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 Copyright
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 Florida State Board of Conserv...
 Transmittal letter
 Contents
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Geography
 Geology
 Ground water
 Summary and conclusions
 References
 Tables


FGS









STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY



FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert O. Vernon, Director



REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 30



RECONNAISSANCE OF
THE GEOLOGY AND GROUND-WATER
RESOURCES OF
COLUMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA



By
Frederick W. Meyer
U. S. Geological Survey



Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS OF COLUMBIA COUNTY
and the
FLORIDA GEOLGICAL SURVEY



TALLAHASSEE
1962












FLORIDA STATE BOARD

OF

CONSERVATION


FARRIS BRYANT
Governor


TOM ADAMS
Secretary of State



J. EDWIN LARSON
Treasurer



THOMAS D. BAILEY
Superintendent of Public Instruction


RICHARD ERVIN
Attorney General



RAY E. GREEN
Comptroller



DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGES
Director










LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
(SEAL)


)I^o~cLt (^e iaaci c>Sivc.veya

Tallahassee
August 8, 1962
Honorable Farris Bryant, Chairman
Florida State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Governor Bryant:
The Division of Geology will publish, as Report of Investigations
No. 30, "Reconnaissance of the Geology and Ground-Water Re-
sources of Columbia County, Florida," prepared by Frederick W.
Meyer, geologist with the U. S. Geological Survey, in cooperation
with this department and with the Board of County Commissioners,
Columbia County.
The Floridan aquifer was found to be principal source of ground
water in the area, containing artesian water in the northern part of
Columbia County, and being recharged in the southern part of the
county. A few wells in the northern part of the county tap water
present in sediments that lie above the Floridan aquifer. These
shallow waters are generally high in iron and tannic acid. The
details on the geology and hydrology necessary to conserve and
utilize the water available to the residents of Columbia County are
presented in this study.

Respectfully yours,

Robert O. Vernon
Director and State Geologist
















































Completed manuscript received
February 25, 1962
Published for the Florida Geological Survey by

Dixie Printing Company, Inc.
Tallahassee
August 8, 1962

iv





CONTENTS

Page

Abstract ..-..........-.......-.-..-...-..- ..---- ..---- --........ -...... 1

Introduction .-...---.....--..--..... --.. -...------- ..-........--------.--------...--. 2
Previous investigations .--..---...---------------. --.---- 3
Acknowledgments .........................-- ..........------ -.---- 3
Well-numbering system ....------ ...........-....--- ----- ........- ----- 3

Geography -.....--.....-..-....-. ..-.... ---..... ..-------.--- 4
Location and extent of the area -..-------------- ---...-..-.- 4
Cultural Features ......--...--...--... --. --........-...--...... ....-.- 6
Climate ..----..--....------.... ........--------- --..- 7
Topography and drainage -.. ---...--..... ..---... --------- ------ 7
Central highlands ...-...---- ..-----..--.---..--------- .. --.. 7
Coastal lowlands .--........--- ..-... -- ---- ----- 11

Geology .-.....-........ ..-.--.. ----------------------- 12
Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks -..-...--.. -----.. ---- --.----.------- 13
Tertiary System .....-..--..........-..-------------- 15
Paleocene Series .....- --.........--... .--.------- .....-------- 15
Cedar Keys Formation ..-....-...........-- ---....-- 15

Eocene Series .............................. ...-----.-. --.-- ---. 15
Oldsmar Limestone .................. .-.... -----------.--- 15
Lake City Limestone .....--.....--.._ _....----- -- 16
Avon Park Limestone ------~.-._........ ....-..-- ..--------16
Ocala Group ..... .. ...- ... --- _.._ .--- --------- -. 17

Oligocene Series ................----------------........------------------- 18
Suwannee Limestone ------..-----......-- ... ------- 18

Miocene and Pliocene Series --... --. .------... ....... ------- 19
Miocene Sandstone and Limestone ....------..... -----------------. 19
Hawthorn Formation ---.....- --.. ---.. ....- -------------. 20
Alachua(?) Formation .-.....--------.--.. ------....-- 20

Quaternary System .....---...-..- ..--.............-----..----- 21
Pleistocene and Recent deposits --.................--------------- .21
Structure .-............-.................-.......------ ---------- 22

Ground W ater -.....--............. ................-... ....- ...... -- ...... 22
Nonartesian aquifer -................-....-.--....-.--.....-----.--.-... -- -- ---- 27
Secondary artesian aquifer ...-.......-...........-...... ..........------- ....- 29
Floridan aquifer .... .. ....... .... ..-.... ..-....- ------------------ ---...___ .... 30
Occurrence and source ........... ... ..... ---..................------- .... 30
Movement of water and its relation to the piezometric surface -.._.---- 30
Recharge -........... --........-........._ --...-- .. --- .... .. 32
Discharge ...-.. ... .. ... .....--...-..... .......-.- .. ....-... .....-- .. .. .. 33
Fluctuations of the piezometric surface --- ...-.... ---.. -....... ------... 33
Use of ground water ......-- -.. .-..._.---- ....------------ 36
Hydraulic properties of the Floridan aquifer --~----37






Chemical quality 44
Hydrogen-ion concentration (pH) .- .----. 44
Hardness __-_----- ---.__.__ __.- 45
Dissolved solids ___ ---. 50
Hydrogen sulfide (HsS) ---- ..---.....--- .. ---------------- 50
Highly mineralized water -.-----.------------. 51
Pollution _----_ _-.-------..--..-----.- -.-- ..--- -- 51
Classification of irrigation water 1.......... ----........ ..-... ...... 51
Summary and conclusions _- --.......... _.. .. ... ... ........... -...... 52
References .... __ _...._ .. .... .............._ ...... ....... _....._ 59











































vi







ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure Page
1. W ell-numbering system ................................................. .. ............. 4
2. Peninsular Florida showing the location of Columbia County .......-...- 5
3. Graphs showing the total annual rainfall and the cumulative
departure from the average rainfall at Lake City, 1893-1957 -...-...--.. 8
4. Columbia County showing the principal topographic features .. facing 10
5. Geologic section in Columbia County along line A-A' .....---.......--..-..... 23
6. Geologic section in Columbia County along line B-B' ............................ 24
7. Geologic section in Columbia County along line C-C' ...-------------.. 25
8. Columbia County showing configuration on top of beds of Taylor
Age ---...-.......---...-- -----.. -...........-...-..-........ .. -.... ...............-- -.........---.......--.. 26
9. Columbia County showing configuration on top of beds of Late
Eocene Age -....---.-..... --......... .. .-............................... facing 28
10. Generalized sections in Columbia County showing profile of
piezometric surface of water in the Florida aquifer in June 1957,
along lines A-A' and B-B' ..................................................................----- ------- --- 31
11. Columbia County showing the piezometric surface of the Floridan
aquifer in June 1957 --..-----................... ----....--.......--.. facing 32
12. Hydrograph of well 010-238-1 and rainfall at Lake City 1948-57 .....- 34
13. Hydrographs of .wells 010-238-1 and 004-236-5 and daily rainfall
at Lake City, June-December 1957 .----....... .--...---....---..........------ 35
14. Columbia County and surrounding area showing the locations of
wells and stream-gaging stations ......---...................-.........----. facing 36
t
15. Logarithmic plot of drawdown versus -2 compared with the
r
Theis type curve, Lake City pumping test, October 1957 ------------ 38
16. Graph showing the theoretical drawdown in. the vicinity of a well
discharging 1,000 gpm ................................................---........................-----....-------- 42
17. Theoretical drawdowns after 1 year of pumping a group of wells
at a rate of 20,000 gpm ..-----.............-.......... ........---- .........-----...... .... 43
18. Columbia County showing the total hardness of water from wells
that penetrate the upper part of the Florida aquifer -......facing 50
19. Diagram for use in interpreting the analysis of irrigation water _. 53


TABLES
Table
1. Monthly rainfall at five weather stations within a 30-mile radius of
of Lake City .. ..--.---...---.......-----. ----------------------- 9
2. Geologic units and their water-bearing characteristics in Columbia
County, Florida ...-. ---..--- .-.--.--- .-- --------. 14








3. Pumpage at the Lake City well field 36
4. Theoretical transmissibility of the Floridan aquifer in selected
wells 40
5. Chemical analyses of water from wells in Columbia County and
vicinity -_ __ __. ..._ 46
6. Partial chemical analyses of water from wells in Columbia and
adjacent counties ________ 48
7. Classification of irrigation waters _-_ ___ 52
8. Records of wells in Columbia County and vicinity ___....... _........ 62


viii







RECONNAISSANCE OF
THE GEOLOGY AND GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF
COLUMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
Frederick W. Meyer
ABSTRACT

Columbia County comprises an area of about 786 square miles
in the north-central part of the Florida Peninsula. The average
annual rainfall is about 50 inches, and the average annual
temperature is about 690F.
The northern two-thirds of the county is a moderately flat, poorly
drained region that ranges from about 100 to 215 feet above mean
sea level. The southern one-third of the county is a hilly, well
drained, sinkhole region that ranges from about 25 to 200 feet
above mean sea level.
The Floridan aquifer, the principal source of ground water in
the area, consists of the Lake City Limestone, Avon Park Lime-
stone, and the Ocala Group, all of Eocene Age; the Suwannee
Limestone of Oligocene Age; and an unnamed sandstone and
limestone unit of Miocene Age. In the northern part of Columbia
County the aquifer is generally artesian and the top occurs about
100-200 feet below the land surface. In the southern part of the
county the aquifer is generally nonartesian.
Because the water in the Avon Park and older formations
generally is very hard and in places is highly mineralized, few water
wells in Columbia County are deeper than the base of the Ocala
Group. The depth to which wells are drilled depends on the location
and the quantity of water needed. Only a few are deeper than 300
feet and most are less than 200 feet deep. Yields are as much as
1,000 gpm (gallons per minute). Although artesian conditions exist
in the Floridan aquifer in the northern part of the county and
locally in the southern part, nowhere is the pressure great enough
for wells to flow. The water in the aquifer in Columbia County
is replenished by underflow from the north and northeast and by
infiltration from the land surface. The water moves westward and
southward, discharging into the Suwannee, Ichatucknee, and Santa
Fe rivers. An aquifer test at Lake City indicates that the coef-
ficient of transmissibility is about 270,000 gpd (gallons per day)
per foot and that the coefficient of storage is about 0.0008. In the







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


southern part of the county the water in the Floridan aquifer may
become polluted by recharge through sinkholes or from the rivers
when they are at high stages.
A few wells in the northern half of Columbia County tap either
the secondary artesian aquifer in the Hawthorn Formation of
Miocene Age or the nonartesian aquifer in the unconsolidated
deposits of Pleistocene and Recent Age. Most of these wells are less
than 100 feet deep and yield only small quantities of water. The
water in the Hawthorn is under slight artesian pressure whereas
that in the Pleistocene and Recent deposits is nonartesian. Although
generally of good chemical quality, the water in these aquifers
locally contains an excessive quantity of iron or tannic acid.
Rocks below about 1,600 feet contain highly mineralized water.

INTRODUCTION
The rapid growth of population and industry in the State of
Florida has created the problem of locating and developing new
sources of ground-water supply. The Columbia County Board of
Commissioners and the Lake City Chamber of Commerce recognized
this problem and requested the U. S. Geological Survey to make
an investigation of the ground-water resources of the county in
cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey.
The purpose of the investigation was to obtain hydrologic and
geologic data concerning the following: (1) the extent and thick-
ness of water-bearing materials; (2) the causes of fluctuation of
water levels in wells; (3) an approximation of the transmissibility
and storage capacities of the water-bearing materials; and (4) the
quality of the ground water.
Field studies began in May 1957 and ended in November 1957
and consisted of the following:
1. Inventory of wells, including compilation of data on their
location, depth, diameter and length of casing, depth to water
level, yield, and water use.
2. Study of the geologic information obtained from wells and
exposures of rock formations to determine the thickness, lithologic
character, and areal extent of the water-bearing formations.
3. Determination of the water-transmitting and water-storing
capacities of the water-bearing formations at the Lake City well
field.
4. Collection and study of water-level records from wells to
determine the seasonal fluctuation.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 30


5. Sampling of water from wells and springs to determine the
chemical quality.
6. Determination of the approximate altitude of measuring
points for water level and geologic correlation.
The investigation was made under the general supervision of
A. N. Sayre, former chief of the Ground Water Branch, and under
the immediate supervision of M. I. Rorabaugh, district engineer, of
the U. S. Geological Survey.

PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS
No detailed investigations of the geology and ground-water
resources of Columbia County had been made prior to this investi-
gation. Reports by Cooke (1945), Applin and Applin (1944),
Vernon (1951), and Puri (1957) include information on the geology
of Columbia County, and reports by Stringfield (1936) and Cooper,
Kenner, and Brown (1953) briefly describe the hydrology. Chemical
analyses of the ground water in Columbia County are published in
reports by Black and Brown (1951) and Collins and Howard
(1928).
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Appreciation is expressed to the many persons who contributed
information and cooperated in the collection of data. Residents of
the area supplied information and permitted measurements to be
made in their wells. The following local well-drilling companies
provided much useful data: Rotary Tool Company, Lake City; Witt
Electric Company, Lake City; and Acme Drilling Company, Gaines-
ville. Mr. J. J. Willhoit of the Rotary Tool Company collected and
saved rock cuttings from several wells and Mr. B. F. Martin of the
Lake City water plant cooperated in the quantitative studies in the
Lake City well field. Officers of the U. S. Forest Service provided
office space and field assistance during the course of the
investigation.
WELL-NUMBERING SYSTEM
The well-numbering system in Florida is based on a statewide
grid of 1-minute parallels of latitude and 1-minute meridians of
longitude (fig. 1). A well number is a composite of three parts
separated by hyphens. The first part of the number assigned to a
given well is composed of the last digit of the degree and the two
digits of the minute that identifies the latitude on the south side of
the -1-minute quadrangle in which the well is located. The second
part of the number is composed of the last digit of the degree and







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 1. Well-numbering system.

two digits of the minute that identifies the longitude on the east
side of the same 1-minute quadrangle. The third part of the number
indicates whether the well was the first, second, third, etc., inven-
toried in that quadrangle. Each well is also identified in table 7
by its location within either the Federal system of rectangular
surveys or within the Georgia Military Grid System. All of
Columbia County, except for a strip less than a mile wide along the
Georgia-Florida state line, is within the Federal system.

GEOGRAPHY
LOCATION AND EXTENT OF THE AREA
Columbia County comprises an area of about 786 square miles in
the north-central part of the Florida Peninsula (fig. 2). It is
bounded on the north by Clinch and Echols counties, Georgia; dn










REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30 5


84 830 820 81i 80o
310

E 0 R G 1 A r^>

SL/ MADLISON /D A o sonvsllle
t.. .t-------, __,,D _/1 ,--- \"
TAYLOR ---307"*-


DIXIE ALACHUA PUTNAM
I .+v\ _i\ .a ,o.\ _, < I161
FLAER+--
LEVY MARION _J-
r a Ocla 0


CITRUS LAKE -

HERNANDO OI RANGE

PASO ------

0 ILLSBOROUGH OSCEOLA 28
STampO POLa K i
DIAN RIVE

MANATEES HARDEE OKEECHOBE
HIGHLANDS TL
SARASTA, DESOTO o r>
f MA -. RTIN- 270
i__ e -- L
CHARLOTTE GLADES

-LEE HENDRY PALM BEACH


BROWAR 7
COLLIER D
260

Miami
MONROE
DADE .
A -75 lo Miles


250


Figure 2. Peninsular Florida showing the location of Columbia County.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


the east by Baker and Union counties, on the south by Alachua and
Gilchrist counties, and on the west by Suwannee and Hamilton
counties, Florida (fig. 4). It is roughly rectangular in shape,
measuring about 53 miles from north to south and about 20 miles
from east to west. Rivers and streams comprise about one-half of
the county's boundary. The Suwannee River forms the northwest
boundary; and Olustee Creek, the Santa Fe River, and the Ichatuck-
nee River form part of the southeast and southwest boundaries.
Geologic and hydrologic data were obtained locally in the surround-
ing counties because data were not obtainable near the border in
Columbia County.
CULTURAL FEATURES
In 1960, Columbia County had a population of 20,077, or 10
percent more than the population in 1950, and ranked thirty-sixth
in population in the State.
New methods in forestry and agriculture have changed the basic
economy from the once flourishing sawmill and turpentine industry
to the pulpwood-producing industry and farming. Large pulpwood
forests grow on poorly drained, sandy, "flatwoods" land in the
northern two-thirds of the county. Most of these forests are either
owned or leased by large pulp and paper companies. New methods
of selective cutting, burning, harvesting, and reforestation are used
to increase and insure the future supply of pulpwood and to preserve
the watershed areas. The Osceola National Forest includes 125
square miles of northeastern Columbia County. Here the U. S.
Forest Service conducts research on new methods of production,
fire and pest control, naval store development, and other projects
related to forest management. The well-drained southern part of
the county is more suitable for agricultural use. The chief agricul-
tural products are tobacco, peanuts, corn, sugar cane, watermelons,
eggs, poultry, beef cattle, and hogs.
Lake City is the county seat of Columbia County. Lake City was
formerly known as Alligator, after the Indian Chief Halpatter
Tustenugee, whose name meant "alligator warrior." The name was
changed to Lake City in 1859 because of the many sinkhole lakes
in and near the city. The poorly drained prairie basin about a
mile southeast of Lake City retains its original name, Alligator
Lake. Lake City is the largest municipality in north-central Florida
with a population of 9,465 in 1960, or about 25 percent more than
its population in 1950.
Lake City is a point of convergence for north-to-south and
east-to-west commerce in north-central Florida. It is located 60







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 30


miles west of Jacksonville and 109 miles east of Tallahassee, the
State capitol. Lake City is served by several federal and state high-
ways and three railroads.
Water for the Lake City municipal supply is pumped from wells.
Although the capacity of the existing facilities is about 3 million
gpd, pumpage averages only a third of that amount.
A large abandoned phosphate mining district is near Fort White
in the southern part of Columbia County. Hard-rock phosphate and
phosphatic clay occur in several other places in southern Columbia
County. Chert and soft limestone, quarried in the southern part of
the county, are used for road metal and fill.
CLIMATE
The climate of Columbia County is humid subtropical. The
average annual temperature for the 74-year period of record is
69.2F. The coldest months, December and January, average about
56.60F with occasional periods of freezing. The warmest month
is August, averaging 81.20F.
According to U.S. Weather Bureau records, the average annual
rainfall at Lake City for a 65-year period of record (1893-1957)
is 50.50 inches. Rainfall is greatest from June through September
and least from December through February. The spring of 1957
terminated a period of about 3 years of below-normal rainfall.
Figure 3 shows the cumulative departure of rainfall from the
average rainfall for a 65-year period (1893-1957) at Lake City. A
comparison of rainfall at five weather stations within a 30-mile
radius of Lake City shows an unequal distribution of rainfall in
the area (table 1). For example, a comparison of the rainfall
during June at the five selected stations shows maximum variation
of 2.34 inches in 1955, 6.40 inches in 1956, and 9.25 inches in 1957.
TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE
Columbia County is divided into two topographic regions, the
Central Highlands and the Coastal Lowlands (Cooke, 1945, p. 8).
The term Central Highlands generally refers to those areas which
are more than 100 feet above msl (mean sea level). The Coastal
Lowlands generally refers to those areas which are less than 100
feet above msl, except for the area occupied by the present
Okefenokee Swamp (fig. 4).
CENTRAL HIGHLANDS
The Central Highlands in Columbia County are composed of
clay and sand which were terraced by seas of Early Pleistocene Age.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


I Lake City Weather Station
u 80
z AVERAGE 50.50 inches
z 70
S60 .
z 50
rC 40
-1
< 30


S10
',-0
0
I- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
a) o c ro r to U)
n a. a) ) M a) a) 0) 0)





z -30





S 240
0o









1 -50- A
W








3 -60


Figure 3. Graphs showing the total annual rainfall and the cumulative
departure from the average rainfall at Lake City, 1893-1957.

These terraces occurred at different elevations above sea level. The
Coharie (170 feet above msl) and Sunderland (215 feet above msl)
terraces (Cooke, 1945, p. 277-278) are the highest in the county.
The Okefenokee terrace (MacNeil, 1949, p. 101) was formed when
sea level was about 150 feet above the present level and includes the
basin of the present Okefenokee Swamp. The Okefenokee Swamp
ranges in altitude from about 90 to 130 feet above msl and was
once occupied by a shallow intracoastal bay or sound (MacNeil,
1949, p. 101). The Wicomico terrace (100 feet above msl) separates
the Central Highlands from the Coastal Lowlands.
Remants of the Coharie and Sunderland terraces form a high
ridge which crosses central Columbia County from west to east.
ridge which crosses central Columbia County from west to east.-:










REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30


TABLE 1. Monthly Rainfall at Five Weather Stations Within a
30-Mile Radius of Lake City
(Data from U.S. Weather Bureau unless indicated otherwise)
Station
Lake City 2 E IJasper' 9 ESE High Springs Live Oak 2 ESE Glen St. Mary
Month (2 miles E (17 miles NW (23 miles S (17 miles WNW (26 miles E
of Lake City) of Lake Cit) ofLake City) of Lake City) of Lake City)
1955
Jan. 3.55 4.62 4.20 3.99 3.66
Feb. 2.79 2.50 4.00 2.18 2.39
Mar. 1.22 1.50 1.53 1.57 1.40
Apr. 1.03 2.75 1.56 1.49 1.20
May 2.53 3.04 2.31 1.82 2.85
June 5.12 2.78 4.99 3.49 4.36
July 3.73 5.68 3.65 9.11 11.11
Aug. 2.05 2.30 5.36 .60 4.56
Sept. 5.99 6.72 1.75 5.03 9.31
Oct. 3.05 2.05 1.74 3.55 2.49
Nov. .65 1.40 1.57 .72 1.19
Dec. .26 .40 .24 .20 .50
Total 31.97 35.74 32.90 33.75 45.02
1956
Jan. 3.08 4.10 3.35 2.96 2.90
Feb. 3.13 3.15 2.82 3.02 3.33
Mar. 1.35 3.05 .76 1.55 1.23
Apr. 2.71 4.43 3.08 3.12 2.68
May 3.56 6.20 4.58 .7.58 5.68
June 10.03 7.35 8.32 3.63 7.69
July 6.21 5.57 6.79 6.17 4.74
Aug. 1.17 4.60 5.28 4.57 1.91
Sept. 8.14 3.97 4.43 4.45 5.82
Oct. 9.68 3.55 4.66 5.59 8.18
Nov. 1.46 .25 .13 .20 .81
Dec. .10 .65 .08 .33 .50
Total 50.62 46.87 44.28 43.17 45.47
1957
Jan. 0.33 1.16 0.27 0.44 0.59
Feb. 2.76 2.17 2.13 1.51 2.02
Mar. 5.70 6.41 4.40 6.16 5.55
Apr. 3.43 5.92 5.30 3.70 3.66
May 7.40 5.57 4.35 4.15 13.81
June 12.90 8.88 11.30 18.13 11.32
July 4.72 8.47 4.32 11.66 8.99
Aug. 5.15 7.44 8.35 4.84 7.49
Sept. a5.18 8.70 8.46 11.30 5.35
Oct. 1.41 2.74 3.01 2.52 1.57
Nov. 5.03 7.33 1.96 6.07 3.26
Dec. 1.63 2.00 1.41 1.89 1.35
Total a55.64 66.79 55.26 72.37 64.96


SChanged to station Jasper 3 SE,
a Measurement made by


23 miles NW of Lake City, in 1957.
the Florida Forest Service.


The ridge passes through Wellborn, Lake City, and Olustee, and
trends along the southeastern side of the county from Olustee to
Mikesville (fig. 4).
The ridge existed as a chain of islands, or keys, which formed
the southern boundary of the ancestral Okefenokee Sound. The
surface of the ridge is a sandy, almost level, poorly to well drained
area that is commonly referred to as "flatwoods." Solution depres-
sions and sinkhole lakes are common, the largest of which are Ocean
Pond in Baker County, and Alligator Lake in Columbia County.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The ridge is drained by tributary streams of the Suwannee River
which lies to the west of Columbia County, and by tributaries to
the St. Marys River which lies northeast of Columbia County. The
east-west portion of the ridge forms a surface-water divide between
water flowing to the north and to the south.
In Columbia County, the Okefenokee terrace is divided by the
remnants of the ridge. North of the east-west ridge the gently
sloping surface of the terrace forms the basin of the present
Okefenokee Swamp. South of the ridge theterrace is bounded by an
escarpment formed by erosion during the 100-foot level of the
Pleistocene sea. The terrace north and south of the ridge is
underlain predominantly by sand and clay.
North of the ridge, the surface of the Okefenokee terrace slopes
gently northward from about 150 feet above msl to about 90 feet
above msl along the Georgia-Florida State line. The surficial sand
of the terrace is slightly calcareous, fine grained, and argillaceous.
The upper 2 to 5 feet contain organic material which is an indication
of poor drainage. Large quiescent sand bars or, sand dunes which
rim the present Okefenokee Swamp are propabl remnants of the
former shoreline of the ancestral Okefenokee Sound. Surface
drainage is either westward to the Suwannee River pr eastward to
the St. Marys River.
The Suwannee River changes direction from south to west at a
point about 6 miles east-northeast of White Springs where its
valley crosses and intersects a hard, calcareous bed of clay. The
river crosses and intersects limestone between White Springs and
a point 6 miles east-northeast of White Springs. Above the point
of intersection, the flow in the river depends mostly on runoff of
local rainfall. Below the point of intersection, the increased base
flow of the river is attributed to large springs in the exposed
limestone.
Falling Creek, which is captured by a sinkhole, is typical of
the creeks in the karst topography. A 7- to 8-foot waterfall is
formed where the creek flows over a dense, gray, sandy, indurated,
phosphatic clay bed which caps a soft, light green, sandy clay.
Downstream from the falls the valley is entrenched about 20 feet
into the clay. About a quarter of a mile downstream, the valley
becomes a maze of incised meanders and terminates at a sinkhole
located about 0.7 mile-east-notheast~of'Winfield. -
That part of the Okefenokee terrace that lies on the south .side
of the east-west ridge is flat and poorly-; well drained (fig 4)























i
r
I






I




i


























































5









































































1 01



Adapted from Army Map Service
sheets NH 17-4 and NH 17-7


EXPLANATION
Land-surface altitude,
in feet


D -Coastal
Lowlands
Less than 100 ft.
---50- ----
Contour showing
topography in
Coastal lowlands


90- 100ft



100-150 f;



150-200ft


U-


20(


more than


,Central
Highlands


)ft


City or Town
(Not to scale)


0 2 miles


Figure 4. Columbia County showing the principal topographic features.


?- .....,. I~~~~-*..~ ....~.-.--~. -
r u
.;-' I:
r t)'
a
I







ji;


I

'1

9







f:










if

ifi
i:






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 30 11

The surficial sand is mostly fine grained and is about 50 feet thick
in the eastern part of Columbia County and thin to absent in the
remaining area. Remnants of the terraced underlying sediments
are prominent between Lake City and Fort White. The valleys of
Clay Hole and Rose creeks occur along the base of the remnants and
terminate in a group of sinkholes near the town of Columbia.
The Okefenokee terrace in southern Columbia County is drained
principally by Olustee, Clay Hole, and Rose creeks, tributaries of
the Santa Fe River. Olustee Creek depends largely on surface
runoff from the swamps and flatwoods of the Central Highlands
in Columbia, Baker, and Union counties. However, the flow of
Olustee Creek increases or decreases, depending upon ground-water
conditions, from its headwaters to the confluence with the Santa Fe
River valley. The valley of Olustee Creek apparently follows the
joints or fractures in the underlying limestone. At O'leno State
Park, flow of Olustee Creek and the Santa Fe River is captured by
a sinkhole in the limestone. The river disappears underground and
emerges through springs 3 miles southwest of the sinkhole.
Clay Hole and Rose creeks, in the central part of Columbia
County, have the same general hydrologic characteristics as the
downstream parts of Olustee Creek and the Santa Fe River. These
streams either' disappear entirely into sinkholes or lose water to
the underlying limestone by percolation.
COASTAL LOWLANDS

The Coastal Lowlands is a region of karst topography, which
ranges from approximately 25 to 100 feet above msl. The region
was terraced by the Wicomico (100-foot), Penholaway (70-foot),
Talbot (42-foot), and Pamlico (25-foot) seas of the Pleistocene
interglacial periods (Cooke, 1939). The surfaces of the terraces
have been greatly modified by erosion and subsurface collapse of the
underlying limestones. The Coastal Lowlands occupies the south-
west part of Columbia County and extends up the valleys of Olustee
Creek, the Santa Fe River, and the Suwannee River. The region is
bounded on the north by a terrace escarpment which forms the
southern boundary of the Okefenokee terrace. The scarp exposes as
much as 50 feet of plastic sediments that contain fossils of coral
colonies, which local residents misidentify as petrified wood.
The Coastal Lowlands is underlain by low, rolling, flattened
hills of silicified, cavernous limestone. The limestone is overlain and
filled by sand and clay. Aerial photographs show many circular,
collapsed sinkholes which are aligned principally parallel or normal






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


to the major drainage features. The sinkholes are connected
at the surface by gulleys, or valleys, of intermittent streams
of an ancestral drainage system. Some of these sinkholes probably
were springs through which ground water was discharged when
sea level was slightly higher than the present sea level. Northwest
of Fort White an old valley scar of the Ichatucknee River indicates
an ancestral river that probably drained all of south-central
Columbia County and had Rose and Clay Hole creeks as its
headwaters. However, the formation of sinkholes in the underlying,
porous limestone probably is responsible for intercepting the river's
headwaters and for the ultimate disappearance of part of the river.
The present Ichatucknee River originates at a series of springs in
the limestone.
Because most of the precipitation on the Coastal Lowlands either
evaporates or percolates into the ground, a well integrated drainage
pattern of streams has never developed in the southern part of the
county. The few perennial streams crossing the Coastal Lowlands
are fed predominantly by springs rather than by surface runoff.

GEOLOGY

The geology of Columbia County is described because the geology
controls the occurrence of ground water. Most of the geologic data
were obtained from surface exposures and from water wells that
were drilled to depths ranging from 100 to 300 feet below land
surface in sediments ranging from Late Eocene to Recent in age.
However, additional geologic information on the characteristics of
deeper formations was available because of recent exploration for
oil in the area.
The interpretation of electric logs of oil test wells indicates that
2,800 to 3,460 feet of sediments, ranging from Early Cretaceous to
Recent in age, unconformably overlie structurally high, complex,
basement rocks of Paleozoic Age. The sediments, which range in
age from Early Cretaceous through Early Eocene consist primarily
of marine limestone, some evaporites, and clay. These rocks have
low permeabilities. The sediments overlying these rocks range
from early Middle Eocene through Early or perhaps Middle
Miocene in age. They consist predominantly of porous, marine
limestone and form the principal water-bearing formations in the
county. These marine limestones are overlain by sediments, rang-
ing from Middle Miocene to Recent in age, which consist primarily
of sand and clay.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 30


The descriptions of the surface and subsurface rocks in Columbia
County are based on examination of rock cuttings from water wells
and test holes drilled by the U.S. Corps of Engineers; interpretation
of the electric logs, and examination of miscellaneous rock samples
from oil test wells; and the examination of rock exposures. The
geologic units of Columbia County are listed in table 2.1 The
sections which show the thickness of the geologic units and their
altitude referred to mean sea level are presented in figures 5, 6,
and 7.
PALEOZOIC AND MESOZOIC ROCKS
Sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic Age are present at depths
ranging from about 2,600 to 3,300 feet below msl. These rocks
consist chiefly of quartzitic sandstone and dense, dark shale (Ap-
plin, 1951, p. 13). Fossils indicate that their probable age is Late
Silurian or Early Devonian. Intrusions of diabase, which Applin
(1951, p. 15) has assigned to the Triassic Period, occur in the
Paleozoic rocks. The Paleozoic rocks are overlain unconformably
by rocks of Cretaceous Age. The Lower Cretaceous or Comanche
(?) beds consist of interbedded red shale and sandstone which
pinch out on the flanks of the Peninsular arch. The Comanche(?)
beds are overlain unconformably by deposits of the Gulf Series of
Late Cretaceous Age. The Gulf Series includes the Atkinson
Formation which consists of beds of Woodbine Age and beds of
Eagle Ford Age; beds of Austin Age; beds of Taylor Age; and the
Lawson Limestone of Navarro Age. Except for the basal part,
which consists of shale, clay, and glauconitic sand, the Gulf Series
consists mostly of marine limestone. The lower beds of the Gulf
Series wedge out and are partially absent over the crest of the
Peninsular arch (fig. 5, 6, 7), suggesting either that the Late
Cretaceous sea encroached on a structurally high area or that the
arch was being uplifted at the time the basal sediments of the
Gulf Series were being deposited. These rocks are at considerable
depth, of low permeability and the water contained in them is of
poor chemical quality. These rocks are discussed in detail in pub-
lished reports, particularly Applin (1944), Applin (1951), and
Vernon (1951).


