 percent above the total for 1959.











EXPLANATION
0
OBSERVATION WELL
*
SUPPLY WELL
A
RECORDING GAGE

65 IN T 00


610-147-4 610-147-14
A *610-147-17
0610-147-13
610-147-15
510-147-7
600-147-9
610-147-9
)-147-18 60-47-8 0
610-147-12


---"-/


CARIBBEAN /
GARDENS


I 0610-147-5
1%_


Figure 21. Naples well field area showing municipal supply wells and observation
wells.






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 35

QUANTITATIVE STUDIES
HYDRAULICS OF AQUIFERS
When a well tapping a shallow aquifer begins to discharge, water is
removed form the aquifer surrounding the well and the water level is
lowered. The amount that the level is lowered at the well is called the
drawdown. The decline of the water table near the discharging well is
rapid and large but decreases rapidly outward from the well. An inverted
cone, centered at the discharging well, defines the dewatered part of
the aquifer and is referred to as the cone of depression or cone of influ-
ence. As the discharge continues at a constant rate, the cone spreads
outward, thereby diverting more water to the well.
If recharge is available and a sufficient amount can be diverted
toward the well to balance the withdrawal, the cone spreads no farther,
and the shape of the cone will remain constant. Deepening of the cone
will result if the discharge rate is increased or if another nearby well in the
aquifer begins discharging. When pumping from the well ceases, the water
level immediately starts to recover, rapidly at first, then at a slowly de-
creasing rate, to the static water level of the area.
The rate of drawdown and recovery in the vicinity of a well depends
in part upon the transmissibility of the aquifer. In an aquifer of high
transmissibility the drawdown is relatively small and the cone of depres-
sion is wide and shallow; in an aquifer of low transmissibility the draw-
down is relatively great and the cone is narrow and deep.
Unlike the effect of withdrawal from a water-table well, where the
result is a dewatering of the aquifer within the cone of depression, with-
drawal from an artesian well results in a lowering of pressure at the well,
and the effect, theoretically, is transmitted with the speed of sound
throughout the aquifer. In an artesian aquifer, water is released from
storage as a result of the compaction or squeezing of sediments when the
artesian pressure is lowered, and as a result of the slight expansion of
water itself. The basic principle of the cone of influence remains in effect
for both types of aquifers, but the cone develops more rapidly in an
artesian aquifer because the amount of water released from storage per
unit area is much smaller than that resulting from dewatering an uncon-
fined aquifer.
From data obtained by observing water levels in a pumped well and
observation wells in the cone of influence, the coefficients of transmissi-
bility and storage can be determined.
The coefficient of transmissibility is the capacity of an aquifer to
transmit water. It is expressed as the quantity of water, in gallons per





36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

day, that will move through a vertical section of the aquifer 1 foot wide
under a hydraulic gradient of 1 foot per foot (Theis, 1938, p. 892). The
coefficient of storage is a measure of the capacity of an aquifer to store
water and is defined as the volume of water released from or taken into
storage per unit surface area of the aquifer per unit change in the com-
ponent of head normal to that surface.
In aquifers where leakage occurs through semiconfining beds, a leak-
age coefficient can be determined. The leakage coefficient (Hantush,
1956, p. 702) characterizes the ability of semiconfining beds above or
below an aquifer to transmit water to the aquifer. It may be defined as
the quantity of water that crosses a unit area at the interface between
the main aquifer and its confining bed, if the difference between the
head in the main aquifer and in the beds supplying the leakage is unit.

AQUIFER TESTS
Seven aquifer tests were made in or near Collier County prior to this
investigation. Six of the tests were made in Naples in connection with
well-field development, and one was made at the county boundary east
of Immokalee. The first three tests were made in 1951-52 to determine
the safe rate of pumping from the well field in the southern part of the
city. From analyses of the water-level data obtained from these tests, a
coefficient of transmissibility of 92,000 gpd per foot and a coefficient of
storage of 0.001 were determined (Klein, 1954, p. 47).
Further studies in the area and a comparison of future water demands
and the availability of water indicated that the municipal supplies would
have to be extended northward where water levels were higher and
where the threat of salt-water contamination was less. In 1954, water
plant No. 2 (fig. 21) was built and the new well field was established
(fig. 12).
Aquifer tests made by Sherwood and Klein (1961) in the new field
indicated that the transmissibility -of the aquifer increased northward,
and in the proposed area of expansion (fig. 12) a coefficient of trans-
missibility of 185,000 gpd per foot was computed. The tests indicated that,
although the upper part of the aquifer contained semiconfining layers,
downward leakage was considerable when the well field was pumped.
This leakage reduced drawdowns in the lower, pumped zone of the
aquifer. The Gordon River, east of the well field was determined to be
a source of replenishment at times when the field was pumped heavily.
Figure 22 shows the drawdowns in observation wells at the end of
a 30-hour pumping test in the proposed area of development. The







GC.CUND-WsATr.: EEOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 87


DISTANCE, IN FEET FROM PUMPING WELL
0 0 0 0
0


uj .5 .. o
U. 610-147-80 0610-147-9 *
Z: 610-147-170
SI'0610-147-7 61014718 _______
S610-147-15
0 610-147-13M -




2.C0-- -
2 .0 ------ ------- -


Figure 22. Graph showing drawdown in observation wells at the end of the 30-hour
aquifer test, January 9-10, 1959, and sketch showing wells used in the test.

drawdowns in wells between the pumped well and the Gordon River
were substantially less than in wells west of the pumped well. The coeffi-
cient of leakage computed for this test ranged from 0.001 to 0.008 gpd per
square foot per foot of head difference. In general, the coefficient
increased eastward.

In the ideal leaky-aquifer system (fig. 23) of Jacob (1946, p. 199) the
water table in the nonartesian aquifer is maintained at a constant level






38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE


WELL
WATER TABLE
P EZOMETRIC SURFAC
NONARTESIAN AQUIFER


/ / //-//.//I// CONFINING BED


<-- ARTESIAN AQUIFER


IMPERVIOUS BED



Figure 23. Idealized sketch showing flow in a leaky artesian aquifer system.


by recharge. Pumping from the artesian aquifer causes a cone of depres-
sion to form which expands until the amount of downward leakage
equals the amount of water withdrawn. In the Naples area. however, the
water table in the shallow sands of the upper zone is not maintained con-
stant due to insufficient recharge; therefore, the rate of downward leak-
age to the pumped zone will decline and the cone of depression will
continue to spread.
Figure 24 shows drawdown graphs of wells 610-147-9 and 610-147-15
during the aquifer test of January 1959 (fig. 22). The A curves repre-
sent the theoretical drawdown for artesian conditions with no recharge
and were computed from the coefficients of transmissibility and storage
determined from the aquifer tests. The B curves represent the theoretical
drawdowns for nonartesian conditions with no recharge and after ex-
tended time. The B curves were computed with a coefficient of storage
of 0.15 (characteristic of nonartesian aquifers) and a coefficient of trans-
missibility 10 percent higher than that determined from the test (to take
into account the transmissibility of the upper zone). The water levels
near the end of the test were constant, indicating leaky-aquifer condi-
tions and downward leakage was keeping pace with discharge. The Q
curves are projections of the observed data and indicate the water level
would remain constant if sufficient recharge was available. The D curves







GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA


TIMEJN MINUTESSINCE PUMPING BEGAN
00 100 10000 looopo


610-147-15
0.5------. ---^-- ------. ---- _l-,-_-. -__-







I-I
-.5- --- -- ---



"oIonth e-

0.5


CURVE A E C

Theoretical drowdown artesian conditions
CURVE B
Theoretical drowdow wter-able conditions


.5 Theoretical drawdown(unlimited recharge) i
CURVED D I I
1 o ""r i i 'Month 'i















Figure 24. Graph showing drawdowns in wells 610-147-9 and 610-147-15 during
aquifer test January 9-10, 1959, and theoretical drawdown for artesian, water-
table, and leaky-aquifer conditions.


represent the theoretical drawdown in a leaky aquifer with no recharge
and were computed from the coefficients of transmissibility and storage
determined from the test.
The drawdown caused by longtime pumping is reflected at the water

table, and is controlled by the coefficients of storage and transmissibility
of the upper and lower zones, and the availability of replenishment.

Cities along the lower east coast of Florida have developed large
water supplies by locating well fields near canals. These canals tap
large water reserves in inland areas and are controlled near their outlets


I


i orovi






40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

by salinity barriers (check dams). Water levels in the well fields are
maintained by infiltration from the canals into the aquifer. Because of
relatively high inland swamps draining toward the Gulf of Mexico and
the hydraulic characteristics of the shallow aquifer, large water supplies
can be obtained in northwestern Collier County by methods similar to
those used in southeastern Florida.
In June 1958, a pumping test on wells in the shallow aquifer was made
at the Collier County boundary, east of Immokalee (Klein, Litchtler, and
Schroeder, written communication). Wells 625-116-1 and -2 were used
as observation wells, and a large-diameter irrigation well just east of
the county boundary was pumped at 1,300 gpm. Analyses of the data
from the wells in Collier County indicated that the average coefficient
of transmissibility was 910,000 gpd per foot, the average coefficient of
storage was 0.00033 and the average coefficient of leakage was 0.000014
gpd per square foot per foot of vertical head.
The low permeability of the 15-foot layer of sandy clay that caps
the aquifer in this area (fig. 7) is indicated by the small coefficient of
leakage. The relatively low coefficient of storage indicates that artesian
conditions prevail in the aquifer. The high transmissibility of the aquifer

DISTANCE, IN FEET, FROM PUMPED WELL
100 1,000 10,000



629-126-1

1.0 ,


S1.5 629-127-3.* 629-127-1
_z 629-127-2
(Pumped well) 0 400 800 feet
S2.Scale
z20 N
629-127-3

2.5 629-127-1


3.0
629-126-1

3.5 I I I I I II I I I I I I I I

Figure 25. Sketch showing wells used in pumping test, April 8-10, 1960, and
graph showing drawdown at the end of the 44-hour test.






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA


and the large areal extent of the main limestone of the aquifer indicate
that very large quantities of water probably are available east and south-
east of Immokalee.
During April 8-10, 1960, a pumping test was made 5 miles northwest
of Immokalee. Figure 25 is a sketch showing the locations of the obser-
vation wells and the pumped well used during the test and a graph of
the drawdowns recorded at the end of the test.
Well 629-127-2 was pumped for 44 hours at 152 gpm. The water was
discharged into an adjacent drainage ditch which conveyed it from the
immediate area. Recording gages were installed on the three observation
wells to obtain a complete record of the water-level fluctuations -in the
wells. The gages were in operation a week before the test to
obtain background data on the natural fluctuations of the water level.
These background records were used to adjust the recorded drawdowns
obtained during the pumping period.
Figure 26 is a hydrograph of the uncorrected drawdown and recov-
ery data from well 629-127-3. Pumping of an irrigation well 1.9 miles
west of the test site started about 4 hours after the pumping test began;
however, the effect of this pumping is not apparent on the drawdown
curve of figure 26. The slight undulations on the hydrograph probably
are caused by variations in atmospheric pressure and evapotranspiration.
The drawdown data were adjusted to correct for the fluctuations
caused by factors other than pumping. Coefficients of transmissibility
and storage computed from this test were 58,000 gpd per foot and
0.00024, respectively, at well 629-127-1 and 62,000 gpd per foot and
0.00026, respectively, at well 629-127-3. These values are considerably
lower than those computed for the Naples area. The leakage coefficient
at the Immokalee site was computed at 0.00073 gpd per square foot per
foot of vertical head at well 629-127-1 and 0.00099 gpd per square foot
per foot of vertical head at well 629-127-3. These values also are much
lower than those computed for Naples and indicate more effective con-
fining layers above the main producing zone of the aquifer in the area
northwest of Immokalee. Therefore, in this area the main producing
zone receives less recharge by downward leakage than the main pro-
ducing zone in the Naples area. The low coefficients of storage in the
area indicate that the main producing zone is under artesian conditions.

QUALITY OF WATER
Aquifers in Collier County contain very large supplies of ground
water, but in many places the water is unsuitable for drinking as the result
of the high concentrations of undesirable minerals.




























S, ppreoimaote time
9.6 form pump stepped

10.0

10.2 -

104 e. t pump off
'9:33 AM i
10.6 Ir I II- i I-- I I I-- I I l I I I
12I5PM 3 6 9 12M 3 6 9 12N 3 6 9 12M 3 6 9 12N 3 6 9 12M 3 6 9 12N 3 6

Figure 26. Drawdown and recovery of water level in well 629-127-3 showing
effects of pumping test, April 8-10, 1960.


APRIL 12 f



time
started ,














9 12M 3 6 9 II115AM






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 43

The amount and character of the chemical constituents in ground
water are controlled for the most part by the composition of the rocks
through which the water passes; the temperature and pressure of the
water and the duration of contact with the rocks; and the amount of
material in solution or suspension. However, salt-water encroachment can
cause normally fresh ground water to become highly mineralized under
certain conditions.
Most drinking-water supplies in the United States conform to stand-
ards established by the U.S. Public Health Service. Below are some of
the more common constituents and the maximum limits recommended by
the U.S. Public Health Service (1961).