"The stratigraphic nomenclature used in this report is that of the Florida
Geological Survey and does not necessarily conform to that of the U.S.
Geological Survey.








TAILe 2, Geologic Units and their Water-Bearing Characteristics in Columbia County, Florida
S.....--.... ........ Approximate
system Series Geologic unit thickness Water-bearing properties
a Sysem Series G c ut (Ifeet)


Recent
Pleistocene


Miocene or
Pliocene


Miocene


Oligocene


Eocene


Paleocene



Upper Gulf



Lower Comanche(?)


Upper Silurian
or
Lower Devonian


ene and Recent deposits
undifferentiated) 040
Unconformity -

hua (?) Formation 0.150
thorn Formation


Miocene sandstone and
limestone
Unconformity
Suwannee Limestone
SUnconformity

Ocala Group of Jackson Age
Unconformity
Avon Park Limestone of
Claiborne Age
Unconformity
Lake City Limestone of
Claiborne Age

Oldsmar Limestone of Wilcox Age


0-45


0450


150-250


170-270
1 -
500

250-350


__ __ __ I


Cedar Keys Formation of Midway Age
Unconformity
Lawson Limestone of Navarro Age


400-450

380-590


Beds of Taylor Age 430-490
Beds of Austin Age 180-340


Atkinson Beds of Eagle Ford Age
Formation Beds of Woodbine Age
Unconformity
Red beds of shale and sand
Unconformity
Igneous intrusion(?)
-_----- Unconformity
Black shale
and
quartzite sandstone


0-100
0-100
0-40
(?)


(7)


Low permeaousty aue to fine grain size; yields small
quantities of water for domestic use in Central High-
lands area. Iron content stains fixtures red, Water
under nonarteslan or perched nonarteslan conditions.


Variable permeability; acts as a semiconfining bed.
Hawthorn Formation yields small to moderate quanti-
ties of water to wells tapping low pressure artesian
limestone beds. Chemical quality of the water is
usually poor at depth.


Permeability moderate to high, Serves as a good
source of water supply. Locally water is high in
iron content.
Permeability high except in localized chert zones;
yields large quantity of water to wells.
Permeability high to very high; serves as the
source of water for most large capacity wells.
Water is moderately hard; HuS present where
water is under artesian pressure.
Permeability high, Not used extensively for water
supply. Water very hard, possible gypsum beds.
Permeability low to high; seldom used for water
supply; contains gypsum. Water very hard.


Permeability low but locally high; not used for water
supply. Contains gypsum and alhydrite beds; locally
hvdrauliualv pnnnt.d tn Florida aauifer.


Permeability low but locally high in upper portion; not
used for water supply. Dssolved mineral content in
the water is very high.


Not used for water supply owing to great depth, low
permeability, and high dissolved mineral content in
the water.


Quaternary


Tertiary


Cretaceous



Triassic(?)


Silurian
or
Devonian


4--i----------- ~ ~--~---- ---~-~-----~-r- _-I


I I


I-


I


I -


j. _


------------------I


-hvdra.Ucallv connected. to Florida.acuir..


"--I- -- ~ i '


--








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 30


TERTIARY SYSTEM
PALEOCENE SERIES
Cedar Keys Formation: The name Cedar Keys Formation was
proposed by Cole (1944, p. 27-28) and the name Cedar Keys Lime-
stone was applied to the same unit by Cooke (1945, p. 33-35). The
Florida Geological Survey adopted the former name, whereas the
U.S. Geological Survey adopted the latter. The Cedar Keys
Formation disconformably overlies Cretaceous limestone.
The lower section of the formation is dolomitic. Near the middle
of the formation there is a distinct marker bed of clay that is easily
recognized on electric logs. The greater part of the formation is
dense to porous, gray to white to brown, fragmental limestone that
is impregnated with gypsum and anhydrite. Some samples con-
tained red calcareous clay, and pyrite. The formation is about 450
feet thick in the southwestern part of Columbia County and about
400 feet thick in the northern part of the county.
By electric log interpretation, the bottom of the formation was
determined to occur above a zone of high resistivity that was
interpreted as the first occurrence of Cretaceous dolomite. The
top of the formation was determined to occur below a zone of high
resistivity at the base of the overlying Oldsmar Limestone. The
formation is characterized by abundant molds and casts of the
foraminifers Borelis gunteri (Cole) and B. floridanus (Cole).
Locally, the formation may be hydraulically connected to the
underlying and overlying formations. The Cedar Keys Formation
probably contains highly mineralized water, and is not used for
water supply.
EOCENE SERIES
Oldsmar Limestone: The Oldsmar Limestone of Early Eocene
or Wilcox Age (Applin and Applin, 1944, p. 1699) conformably
overlies the Cedar Keys Formation.
The Oldsmar Limestone is lithologically similar to both the
underlying Cedar Keys Formation and the overlying Lake City
Limestone. The top half of the formation is a very porous, brown
limestone with some gypsum and anhydrite. The bottom half is a
thick zone of dolomite with chert or anhydrite. The top of the
Oldsmar Limestone was correlated by comparing electric logs of
ten oil test wells with the log of well 010-238-1 (Applin and Applin,
1944) at Lake City. The bottom was determined to occur at a
change from high to low resistivity. The formation is about 250
to 350 feet thick.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The top of the formation in other areas is marked by the
appearance of abundant remains of the foraminifer Helicostegina
gyralis Barker and Grimsdale. The upper part of the formation
could not be easily identified in Columbia County because only a
few rock cuttings were recovered.
Locally, the Oldsmar Limestone probably is hydraulically con-
nected to the underlying Cedar Keys Formation and overlying Lake
City Limestone which is part of the Floridan aquifer. The Oldsmar
Limestone contains water with high concentrations of dissolved
minerals, particularly sulfates and is not used for water supply.
Lake City Limestone: The Lake City Limestone of early Middle
Eocene or Claiborne Age was assigned by Applin and Applin
(1944) to a type section of limestone represented in the rock
cuttings of well 010-238-1 at Lake City. The formation contains
fauna related to that of the Cook Mountain Formation of Clai-
borne Age. The Lake City Limestone conformably overlies the
Oldsmar Limestone.
The formation is composed of alternate layers of dark brown
dolomite and chalky limestone, both of which may contain chert
and gypsum. The base of the formation contains some gypsum and,
perhaps, some anhydrite. The upper part of the formation locally
contains some carbonaceous material and green clay. The formation
is about 500 feet thick.
Well 010-238-1 was used as a basis for the correlation of electric
logs; however, because of slumping along the edges of the Alligator
Lake area, the top of the formation may be higher than indicated
on the geologic sections (fig. 5, 6, 7).
The top of the formation is marked by the first abundant
appearance of the key foraminifer Dictyoconus americanus Cush-
man. Applin and Jordan (1945, p. 131) list the representative
foraminifers of the Lake City Limestone.
The formation is a part of the Floridan aquifer, but contains
water high in sulfates near the base.
Avon Park Limestone: The Avon Park Limestone of late Middle
Eocene or Claiborne Age disconformably overlies the Lake City
Limestone. The formation was described by Applin and Applin
(1944, p. 1680, 1686) as a creamy, chalky limestone that generally
has a distinctive and abundant fauna consisting mostly of Fora-
minifera. In some places, however, the limestone is nonfossiliferous
as in well 010-238-1 (Applin and Applin, 1944) and in a well at
Live Oak in Suwannee County where the fossiliferous part of the'








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30


limestone is absent. The formation is considered to range from
about 170 to 270 feet thick in Columbia County as compared to
sections that are about 400 feet thick in the central part of Florida.
The Avon Park Limestone is a permeable and porous part of
the Floridan aquifer.
Ocala Group: The Ocala Group of Late Eocene or Jackson Age
consists of three limestone formations of similar character. From
oldest to youngest, they are the Inglis, Williston, and Crystal River
Formations (Puri, 1957). The limestone of the Ocala Group has
been subdivided and renamed several times in recent years by
different investigators, but the above nomenclature is currently
being used by the Florida Geological Survey.
Although the several formations of the Ocala Group generally
can be recognized in parts of Columbia County the data are
inadequate for separating the formations in this report. In the fol-
lowing paragraphs the rocks of the Ocala Group are described as
a unit.
The Ocala Group is unconformably underlain by the Avon Park
Limestone and unconformably overlain by deposits ranging from
Oligocene to Recent Age. The approximate altitude of the eroded
upper surface of the Ocala Group in Columbia County is shown by
contours in figure 9. The surface of the Ocala Group is a broad
irregular northeast trending nose. It is highest in southeastern
Columbia County and in the vicinity of Lake City. The shape of
the eroded surface of the Ocala Group appears to have been related
to post-Eocene rejuvenation of the Peninsular arch and/or the
Ocala uplift.
The limestone of the Ocala Group varies from a porous, cream to
white, loose coquina of large foraminifers and shells to a brown,
solution-riddled, echinoid-rich limestone. Locally, the top of the
limestone has been replaced by chert.
Southwestward from Lake City, the top of the Ocala Group is a
yellowish phosphatic clayey coquina of large foraminifers and
echinoids. Solution pipes, horizontal cavities and caverns, and
numerous sinkholes are common. The Ocala Group ranges from
about 150 to-250 feet in thickness and. crops out in the southern
part of Columbia County. Although the Ocala is a marine deposit,
bones of unidentified terrestrial vertebrates have been found in
quarries in the Ocala Group in southern Columbia County. These
fossils probably occur in younger deposits filling depressions in the
surface of the Ocala Group.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The Ocala Group is the principal source of potable ground water
in Columbia County. The approximate depth to the top of the Ocala
Group at any place can be calculated by determining the difference
between its altitude, as shown by the contour lines in figure 9,
and the land-surface altitude at the same place. For example, if
at a given location the land-surface altitude is 130 feet above msl
and the limestone surface in figure 9 is approximately 50 feet
below msl, then the depth required to drill to the top of the Ocala
Group is the sum of the two values, or 180 feet. However, if the
limestone surface in figure 9 is 50 feet above msl, the depth to the
top would be the difference between the values, or 80 feet.

OLIGOCENE SERIES
Suwannee Limestone: The Suwannee Limestone of late Oligocene
Age was described by Cooke and Mansfield (1936, p. 71) as a
yellowish limestone which is exposed along the Suwannee River
downstream from White Springs, Hamilton County. The Suwannee
Limestone unconformably overlies the Ocala Group and is uncon-
formably overlain by sediments of Miocene to Recent Age.
The lower part of the Suwannee Limestone is exposed at the
land surface in the southern part of the county and in the valley
of the Suwannee River near White Springs. The exposures usually
are silicified and contain molds and casts of Cassidulus gouldi
Bouv&, an echinoid of Oligocene Age. Exposures of limestone
which occur in the southern part of the county as flat residual
boulders range from 2 to 3 feet in thickness and are underlain in
places by a yellow, pasty, clayey limestone coquina of the Ocala
Group. The limestone is thickest in the western and northwestern
parts of the county and generally thins toward the southern and
eastern parts. It ranges in thickness from 40 to 50 feet in the
northern and western parts of the county to possibly a few feet
in the extreme southern part. Locally, between Suwannee County
and Lake City, the limestone is apparently absent owing to solu-
tion, collapse, or perhaps, erosion. The formation decreases in
thickness from about 20 feet at Lake City to less than 5 feet at
well 012-221-1 in Baker County. In the south-central part of
Columbia County, the formation is perhaps 20 to 30 feet thick
under the hills and seems to be thin or absent in depressed areas.
In some places the top of the formation is a very porous to dense,
gray to white, fragmental limestone; in other places it is a dense,
brown to gray, dolomitic or cherty limestone; and in still other
places it is a soft, white, and pasty limestone that contains seams








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 30


of olive drab to black clay. The formation contains solution pipes,
many of which are filled with fine to coarse, quartz or phosphatic
sand and light green clay.
The limestone of the Suwannee Formation is a permeable and
porous part of the Floridan aquifer.
MIOCENE AND PLIOCENE SERIES
Geologists in Florida are not agreed as to the ages or relation-
ships of sediments at or near the boundary between Miocene and
Pliocene time. Cooke (1945, p. 200-201) suggests that the Alachua
Formation was formed by the compacted residues of Middle and
Late Miocene Formations and is of Pliocene Age. In contrast,
Vernon (1951, p. 182) suggests that the Alachua is the terrestrial
equivalent of the entire marine Miocene and ranges from Early
Miocene to Pleistocene in age.
In the area of this report, terrestrial sediments probably
equivalent to the Alachua of Cooke (1945) apparently overlie and
interfinger into the Hawthorn Formation and therefore are
considered to be of Miocene or Pliocene Age. The Miocene sand-
stone and limestone deposits that underlie the Hawthorn Formation
may include deposits equivalent to the Tampa Limestone and part
of the Hawthorn Formation. The Hawthorn Formation is limited
to the sandy clays with interbedded phosphatic limestone laminae
that lie above the Miocene sandstone and limestone unit. Some
sand and clay of Pliocene Age may be included in the Pleistocene
and Recent deposits.
The sediments of Miocene Age are about 200 feet thick in the
northern part of Columbia County and are thin to absent in the
extreme southern part of the county.
Miocene Sandstone and Limestone: Deposits of Miocene sand-
stone and limestone unconformably overlie the Ocala Group and
Suwannee Limestone and probably disconformably underlie the
Hawthorn and Alachua (?) Formations.
Fragments of white, sandy limestone containing Sorites sp., a
common foraminifer of Miocene Age, are found in rock cuttings
from wells in the northern half of Columbia County. Fragments of
mollusks, shark teeth, and ostracods are common along with thin
beds of green clay which occur at irregular intervals. No specimens
of Archaias floridanus (Conrad), a key foraminifer of the Tampa
Limestone, were noted in the cuttings; therefore, the deposits may
be part of the Hawthorn Formation.








20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

The unit is about 70 feet thick in extreme northern Columbia
County and thins toward Lake City where it is about 20 feet thick.
The unit appears to thin over the southern half of the county, but
generally would not be differentiated from the underlying caver-
nous Suwannee Limestone because of the lack of good rock cuttings
from wells.
Where the Miocene sandstone and limestone unit is saturated,
it forms the upper part of the Floridan aquifer. Although this
unit may differ in permeability from place to place, it is a fair
source of ground water in the northern half of the county. Locally,
it may contain ground water with high concentrations of iron in
solution.
Hawthorn Formation: The Hawthorn Formation is of Middle
Miocene Age and is composed of gray to green, sandy clay with
interbedded hard phosphatic or dolomitic limestone laminae and
fine to coarse phosphorite sands. The color of the clay varies from
a dark green to black to a light green to gray. The large, water-
worn, phosphorite pebbles that occur within and at the base of the
formation indicate diastems; the contact with the underlying
formations is probably disconformable. Beds of clay of the upper
part of the Hawthorn Formation appear to be equivalent to beds
of sandy clay of the Alachua (?) Formation in the southern part
of the county. The Hawthorn Formation is unconformably overlain
by beds of sand and clay of Recent to Pleistocene Age and, perhaps,
some of Pliocene Age. The Hawthorn Formation is about 150 feet
thick in the extreme northern part of the county and about 100
feet thick in the eastern part. Beds of nearly pure light green clay
are exposed along the valleys of Olustee Creek and the Santa Fe
River.
The known fauna of the Hawthorn Formation in Columbia
County are limited to Ostrea normalis Dall, an oyster, and
Siderastraea sp., a colonial coral.
In Columbia County the formation generally acts as a semicon-
fining unit. Although the Hawthorn is itself an aquifer, its
permeability is so much less than that of the underlying beds that
it acts to confine water in the Floridan aquifer. The permeable
limestone beds within the Hawthorn Formation are tapped by
wells for domestic water supplies, but the formation is not
considered an important source of large quantities of ground water.
Alachua (?) Formation: The Alachua (?) Formation of Miocene
or Pliocene Age occurs in the south-central part of Columbia
County, generally in areas of karst topography of the Coastal








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30


Lowlands. The formation was not differentiated from the Hawthorn
Formation in the southern and western parts of the county in
figures 5, 6, and 7. The sandy clay and sand beds of the Alachua (?)
Formation are not as calcareous and phosphatic as similar beds in
the Hawthorn Formation. Most of the light green to gray clay
is oxidized to shades of white, red, pink, brown, and buff. Where
the clay is pure, it has a characteristically laminated, blocky
appearance. Silicified pieces of the underlying limestone are
generally incorporated in the beds near the base of the formation.
Phosphate ore deposits occur at the base of the Alachua(?)
Formation and are mined in the Fort White area near the Santa Fe
and Ichatucknee rivers.
The area underlain by the Alachua(?) Formation has many
sinkholes caused by the solution and collapse of caverns in the
underlying Ocala Group or Suwannee Limestone or Miocene sand-
stone and limestone unit.
The formation probably acts, in most areas, in conjunction with
the Hawthorn Formation as a semiconfining unit to retain water
under artesian pressure in the Floridan aquifer.

QUATERNARY SYSTEM
PLEISTOCENE AND RECENT DEPOSITS
Sediments of Pleistocene Age were deposited as terrace deposits
by fluctuations of sea level during the "Glacial Age." These terraces
and terrace deposits are prominent topographic features of the
county. Terraces representing Pleistocene shorelines and their
general altitudes are: (1) the Coharie, 215 feet; (2) the Sunder-
land, 170 feet; (3) the Okefenokee (MacNeil, 1949, p. 101), 150
feet; (4) the Wicomico, 100 feet; (5) the Penholoway, 70 feet;
(6) the Talbot, 42 feet; and possibly (7) the Pamlico, 25 feet
(Cooke, 1945, p. 12, 13). The thickest accumulation of Pleistocene
deposits is in eastern Columbia County where approximately 40
feet of sand unconformably overlies the Hawthorn Formation. The
sand is mostly fine grained and argillaceous at the surface but
coarsens with increasing depth. Large pebbles of phosphate and
quartz are commonly found at the base of the sand.
The beds and lenses of the Pleistocene Series serve as a
temporary storage reservoir for water which percolates into the
underlying Hawthorn Formation and, in places of low artesian
head, percolates through the Hawthorn Formation into the Floridan
aquifer. In southern Columbia County perched water bodies exist








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


locally in the Pleistocene deposits but they are of limited extent and
are used for domestic supply in only a few places.
Recent deposits consisting of sand, clay, and gravel usually
occur beneath the flood plains of rivers and streams in the
topographic lows of the county. Fine, windblown sand usually
mantles the high areas. Deposits of peat and muck are being formed
in the bottom of plugged sinkholes, lakes, swamps, and other poorly
drained areas.
Deposits of Pleistocene and Recent Age are of limited extent and
thickness and they are used only locally for domestic water supply.
STRUCTURE
The geology of Columbia County is probably related to a large
anticlinal fold named the Peninsular arch by Applin (1951, p. 3).
The arch, according to Applin, is about 275 miles long and trends
southeast to northwest forming the axis of the Florida Peninsula.
Its highest recorded point is in well 009-236-4 near Lake City.
(fig. 5, 6, 7).
The high at Lake City appears to be on a north-northeastward
plunging nose in the Paleozoic rocks. Uplift of the arch or down-
warping around its circumference caused fractures to develop in
the overlying sediments. These fractures probably affect the
courses of rivers and streams in the region.
The Peninsular arch was probably formed by regional uplift
during the Mesozoic and Cenozoie Eras (Applin, 1951, p. 17).
This is apparent from the onlap of seas during Early and Late
Cretaceous time but the area was again an area of uplift during
the Tertiary Period (fig. 5, 6, 7). Uplift since Taylor time is shown
by contours on top of beds of Taylor Age in figure 8.
The Ocala uplift (Vernon, 1951, p. 54) curves northeastward
into central Columbia County. The uplift is reflected in the high
altitude of the top of the Ocala Group as shown in figure 9. The
thickening of beds of Miocene Age northward suggests that uplift
and contemporaneous deposition took place during post-Eocene
time. The general axial trends of the post-Cretaceous and post-
Eocene structures, as shown in figures 8 and 9, suggest that in
Columbia County the Ocala uplift is probably related to movements
of the Peninsular arch.
GROUND WATER
Ground water is the subsurface water in the zone of saturation,
the zone in which all pore spaces of the soil or rocks are completely




















8 *30C

*
-500





So lIlrv

.400

-800

S1*I200

-1600

*2000

.2400

-2800

-*200

*i6o


Lqpd Suflolo

POST KE CITY DEPOSIT
iS#l e@ nld bve flor delodIs)
LAKE CITY LIMESTONE

OLSMAR LIMESTONE

CEDAR KEYS FORMATION

LAWSON
S_____ __ _LIMESTONE
SBEDS OF--
BEDS OTAYLOR AGE
--BES OF AUSTD A0GE
_L-r ... .- .. ..
P4 L EOZOc Z
Fiur 9 G 011gm c Ih. ROCKSo C
Flotidoe n Uqwi ROCiKS


Figure 5. Geologic section in Columbia County along line A-A'.


I










z


C
0








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


PALEOZOIC ROCKS I
Floridan aquifer 0 1 2 3 4 5 miles
Floridan aquiwfr


Figure 6. Geologic section in Columbia County along line B-B'


filled with water under atmospheric or greater pressure. The
water in the zone of saturation is derived from infiltration of
precipitation, and once in the zone of saturation it moves laterally
under the influence of gravity toward places of discharge such as
wells, springs, or the sea. The formation, group of formations, or
part of a formation that permits the passage of water is known
as an aquifer.










REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30


Land surface

POST LAKE CITY DEPOSITS
(See enlarged section obove for details)
N N "-1 '
LAKE CITY LIMESTONE

OLDSMAR LIMESTONE

CEDAR KEYS FORMATION


LAWSON LIMESTONE B


OF TAYLOR AGE
--C
OF AUSTIN AE
ATKINSON FM.

ILEOZOIC ROCKS
S I 2 3 4 5 il C KS Bottom of the Floridan aquifer
0 1 3 4 miles


Figure 7. Geologic section in Columbia County along line C-C'.


Where ground water only partly fills an aquifer the surface of
the water, the water table, is free to rise and fall and the water
is said to be under water-table or nonartesian conditions. If, how-
ever, the ground water is confined beneath a relatively impermeable
bed or formation, the surface is no longer free to rise and the
ground water is said to be confined under artesian pressure. The
height to which the water will rise in tightly cased wells that tap
an artesian aquifer is defined as the piezometric surface of the
aquifer. Where the piezometric surface is lower than the water


Sea level


-400

-800


-1200
uj

z -1600

S-2000

S-2400
" -2400


-2800

-3200

-3600


BEDS

BEDS


PA


-







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


vo
S'~"0
3 0
O


r o


0.

3


0 5 IOmiles


.ArLNtL/rm I IuIl
S 1
2,144
Upper number is well
number. Lower number
is depth, in feet, below
mean sea level.

2,/150
Contour line on upper
surface of beds of Taylor
Age, in feet below mean
sea level.
Contour interval 50 feet.


Figure 8. Columbia County showing configuration on top of beds of
Taylor Age.


) ~Vhl ALIArlh~l








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30


table, the water may move downward from the nonartesian aquifer
into the artesian aquifer. Where the water table is lower than the
piezometric surface, water may move upward from the artesian
aquifer into the nonartesian aquifer or to flowing wells and springs.
Ground water in Columbia County occurs under both nonartesian
and artesian conditions. The Hawthorn Formation and the
Floridan aquifer are in part artesian. The Floridan aquifer is the
principal source of ground water in the area and includes all or
parts of formations ranging in age from Middle Eocene to Miocene
or Pliocene.
NONARTESIAN AQUIFER
The nonartesian aquifer is composed primarily of sediments of
Pleistocene and Recent Age. However, in some areas water-table
conditions exist in the sand and clay of the formation of Miocene
or Pliocene Age and in the Floridan aquifer. The source of re-
charge to the nonartesian aquifer is local rainfall.
The nonartesian aquifer is continually gaining water by recharge
and losing water by discharge. The water table rises and falls in
response to barometric and tidal fluctuations, but the most
important changes are in the amount of ground water in storage.
In this respect the water table acts like the water surface of a
lake behind a dam. That is, the water table rises when the amount
of recharge to the aquifer exceeds the amount of discharge and
declines when the recharge is less than the discharge. The water
table conforms generally to the topography of an area; however,
its features usually are more subdued.
The nonartesian aquifer in Columbia County is divided roughly
into three general areas on the basis of the topography: (1) the
basin of the Okefenokee Swamp on the north side of the east-west
ridge; (2) the Coharie, Sunderland, and Okefenokee terraces on
the south side of the east-west ridge; and (3) the Coastal Low-
lands. The east-west trending topographic divide that crosses
Columbia County through Lake City (fig. 4) -probably coincides
with the nonartesian ground-water divide. These features are not
delineated on figure 4 because of insufficient topographic control
and ground-water data in zones between the three general areas.-
The aquifer beneath the Okefenokee Swamp, in the northern
portion of the county, receives recharge from local precipitation,
surface-water runoff, and ground-water flow from the higher
east-west trending ridge to the south. The average altitude of the
region is about 120 to 130 feet above msl. The area is mantled by







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


10 to 30 feet of fine sand. The nonartesian aquifer is underlain
by marls of the Hawthorn Formation.
Discharge from the nonartesian aquifer occurs by evaporation,
transpiration by plants, seepage into streams and lakes, leakage
into the underlying Hawthorn Formation, and pumpage by a few
wells.
The water table responds to variations in rainfall; it rises during
periods of excessive rainfall and declines during periods of drought.
Because the water table declined during the period 1955-57, many
sandpoints and dug wells in the region had to be drilled into the
secondary artesian aquifer in the Hawthorn Formation.
Water levels of wells drilled to different depths indicate down-
ward movement of ground water from the nonartesian aquifer
through the Hawthorn Formation into the Floridan aquifer. The
downward percolation occurs where the water table in the non-
artesian aquifer is higher than the piezometric surface in the
underlying artesian aquifer. Evidence of downward percolation is
the decrease in water-table altitude with increase in depth of well
casing and total depth of well, as shown by wells 013-238-3, 4, 5
(table 8) north of Lake City.
The chemical quality of the water in the nonartesian aquifer
generally is poor because the concentration of iron and tannic
acid is high.
The temperature of water from the nonartesian aquifer, the
nonartesian zones of the Floridan aquifer, and the secondary
artesian zones in the Hawthorn Formation ranges from approxi-
mately 690 to 710F.
The nonartesian aquifer underlying the Coharie, Sunderland,
and Okefenokee terraces on the south side of the east-west ridge
in central Columbia County is composed of the sand and clay of
Early Pleistocene Age. The nonartesian aquifer overlies the
Hawthorn Formation or the Alachua(?) Formation. The non-
artesian aquifer ranges in thickness from about 5 to 50 feet. The
upper part of the aquifer is composed of fine sand that contains
some clay and the lower part is a mixture of medium to coarse
sand and clay or phosphate pebbles.
The nonartesian aquifer is discontinuous south of the east-west
ridge where erosion has thinned or completely removed the Pleisto-
cene deposits. The drainage system is well developed in this area
and the streams have steep gradients. Isolated remnants of the
Okefenokee terrace usually have a veneer of 5 to 10 feet of sand







UNlIIt SIAItO l)tPAHIME NI ( IHt INIt(Hl t(I llA itU, IIl(All.AI IHVi Y
(j lL O()UICAI SUJVt:Y H(O Ve;io, i) or

i I II I I I I i0I I I II . ii i/i i i ..r s.. 11I .. .
820B C L I N C 25
wor, COUN-TY, A,
30035' A C W LVjM 1.. W 30-35-
EXPLANATION COUNTy

Well

Outcrop or quarry
-,fo -o00
Upper number is well number
30030' Lower number is the altitude of the
top of the Ocala group, in feet ENTON
referred to mean sea level. -1 -** -/~50
e estimated elevation 0 00 0
< less than FA VIEW- |
> greater than : > \

Contour on the upper surface of o "/
30*25' the Ocala group in feet referred 30.25
to mean sea level. Dashed line indicates
inferred position of contour. //
Contour interval 50 feet A-
D
Inferred fault; D is downthrown Q C
side, Uls upthrown side _\
HAMILT-O 000 1 0
300204' 302d-

-ISPRINGS -i 49
..60/o / K7 \


T A \ 15


A -0
,- 303I 0'o 0








-3005' 0 S 30051


0 / 4 i -o






oa

Baecmle .rmmp ofGeology by Wf Meyer
.FW I "E +R /L
LateETcene0Ago
----

o _- -
I \ LUL -











0 I 0 I 2 3 4 5 Miles


-2950 HIGH SPRINGS 2950-
508250 8245' 05' 35 8230 8




Base complied from maps of Geology by F W. Meyer,
Florida State Road Department

Figure 9. Columbia County showing configuration on top of beds of
Late EocSVene Age










REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30


and clay which provides a source for small quantities of potable
water. However, the concentration of iron in the water usually
produces undesirable stains and imparts a poor taste to the water.
The Coastal Lowlands region, located in the southern part of the
county, is underlain by beds of sand ranging from 5 to 10 feet in
thickness, except where the sand apparently has filled solution
features and is thicker. The thickness of the deposits in the area
west of Fort White is unknown. The nonartesian ground water
that occurs locally in the sand is "perched." The water is in a
saturated zone that is separated from the main body of ground
water by unsaturated rock. The "perched" nonartesian aquifer
obtains most of its recharge from local rainfall and is discharged
primarily by evapotranspiration, downward leakage, and springs
discharging into streams.

SECONDARY ARTESIAN AQUIFER
The secondary artesian aquifer consists of the Hawthorn Forma-
tion and the Alachua(?) Formation, singly or together. The
Hawthorn is the more extensive and is indistinguishable from the
Alachua(?) Formation in some localities.
Generally, the secondary artesian aquifer includes many small,
low pressure, artesian zones within the Hawthorn Formation.
These zones are principally limestone or sandstone beds that are
interbedded with sand and clay. The sand and clay serve to confine
the water within each zone under artesian pressure. Ground water
within the aquifers is probably derived from local rainfall. The
piezometric surface of the secondary artesian aquifer varies with
the depth of penetration and is intermediate between the water table
of the nonartesian. aquifer and the piezometric surface of the
Floridan aquifer. Wells drilled into the secondary aquifer generally
have greater yields and contain water of different chemical quality
than the overlying nonartesian aquifer. The concentrations of
dissolved solids and total hardness of the water generally increase
with depth of penetration in the secondary aquifer. Partial
analysis of water from two wells in Clinch County, Georgia, one
with a total depth of 185 feet and the other with a total depth of
219 feet, show an increase in bicarbonate (HCO3) from 156
to 558 ppm (parts per million) and an increase in total hardness
(CaCO) from 164 to 410 ppm. Another well in the area which
penetrated the Floridan aquifer had water with a lower content
of dissolved solids and total hardness than the water from the
secondary aquifer. This probably indicates a more direct source







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


of recharge than the downward leakage from the overlying aquifer.
However, it may indicate upward leakage from lower in the
aquifer or it may indicate only a local condition in the area of the
wells.
The water-bearing zone of the secondary artesian aquifer is
about 100 feet thick.
FLORIDAN AQUIFER
OCCURRENCE AND SOURCE
In Florida, the principal artesian aquifer (Stringfield, V. T.,
1936) has been designated the "Floridan aquifer" by Parker and
others (1955, p. 188). It consists of the Lake City Limestone, Avon
Park Limestone, and the Ocala Group, all of Eocene Age; the
Suwannee Limestone of Oligocene Age; and an unnamed sand-
stone and limestone of Miocene Age. These formations comprising
the Floridan aquifer are the principal source of large quantities of
ground water in Columbia County. Older formations are water
bearing, but the water contains such high concentrations of
dissolved solids that it is not useable for most purposes.
The Floridan aquifer, which is overlain at most locations by the
semiconfining beds of the Hawthorn and Alachua (?) Formations,
occurs beneath all of Columbia County. The altitude of the top of
the aquifer ranges from approximately 80 feet above msl in the
southern part of the county to more than 100 feet below msl in
the northern part of the county (fig. 10). The thickness of the
aquifer ranges from about 900 feet in the southern part of the
county to about 1,100 feet in northern Columbia County (fig. 5).
In general, only the upper few hundred feet of the aquifer are
tapped by wells in Columbia County.
The Floridan aquifer is artesian in the northern part of the
county and nonartesian in the southern part, as far north as Lake
City (fig. 10). The extent of the nonartesian area varies with the
fluctuation of storage in the Floridan aquifer.
MOVEMENT OF WATER AND ITS RELATION
TO THE PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE
The configuration and altitude of the piezometric surface is
represented by contour lines which connect points of equal pressure.
The direction of movement of water in the aquifer is down the
hydraulic gradient at right angles to the contours. The piezometric
surface of Columbia County during June 1957 is presented in
figure 11.









Nonortesion
Conditions
( cE( ot in area I


] of Alligator Lake) I







OP of the Floridan Oqife

N Nonartesion Artesian
conditions conditions
Except n am0 1
0 5 of Alligator Lake) .


B ait
,o _I-'N--i- -!. ,.-,nd surface

..... ... ..... .......... ... ....... .
Sfl [ Top oflheIori3on -oquife-- -
,L/


~ .**00* Approximate plerometric surface

A 0 i 2 3 4 5 mile


Artesian
conditions


Figure 10. Generalized sections in Columbia County showing profile of
piezometric surface of water in the Floridan aquifer in June 1957, along
lines A-A' and B-B'.


200







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The boundary between the artesian and nonartesian areas of
the Floridan aquifer is variable but generally conforms to the 60-
foot contour that crosses the county through Lake City (fig. 11).
The aquifer north of the 60-foot contour is artesian and south of the
60-foot contour it is nonartesian.
In general, the regional direction of ground-water flow in the
artesian aquifer in Columbia County is southwestward. The
relatively uniform slope of the piezometric surface is interrupted
by high and low areas caused by local recharge and discharge.
Thus, locally, the direction of flow may differ from the regional
direction.
RECHARGE

The Floridan aquifer receives much of its recharge from local
rainfall in Columbia, Suwannee, Hamilton, Baker, Union, and
Alachua counties, Florida; and in Clinch and Echols counties of
southeast Georgia. After water enters the aquifer in the recharge
area it moves laterally below the semiconfining beds toward areas
of lower artesian pressure in other parts of Florida and Georgia.
Recharge to the Floridan aquifer occurs where the aquifer is,
exposed at land surface, where sinkholes penetrate the semicon-
fining beds of the Hawthorn Formation, and by infiltration. Re-
charge by infiltration occurs where the water table in the non-
artesian aquifer is higher than the piezometric surface and water
percolates downward through the semiconfining beds into the
Floridan aquifer. In most of Columbia County, recharge occurs
mainly by percolation; however, the Suwannee and Santa Fe
rivers, and Olustee Creek recharge the aquifer locally when the
river levels are above the piezometric surface.
In general, the topography and geology of the region control the
areas of recharge and the pattern of movement of water in the
Floridan aquifer. The area of karst topography in the Coastal
Lowlands is a recharge area for the Floridan aquifer because rain-
fall enters where the limestone is exposed at the surface and where
numerous sinkholes penetrate the overlying semiconfining beds.
The piezometric surface during June 1957 (fig. 11) indicates
recharge in the area 18 miles south of Lake City near Fort
White, and the area 12 miles south of Lake City near Ellisville.
Recharge of the aquifer from rivers and streams occurs during
high stages of the Suwannee River at White Springs and along
the southern boundaries of the county. The direction of flow
is from the river to the aquifer when the surface of the river is









T I I TIT I I
S,' fi'' ., ,.4 C. I -,--,, ,t 5
-. 4'" I' Fr0 24 0 0. U 0 T (L "3 GA | C O' f,, ,0 -
-- 6 EFL J ( ''L A G 300 3-
llCOU TY

Upper number is ,ell number 44
Lower number is piegomeiric
surface, in feet aoove mean
sea level Letter e is esti-
maoted data
V50
3030' 30 3d-
Contour line represents the "'
plezometric surface, in feet,
above mean sea level, June
1957
Contour interval 10 feet o
-A----\
Direction of ground-water move- _
ment in the Floridan aquifer
30025' = 2-



v CI -
,, I/ 9\ 0.
46WHITE SP RINGS 0 / IJ3
-30020o' h 302d-
Note: \ -
Recharge to the aquifer i60." en I \ 1
during high stages of th 0 L
river. Discharge from th \\ 2
aquifer to the river dur- / fUl 0
ing low stages of the 0 4'
river. I Wi "




05' ., 30







S- A "- /- -
1loridE CSeY 60at Ra Deam.







|F Ir 11 y sh a rc of h For
-oo30 / / 50 30., o-

,, I D |. ^o -_

Io S./ v .

2 \ -
-30*00 l0






to high stages of the river.
Discharge from the aquifer to -
-3 0 "5W ', f ON, 0 0-the river during low stages of
the river .


9 ., _8 ,
z5 SO 1- 8. 82*511










SNoll29t50&









Base compiled from maps of
Florida State Road Department
Figure 11. Columbia County showing the pieomehtric surface of the Floridan
aquifer in June 19ischarge from the aquifer7.











REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 30


higher than the piezometric surface of the aquifer. The direction
of flow is reversed when the piezometric surface is higher than
the water level of the river.
DISCHARGE
Ground water is discharged from the aquifer chiefly by springs
and seepage into the Suwannee River, Santa Fe River, Ichatucknee
River, and Olustee Creek. Numerous springs occur throughout
Columbia County but no attempt was made to measure their
flow, and they are not located on any map. In addition to the
discharge into streams, some ground water moves out of the
county into adjacent counties by underflow. A relatively small
amount of water is discharged by wells tapping the aquifer.
The lows on the piezometric surface in the Coastal Lowlands
region (fig. 11) show the drawdown effects of ground-water
discharge by numerous springs. The springs discharge a large
volume of water from storage in the aquifer. The piezometric sur-
face in the southern part of the county occurs more than 20 feet
below the top of the Floridan aquifer (fig. 10). The discharge of
the Ichatucknee River, measured below the springs, on April 12,
1957, was about 250 cfs (cubic feet per second) or about 110,000
gpm. The volume is about 160 times the average daily pumpage
by Lake City. The discharge measurement was made when the
piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer at Lake City was at
its lowest recorded altitude. Rainfall later in the spring of 1957 was
above normal and the piezometric surface at Lake City rose 4
feet by the fall of 1957 (fig.12). The discharge of the Ichatucknee
River on October 24, 1957 was about 160,000 gpm. The increased
discharge of about 50,000 gpm probably was due to the increased
gradient of the piezometric surface.
FLUCTUATIONS OF THE PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE
The piezometric surface rises when the amount of recharge to
the aquifer exceeds the amount of discharge and declines when
the discharge exceeds the recharge. The relation between discharge
and recharge is indicated by changes in water levels.
Fluctuations of the piezometric surface are caused primarily by:
(1) rainfall in the area, (2) natural ground-water discharge, (3)
changes in barometric pressure, (4) earth tides, and (5) pumping.
Any one of these factors may be dominant at one time and over-
shadow the effects of the others. Therefore, continuous, long-term,
water-level records are necessary to distinguish short-term fluctua-
tions from progressive trends.








34

65


UJ >
ui W60
Z 4
-U,
cn
-j
> 255


lo
4 >50


45


20


z 10
z


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


LAKE CITY WEATHER STATION
TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
66.01 5521 49.16 47.77 38.75 706 3666 31.97 50.62 55.64





194 949 1950 1951 1952 11954 1955 195 7


Figure 12. Hydrograph of well 010-238-1 and rainfall at Lake City 1948-57.

The fluctuations of the piezometric surface of the Floridan
aquifer have been recorded since June 1948 in well 010-238-1 at
Lake City. The hydrograph (fig. 12) of the water level in the well
during the period 1948-57 shows a progressive decline of the
piezometric surface. The decline represents a recession from the
peak water levels that resulted from the above-average rainfall in
1947 and 1948 to slightly below-normal water levels that resulted
from below-normal rainfall in 1954 and 1955 (fig. 3, 12). The
maximum decline of the piezometric surface for this period 1947-55
was about 17.5 feet.
Rainfall recharging the aquifer in the Lake City region causes
a slow rise in the piezometric surface. The difference in time
between the maximum seasonal rainfall and the corresponding
rise in water level (fig. 12) is approximately 5 months. This
lag probably indicates the approximate time necessary for water
to leak from the nonartesian aquifer to the Floridan aquifer.
The daily fluctuations of the piezometric surface in well
010-238-1 and well 004-236-5 near Myrtis are compared to the'








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 30


rainfall at a weather station 2 miles east of Lake City (fig. 13). The
graphs show a continuous rise from June through December re-
sulting from regional recharge to the aquifer. Superimposed on
the 7-month trend are small rises which usually follow a heavy
rainfall by 1 to 2 days. The small rises which correlate with local
rainfall indicate localized recharge through sinkholes and possibly
higher water levels due to loading on the aquifer. The almost
identical hydrographs of wells 010-238-1 and 004-236-5 indicate
that hydrologic conditions at Lake City and Myrtis, 8 miles to the
south, are similar.


46-
^50--
A-
4|8-^
W 461-


Well 004-236-5
In Myrtis




34


S TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
019 4.72 5.15 5.76 1.41 5.03 .63
i = 13JD .2
g5 I I I LAKE CITY WEI OTHER STATION


.JUNE JULY AE OC B D M
1957

Figure 13. Hydrographs of wells 010-238-1 and 004-236-5 and daily rainfall
at Lake City, June-December 1957.

A short-term record on well 001-243-1, 12 miles south-southwest
of Lake City, showed fluctuations similar to those observed in
wells 010-238-1 and 004-236-5 following heavy rainfall. The fluctua-
tions were only half the amplitude of the corresponding fluctua-
tions of wells 010-238-1 and 004-236-5, perhaps an indication of
greater transmissibility and storage capabilities of the aquifer.
Water levels in wells that tap the artesian part of the Floridan
aquifer are affected by barometric fluctuations. The range of
water-level fluctuation in a well may be virtually the same as
that of the water level in a water barometer, or 13.5 times the
range in a mercury barometer. Barometric fluctuations may cause


t,






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


"blowing" and "sucking" wells in the Floridan aquifer where it is
nonartesian and only partly confined. This phenomenon occurs
when the upper part of the Floridan aaquifer is filled with air
instead of water. The water surface in the aquifer rises when
the barometric pressure decreases, forcing part of the air up well
casings or natural openings, and the opposite reaction occurs when
the barometric pressure increases. This phenomenon is not
observed when the well is cased below the water surface.
Changes in the piezometric surface of the artesian aquifer are
also caused by earth tides. The earth-tide cycle is similar to that
of the sea tides, but the change in piezometric surface is caused
by a rise or fall of the land surface by gravitation effects of the
moon and sun.
The effects of pumpage on the piezometric surface are discussed
in the section on hydrologic properties of the Floridan aquifer.
USE OF GROUND WATER
The table of well records (table 8) gives information on more
than 300 wells in Columbia County (fig. 14). Many of these wells
are domestic wells which pump from 10 to 20 gpm. No estimate is
made of the average daily consumption for domestic purposes. I
The largest users of ground water are irrigation and municipal
wells which usually pump from 500 to 1,000 gmp. The only
measured data on pumpage is from the Lake City well field which
pumps about 1 million gpd (table 3).



TABLE 3. Pumpage at the Lake City Well Field
(In millions of gallons per month)
(Source: Records of the Lake City Water Department)
1955 1956 1957
January 24.888 30.692
February 22.533 28.775
March 32.171 26.873
April 36.101 34.444
May 37.576 32.391
June 36.406 33.487
July 30.697 37.207
August 29.229 41.841 32.227
September 31.795 20.893 28.429
October 34.459 29.042 28.840
November 27.908 25.187 28.038
December 27.518 31.744
Average equals 1.025,000 gpd.






I



t




I










30305'







- 30e30'







- 30025'-


EXPLANATION

Invenonred well
ond number
A
Surface-water gaging slolion
1957
0 I 2 3 4 5 miles


\\ BENTON


zi I I


I I IF I


- -S-tl~
.0 1 -1
7;jx~


-- 1 F -T1 1 -1 -- -,. + -


.l I I I N I1 1JII I


-30020'
I,,


NJ


7$4j 1-
) Lr


4- -
i o <
0 ^
COr9


~~2iD{ZKNIJI I i


1T K1 1 HI V p I I


I I 300

take Long CL
L tIITY
0 1 LOT isra L It~l

-30. -
2n


S, I
(I, J ,


J-

10


I Jj- I I


4I

1:-


30*2d-


-;L- ---- -----^a------_---__-----____




300 ----------------------LVIL 3---------------3000
12 II11 1 II ....
33005 N30005-























-29050 O_ HIGH SPRINGs"- 29050
82505 T82045f 235 823 STO 82025'


-I


woo, GA c K..






IrN ? 3 I


Bose complied from maps of
Florido State flood Department.


Well inventory by F W. Meyer
Figure 14. Columbia County and surrounding area showing the locations of
wells and stream-gaging stations.


I U


i P v 1 -- -


I I I


i i ML 7. !- 21"2i MP-%Wl= N i i dly i i)y i i ilh,4 i


1 1 1 1 4H 1 1 1 1 'Is


iM f 0 fl 1 i l f i7*


177 1 II


AllI
A fo


IrjW r I Y ~


m


II


/


n


sL-f


. .L


r
I





















I










I

*i

ni








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 30


HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF THE FLORIDAN AQUIFER
The principal hydraulic characteristics of an aquifer are its
abilities to transmit and store water. The coefficient of trans-
missibility, T, is a measure of the capacity of an aquifer to transmit
water. This coefficient is defined as the quantity of water that
passes through a vertical section of the saturated thickness of the
aquifer 1 foot wide, under a unit hydraulic gradient, at the pre-
vailing temperature of the water. It customarily is expressed by
the U.S. Geological Survey in units of gallons per day per foot of
aquifer (gpd per foot). The coefficient of storage, S, is a measure
of the aquifer's capacity to store water. It is the volume of water
released or taken into storage per unit surface area of the aquifer
per unit change in the component of head normal to that surface.
The value of S varies approximately from 0.0001 to 0.001 in
artesian aquifers and from 0.05 to 0.30 in nonartesian aquifers.
An effective method of determining the coefficients of trans-
missibility and storage is by pumping a well and measuring the
consequent water-level drawdown in the vicinity of the well. When
a well is pumped, the piezometric surface in the vicinity of the well
assumes the shape of an inverted cone having its apex at the center
of withdrawal. The surface is generally referred to as the cone
of depression, and its size and shape depend on the transmissibility
and storage capacities of the aquifer, the rate of pumping, length
of pumping time, and influence of recharge or discharge in the
area.
Theis (Wenzel, 1942) developed a method of determining T and
S from time-drawdown data in observation wells in the vicinity of
a pumped well. The equations have assumptions and restrictions
which are not met in field testing; however, the equations permit
an approximation of the true values. Hantush (1956) developed a
solution introducing a correction for leakance, the ratio of the
vertical permeability of the confining bed to its thickness. The
equation provides a solution to the coefficient of leakance as well
as to the coefficients of transmissibility and storage. H. H. Cooper,
Jr. of the U. S. Geological Survey developed a family of leaky
aquifer curves which, when compared with the curve derived by
the Hantush method, gives values for T, S, and leakance.
In order to determine the transmissibility, storage coefficient,
and leakage of the Floridan aquifer in the Lake City area a
pumping test was conducted on October 17, 1957. Lake City
municipal well 010-237-2 was used as the discharging well and an







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


abandoned well, 011-237-1, a distance of 1,150 feet north northeast,
was used for observation of water levels, the test was begun at
6:35 a.m. and ended at 11:35 a.m. with well 010-237-2 discharging
at approximately 650 gpm. The data obtained was compared
with the Theis type curve and yielded a T value of 270,000 gpd
per foot and an S value of 0.0008 (fig. 15). The data was applied








5.85 x I0-'
S.I- s = 28 ft.
z -Theis nonequilibrium formula
S-- -- r =,150 feet
0=- 650 gpm (est.)
0 1---6T 114.6 Q W(u) 270 gpd
T s 270,000gpd/ft
SS =-1'1 0.0008
l87r'








.001
10' 10" 10' 10' 1I O
t
rt


Figure 15. Logarithmic plot of drawdown


t
versus -


compared with the Theis


type curve, Lake City pumping test, October 1957

to the Hantush assumptions for ground water flow in a leaky
aquifer and the resulting curve was compared to the leaky-aquifer
curves of Cooper. The coefficient of transmissibility was again
determined to be approximately 270,000 gpd per foot, the coef-
ficient of storage again was 0.0008, and the coefficient of leak-
age was 0.001 gpd per cubic foot. The values for T and S agree
in both computations and are undoubtedly good approximations
for the upper part of the Floridan aquifer. At present data are
insufficient to determine the accuracy of the coefficient of leakage.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30


However, approximations of transmissibility of other wells near
the periphery of Alligator Lake are higher, indicating a probable
source of leakage to the Floridan aquifer. Therefore, the coef-
ficient of leakage probably is invalid because recharge may occur
by means of sinks penetrating the semiconfining beds.
Table 4 shows theoretical values for the coefficient of trans-
missibility for seven wells. The values for T were obtained by
using the Theim (1906) method which is expressed by the
equation
Q re
T=527.7 logo -
Sw rI
Q
where is the specific capacity, re is the estimated radius of the
Sw
cone of depression at equilibrium and rw is the radius of the well.
Field measurements were made to obtain yield and water-level
drawdown data to compute the specific capacity, and values
for re were arbitrarily selected for the following ranges of
pumping rates to be:
re (feet) pumping (gpm)
20,000 750-1,250
10,000 250- 750
2,000 less than 250
The values of T for wells 010-237-1, 010-237-2, 010-237-3,
010-238-2, and 011-238-3 are for the same part of the aquifer
that was tested in the Lake City well field. The values of T
obtained by the Thiem equation generally are higher than the
values obtained by the Theis equation because the drawdowns
probably did not reach a state of equilibrium and the high trans-
missibility values include the effects of leakage through the con-
fining beds and through many sinkhole lakes in the area. Well
010-237-2 had 4 times the amount of drawdown and a correspond-
ingly low value of transmissibility. This loss in head could be caused
by: (1) a local change in the water-transmitting capacity of the
aquifer, (2) encrustation of the well, and (3) poor well
development.
The data for well 011-238-3 appear to support the value of T
obtained by the pump test. The well is in an area of little apparent
leakage and the transmissibility is on the order of 270,000 gpd
per foot obtained by the Theis method and by the leaky-aquifer
method of Cooper. The lower transmissibility of well 010-238-1























TABLE 4. Theoretical Transmissibility of the Floridan Aquifer in Selected Wells
Estimated
Depth below Radius of radius of cone Specific capacity, Theoretical coefficient
Well Location land surface well, rw of depression, Q/sw (gpm/ft) of transmissibility T
(feet) (feet) re (feet) (gpd/ft) (rounded)
Columbia County
010237-1 0.3 miles N. of Alligator Lake 300 0.5 10.000 175 400,000
010-237-2 do. 275 .5 10,000 30 80,000
010-237-3 0.2 miles N. of Alligator Lake 310 .5 20,000 151 400,000
010438-1 600 feet W. of Alligator Lake 1,125 .5 2,000 50 100,000
010238-2 75 feet NW of Alligator Lake 360 .42 20.000 200 500,000
011-238-3 1.5 miles N. of Alligator Lake 400 1.25 20,000 100 200,000
Baker County
012-222-1 24 miles E, of Lake City 465 .33 10,000 47 100,000






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 30


probably indicates the lower part of the aquifer has a lower
coefficient of transmissibility than the upper zone. The approxi-
mate value of T for well 012-222-1 at the Florida Forest Nursery,
in Baker County, is about the same as that for well 010-238-1. This
may indicate lower values of T in those areas where the aquifer is
overlain by thick deposits of Miocene Age.
Figure 16 is a graph showing the theoretical drawdown in the
vicinity of a well pumping 1,000 gpm for different lengths of time.
The graph was computed by using 270,000 gpd per foot for the
coefficient of transmissibility and 0.0008 for the coefficient of
storage. It is based on the Theis nonequilibrium formula which
assumes there is no leakage or recharge to the aquifer during the
time, t, of continuous pumping. However, the drawdown curve in
figure 13 did show leakage or other recharge to the aquifer at the
test site; consequently, the expanding cone of depression will
intercept recharge and ultimately the recharge within the cone of
depression will equal the pumping rate. Thus, it is expected that
the actual drawdown during the initial period of pumping generally
would closely approximate the drawdowns computed from the
Theis formula. The actual drawdown would be smaller than the
computed drawdowns after the cone of depression began to inter-
cept recharge. The time required to reach a stabilized drawdown
condition possibly would be in the magnitude of months but there
are insufficient data to determine the exact length of time.
Greater or lesser pumping rates will increase or decrease the
drawdown by direct proportion. For example, using the graphs
on figure 16, under the assumed conditions, the drawdown 10 feet
from a well discharging 1,000 gpm for 10 days would be 9.9 feet.
If the well had discharged 100 gpm for the same length of time, the
drawdown at the same distance would be one-tenth as much or
0.99 feet.
The curves in figure 17 represent the change in drawdown, at
the center well of straight-line well systems, as the distance between
adjacent wells is changed. The total discharge of each line of
wells was arbitrarily set at 20,000 gpm and the period of discharge
at 1 year. An example of the use of this graph is as follows: If a
well system were required to yield 20,000 gpm with a maximum
drawdown of 120 feet, one would follow across the 120-foot
drawdown line to its intercepts of the curves to determine the
number of wells, discharge rate for each well, and spacing
between adjacent wells. The 120-foot drawdown line intersects
the curve for 40 wells discharging at 500 gpm each at a point




































DISTANCE, IN


FEET, FROM DISCHARGING WELL


Figure 16. Graph showing the theoretical drawdown in the vicinity of a well
discharging 1,000 gpm.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30


0

20
Computations based on:
40 T=270,000 gpd/ft.
S= 0.0008
Well diameter =12 inches
60= 1 year



o0 Wells n l each pumping 500 Pm
0o Wells in a line, each pump
120 1 to Wells in a line, each pumpi~Q 2,000

140



-t -

!00 ~-


1,000 1,500 2,UUU ,00UU
DISTANCE, IN FEET, BETWEEN PUMPING WELLS IN LINE.


3,UUU 3 .


Figure 17. Theoretical drawdowns after 1 year of pumping a group of wells
at a rate of 20,000 gpm.


corresponding to a spacing of 815 feet. The 120-foot drawdown
line intersects the curve for 20 wells discharging at 1,000 gpm
each where the spacing is 1,585 feet between wells, and intersects
the curve for 10 wells discharging at 2,000 gpm each where the
wells are spaced 3,140 feet apart. The graph could be used in a
similar manner for any given maximum drawdown. The draw-
downs are almost directly proportional to the total discharge.
Therefore, for greater or lesser rates of discharge, proportionately
lesser or greater maximum drawdown lines should be used. Thus,
in the example above, if the discharge rate had been 5,000 gpm
and the maximum drawdown 30 feet, the 120-foot drawdown line
would have been used.
The coefficients of transmissibility and storage obtained by
the pump test at the Lake City well field may not be representative
of the aquifer in other parts of Columbia County. For example, the
aquifer is probably more permeable in the area south of Lake City
and in this area the drawdown for a given rate of pumping will be
less than:the theoretical value determined from the curves on figures
16 and 17. However, the coefficients obtained from the test may


0


2







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


be applicable in the upper part of the Floridan aquifer in the
vicinity of Lake City.
CHEMICAL QUALITY
The suitability of ground water for municipal, agricultural,
and industrial supply depends largely on the chemical quality of
the water. A municipal supply requires the water to be: (1) free
of harmful bacteria and toxic materials; (2) pleasant tasting,
clear and odorless; (3) relatively soft, or low in calcium and
magnesium salts; and (4) noncorrosive. For industrial use hard-
ness and corrosiveness are most important and for irrigation the
quantities of dissolved salts and sodium content are most important.
Water first begins to change chemical composition as it absorbs
small quantities of carbon dioxide gas from the atmosphere and
organic material from the soil. The carbon dioxide gas reacts
with the water forming a weak solution of carbonic acid. The
acidic water then percolates through the various geologic forma-
tions dissolving the more soluble minerals. Therefore, the chemical
quality of the ground water generally reflects the mineral compo-
sition and solubility of the water-bearing formations.
Chemical analyses were made of ground-water samples taken at
different depths and at different locations in Columbia County and
vicinity (table 5, 6). Most of the samples were obtained from
wells tapping the Floridan aquifer. The results of the analyses are
given in tables 5 and 6 and the locations of the wells are shown in
figure 14. The analyses are expressed in parts per million; one
part per million is equivalent to a pound of dissolved matter in
a million pounds of water.
Locally important chemical characteristics of the water-hydro-
gen-ion concentration, hardness, dissolved solids, and hydrogen
sulfide-are discussed separately below.
HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION (pH)
The hydrogen-ion concentration, or pH value, of water is a
measure of its acidity or alkalinity. The pH of neutral or distilled
water is 7 which means the water is neither acid nor alkaline.
Values greater than 7 denote increasing alkalinity and values less
than 7 denote increasing acidity. Water with a low pH is corrosive;
that is, the acid reacts with metals to form salts, although not all
waters having the same pH are equally corrosive. Generally, waters
with pH values above 7 are not corrosive but react with metal to,
form encrustation and "boiler scale," the amount of encrustation







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30


depends on the hardness of the water. Ground water that is non-
corrosive and nonencrustating is slightly alkaline and has low
hardness.
The analyses of ground-water samples from the Floridan aquifer,
given in tables 5 and 6, show the water to be alkaline with the pH
units ranging from 7.1 to 8.7. Water with pH value of 6.8 was
recorded in well 006-239-1 thereby indicating direct seepage of
acidic surface water to the artesian aquifer nearby.
HARDNESS
The hardness of water is commonly recognized by the increased
amount of soap needed to produce a lather and by the sticky,
insoluble precipitate that forms with soap. It is chiefly caused
by the presence of the alkaline earths, calcium and magnesium in
solution. These alkaline earths form encrustations, boiler scale,
and destroy the effectiveness of soap. The hardness of water is
usually expressed as total hardness but there are two types of
hardness: (1) temporary hardness and (2) permanent hardness.
Temporary or carbonate hardness is caused by carbonates and
bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium. It is easily removed by
softening processes such as: (1) heating, (2) soda-ash process,
(3) lime-soda process, and (4) the zeolite-ion-exchange.
Permanent or noncarbonate hardness is caused by sulfate,
chloride, and nitrate salts of calcium and magnesium. These salts
are not removed by most softening processes but can be removed
by an expensive zeolite-ion-exchange process. The ground waters
containing magnesium sulfate are usually not used because of the
laxative effect of the water. The recommended limit for sulfate
concentration by U.S. Public Health Service is 250 ppm. Analysis
of water from the Lake City Limestone shows that the sulfate
content is always greater than 250 ppm and that the concentra-
tion increases with depth. Two wells, 010-238-1 and 009-248-1,
developed in the Lake City Limestone have sulfate values which
greatly exceed 250 ppm (table 5). The sulfate probably originates
from anhydrite, gypsum and, perhaps epsonite within the Lake
City or Oldsmar Limestones.
Hardness of ground water from the upper 200 feet of the
Floridan aquifer ranges from about 100 to 350 ppm as CaCOs
and increases with depth in the aquifer. Figure 18 is a map of
Columbia County showing lines of equal total hardness in the
ground water of the upper part of the Floridan aquifer. Most of
the wells that were sampled had the casing seated in the top of the













TABLE 5, Chemical Analyses of Water from Wells in Columbia County and Vicinity
(Concentration of dissolved constituents, in parts per million)


Formation: L, Lake City Limestone; Go, Ocala Group; 01, Oldsmar
Limestone; M, Miocene sandstone and limestone;
S, Suwannee Limestone,


Remarks: B, Black Laboratories, Inc.; F, Florida State Board of
Health; HuS, hydrogen sulfide gas; R, radio-chemical
data available; U, U.S. Geological Survey.


Columbia County


M, S, Oc

Oc
Oc
00
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Go
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Go


U; manganese 0.02 ppm
temp. 70F; partial
analysis in table 6
B
B
B
B
B

B




B, HaS
B
B
B
B, HaS
B
B
B
B
B
B
B; HsS
B. HsS


2-10-Sui au


5.3 i U.4


U19-233-1

011-236-3
011-236.4

'011.37-1
011-238-3

011-238-.4



'010-234-1
010-234-2



010-235-1

010-237-1


4.0

...........



a20
al.8
a5.5
14

a2,5
a3.2
a7.8
.o ..


7-19-48
7-1249
7-1948
9-24-48
7-12-49
3-29-50
6-13-27
9-24-48

-23
2- 3-50

5- ?742
0-24-48
2- 3-50
7-12409
6- 2-48
7-12-48
9-24-48
7-19-48
9-24-48
7-12-41
7-19.48
9.24-48
7-12-49
2- 6-53


31
10
25
35
8.4
S22
31
26
36
25
30
25
13
36
27
38
30
47
13
18
23
6.5
19


........ 0,28

9.2 .5
16 .2
9.2 .1
4,6 .1
3.0 .05
10 0
8 .01
......... .12
32 .23
8.5 0
9.0 .01
25 .1
.. .01
23 .01
14 .4
11 .1
14 .05
9.14 .21
10 .10


I 42


30
33
29
33
36.5
32
49
39
47
48
41
44
40
49
48
43
49
32
33
33
38
46
43
48


22

7.5
22
5.8
13
11
14
20
21
18
20
22
18
21
27
22
6.6
20
7.5
13
22
4.6
3.8
14
14.5


235

138
146
132
172
130
208
198
224
218
237
223
234
224
216
204
254
206
261
158
194
154
154
194
152
172


u

7
8.5
8
3.4
0
14
6
10
16
0
4
5
15
6.2
7
0

3.4
0
3.4
50


..........
.64





.25

.4


.........