Chloride 250 ppm
Dissolved solids, desirable 500 ppm
Dissolved solids, permitted 1,000 ppm
Iron, manganese, together 0.3 ppm

Iron in quantities greater than that listed above is objectionable
because it imparts a disagreeable taste and it quickly discolors objects
with which it comes into contact. Its presence in ground water is unpre-
dictable as to both depth and location. Fortunately, iron can be removed
easily by aeration and filtration.
The amount of dissolved solids indicates the degree of mineraliza-
tion of ground water.
The words "salt water" as used in this report identify ground water
containing large amounts of chloride. About 91 percent of the dissolved-
solids content of sea water consists of chloride salts. Thus, determinations
of the chloride content of ground water are generally a reliable indication
of the extent to which normally fresh ground water has become con-
taminated with sea water.
Normal sea water has a chloride content of about 19,000 ppm. Some
individuals can taste the salt in water having a chloride content of 500
ppm. If a salty taste is not noticed at this concentration, the water may
have a "flat" taste. Most persons can detect salt in ground water having a
chloride content of 750 ppm or more.
Hardness is a measure of the calcium and magnesium content of
ground water and is customarily expressed as the equivalent of calcium
carbonate. Water having a hardness of less than 60 ppm is rated as soft;
of 60 to 120 ppm, as moderately hard; and of 120 to 200 ppm, as hard.
Water having a hardness of more than 200 ppm ordinarily requires soften-
ing for most uses.






44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SUBVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE -

The pH indicates the acidity or alkalinity of the ground water. The
pH scale ranges from 0 to 14, with 7 indicating neutral water. Values less
than 7 denote increasing acidity, and those greater than 7 denote increas-
ing alkalinity.

FLORIDAN AQUIFER
Except in the town of Everglades and vicinity, the Floridan aquifer
in Collier County yields water undesirable for drinking. The chloride
content of the water generally is more than 1,000 ppm. Table 2 gives
the results of the chemical analysis of water samples from certain wells
in the Floridan aquifer.
The high mineralization in the water from the Floridan aquifer is due
to either, or to a combination, of the following factors: (1) Sea water
that was trapped in the sediments at the time they were deposited on
the floor of an ancient sea connatee or residual sea water); (2) sea water
that entered the aquifer during interglacial stages of the Pleistocene
Epoch, when most of Florida was covered by shallow seas; and (3) a
recent salt-water encroachment of the Floridan aquifer. The aquifer has
undergone flushing action, but considerable contaminants remain.
In the vicinity of the town of Everglades, the Floridan aquifer yields
relatively fresh water. In 1960, the chloride content of the water from
individual wells in the municipal well field ranged from 190 to 360 ppm,
and the water from well 550-123-1, south of the field, contained 240 ppm.
Following is a tabulation of the changes of chloride content of the water
from three wells in Everglades (fig. 10, 11):

Date Chloride content, in ppm
Well Well Well
550-123-1 551-123-2 551-123-3
Feb. 1949 ._ 278 185
Aug. 1949 98 .
Apr. 1950 282 186
Jan. 1951 __ 287 186
Sept. 1951 285 192
Mar. 1952 99 295 195
Oct. 1952 95 190
Aug. 1954 106 255 __
Oct. 1959 240 350 -_
May 1960 _. 360 190

The relatively low chloride content of water from wells 550-123-1 and
551-123-3 indicates some of the water moving southward from the












TABLE 2. Chemical Analyses of Water from Selected Wells that Penetrate the Floridan Aquifer in Collier County
(All results are in parts per million except thise for color, pH, and specific conductance)


Color


Date
sample
collected



10- 8-35

3-11-57

12- 3-56

4-28-50

4- 8-50

0-23-50

12-15-41


pH






7.7

8.0

7.0

8.0

7.4


Silica
(8102)



0.5

15

17

12

10

33


Iron
(Fe)


Cal-
cium
(Ca)


Bicar-
bonate
(HCOs)


Well
number



550-123-1........

551-123-6........

554-118-3........

554-143-1........

550-128-1........

000-115-1........

630-120-1........


Potas-
sium
(K)





20

25

200

1.5

37


Chlo- Flu-
ride cride
(Cl) (F)


Dis-
solved
solids



800

2,070

3,400

0.,010

047

2,570


Depth
(feet)



503

536

446

402

302

485

566


0.06 20

.01 63

.02 00

.64 288


Mag-
nesium
(Mg)



26

76

117

167

44

03

99


Hard-
ness as
CaCO,



155

470

728

504

310

552

677


Sodium
(Na)



220

567

960

1,000

245

725

433


Sulfate
(804)



197

212

455

488

00

372

302


__


0

15

0

0

2

5


106

000

1,400

2,800

310

085

820


0.7

1.0

.5

1.1

1.2


y 0



Specific >
conduct-
ance
(microhmos
at 25C)




3,480 O

5,360

8,010

1,060

'1,320 0
0
C:82
"........"" z





46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SUTVEY-BULLErIN TIRHTY-ONlE

recharge area (in central Florida) remains relatively uncontaminated .
throughout its course to the south end of the peninsula. This fresh-water
zone may constitute only a very thin section of permeable limestone in
the uppermost part of the aquifer.
The increase in chloride content in recent years may be due to the
following: (1) Upward leakage of inferior water, under high pressure,
through open well bores to zones of fresh water under lower pressure,
during a long period of continued water use; (2) upward movement of
inferior water resulting from large drawdowns caused by heavy indus-
trial use of water from deep wells in an area about 2,000 feet north of the
well field.


SHALLOW AQUIFER
Ground-water samples were collected at different depths during the
drilling of test wells and from certain wells. The chemical analyses of the
ground water in the shallow aquifer in Collier County are shown in table
3. Ground-water samples for the analysis of chloride content were taken
from every well inventoried during the investigation. Water from the
aquifer is generally potable and could be used without treatment; how-
ever, it is hard and softeners are used in many systems.
In areas southeast of Naples and near Copeland, residents use com-
mercially bottled water for their drinking supply.' This does not mean
that individual water supplies cannot be treated to supply potable ground
water, but rather the expense of treatment may exceed the cost of
bottled water. Ground-water supplies are still used for purposes other
than drinking.
Domestic ground-water supplies in the Immokalee area are obtained
generally from permeable beds in the Hawthorn Formation. This is prob-
ably due to the fact that the water from the Hawthorn beds has less
undesirable constituents such as iron and hardness. However, many wells
penetrating shallow sand or shelly material in the aquifer yield ground
water of good quality which does not require treatment.
The data from table 3 and the analysers reported by Klein (1954,
p. 388-40) show that ground water from the' shallow aquifer in the Naples
area is relatively high in mineral content except along and immediately
east of the coastal area. Figure 27 shows the approximate chloride con-
tent of water samples from wells and surface-water sampling points in
northwestern Collier County. The. complete results from the chloride
sampling are shown in table 4.






( J)I N


EXPLANATION


*,I
123
Well;upper number
is number of well,
lower number is
depth o wel
5
Surface water
observation point
and station number


Chloride content
(parts per million)

0-50

51-100

101-250

251-500
0
More than 500


0 miles


Figure 27, Northwestern Collier County showing chloride content of water from
selected wells and surface-water observation points.


14


3
70(


---~~


123


NAPL


N I 9I





















15'



























10'


1136/





TABLE 3. Chemical Analyses of Water from Selected Wells that Penetrate the Shallow Aquifer in Collier County
(Results in parts per million except those for color, pH, and specific conductance)

Depth of Dis-
ample Date WiTvd Specie
Well below of cl- Silica Iran Cal- M"- Sodium Potas- BicWr- Sulfate Chlo- Flu- Nitrate soaids Hard- cond4e-
number land election (02) (Fe) aum i mm (Na) dorn booate (504) ride ride (NOO) (re- UnM as tance pH Color
irface (CS) (S) (K) (HCO) (C0) (F) due at CaCOz (micromho
(fOt) ISM') at 25')

-59-120-1 44 8-14-59 5.4 0.01 56 5.0 17 0.5 198 10 25 0.2 0.3 220 160 378 8.1 15
606-143-1 142 8-13-59 20 .02 140 15 75 3.0 374 11 180 .0 1.4 781 411 1,140 7.5 8
608-146-4 90 1-16-59 13 2.1 130 8.6 24 .0 386 4.0 48 .1 .0 492 360 747 8.0 0
608-147-22 40 1-11-52 .................... ........ 49* ...... 314 4.5 62 ........ 1.0 ........ 244 644 7.7 .....
70 1-14-52 11.0 .10 69 3 8.8 .6 218 4.5 15 .1 .5 241 184 368 7.8 45
609-115-1 28 9- 2-59 10 1.9 144 2.1 16 .3 466 .2 25 .3 .8 478 368 708 7.0 8
609-120-1 90 8-20-59 11 .00 54 7.7 12 .4 210 .0 15 .2 .1 207 166 364 7.5 5
609-141-1 41 7-16-58 17 .09 160 32 162 5.6 438 77 325 .2 1.5 1,000 731 1.720 7.3 20
609-143-1 44 7-17-58 12 .01 166 15 97 2.6 464 7.5 205 .3 .9 735 572 1,270 7.3 23
610-146-1 28 7-28-58 ........ ........ 119 6.6 35 .7 ........ 10 68 ....... ........ ........ 324 753 ..............
52 7-28-58 ........ ........ 148 13 102 2.7 ........ 43 202 ........ ................ 418 1,280 ........
96 7-28-58 ........ ........ 214 36 315 4.4 ........ 178 655 ........ ........ ........ 682 2,790 .......
610-147-13 63 3-19-58 11.0 .27 72 .1 9.0 .9 220 1 18 .1 .7 225 ISO 394 7.6 28
612-146-1 85 7-30-58 ........ .03 103 8.0 46 2.3 ........ 10 92 ........................ 290 7668 ........ ........
612-148-2 75 1-22-58 ........ .01 68 9 ........ ........ 252 3 15 .5 ......... 229 208 ............ 7.5 18
616-131-1 110 8-10-59 23 .01 70 15 40 4.6 308 14 41 .4 .2 365 236 609 8.1 15
616-141-2 46 7-28-59 10 2.3 170 6.3 26 .2 520 4.4 46 .0 .3 599 474 911 7.1 68
240 8- 3-59 20 .76 196 89 631 21 236 440 1,150 .1 1.0 2,660 1,517 4,530 ....... 5
616-145-1 58 7-20-58 24 1.0 134 29 162 7.2 418 122 275 .3 .1 960 565 1.640 7.3 17
621-135-2 92 7-24-59 25 .78 72 16 39 4.0 336 11 32 .0 .6 370 243 625 7.6 2
625-116-1 54 3-10-55 17 .30 114 16 50 2.6 451 .1 69 .3 2.0 534 353 875 7.3 75
625-124-1 282 5-16-58 30 .02 98 22 18 1.9 402 4.0 38 .2 .1 407 338 702 7.7 25

Sodium, potamium asu dium (. ).


0









0

I

0

0

0


PT
S











TABLE 4. Chloride Content, in Parts Per Million, front Selected Wells in Northwestern Collier County
(Depth of sample given in feet below land surface)


Well number


605-14 ,'-2........... .....
605-143-3................
5-143-4 ................
6C5-144-2............. ...
607-145-1................

607-146-2................


608-141-1.................
609-143-1.................
609-147-24................
609-148-12................



610-146-1................

610-147-5...................



610-147-6................
610-147-7.................
610-147-9................
610-147-11................


Depth
(fees)


32
32
42
83
25
46
120
72
41
44
78
72



28
52
75



32
50
51
20
44
60


Date


1- 2-50
1- 2-50
1- 2-50
1- 2-50
11-17-58
11-17-58
1-16-50
1-16-59
7-14-58
7-17-58
5- 6-54
12-31-52
5-15-53
5- 6-54
2-28-55
7-28-58
7-28-58
2-28-55
3- 7-56
8- 5-58
5- 4-54
3-14-56
7-29-56
3-25-58
8-20-57
8-20-57
8-20-57


130
174
134
172
8
92
119
127
325
205
16
168
181
168
169
68
202
20
15
17
20
15
18
59
1,430
22
43


rDeth
(feet) Date


6IS





64
70






61





74




90
110
141


. . o ..


........ ..

11-17-58





7-14-58
7-17-58


3- 7-ed
2-27-57
3-20-58

7-28-58

6- 8-59
12- 3-59
1- 6-60
3-29-60
3-14-56


1-19-59
8-20-57
8-20-57
8-20-57


CJhlo Depth
rilde (fee) D)ate


153





445
580


165
182
190

242

26
16
15
24
13


59
24
Is
385


92





144
123


96


. .. .... .. .