.2
0


4
16
2
5
14
5
40
7
8
9.8
9
8.2
1
8
24
9
12
2
4
14
6
5
13
8


222



174
172
180
281
233
248
235
232
230
269
269
203

189


196 3

96 0
156 10
97 0
136 0
128 0
136 15
204 20
186 7
191
202 ....
192
184 0
186 9
214 10
210 6
135 0
205 0
111 0
136 0
156 2
114 0
131 0
154 2
167 0


7.4

7.8
7.6
7.8
7.9
7.9
7.8

7.6


7.6
7.6
7.8
7.6
8.1
7.6
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.8
7.7
7.8
7.8
7.5


10

15
13
8
9
6
0
14
14

16
14
7
4
3
15
...-
11
4

4


255
255
174
163
170
163
268


r


--





5, 6-26-54 27 34 U.0 31 15 ...... 162 4 14 ......-. ......- ... 176 14 225 7.3 7 Oc B
010-237-2 5-26-54 30 8 0 42 19 162 1 14 ... 166 4 210 7.6 7 Oc HuS
2-8-56 25 22 .08 40 19 ... 148 3 20 ...... 163 15 180 7.5 5 Oc B
11-16-56 22 20 .04 41 17 "_... 150 4 12 ............. 158 8 165 7.5 15 Oc B
3-16-57 25 ....-.- 0 39 15 7.5 196 1.8 9.8 0.5 0.8 197 159 0 327 8.0 13 Oc h S, R, U; Aluminum
0.1 ppm, iron total
0.17 ppm, potassium
: 1.3 ppm, zinc 0.02 ppm,
phosphate 0.1 ppm,
lithium 0.1 ppm;
temp, 720F
010-237-3 4- 1-57 16 17 .28 56 11 ........ 160 2 16 ........ ............ 164 4 160 7.6 30 Oc B, HaS
010-2374 7- 5-57 18 7.1 .25 44 12 a6.3 189 0 8 .1 ........... 190 159 4 ....... 7.7 20 O c sS
7-6-57 19 9.3 .29 46 12 .154 0 9 ....... ......... 163 9 250 7.9 19 Oc B
010-237-6 4-20-56 13 23 .1 62 0 .. 164 4 10 ......... ......... 168 4 170 7.5 5 Oc B
010-237-7 7412-49 8.6 6 .1 46 16 ..166 6.8 18 ................ 168 2 181 7.9 4 Oc B
010-238-1 2-20-29 ........ 53 12 ... 215 4.3 8.6 ....237 b180 4 .... 25 01 F HS; depth 1,010 ft.
8-21-39 11.2 .16 263 154 __ 227 1.068 25 .. .... 2.000 1.297 1,111 7.1 15 L. 01 F, HaS; depth 1,125 ft.
9-11-39 ............. -. ....--. 227 1.087 25 2.. ........... 2.040 1,318 1.132 -. 7.1 L. 01 Do. ft.
11-2839 13 .172 207 7 1,060222 1.920 1,89 1103. 7.3 ... L F, S; depth 1001 ft.
.1- 4-40 ----........-. ....................... 93 23 1.710 -.. 7.2 L FHaS; depth 924 ft.
010-238-2,3 10- ,-3 14 .25 45.4 12.7 a5.3 192 2.5 12 ....... 209 16 ...... .. Oc F, S
7-31-37 6.8......... c2.4 .. ...... a74 132 9.6 35 0 237 183 51 -C F, HaS
006-239-1 3-1 8 120 .04 89 26 ........ .. 3 274 82 285 6.8 12 Oc B
003-238-1 2-10-58 16 ..... 01 48 5.8 4.3 171 0 5.5 1.0 165 144 4 271 7.5 3 c ; manganese 0.01 ppm,
potassium 0.5 ppm;
temp. 72-F.
Baker County
012-223-1 2-18-41 ....... ..... 1.2 42 20 a7 232 0 8.7 -... ....... 234 192 ...... ... 7.7 c F
011-226-1 2-1841 ........ .7 42 21 a9 243 0 8.5 --.-- 233 204 .. ...... 7.7 ...o. e c
011-226-2 2-10-58 20 ........ .09 46 23 5.2 257 0 5.5 .4 .5 229 210 0 380 7.5 15 M, S HIS, U; manganese 0.01
ppm, potassium 0.9
ppm; temp. 720F;
partial analyses in table 6.
Hamilton County

019-245-1 7-1549 ...... .......... 05 44 18 a2.3 222 0 5 ............_... 2201 1821. ........ ...... ... 0 F

Suwannee County
009-248-1 2- 8-58 18 ..... .01 110 68 8.9 168 405 12 1.0 0 708 554 4161 933 7.4 3 L. 01 l u; manganese 0.01
ppm, potassium 2.2
ppm; temp. 77F.

xIn solution at time of analysis. aSodium and potassium expressed as sodium.
'Specific conductance in micromhos at 25C. bSoap hardness.
'Units based on the platinum-cobalt scale, cIron and aluminum oxide.












TABLU 6, Partial Chemical Analyses of Water from Wells in 00
Columbia and Adjacent Counties
(Analyses, in parts per million, by U.S. Geological Survey)




Well Date of e mak
number collection Remarks



Columbia County.v
035-240-2 5- 3-57 428 0 338 ...... 051 7.7 Slight iron stain
023-237-1 6.2847 352 0 284 7 ...... 530 7.6
019-233-1 5- 847 212 16 190 70 380 8.7 Complete analysis in
table 5
019-237-1 6- 6.57 200 8 174 -------- 327 8.6
018-239-1 6-2647 232 2 184 72 368 8.4 0
016-240-1 6- 647 158 4 133 75 267 8.6
010-241-1 6- 447 180 0 156 71 302 8.3
015-238-1 6-26.57 120 2 100 .,............. 207 8.4
015-239-1 6- 5-57 218 0 176 72 342 8.3
01&-240-1 6- 5.57 206 8 186 70 345 8.6 Slight iron stain
014-238-1 6-28-57 154 6 144 73 279 8.0
014-240-1 6- 447 324 0 252 73 494 8.3
013-238-5 6-2657 158 0 48 .----- 198 8.3 Slight iron stain
013-246-1 7-1147 104 0 126 74 255 8.1
012-238-2 6-2647 268 0 206 72 425 8.1
011-233-1 9-1947 284 0 232 72 442 7.9 HaS
011-239.2 7-1147 208 4 174 ....... 352 8.4 HaS
011-242-1- 7-1547 144 0 116 74 236 8.1
010-236-2 7- 9547 122 0 88 76 187 8.1
010-237-5 0-1747 208 0 188 72 368 8.0
010-239-3 7-1047 226 8 198 ............ 390 8.6
010-240-4 7-10-57 194 0 172 76 341 8.1 HaS
010240-6 7-1747 238 2 194 76 372 8.4
009-239-2 0-23-57 156 0 136 72 274 7.5
009-239-3 0-23-57 144 0 116 72 235 7.6
009-241-2 7-1547 214 0 178 76 340 8.3
009-241-3 8-1347 204 0 172 73 317 8.3
009-241-6 7-1747 140 2 118 72 236 8.4
009-244-1 8-1947 128 0 114 74 227 7.8
008-237-4 9-12-57 96 0 78 78 163 8.0
008-238-2 7-3047 196 0 164 70 315 8.0
008439-1 9-23-87 168 0 142 72 278 8.2
008-242-1 8-1547 128 0 114 ................ 214 8.1






007-235-2 8- 9-57 152 0 134 74 260 8.2
007-237-3 9-12-57 178 0 150 .282 8.0
007-237-6 9-12-57 93 0 79 .... 170 7.3
007-239-1 9-24-57 132 0 108 ..- 217 7.6
007-239-3 9-24-57 158 0 132 72 260 7.6
007-243-1 9-25-57 156 0 132 ...... 251 8.4
006-237-2 9-12-57 108 0 93 74 193 7.6
005-236-4 9-13-57 144 0 122 ..- 239 7.4
005-23-2 5 9-13-57 320 0 264 74 492 7.8
004-242-1 9-23-57 214 0 176 362 8.2
004-246-1 8-12-57 160 0 134 72 258 7.9
002-236-4 6-14-57 186 4 196 ... 384 8.5
959-235-1 8- 7-57 186 0 148 72 289 8.0
958-234-1 8- 6-57 158 0 144 .. 265 8.2 Slight H.-S
958-238-1 8- 6-57 124 0 150 ..... 333 8.1
956-236-1 8- 2-57 186 0 160 73 300 8.2
956-236- 8- 2-57 166 0 150 72 294 8.3
955-237-1 9-11-57 62 0 48 72 108 7.6
964-235-1 8- 1-57 172 0 146 75 302 7.8
954-242-1 9- 1-57 166 0 156 .. ..... 308 8.3 0
953-236-2 8- 1-57 196 4 432 ..- 812 8.4
951-236-1 8- 1-57 194 0 168. ........... 317 8.2 Slight iron stain
Alachua County
955-228-1 8- 5-57 140 0 124 72 252 8.1
951-236-2 6-27-57 124 0 128 72 226 8.3
950-236-1 6-27-57 182 10 200 72 386 8.6
951-236- ......... 140 0 174 72 377 8.3 Flowing
(Spring) _______________________________________________
Baker County
012-221-1 5-30-57 254 0 218 74 456 7.9 HaS
011-226-2 9- 6-57 276 0 226 71 413 8.0 Slight HaS; hole at 183 ft.
011-226-2 9- 6-57 268 0 230 71 406 7.9 Slight HaS; hole at 185 ft. 2
011-226-2 9- 6-57 260 0 210 71 392 8.0 Slight HsS, pumping.
Complete analysis
___in-table 5
Hamilton County t
021-246-1 5- 8-57 178 2 148 ............ 314 8.4 9
019-244-1 7-30-57 196 0 168 69 327 8.0
019-245- .............. 184 0 182 ................. 364 8.3 Plowing
(White Springs)
Suwannee County
012-248-1 7-13-57 146 2 124 72 244 8.5 HaS
958-246-. ..... .......... 112 0 98 72 208 8.2 Flowing
(Itchatucknee
Spring)
Union County
958-233-1 8- 6-57 196 6 180 ................... 327 8.5







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


uppermost limestone; therefore, the water samples were assumed
to be from near the top of the aquifer. The lines of equal total
harness generally correlate with the piezometric pressure in the
aquifer. The highest concentrations occur in the northern re-
charge areas and the lowest concentrations occur in the southern
recharge and discharge areas. Apparently, the hardness in the
southern area indicates: (1) a mixture of ground water and
surface water, and (2) the amounts and rate of solution are
decreasing in the discharge areas. The local high concentrations
in some recharge areas of southern Columbia County could in-
dicate infiltration of acid surface water into less dissolved portions
of the aquifer. The high concentrations, in the northern part of
the area covered by thick Miocene sediments, result either from the
leaching of calcareous materials in the Hawthorn Formation by
ground water percolating downward to the Floridan aquifer or
by the influence of ground-water inflow from more distant
recharge areas in Georgia.
DISSOLVED SOLIDS
Dissolved solids reported in water are the residue left after
evaporation. In Columbia County dissolved solids range up to
2,040 ppm in well 010-238-1 but generally averaged about 200
ppm (table 5). The dissolved solid content increases with depth
in both the Floridan and the secondary artesian aquifer. Water
with less than 500 ppm dissolved solids is generally acceptable for
domestic use and water with greater than 500 ppm dissolved
solids is objectionable (U. S. Public Health Service, 1946).
HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S)
Hydrogen sulfide gas imparts a pronounced taste and odor to
ground water causing it to be commonly referred to as "sulfur
water." The chemical analyses in table 5 list those wells in which
hydrogen sulfide gas is most noticeable. Two possible sources of
this gas are: (1) the reduction of sulfates in the ground water to
metallic sulfides by anaerobic bacteria, and subsequent decomposi-
tion of the sulfides by free carbon dioxide in recharge water to
produce hydrogen sulfide gas; (2) the anaerobic reduction and
decomposition of organic materials to form hydrogen sulfide gas,
as in swamp areas.
Probably both types of reactions contribute to the hydrogen
sulfide content of ground water in Columbia County. Hydrogen
sulfide is prevalent at depth where there is a thick overburden on



















































j
i

j




NIlH 0 SAiltlh U Ki fI'NMt NI r4- 10 INIHlt- H (I ( i u | A 0 )l0 A| l U HVI
(iE(t(.UIfjil;AI. LJUKV'. Y '( VWi lIn U (lIw hi

.\ '-'1- r-m-T-i-i-r--'r- -T-i-i-r-1---i--\--T--i-ra..
--.30.35' C 0 1. UIM G A I "'"U"V.t:Y0 35
02-46' v 3. 5 8 CLINCH I" c 30 -0'
G3,03t tCOUNTy, GA.
N C01 J COIJ N T Y





SI-
30030' EXPLANATION 3003d-
e gBENTON 2
Well

,f FiaeVIEW 0o4
Upper number Is well number, -'x
upper letter S Is spring, U
Lower number Is total hardness S '
of water in parts per million, I
30025' 0))2-

Line of equal total hardness 0% //
of water, In parts per
million, z
Interval 100 0
parts per million I e
30"20' T 0 10 4-


I a:


\, / 0 o w
0* K.. 1 I 30\1
-30015' {3015-




4A OLUSTEE

-30010' 22 ",' 3010-


(II
0f150


-30005' RP' 0300 05-



.-0o 0 245N 0_
0- 0

SI I 4 Miles







S. 47 0 SPRINGS
ce


'55201 829055'







82"50' 8245' 8|235 82*30 82.25'
j- Igo" c. R









Base compiled from maps of Chemical quality by F, W. Meyer.
Florida State Road Department.

Figure 18. Columbia County showing the total hardness of water from wells
that penetrate the upper part of the Floridan aquifer.










REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 30


the limestones. Usually it is absent in wells in the southern part
of the county except near swampy sinkholes.
Hydrogen sulfide can be removed from ground water by aeration.
HIGHLY MINERALIZED WATER
Electric log interpretations show highly mineralized water in
ten wells in Columbia County. This water first occurs in the
Cedar Keys Formation from 1,200 to 1,700 feet below msl and
it averages 1,470 feet below msl in the ten wells. No samples were
available for analysis.
In Nassau County, northeast of Columbia County, a sample of
the highly mineralized water was obtained from the Cedar Keys
Formation at a depth of 2,225 feet. The hardness of this water
was 9,660 ppm and it contained 3,910 ppm of sulfate, and 33,600
ppm of chloride. Water from the same well at 4,500 feet in the
Upper Cretaceous rocks contained 14,961 ppm hardness and 60,200
ppm chloride. At Cedar Keys in Levy County, south of Columbia
County, the hardness of water from the Lawson Limestone of Late
Cretaceous Age was 18,500 ppm and it contained 69,500 ppm of
chloride (Black, 1951, p. 18).
POLLUTION
The problem of pollution of ground water is of great importance
in Columbia County. The probability of pollution is greatest in
the sinkhole regions south of Lake City. The sinkholes facilitate
the direct flow of polluted surface water into the underlying
water-bearing formations.
An example of this type pollution occurred at Lake City. The
city well field was formerly located at the edge of a sinkhole lake
and the city sewer system emptied into a small creek that flowed
into the sinkhole lake. The polluted lake water drained through
open sinkholes in the lake bottom into the Floridan aquifer,
thereby, polluting the city well field. The city well field is now
located upgradient from the probable source of contamination and
a sewage-treatment plant has been built.
CLASSIFICATION OF IRRIGATION WATER
The use of ground water for irrigation is increasing in Columbia
County. The factors to be considered in the evaluation of irrigation
waters are the sodium-adsorption-rato (SAR) and the amount
of salts, or total dissolved solids, in the water. The sodium-
adsorption-ratio is the ratio of soluble sodium as compared with
concentrations of soluble calcium and magnesium. An excess of







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


exchangeable sodium or dissolved salts will adversely effect the
'low tolerance" crops under certain conditions and concentrations.
The sodium-adsorption-ratios of four selected wells, 003-238-1,
019-233-1, 011-226-2, and 009-248-1, show that there is not an
excess of exchangeable-sodium-ion in the upper 1,000 feet of the
Floridan aquifer (fig 19; table 7).


TABLE 7. Classification of Irrigation Waters
(Adapted from U.S. Salinity Laboratory Staff, 1954, p. 79-81)


Sl low sodium water
52 medium sodium water

S3 high sodium water

S4 very high sodium water


C1 low salinity water
C2 medium salinity water
C3 high salinity water
C4 very high salinity water


Sodium Hazard
- can be used on most crops except stone fruit trees
and avocados (sodium sensitive)
-not to be used on fine textured soils under low
leaching conditions unless gypsum is present in
the soil
- may be harmful unless drainage is good, high leach-
ing, and organic matter additions, or if soil
contains gypsum (CaSo4)
- is generally unsuitable except at low or medium
salinity where calcium or gypsum make use
feasible
namuty tiazara
- can be used for most crops with normal leach-
ing
- can be used if moderate amount of leaching occurs
- cannot be used on soils with restricted drainage
- is not suitable but may be used under very special
conditions. Plants with high salt tolerance and
adequate drainage and salinity control used.


A moderate amount of salts in irrigation water may be tolerated
in humid areas because there is sufficient rainfall to leach out
accumulated salts in the soil zone. Normally rainfall in Columbia
County is ample to leach out the salt; however, there are periods,
as from 1955 to 1956, when rainfall is below normal and saliniza-
tion of the soil could result from normally good irrigation water
applied to poorly drained land. When salinization of the soil occurs
salt-sensitive plants burn and their growth is stunted.
Of the four wells studied for irrigation classification only one,
009-248-1 (996 feet deep), showed a salinity figure large enough
to restrict its use as an irrigation supply (fig. 19; table 7).

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The northern two-thirds of Columbia County is a moderately
flat, poorly drained region that ranges in altitude from about 100
to 215 feet above msl. The southern one-third of the county is a
hilly, well-drained, sinkhole region that ranges in altitude from
about 25 to 200 feet above msl.






SODIUM (ALKALI) HAZARD


Figure 19. Diagram for use in interpreting the analysis of irrigation water.


Wells
003-238-1
019-233-1
011-226-2





009-248-1







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


About 2,800 to 3,460 feet of sediments ranging from early
Cretaceous to Recent in age overlie dense basal rocks of Paleozoic
Age. The sediments overlying the Paleozoic rocks are thick in the
northern part of the county and thin over the crest of an anticlinal
high in the southern part of the county.
Permeable limestones, ranging from early Middle Eocene
through Early or Middle Miocene Age, form the Floridan aquifer.
Locally, however, the Floridan aquifer may include all the rocks of
Tertiary Age.
The oldest formation penetrated by a water well is the Oldsmar
Limestone of Early Eocene Age. The top of the formation, which
is generally the bottom of the Floridan aquifer, ranges from about
900 feet below msl in the southern part of the county to about
1,100 feet below msl in the northern part. Few water wells pene-
trate the Lake City Limestone and the Avon Park Limestone which
overlie the Oldsmar in ascending order. Most water wells penetrate
the Ocala Group, of Late Eocene Age, which crops out in the
southern part of Columbia County. The top of the group, which
is an erosional surface, ranges from more than 80 feet above msl
in southern Columbia County to about 200 feet below msl in
northern Columbia County.
The limestones of the Eocene Series are overlain by a varying
thickness of the Suwannee Limestone of Oligocene Age. The
Suwannee Limestone is approximately 40 feet thick in the northern
part of the county and thickens to about 50 feet in the western part
of the county. The Suwannee Limestone is thin to absent in the
extreme southern and eastern parts of- Columbia County. It is
overlain or filled by a varying thickness of sandstone and limestone
of Miocene Age in the northern part of the county. The sandstone
and limestone unit is approximately 60 feet thick in the northern
part of the county and is undifferentiated from the Suwannee
Limestone in the southern part of the county. The sandstone and
limestone unit is considered to be the upper part of the Floridan
aquifer in Colunbia County. The sandstone and limestone unit is
overlain either by clay of the marine Hawthorn Formation of
Miocene Age or sandy clay of the Alachua (?) Formation. The Haw-
thorn Formation is approximately 150 feet thick in the northern
part of the county and 100 feet thick in the eastern part of the
county. It serves as both a source of water for supply and forms a
semiconfining bed above the more permeable calcareous, marine
formations that comprise the Floridan aquifer. The Hawthorn
Formation appears to be equivelant to the terrestrial Alachua(?)








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30


Formation over the structurally high limestone area in the southern
part of the county. Pleistocene and Recent sand deposits cover the
older formations. The sand deposits are about 40 feet thick in the
northeastern part of Columbia County and thin to absent in the
southern part of Columbia County.
There are three sources of ground-water supply in the county:
(1) the nonartesian aquifer, (2) the secondary artesian aquifer,
and (3) the Floridan aquifer. The nonartesian aquifer, which is
composed of sand of Pleistocene to Recent Age, is utilized for
domestic water supply in the northern part of the county. In the
southern part of the county, the ground water in the nonartesian
aquifer is "perched." Most of the "perched" ground water perco-
lates through the semiconfining beds of Hawthorn or Alachua(?)
Formations into the underlying Floridan aquifer.
The secondary artesian aquifer is composed of many small
water-bearing zones within the Hawthorn Formation. These zones
are principally limestone or sandstone beds interbedded with sand
and clay. Ground water within the water-bearing zones of the
Hawthorn is under low artesian pressure. Piezometric pressure in
the aquifer decreases with depth of penetration, probably indicating
downward percolation to the underlying Floridan aquifer. The
aquifer within the Hawthorn is about 100 feet thick and is an
important source of water supply in the northern and eastern
parts of Columbia County.
The Floridan aquifer, the principal source of ground water, is
composed of limestone and some sandstone of early Middle Eocene
through at least Early or Middle Miocene Age. The top of the
aquifer ranges from approximately 80 feet above msl in southern
Columbia County to about 100 feet below msl in northern Columbia
County. The aquifer in northern Columbia County is overlain by a
semiconfining bed composed of interbedded, sand, clay, and lime-
stone of the Howthorn Formation of Middle Miocene Age. The top
of the Floridan aquifer occurs approximately 100 feet above msl
at Lake City. The aquifer is exposed at land surface in the
southern part of Columbia County and in the valley of the
Suwannee River downstream from White Springs, Hamilton
County.
Ground water in the Floridan aquifer in the northern part of
the county is under artesian pressure while that in the southern
part is under nonartesian (water-table) conditions. The aquifer
has a thickness of about 1,100 feet in the northern part of the
county and about 900 feet in the southern part. Most of the







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


potable water is in the upper few hundred feet of the aquifer,
generally above the Lake City Limestone. The aquifer in northern
Columbia County is recharged by (1) local rainfall percolating
through the overlying semiconfining beds or through sinkholes that
penetrate the semiconfining beds, or (2) by ground-water inflow
from areas of higher artesian head in southern Georgia. The
aquifer in southern Columbia County is recharged by local rainfall
entering sinkholes or limestone exposures and by ground-water
inflow from areas of higher artesian head in the northern part
of Columbia County. Ground water is discharged from the aquifer
by means of springs and seeps, underflow to areas of lower artesian
head, and draft by wells. Records of the fluctuations of the
piezometric surface in a well at Lake City indicate a range of
17.5 feet during the period 1948-57. The 9-year period of record
began with excessive annual rainfall and ended with deficient
annual rainfall.
The Floridan aquifer is capable of providing large quantities
of ground water for municipal, industrial, and agricultural use.
Also, natural ground-water discharge from the Floridan aquifer
maintains the perennial or base flows of the Santa Fe, Ichatucknee,
and Suwannee rivers.
The analysis of a pumping test at Lake City indicates that the
upper 200 feet of the Floridan aquifer in the northern part of the
county has a transmissibility coefficient of approximately 270,000
gpd per foot and a storage coefficient of about 0.0008. The
analysis of the specific capacities of selected wells probably
indicates that transmissibility values decrease with depth and
increase toward the discharge areas in the southern part of the
county.
The chemical analyses show that hardness and dissolved solids
are important characteristics of the ground water in the Floridan
aquifer. Hardness of ground water from the upper 200 feet of the
aquifer ranges from approximately 100 to 350 ppm as CaCO3.
Analyses of the ground water from the Lake City Limestone show
that the sulfate content is greater than 250 ppm and that concen-
tration increases with depth. The amount of dissolved solids in the
ground water increase with depth in both the Floridan aquifer
and the low pressure artesian aquifer in the Hawthorn Formation.
An evaluation of irrigation water from wells penetrating the base
of the Floridan aquifer indicates that a salinity hazard exists
during droughts or when proper irrigation and leaching practices
are not observed.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30 57

The interpretation of resistivity curves of electric logs show
that highly mineralized water occurs in the Cedar Keys Formation
at an average depth of about 1,500 feet below msl.
Pollution of potable ground water by contaminated surface
water is a potential problem in the sinkhole area which extends
from Lake City southward to the Santa Fe River. Open sinkholes
and sinkhole lakes facilitate'the inflow of polluted surface waters
to the Floridan aquifer. Also, pollution may occur in the discharge
areas along the spring-fed rivers by the reverse flow of river
water when the piezometric surface of the aquifer is lower than
the level of the river.






























































































Ui








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30


REFERENCES

Applin, E. R. (also see Applin, P. L., 1944)
1945 (and Jordan, Louise) Diagnostic Foraminifera from subsurface
formations in Florida: Jour. Paleontology, v. 19, no. 2, p. 129-148.
Applin, P. L.
1944 (and Applin, E. R.) Regional subsurface stratigraphy and struc-
ture of Florida and southern Georgia: Am. Assoc. Petroleum
Geologists Bull. v. 28, no. 12, p. 1673-1753.
1951 Preliminary report on buried pre-Mesozoic rocks in Florida and
adjacent states: U. S. Geol. Survey Circ. 91, 28 p.

Black, A. P.
1951 (and Brown, Eugene) Chemical character of Florida's waters-
1951: Florida State Board Cons., Div. Water Survey and Research,
Paper 6, 119 p.

Brown, Eugene (see Black, A. P., Cooper, H. H., Jr.)
Cole, W. Storrs
1944 Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells in Florida- No.
3: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 26, 168 p.

Collins, W. D.
1928 (and Howard, C. S.) Chemical character of waters of Florida:
U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 596-G, p. 177-233.

Cooke, C. W.
1915 The age of the Ocala Limestone: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper
95-I, p. 107-117.
1936 (and Mansfield, W. C.) Suwannee Limestone of Florida (abs.)
Geol. So. American Proc. 1935, p. 71-72.
1939 Scenery of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 17, 118 p.
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29, 339 p.

Cooper, H. H., Jr.
1953 (Kenner, W. E., and Brown, Eugene) Ground water in central
and northern Florida: Florida Geol; Survey Rept. Inv. 10, 37 p.

Ferguson, G. E. (see Parker, G. G.)
Hantush, M. S.
1955 (and Jacob, C. E.) Non-steady radial flow in an infinite leaky
aquifer: Am. Geophys. Union Trans., v. 36, no. 1, p. 95-100.
1956 Analysis of data from pumping tests in leaky aquifers: Am.
Geophys. Union Trans., v. 37, p. 702-714.

Howard, C. S. (see Collins, W. D.)
Jacob, C. E. (see Hantush, M. S.)
Jordon, Louise (see Applin, E. R.)







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Kenner, W. E. (see Cooper, H. H., Jr.)

Love, S. K. (see Parker, G. G.)
MacNeil, F. S.
1949 Pleistocene shore lines in Florida and Georgia: U. S. Geol. Sur-
vey Prof. Paper 221-F, p. 95-107.
Mansfield, W. C. (see Cooke, C. W., 1936)
Parker, G. G.
1955 (Ferguson, G. E., and Love, S. K.) Water resources of south-
eastern Florida, with special reference to the geology and ground-
water of the Miami area: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply
Paper 1255, 965 p.

Puri, H. S.
1957 Stratigraphy and zonation of the Ocala Group: Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 38, 248 p.

Stringfield, V. T.
1936 Artesian water in the Florida peninsula: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-
Supply Paper 773-C, p. 115-195.

Theis, C. V.
1935 The relation between the lowering of the piezometric surface and
the rate and duration of discharge of a well using ground-water
storage: Am. Geophys. Union Trans., 16th Ann. Meeting, pt. 2,
p. 519-524.

Thiem, Gunter
1906 (and Gibhardt, J. M.) Hydrologische Methoden [Hydrologic
methods]: Leipzig, 56 p.

U. S. Public Health Service
1946 Drinking water standards: Public Health Repts., v. 61, no. 11, p.
371-384.

U. S. Salinity Laboratory Staff
1954 Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils: U. S. Dept.
Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 60.

Vernon, R. 0.
1951 Geology -of Citrus and Levy Counties, Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 33, 256 p.

Wenzel, L. K.
1942 Methods for determining permeability of water-bearing materials,
with special reference to discharging-well methods, with a section
on direct laboratory methods and a bibliography on permeability
and laminar flow, by V. C. Fishel: UM S. Geol. Survey Water-
Supply Paper 887,- 192 p.





















































































































































..








TAaMB 8. Records of Wells In Columbia County and Vicinity


Well number: See text for explanation of well-numbering system.
lee figure tIs
Location: Township-range system or Georgia Military District system.
Drilling method: Dr, driven; Du, dug; R, rotary.
Aquifer: F, Floridan; H, secondary urtealan; N, nonartesian.
Pump type: C, centrifugal; J, Jet; PI, piston; Su, submersible; Tu,
turbine; Pit, pitcher.


Use. D, domestic, in, Industrial; Ir, trrigt ati 0 oetvton; OT,
oil test; P. public supply; d, stock; T, eat; ,.unused.
Remarks! W...--, Florida Geological Survey well number; CA-,
chemical analysis in table 58 CA-, chemical analysis in table 6;
X, electric log on file at Florida Geological Survey.


Casing Water level Pump



number Location Owner Driller j I
5 3 "rJ. '




COLUMBIA COUNTY
035-240-2 NWI4 see. 873 R. Carter Witt Electric Co. 1954 Dr 150 72 4 H 127 15 7/54 Su 1/2 D CA-
034-234-1 Se. 14. U.S. Corps of Engrs. U.S. Corps. of Engrs. 1934 Dr 80 ............. 6 H 120.3 ........ ..................... -- 7 W-1037
T. N,. R. 17 X.
031-443l SW1NE'. see. 4, E. Carter Rotary Tool Co. 1956 R 175 ........... 8 FI 112 80.7 5/28/57 Su ....... D
T. 1 N.. R. 15 E.
028.239-1 INWINW'i Sec. 19' ayonler Co. Kenneth Keen 1953 Dr 105 .........- 4 H 122 13.0 7/ 8/57 J 1 D
028236-.1 SEiNW sc. 22, J. P. Cone No. 1 Humble Oil Corp. 1104 R 4,285 1,359 0D F 128.8 -..- ......... .....--. OT W-1789,
T. H1 N., R. 17 E. E
027-231-1 SELNW11 sec. 33, Southern Resin Co. Burnett Co. 1057 R 105 ............. 2 H 120 28 4/ 7/57 J 3/4 OT
T. 1N.. R. 18 E.
023-237.1 NEtNE sec. 20 H, Gardlner Kenneth Keen 1055 R 204 .......... 4 F 110 55.6 6/28/57 Su 1 OT CA-6
022-237-1 NW 'WI i sec. 28, D. Hull D. Hull 1957 R 60 48 2 H 1105 6 8/ 7/56 J 3/4 OT
S T. 1S R 17 E.
021428-1 sec. 1 .. U.S. Corps. of Engrs. U.S. Corp. of Engrs. 1032 R 165 .. 6 F 134.6 68.5 10/28/32 ....- T W-193
021.-324 TNEt'NES% sec. 8, do. do. 1932 R 100 .......... 6 H 121.7 13 10/24/32 .-- ... T W192
T. 2 S.. R. 18 E.
020-3374 NW'jSW' sec 4. 4 do. do. 1932 R 15 .-......... F 123.3 58 10/21/32 ... -- T W-191
T 2, R IT E.
019-313-1 SEjINE't C s ae. 3, U.S. Forest Service Acme Drilling Co. 1055 Dr 17 ......... 4 F 143 80.8 8/ 8/57 J 1 D CA-;
T. 2S. R 17E. CA-6
019-37.1 NE 1S e see. R. Thomas Kenneth Keen 1951 Dr 151 ....... 4 F 131 69.3 /28/57 Su 1 D CA-S
T. 2 .. iR. 17 E.
019441-1 SW`'VNW' sec 14j R. Christy Capital City 1955 R 418 220 8 F 128 54.9 1/27/58 Tu 75 Ir
T0 it., -. 16 Drilling Co.
018-29 .1 sec. 24, New Hope School Witt Electric Co. 1955 R 182 85 4 F 129 66.8 6/26/57 Su 2 P CA-8
T 2S., R 18 E.
018-240-1 i N 2EW see. 24, M.W. Sapp No. 1 Sun Oil Co. 1948 R 3.311 1,344 7% F 133 ..... ...........-. --.. OT W-1832,
T01 2., R. 1s E,
017442-1 NW SW4 see' U2, R. Harkness R-- i 45 ... 2 F 104 14.8 6/13/57 .... O 0
: T. 2 S., R. 10 E. I I. .__ I




TABLE 8. (Continued)


017-243-1
017-244-1
016-231-1
016-240-1
016-240-2
016-241-1
016-242-1
015-238-1I

015-240-1

015-241-1
015-242-1
015-247-1
014-230-1
014238-1
014-240-1
014-244-1
014-246-i
013-238-1
013-238-2
013-238-3
013-238-4
013-238-5
013-246-1
012-237-1
012-238-1
012-238-2
012-239-1
012-240-1
011-233-1
011-233-2.
011-233-3


Acme Drilling Co.
Deep Well Drilling
e During Co.
Acme Drilling Co.


1054
1942
1956


R. Bowles
Mr. Saunders
U.S. Forest Service
Mr. Harris
do.
L. Dicks
W. Youngs

S. Register
0. Holliday
R. Kelley
Bailey's Truck Stop
A. Swaine
E. Owens
U. S. Forest Service
M. Wheeler
A. Dorsey
A. Bowles
M. Russell
S. Thomas
W. Green
Mr. Freeman
S. Thomas
do.
G. Richardson
C. Wieselthaler
A. Douglas
A. Herb
P. Giebeig
0. Ravndal
U. S. Forest Service
B. Hawkins
do.


Kenneth Keen
Acme Drilling Co.
Kenneth Keen


Witt Electric Co.
do.


Rotary Tool Co.


Witt Electric Co.
Kenneth Keen
do.
Rotary Tool Co.
........................................
Kenneth Keen
S. Thomas
Rotary Tool Co.
Witt Electric Co.
Rowe Bros.
Rotary Tool Co.
Witt Electric Co.
do.
do.
Kenneth Keen
......... .......................


1052
1955
1953
1947
1957
1955


1955


1955
1956
1952
1957


1955
1953
1957
1953
1947
1957
..........
1955
1957
1955


Rotary Tool Co. 1957
Witt Electric Co. 1957


R
R
R
R
R
R
Dr

Dr
Dr
Dr


Dr
Dr
Dr
R
Dr
Dr
Dr


Dr











R


Dr
Dr
R
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
R
Dr
Dr
R
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr


44
230
234
125
10
147
105

138
130
112
150
90
161
17
185


225
118
165
184
11
144
40
225
145
165
160
265
139
255
167
1i


63
177



72
60




70
115


151
17
104


151


105
100
11
60
40
135
78
113
............
.............
107


..........
1i


2
8
6
4
14
4
4

4
4
4
4
4
4
1 %
4
4
4
4
4
4
1'
4
2
4
4
4
4
4
4
6
4
14


H1
SF?
F
F
F


F
F

F
'F

F



N

F
F




F
F
F
Sr









F
N
F










H
F
F
F
F


F


F
F
F
F
F
F
F
H
N


113 23.9
94 32
152 81.5
142 82.5
142 2.1
145 92.1
140 74.8

147 87.3
132 78.6
127 71.8
144 86.1
iodis so*
173 113
4.0
142 82.8
131 74.6
154 110
150 84
160 96.7
160 93.5
160 1.9
171 104
171 11
133 78
178 110
169 104
171 113
171 105.1
147 85
179 123
192 6
192 2.9


6/13/57
7/54
12/ /57
6/ 6/57
6/ 6/57
6/ 4/57
8/13/87

6/26/57
6/ 8/57
6/ 5/57
6/ 5/57
5/29/57
1/ 4/58
5/28/57
6/28/67
6/ 4/57
4/16/55
8/ 7/56
6/26/57
10/22/57
6/26/57
6/26/57
6/26/57
2/ 7/57
6/ 4/53
7/47
6/26/57
12/13/57
7/15/55
4/ 7/57
7/ 8/57
7/ 8/57


Pt
Tu


Su
Pit
Su
Su

J
Su
J3
3


3
Pit
Su
3
3
3
Su
Su
Pit


J
Su
Tu
Tu
Su
3
3
Tu
Ji
Pit


1/2 D
20 I'r
O0
1/2 D
D
1 P
3/4 D

3/4 D
1/2


1 p
D
1& D


1 D
1 D
1 D



1/2 D
.-- O0


1/2 D
1 D
4 D
2 p
1 D
2 D
1 D
10 Ir
1/2 D
0


CA-6
CA-6
CA-0






CA-S
CA-6





W-4522



CA-6
CA-S


CA-6



CA-6


W-702
CA-4


CA-6


-- --













TAaBL 8. (Continued)

Caslt Water level Pump



number Location Owner Driller I



__ 1 I B d l i iI I
....... ... .,, ,, 1


NWIiNE14 Hc. 35.,
T. 3 S.,. 17 E.
NE'INEB' sec. 34,
T. 3 S., R. 17 E.
SW!'NWL4 see. 35.
T. 3S. R. 17 E.
SE't.NEr" sec. 33,
T. 3 ., R. 17 E.
SW3.NW'.! sec. 34.
T. 3 R. 17 E.
SENSNW',4 sec. .3,
T. 3 S. R. 17E.
SWENWi sec. 33
T. 3 S., R. 17 E.

SEW'SiW'. sec .20,
T. 3 S.. R. 17 E.
ESW NW see. 29,
T. 3S.. R. 27E.
NSWI4 msaec. .29,

T. 3S R. 17 E.
N8WS S sec. 29,
T. 3S. R. 17 E.

NEiISWH sec. 29,
T. 3S, R. 17 E.



16 E.
SWIS V' sec. 21,
T. 3 S. R. 1 E.
SW('SW', sec. 31,
T. 3 S..R. 17 E
SNEOWK see. 36,
T. 3S., R. 16 E.
SENSEW' asec. 28,
T. S., R. 16 E.
NEj T. 3 R. 16 E.
1 NW1'4 sec. 34,
T. 3S. R. 16 E.
SW'lNW'i sec. 32,
T. 3 S. R. 16 E.
SE'NWlMI sec. 32,
T.3 S, R, 16 E.


SE'NE"4 see. 23,
T. 3S. R. 15 E.


Southern Wood Co. Rotary Tool Co.
E. Coast Lumber Co. .........................................


H. Kager
Kayo Service Sta.
Florida Power and
LLght Co.
Hollngsworth Pool
Steak House
Lake City Laundry
do.
do.
Lake City
do.
Coca Cola Co.
Division Hospital
J. Carter
W. Hackney
O. Ravndal
do.
R. Justice
C. Calkins
H. McGuire
E. Jones
J. Ferguson
J. Hunter


Rotary Tool Co. 1956
Rowe Bros. 1952
Stevens Southern Co. 1945
....... ...... ........ ............. 1948


Rotary Tool Co.
do.
W. R. McGrew Co.


M. Miller
Rotary Tool Co.
Witt Electric Co.
do.
Witt Electric Co.
do.
Acme Drilling Co.
Gaylord Co.
Rotary Tool Co.
Luke Lang
Kenneth Keen
Gaylord Co.


1955
1955
1927
1905
1943
1956
1955


1955
1955

1955
1958

1955
1988
1957
1968


1946


Dr
R
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr


Dr
R
Dr
Dr


Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr


Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr


110



157
150


...........
80o
35
127
105
300+
198
110
78








100
loot
704


90o


F 200
H 200
II 200
F 195
F 197
F 194
F 193
F 188
N ISO
F 190

F 198
F 197.5
F 190
F 185
F 180


F
F 100
F 163
F 98
F 112
F 102
F -
F -


135
8.0
10
133
131.9



125


120
133.2
134.7
137.5
123
104.0


16
46.3
120.9
50
68.5
61


45


9/55
7/23/57
7/22/57
10/12/56
7/23/57



7/11/57


8/20/55
12/16/57
4/12/34
2/ 6/58
6/10/56
1/20/55


5/ /57
5/ 6/57
7/15/87
?7/5
1/25/88
1/25/58


7/57


Su


3
Su
Su
Tu
PI



Tu
Tu
A


Su
J
J



Su
J


3


P1


In
0
O
D
P
In
P
P
0
In
In
0
O
0
0
O


P
D
D
In
In
D
D
D
D
D
D


CA4
CA-& 0
CA-



CA
CA-5


W-4548
CA-"


011-234-1
011-235-1
011-235-2
011-236-1
Olt233-
011-236-2
O02-236-3
011-236-4
011-237-1
011-238-1
011-2382
011-238-3
011-238-4
011.238-8
011-239-1
011439-2
011-23-3
011-240-1
011241-1
011-242-1
011-244-1
011-2442
011-245-1
011-245-2
011-246-1


CA46


w4549





I





. TABLE 8. (Continued)


Gable-Rosa


1la. Forest Service Stevens Southern Co. 1045 Ur
Columbia Machino Co. Kenneth Keen Dr


010-234-1
010-234.2
010-235-1
010-235-2
010-23-3
010-235-4
010-23S4
010-23-1
010-2364
0106237-1
010-237-2
010-2374
010-237-3
010-374

010-237-5
010-237-7
010-237-7
010-238-1

'010-238
010-238-3
0104384


010-2394
010-230-3
010-240-1
010-240-
010-240-
010-240-4
010-240-6
010-240-
0104241-1


NIA1SW1i see. 1,
NE2llSW2 see. 1.
T.4..17 E.


SEi se. 34,
T3 S. R. 17 E.
SE I see. 2,
T. 45,, R. 17'E.
SEANWLA see 2.
T. 4 .. R. 17 E.
SE'SE'.i sec. 3,
T. 4 SR.W 17 E.
E A sec. 34,
T. 3.. R. 17 E.
NWM SW',! see, 3.
T. 45 R. 17 E,
NEVSEk. sea. 32.
T. 3.V W. 17 E.
NWSW14A sec, 33,
T. 3 S.. R. 17 E.

T. R. 17 E.
NW W. see. 33
T. 3 R. 17 E,
NEIIOWI' see. 33,
T. 3 17 E,
NE !NEUh sec. 4,
T. 4S R. I E.
NEII.NEI' sec. 4.
T. 4 S 17 E,
NWk INEi sec. 5,
T. 4 S.. R. 17 E.

SWI NEW, sec. 5

T. 4 R. 17 E.
T. 4 R 17 E.


T. 3 R. 17 E.
SEW~4 sec. 36,




T. 3 R. 10 E.
NE!VE1NW sec. h
W S i. R1E.
NENFW! see. 1.
T. .R E.1
^T. 3 8 10 E.
SW IIS see. 31.
T. 3 .. R. 1 E.
NWE-SWII see, .
T. 3S. R. 16 E,


T. Daniels
U. S. Navy
R. Bishop
Newton Corp.
L. Hill
Lake City
do.
CIdo.
do.
J. Alderman
Country Club
do.
Lake City


do.
do.
O. Br.dley
W. Epperson
P. Sandlin
J. Stewart
Connetts Florist
C! York
C. Cornmnn
L, D;vls
E. Hosford
W. Rimes
L. Turner


Or 372 162 10 F 163 123.8 12/18/57 Tu
Dr 35 .......... 8 I 182 123.8 12/18/7 Tu


Rotary Tool Co.


Rotary Tool Co.
Stevens Southern Co.
Rotary Tool Co,
Libby nnd Freeman
dlo.
Morrell Gray
Kenneth Keen
Rutary Tool Co,
do.
Rowe Bros.
Layne-Atlantic Co.


Gray-Stevens
do.
Rotary Tool Co.
Witt Electric Co.


Witt Electric Co.
Ido.
Rotary Tool Co.
Wilt Electric Co.
Rowe Bros.
Acme Drilling Co.
Luke Lang
........ .................................


1016


1057
19467
1045


1951
1051
1981
1057
1950
1050

1953

1947
1940


1934
1034
10956
1956
..........
1956
1956
1055
1955
1944

.......
1906
.. .........


R
Dr
R
Dr
R
Dr
Dr
R
Dr
R
R
Dr
R


Dr
Dr
IIt
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
R
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr


400 ............
115 104
225 110
19 10
228 86
350 120
152 104
300 145
275 157
310 126
345 .........
175 130
225 124
133 03
1.125 650


360 180
325 160
225 84
160 ...........
130 110
174 42
......................
225 84
152 62
200 ...........
138 ...........
130 ...........
145 ............


202

200
189


168
190
150
188
185
'186
185
163



143,0


101.1
104.4
110-5
176
171
174
107
165
165
161
159
156
150


U. S. Navy


W-65.
CA.
CA-4
CA-


10.5
134
4.1
103


101.4
128
125
124.7


108
80
05
02.6


38.8
42.2
50
125


120.5
125
124.4
120
120.5
110.3
113.1
......... .


7/24/67
7/58
5/ 7/57
9/ 1/57


7/ 0/57
9/14/51
10/ 7/51
12/20/57


0/17/57
7/53
7/47
11/ 1/57


11/ 7/34
11/ 7/34
6/17/56
7/56


7/10/67
7/10/57
7/10/57
5/27/58
7/10/57
8/15/87
7/17/57
................


Tu


Su
Pit
J
Tu
Su
Tu
Tu











C
C
Su
J
Pi
3
J
Su
3
Su
Su
SJ
3T
Tu


40 0
15 P
i1 P
5 p
1 D
3 In


1 D
15 In
3/4 D
40 P
40 P
60 P
-- T
2 D
5 P
5 Ir
........... O0


20 U
20 U
2 D
1 D
D
I D
1 D
1 D

li P

1 D
1 D
100 Ir


z










IO


0.


I I T I I I


I I I


CA-5
W-4520,
CA-S
CA-6
CA-6
W-4210,
CA-
W-23154.
CA-5E

CA-6
CA4
CA-6
W-209
(plugged
at 836It)







CA-












TABLe 8. (Continued)

Canl Water level Pump



Wer Loea i JOwa


see. 34,

S18 E.
R.' y1,
f cE1t, r sea. 34.

T. 3S. R. 1 .
NEt MSN see. 34,

T. 3 R. If Z.
WEOW sec. 34.

TS 16 E.
S see. 34,
T 3S R 1 E.

see. ,33
T. 4. 15 E.




11 W
W W'. 30,
T.4 R. 15. E
S Wtsec. 10,
T. 4S. 17 E.
NW3Ut Es see. 10.



T. 4 E.
See. ,2'


T"4& Ri. E.
T. 4 S.. R. 17E.



T 4 sec. 1E.



S.
'4 sec. 8,
T_4 R. 17 E.
sec. 10,
T.4S. R17E.
NE 11 iW see. 8,




SEY W sec. 8,.
T. 4S. R. 17 E.
Ev4%Ws,. S


Keran's
H. Van Andal
W. Morrell
M. Putch
J. Meyers
W. Morrel
R. Dunaway
do,
Mr. Bales
W. Hunter
P. Browning
Dubols Fence Co.
S. Wlliams
R.. M. shop
do.
do.
R. M. Bishop No. I
LH. l
J. Fraser
R. Catholic Church
G. Summeral
L. Shaw
do.
C. Baldwin


Witt Electric Co.
Rotary Tool Co.


Rowe Bros.
Luke Lang
Rotary Tool Co.
do.
do.
Kellog Co.
Rotary Tool Co.


Rotary Tool Co.


Rotary Tool Co.


Rotary Tool Co.
Sun Ol Co.
do.
do.


Rotary Tool Co.
do.
do,

do,


19S6
lS7


1947

1957
1940
1967
1966

1955
199
196

1955


1956


1966
1949
1957
1956


1956
1956
1956


Dr
R


Dr
Dr
R
R
R
Dr
R




R


R

R
R
R


R
R
R
-


137
200
113
201
188
169
185
350
188
265

14225

200
205
88
225
2.827
305
250
178
320
145
160
145


83
110


150


121
145
64
95






84


90
-1
788
180
96


105


4
5


4
2
4
4
4
4
6
4
4
4
4
2

4
7%-
5
8
4
6
4
3
4


r
r
F


r
r


r
F


F



r
r
r


F
F

F
F





F
F
F
F





F
F


IM
147

162
165
158
156
147
164
155
150
144
15S
167
135
164
167
167
164
109


165
1305
1305

13065
130_5


00.0
127
Dry
105+


103.5
128.4
119
111
113
122
110



14.0
120
101
73
58
122.3
87
85
84


7/55
2/ 1/57
7/15/57
1/47


1/ 5/57
7/10/57
6/30/55
9/ 0/56
1/28/58
7/56
7/55



7/25/57
7/5836
8/ 0/49
7/23/57
6/12/56
1/28/58
6/17/56
6/20/56
6/19/56


Su
Su


Pi
Pi
Su
Su


Su
Tu
Su
Su
Pt
Su


Su



Tu


Su

J
J
:


2


1
3/4
1
3/4


1/2
42
1
1









2
1
I



6


2
1
1
2


P
D
O
D


D

D
D







S
0
D


In
Ir

D
D












D
O

D



0- I
D
D
D


0104414
010445-

0104464
0104424
0104424

010434.
010434-

010447-1
01044u74
mo0I7-
0104(74
000434-1
000-235-1

00.4364
004-36-4


00043643
0004384
000237-1
009437


000.2384
000.384-


0084380
009438


W.4520


W-1981,
W30
W-4330


' '


' '





TABLE 8. (Continued)
00"0384 S'WW wse. 8, L. La"' Witt Electric Co, 1953 Dr 125 66 4 F 120. '66 10/ 7/53 -..-.-.... P
T. 4 S., R. 17 E.
009439-1 SW V 4 sec. 7, E. Burnette Rotary Tool Co. 1955 R 205 88 4 F 75.0 7/55 Su 1 D
T. R. T "m-
0043942 N E f.1 E se. 7, R. Dicks Acm'e Drilling Co. 196 Dr 158 -- 4 F 167 120.8 9/23/57 Su 3/4 D CA-6
T. 4 S.. A. 17 1k.
.009-239-5 NE 1EV c.7, W. Miller 'Bradley -- Dr 148 2 F 172 ..---.... Pi 1/2 D CA4
.T R 17 E.
.009 44.39 sec. 7 Bullard, Jr. Witt Electric Co. Dr 128 4 F 119 95.5 4/17/56 J I D
o000-239-6 W S J.. Ha do. 1953 Dr 114 92 4 F 116 76.5 7/53 Pi 3/4 D
009-239 SW si S. Jones Rotary Tool Co. 1957 R 168 108 4 F 120 83 11/1/57 Su 3/4 D W-1S3
00-241-1 SE iSE K L. Curry Witt ElectricCo. 1057 Dr 150 84 4 F 126 88 6/20/57 Su I D W-4530
T. 4S. 18 IE.
009-2414-2EWR secI 11,Mrs.H ____________ ___ Dr 7 7 4 F 167 130.7 7/15/57 J 1 D CA-6
009-41-3 %N see. 0 Ostendorf Rotary Tool Co. 1957 R 148 112 4 F 118 81.7 8/13/57 Su 3/4 D W-4526,
009441-4 SW 1 11, S. Robbinson Rowe Bros. 7 Dr 198 115 4 F 147 120 3/ 7/57 Pi 3/4 D A
009-241-5 SS 'see. 10, ? ___Dr 7 4 4 F 94 57.9 8/15/57 I D O
009941- see. 11 E.Jones A. B. Cark Dr 108 4 F 104 72.5 7/17/57 Su 1 D CA4
T. 4 S. .10 E.
00944-1 m.e. p F. Crawford Acme Drilling Co. Dr 4 F 116 80.4 8/9/57 Su 1 S CA- .
00O-244-1 2SE
00M94471 SES sec.. Kie Vining No.1 Gult Oin Corp. 1950 R 3.470 1.457 7% --- 107 ... -- ... .... OT W-14,
006- .1 sec. 14, M. Rock Rotary Tool Co. 1956 R 185 84 4 F 146 102.1 7/25/57 Su 3/4 D E E
T.14S. E.1V2
00-~ 351 sNW e. 14. J. Perry LukeLang 1980 Dr 150 4 F 154 106.4 7/25/57 Su 3/4 D
0084W-.1 S 1 s. 1e W. Tyre Dr 75 75 2 F 107 69.4 7/29/57 ........- O
008~43-1 f se. 16 do. Witt Electri Co. 1953 Dr 100 73 4 F 105 67.5 7/20/57 J IS, S
T.4 R. 17 E
0083W7-2 SW Sk eci, Tyre do. 1954 Dr 188 4 F 97 55.7 1/2/58 ........ In
T. 4s. 17 ..
00437 4- SWI, f sec. 16, do. Rotary Tool Co. 1956 R 175 4 F 103 67.9 7/25/57 Su 3/4 D
T. '4 R, 17 E.
0084-4 SE se. 17, W. Wager Henderson 1954 R 138 70 4 F 103 65 7/ /54 J 1 P CA-6
006-2381 SE .4 see. 17, W. Douberly Rotary Tool Co. 1957 R 137 130 4 F 108 67.6 12/18/57 J Ilk D W.4534 P
T. 4 S., R. 17 E.
00423&8 Center se. 17. Sundial Motel Acme Drilling Co. 1953 Dr 102 ..... 4 F 99 64.3 7/30/57 Su 1I P CA-6
T. 4 5.. R. 17 E.
0089-2 83 SW I' s1e Howard Johnson Rotary Tool Co. 1957 R 229 98 6 F 101 68.8 6/13/57 Tu 5 P
T. 4 S.I t. 17 E.
000 239-1 NEI 18, A. Penner Warren 1954 Dr 125 .... 4 F 131 91.4 9/23/57 J 1 D CA-6
T.4 R. 17 E.
006-2W32 NE W sec. 18, J. Bullard Kellog 1950 Dr 185 -.... 4 F 139 100 7/50 J 1 D
T. 4 R. 17 E.
008-42-1 SWNW'P see. 15. L. Owens Rotary Tool Co. 1956 R 254 84 4 F 104 66.5 8/15/57 J 3/4 D CA.6
T.4 S.. R. 1s E.
0068442 SEiNWt see. 15, A. Baugh Witt Electric Co. 1956 Dr 155 .--.... 4 F 60 /56 J 1 D
T. 4 S.. R.. 16 E.
007-234-1 SW SW', sec. 24, E. Dicks Rotary Tool Co. 1956 R 168 ............. 4 F 151 108.2 7/29/57 Su 3/4 D
T 45 R 17 E.
001435-1 SW I4 sec. 23 W. Houston Acme Drilling Co. 1954 Dr 135 ............. 4 F 150 107.7 7/25/57 Su 3/4 D
T. 4.. R. 17 E. 'S 3/4 S WA
007-24354 SE NE sec. 22, W. Crews Rotary Tool Co. 1957 R 167 102 4 F 134 99 8/ 9/57 *Su 3/4 S W4525.
T. 4 5., R. 17 E. CA











TAuL 8. (Continued)

Causn Water level Pwmp




Costa nJii




0074-36 SWi5 sec. 23, H. Peacock do. Iw RI 150 ... 4 F 154 110.8 7/29/57 Su 3/4 D
007436. SW sc. 22, L.Coleman Wtt Electric Co. 195 Dr 122 .-- 4 134 10/ /5 J 1 D
007-2437-1 7 NZ ec'. 20, A. Cargola Rotary Tool Co. 19o7 t 362 73 4 106 0 7.8 I/ 6/b7 Su 3/4 D
0074174 NW W .% e. 21 Buckeye Motel -- 85 4 F 100 d2 7/57 J 1 P
007437.3 SW lN i see. 1. J. Johnson .- -5 -. 4 F 03 80 11/7/57 J I D CA.
T. 4 R. 1 E1
00,4374 NW 41 se. 21, S. KuschU Rotary Tool Co. 1957 R 185 106 4 F 91 58.1 11/7/57 Su I P W-45
T. 4 ,,I R. 17 EX
007- 37,6 SW 1 see. 21, C. HIl Acme Drilling Co. 196 Dr 106 4 F 98 59.7 11/ 4/57 Su D
T. 4S, R 17 E.
007-2374 SW SES'o sect. 21, Holiday Motel Rowe Bros. r 150 4 F 105 67 /57 Tu 3 P CA.
T. 4S R 17 E.
007-39.1 SE3.Ni see. 10, M. Aklns Rotary Tool Co. 1956 R 165 0 4 F 84 44.5 9/4/57 Su 3/4 D CA-
T. 4 S.. S. 17 E.
007-22-2 NWiSW% see. .19, W. Bedenbaugh do. 157 R 143 63 4 F 92 50 10/23/n 7 J 1 D W-423
T. 4 S., R. 17
0017294 SESW sec.19. H. Nettles LukeLang 1957 Dr 90 4 F 87 57.2 9/24/57 J 1/2 D CA-
007.240-1 SESNW sec. 24, H. Douberly Rotary Tool Co. 158 R 148 95 4 F 102 68. 1/2/58 J I D
T. A S., R. 16 E.
007-43-1 SEi;N ee. 21, A. Stevens Kenneth Keen 1955 Dr 150 4 F 182 120 1/ /55 Su 3/4 D CA-
T. 4 S, R. 16 E.0/
006i2-1 SEfSIr s. 27, Rayonler Co. 193B Dr 300 --- 4 H 152 3 ?/50 : 3/4 D
T. 4S. R. 18 E.
006-234-1 SET.' see. 26, J. Pyle Acme Drilling Co. 19 Dr 140 120 4 F 124 88.1 7/29/57 1I D
T. 4S., R. 17 E.
006.234-2 NW SW ec. D. Doppler Rotary Tool Co. 1S6 R -- -- 4 F 119 82 7/29/57 Su 1 D
T 4SR 17 E.
006S3-1 SEEr'w7 se., E. Roberts do. 1955 R 163 80 4 F 8 75 10/ 7/5 Su 3/4 D
T. 4S R. R E.
006436-2 NESk sec. 8, R. Bedenbaugh Witt Electric Co. 1951 Dr 118 4 F J 1 D
005413-3 R 1ec.33, Rose Creek Tower -_D_1_7_._-- Dr 147 2 F 138 -- --- J 1/2 D
T.41 W! 1173.
006437-1 N E s'ee. 28, G.PetfUohn Kenneth Keen 1951 Dr 95 4 F 100 60 6/ /51 J 3/4 D
T.4 R. 17 E.
006437-2 SW smtc. 28, N. Sellers -- Dr 4 F 121 79 9/f2/57 Su 1 D CA-6
006-23-1 S4NE1 sec. 30. J. Tice Lbby and Freeman 1956 Dr 280 135 6 F 92 63.0 6/ ?/58 Tu Ir CA-5
T.4 S.. R. 11 E. 1
006-39-2 NWjSW% see. 30 B. Summers Dr 100 -- 2 F 105 0 /57 D
T. 4 S R.17 E.
006-241-1 SEclNf1 sec. 27. W. F. Johnson No. 1 Sun Oil Corp. 1949 R 3.050 1,316 7% 76 __ OT W-1915,
ST. S.. 16 E. E_




TABLE 8. (Continued)


006-247-1
0054-34-1
005-234-2'
006-34&

005-236-21

05-23-3
0055-23

0054-2304





006-236-10

005-236-11
005-236-12
005oo24


005-246-1

0054344
004-4051


004-236-1

004-236-1
004-236-2


0044364



00437--2
004-3741
054438-1
0044239-1
004242-1
004-246-1
004-2464-2
003234%-1


SES. sec. 26
T. 4 S. R. 15 E.
SEiSW'S sec. 36,
T. 4 S.R. 17 E.
NWEISW*' sec. 34,.
T. 4. R. 17 E.
SNEWNW1i sec. 34,
T. 4 .. R. 17 E.

1 cE34.
SE W sec. 3,.
17 E.


T. IS. R. 17 E.
SEiSNW' sec. 34,
T. 45. R. 17 E.




T. 4 S.. R. 17 E.
SEW.NW. sec. 3,
T. 5 S... 17 E.

SWNs. sec. 3,
T. 5 S.. R. 17 E.
SW %NiW. sec. 3.
T. 5S.-R. 17 E.

SENSWE~W sec. 3,
T. S.. .R. 1 E.
S sec. 3.

T. S.R. 17 E.
NOSW Es sec. 1,
T.5 S. R 17 E.
SENW%'4 sec. 3.
T. 5 S.. R. 17 E.

SEWiNWi! sec. 3,
T. 5 S.. R. 17 E.
SNE'SW see. 3,
T. 5 S. 17 E.
SNWE. sec. 3,
T.5 S., R. 17 E.
SEINW'N see. 10,
T. 5 S.. R. 17 E.
SE14NW'4 sec. 9.



SWWNE4 sec. 1.



SW INWS sec. s1,


T.5 S.. R. 17 E.


Kenneth Keen
do.
Rowe Bros.


C. Allison
R. Cox
R. Dicks
State Road Dept.
L. Jones
R. Nettles
J. Nettles
R. Meyer
F. Jones
J. McKolsky
W. Tippins
A. Pohill
H. Woods
L. Hutchinson
W. Eppling
Pine Rose Church
M. Feagle
C. Rogers
Clarence Loyd No. 1
W. Tippins
W. Subanco
Ramona Park Motel
G. Rogers

3. Rigdon
S. Keen
S. Lamb
D. Dicks
R. Robbinson
R. McCormick
A. Noll
C. Terry
O. Dicks


Rotary Tool Co.
R. Meyer
Acme Drilling Co.
Kenneth Keen
Kenneth Keen
do.
Witt Electric Co.
Kenneth Keen
do.
Henderson
Luke Lang
Rotary Tool Co.
Sun Oil Corp.
do.
Wilt Electric Co.
Joe Hare


Witt Electric Co.
Rotary.Tool Co.


Witt Electric Co.
Libby and Freeman


Kenneth Keen
Luke Lang
Rotary Tool Co.