11-17-58





7-16-58
7-17-58


3-13-61
4-28-61
5- 2-61

7-28-58

8-15-60
3-13-61
4-28-61
5-19-61





8-21-57
5- 4-59
6- 8-59


Chlo-
Mde-
ride









304





885
1,750


158
156
170

655

34
22
34
36





965
352
340


Depth
(feet)









110


--


Date









11-I8-58





. .... .... .
7-17-58


5- 8-61
6- 6-61
7-14-61

7-29-58

6-16-61
7-14-61
8-11-61






12- 3-59'
1- 6-60
3-29-60


Chlo-
rida









472



. ...... $


1,250


186
166
162

875 Z

30
28
30






615
470
1,020







610-147-12................ 17 S-21-57 29 61 8-21-57 73 100 8-22-57 69 ........ 3-26-58 72
40 8-21-57 23 80 8-22-57 55 133 S-22-57 67
610-147-13 ............... 16 3-19-68 18 24 3-19-58 19 63 3-19-58 18s ...... ............ ........
010-147-22................ 142 3-29-60 20 ........ 4-26-61 50 ........ 5-18-61 38 ........ 7-14-61 34
3-15-61 24 ........ 5- 2-61 26 ........ 6-16-61 32 0
610-147-23................ 64 3- 7-52 11 157 3-14-56 28 ........ 3-29-60 14 ........ 5-19-61 46
84 3- 7-52 8 ......... 3-20-58 25 ........ S8-15-61 24 ..... 6-16-61 39
120 3-14-586 18 ........ 2-13-50 21 ........ 3-13-61 14 ........ 7-14-61 34
130 3-14-56 17 ........ 3- 4-59 17 ........ 4-26-61 58 ........ S-11-61 34
140 3-14-56 16 ........ 12- 3-59 21
610-148-1................. 33 8-16-56 22 59 8-16-56. 25 ... .... ............ ..... .................... ........
610-148-2............. 60 8-16-56 18 166 5- 4-59 79 166 3-13-61 34 166 5-19-61 48
123 3-20-58 16 166 6- 81-59 60 168 4-26-61 40 166 6-16-61 40
145 3-20-58 32 166 3-20-60 44 166 5- 2-61 42 166 7-14-61 38
166 3-20-58 85 166 8-15-60 68
610-148-3................. 35 8-17-56 14 58 8-17-56 13 ........ ............ .......................... ..
611-147-7................. 14 11-12-5 34 ........ .................... .... .. ..... ......
611-148-2................. 14 11-12-59 30 ........ ..... ..... ... ..... ........... ........ .........................
612-146-1.................. 28 7-29-58 67 72 7-30-58 78 100 7-30-58 97 123 7-30-58 151
48 7-29-58 90
612-147-1 ................. 55 11-13-58 28 ........ ....... ........ ...... ............ ........ ......... ......... ........
612-148-4 ................ 14 11-11-59 24 ............................................. ................................
613-147-1................. 60 11-13-58 34 ........ .......... .. ... .. ... .. ............ ........
614-146-1................. 20 11-18-58 70 61 11-18-58 176 82 11-18-58 260 103 11-19-58 260
614-147-1................. 60 11-13-58 38 ......... I ...................... ....... ........ ...... ... ...... ..........
614-147-2 ................ 14 11-11-59 19 ........ .......... .. .......... ............ ...... .... ...... ............ ...
614-148-1................. 14 11-11-59 18 ... ..... .... .. ....... .. .. .. .... .. ...... .. ....... ........ ILI
615-146-3 ................ 70 3-29- 0 190 ............. ....... ...... .. .. ....................... .
615-147-1................. 100 3-28-60 314 ................................................. ....... ........... ........
015-147-2.................. 61 3-28-60 200 .. ..... .. ... ... ......
615-147-3 ................. 67 3-28-60 530 ........ ...... .... .... ..... ...... ...... ..... ... ..... ...
______--------------------------------------------










T'Am1Ic 4,-(Couthiluuld)


Well lnllllllelr'


(115-147-4 ............... .
015-147-5 .................






010-145-1 I. .. .. ...
010-141-2 .................


017-140-1 .................


Depth
(foit) Dato


D)opth
(foot)


72
45
14
20
25
40
58
50


Datae


38-2.i-60
3-20-610
11-11--5
7-18-58
7-20-50
7-20-50
7-20-68
3-23-60


Chla.
lido


11)
2100
51
87
28
40
275
200
45
51


OI Chlo,
Dato ride


Ohlo-
rido








72




044
000


I ~~~I---- r --II


1D2ate








7-20-50




12-21-58


20 1 11-21-58
44 11-24-58


00




80
82


Chlu- Dopth
rhlo (foot)








140 2410




2,400 141


7-20-50




12-21-58
12-21-58


Depth
(foot)








140




100


1,150




2,100


8-3-50




12-21-58






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COULTER COUNTY, FLORIDA 51

Chemical analyses of water samples from wells along the coastal ridge
indicate the presence of a hard limestone water that is suitable, for most
uses, with or without chemical treatment. As ground water must seep
through a considerable thickness of sand and rock to reach the producing
zones in the aquifer, it is generally free of harmful bacteria and sus-
pended material. However, it dissolves some of the rocks through which
it moves and this action is aided by the presence of carbon dioxide
which is absorbed by rainfall from the atmosphere and from organic mate-
rial in the soil. Calcium and bicarbonate, from the solution on calcium
carbonate in the limestone, are the principal ions in ground water in most
of the coastal ridge area.
The high mineral content of the ground water east of the coastal
strip is due primarily to constituents derived from sea water, in addi-
tion to the calcium and bicarbonate derived from the limestone in the
aquifer. The chloride content of the water ranges from less than 100 ppm
to more than 2,000 ppm and may come from three possible sources: (1)
Direct movement inland from the sea and along tidal reaches of streams;
(2) residual sea water left in the sediments at the time of deposition or
during former invasions of the sea; and (3) upward movement of salty
water from deeper artesian aquifers.

SALT-WATER CONTAMINATION
Under normal conditions, coastal aquifers discharge fresh ground
water into the ocean at or seaward of the coastline. Large withdrawals of
ground water from these aquifers can cause the seaward movement to
decrease or reverse, thereby causing salt water to enter the aquifer and
move inland to contaminate the wells. This phenomenon is called salt-
water intrusion or salt-water encroachment.
Considerable study has been made of the phenomenon. The Ghyben-
Herzberg theory assumed (1) that an interface exists between fresh and
salt water due to the difference in their densities, (2) no flow is present
in either the fresh- or salt-water zone, and (3) the water table slopes
seaward. From these assumptions the following equation was developed:
hf
Z=
Ps-Pf
where Z = depth to salt water, in feet below mean sea level; hf = height
of fresh water, in feet above mean sea level; and Ps Pf = the difference
in densities of salt water and fresh water. If standard figures are inserted
for the two densities, the equation becomes:
Z = 40 h







52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE


EXPLANATION
h height ofat fresh watfr.in
ftet above mean sea evel
i*depth to salt water, in feet \
below mean sea level
relation wo'ud 00pea of reproduced
in laboratory.


SEA WATER

Figure 28. Idealized sketch of fresh-water and salt-water distribution in an uncon-
fined coastal aquifer to illustrate the Ghyben-Herzberg relation.


According to this principle, for every foot of fresh ground-water head
above mean sea level in coastal aquifers there will be 40 feet of fresh
water below mean sea level (fig. 28).
However, this principle assumes that the fresh water is static and for
this reason gives only approximately the position of the interface. An
exact equation for determining the shape and position of the interface
with a known rate of discharge of fresh water under one set of boundary
conditions (fig. 29) has been devised by Glover (1959) for an analogous
problem of free-surface gravity flow:

y'- 2Q x- Q2 =0
Yk ^/2k2
x = distance measured horizontally landward from shoreline (feet).
y = distance measured vertically downward from sea level (feet).
Q = fresh-water flow per unit length of shoreline (square feet per second).
k = permeability of the strata carrying the fresh-water flow (feet per sec-
ond).
-y = excess of the specific gravity of sea water over fresh water (dimension-
less).

Figure 29 is a comparison of Glover's interface with that of
Ghyben-Herzberg. Because the interface is in a hydrodynamic rather than
a hydrostatic balance, it is farther seaward.






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA


Urfoce... Sea level'--


So t


water


(After Glover, 1959)
Figure 29. Sketch showing the fresh-water-salt-water interface according to the
potential theory and the Ghyben-Herzberg principle.

Kohout (1960) showed, from field observations made at Miami, that
the actual salt-water interface is farther seaward than is indicated by
either principle in figure 29, not only because of seaward flow of the
fresh ground water, but also because of the cyclic flow within the salt-
water front. Cooper (1959) expressed the hypothesis of salt-water cyclic
flow and referred to the salt-water-fresh-water contact not as an inter-
face but as a zone of diffusion wherein salt water moves inland along
the aquifer floor, moves upward into the zone of diffusion, and then
returns to the sea.
From the above brief and general history of salt-water encroachment
studies, it can be seen that the Ghyben-Herzberg relation will give the
maximum extent that the salt-water front will move inland under a
specific set of hydrologic conditions.
In Collier County, contamination of the ground water by salt-water
encroachment has occurred chiefly in coastal areas adjacent to major
streams and drainage canals that flow to the ocean. These waterways
enhance the possibility of sea-water encroachment in two ways: (1)
They lower ground-water levels, thereby reducing the fresh-water head
opposing the inland movement of sea water; and (2) they provide access
for sea water to move inland during dry periods.


~_~~_ ~_ ~ _






54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

RECENT AND RESIDUAL ENCROACHMENT
The Naples area is vulnerable to two types of salt-water contamina-
tion: (1) Sea water can move laterally inland directly from the Gulf of
Mexico, Naples Bay, and the lower part of the Gordon River that is
affected by tides; and (2) chemical analyses (table 3) indicate that salty
water at depth east of Naples is probably residual sea water trapped
during the deposition of the sediments or that it entered the sediments
when the sea covered the Naples area during Pleistocene time.
Examples of both types of encroachment are shown by data collected
during the drilling of well 610-147-11, east of the well-field extension and
near the upper tidal reach of the Gordon River (fig. 14, 15). Chloride
analyses of water samples taken from test well 610-147-11, as shown in
figure 14, indicate that salt water from the Gordon River had infiltrated
downward to a depth of about 25 feet below msl in the uppermost lime-
stone bed of the aquifer. The salt-water contamination from the
river was reported to have caused the loss of several rows of litchi trees
near the river in the Caribbean Botanical Gardens (fig. 21).
Litholigic and chloride data from well 610-147-11 (fig. 14, sec. E-E')
show that the uppermost layer of limestone is underlain by 10 feet of
marl which separates shallow water of high chloride content from deeper
water of low chloride content. The difference in the quality of the water
may be caused by either, or a combination, of the following factors:
(1) The marl layer is sufficiently impermeable to form an effective seal
between the upper and lower limestones; (2) well 610-147-11 is near the
Gordon River, a discharge area, and the pressure head in the lower part
of the aquifer is greater than it is in the shallow part, thus preventing the
downward movement of salty water.
The high chloride content below 130 feet in well 610-147-11 indicates
that salt water has moved inland beneath the Gordon River, presum-
ably as a result of local lowering of the ground-water levels in the adja-
cent drainage area. The fluctuation of chloride content of water sam-
ples collected periodically from a depth of 156 feet below the land
surface reflects the movement of the salt front deep in the aquifer in
response to changes in ground-water levels (table 3). The low chloride
content of the water at a depth of 135 feet in well 610-147-12 (table 4)
indicates that in 1958 the deep salt wedge had not reached that well.
The extent of the salt-water encroachment at depth in the Coco-
hatchee River basin has not been determined because of the lack of
deep observation wells near the lower reaches of the river. However,
the presence of water containing 664 ppm of chloride at a depth of 60






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 55

feet and 2,400 ppm of chloride at a depth of 103 feet below the land
surface in well 617-146-1 suggests the possibility of recent encroachment
beneath canals that extend inland from the river. A determination of the
origin of this high chloride content can be made by periodic sampling of
the well and complete chemical analysis of the water.
Extensive encroachment from the sea has not occurred west of the
well field, although water levels in the area are lowered by pumping
in the well field and numerous canals extend inland from the gulf. How-
ever, inland movement of salt water is indicated by a fluctuation of
chloride content of samples, taken periodically from March 1958 to July
1961, that ranged between 34 and 85 ppm at a depth of 166 feet in well
610-148-2.
Major encroachment probably is being retarded by the high ground-
water levels (fig. 16, 18, 19). The hydrographs of wells 610-148-2 and
610-147-11 correlate closely; accordingly, the long-term hydrograph of
well 610-147-11 (fig. 16) suggests that the water levels in well 610-148-2
probably averaged between 4 and 5 feet above sea level during the
period 1958 through September 1959, a period of heavy rainfall and above
normal ground-water levels. The head of fresh ground water above sea
level would indicate that fresh water extends to the base of the aquifer
at this point. Encroachment may be retarded also by beds of marl in the
aquifer, which probably extend seaward under the gulf.
Although the encroachment of salt water toward the well field has
been slight, the salt-water front near well 610-148-2 indicates that long-
term lowering of ground-water levels caused by extension of the canal
system or increased pumping during a long dry period might cause en-
croachment that would endanger the well field.
Because the chloride content of the water is an indicator of changes
in mineral content, the data in figure 27 show that highly mineralized
water occurs north of Naples near the Cocohatchee River and east of
the coastal ridge as much as 10 miles inland from the coast. Comparison
of water-level contour maps (fig. 18, 19) and the topography of the area
indicates that ground-water levels east of the ridge range from 5 to 15 feet
above sea level. The lines of equal chloride content in figures 13, 14, and
15 show that the chloride content of the ground water increases gradually
with depth in the eastern part of the area, but rather sharply in material
of low permeability near the bottom of the aquifer. The high water levels
and the inland location of the Big Cypress area indicate that the high
mineral content of the ground water in that area is not caused by the
recent encroachment of sea water. The high mineral content of ground
water in materials of low permeability in the lower part of the aquifer






56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THImRTY-ONE

suggests that the source of contamination is connate salt water or upward
leakage from the deeper artesian aquifer.
Ground water in the shallow aquifer along the southwestern and
southern coast of Collier County is highly mineralized. The water levels
in the area are not high enough to impede salt-water intrusion from the
gulf.
Poor flushing of the ground water within the shallow aquifer probably
accounts for the high mineralization of the ground water in the interior
of the county. The lack of flushing is caused partly by dense beds of
relatively impermeable limestones at shallow depths retarding the infil-
tration of rainfall. Poor flushing because of retarded rainfall infiltration
is exhibited east of Naples where ground water from shallow depths has
a high chloride content and surface water has a low chloride content.
Also in this area, the water-table gradient is almost flat except adjacent
to tidal streams and Naples Bay. The data obtained from wells 616-141-1
and 616-141-2 indicate drainage in the inland areas can improve the
quality of the ground water in the shallow aquifer. Well 616-141-1 was
drilled July 18, 1958 near a drainage canal which had been completed
prior to that date. At a depth of 26 feet the chloride content of water
from the well was 87 ppm. Well 616-141-2 was drilled July 29, 1959 about
100 yards east and the same distance from the canal. At a depth of
26 feet the chloride content of water from the well was 38 ppm, indicat-
ing that the construction of the canal had steepened the water-table
gradient and caused considerable flushing during the 1-year period.