1955
1953


Rotary Tool Co. 1957


Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
R
Dr
R
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
R
Dr
R
R
R
Dr
Dr


1957


1952

1950

1950

1955

1951
1950


1957


1956
1949



1956


150
128
126
102
160
100
130
85
120
112
112
112
115
125
125
115
140
154
2.929
12t
86
125
73
101
165
200
180
220
88
156
152
150


90
64


80
90


81
60


s0
s0









110

1.376



55


62
80+


88



48


86


10
4
4
2
4
2
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

4
4
4

7%
4
2
4
4
4
4
4
4
10
4
4
4
4


' '


F
F
F
F
F
P
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F


F
F
F
F

F
F
F

F
F
F
F
F
F


121
142
144
136
100






100
1005
1005
1005
1005
1005
96
104
147
125
1005
1005
109
112
99.4
157
151
171
79
57
96
105
144


88
113


99.5
61.6


60
55.1
60
60
60.0
60
55
60
60
62.1
68
105


.-


75
Dry
66.50
122
117
139
44.3
31.1
74.4


104


1/28/58
?/53


11/ 4/57
11/ 7/57


9/ 7/57
9/13/57
7/52
7/50
2/50






10/ 8/57
I/27/s8
2/ 4/58





7/4/56
9/23/57

6/13/57
9/27/57
9/27/57
7/ ?/56
9/28/57
9/23/57
8/12/57


10/14/57


Tu
J
PI


Su
3
J
J

J
J

J


J
J
J

Sn
Su
Su





Su



Su
Su
Su
Tu
J
Su
Su
J


I-I Dr


82
1
1


1
1/2
1
1/2



1
1


1



3/4
3/1
1

3/4


3/4


I
3/4
1







3/
1



3/4
1


3/4
3/4
3/4
1


Ir
D
D
0
P
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
S
D
OT
OT
OT
P
0

0
D
D
D
Ir

D
D
D
D




D


Dr
R
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
R


1957


1954
1956


1956
1957
1957


CA-6
CA-S














W4531
W-190.
E


CA-6
CA-6


W-4524


' '










TAtu 8. (Continued)

CausE Water Weve PUmp


__5___ Le __ ___ a I I I i s I 3 Al





U.M1 I W lw. 1., C.Didck do. 1s7 R 173 120 4 F 143 107.4 926/,7 Su I D
OMJMS wi. s 10 .l J. itt Witt Electrf Co. Dr 1US -- 4 F 129 .57 9T /W9 J 1 D
1M834 S2 et. 10, do. do. 15N Dr 146 5 4 7 130 SO 10/2/5% Su 3/4 D
T. 5L5. 3.1 1
u SE, se. 10. do. Dr 100 -- 4 F 127 2 92U 7 PI 0
T. 55. 3. 17 ."
0a4a-1 l' eW 17. D. Dicks L~bb and Freeman 1966 Dr 1U0 8 10 7 83 51 A 2/10/5M Ti 3 Ir CA,
T. I .I. 17 Z.
O140T-1 ~ I. 1. A. Terry Luke Lafn 1 Dr 145 80 4 F 8 50 S 7/56 Su 2 D

on=1 NW1SVec. 22. Mason Centraj School Rowe Br. 1547 Dr 150 S 4 F 10s Pi 1 P
O R 1R. E
4 NW smc.22. S. Osteen do. 1944 Dr 141 4 F I t ?/44 J I D
IL IT E.
0t-AS.4 E tse. W. TIre Rotary Tool Co. IS17 R 145 4 F 106 72.4 /614 S7 Su 1 D C4
ooB w4 W Wi? ue. 2. P. Pierce Luke Lang 16M Dr 140 45 4 F 152 112 12/ 7/M Pi 1 D
T .;5 IL17S.
,51dB Piw s21, do. Dr 12 111 2 F 152 "11t 1/llT 0
4 sec. 17. C. ixon Florida Growers Is Dr 2 0o 8a F 0- 3/ ?/55 Tu -- Ir
T. S .B 17
T..5 5.. 3. 17 3.
001-.1I iEi ', H. Markham 1IS Dr III 2 F 142 0 ot 7/7 P1 3/4 D
I-i- SW k ec.27. P. Baria Acme Drillin Co. ISA Dr 1I3 3 F 12 5s0 71/ P1 3/4 D
11-a SS ee.27, do. Dr S0 2 F 1.26 50 ___ .
V. S. 17'-2.
001s,-*I s4 2 T. WatsLo T. Watsona US1 Dr 55 0 3 F s 55.0 10/8/57 J 1 D W-45~
001445 EI S mc. U S. Watson Fla. State Road Dept. Dr W -07 F 7 43 10/ S/S .
W.41M .- 1 SE356. Mr.' FaPBlk-er IS_ 10 0 Dr 1 2 TO S/ / 3/"4 D
S0~41 sswr.w ec. J. Bal e Florida Growers 1SB Dr 350 .. F 105 67 11/12/1 Tu 40 Ir
0T.05.3. 17Z.
INWSE% sec. 34. do. J.Ba"ley Dr 65 6 2 F 61 4/134 -. D
0 7-41 3 P S- R-. aldwanger Robb anon Bros. IS6I Dr 7 80o 2 F 103 d0 V2/ 7/ Pi 3/4 D
BM00.51 S'ij. s &c. L ,. Mawell Ibb and Freeman 1SS9 Dr 235 S 10 F 95 MJS a/ 7/7 Tu 50 Ir
____._. T. 5 5, R. IT_ _.




TABLE 8. (Coitinued)


9SI-4-1






maSS6-1
Dm"








950=-


57-57-1


9516304






















0".37-1
a1s4a-2
.054(24
955413-1
.554(34
SS3S1


SWWsIW. me. 33.
srwgt313 sec. U

SWW6EM msee.
T. 6 S.. R. 1T E.
SEwiSSw'J sec. 10.
T. S S.. R.17 E.
SE.,SWt see. 10,
T. S- R. 17 E.
SW6g-w'i sec. 15.
T. 6 75.. Z 17.
SEWNWir sec. 16.
T. 6 S.. I. 17 Z.
SEf.NSEw see. 17.

S. L TE.


Swm K sem. 22,
T. U S.. R. 17 .



.Sl sec 17,

EA sme. 23,
T. IL 17 iE.



,1 2I5.
T. S... 173E.
sec. 19,
T. 1E.


A EV see. 9S,
T. aS.. B.17 Z.


R. 16 3.

Ssee. 29,
T 16 E.
S3i5sec. 5.





Iq if. .2-.
S S43 sec. 30,

T. 65..i. 17.
KE E see. 33.
T. 6 5..R. 16 E.
*W1 see. 30,
T. 6S.. 16 E.
N E.Bm sec..33.
T. B 16 E.


S. Waona
W. Moody
J. Pope
L. Bailey
3.Hs'ne
O. Harrel


H. Pope
r Haswkins
G. Graham
W.Johontor
H. Byals
J. Martin
Fl. Power Corp.
A. Grah bf


D. gBorts
3. Means
Rer. .LEk el
B. moae7
Mr. Wlso
J. Carter
Boy Wlbson
C. Coomce
M.L Feale
B. Owsle
Cob bla Co School
Ft White Scool
do.
B. Pearson
Atlantic Coastline RB
O'eno State Park


otary Taol Cb.
J. Martin
Acme Deiing Co.


Erow Bros.


Acme DrUng Cb.
do.
Ame aDr Ilh co.



Io coon
John Martin



Witt Electric O.


I


Atlantic Coastlie RR. -
Maxwell (Camp Le9
Rla=ger)


PFlrida Growers
A. B. Clar
Boe Bros.
Heoderson
Fla. State Road Dept


Rowe Brs.
do.
3. Martin


..m


T.am.z 8. (mitinued)


IS55


IS1
.ISO






1936






1S.5
169S4


1938



1ses4



I1


300
135


225
230
152
212
142


120
115
150
as51
m
319




10
158








BI
180
75



120
140
150
Ts


53
65
8S
125
50


TD
70
110


D6



134












50



so


SD
















100
50





100


CA.
I C&A


12


177
161
171
179


I"
145
148


10
a

146
132



lm
143.0
147
as


61


93
S3



1B6
63
84
57.5
do


30.4DA
231.9
144


142
145.0
85.1


114
im0
111.2
m.7


115
1G0
S24

100e



122.
5.5A
45
35
40-
ST
T75
3S-1
34.3


34.5
271


2f /55
8/7/57

/ 7/357


4/14/34


8/56



5/ 2/57




8/2/37
4/12/4








1/ Wns

10/ 9/57

7/36

17/0

1/7/01


9/11/57
10/ 8/am
4/117/53
4/23/34
T/3B


Th
S.
J
Su
Pl
Pi



Pi

P1
Pi
Sa


J
P1
Pi
Pi

SP

Sm
Su




J





Tn


So



J


- I I I


5
1/








l/
3/4
/24
3/4
3/4


1
1
3/4
3/4






1/2








3
1/2








3


o Ir
3 S
D
2 D
lD
I In

4 D
D
D
D

D
D


D
D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
0
D
D
D
D
P
0
P
D


P


CA&
arSs


CA4


I


I I


I I












TAUs 8. (Continued)

Cauins Water level Pumnp



wILk Lcatioea Owner Driller H 1






9644M WNEW'4 sec. 2, O'Leno State Park Maxwell (Camp 19S3 Dr 110 100 3 1 60 27.0 9/30 J 3 P
T. R. 17 E. Ranger)
94,26-1 W8a m'ee. 3, Sky Road Inn Dr 76 2 F 70 38 8/1/t J 3/4 P
T. .R E. Z.
964*4364 S l 4. J. Sigleo __ 4 F 3 31.3 8//57 Su ......... D
T. 7 S..R. 17 E.
6644-.1 m1. .3, J. Henderson --- Dr 180 .---- 4 4 40 10/24/57 Su 1 In CA-4
T. S1., R. 18 E,
sM34561 SW .SW c. 10, M. Speakers Acme Drilling Co. 1958 Dr 73 48 4 T 71 34.6 8/2/57 J 1/3 P
T.7 R. 17 E.
5343 8 S 4 see. 9,. M. Brandt do. 198 Dr 100 14 4 F 72 37.8 8/ 1/57 J 1 P CA-6
T. 7 S, It 17 EZ
9003211 Ri c sc15. E. Moore Dr 68 .-- 2 64 24 2/ /57 J i/2 D
T. 7 R ITE,
OM- 4 SW'W e1. Mr. Riberd Acme Drlling Cn. 1954 Dr 200 40 10 1 8 6 33.3 11/13/57 Tu 55 Ir
T. MS. R. 17 E.
B0.380 4 SEi see. 17, D. Le do. 1965 Dr 200 42 10 1 2 35 1/ ?/55 Tu 55 Ir
T. t 17 Z.
95. -1 WQ0 4 Nef sem. 19, f. Bussey A. Miler 1967 Dr 70 -- 4 72 39.5 1/4/58 j I% D
51-231 s e. J. Cane Libby and Freeman 15 Dr SM 4 45 10.5 8/ 1/37 C 1/4 P CAl<

ALACHUA C(UNMTY


A4~5 $

SWiNE% sec. U,
T. R.I. I E.
STOiM % me. a,
T. S R.1E.

NE>'4SEit aec. 27,
T.5.. 17 E.
4E 1 me. 27.





RIE"Skl'4aee. 3,
T. ..R. 17 E.
fSE42SW sec. 34,
NE10iE seec. 3,


Snlta re R=acnh
S. Swlley
do.
V. OllIgood
Youth Camp 1
Youth Camp 2
T. Barber
Mr. Newen
.. Winters
City of High Springs
do.


Acme DMntinl o.
do.
do.
Rotary Tool Co.
do.
do.
Bare
Acme Driling Co.



Stevens Southern Co.


Fla. State Road Dept. Acme Drilling Co. --


1954
1967


1957
1957





1933
1936
19M6


Dr
Dr
Dr
R
R
R
Dr
Dr
Dr



Dr


162
387
171
235
225
70
a5
72
400
243
75


180
78
42
43


58



215


154
160.0
159
46
43


65


Ti
71
71
82


112.0
120.5
127
125.6
135
14.1
39
33
28
39.6
34
30.5


?/55
12/ 5/57
12/ 5/57
12/ 5/57



7/54
8/ 1/57


10/24/57
9/18/46
10/24/57


2
1
45
1
2
1
1


1/6
40
40
-1


CA.6


-1





























C,
c-






Li


W-4535,
E
CA-6
CAW-






W-1379


53421I
W45a6.


902363-1
951-3381


9504M31


904237-1
949-236-1
,run





TABLE 8. (Coitinued)
BAKER COUNTY


026-223-1'


014-224-1
S 014-22&-1
016221-11
012-222-1


01,-2233-2

012225-2

,,:,0 1-3S6-1'
011-226-1
011-226-2
011-2263
000-27-1
Ol 2i
,+ ,


NENEil4 sec. 3.
T. 1S., R. 19 E.
SEINW'V sec. 11,
T. 2 S.. R. 19 E.
SE14SE'E- sec. 9,
T. 3 S.. R. 19 E.
SW!SEV,, sec. 8,
T. 3 S.. R. 19 E.
NWt',SEt, sec. 24,
T. 3 S.. R. 19 E.
SWSE!. sec. 24,
T. 3 S.. R. 19 E.
NWIISW'! sec. 22,
T 3 S.. W. 1 E,
NESWc'. sec. 23,
T. 3S. R. 19 E.


T. 3 S;. R. 19 E.
NE14SW,4 see. 20,
*T. 3 S.. R. 19 E.
:NWBSW1, sec. 29.
T. 3 S. R. 19 E,
NWINSW" sec. 29,.
T. 3 S.. R. 19 E.
NEWjSW%4 sec. 29,
T. 3 S.. R. 19 E.
NWiW'A, see. 7,
T. 4 S., R. 19 E.


Surveyors Bay
U. S. Forest Service
do.
do.
Fla. Forest Service
Nursery
do.
U. S. Forest Service
Olustee Memorial
Park
T. Barnes
U. S. Forest Service
Community Camp
U. S. Forest Service
do.
U. S. Forest Service
National Turpentine
No. 1


Gray-Stevens
U. S. Forest Service


Rowe Bros.
Duval Drilling Co.
Gray-Stevens
Rowe Bros.
Rotary Tool Co.
Witt Electric Co.
do.
Gray-Stevens
Rotary Tool Co.
Witt Electric Co.
Sun Oil Co.


... Dr
1939 Dr
....... D r
........ Dr
1957 Dr
1952- Dr
1939 Dr
1954 Dr
1957 R
1956 Dr
1957 Dr
1939 Dr
1957 R
1955 Dr
1950 R


23
263
15
168+
335
465
260
310
246
340
220
230
190
45
3.043


T 8. (Corifinued)
BAKER COUNTY


23
227
14
...............
243
229
188
232
162
150


210
170


1.613


1I4 N
6 F
1 N
3 F
8 F
8 F
6 F
6 F
4 F
6 F
4 F
4 F
4 F
4 N
7 -


136
162
164
164
165
178
176
162
165


165
165
165
145


3.6
77
1.0
100.5
100.6
106.3
104
114
101
110
95
102.1
102.1

8


5/21/57
7/ 1/39
6/ 4/57
6/18/57
5/30/57
5/ 9/57
7/ 7/39
4/ 1/54
11/21/57
8/ 7/56
6/11/57
9 9/91
9/ 9/57

4/18/55


'_______HAMILTON COUNTY
0302144-1 SW SE. sec. 8., Hughes Kellog Co. 1951 Dr 140 .--- 2 F 134 40 2/51 3 1/2 D

T. I N.. R.14 E.
02.-251-1 NE see. 21, Fla. Foiest Service Rotary Tool Co. 1956 R 225 148 .4 F 140 94.5 6/ 2/56 Su .--- D
0234491 NWi 4IW see. 21. Mr. Huggins Littleton 19 6 Dr 210 185 4 F 139 89 /56 Su 1 D
T. I SR. 15 El 2l
021-.2461 SW VS i sec. 36, S. Beauchamp Rotary Tool Co. 1956 R 145 95 4 F 131 74.7 S/ 8/57 J 1 D CA8
T. I R. 15 E.
020W4,41 SESEl see. 1, Stephen Foster U. S. Corps of Engrs. 1958 R 150 __ 4 F 130 68.5 6/ 7/56 J 3 P
T. 2 S.. R. 15 E. Memorial
0202452 SESE, sec. 1, do. ..___ 1957 R 176 147 6 F 117 51.1 6/11/57 Su 5 P
S T. 2'S.. R.'15 E.
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Reconnaissance of the geology and ground-water resources of Columbia County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 30 )
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 Material Information
Title: Reconnaissance of the geology and ground-water resources of Columbia County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 30 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Report of investigations 30 )
Physical Description: viii, 74 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Meyer, Frederick W
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1962
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Groundwater -- Florida -- Columbia County   ( lcsh )
Geology -- Florida -- Columbia County   ( lcsh )
Water-supply -- Florida -- Columbia County   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Frederick W. Meyer ; prepared by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Board of County Commissioners of Columbia County and Florida Geological Survey.
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 59-60.
Funding: Report of investigations (Florida Geological Survey)
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000958575
oclc - 05836065
notis - AES1385
lccn - a 63007126
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Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Florida State Board of Conservation
        Page ii
    Transmittal letter
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        1Page viii
    Abstract
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Geography
        Page 5
        Page 4
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 12
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Geology
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 12
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Ground water
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        28a
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 22
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 34
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        36a
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 52
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 52
    References
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Tables
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
Full Text






FLRD GEOLIOWC( ICA SURflViEWY~


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information and permissions.







STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY



FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert 0. Vernon, Director



REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 30



RECONNAISSANCE OF
THE GEOLOGY AND GROUND-WATER
RESOURCES OF
COLUMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA



By
Frederick W. Meyer
U. S. Geological Survey



Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS OF COLUMBIA COUNTY
and the
FLORIDA GEOLGICAL SURVEY



TALLAHASSEE
1962












FLORIDA STATE BOARD

OF

CONSERVATION


FARRIS BRYANT
Governor


TOM ADAMS
Secretary of State



J. EDWIN LARSON
Treasurer



THOMAS D. BAILEY
Superintendent of Public Instruction


RICHARD ERVIN
Attorney General



RAY E. GREEN
Comptroller



DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGES
Director










LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
(SEAL)


)I^o~cLt (^e iaaci c>Sivc.veya

Tallahassee
August 8, 1962
Honorable Farris Bryant, Chairman
Florida State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Governor Bryant:
The Division of Geology will publish, as Report of Investigations
No. 30, "Reconnaissance of the Geology and Ground-Water Re-
sources of Columbia County, Florida," prepared by Frederick W.
Meyer, geologist with the U. S. Geological Survey, in cooperation
with this department and with the Board of County Commissioners,
Columbia County.
The Floridan aquifer was found to be principal source of ground
water in the area, containing artesian water in the northern part of
Columbia County, and being recharged in the southern part of the
county. A few wells in the northern part of the county tap water
present in sediments that lie above the Floridan aquifer. These
shallow waters are generally high in iron and tannic acid. The
details on the geology and hydrology necessary to conserve and
utilize the water available to the residents of Columbia County are
presented in this study.

Respectfully yours,

Robert 0. Vernon
Director and State Geologist















































Completed manuscript received
February 25, 1962
Published for the Florida Geological Survey by

Dixie Printing Company, Inc.
Tallahassee
August 8, 1962

iv





CONTENTS

Page
Abstract ..-----............-..-- ..-............... ....- .... .. ......----. .-- .-- ...-- 1

Introduction ....-----...........----.. ..----------... 2
Previous investigations .--..---...---------------. --.---- 3
Acknowledgments ...................................-------- ----------- -------- 3
Well-numbering system ....------- ..........---....---- .-- ....-- -- ----- 3

Geography -.....--..--....---..........-...-......- .-..----------- ----- 4
Location and extent of the area .....--- ---- ----..----- ----.- 4
Cultural Features .-..-..-........................-------..----- ------.- 6
Climate ..---...... ----..................--....------..--..- ----- 7
Topography and drainage ..--.--------...... ----.. ------------------ 7
Central highlands ...........-------..-..---------.. --------....-... 7
Coastal lowlands --........--- ..-... ----....------------- 11

Geology ............. .- --.... .--.. ------------------------ 12
Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks ..-.. -..----.--.---- -----------.. ----- 13
Tertiary System .....-..---..........-..-------------- 15
Paleocene Series .....- --.........-- ... .--.------- .....-------- 15
Cedar Keys Formation ......--........... ....-..----- ---------- 15

Eocene Series ... ........ .......-. .............- ....---- ---- --.... -- 15
Oldsmar Limestone .....................---..---------------- 15
Lake City Limestone ..--... ....-.. .. ---- -- ---- 16
Avon Park Limestone -..-._..-...-....... ........----- .. -- ------- 16
Ocala Group ..... .. ... -..... ..-.-.--------. 17
Oligocene Series ............. ...----------------........------------------- 18
Suwannee Limestone ------..-----......-- ... ------- 18

Miocene and Pliocene Series ..----.----- .--.-.....-..--------19
Miocene Sandstone and Limestone ...-----.. --------------.. 19
Hawthorn Formation -----....---- ---...----- ------------- 20
Alachua(?) Formation .-......------ ...---. ---------- --- 20
Quaternary System ..... -..-........-...--..---................ -------- 21
Pleistocene and Recent deposits --.--......................-....------------------- 21
Structure .....-..-..-....--.......----..........-........--------------- -------------- 22

Ground Water ................. ......................---............ ..------ ------- 22
Nonartesian aquifer .......-....-..-..............--....--.---------...---. .... ----... 27
Secondary artesian aquifer ...-........-............-........ ... ... .. ... ...------ ......--- 29
Floridan aquifer .............. .... .. ... .........----------------------- ..... 30
Occurrence and source ........... ...... ----......................----.....-----...... 30
Movement of water and its relation to the piezometric surface ---- 30
Recharge .....-.--....-.. .................._ -- .... .. ... ... 32
Discharge ..........- _.__.. .. .. ..............-........ ........-.......--.... ....--- .. 33
Fluctuations of the piezometric surface --....... ----.... .........----------- 33
Use of ground water ..... ... .....- ....... ..-----------.- -. 36
Hydraulic properties of the Floridan aquifer 37






Chemical quality 44
Hydrogen-ion concentration (pH) 44
Hardness __--- -- ---- 45
Dissolved solids ____- .50
Hydrogen sulfide (HsS) ..----- ....- .. .------------ ..- 50
Highly mineralized water .-------------- ---. -- 51
Pollution _5--_ _--------------.-----..--- 51
Classification of irrigation water .................... .. .......... ...... ... 51
Summary and conclusions --................. ..... ... ................... .. 52
References .... .... .. .... ........ ............ ....... .. ......... 59









































vi







ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure Page
1. Well-numbering system ...................................-- ................... ... ............... 4
2. Peninsular Florida showing the location of Columbia County .....--....... 5
3. Graphs showing the total annual rainfall and the cumulative
departure from the average rainfall at Lake City, 1893-1957 .-...-........ 8
4. Columbia County showing the principal topographic features .. facing 10
5. Geologic section in Columbia County along line A-A' ..--------.........--........... 23
6. Geologic section in Columbia County along line B-B' ............................ 24
7. Geologic section in Columbia County along line C-C' ------------- 25
8. Columbia County showing configuration on top of beds of Taylor
Age ..........--- ------ ----------.....................................-------....................................--......... 26
9. Columbia County showing configuration on top of beds of Late
Eocene Age .........-- -........... ............ ...........................-- -............ facing 28
10. Generalized sections in Columbia County showing profile of
piezometric surface of water in the Florida aquifer in June 1957,
along lines A-A' and B-B' ..................................................................----- ------- --- 31
11. Columbia County showing the piezometric surface of the Floridan
aquifer in June 1957 ...........---...................-................------- ----............... facing 32
12. Hydrograph of well 010-238-1 and rainfall at Lake City 1948-57 ...-... 34
13. Hydrographs of .wells 010-238-1 and 004-236-5 and daily rainfall
at Lake City, June-December 1957 ............... .---..................-------------..---...............-- 35
14. Columbia County and surrounding area showing the locations of
wells and stream-gaging stations ...........---...........................-.......------. facing 36
t
15. Logarithmic plot of drawdown versus -2 compared with the
r
Theis type curve, Lake City pumping test, October 1957 ---- ------- 38
16. Graph showing the theoretical drawdown in. the vicinity of a well
discharging 1,000 gpm ................................................---........................-----....-------- 42
17. Theoretical drawdowns after 1 year of pumping a group of wells
at a rate of 20,000 gpm .........................--- -- ..........................--------...... 43
18. Columbia County showing the total hardness of water from wells
that penetrate the upper part of the Florida aquifer ..-....facing 50
19. Diagram for use in interpreting the analysis of irrigation water .. 53

TABLES
Table
1. Monthly rainfall at five weather stations within a 30-mile radius of
of Lake City .....---.....--....--.-.....------------------------------- ---------------- 9
2. Geologic units and their water-bearing characteristics in Columbia
County, Florida ...-------- ------ ----- .---------------------- ---------- 14








3. Pumpage at the Lake City well field 36
4. Theoretical transmissibility of the Floridan aquifer in selected
wells 40
5. Chemical analyses of water from wells in Columbia County and
vicinity ___. ... 46
6. Partial chemical analyses of water from wells in Columbia and
adjacent counties 48
7. Classification of irrigation waters 52
8. Records of wells in Columbia County and vicinity -_-.-..... ...... 62


viii







RECONNAISSANCE OF
THE GEOLOGY AND GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF
COLUMBIA COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
Frederick W. Meyer
ABSTRACT

Columbia County comprises an area of about 786 square miles
in the north-central part of the Florida Peninsula. The average
annual rainfall is about 50 inches, and the average annual
temperature is about 690F.
The northern two-thirds of the county is a moderately flat, poorly
drained region that ranges from about 100 to 215 feet above mean
sea level. The southern one-third of the county is a hilly, well
drained, sinkhole region that ranges from about 25 to 200 feet
above mean sea level.
The Floridan aquifer, the principal source of ground water in
the area, consists of the Lake City Limestone, Avon Park Lime-
stone, and the Ocala Group, all of Eocene Age; the Suwannee
Limestone of Oligocene Age; and an unnamed sandstone and
limestone unit of Miocene Age. In the northern part of Columbia
County the aquifer is generally artesian and the top occurs about
100-200 feet below the land surface. In the southern part of the
county the aquifer is generally nonartesian.
Because the water in the Avon Park and older formations
generally is very hard and in places is highly mineralized, few water
wells in Columbia County are deeper than the base of the Ocala
Group. The depth to which wells are drilled depends on the location
and the quantity of water needed. Only a few are deeper than 300
feet and most are less than 200 feet deep. Yields are as much as
1,000 gpm (gallons per minute). Although artesian conditions exist
in the Floridan aquifer in the northern part of the county and
locally in the southern part, nowhere is the pressure great enough
for wells to flow. The water in the aquifer in Columbia County
is replenished by underflow from the north and northeast and by
infiltration from the land surface. The water moves westward and
southward, discharging into the Suwannee, Ichatucknee, and Santa
Fe rivers. An aquifer test at Lake City indicates that the coef-
ficient of transmissibility is about 270,000 gpd (gallons per day)
per foot and that the coefficient of storage is about 0.0008. In the







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


southern part of the county the water in the Floridan aquifer may
become polluted by recharge through sinkholes or from the rivers
when they are at high stages.
A few wells in the northern half of Columbia County tap either
the secondary artesian aquifer in the Hawthorn Formation of
Miocene Age or the nonartesian aquifer in the unconsolidated
deposits of Pleistocene and Recent Age. Most of these wells are less
than 100 feet deep and yield only small quantities of water. The
water in the Hawthorn is under slight artesian pressure whereas
that in the Pleistocene and Recent deposits is nonartesian. Although
generally of good chemical quality, the water in these aquifers
locally contains an excessive quantity of iron or tannic acid.
Rocks below about 1,600 feet contain highly mineralized water.

INTRODUCTION
The rapid growth of population and industry in the State of
Florida has created the problem of locating and developing new
sources of ground-water supply. The Columbia County Board of
Commissioners and the Lake City Chamber of Commerce recognized
this problem and requested the U. S. Geological Survey to make
an investigation of the ground-water resources of the county in
cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey.
The purpose of the investigation was to obtain hydrologic and
geologic data concerning the following: (1) the extent and thick-
ness of water-bearing materials; (2) the causes of fluctuation of
water levels in wells; (3) an approximation of the transmissibility
and storage capacities of the water-bearing materials; and (4) the
quality of the ground water.
Field studies began in May 1957 and ended in November 1957
and consisted of the following:
1. Inventory of wells, including compilation of data on their
location, depth, diameter and length of casing, depth to water
level, yield, and water use.
2. Study of the geologic information obtained from wells and
exposures of rock formations to determine the thickness, lithologic
character, and areal extent of the water-bearing formations.
3. Determination of the water-transmitting and water-storing
capacities of the water-bearing formations at the Lake City well
field.
4. Collection and study of water-level records from wells to
determine the seasonal fluctuation.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


southern part of the county the water in the Floridan aquifer may
become polluted by recharge through sinkholes or from the rivers
when they are at high stages.
A few wells in the northern half of Columbia County tap either
the secondary artesian aquifer in the Hawthorn Formation of
Miocene Age or the nonartesian aquifer in the unconsolidated
deposits of Pleistocene and Recent Age. Most of these wells are less
than 100 feet deep and yield only small quantities of water. The
water in the Hawthorn is under slight artesian pressure whereas
that in the Pleistocene and Recent deposits is nonartesian. Although
generally of good chemical quality, the water in these aquifers
locally contains an excessive quantity of iron or tannic acid.
Rocks below about 1,600 feet contain highly mineralized water.

INTRODUCTION
The rapid growth of population and industry in the State of
Florida has created the problem of locating and developing new
sources of ground-water supply. The Columbia County Board of
Commissioners and the Lake City Chamber of Commerce recognized
this problem and requested the U. S. Geological Survey to make
an investigation of the ground-water resources of the county in
cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey.
The purpose of the investigation was to obtain hydrologic and
geologic data concerning the following: (1) the extent and thick-
ness of water-bearing materials; (2) the causes of fluctuation of
water levels in wells; (3) an approximation of the transmissibility
and storage capacities of the water-bearing materials; and (4) the
quality of the ground water.
Field studies began in May 1957 and ended in November 1957
and consisted of the following:
1. Inventory of wells, including compilation of data on their
location, depth, diameter and length of casing, depth to water
level, yield, and water use.
2. Study of the geologic information obtained from wells and
exposures of rock formations to determine the thickness, lithologic
character, and areal extent of the water-bearing formations.
3. Determination of the water-transmitting and water-storing
capacities of the water-bearing formations at the Lake City well
field.
4. Collection and study of water-level records from wells to
determine the seasonal fluctuation.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 30


5. Sampling of water from wells and springs to determine the
chemical quality.
6. Determination of the approximate altitude of measuring
points for water level and geologic correlation.
The investigation was made under the general supervision of
A. N. Sayre, former chief of the Ground Water Branch, and under
the immediate supervision of M. I. Rorabaugh, district engineer, of
the U. S. Geological Survey.

PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS
No detailed investigations of the geology and ground-water
resources of Columbia County had been made prior to this investi-
gation. Reports by Cooke (1945), Applin and Applin (1944),
Vernon (1951), and Puri (1957) include information on the geology
of Columbia County, and reports by Stringfield (1936) and Cooper,
Kenner, and Brown (1953) briefly describe the hydrology. Chemical
analyses of the ground water in Columbia County are published in
reports by Black and Brown (1951) and Collins and Howard
(1928).
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Appreciation is expressed to the many persons who contributed
information and cooperated in the collection of data. Residents of
the area supplied information and permitted measurements to be
made in their wells. The following local well-drilling companies
provided much useful data: Rotary Tool Company, Lake City; Witt
Electric Company, Lake City; and Acme Drilling Company, Gaines-
ville. Mr. J. J. Willhoit of the Rotary Tool Company collected and
saved rock cuttings from several wells and Mr. B. F. Martin of the
Lake City water plant cooperated in the quantitative studies in the
Lake City well field. Officers of the U. S. Forest Service provided
office space and field assistance during the course of the
investigation.
WELL-NUMBERING SYSTEM
The well-numbering system in Florida is based on a statewide
grid of 1-minute parallels of latitude and 1-minute meridians of
longitude (fig. 1). A well number is a composite of three parts
separated by hyphens. The first part of the number assigned to a
given well is composed of the last digit of the degree and the two
digits of the minute that identifies the latitude on the south side of
the -1-minute quadrangle in which the well is located. The second
part of the number is composed of the last digit of the degree and







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 1. Well-numbering system.
two digits of the minute that identifies the longitude on the east
side of the same 1-minute quadrangle. The third part of the number
indicates whether the well was the first, second, third, etc., inven-
toried in that quadrangle. Each well is also identified in table 7
by its location within either the Federal system of rectangular
surveys or within the Georgia Military Grid System. All of
Columbia County, except for a strip less than a mile wide along the
Georgia-Florida state line, is within the Federal system.