UPWARD LEAKAGE
Test-drilling information indicates that head differentials large enough
to cause upward leakage do not exist in the shallow aquifer in the county
except in the coastal ridge area in Naples. Moreover, in the central part
of the county, the chloride content of the ground water is relatively low
throughout the entire thickness of the aquifer, which indicates that
contamination would not take place even if upward leakage did exist.
Data pertaining to the possibility of upward leakage of salt water
from deep water-bearing strata were collected during the drilling of well
616-141-2 in the northwestern part and well 609-115-1 in the central
part of the county. Well 616-141-2 was drilled to a depth of 300 feet in
January 1959. The analyses of water samples collected at 46 feet and
240 feet below the land surface are given in table 3. Materials of very
low permeability were penetrated between the base of the shallow aquifer
(about 130 feet below the land surface) and a permeable bed at 230 to
240 feet below the land surface, from which the lower sample was taken.






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 57

Water levels measured as drilling progressed in the section of low perme-
ability ranged from 5.4 to 14.8 feet below the land surface. Water levels
in both the shallow aquifer and the lower permeable zone were less
than 1 foot below the land surface. Water-level measurements in all zones
were made under the same conditions. The extremely high mineral con-
tent of the lower sample from well 616-141-2 indicates a source for con-
tamination of the shallow aquifer from below but the head differential
between the two levels suggests that no upward flow was occurring.
Well 609-115-1 was drilled to a total depth of 700 feet in September
1959. When the well was 28 feet deep, the water level was 0.41 foot
below the land surface and the chloride content was 25 ppm. When
the well was 485 feet deep, the water level was 32 feet above the land
surface and the chloride content was 985 ppm. This indicates that up-
ward leakage can take place from the lower, more mineralized Floridan
aquifer into the overlying shallow aquifer if the confining beds separating
the two aquifers are thin. Leaky casing penetrating the Floridan aquifer
also can permit upward leakage.

SUMMARY
The Floridan aquifer underlies all of Collier County and wells pene-
trating the aquifer flow except in the area of high dunes on Marco
Island. However, except in the town of Everglades and vicinity, the
ground water from the Floridan aquifer is highly mineralized and unsuit-
able for drinking. The Tampa Formation of late Miocene Age is the chief
source of water for the Floridan aquifer in Collier County. The top of the
aquifer is about 400 feet below the land surface.
The shallow aquifer is the principal source of fresh ground water in
Collier County. It comprises the Pamlico Sand, Anastasia Formation, and
permeable limestones of the Tamiami Formation. Marl beds of varying
thicknesses in the upper portion of the aquifer restrict the vertical perme-
ability in certain parts of the county. The shallow aquifer extends from
the land surface to about 130 feet below in the northwestern part of
Collier County, to about 90 feet in the southern part, and to about 60
feet in the central and northeastern parts. The aquifer thins to a feather-
edge along the Dade-Broward County boundary.
Ground water in the shallow aquifer in the Naples area is of good
quality, containing about 250 ppm of dissolved solids. This is due in part
to the high fresh-water head adjacent to the coast and the resultant
flushing of ground water.
The ground water of the shallow aquifer in the same coastal communi-
ties in Collier County is unsuitable for drinking because of contamination






58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN TmRTY-ONE

by salt water. Ground water is available in the interior of the county but
it is highly mineralized owing to poor flushing of the aquifer. High con-
centrations of chloride in the area east and northeast of Naples are due
to poor flushing of the aquifer and to residual salt-water contamination.
The results of aquifer tests indicate that the shallow aquifer will pro-
duce large quantities of water with moderate drawdowns in water levels,
especially in areas where surface water can recharge the aquifer. The
topography, drainage pattern, and hydraulic characteristics of the shallow
aquifer in northwestern Collier County indicate that supplies equal to
present water needs can be developed along the eastern edge of the
coastal ridge and the adjacent drainageway. Additional supplies can be
developed from the same area by the use of infiltration in conjunction
with the drainage of inland areas. Present and future well fields may be
safeguarded from salt-control dams near the gulf in major streams.
A continuing appraisal of the quantity and quality of water in storage
in northwestern Collier County will be needed for the maximum develop-
ment of the area. The immediate need is for water-level and streamflow
data for use in the design of a comprehensive water-control system.
Studies of flood-control and drainage systems in southeastern Florida
have shown that, with proper location and operation of salinity controls
and carefully planned overall drainage systems, large inland areas can be
developed for urban or agricultural use without depletion of essential
ground-water resources.






GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 57

Water levels measured as drilling progressed in the section of low perme-
ability ranged from 5.4 to 14.8 feet below the land surface. Water levels
in both the shallow aquifer and the lower permeable zone were less
than 1 foot below the land surface. Water-level measurements in all zones
were made under the same conditions. The extremely high mineral con-
tent of the lower sample from well 616-141-2 indicates a source for con-
tamination of the shallow aquifer from below but the head differential
between the two levels suggests that no upward flow was occurring.
Well 609-115-1 was drilled to a total depth of 700 feet in September
1959. When the well was 28 feet deep, the water level was 0.41 foot
below the land surface and the chloride content was 25 ppm. When
the well was 485 feet deep, the water level was 32 feet above the land
surface and the chloride content was 985 ppm. This indicates that up-
ward leakage can take place from the lower, more mineralized Floridan
aquifer into the overlying shallow aquifer if the confining beds separating
the two aquifers are thin. Leaky casing penetrating the Floridan aquifer
also can permit upward leakage.

SUMMARY
The Floridan aquifer underlies all of Collier County and wells pene-
trating the aquifer flow except in the area of high dunes on Marco
Island. However, except in the town of Everglades and vicinity, the
ground water from the Floridan aquifer is highly mineralized and unsuit-
able for drinking. The Tampa Formation of late Miocene Age is the chief
source of water for the Floridan aquifer in Collier County. The top of the
aquifer is about 400 feet below the land surface.
The shallow aquifer is the principal source of fresh ground water in
Collier County. It comprises the Pamlico Sand, Anastasia Formation, and
permeable limestones of the Tamiami Formation. Marl beds of varying
thicknesses in the upper portion of the aquifer restrict the vertical perme-
ability in certain parts of the county. The shallow aquifer extends from
the land surface to about 130 feet below in the northwestern part of
Collier County, to about 90 feet in the southern part, and to about 60
feet in the central and northeastern parts. The aquifer thins to a feather-
edge along the Dade-Broward County boundary.
Ground water in the shallow aquifer in the Naples area is of good
quality, containing about 250 ppm of dissolved solids. This is due in part
to the high fresh-water head adjacent to the coast and the resultant
flushing of ground water.
The ground water of the shallow aquifer in the same coastal communi-
ties in Collier County is unsuitable for drinking because of contamination







GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA


REFERENCES


Bishop E. W.


1956 Geology and ground-water resources of Highlands County, Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 15.
Cooke, C. W. (also see Parker, G. G.)
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29.
Cooper, H. H., Jr.


1959


Davis, J. H.
1943

Ferguson, G.
Glover, R. E.
1959

Hantush, M.
1956

Jacob, C. E.
1946

Klein, Howar
1954

Kohout, F.
1960

Lichtler, W.


A hypothesis concerning the dynamic balance of fresh water and
salt water in a coastal aquifer: Jour. Geophys. Research, v. 64,
no. 4, p. 461-467.

The natural features of southern Florida, especially the vegetation
and the Everglades: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 25.
E. (see Parker, G. G.)

The pattern of fresh-water flow in a coastal aquifer: Jour. Geophys.
Research, v. 64, no. 4, p. 457-459.
C.
Analysis of data from pumping tests in leaky aquifers: Am. Geophys.
Union Trans., v. 87, no. 6, p. 702-714.

Radial flow in a leaky artesian aquifer: Am. Geophys. Union
Trans., v. 27, no. 2, p. 199.
rd (also see Schroeder, M. C.; Sherwood, C. B.)
Ground-water resources of the Naples area, Collier County, Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 11.
A.
Cyclic flow of salt water in the Biscayne aquifer of southeastern
Florida: Jour. Geophys. Research, v. 65, no. 7, p. 2133-2141.
F.


1960 Geology and ground-water resources of Martin County, Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 23.
Love, S. K. (see Parker, G. G.)
Meinzer, 0. E.
1923 The occurrence of ground water in the United States, with a discus-
sion of principles; U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 489.
Parker, G. G.
1944 (and Cooke, C. W.) Late Cenozoic geology of southern Florida,
with a discussion of the ground water: Florida Geol. Survey Bull.
27.
1951 Geologic and hydrologic factors in the perennial yield of the
Biscayne aquifer: Am. Water Works Assoc. Jour., v. 43, p. 817-834.


Parker, G. G.
1955


(and Ferguson, G. E., Love, S. K., et al.) Water resources of
southeastern Florida, with special reference to the geology and
ground water of the Miami area: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply
Paper 1255.


;/






60 FLORDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE


Puri, H. S.
1959

Rorabaugh, M.
1956


Schroeder, M. C


(and Vernon, R. 0.) Summary of the geology of Florida and a
guidebook to the classic exposures: Florida Geol. Survey Spec. Pub. 5.
I.
Ground water in northeastern Louisville, Kentucky, with reference
to induced infiltration: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1360-
B.
..J


1954 (and Klein, Howard) Geology of the western Everglades area,
southern Florida: U.S. Geol. Survey Circ. 314.
1961 (and Klein, Howard) Ground-water resources of northwestern Col-
lier County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 29.


Stewart, H. G., Jr.
1959 Interim report on the geology and ground-water resources of north-
western Polk County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 23.
Stringfield, V. T.
1936 Artesian water in the Florida peninsula: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-
Supply Paper, 773-C.
Theis, C. V.
1938 The significance and nature of the cone of depression in ground-
water bodies: Econ. Geology, v. 33, no. 8, p. 889-902.
Todd, D. K.
1959 Ground-water hydrology: New York, John Wiley & Sons.
U.S. Public Health Service.
1961 Drinking water standards: Am. Water Works Jour., v. 53, no. 8,
p. 939-945.
U.S. Public Health Service
1961 Drinking water standards: Am. Water Works Jour., v. 53, no. 8,
p. 939-945.
Vaughan, T. W.
1910 A contribution to the history of the Floridian Plateau: Carnegie
Inst. Washington Pub. 133, Papers Tortugas Lab., v. 4, p. 99-185.
Vernon, R. 0. (see Puri, H. S.)







GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA 61

WELL LOGS
WELL 554-143-1
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Beach sand, shell, and fill material ................................................. 0- 13
Sand, quartz, fine, shelly, last 3 feet containing greenish marl ........ 13 33
Sand, quartz, fine; dark green marl, less shell than above ............ 88- 44
Limestone, gray to white, hard, shelly ........................................... 44- 58
Limestone, tan to white, ranging from soft to very soft; light tan-
green marl streaks at 128 feet and 153 feet .............................. 58 193
Sand, quartz, fine to coarse, cemented with CaCOa, quartz grains
are well rounded; greenish marl .................................................. 193- 273
Clay, green, marly, sandy, some shell from above; clay becomes
harder at 330 feet ........................................................ ............... 273 343
Limestone, yellow, crystalline; phosphatic material; some clay .... 343 353
Limestone, white, shelly, phosphatic, marly; becomes softer at 373
feet ................................................................................................... 353 404
WELL 556-128-1


Material


Depth, in feet
below land surface


Sand, quartz, marly ......--------------.............-........-......------..-...-...............-....................-. 0- 12
Limestone, gray to white, shelly, Pecten shells ............................... 12 162
Limestone, buff to gray; coarse, quartz sand; shell; marl ........... 162 252
Limestone, buff to gray, shelly; green clay .....-.................................. 252 262
Clay, marly, sandy, bluish gray, shell .............................................. 262-292
Clay, dense, tight dark green, becoming sandy at 325 feet, phos-
phatic at 348 feet, and hard zone at 365 ................................... 292- 376
Limestone, light gray to dirty white, marly, phosphatic ................ 376 392
Note: Well was drilled with rotary drill rig. Samples were washed free of drilling
mud, thereby any sand or silt-size particles were removed.
WELL 559-120-1
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Sand, brown, organic, and limestone fill rock ................................ 0 10
Limestone, light tan to white, soft, permeable ............................... 10- 44
Sand, quartz, fine to medium, brown; white limestone ....--------............ 44- 50
Sand, quartz, fine to medium, brown ................................................ 50 150
Sand, quartz, fine to medium, brown; green clay ............................ 105 126
WELL 606-143-1
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Limestone, light gray to buff, very hard, sandy, marly ................ 0- 20
Shell, hash, cream to buff, marly, soft .........--------- ......................... 20- 30
Limestone, light tan, shelly, phosphatic; permeable ............... 30 60
Limestone, light gray, sandy, some shell, soft; hard zone at 100
feet ........-----------..................-- ......----. ----------------------- -------- 60 -127
Limestone, light cream to dark gray, soft, sandy shelly ............ 127 142







62 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ON.

WELL 607-145-1
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Sand, quartz, surface ----- 0- 9
Marl, dark, hard 9- 13
Sand, quartz, fine to medium, marly, very shelly 13- 25
Limestone, white to dark gray, shelly sandy, permeable ......... 25- 92
Sand, quartz, very fine, gray to tan ______=______- 92- 115
Sand, quartz, very fine to medium, tan to green, phosphatic ...... 115 141
WELL 609-115-1
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Sand, black, organic, marly, shelly 0- 24
Sand, quartz, fine, shelly; small amount of limestone -................ 24- 56
Sand, quartz, buff to pink, phosphatic; fossiliferous limestone .... 56- 66
Sand, quartz, very fine, shelly, phosphatic 66- 76
Sand, quartz, fine to coarse, white to light gray phosphatic .-..... 76- 112
Sand, quartz, very fine, phosphatic; green clay ....---....------..-......--....----.. 112 132
Clay, green, tight; quartz sand, decreasing in lower part .............. 132 158
Clay, gray-green, hard; very coarse, phosphatic, quartz sand;
greenish material at 200 feet may be phosphatic, crystalline
limestone or iron-bearing silica ---- --.. .. 158-238
Clay, gray-green, sandy, phosphatic, shelly --... ..................... 238 -244
Shell, hash; quartz sand loosely cemented with CaCO.; 3-foot thick
layer of clay at 261 feet ......-...--....-----------------............................--. 244-290
Clay, bluish green, sandy, shelly, phosphatic ------- 290- 400
Limestone, light gray, friable or "rotten," shelly; abundance of
shell hash at 425-435 feet _________-__ 400- 485
Limestone, very light gray to cream, sandy, phosphatic .-.........--.... 485 530
Limestone, light gray, shelly, phosphatic, clayey 530- 570
Clay, green, tight, shelly; light gray limestone ..---..----.....---...-----...---...-... 570- 575
Limestone, light gray to white, phosphatic, clayey; varying amounts
of shell with depth; very hard limestone zone 3-4 feet thick at
587 feet _____ ----___--- ...-- 575 700
WELL 609-120-1
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Limestone, light tan, very hard, fossiliferous; very hard .... 0- 30
Limestone, white to light tan, shelly; pink coating on shells .-..- ..... 30 38
Limestone, white, phosphatic ----- 38- 40
Sand quartz, very fine, white 40- 72
Limestone, white to light gray phosphatic, sandy 72- 103
Sand, quartz, silt-size to very coarse, clayey 103 122
WELL 613-148-1
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Sand, fine to medium, brown; organic material -_____ 0- 22
Limestone, light gray, sandy, shelly, marly 22- 44







GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA


Limestone, gray, sandy; greenish shelly clay; phosphatic nodules -.
Limestone, gray, shelly, sandy, phosphatic; permeable ....................
Limestone, white, friable, granular; permeable .................------...-...........
Limestone, light gray, sandy, some shell ............--..............................---------
Sand, quartz, fine to very fine, white ............-------..............................
WELL 614-146-1

Material be
Sand, quartz, yellow ---......---..................................................................-----------..
Sand, quartz, fine, gray; indurated gray limestone .............------.....
Limestone, gray, sandy, shelly, permeable ................................-
Sand, quartz, fine, dark gray, phosphatic, marly ............................
Limestone, dark gray, sandy, shelly ....---..................--
Sand, quartz, medium, limy ... ---.---.--.------------


WELL 616-131-1

Material


be


Sand, dark-brown, organic --------.............................................................
Limestone, sandy, light tan to gray ......---------....................................
Limestone, light gray, clay, sandy ...............................................-------------
Clay, green, soft; light gray limestone ---------------............................................
Clay, green, soft, sandy, shelly .................-----.............---......------...............----
Limestone, light to dark gray, hard, shelly, phosphatic and sandy
in lower part; very permeable ........................--------...........................---------------.....


WELL 616-141-2

Material bel
Limestone fill rock and sand ..............................----------...................------------------
Shell, hash, cream colored; limestone, marly ................................
Limestone, light cream, shelly, phosphatic ........................................
Limestone, white to dark gray; light green clay in varying
amounts .................------- ----------------------------------------------------------------..
Limestone, gray, sandy; sand-filled cavity at 105 feet ..............----
Clay, gray-green, soft, sandy, phosphatic -----------..................................
Limestone, light cream, sandy, phosphatic ------------..................................
Limestone, very shelly, clayey, and phosphatic; clay increasing ....
Limestone, white and gray, clayey, phosphatic ................................
Clay, green, sandy, phosphatic; gray limestone ................................
Clay, green, sandy, hard ....................................................................
WELL 617-146-1


Material


be


44- 48
48- 72
72- 128
128- 136
136 -142


Depth, in feet
low land surface
0- 4
4- 17
17- 39
39- 44
44- 85
8s 115

Depth, in feet
low land surface
0- 10
10- 20
20- 40
40- 60
60- 80

80 130


Depth, in feet
ow land surface
0- 10
10- 35
35- 46

46- 90
90 150
150- 160
160 170
170 220
220 240
240 270
270- 300

Depth, in feet
low land surface


Sand, quartz, dark, organic .. ------...........................----------........................ 0- 1
Limestone, gray, fossiliferous, very hard, impermeable .....-----........... 1 23
Sand, quartz, medium, gray to white, shelly; dark gray to tan
limestone ------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------- 23- 55
Clay, dark green ------------------------------------------------------- 55- 75
Marl, green, shelly limestone in lower part; permeable -----.............. ----75- 94







64 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-ONE

Limestone, white; sandy in lower part; permeable ------_---- 94 121
Sand, quartz, very fine, white phosphatic 121 141

WELL 621-135-2
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Fill material _____ ______ 0- 10
Sand, quartz, medium, tan; gray limestone; shell in lower part .... 10 40
Clay, marly, shelly, greenish tan ---.- 40- 60
Limestone, dark gray, shelly, becoming sandy in lower part ---..... 60 90
Sand, quartz, very fine, limy, clayey, phosphatic ......... 90- 95
Limestone, buff-colored, phosphatic, sandy, becoming shelly in last
7 feet; permeable 95- 123

WELL 621-136-5
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Sand, quartz, fill material, and organic material _____ 0- 10
Shell, tan, hash, fill material ... ............. ...... 10- 20
Limestone, light gray and shell hash ______ 20- 30
Limestone, light gray, sandy, marly, becoming harder and darker
gray at bottom; permeable ------ 30- 55
Limestone, gray to white, with greenish gray clay, sand, and
phosphatic material in lower part; permeable 55- 118
Sand, quartz, very fine; white and gray limestone fragments --..... 118 120
Sand, quartz, fine, white _____ -.--. ---- 120 130
WELL 622-125-2
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Sand, quartz, fine to medium, organic material 0- 10
Sand, quartz, fine, gray, marly, phosphatic, clay in lower part __ 10- 35
Marl, sandy, green, phosphatic 35- 48
Limestone, white to gray; fine to medium quartz sand, abundance
of white and black shell fragments --- 48 53
Sandstone, probably CaCO, cement 53 60
Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, becoming finer 60 120


WELL 625-123-3
1
Material bel
Surface sand, fill, and organic matter -------......--....... ........---
Sand, quartz, fine, dirty white, becoming whiter with depth; marl,
light brown, decreasing in amount with depth; phosphatic ma-
terial in lower part
Sand, quartz, fine, gray
Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, gray, phosphatic material
Sand, quartz, medium, poorly consolidated, marly
Clay, greenish gray, sandy, marly, becomes green in lower part ..
Sand, quartz, coarse, marly; tightly cemented sandstone in lower
part


Depth, in feet
ow land surface
0- 10


10- 37
37- 70
70- 80
80- 90
90- 110


110-129







GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA

Sand, quartz, medium, marly; semi-indurated gray limestone .....- 129 145
Sand, quartz, coarse; phosphatic material; dark green soft clay in
lower part .................... .......... .. .... 145 171
Clay, sandy, dark green; phosphatic material -..-.-- .. 171 175
Clay, sandy, light gray; white limestone ---_ ................... 175- 177
Limestone, white to buff, sandy, phosphatic material 177 190
Sand, quartz clear to gray, coarse; limestone fragments; phosphatic
material .-- ---------.--..- ----- -- ----.....-- 190 212


Clay, marly, light gray to green; fine to medium quartz sand;
phosphatic material ----..........-----..-..------............--...


212-303


WELL 626-123-1
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Sand, quartz, medium, brown, marly; organic material -- _.._ 0 10
Sand, quartz, medium, light brown, shelly, marly; becomes very
shelly in lower part .......-...-................................ 10- 30
Sand, quartz, very fine, gray, phosphatic 30- 40
Sand, quartz, coarse, gray, clayey, phosphatic; contains corals;
sand becomes pebble size in lower part --..-. -------...... 40 60
Sand, quartz, very fine, light gray, phosphatic; becomes coarser
with dark green marl in lower part ---- ------------ ......... ... 60 100
Sand, quartz, coarse to pebble-size; sandstone; shell fragments;
dark green marly clay -- --------............-------........ ....... 100- 116
Sand, quartz, coarse to pebble-size; green marly clay -.---------. 116 140
Sand, quartz, very fine, gray, marly, clayey, phosphatic ...---.------..... 140 150

WELL 626-126-1
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Sand, quartz, fine to medium, white to gray --.......... .. .... --.. 0- 15
Sand, quartz, fine to very coarse, well rounded, white, becoming
finer in lower part ._ 15 41
Sand, quartz, fine, gray, with phosphatic material ...............--... 41 50
Sand, quartz, coarse to very coarse, white well rounded; phos-
phatic material ....- --- --.....--............. ......... --........-....--............----. 50- 73
Sand, quartz, gravel-size, white to gray; phosphatic material ------- 73 85
Sand, quartz, fine to very fine, white to pink; green-blue clay;
light brown to buff marl ____ ---_.-._.--- 85- 95
Sand, quartz, fine, marly ...95 123








'I'AusiN 5, Well liucords In Coller County, Floridau



Aquifer: 6, shallow aquifer; F, Florldan aquifer, Remarks: W- is the Florida Geological Survey well number.
UseI P0, public supply; 0, observation; D, domestic; T, test (if not noted in remarks section, it refers to a well drilled for water and earth samples); Ir, Irrigation; 8, stock; In, Industrial,


Casing Measuring point Water level Yield Chloride


Above
Year Depth Above Eleva- or Tae.
Well Owner Driller com. of well Aqui- or tion below pera- Use Remarks
number pleted (feet) Depth Diam- fer below above (-) Date of Gal. Parts DC.e ,ture
(feet) eter Description land mean me&a measur- Ions per per sampled (F)
(inches) surface sea uring meat minute million
(feet) level point
(feet)


680--126-1 Humble Oil Co......


Atlantic Coast Line..

do ,. ... ,...
J. Houghteling......

do............

Atlantic Coast Line..
J. Houghteling......

do..........


Mays Bros..........



........Drillers............
do...... ...



B. and D. Well
Drillers ..........
do............

....................

Driller ..........
do............


................... J. E. Whatley ......


Collier Corp .......... ..........
do............ ... .................
do............ ....................
.................... J. M W hatley......


1941





1950
19582



1502
1052


56
106



56
55

660


20
20

1.1101


48




40


Top of 41-inch casing.

Top of 4-inch dis-
charge pipe........
do,........ .....
Lower edge of 21-inch
elbow..............
Top of (-inch casing..

Land surface.........
Top of 3-inch
coupling ..........
Top of 6-inch casing..

Top of 6-inch dis-
charge pipe........

Top of 0-inch casing..
do.............

Top of galvanized ex-
tension on discharge
pipe ............ .


1.0 .......


2.0 .......
1.7 .......

1.5 ..
.5 .

.0 ......

1.0 .......
1.3 ......


2.0 .......

.0 ...
1.0 ......
... .......


11.5 I12-15-41


16.4
10.0

- 6.45
- 7.48

23.5

- 4.40
- 4.61
-4.74

21.8

-10.35
- 0.39



11.7


10- 9-50
10- 9-59

8-13-52
8-13-52

10- 9-50

8-13-52
8-13-52
10- 0-59

10- 9-50

5- 8-59
5- 8-50



10- 8-509


350 ...... .......... 82


150 825 10-0-59 80
... 1,030 10- 9-59 80


150


17

1,100

17


....
8-13-59

10- 9-59

8-13-52


....... 10- 9-59

48 5- 8-59
35 5- 8-59



1,100 10- 8-59


84.5


Oil exploratory























Flowing wild


630-123-1

-2
-8

-4

630-122-1
-2

-3

629-120-1


629-127-1
-2
-8
-4






Collier Corp ......... ....................