GEOGRAPHY
LOCATION AND EXTENT OF THE AREA
Columbia County comprises an area of about 786 square miles in
the north-central part of the Florida Peninsula (fig. 2). It is
bounded on the north by Clinch and Echols counties, Georgia; dn









REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30 5


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COLLIER BRWRD
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Figure 2. Peninsular Florida showing the location of Columbia County.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 1. Well-numbering system.
two digits of the minute that identifies the longitude on the east
side of the same 1-minute quadrangle. The third part of the number
indicates whether the well was the first, second, third, etc., inven-
toried in that quadrangle. Each well is also identified in table 7
by its location within either the Federal system of rectangular
surveys or within the Georgia Military Grid System. All of
Columbia County, except for a strip less than a mile wide along the
Georgia-Florida state line, is within the Federal system.

GEOGRAPHY
LOCATION AND EXTENT OF THE AREA
Columbia County comprises an area of about 786 square miles in
the north-central part of the Florida Peninsula (fig. 2). It is
bounded on the north by Clinch and Echols counties, Georgia; dn







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


the east by Baker and Union counties, on the south by Alachua and
Gilchrist counties, and on the west by Suwannee and Hamilton
counties, Florida (fig. 4). It is roughly rectangular in shape,
measuring about 53 miles from north to south and about 20 miles
from east to west. Rivers and streams comprise about one-half of
the county's boundary. The Suwannee River forms the northwest
boundary; and Olustee Creek, the Santa Fe River, and the Ichatuck-
nee River form part of the southeast and southwest boundaries.
Geologic and hydrologic data were obtained locally in the surround-
ing counties because data were not obtainable near the border in
Columbia County.
CULTURAL FEATURES
In 1960, Columbia County had a population of 20,077, or 10
percent more than the population in 1950, and ranked thirty-sixth
in population in the State.
New methods in forestry and agriculture have changed the basic
economy from the once flourishing sawmill and turpentine industry
to the pulpwood-producing industry and farming. Large pulpwood
forests grow on poorly drained, sandy, "flatwoods" land in the
northern two-thirds of the county. Most of these forests are either
owned or leased by large pulp and paper companies. New methods
of selective cutting, burning, harvesting, and reforestation are used
to increase and insure the future supply of pulpwood and to preserve
the watershed areas. The Osceola National Forest includes 125
square miles of northeastern Columbia County. Here the U. S.
Forest Service conducts research on new methods of production,
fire and pest control, naval store development, and other projects
related to forest management. The well-drained southern part of
the county is more suitable for agricultural use. The chief agricul-
tural products are tobacco, peanuts, corn, sugar cane, watermelons,
eggs, poultry, beef cattle, and hogs.
Lake City is the county seat of Columbia County. Lake City was
formerly known as Alligator, after the Indian Chief Halpatter
Tustenugee, whose name meant "alligator warrior." The name was
changed to Lake City in 1859 because of the many sinkhole lakes
in and near the city. The poorly drained prairie basin about a
mile southeast of Lake City retains its original name, Alligator
Lake. Lake City is the largest municipality in north-central Florida
with a population of 9,465 in 1960, or about 25 percent more than
its population in 1950.
Lake City is a point of convergence for north-to-south and
east-to-west commerce in north-central Florida. It is located 60







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 30


miles west of Jacksonville and 109 miles east of Tallahassee, the
State capitol. Lake City is served by several federal and state high-
ways and three railroads.
Water for the Lake City municipal supply is pumped from wells.
Although the capacity of the existing facilities is about 3 million
gpd, pumpage averages only a third of that amount.
A large abandoned phosphate mining district is near Fort White
in the southern part of Columbia County. Hard-rock phosphate and
phosphatic clay occur in several other places in southern Columbia
County. Chert and soft limestone, quarried in the southern part of
the county, are used for road metal and fill.
CLIMATE
The climate of Columbia County is humid subtropical. The
average annual temperature for the 74-year period of record is
69.2F. The coldest months, December and January, average about
56.60F with occasional periods of freezing. The warmest month
is August, averaging 81.20F.
According to U.S. Weather Bureau records, the average annual
rainfall at Lake City for a 65-year period of record (1893-1957)
is 50.50 inches. Rainfall is greatest from June through September
and least from December through February. The spring of 1957
terminated a period of about 3 years of below-normal rainfall.
Figure 3 shows the cumulative departure of rainfall from the
average rainfall for a 65-year period (1893-1957) at Lake City. A
comparison of rainfall at five weather stations within a 30-mile
radius of Lake City shows an unequal distribution of rainfall in
the area (table 1). For example, a comparison of the rainfall
during June at the five selected stations shows maximum variation
of 2.34 inches in 1955, 6.40 inches in 1956, and 9.25 inches in 1957.
TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE
Columbia County is divided into two topographic regions, the
Central Highlands and the Coastal Lowlands (Cooke, 1945, p. 8).
The term Central Highlands generally refers to those areas which
are more than 100 feet above msl (mean sea level). The Coastal
Lowlands generally refers to those areas which are less than 100
feet above msl, except for the area occupied by the present
Okefenokee Swamp (fig. 4).
CENTRAL HIGHLANDS
The Central Highlands in Columbia County are composed of
clay and sand which were terraced by seas of Early Pleistocene Age.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Lake City Weather Station
z AVERAGE 50.50 inches
z 70
S60 .
z 50
: 40
-1
I< 30


'-0








z 40
S0 0 0 0 0 0 -


U- -10--- -- -- --- -- --- -




3> -601-

Figure 3. Graphs showing the total annual rainfall and the cumulative
departure from the average rainfall at Lake City, 1893-1957.

These terraces occurred at different elevations above sea level. The
Coharie (170 feet above msl) and Sunderland (215 feet above msl)
terraces (Cooke, 1945, p. 277-278) are the highest in the county.
The Okefenokee terrace (MacNeil, 1949, p. 101) was formed when
sea level was about 150 feet above the present level and includes the
basin of the present Okefenokee Swamp. The Okefenokee Swamp
ranges in altitude from about 90 to 130 feet above msl and was
once occupied by a shallow intracoastal bay or sound (MacNeil,
1949, p. 101). The Wicomico terrace (100 feet above msl) separates
the Central Highlands from the Coastal Lowlands.
Remants of the Coharie and Sunderland terraces form a high
ridge which crosses central Columbia County from west to east.










REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30


TABLE 1. Monthly Rainfall at Five Weather Stations Within a
30-Mile Radius of Lake City
(Data from U.S. Weather Bureau unless indicated otherwise)
Station
Lake City 2 E IJasper' 9 ESE High Springs Live Oak 2 ESE Glen St. Mary
Month (2 miles E (17 miles NW (23 miles S (17 miles WNW (26 miles E
of Lake City) of Lake Cit) ofLake City) of Lake City) of Lake City)
1955
Jan. 3.55 4.62 4.20 3.99 3.66
Feb. 2.79 2.50 4.00 2.18 2.39
Mar. 1.22 1.50 1.53 1.57 1.40
Apr. 1.03 2.75 1.56 1.49 1.20
May 2.53 3.04 2.31 1.82 2.85
June 5.12 2.78 4.99 3.49 4.36
July 3.73 5.68 3.65 9.11 11.11
Aug. 2.05 2.30 5.36 .60 4.56
Sept. 5.99 6.72 1.75 5.03 9.31
Oct. 3.05 2.05 1.74 3.55 2.49
Nov. .65 1.40 1.57 .72 1.19
Dec. .26 .40 .24 .20 .50
Total 31.97 35.74 32.90 33.75 45.02
1956
Jan. 3.08 4.10 3.35 2.96 2.90
Feb. 3.13 3.15 2.82 3.02 3.33
Mar. 1.35 3.05 .76 1.55 1.23
Apr. 2.71 4.43 3.08 3.12 2.68
May 3.56 6.20 4.58 7.58 5.68
June 10.03 7.35 8.32 3.63 7.69
July 6.21 5.57 6.79 6.17 4.74
Aug. 1.17 4.60 5.28 4.57 1.91
Sept. 8.14 3.97 4.43 4.45 5.82
Oct. 9.68 3.55 4.66 5.59 8.18
Nov. 1.46 .25 .13 .20 .81
Dec. .10 .65 .08 .33 .50
Total 50.62 46.87 44.28 43.17 45.47
1957
Jan. 0.33 1.16 0.27 0.44 0.59
Feb. 2.76 2.17 2.13 1.51 2.02
Mar. 5.70 6.41 4.40 6.16 5.55
Apr. 3.43 5.92 5.30 3.70 3.66
May 7.40 5.57 4.35 4.15 13.81
June 12.90 8.88 11.30 18.13 11.32
July 4.72 8.47 4.32 11.66 8.99
Aug. 5.15 7.44 8.35 4.84 7.49
Sept. a5.18 8.70 8.46 11.30 5.35
Oct. 1.41 2.74 3.01 2.52 1.57
Nov. 5.03 7.33 1.96 6.07 3.26
Dec. 1.63 2.00 1.41 1.89 1.35
Total a55.64 66.79 55.26 72.37 64.96


SChanged to station Jasper 3 SE,
a Measurement made by


23 miles NW of Lake City, in 1957.
the Florida Forest Service.


The ridge passes through Wellborn, Lake City, and Olustee, and
trends along the southeastern side of the county from Olustee to
Mikesville (fig. 4).
The ridge existed as a chain of islands, or keys, which formed
the southern boundary of the ancestral Okefenokee Sound. The
surface of the ridge is a sandy, almost level, poorly to well drained
area that is commonly referred to as "flatwoods." Solution depres-
sions and sinkhole lakes are common, the largest of which are Ocean
Pond in Baker County, and Alligator Lake in Columbia County.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The ridge is drained by tributary streams of the Suwannee River
which lies to the west of Columbia County, and by tributaries to
the St. Marys River which lies northeast of Columbia County. The
east-west portion of the ridge forms a surface-water divide between
water flowing to the north and to the south.
In Columbia County, the Okefenokee terrace is divided by the
remnants of the ridge. North of the east-west ridge the gently
sloping surface of the terrace forms the basin of the present
Okefenokee Swamp. South of the ridge theterrace is bounded by an
escarpment formed by erosion during the 100-foot level of the
Pleistocene sea. The terrace north and south of the ridge is
underlain predominantly by sand and clay.
North of the ridge, the surface of the Okefenokee terrace slopes
gently northward from about 150 feet above msl to about 90 feet
above msl along the Georgia-Florida State line. The surficial sand
of the terrace is slightly calcareous, fine grained, and argillaceous.
The upper 2 to 5 feet contain organic material which is an indication
of poor drainage. Large quiescent sand bars or, sand dunes which
rim the present Okefenokee Swamp are propabl remnants of the
former shoreline of the ancestral Okefenokee Sound. Surface
drainage is either westward to the Suwannee River pr eastward to
the St. Marys River.
The Suwannee River changes direction from south to west at a
point about 6 miles east-northeast of White Springs where its
valley crosses and intersects a hard, calcareous bed of clay. The
river crosses and intersects limestone between White Springs and
a point 6 miles east-northeast of White Springs. Above the point
of intersection, the flow in the river depends mostly on runoff of
local rainfall. Below the point of intersection, the increased base
flow of the river is attributed to large springs in the exposed
limestone.
Falling Creek, which is captured by a sinkhole, is typical of
the creeks in the karst topography. A 7- to 8-foot waterfall is
formed where the creek flows over a dense, gray, sandy, indurated,
phosphatic clay bed which caps a soft, light green, sandy clay.
Downstream from the falls the valley is entrenched about 20 feet
into the clay. About a quarter of a mile downstream, the valley
becomes a maze of incised meanders and terminates at a sinkhole
located about 0.7 mile-east-notheast of'Winfield.
That part of the Okefenokee terrace that lies on the south side
of the east-west ridge is flat and poorly; well drained (fig .4)




































































I 0 .



Adapted from Army Map Service
sheets NH 17-4 and NH 17-7


EXPLANATION
Land-surface altitude,
in feet


D -Coastal
Lowlands
Less than 100 ft.
W----50- ----
Contour showing
topography in
Coastal lowlands


90- 100ft


100-150f;



150-200 ft

U -


20(


more than


,Central
Highlands


)ft


City or Town
(Not to scale)


0 2 miles


Figure 4. Columbia County showing the principal topographic features.


*I'*-i-*I l~---*u-






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30 11
The surficial sand is mostly fine grained and is about 50 feet thick
in the eastern part of Columbia County and thin to absent in the
remaining area. Remnants of the terraced underlying sediments
are prominent between Lake City and Fort White. The valleys of
Clay Hole and Rose creeks occur along the base of the remnants and
terminate in a group of sinkholes near the town of Columbia.
The Okefenokee terrace in southern Columbia County is drained
principally by Olustee, Clay Hole, and Rose creeks, tributaries of
the Santa Fe River. Olustee Creek depends largely on surface
runoff from the swamps and flatwoods of the Central Highlands
in Columbia, Baker, and Union counties. However, the flow of
Olustee Creek increases or decreases, depending upon ground-water
conditions, from its headwaters to the confluence with the Santa Fe
River valley. The valley of Olustee Creek apparently follows the
joints or fractures in the underlying limestone. At O'leno State
Park, flow of Olustee Creek and the Santa Fe River is captured by
a sinkhole in the limestone. The river disappears underground and
emerges through springs 3 miles southwest of the sinkhole.
Clay Hole and Rose creeks, in the central part of Columbia
County, have the same general hydrologic characteristics as the
downstream parts of Olustee Creek and the Santa Fe River. These
streams either' disappear entirely into sinkholes or lose water to
the underlying limestone by percolation.
COASTAL LOWLANDS

The Coastal Lowlands is a region of karst topography, which
ranges from approximately 25 to 100 feet above msl. The region
was terraced by the Wicomico (100-foot), Penholaway (70-foot),
Talbot (42-foot), and Pamlico (25-foot) seas of the Pleistocene
interglacial periods (Cooke, 1939). The surfaces of the terraces
have been greatly modified by erosion and subsurface collapse of the
underlying limestones. The Coastal Lowlands occupies the south-
west part of Columbia County and extends up the valleys of Olustee
Creek, the Santa Fe River, and the Suwannee River. The region is
bounded on the north by a terrace escarpment which forms the
southern boundary of the Okefenokee terrace. The scarp exposes as
much as 50 feet of plastic sediments that contain fossils of coral
colonies, which local residents misidentify as petrified wood.
The Coastal Lowlands is underlain by low, rolling, flattened
hills of silicified, cavernous limestone. The limestone is overlain and
filled by sand and clay. Aerial photographs show many circular,
collapsed sinkholes which are aligned principally parallel or normal






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


to the major drainage features. The sinkholes are connected
at the surface by gulleys, or valleys, of intermittent streams
of an ancestral drainage system. Some of these sinkholes probably
were springs through which ground water was discharged when
sea level was slightly higher than the present sea level. Northwest
of Fort White an old valley scar of the Ichatucknee River indicates
an ancestral river that probably drained all of south-central
Columbia County and had Rose and Clay Hole creeks as its
headwaters. However, the formation of sinkholes in the underlying,
porous limestone probably is responsible for intercepting the river's
headwaters and for the ultimate disappearance of part of the river.
The present Ichatucknee River originates at a series of springs in
the limestone.
Because most of the precipitation on the Coastal Lowlands either
evaporates or percolates into the ground, a well integrated drainage
pattern of streams has never developed in the southern part of the
county. The few perennial streams crossing the Coastal Lowlands
are fed predominantly by springs rather than by surface runoff.

GEOLOGY

The geology of Columbia County is described because the geology
controls the occurrence of ground water. Most of the geologic data
were obtained from surface exposures and from water wells that
were drilled to depths ranging from 100 to 300 feet below land
surface in sediments ranging from Late Eocene to Recent in age.
However, additional geologic information on the characteristics of
deeper formations was available because of recent exploration for
oil in the area.
The interpretation of electric logs of oil test wells indicates that
2,800 to 3,460 feet of sediments, ranging from Early Cretaceous to
Recent in age, unconformably overlie structurally high, complex,
basement rocks of Paleozoic Age. The sediments, which range in
age from Early Cretaceous through Early Eocene consist primarily
of marine limestone, some evaporites, and clay. These rocks have
low permeabilities. The sediments overlying these rocks range
from early Middle Eocene through Early or perhaps Middle
Miocene in age. They consist predominantly of porous, marine
limestone and form the principal water-bearing formations in the
county. These marine limestones are overlain by sediments, rang-
ing from Middle Miocene to Recent in age, which consist primarily
of sand and clay.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 30


The descriptions of the surface and subsurface rocks in Columbia
County are based on examination of rock cuttings from water wells
and test holes drilled by the U.S. Corps of Engineers; interpretation
of the electric logs, and examination of miscellaneous rock samples
from oil test wells; and the examination of rock exposures. The
geologic units of Columbia County are listed in table 2.1 The
sections which show the thickness of the geologic units and their
altitude referred to mean sea level are presented in figures 5, 6,
and 7.
PALEOZOIC AND MESOZOIC ROCKS
Sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic Age are present at depths
ranging from about 2,600 to 3,300 feet below msl. These rocks
consist chiefly of quartzitic sandstone and dense, dark shale (Ap-
plin, 1951, p. 13). Fossils indicate that their probable age is Late
Silurian or Early Devonian. Intrusions of diabase, which Applin
(1951, p. 15) has assigned to the Triassic Period, occur in the
Paleozoic rocks. The Paleozoic rocks are overlain unconformably
by rocks of Cretaceous Age. The Lower Cretaceous or Comanche
(?) beds consist of interbedded red shale and sandstone which
pinch out on the flanks of the Peninsular arch. The Comanche(?)
beds are overlain unconformably by deposits of the Gulf Series of
Late Cretaceous Age. The Gulf Series includes the Atkinson
Formation which consists of beds of Woodbine Age and beds of
Eagle Ford Age; beds of Austin Age; beds of Taylor Age; and the
Lawson Limestone of Navarro Age. Except for the basal part,
which consists of shale, clay, and glauconitic sand, the Gulf Series
consists mostly of marine limestone. The lower beds of the Gulf
Series wedge out and are partially absent over the crest of the
Peninsular arch (fig. 5, 6, 7), suggesting either that the Late
Cretaceous sea encroached on a structurally high area or that the
arch was being uplifted at the time the basal sediments of the
Gulf Series were being deposited. These rocks are at considerable
depth, of low permeability and the water contained in them is of
poor chemical quality. These rocks are discussed in detail in pub-
lished reports, particularly Applin (1944), Applin (1951), and
Vernon (1951).


"The stratigraphic nomenclature used in this report is that of the Florida
Geological Survey and, does not necessarily conform to that of the U.S.
Geological Survey.







TAiLm 2, Geologic Units and their Water-Bearing Characteristics in Columbia County, Florida
S. . .-----.. .- ..--.---. Approximate
Ira System Series Geologic unit thickness Water-bearing properties
Series (I feet) I
L- ow permeaousty aue to fine gram size; yields small
Recent Pleistocene and Recent deposits quantities of water for domestic use In Central High-
Quaternary Pleistocene (undifferentiated) 0-40 lands area. Iron content stains fixtures red, Water
letoceneUnonformit under nonarteslan or perched nonarteelan conditions.
Unconformity -


Miocene or
Pliocene


Miocene


Oligocene





Eocene


Paleocene



Upper Gulf



Lower Comanche(?)


Alachua (7) Formation
Hawthorn Formation


Miocene sandstone and
limestone
Unconformity
Suwannee Limestone
Unconformity

Ocala Group of Jackson Age
Unconformity
Avon Park Limestone of
Claiborne Age
Unconformity
Lake City Limestone of
Claiborne Age

Oldsmar Limestone of Wilcox Age


0.150


0-65


0-50


150-250

170-270
S-
500

250-350


__ _ _ _


Cedar Keys Formation of Midway Age
Unconformity
Lawson Limestone of Navarro Age


400-450

380-590


Beds of Taylor Age 430-490
Beds of Austin Age 180-340


Atkinson Beds of Eagle Ford Age
Formation Beds of Woodbine Age
Unconformity
Red beds of shale and sand
Unconformity
Igneous intrusion(?)
Unconformity
Black shale
and
quartzite sandstone


0-100
0-100
0-40
(?--)
(?)


Variable permeability; acts as a semiconfining bed.
Hawthorn Formation yields small to moderate quanti-
ties of water to wells tapping low pressure artesian
limestone beds. Chemical quality of the water is
usually poor at depth.


Permeability moderate to high, Serves as a good
source of water supply. Locally water is high in
iron content.


Permeability high except in localized chert zones; '
yields large quantity of water to wells.
Permeability high to very high; serves as the Erb
source of water for most large capacity wells, :
Water is moderately hard; HiS present where
water is under artesian pressure. g
Permeability high, Not used extensively for water o
supply. Water very hard, possible gypsum beds. E
Permeability low to high; seldom used for water
supply; contains gypsum. Water very hard.
Permeability low but locally high; not used for water
supply. Contains gypsum and anhydrite beds; locally
hydraulically connected to Florida aquifer.
Permeability low but locally high in upper portion; not
used for water supply. Dissolved mineral content in
the water is very high.


Not used for water supply owing to great depth, low
permeability, and high dissolved mineral content in
the water.


Tertiary


Cretaceous


Triassic(?)

Silurian
or
Devonian


Upper Silurian
or
Lower Devonian


--I- -


r----------------l~


--- --- --'








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 30


TERTIARY SYSTEM
PALEOCENE SERIES
Cedar Keys Formation: The name Cedar Keys Formation was
proposed by Cole (1944, p. 27-28) and the name Cedar Keys Lime-
stone was applied to the same unit by Cooke (1945, p. 33-35). The
Florida Geological Survey adopted the former name, whereas the
U.S. Geological Survey adopted the latter. The Cedar Keys
Formation disconformably overlies Cretaceous limestone.
The lower section of the formation is dolomitic. Near the middle
of the formation there is a distinct marker bed of clay that is easily
recognized on electric logs. The greater part of the formation is
dense to porous, gray to white to brown, fragmental limestone that
is impregnated with gypsum and anhydrite. Some samples con-
tained red calcareous clay, and pyrite. The formation is about 450
feet thick in the southwestern part of Columbia County and about
400 feet thick in the northern part of the county.
By electric log interpretation, the bottom of the formation was
determined to occur above a zone of high resistivity that was
interpreted as the first occurrence of Cretaceous dolomite. The
top of the formation was determined to occur below a zone of high
resistivity at the base of the overlying Oldsmar Limestone. The
formation is characterized by abundant molds and casts of the
foraminifers Borelis gunteri (Cole) and B. floridanus (Cole).
Locally, the formation may be hydraulically connected to the
underlying and overlying formations. The Cedar Keys Formation
probably contains highly mineralized water, and is not used for
water supply.
EOCENE SERIES
Oldsmar Limestone: The Oldsmar Limestone of Early Eocene
or Wilcox Age (Applin and Applin, 1944, p. 1699) conformably
overlies the Cedar Keys Formation.
The Oldsmar Limestone is lithologically similar to both the
underlying Cedar Keys Formation and the overlying Lake City
Limestone. The top half of the formation is a very porous, brown
limestone with some gypsum and anhydrite. The bottom half is a
thick zone of dolomite with chert or anhydrite. The top of the
Oldsmar Limestone was correlated by comparing electric logs of
ten oil test wells with the log of well 010-238-1 (Applin and Applin,
1944) at Lake City. The bottom was determined to occur at a
change from high to low resistivity. The formation is about 250
to 350 feet thick.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The top of the formation in other areas is marked by the
appearance of abundant remains of the foraminifer Helicostegina
gyralis Barker and Grimsdale. The upper part of the formation
could not be easily identified in Columbia County because only a
few rock cuttings were recovered.
Locally, the Oldsmar Limestone probably is hydraulically con-
nected to the underlying Cedar Keys Formation and overlying Lake
City Limestone which is part of the Floridan aquifer. The Oldsmar
Limestone contains water with high concentrations of dissolved
minerals, particularly sulfates and is not used for water supply.
Lake City Limestone: The Lake City Limestone of early Middle
Eocene or Claiborne Age was assigned by Applin and Applin
(1944) to a type section of limestone represented in the rock
cuttings of well 010-238-1 at Lake City. The formation contains
fauna related to that of the Cook Mountain Formation of Clai-
borne Age. The Lake City Limestone conformably overlies the
Oldsmar Limestone.
The formation is composed of alternate layers of dark brown
dolomite and chalky limestone, both of which may contain chert
and gypsum. The base of the formation contains some gypsum and,
perhaps, some anhydrite. The upper part of the formation locally
contains some carbonaceous material and green clay. The formation
is about 500 feet thick.
Well 010-238-1 was used as a basis for the correlation of electric
logs; however, because of slumping along the edges of the Alligator
Lake area, the top of the formation may be higher than indicated
on the geologic sections (fig. 5, 6, 7).
The top of the formation is marked by the first abundant
appearance of the key foraminifer Dictyoconus americanus Cush-
man. Applin and Jordan (1945, p. 131) list the representative
foraminifers of the Lake City Limestone.
The formation is a part of the Floridan aquifer, but contains
water high in sulfates near the base.
Avon Park Limestone: The Avon Park Limestone of late Middle
Eocene or Claiborne Age disconformably overlies the Lake City
Limestone. The formation was described by Applin and Applin
(1944, p. 1680, 1686) as a creamy, chalky limestone that generally
has a distinctive and abundant fauna consisting mostly of Fora-
minifera. In some places, however, the limestone is nonfossiliferous
as in well 010-238-1 (Applin and Applin, 1944) and in a well at
Live Oak in Suwannee County where the fossiliferous part of the'








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30


limestone is absent. The formation is considered to range from
about 170 to 270 feet thick in Columbia County as compared to
sections that are about 400 feet thick in the central part of Florida.
The Avon Park Limestone is a permeable and porous part of
the Floridan aquifer.
Ocala Group: The Ocala Group of Late Eocene or Jackson Age
consists of three limestone formations of similar character. From
oldest to youngest, they are the Inglis, Williston, and Crystal River
Formations (Puri, 1957). The limestone of the Ocala Group has
been subdivided and renamed several times in recent years by
different investigators, but the above nomenclature is currently
being used by the Florida Geological Survey.
Although the several formations of the Ocala Group generally
can be recognized in parts of Columbia County the data are
inadequate for separating the formations in this report. In the fol-
lowing paragraphs the rocks of the Ocala Group are described as
a unit.
The Ocala Group is unconformably underlain by the Avon Park
Limestone and unconformably overlain by deposits ranging from
Oligocene to Recent Age. The approximate altitude of the eroded
upper surface of the Ocala Group in Columbia County is shown by
contours in figure 9. The surface of the Ocala Group is a broad
irregular northeast trending nose. It is highest in southeastern
Columbia County and in the vicinity of Lake City. The shape of
the eroded surface of the Ocala Group appears to have been related
to post-Eocene rejuvenation of the Peninsular arch and/or the
Ocala uplift.
The limestone of the Ocala Group varies from a porous, cream to
white, loose coquina of large foraminifers and shells to a brown,
solution-riddled, echinoid-rich limestone. Locally, the top of the
limestone has been replaced by chert.
Southwestward from Lake City, the top of the Ocala Group is a
yellowish phosphatic clayey coquina of large foraminifers and
echinoids. Solution pipes, horizontal cavities and caverns, and
numerous sinkholes are common. The Ocala Group ranges from
about 150 to-250 feet in thickness and. crops out in the southern
part of Columbia County. Although the Ocala is a marine deposit,
bones of unidentified terrestrial vertebrates have been found in
quarries in the Ocala Group in southern Columbia County. These
fossils probably occur in younger deposits filling depressions in the
surface of the Ocala Group.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The Ocala Group is the principal source of potable ground water
in Columbia County. The approximate depth to the top of the Ocala
Group at any place can be calculated by determining the difference
between its altitude, as shown by the contour lines in figure 9,
and the land-surface altitude at the same place. For example, if
at a given location the land-surface altitude is 130 feet above msl
and the limestone surface in figure 9 is approximately 50 feet
below msl, then the depth required to drill to the top of the Ocala
Group is the sum of the two values, or 180 feet. However, if the
limestone surface in figure 9 is 50 feet above msl, the depth to the
top would be the difference between the values, or 80 feet.

OLIGOCENE SERIES
Suwannee Limestone: The Suwannee Limestone of late Oligocene
Age was described by Cooke and Mansfield (1936, p. 71) as a
yellowish limestone which is exposed along the Suwannee River
downstream from White Springs, Hamilton County. The Suwannee
Limestone unconformably overlies the Ocala Group and is uncon-
formably overlain by sediments of Miocene to Recent Age.
The lower part of the Suwannee Limestone is exposed at the
land surface in the southern part of the county and in the valley
of the Suwannee River near White Springs. The exposures usually
are silicified and contain molds and casts of Cassidulus gouldi
Bouv&, an echinoid of Oligocene Age. Exposures of limestone
which occur in the southern part of the county as flat residual
boulders range from 2 to 3 feet in thickness and are underlain in
places by a yellow, pasty, clayey limestone coquina of the Ocala
Group. The limestone is thickest in the western and northwestern
parts of the county and generally thins toward the southern and
eastern parts. It ranges in thickness from 40 to 50 feet in the
northern and western parts of the county to possibly a few feet
in the extreme southern part. Locally, between Suwannee County
and Lake City, the limestone is apparently absent owing to solu-
tion, collapse, or perhaps, erosion. The formation decreases in
thickness from about 20 feet at Lake City to less than 5 feet. at
well 012-221-1 in Baker County. In the south-central part of
Columbia County, the formation is perhaps 20 to 30 feet thick
under the hills and seems to be thin or absent in depressed areas.
In some places the top of the formation is a very porous to dense,
gray to white, fragmental limestone; in other places it is a dense,
brown to gray, dolomitic or cherty limestone; and in still other
places it is a soft, white, and pasty limestone that contains seams








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30


of olive drab to black clay. The formation contains solution pipes,
many of which are filled with fine to coarse, quartz or phosphatic
sand and light green clay.
The limestone of the Suwannee Formation is a permeable and
porous part of the Floridan aquifer.