Bud Fredricks ...... Miller Bros.........
do............ do ............

Atlantic Land and
T -m.n4. V. T M WIhtl


. 629-124-1
-2

629-122-1

-2
-3

62 124-1
-* -

627-127-1


.627-120-1


-2,
-8

627-125-1
-2


'620-127-1

:, 26-126-1

626-125-1
-2

626-123-1

626-121-1

625-120-1
-2
-3
-4


I '11


ey ......
.................... ......
.................... .......

Paul Dukes ......... .......
. ................... .......


Bud Fredricks......
do............




University of Florida
Agricultural Ex-
periment Station..
do............


Stokes............. ............. .... ... .......
do............ .................... .......


Frank Corbett...... .................... 1958

USGS.............. Miller Bros........ 1959

Kenneth Glidden.... ................... .......
Knox Blount........ Dave Buschmann.... 1057

USGS ............ Miller Bros ........ 1959

Collier Corp........ Ray Messer......... 1953

do........... Maysa Bros ......... 1041
Tom Lynn.......... D. Buschmann...... 1957
R. M. Anderson..... do ........... 1957


do...........


do............


26

55
55


702



45-55
8007

750




184
184
682

80
35


40

123

25G
230

153

33

753
227
65
35


304



30








168
,,,.....
...,,.,,


40

84


210

144

23

228
200
65
35


Top of 6-inch casing.,




Top of discharge
pipe..............
do............
do.............


1.3 ...
2.0 .......
1.0 ......


.Lansurfac............ 3
Land surfa c e... .0 38


Top of 4-inch dis-
charge pipe........


...... Land surface.........
...... ....................
F Top of 6-inch elbow...

S Top of 4-inch casing..
S Top of 4-inch un-
threaded casing....


S



F

S
S
8


Top of 2-inch casing..

...Land surf..............
.....................

Land surface .........


2.0 1......


- 7.74 5- 8-50


...... ..........


20.0 10- 9-50
20:0 10- 9-59
24.0 10- 9-59


9.0 5- 7-59


16.1



-10.0

19.2

- 7.2f

- 5.91



- 5.2




- 4.84


..... ..... .. ......... ........ .. ... ........
Land surface ........ .0 ....... -18.0 8- -57
........... ......... ....... ....... ....... .....


10- 8-59



5- -50

10-8-59

6- 2-59

6- 2-59



0-23-59


700
.......


90
100



50


15





50


55....
55


83

38
48


080
1,120
1,090

138
520


1,120




75
1,018

62

30

28

26

39
19


5- 8-50

5- 7-59
5- 7-59


10- 0-59
10- 9-59
10- 9-59

5- 7-59
5- 7-59


10- 8-59




3-10-59
10- 8-59

6- 2-59

6- 2-59

3- 4-59

8-23-59

3-25-509
3-25-509


75.5



79
81
81

75
80


82.5





83


7-12-50 1....... .. ............


25


23
42
25


3- 4-59
4- 5-59"
4- 5-59


81


......


. Whatley..... ........
do............ 1957
do........... .......


Oil exploratory


-.


1 I I










TAnrx 5. (Continued)


Cuung Measuring point Water level Yield Chloride


Above
Year Depth Above Eleva-. or Tern.
Well Owner Driller corn- of well Aqul. or tion below pera. Use Rmarulks
number pleted (feet) Depth Diam-. fer below above (-) Date of Gal- Parts Date ture
(feet) eter Description land mean meas- meaur. lonas er per sampled ('F)
(inches) surface sea during ment minute million
(feet) level point
(feet)


H.E. McDaniel.....
do...... ....
J. 0. Dupree........
Chas. Scott.........
L. H. Group .........
Lloyd Brown .......

Collier County Board
of Public Instruction
do............
Immokalee Gas.....
Mr. Shirlins........
Mrs. Bethea .......
do.... ........
do............

Florida State Agri-
culture Marketing
Board............
J. M. Whatley......
Atlantic Coast Line..


..,,..............

D. Beschmann......
O. B. Fowler........
D. Busohmann......
J. M. Whatley......


Fred's Barn,........
J. M. Whatley......
do............
D. Buschmann......
do............
do............
do............



J. M. Whatley......
do............
.............. ,


625-126-8
-6
-7
-8
-0
-10

626-124-1

-2
-3
-4
-0
-6
-7

625-124-1


-2
-3

625-123-1
-2
-3


1040

1059


1959


10988
1957
1901
10947
1984
1054
1987








1010


1950


125

180
210


103
......
70








208



24
20
24
254


..,.,,
S
S
8

S
S

S
8





,......
F
F

S
8
8


Land surface ......... ........ -13.5 4- -56
do .......... .............. 19.0 3-25-59
Top of 6-inch casing.. 1.5 ...... .0 10-22-40


800


... .oo
so...


3-27-50
3-27-50
3-27-50
3-27-59
3-27-50
3-27-50


3-13-86
3-13-89
5-17-58
3-25-50
3-27-50
3-27-50
3-27-59


250 ...... ..............
100 1,040 3-24-50 ....
..... .... ... ......... 78


Land surface......... ............ -10.881 7- 8-59 ....... 38 7- 8-50 1......


Collier Corp..... .. ... ....... .. .......
S do... .. .......... .. ........
USGS ............ Miller Bros........


.......,.............
........,....,,.....
...I... ........,,.....
.....................
............... ,..
.....................


... .. ... ....1. .....
. ,. ...............


.....................
.. .... ..............
.............,,,.....





025-116-1

-2

624-126-1

-2
-3

623-128-1

6221138-1

622-125-1

-2


621-185-1
-2

-3
-4

621-134-1

S621-182-1

621-131-1
-2
-3
S' -4
S -6

621-130-1

620-1835-1

6190-180-1

618-184-1
-2


do...........

Collier Corp.........

Collier County Board
of Public Instruction
Florida Forest Service
Mrs. Carl MoPhail...

Collier Corp........

Humble Oil Co.....

Don Lucas.........
USGS.............


Collier Corp ........
USGS..............

Sam Shaw..........
do............ .

Collier Corp........

do... ........

do............
do............
do............
do...........
USGS..............

Collier County......

do ............

Humble Oil Co......

Collier Corp........
do............


B. and D. Well
Drillers..........
....................


J. M. Whatley......
D. Busebmann......
........ .........

............. o.

LofflandBros.......

........ I .... ......
Miller Bros.........


do............
do s...........

or ll...........ow.......
....................






......... .atl .... ..
do................
.. .... .....o, ..

Miller Bros .........

....................

. ..... ... I ........

Dorris Ballow .......

J. M. Whatley ...... .
do ............ .


1052



1050
1968
1964



1940


1069



1069




















1940


64
61


278
107
100

37

12,210


120


60
129




84

116

92
112
105
105
130

82

63

11,000

18
31


22



218
104








112



120














123


4
4
2

6"





2


8
2

8
8

4

8

8
8
8
8
2

8

8

20

8
8


......
8
8
S


s

8



S
S
,....


8




8

8

S
S
S
S
S
8

S


S
8


0 1


Top of 8-inch casing..
Top of 2-inch casing..

Top of 8-inch casing..
do.............

Top of 8-inch casing.

do......... .

do..............
do........ ....
do............
do.............


Top of 8-inch casing..

do..... ........

o. ... ... .....

Top of 8-inch casing..
do.............


Top of 6-inch casing..
Top casing..........


Land surface.........
do......... .


Top of 6-inch casing..

..................... .


..................... .


.0 .... .
.6 .. .. .


.0 .... .
.0 ......
.. ........


- 2.77
- 2.20


4.0
-3.0


3.96








2.36
2.38




2.74

1.66

4.36
3.07
1.74



3.42

1.74



1.98
- 1.38


6-11-52
6-17-68


2- -60
1056
...... 1.

3-16-50



..........



3-24-59
7-24-69

..........


3-24-69



3-16-5069
3-17-69
3-24-59



3-17-569

3-23-69

.........


.5 ... .. .
.88 .......






.3.. ....



.0 ... ..
.0 .... .



.0 ..... .
....... .......








.0 .......
.66.....


..,..,.
600



100







.......


66
70


26
24
68

31



20
20


34
38




49

85

51
111
57

44

48

66



47
34


0-11-59 ......
6-17-68 ......


3-16-569
3-13-69
3-27-569

3-16-69



3-10-69
7-14-569


3-24-69
7-24-69

..........


3-24-569

3-24-569

3-16-59
3-17-69
3-24-59

7-21-59

3-17-59

3-23-69



3-10-59
3-16-569


T
Ir


PS
D
D

S

T

D
T


Ir
T




Ir

Ir

Ir
Ir
Ir

T

Ir

Ir

T

Ir
Ir


3-10-69 ......
3-16-69 .......


Oil exploratory,
W-2103

Chloride sample
taken at 50-63 .
foot interval

Chloride sample
taken at 86-93
foot interval '


















Oil exploratory,
W-1886


---- *i!









TAULN 5, (Continued)


Owner


Tony Rosbough.....

do ..........
do... .........

Collier Corp.......

Tony Rosbough .....
do.. ..........
do ............



do............

Mr. Baker..........

C. B. Lambertaons...

6-L Farms..........

John Pulling........
Palm River Estates..

USGS............


Driller


Miller Bros.........

do.......... ..
do... ....... .

Carl May ..........

J. M. Whatley ......
do............
do............



do...........

Chib Rivers.........

do.. .........

Miller Bros.........

do ..... .
Chis Rivers.........

Carl May..........


Year Depth
coin- of well
pleted (feet)


1058
1958









19568



1959
1056




1960

1958


Casuis


Depth
(feet)


124

















42


Diam-
eter
(inches)


Measuring point



Above Eleva.
or tion
below above
Description land mean
surface sea
(feet) level


. ,,,.., ....... .. ,


..... ... ,,.*.. ,.. ,

Land surface.........
. ..* I *......... .. ......
Top of .-inch casing..



do............







T .o .o.. ...... ...


Top of 1)-inch casing


2,38


Water level I Yield


Above
or
below
(-) Date of
meas- measur-
uring ment
point
(feet)


25.0

- 5.03


..........




6-12-01

5- 0-80


asl. Parts
long per per
minute million


800

1,000
800



250
1,000




800

.......

**....,.


618-184-3

618-1833-1
-2

617-146-1

617-184-1
-2
-3



617-182-1

616-148-1

616-148-1

4 016-147-1

S 16-146-1
,-2

S616-145-1


56

50
37

2,100

785
61
71



43

36

43




290

275


Chloride


sampled


8-17-50

3-17-59
3-17-59

12-21-58

3-16-50
8-17-59
4-22-59



3-17-59

12-29-59

1- 5-60




3- 2-00


Well
number


8.2 1........ .... ... ... ..... .......


Remarks


Equipped with
continuous
water-evel
recorder


Tem.
pera.
ture
('F)


7-20-58 1....


I I I I I- I I 1------------- 1-----1------1 1 I I I I -I I





616-141-1 USGS .............. CarlMay..........


do............ Miller Bros.........


do...........


615-149-1 Claude Grimm......
.-2, Mr. Van Camp ......


USGS..............

C. L.Foster........
Mks. Downing......
R. P. Boyd ........
Myrtle E. Wilkens...
Mr. Kopen.........
'M. A. Tropf........
Earl Craig .........
do............

Ralph May.........
do............
do............
do ............
6-L Farms..........
do ...........

do............
do............
do ............
John Pulling.......
do............
6-L Farms.........

Collier Corp .......

USGS.............


Doyle Hodges......


-2


616-136-1


do.... ........

Chiz Rivers.........
do ........

USGS .... : .........


do....................



Sweet..............

Chia Rivers.........
do............

do ............
Miller Bros ........
do............
do. ...........
do ............
do...........

do ............
do ............
do ............
do ............
do ............
do. ...........

C. E, Failing Co ....

USGS ......... ...


Carl May .........


1958

1059


1959

1960
1055


1959








1950
1050
1959


1960




1959
1959

1969
1959

1969


1042
1959

1959
19509

19809
1959
1989
1959




1942


19059


51

300


130

60
40

11


51
48
35
56
56
53
41

100
61
67
72
45


65
65
65
65
70
80

1,100

11


65


9


51

2832


125





0


42


do.............


Top of l-inch casing

.....................
... ....... ......,....
................, .,
......I.......... .
.... .........,.... ...
...... .......... ....
.....................
.....................




.... .................
.....................
....................


.....................
.........,..... .., ..
.. ..,.........,..
.....................
I ... I. ..... I..,....,I.

............,.......n
.....................


Top or t1,X[-Inch casingi


H Land surface.........


8- 4-50 ....... 1,100


.0


.0





1.33


- 5.56
- 2.67
,......
.......
......
,,,....
.,......
....,..
,....o..
.......


15.70 -


1- 5-60
8-15-60


..........
..........


..........


3-20-60
8-15-60


1,000


100


7-18-58 1......


..... I .301 8-10-50


15 11-11-59


8- 3-560


8-10-89

12-20-69
12-29-569

11-11-69

12-20-59
12-20-59
12-20-560
12-29-59
1- -60
1- 5-60
1- 5-60
1- 5-60

3-28-60
3-28-60
3-28-60
3-20-60
3-29-00





3-20-60


...,I.....,


....... 2 S .............. ...... .. ......... .. ....... 38 11-13-59 ....


Casing broke at
21 foot
Chloride sample
taken it 230-
240 feet
interval



































Oil Exploratory


82


-2
-,
S-4

* : -6 '

615-120-1

614-148-1


014-147-1





I










TARIsa 5, (Continued)


Owner


Driller


USOS ............ USBGS8...... .......

Collier Corp........ Carl May..........


John S. Harris...... John S. Harris......

do ........... do............

do ........... do........ .

Collier Corp........ Carl May..........

David Veensehoten.. ...................

John Pulling........ ...................
do............ ......... ......... .
do............ ....................
U ........... .. UI SGS ..............

do ........... do............


D. H. McBride...... Chia Rivers.........
do ........... do............


Year Depth
com- of well
pleted (feet)


19509

1058








1900


1058
1958
1958
1988


1959


614-147-2

614-146-1


614-057-1

614-066-1

014-014-1

0613-148-1

613-147-1

612-148-1
-2
-8
-4

-5


612-147-1
-2


12

115


23

11

11

135



75
75
75
11

11


55
40


Casing Measuring point Water level Yield Chloride


Above
Above Eleva. or Tem.
Aqul. or tion below pera- Use
Depth Diam- fer below above (-) Date of Gal. Parts Date ture
(feet) peter Description land mean mesa- measure. lonm per per sampled ("F)
(inches) surface sea during ment minute million
(feet) level point
.(feet)


23

11

11

128








0


50
49


Top of I oh aing 0.3 11,5 4.32 3-20-60 .......

..*.... I ...... ...... I .,.... I, -... .. ..... ..


.. ... .... I, .. .....



Land surface.........



.... .. .. ....... ....


Top of I1-inch casing

do.... .......


.0






1.75

.5


18.43

10.88


- ,54






- 5.30
-2.14
- 5.71
- 1.80


..........
8-10-60


..........


3-29-60
8-15-60
3-20-60
8-15-60


00
90
00


35

84

18
44
30
24




28
60


11-11-89 ......

11-18-80 ......








8-10-60 ..

11-18-88 ..

0- 4-50 ......
6-4-8o ..
6- 4-850 ...
11-11-59 ......




11-13-58 ..
11-13-88 ..


Remarks


Chlorida smple
taken at a
depth of 82 ft.


Well
number


1985
1955


I


1 -1-1


I -- I I I i.







USGS........ U...... USGS. ........


do............ Carl M ay ..........


John S. Harris......


do.......... .......


612-146-1

612-083-1

612-052-1

611-148-1

-2


6 ,11-147-1
-2
* -3
-4
-8

-,
-7


010-148-1
-2


do........ .


P. H. Gadsden, Jr...
Mr. Conrad .........
R. A. Walker.......
Robert Burgan......
Hole-in-the-Wall
Golf Course.......
Sdo.. .........
USGS..............


do............


Bell Well Drilling....
Chiz Rivers.........
R. A. Walker.......
Robert Burgan......
Hartley's Water
System...........
do............
USGS..............


Collier Corp....... Carl May ..........
do...........: do .. ...... ..


-3 do............ do...........
-4 do ............ do ......
-6 USGS .............. USGS.............


City of Naples......
do............
do.... ......
do............
Caribbean Gardens..
USGS.............


Carl May..........
do........... .
do............
do ............
do............
do............


do............ ........ .. ..... .

USGS.......... UBGS.............


-7 Mrs.LawrnceTibbett ..........................
-8 do............ ............ ..............


-3


1989

1989



19588






1958
10599


1989
19856
1986



1980
1989


11


123

75

11

11

11


65




00
458




00
11


854
00
100

58
00
11


00
87

50
70-78
74
409
48


Top of 1l-inch caing


.,........ .... ,,, .


2

1 X

1 X






2
2



2
2
2


2
2


2
2
3
2






2

2






3
1%


13.43 3,25 1- 5-60 .......


15.33

15.98


Top of 13-inch casing

do.............


............Top of 2-...inch cai...
.... ............... ..
.... .. ...............
do..............

.....................
....... .............
Top of 1)-inch casing


Top of 2-inch casing..
do ...3inch.. .......
do.............

do .............
do .............
Top of l-inch cuing


.....................
.....................
.... .... ............
... .................
..... ..............
Land surface .........
Top of 2-inch casing.
Top of 3-inch csing..


.4 .......
.85 5.44


.0
3.18
.94


- 4.30


- 6.25
- 6.o
- 7.83
- 3.75


- 4.39
- 1.83

- 2.16
- 6.81
- 9.87
- 5.47
- 570
-12.099
- 5.03
- 3.04







- 4.74


3-20-60


12- 3-59
1- 5-60
3-29-60
8-15-60


..........

3-29-60
8-15-60

8-16-856
8-16-86
4-28-61
8-15-60
8-17-856
8-27-50
4-20-61
8-11-61

........14..
..........





..........


75
50


78


..,....


835

111


34
46
206
88

54
24
34


25

40
68

16
60
,..,,..


11-11- ......


7-29-58 ......


11-12-589

11-12-59


6- 4-59
6- 4-89
6- 4-89
6- 4-89

6- 8-59
6- 8-59
11-12-60


8-16-50

4-28-61
8-15-60

8-27-856
11-12-5089
.......... .


800 ..... ............... .I


....... .......
....... .......
....... .......
. ..... 24

....... ... ..


..........
8-11-61


1-19-5089


51
50
145

49
50
9


85
77



73

.,.....


....... .......

.75 11.26


.8 ... .
.0 ...... .
1.7 8.55


0


T

D

P

0

0


D
D
D
D

PS
PS
0


T
T
0

T
T
0


PS
PS
PS
PS
PS
T
Ir
Ir


stolen









Stolen












Destroyed by
SRD































Caibbeaa Gardu,.

Mrs.LawaestTlbbe t

Cymi ofNaptli ......
MiL.IawrmieTIbbett
do ..........,
ityof Naples......

do ...........
Mr. G.E. FPa....
Cal Thunmer........
W. C lN. .........


TAmLm 5. (Conlinued)








WeD Owner


Cuw lMay.
d l .l .............

fk ... .. .... .

. .. . .. .
.. .... .... .... .
. ........ ............

Carl May. .

d o... ....


o.......... Miller ........

USG G,............,VSCS....G........

d ao............ do.............

Caribbleaa adens.. C llIMay...........


Taa


flepth


elia- a well
pfeted (fet)


10967 15

. .. ,. .

..... ... 1
....... a
51i
19S1 84

105' 06i

1961 80



1052, T 5



100 II, 0
1050 61


Aiiui-
Depth Diman for
(fet) ateo
(inatem)


..,.....,
...... ..
11

14

29
I

,,.,.. .. .


..... ....
......... .



07
9. i


0
0

11


3
:3

2

2

8.

4
I
5
I
2
2
2
2

2


'TpI, of Xincll cainri.


i po of 2-nalui anin...






Top of -noIll inuuint,.
Tap of 8-ina auibi...

Tlp of s.linalanibi..


...... ,.. ....c~ ... ... .,.


Abioye
: ,

aurlitu,

gif, it)
Brble)




7-









.78


5


.. .. .. ,


i a ..... .. .. ... 2 .i

SLop afG ict anefu 1,.0

p L............. .. ,0


oa ne r e,............. .......


* thin

i elBilk
;liell
shove
sMU'e
* feeD


.....,




....

11..01




111..3
J..4SS


Ldauu~viPy plrilrd


Driller


-147-9 M LaimWusTlb: :................
-i3 d 6 ........... ... ... ............. .


t~mR,wak


-
Water level Y'lulfld ( hlitride



no Tdro.
hlhw p pern.
(-) Dte oif GOul Part" uite tuw

trini munis initle iilllun




. .. ... . ,


$. 3 S-601-li ..... ) ,....
-. 8-15$-WiJ'


.. ...... .. -19 8 .....

2S .-101. 2
*.24 1i-0 -i0m
... .. .. .. ... .

...... .. .... ... . .. ., . .... ..
30 $, L6-5 i ......

... .... .... ... .. m. ...
........ ....... . -. .. .. ..
0i. 4a 8 -1-8a
-15.,. 4-a8.. 5 1.......... 58 2 .-2 ..
9.. B -. .-85 .......... 3 8-11-60 .
7... -aa. ii. ............. ao' 8",- l t-6 ......

4.,8l 3-lig-!D ........... r 3 -5 61 .......
- 3!.,61 aS-8-0iic-
- 1.4 81 61 ....... ............ ..... ..1..
10, -L-.i -


AffiicBy
P 9n


wel


'--- ----


1






$1o-146-r

St(MS2-I

609-148-1
-2
-3
-4
-5

'4-
-78

-9
-10
-11
-12


-13I UISG..............


Naphes Beach Club
Hotel............


City of Naples......

USGS ...........

City of Naples......
do............
Lawrence Tbbett...
Jau mFleshana...
Naples Bach Club
Hotel............
do............
do............
B.W. Monk.......
W. T.T umsdal.....
d,. ........
USGS ..............
D o her.............


Cty of Napies...... do ...........
do ........... do ...........
da........... do.............
do0........... do............d
dO. ........... do ...........
dah ......... de.............
do............ da.......... d..
do............ do ...........
da........... da .........
do ........... do............
IJohn PEng ........ Jenksa....i .......
da........... do............
Cuver Negro School J. P. Mahaey......
W.R. Reoer...... John PtEin........
J.G.Sampe........ ....................

do............ JoeMharry......... .
do.......... ....................
do...............................


Carl Mbay..........

USGS..............

Joe Maha ey.......
do .......
Jeff Townsend......
S do............

........... ........


Cik Rivers .........
Aubrey Cooper......
do ...........

B .M ahrBrao.........


i 3P. Maharrey......


1949
1980
1980


ISo0
1930

1980
1950
1951
1952

198




1951
1951
1931
1951
1951
1949
1949
11950
1950
S1980

S1939

19510

1945

1945
1949


1120

92

74

93
55

8O
80
63
45
633
83
78
409
71

90


63
63
2a
73
73
785
75
83



33
90
63
60

52
43


99

[: 8

i T 6
a a
60
5O






602


75;
782





65


69





65
782









75
269


Top of -itob euonfs ...





Top ef 4-iach casik..
a...... .
... ... ...... .. ...

. o i................ ..




Bottom Epi oa 6.i-alb
el.b. ,w.... ..............

L... ....... . ,

Bottom Ep, of 3-inh
nipplt-e an elbow.....


Top, off S ni a a ....


.....d...h ..,....


Top, of -4al canins....

s.,,................



.......................
Tpn of.-iLch ana ....

Topi fS-ias oat;.,..


3,5

I.... ..9 .

ii......








.11J
2.5








2.2
I.5


64.1


2..$

1.5
I.5



.9A
-11..I




...6.


- (114.111

- StO


-V!...........
-11J1.80
- 91.,2








- 3L94
- $18
- 2.38

- 2.83'


3181-63-11
3145-63



..,,. .. ,, ......
..........,.......
5- v -.m
318-5-ill








8.- 8i-Sill
8t- 8411

8i- 81-5
.( SiSl


"


_ 37


-116).. v- 8-7:-i
-.,,.,.,,, T.. ,. .............









- aloi a-- 8-3
- 8.,i 5- 57-sn
],........... ..... .. ,

. o,..... ... ..... ,..........





- 7.8 11 -11 S- 2




-7:413.* 4-281-63
- 4.2 8-111-e
.....,,..,. ........ ,,.,.
......... ........,...........
.......... ... .. ,,...,.. ..... .


- 4i, SO 3-25-82
............ ............. ,......


.............






S.............
.. ........ .










2T
.. .. o,

..... ,

i ..... .
,, ,.,.....






.. ..,.o


,,...... o.






.. ,,. .,

.,, .o,


[",-mi-am


S-T1-SD



5- Ti-51


g-2Hl-50
5- 5-8


R5- 8-511


i S
231



791)


791
i CT

23'






781


-14


609-147-1
-2.
-5
--4
-5
-S
-7

-9
-10
-11
-12
-13
-14
-18


i ........



; 1 5- T-3 1T) *

a75 a-a 5 82
ss a-s-ea 3S



U 8.- ;- .......

2V1 9-,3- .-
HO) 9>4f-. I EM
fl S-5-5DE .......
31 4-20L-e ...
0 4-28-86 .1..


25

28.
38k
25
123








12$


251
4111


f ;





S '
2P




PS



)11
BS'



Br '
frS
l?&
m 1










TAILx 5, (Continued)


Casing Measuring point Water level Yield Chloride


Above
Year Depth Above Eleva. or Ten-
Wll Owner Driller com. of well Aqui. or tion below per. Use Remarks
number plted (feet) Degth Diam- for below above (-) Date of Gal. Puts Date ture
(feet) eter Description land mean meas- measure. lons per per sampled (7F)
(inches) surface sea uring ment minute million
(feet) level point
1 1 (feet)


J. O. Smpl .......

Neapolitan Enter-
prma ............

R Lehman.......
J. G.Sample........

City of Naples......
do...........
do ...........
do...........

Naples Swamp
Buggy Amn.......

City of Naples......

do............

USGS..............

do............


Chis Riven .........

. d ....... ......


Miller Brc .........

do.........
Bert Dudley........


....................

C. W. May.........

do............

Miller Bros.........

do............


19490


10981

1037
1949

1981
1952
1952
1983


1957

1958

1958

1959

1950


62 1.......


63

72
52

68
78
113
57




123

144

122

485
700


63
112
37




104

80

82

312
587


Top of 3-inch nipple
on 6.inch cuing....

....... ..... ........


Bottom lip of 6-inch
tee...............
Top of 4-inch cuing,.
Top of 2-inch cauing..
do............







..... ... ..



Land surface.........
do............


0.7





.3

2.0
1.7


15
15


-7.21





-3.31

-4.84
-13.91











16
38


8- 7-51





8-23-51

1-10-52
1-17-52











5-21-61
5-21-61


5
12


18

18

43
10
16
448





1.750

885

15

985
1,950


8- 8-51

8- 9-51

8-21-51
8-16-51
1-10-52
1-17-52



..........

7-17-58

8-14-58

8-20-59

9-23-59
10- 8-59


78

80
"..1


.-1 ...


Supplies 3 homes
and a nursery


PS

T

T

T

T Single well con-,
...... strueted to
perform as two
wells of differ-
ent depths


-21
-22

-23
-24
-25
-26

609-145-1


609-143-1

609-141-1

609-120-1

609-115-1







608-148-r
-2
-83
-4
-&
-6
-7
-8
-9
-10
-11I

608-147-1
-2
-3
-4
:' -5

-7

-
-10
-11
S -12
-13
-14


C. L. Yonze... ....
City of Naples......
do............
do...........
do...........
do............
lack Prince.........
Naples Supply Co...
John Polling........
Trails End Motel....
City Ice and Fuel Co.
Combs Fish Co......
City Ice and Fuel Co.
do............


-15 City of Naples......


do...........
do............
do............
do. ..........
Sea Shell Motel.....
City of Naples......
do...........
A. Dimeola.........
City of Naples......
do............
do............


....................
Joe Maharrney.......
do...........
do............
do............
do.........
.....Joe......Mahney.........
Joe Maharrey.......
... do.............
do........... .........
............. ......
.....do... .........
............. .. .....




Chiiv.........e...........
Joe Maharrey.......
doler Br...........
do ..........
do ............
do ............
Chiz Rivers.........
Joe Maharrey .......
Miller Bros.........
Chiz Rivers .........
B. Dudley..........
do.. ........
do............


Clam Canning Plant...................
J. L. Kirk.......... Aubrey Cooper......


I'


L. A. Orick......... Chis Rivers.........
Ad Miller ......... Aubrey Cooper......
J. E. Turner........ Jeff Townsend......
C. J.Sunnerall.... C.J. Summerall.....
L O. Clark......... Aubrey Cooper......
Roy Brack......... do............
William Storter..... Jeff Townsend......
H. M. McClaskey... Aubrey Cooper......
H. C. Sherier....... do............
L. F. Grimes ........ do...........
R. L. Williams...... J. P. Maharrey......


-16
-17
-18
-19
-20
-21
-22
-23
-24
-25
-26
-27
-28


1949
1950
1950
1949
1950
1950
1949
1951
1951
1951
1951

1940






1930
1950
1939
1951
1930

1940
1922
1941
1951
1951
1951
1951

1939
1952
1040
1983
1952
1952

1981


52
60
42
42
42
42
45
40
42
46


110
73
73
63
73
63
27
70
33
75
73

73

66
72
81
40
76
78
540
70
55
33
22
69
63
42


S..... ..................... ....... ....... ....... .......... ......
.... 2. 2 8 ............... ...... ....... ....... ....... .......... ......
...... 2 ..... ........... ..... .. ....... ... ... .......... .....
....... .................... .. .. ... .. ... .. ....... .......... .... .
S....... 8 ....... ..... ........ .... .. .. .. ... ..... ... ..... .....o .
. 2 .. 2 .................... ..... .... ....... .......... ........
....... 1Y S ................. .... .... ... .. ....... .. ... .... ...... .
. ..... 1% 8 ....... ....... ....... .. .... ....... .... ... ..... ... .. .. .....
..... 1 8 ...... ............... ....... ... ... .. ... ....... ......
. .... 1% 8 ............................ ....... ....... .... ..... .......
....... 2 8 ..................... ....... ... .. ...... .......... .......


31
408
215
15
14
113
442
242
17
118
21

22
43
43
285
41
25
19
45
32
39

270
167
200

16
31
15
12
27
2,180
27
145



49

168


-3.78







21.5
-4.28






...o..o.


..........
..........
..........
..........
..........




.......... I
..........
o. oo...... o


..........



..........
..........
..........
8- 1-51

..........
.......... .
..........
..........
..........
1-18-52
1-14-52
..........


...... ..
......,...
....o.,...!.

I


8- a0-1
9-26-51
9-26-51
9-26-51
9-26-51
9-26-81
9-26-51
4-29-82
4-29-M2
4-29-52
..........

7-31-46
7-31-46
8- 7-51
8- 7-81
8- 7-81
8-31-46
8-8-51
8- 8-51
8- 8-51
8- 8-51
..........
8- 9-51
8- 9-51
8- 9-51

10-11-51
10-12-51
10-12-51
8-16-51
10-17-51
12-17-81
1-14-52
3-11-52


5-25-83
8......9..
8- 9-51


................ .....
Top of 3-inch easing..
.......o ...... .......
.....................
...,.................
.....................
....................
.......I..............
.....................
....................
..: ..................


..... ....... o....
.....................
.....................
,......... ... ....
..............I.......
....................


.....................
Top of &-inelh coupling



.....................


.....................o
............ ........o ,
... I.................


66
64







70
70




60
60
78
27
74
68
300
69

27
19
82

.o..oo..


...... .......
1.81 .......
..... .......
....... ........
.....ooo..o.....
....... .......
....... .......o
....... .......o
....... Io......
....... ..... .

....... .......
....... .......
.0 .......

....... o.......
....... .......
....... .......
....... ......

1.0 .......
1.6. .......
....... .......

....... ......oo
.. o..I.. .. o.. ..

....... .......
....... .......

I


S3
80
79

82
80
79









79
79
78..
78
79
80
80
.79

79
78
















78
77
777


Fire well












TAMIsU 5. (Continued)



('uius Measuring point Water level Yield Chloride


Above
Year Depth Above Eleva. or Temn.
Well Owner Driller com.- of well Aqui. or tion below pers- Use Remarks
number pleted (feet) Depth Diam. fer below above (-) Date of Gal. Parts Date ture
(feet) eter Description land mean mess. meuur- lons per per sampled (OF)
(inches) surface sea uriog meot minute million
(feet) level point
(feet)


C. A. Newell........
do...........
John Townsend.....
C. M. Townsend....
Rev. Walton.......
Aubrey Cooper. ....
do............


, ............. .....
Chis Rivers.........
ido............

Aubrey Cooper......
do............


J3 Sample........ J. P. Maharrey......

V. L.Belding ....... ....................


Tom Hamilton......
Glades Motel.......
Roland Weeks......
Thomas Weeks......
Hampton...........
Dick Townsend.....

Collier Development
Corp............

W. B. Uihlein.......


606-148-1 I USG..............


Carl May..........
do............
Chis Rivers.........
Carl May..........
do...........
do............


do............

Richards. .........

Miller Bros.........


1953
1953







1952

1951



1958
1055
1955



1958

1937

1959


60
72


63
72
54

300

235

95
105
18
43
43



120


, ...... ..

.. .. ...........
.....................
, ..................




,o,,,, ...... I,, .,,
.....................

.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................

.... .. ,......, .,,. ...,


18.0


..........
..........
I .... I....
..........
..........

5-21-61


30
70



1,000


79
79
87
127
54

2,040

4,400

80
119
266
296


1-16-59
1-16-59
1-16-59
1-16-59
1-16-59

2-11-52

11-13-51

1-16-59
1-16-50
1-16-59
1-16-59
..........
..........


270 11-17-58

1,960 8- 9-51


Flowing well


608-140-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7

007-148-1

607-147-1

607-146-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6

607-145-1


606-148-1







60-120-1i' Collier Development
Corp............


A. Nystrom.........

John Scekford.......
Albert Anderson.....

Jack Cannon........
George Nemchik....
Travis Bickford.....
I. 0. Edwards......


Miller Brcs.........

....................
Chiz Rivers.........

do .. ..........
do... ........
do..... ......
C. W. May.........


605-148-1

605-144-1
-2

605-143-1
-2
-3
-4

604-144-1

604-143-1
-2

* -4
-5
-6
-7
-8

: 603-141-1
-2
-3
S-4


602-142-1
-2
-3

602-141-1

559-120-1

558-143-1


William French.....
J. G. Breau.........
do............
do...........
do...........
J. H. Gaunt........
do.............
Claude Hunter......

L. L. Loach.........
do............
do ..........
do............
do............

Barefoot Williams...
Carl Puchhas........
J. G.Breau.........


do............
C. W. May.........
do............
do............
do............
do............
do............
H. R. Snowball.....

C. W. May.........
do............
do. ...
do............
do............

Chis Rivers.........

H. R. Snowball.....


L.L. Loach....... W.May.........

USGS.............. Miller Bros.........


G. L. Lowenstein....


Kellog.............


1049

1958
1956

1957
1957
1957
1958

1958

1988
1954
1953.
1954
1954


1958

1958
1958
1958
1958
1958
19584


1958
19589



1050


45

220

33
83


82
832
42

30

25
32
32
22
27
20
830
84

31
34
30
30:
28

16

27

42

127

*800-
900


-


213


30


32

38

30

25
32
32
22
22
20
30
34

34
34
34
34
34

11

27

38

126


I ~ I Maim. -.


4

4

2
2

2
2
2
2

2

2
2
2
4
4
6
6
2

2
2
2
2
4

2

2

2

2

6


.43
.2
.83
1.0
.971


Top of 2-inch tee..... 1.5
..................... .......
...............I..... ........


Top of 2-inch casing..

Top of 2-inch vertical
tee ............ ..


2.0 1 10-


- 2.4.
- 2.33
- 2.4
- 2.61
- 2.87

- 2.72

.....,.


- 1.35


14.5


..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........

2-12-59
2-12-59
2-12-59
2-12-59
2-12-59

12-30-58



..........

8-17-59


10-28-40 ......


......... .......

.......... .......

.......... .......
.......... .......


31 81.. 4-59.....
31 8-14-509


....... .......... 706


240

130
172

92
130
174
134

890

08
82


78

88
56

220
314
238
204
156

760

424


cc


'Charles McCool..... H. R. Snowball ....


I


S6-16-51

1-20-52

1- 2-59
1- 2-59

1- 2-59
1- 2-59
1- 2-59
1- 2-59

1- 2-59

12-31-58
12-31-58
..........

12-31-58

12-31-58
1- 2-59

2-12-59
2-12-59
2-12-59
2-12-59
2-12-59

2-12-59
.......... -30-58
12-30-58 ,


............o ... .. ...
... do................
........d ....... ....
......... ...........

Top of 2-inch casing..
do.............
do .............
'do............
Top of 4-inch casing.


"


`------


I


.....................
.............I ........
... I....... I..........
.....................


-I
0 Equipped with
recorder
Ir

D
D

D
D

D
D1

D Not used for
drinking
D
D, Ir
D,Ir
Ir
Ir
Ir
Ir
-D

0
0
0
0
0

D
..... Flowing well
Ir

0 Salty from 28
feet downward
T


D *Exact depth of
well unknown












TABI.B 5, (Continued)


Cuing Meauuring point Water level Yield Chloride


Above
Year Depth Above Eleva. or Tern.
Well Owner Driller comr. of well Aqul- or tion below pera- Use Remarks
number pleted (feet) Depth Diam- for below above (-) Date of Gal. Parts Date ture
(feet) eter Description land mean mesa. measur- lone per per sampled ('F)
(inches) surface sea during ment minute million
(feet) level point
(feet)


U.8-148-2 MarooHighland,Iuc,. Carl May..........


Collier Corp........ Humble Oil Co......


850-143-1 ................... ........ ...........
-2 Barron Collier...... ....................
-3 Richard Brooks..... ...................

650-142-1 J. M. Barfield....... Miller Bros.........
-2 Marco Island School ....................

550-128-1 L. G. Ncrris....... J. M. Whatley......


Lee Tidewater
Cypress Co.......
do...........

Collier Development
Corp.............
J. M. Barfleld.......
Naples Construction
Co........ ....


1052



,..,,**

1020


1059


Humble Oil Co... .......
.................... 1945


1959


12.i:IIII


200-300
22

302


300


6



2


4
2

4


440 ....... .... .
80 15 3


13 ....... 2
22 ....... w

20 ....... 1,


8S


F?
S

F


F
S

S

B

S


. ................ I ....... ....... .......... 17,200


Surface... .. ........ 0.0 10-28-40 .... .......
... I..... ......... ....... ..... .. .. .......... ........ 35


Top of 4-inch casing,.


Top of -inch casing.. 1. .......
..,. ,... ......., ..... ....... .


Top of curbing....... 1
. .. ............ .....


3.5
33.O


4-10-50


10-28-40


2,550
75

330


Flow 2,310
50 27



...... 23

..... 23


3


5-57 ......


5-11-50

10-28-40
5-11-59

4- 8-59


78
786


78.5


78


7-25-46 75
7-25-46 77


.......... 78
10-28-40 .....

5-11-590 ......


Chloride les
than 40 ppm
to depth of 20.
feet
Log in Collier
County engl
noer's fil




Flowing
*200/day

Flowing


57-129-1'


.


32.0 7-25-46
..... ..........


..................I..
....................

....................


2 .. : -11.4