MIOCENE AND PLIOCENE SERIES
Geologists in Florida are not agreed as to the ages or relation-
ships of sediments at or near the boundary between Miocene and
Pliocene time. Cooke (1945, p. 200-201) suggests that the Alachua
Formation was formed by the compacted residues of Middle and
Late Miocene Formations and is of Pliocene Age. In contrast,
Vernon (1951, p. 182) suggests that the Alachua is the terrestrial
equivalent of the entire marine Miocene and ranges from Early
Miocene to Pleistocene in age.
In the area of this report, terrestrial sediments probably
equivalent to the Alachua of Cooke (1945) apparently overlie and
interfinger into the Hawthorn Formation and therefore are
considered to be of Miocene or Pliocene Age. The Miocene sand-
stone and limestone deposits that underlie the Hawthorn Formation
may include deposits equivalent to the Tampa Limestone and part
of the Hawthorn Formation. The Hawthorn Formation is limited
to the sandy clays with interbedded phosphatic limestone laminae
that lie above the Miocene sandstone and limestone unit. Some
sand and clay of Pliocene Age may be included in the Pleistocene
and Recent deposits.
The sediments of Miocene Age are about 200 feet thick in the
northern part of Columbia County and are thin to absent in the
extreme southern part of the county.
Miocene Sandstone and Limestone: Deposits of Miocene sand-
stone and limestone unconformably overlie the Ocala Group and
Suwannee Limestone and probably disconformably underlie the
Hawthorn and Alachua (?) Formations.
Fragments of white, sandy limestone containing Sorites sp., a
common foraminifer of Miocene Age, are found in rock cuttings
from wells in the northern half of Columbia County. Fragments of
mollusks, shark teeth, and ostracods are common along with thin
beds of green clay which occur at irregular intervals. No specimens
of Archaias floridanus (Conrad), a key foraminifer of the Tampa
Limestone, were noted in the cuttings; therefore, the deposits may
be part of the Hawthorn Formation.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The unit is about 70 feet thick in extreme northern Columbia
County and thins toward Lake City where it is about 20 feet thick.
The unit appears to thin over the southern half of the county, but
generally would not be differentiated from the underlying caver-
nous Suwannee Limestone because of the lack of good rock cuttings
from wells.
Where the Miocene sandstone and limestone unit is saturated,
it forms the upper part of the Floridan aquifer. Although this
unit may differ in permeability from place to place, it is a fair
source of ground water in the northern half of the county. Locally,
it may contain ground water with high concentrations of iron in
solution.
Hawthorn Formation: The Hawthorn Formation is of Middle
Miocene Age and is composed of gray to green, sandy clay with
interbedded hard phosphatic or dolomitic limestone laminae and
fine to coarse phosphorite sands. The color of the clay varies from
a dark green to black to a light green to gray. The large, water-
worn, phosphorite pebbles that occur within and at the base of the
formation indicate diastems; the contact with the underlying
formations is probably disconformable. Beds of clay of the upper
part of the Hawthorn Formation appear to be equivalent to beds
of sandy clay of the Alachua (?) Formation in the southern part
of the county. The Hawthorn Formation is unconformably overlain
by beds of sand and clay of Recent to Pleistocene Age and, perhaps,
some of Pliocene Age. The Hawthorn Formation is about 150 feet
thick in the extreme northern part of the county and about 100
feet thick in the eastern part. Beds of nearly pure light green clay
are exposed along the valleys of Olustee Creek and the Santa Fe
River.
The known fauna of the Hawthorn Formation in Columbia
County are limited to Ostrea normalis Dall, an oyster, and
Siderastraea sp., a colonial coral.
In Columbia County the formation generally acts as a semicon-
fining unit. Although the Hawthorn is itself an aquifer, its
permeability is so much less than that of the underlying beds that
it acts to confine water in the Floridan aquifer. The permeable
limestone beds within the Hawthorn Formation are tapped by
wells for domestic water supplies, but the formation is not
considered an important source of large quantities of ground water.
Alachua (?) Formation: The Alachua (?) Formation of Miocene
or Pliocene Age occurs in the south-central part of Columbia
County, generally in areas of karst topography of the Coastal






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


to the major drainage features. The sinkholes are connected
at the surface by gulleys, or valleys, of intermittent streams
of an ancestral drainage system. Some of these sinkholes probably
were springs through which ground water was discharged when
sea level was slightly higher than the present sea level. Northwest
of Fort White an old valley scar of the Ichatucknee River indicates
an ancestral river that probably drained all of south-central
Columbia County and had Rose and Clay Hole creeks as its
headwaters. However, the formation of sinkholes in the underlying,
porous limestone probably is responsible for intercepting the river's
headwaters and for the ultimate disappearance of part of the river.
The present Ichatucknee River originates at a series of springs in
the limestone.
Because most of the precipitation on the Coastal Lowlands either
evaporates or percolates into the ground, a well integrated drainage
pattern of streams has never developed in the southern part of the
county. The few perennial streams crossing the Coastal Lowlands
are fed predominantly by springs rather than by surface runoff.

GEOLOGY

The geology of Columbia County is described because the geology
controls the occurrence of ground water. Most of the geologic data
were obtained from surface exposures and from water wells that
were drilled to depths ranging from 100 to 300 feet below land
surface in sediments ranging from Late Eocene to Recent in age.
However, additional geologic information on the characteristics of
deeper formations was available because of recent exploration for
oil in the area.
The interpretation of electric logs of oil test wells indicates that
2,800 to 3,460 feet of sediments, ranging from Early Cretaceous to
Recent in age, unconformably overlie structurally high, complex,
basement rocks of Paleozoic Age. The sediments, which range in
age from Early Cretaceous through Early Eocene consist primarily
of marine limestone, some evaporites, and clay. These rocks have
low permeabilities. The sediments overlying these rocks range
from early Middle Eocene through Early or perhaps Middle
Miocene in age. They consist predominantly of porous, marine
limestone and form the principal water-bearing formations in the
county. These marine limestones are overlain by sediments, rang-
ing from Middle Miocene to Recent in age, which consist primarily
of sand and clay.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30


Lowlands. The formation was not differentiated from the Hawthorn
Formation in the southern and western parts of the county in
figures 5, 6, and 7. The sandy clay and sand beds of the Alachua (?)
Formation are not as calcareous and phosphatic as similar beds in
the Hawthorn Formation. Most of the light green to gray clay
is oxidized to shades of white, red, pink, brown, and buff. Where
the clay is pure, it has a characteristically laminated, blocky
appearance. Silicified pieces of the underlying limestone are
generally incorporated in the beds near the base of the formation.
Phosphate ore deposits occur at the base of the Alachua(?)
Formation and are mined in the Fort White area near the Santa Fe
and Ichatucknee rivers.
The area underlain by the Alachua (?) Formation has many
sinkholes caused by the solution and collapse of caverns in the
underlying Ocala Group or Suwannee Limestone or Miocene sand-
stone and limestone unit.
The formation probably acts, in most areas, in conjunction with
the Hawthorn Formation as a semiconfining unit to retain water
under artesian pressure in the Floridan aquifer.

QUATERNARY SYSTEM
PLEISTOCENE AND RECENT DEPOSITS
Sediments of Pleistocene Age were deposited as terrace deposits
by fluctuations of sea level during the "Glacial Age." These terraces
and terrace deposits are prominent topographic features of the
county. Terraces representing Pleistocene shorelines and their
general altitudes are: (1) the Coharie, 215 feet; (2) the Sunder-
land, 170 feet; (3) the Okefenokee (MacNeil, 1949, p. 101), 150
feet; (4) the Wicomico, 100 feet; (5) the Penholoway, 70 feet;
(6) the Talbot, 42 feet; and possibly (7) the Pamlico, 25 feet
(Cooke, 1945, p. 12, 13). The thickest accumulation of Pleistocene
deposits is in eastern Columbia County where approximately 40
feet of sand unconformably overlies the Hawthorn Formation. The
sand is mostly fine grained and argillaceous at the surface but
coarsens with increasing depth. Large pebbles of phosphate and
quartz are commonly found at the base of the sand.
The beds and lenses of the Pleistocene Series serve as a
temporary storage reservoir for water which percolates into the
underlying Hawthorn Formation and, in places of low artesian
head, percolates through the Hawthorn Formation into the Floridan
aquifer. In southern Columbia County perched water bodies exist








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


locally in the Pleistocene deposits but they are of limited extent and
are used for domestic supply in only a few places.
Recent deposits consisting of sand, clay, and gravel usually
occur beneath the flood plains of rivers and streams in the
topographic lows of the county. Fine, windblown sand usually
mantles the high areas. Deposits of peat and muck are being formed
in the bottom of plugged sinkholes, lakes, swamps, and other poorly
drained areas.
Deposits of Pleistocene and Recent Age are of limited extent and
thickness and they are used only locally for domestic water supply.
STRUCTURE
The geology of Columbia County is probably related to a large
anticlinal fold named the Peninsular arch by Applin (1951, p. 3).
The arch, according to Applin, is about 275 miles long and trends
southeast to northwest forming the axis of the Florida Peninsula.
Its highest recorded point is in well 009-236-4 near Lake City.
(fig. 5, 6, 7).
The high at Lake City appears to be on a north-northeastward
plunging nose in the Paleozoic rocks. Uplift of the arch or down-
warping around its circumference caused fractures to develop in
the overlying sediments. These fractures probably affect the
courses of rivers and streams in the region.
The Peninsular arch was probably formed by regional uplift
during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras (Applin, 1951, p. 17).
This is apparent from the onlap of seas during Early and Late
Cretaceous time but the area was again an area of uplift during
the Tertiary Period (fig. 5, 6, 7). Uplift since Taylor time is shown
by contours on top of beds of Taylor Age in figure 8.
The Ocala uplift (Vernon, 1951, p. 54) curves northeastward
into central Columbia County. The uplift is reflected in the high
altitude of the top of the Ocala Group as shown in figure 9. The
thickening of beds of Miocene Age northward suggests that uplift
and contemporaneous deposition took place during post-Eocene
time. The general axial trends of the post-Cretaceous and post-
Eocene structures, as shown in figures 8 and 9, suggest that in
Columbia County the Ocala uplift is probably related to movements
of the Peninsular arch.
GROUND WATER
Ground water is the subsurface water in the zone of saturation,
the zone in which all pore spaces of the soil or rocks are completely















Seo Iowl


AVON U P

* 300 A R KK mil3
* .oO PLEISTOCENE AND
E CTY EPOSTENT DEPOSITS









*400 oqSeifI d 0bove for dlo is)
-400 Top of h Flodn ------ S





POST LAKE CITYS ORM

LAWSONKE CITY


-2000 LIMESTONE

*2400 BEDS OFL M E -
S --- TAYLOR AGE
-2800 BE-/ BEDS OF AUST---
*2800.... y ...... .. 'A- T... ... U T "N AGE- -

*.3200. PALQEOZ -N F-O CT
Figure Geologic section in Columbia County along line A-A'.CS


Figure 5. Geologic section in Columbia County along line A-A'.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


PALEOZOIC ROCKS
Floridan aquif r 0 I 2 3 4 5 miles
Fforidan aqwuifr


Figure 6. Geologic section in Columbia County along line B-B'

filled with water under atmospheric or greater pressure. The
water in the zone of saturation is derived from infiltration of
precipitation, and once in the zone of saturation it moves laterally
under the influence of gravity toward places of discharge such as
wells, springs, or the sea. The formation, group of formations, or
part of a formation that permits the passage of water is known
as an aquifer.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 30


PALEOZOIC ROCKS
0 I 2 3 4 5 miles


Figure 7. Geologic section in Columbia County along line C-C'.

Where ground water only partly fills an aquifer the surface of
the water, the water table, is free to rise and fall and the water
is said to be under water-table or nonartesian conditions. If, how-
ever, the ground water is confined beneath a relatively impermeable
bed or formation, the surface is no longer free to rise and the
ground water is said to be confined under artesian pressure. The
height to which the water will rise in tightly cased wells that tap
an artesian aquifer is defined as the piezometric surface of the
aquifer. Where the piezometric surface is lower than the water








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 8. Columbia County showing configuration on top of beds of
Taylor Age.


2








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30


table, the water may move downward from the nonartesian aquifer
into the artesian aquifer. Where the water table is lower than the
piezometric surface, water may move upward from the artesian
aquifer into the nonartesian aquifer or to flowing wells and springs.
Ground water in Columbia County occurs under both nonartesian
and artesian conditions. The Hawthorn Formation and the
Floridan aquifer are in part artesian. The Floridan aquifer is the
principal source of ground water in the area and includes all or
parts of formations ranging in age from Middle Eocene to Miocene
or Pliocene.
NONARTESIAN AQUIFER
The nonartesian aquifer is composed primarily of sediments of
Pleistocene and Recent Age. However, in some areas water-table
conditions exist in the sand and clay of the formation of Miocene
or Pliocene Age and in the Floridan aquifer. The source of re-
charge to the nonartesian aquifer is local rainfall.
The nonartesian aquifer is continually gaining water by recharge
and losing water by discharge. The water table rises and falls in
response to barometric and tidal fluctuations, but the most
important changes are in the amount of ground water in storage.
In this respect the water table acts like the water surface of a
lake behind a dam. That is, the water table rises when the amount
of recharge to the aquifer exceeds the amount of discharge and
declines when the recharge is less than the discharge. The water
table conforms generally to the topography of an area; however,
its features usually are more subdued.
The nonartesian aquifer in Columbia County is divided roughly
into three general areas on the basis of the topography: (1) the
basin of the Okefenokee Swamp on the north side of the east-west
ridge; (2) the Coharie, Sunderland, and Okefenokee terraces on
the south side of the east-west ridge; and (3) the Coastal Low-
lands. The east-west trending topographic divide that crosses
Columbia County through Lake City (fig. 4) -probably coincides
with the nonartesian ground-water divide. These features are not
delineated on figure 4 because of insufficient topographic control
and ground-water data in zones between the three general areas.-
The aquifer beneath the Okefenokee Swamp, in the northern
portion of the county, receives recharge from local precipitation,
surface-water runoff, and ground-water flow from the higher
east-west trending ridge to the south. The average altitude of the
region is about 120 to 130 feet above msl. The area is mantled by







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


10 to 30 feet of fine sand. The nonartesian aquifer is underlain
by marls of the Hawthorn Formation.
Discharge from the nonartesian aquifer occurs by evaporation,
transpiration by plants, seepage into streams and lakes, leakage
into the underlying Hawthorn Formation, and pumpage by a few
wells.
The water table responds to variations in rainfall; it rises during
periods of excessive rainfall and declines during periods of drought.
Because the water table declined during the period 1955-57, many
sandpoints and dug wells in the region had to be drilled into the
secondary artesian aquifer in the Hawthorn Formation.
Water levels of wells drilled to different depths indicate down-
ward movement of ground water from the nonartesian aquifer
through the Hawthorn Formation into the Floridan aquifer. The
downward percolation occurs where the water table in the non-
artesian aquifer is higher than the piezometric surface in the
underlying artesian aquifer. Evidence of downward percolation is
the decrease in water-table altitude with increase in depth of well
casing and total depth of well, as shown by wells 013-238-3, 4, 5
(table 8) north of Lake City.
The chemical quality of the water in the nonartesian aquifer
generally is poor because the concentration of iron and tannic
acid is high.
The temperature of water from the nonartesian aquifer, the
nonartesian zones of the Floridan aquifer, and the secondary
artesian zones in the Hawthorn Formation ranges from approxi-
mately 690 to 710F.
The nonartesian aquifer underlying the Coharie, Sunderland,
and Okefenokee terraces on the south side of the east-west ridge
in central Columbia County is composed of the sand and clay of
Early Pleistocene Age. The nonartesian aquifer overlies the
Hawthorn Formation or the Alachua(?) Formation. The non-
artesian aquifer ranges in thickness from about 5 to 50 feet. The
upper part of the aquifer is composed of fine sand that contains
some clay and the lower part is a mixture of medium to coarse
sand and clay or phosphate pebbles.
The nonartesian aquifer is discontinuous south of the east-west
ridge where erosion has thinned or completely removed the Pleisto-
cene deposits. The drainage system is well developed in this area
and the streams have steep gradients. Isolated remnants of the
Okefenokee terrace usually have a veneer of 5 to 10 feet of sand




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referred to mean sea level. -1_-** ~150
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Late Eo2ene Age







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30


and clay which provides a source for small quantities of potable
water. However, the concentration of iron in the water usually
produces undesirable stains and imparts a poor taste to the water.
The Coastal Lowlands region, located in the southern part of the
county, is underlain by beds of sand ranging from 5 to 10 feet in
thickness, except where the sand apparently has filled solution
features and is thicker. The thickness of the deposits in the area
west of Fort White is unknown. The nonartesian ground water
that occurs locally in the sand is "perched." The water is in a
saturated zone that is separated from the main body of ground
water by unsaturated rock. The "perched" nonartesian aquifer
obtains most of its recharge from local rainfall and is discharged
primarily by evapotranspiration, downward leakage, and springs
discharging into streams.

SECONDARY ARTESIAN AQUIFER
The secondary artesian aquifer consists of the Hawthorn Forma-
tion and the Alachua(?) Formation, singly or together. The
Hawthorn is the more extensive and is indistinguishable from the
Alachua (?) Formation in some localities.
Generally, the secondary artesian aquifer includes many small,
low pressure, artesian zones within the Hawthorn Formation.
These zones are principally limestone or sandstone beds that are
interbedded with sand and clay. The sand and clay serve to confine
the water within each zone under artesian pressure. Ground water
within the aquifers is probably derived from local rainfall. The
piezometric surface of the secondary artesian aquifer varies with
the depth of penetration and is intermediate between the water table
of the. nonartesian. aquifer and the piezometric surface of the
Floridan aquifer. Wells drilled into the secondary aquifer generally
have greater yields and contain water of different chemical quality
than the overlying nonartesian aquifer. The concentrations of
dissolved solids and total hardness of the water generally increase
with depth of penetration in the secondary aquifer. Partial
analysis of water from two wells in Clinch County, Georgia, one
with a total depth of 185 feet and the other with a total depth of
219 feet, show an increase in bicarbonate (HCO3) from 156
to 558 ppm (parts per million) and an increase in total hardness
(CaCO8) from 164 to 410 ppm. Another well in the area which
penetrated the Floridan aquifer had water with a lower content
of dissolved solids and total hardness than the water from the
secondary aquifer. This probably indicates a more direct source







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


of recharge than the downward leakage from the overlying aquifer.
However, it may indicate upward leakage from lower in the
aquifer or it may indicate only a local condition in the area of the
wells.
The water-bearing zone of the secondary artesian aquifer is
about 100 feet thick.
FLORIDAN AQUIFER
OCCURRENCE AND SOURCE
In Florida, the principal artesian aquifer (Stringfield, V. T.,
1936) has been designated the "Floridan aquifer" by Parker and
others (1955, p. 188). It consists of the Lake City Limestone, Avon
Park Limestone, and the Ocala Group, all of Eocene Age; the
Suwannee Limestone of Oligocene Age; and an unnamed sand-
stone and limestone of Miocene Age. These formations comprising
the Floridan aquifer are the principal source of large quantities of
ground water in Columbia County. Older formations are water
bearing, but the water contains such high concentrations of
dissolved solids that it is not useable for most purposes.
The Floridan aquifer, which is overlain at most locations by the
semiconfining beds of the Hawthorn and Alachua (?) Formations,
occurs beneath all of Columbia County. The altitude of the top of
the aquifer ranges from approximately 80 feet above msl in the
southern part of the county to more than 100 feet below msl in
the northern part of the county (fig. 10). The thickness of the
aquifer ranges from about 900 feet in the southern part of the
county to about 1,100 feet in northern Columbia County (fig. 5).
In general, only the' upper few hundred feet of the aquifer are
tapped by wells in Columbia County.
The Floridan aquifer is artesian in the northern part of the
county and nonartesian in the southern part, as far north as Lake
City (fig. 10). The extent of the nonartesian area varies with the
fluctuation of storage in the Floridan aquifer.
MOVEMENT OF WATER AND ITS RELATION
TO THE PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE
The configuration and altitude of the piezometric surface is
represented by contour lines which connect points of equal pressure.
The direction of movement of water in the aquifer is down the
hydraulic gradient at right angles to the contours. The piezometric
surface of Columbia County during June 1957 is presented in
figure 11.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


locally in the Pleistocene deposits but they are of limited extent and
are used for domestic supply in only a few places.
Recent deposits consisting of sand, clay, and gravel usually
occur beneath the flood plains of rivers and streams in the
topographic lows of the county. Fine, windblown sand usually
mantles the high areas. Deposits of peat and muck are being formed
in the bottom of plugged sinkholes, lakes, swamps, and other poorly
drained areas.
Deposits of Pleistocene and Recent Age are of limited extent and
thickness and they are used only locally for domestic water supply.
STRUCTURE
The geology of Columbia County is probably related to a large
anticlinal fold named the Peninsular arch by Applin (1951, p. 3).
The arch, according to Applin, is about 275 miles long and trends
southeast to northwest forming the axis of the Florida Peninsula.
Its highest recorded point is in well 009-236-4 near Lake City.
(fig. 5, 6, 7).
The high at Lake City appears to be on a north-northeastward
plunging nose in the Paleozoic rocks. Uplift of the arch or down-
warping around its circumference caused fractures to develop in
the overlying sediments. These fractures probably affect the
courses of rivers and streams in the region.
The Peninsular arch was probably formed by regional uplift
during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras (Applin, 1951, p. 17).
This is apparent from the onlap of seas during Early and Late
Cretaceous time but the area was again an area of uplift during
the Tertiary Period (fig. 5, 6, 7). Uplift since Taylor time is shown
by contours on top of beds of Taylor Age in figure 8.
The Ocala uplift (Vernon, 1951, p. 54) curves northeastward
into central Columbia County. The uplift is reflected in the high
altitude of the top of the Ocala Group as shown in figure 9. The
thickening of beds of Miocene Age northward suggests that uplift
and contemporaneous deposition took place during post-Eocene
time. The general axial trends of the post-Cretaceous and post-
Eocene structures, as shown in figures 8 and 9, suggest that in
Columbia County the Ocala uplift is probably related to movements
of the Peninsular arch.
GROUND WATER
Ground water is the subsurface water in the zone of saturation,
the zone in which all pore spaces of the soil or rocks are completely








Nonartesian
conditions I
(Except in area I


Artesian
conditions-


of Alligator Lake) '












(Eceta ; n aoren
o of Allgoror Lake)
SLand surface face
S" ....... ....... "" ........ .. **.

















S Approximate pleAnric surface

(Ex t 0 n 4 ml e,


Figure 10. Generalized sections in Columbia County showing profile of
piezometric surface of water in the Floridan aquifer in June 1957, along
lines A-A' and B-B'.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The boundary between the artesian and nonartesian areas of
the Floridan aquifer is variable but generally conforms to the 60-
foot contour that crosses the county through Lake City (fig. 11).
The aquifer north of the 60-foot contour is artesian and south of the
60-foot contour it is nonartesian.
In general, the regional direction of ground-water flow in the
artesian aquifer in Columbia County is southwestward. The
relatively uniform slope of the piezometric surface is interrupted
by high and low areas caused by local recharge and discharge.
Thus, locally, the direction of flow may differ from the regional
direction.
RECHARGE

The Floridan aquifer receives much of its recharge from local
rainfall in Columbia, Suwannee, Hamilton, Baker, Union, and
Alachua counties, Florida; and in Clinch and Echols counties of
southeast Georgia. After water enters the aquifer in the recharge
area it moves laterally below the semiconfining beds toward areas
of lower artesian pressure in other parts of Florida and Georgia.
Recharge to the Floridan aquifer occurs where the aquifer is,
exposed at land surface, where sinkholes penetrate the semicon-
fining beds of the Hawthorn Formation, and by infiltration. Re-
charge by infiltration occurs where the water table in the non-
artesian aquifer is higher than the piezometric surface and water
percolates downward through the semiconfining beds into the
Floridan aquifer. In most of Columbia County, recharge occurs
mainly by percolation; however, the Suwannee and Santa Fe
rivers, and Olustee Creek recharge the aquifer locally when the
river levels are above the piezometric surface.
In general, the topography and geology of the region control the
areas of recharge and the pattern of movement of water in the
Floridan aquifer. The area of karst topography in the Coastal
Lowlands is a recharge area for the Floridan aquifer because rain-
fall enters where the limestone is exposed at the surface and where
numerous sinkholes penetrate the overlying semiconfining beds.
The piezometric surface during June 1957 (fig. 11) indicates
recharge in the area 18 miles south of Lake City near Fort
White, and the area 12 miles south of Lake City near Ellisville.
Recharge of the aquifer from rivers and streams occurs during
high stages of the Suwannee River at White Springs and along
the southern boundaries of the county. The direction of flow
is from the river to the aquifer when the surface of the river is





"" i'1i .,. ,.4 .jC. I ,--,, 3 ,t 'I r5
-. I0"3' Fr0 24 0 0. U 0 T (L "3 GA | C O' f,, ,0 -
'Nall C
-- E#FL.tJIOlrJ (- 1- U u p t "' '' mmwu-w* GA 3035-


Upper number is *,ell number 44
Lower number is piegomeiric
surface, in feet aDove mean
sea level Letter e is esti-
maoted dOaI --

-303030 \3d-
Contour line represents the "'
piezometric surface, in feet, -
above mean sea level, June
1957
Contour interval 10 feet o
-A----\
Direction of ground-water move- _
ment in the Floridan aquifer
-30025' 2-






o0o2 0 h, so302d-
Note: \
Recharge to the aquifer i60. \ /
during Ngh stages of th 0 L
river. Discharge from th A \
aquifer to the river dur- \ */ fU 110i
ing low stages of the' 60 4
river. I Wi "










-3005' .,,
-30110' 1Oa 41500 010






Bas o mp l f m o
IA "- "- | -
~-oaoq' / / Dnoe -.
,30005, 0 0 f. ,O river durig lw s s of







ej, hig s of 000, the river .
/, 1 V ^0 the A -
/1k:
-j /V Note&


_n ,tthe river during low stages of
*.,, the river.

Fe*29L,0/7/0 29055'-






-l29505' "M
8250 82*45' -"'' 8235 82h0 8225 ,


Base compiled from maps of
Florida State Road Department
Figure 11. Columbia County showing the piezometric surface of the Floridan
aquifer in June 1957.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 30


higher than the piezometric surface of the aquifer. The direction
of flow is reversed when the piezometric surface is higher than
the water level of the river.
DISCHARGE
Ground water is discharged from the aquifer chiefly by springs
and seepage into the Suwannee River, Santa Fe River, Ichatucknee
River, and Olustee Creek. Numerous springs occur throughout
Columbia County but no attempt was made to measure their
flow, and they are not located on any map. In addition to the
discharge into streams, some ground water moves out of the
county into adjacent counties by underflow. A relatively small
amount of water is discharged by wells tapping the aquifer.
The lows on the piezometric surface in the Coastal Lowlands
region (fig. 11) show the drawdown effects of ground-water
discharge by numerous springs. The springs discharge a large
volume of water from storage in the aquifer. The piezometric sur-
face in the southern part of the county occurs more than 20 feet
below the top of the Floridan aquifer (fig. 10). The discharge of
the Ichatucknee River, measured below the springs, on April 12,
1957, was about 250 cfs (cubic feet per second) or about 110,000
gpm. The volume is about 160 times the average daily pumpage
by Lake City. The discharge measurement was made when the
piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer at Lake City was at
its lowest recorded altitude. Rainfall later in the spring of 1957 was
above normal and the piezometric surface at Lake City rose 4
feet by the fall of 1957 (fig.12). The discharge of the Ichatucknee
River on October 24, 1957 was about 160,000 gpm. The increased
discharge of about 50,000 gpm probably was due to the increased
gradient of the piezometric surface.
FLUCTUATIONS OF THE PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE
The piezometric surface rises when the amount of recharge to
the aquifer exceeds the amount of discharge and declines when
the discharge exceeds the recharge. The relation between discharge
and recharge is indicated by changes in water levels.
Fluctuations of the piezometric surface are caused primarily by:
(1) rainfall in the area, (2) natural ground-water discharge, (3)
changes in barometric pressure, (4) earth tides, and (5) pumping.
Any one of these factors may be dominant at one time and over-
shadow the effects of the others. Therefore, continuous, long-term,
water-level records are necessary to distinguish short-term fluctua-
tions from progressive trends.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


65 1----
Well 010-238-1
.j in Lake City

2 60
45
-j






45 ---- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --


~~___~~_____________ LAKE CITY WEATHER STATION
201-rYVVA 1 lIRr I WWA I I Tn'rA, I T.IAI I A


2
0 tfM
az
-z 10
FL -

IL
0


Figure 12. Hydrograph of well 010-238-1 and rainfall at Lake City 1948-57.

The fluctuations of the piezometric surface of the Floridan
aquifer have been recorded since June 1948 in well 010-238-1 at
Lake City. The hydrograph (fig. 12) of the water level in the well
during the period 1948-57 shows a progressive decline of the
piezometric surface. The decline represents a recession from the
peak water levels that resulted from the above-average rainfall in
1947 and 1948 to slightly below-normal water levels that resulted
from below-normal rainfall in 1954 and 1955 (fig. 3, 12). The
maximum decline of the piezometric surface for this period 1947-55
was about 17.5 feet.
Rainfall recharging the aquifer in the Lake City region causes
a slow rise in the piezometric surface. The difference in time
between the maximum seasonal rainfall and the corresponding
rise in water level (fig. 12) is approximately 5 months. This
lag probably indicates the approximate time necessary for water
to leak from the nonartesian aquifer to the Floridan aquifer.
The daily fluctuations of the piezometric surface in well
010-238-1 and well 004-236-5 near Myrtis are compared to the


TOTFAL& TOTAL L 1%1q. I I4. I 44. I IL V M. I14_ I I
66.01 5521 49.16 47.77 38.75 7&.06 36J66 31.97 50.6Z 55.64L







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 30


rainfall at a weather station 2 miles east of Lake City (fig. 13). The
graphs show a continuous rise from June through December re-
sulting from regional recharge to the aquifer. Superimposed on
the 7-month trend are small rises which usually follow a heavy
rainfall by 1 to 2 days. The small rises which correlate with local
rainfall indicate localized recharge through sinkholes and possibly
higher water levels due to loading on the aquifer. The almost
identical hydrographs of wells 010-238-1 and 004-236-5 indicate
that hydrologic conditions at Lake City and Myrtis, 8 miles to the
south, are similar.


52 Well 010-230-1 .-I, *,
,In Lake City



46
840 Well 004-236-5 I
In Myrtis




34--
TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
TOTAL T T41 T5 .0 L
13J01 4.72 5.15 5.76 1.41 5.03 163
i.0 I LAKE CITY WE OTHER STATION


JUNE JULY AuG EPBE OC1Ob UtIJE ICEMBER

Figure 13. Hydrographs of wells 010-238-1 and 004-236-5 and daily rainfall
at Lake City, June-December 1957.

A short-term record on well 001-243-1, 12 miles south-southwest
of Lake City, showed fluctuations similar to those observed in
wells 010-238-1 and 004-236-5 following heavy rainfall. The fluctua-
tions were only half the amplitude of the corresponding fluctua-
tions of wells 010-238-1 and 004-236-5, perhaps an indication of
greater transmissibility and storage capabilities of the aquifer.
Water levels in wells that tap the artesian part of the Floridan
aquifer are affected by barometric fluctuations. The range of
water-level fluctuation in a well may be virtually the same as
that of the water level in a water barometer, or 13.5 times the
range in a mercury barometer. Barometric fluctuations may cause






36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

"blowing" and "sucking" wells in the Floridan aquifer where it is
nonartesian and only partly confined. This phenomenon occurs
when the upper part of the Floridan aquifer is filled with air
instead of water. The water surface in the aquifer rises when
the barometric pressure decreases, forcing part of the air up well
casings or natural openings, and the opposite reaction occurs when
the barometric pressure increases. This phenomenon is not
observed when the well is cased below the water surface.
Changes in the piezometric surface of the artesian aquifer are
also caused by earth tides. The earth-tide cycle is similar to that
of the sea tides, but the change in piezometric surface is caused
by a rise or fall of the land surface by gravitation effects of the
moon and sun.
The effects of pumpage on the piezometric surface are discussed
in the section on hydrologic properties of the Floridan aquifer.
USE OF GROUND WATER
The table of well records (table 8) gives information on more
than 300 wells in Columbia County (fig. 14). Many of these wells
are domestic wells which pump from 10 to 20 gpm. No estimate is
made of the average daily consumption for domestic purposes. I
The largest users of ground water are irrigation and municipal
wells which usually pump from 500 to 1,000 gmp. The only
measured data on pumpage is from the Lake City well field which
pumps about 1 million gpd (table 3).



TABLE 3. Pumpage at the Lake City Well Field
(In millions of gallons per month)
(Source: Records of the Lake City Water Department)
1955 1956 1957
January 24.888 30.692
February 22.533 28.775
March 32.171 26.873
April 36.101 34.444
May 37.576 32.391
June 36.406 33.487
July 30.697 37.207
August 29.229 41.841 32.227
September 31.795 20.893 28.429
October 34.459 29.042 28.840
November 27.908 25.187 28.038
December 27.518 31.744
Average equals 1.025,000 gpd...




'.1 ~


-I- O'


-30025'


EXPLANATION

Inventored well
ond number

Surface-water goaging slolion
1957
0 I1 2 3 4 5 miles


I iL- i I I1 111 %1 N


WEL.LBOI


FirmAM


~ O~Nrr~GA ~''c L



I LL


SI. lIj

- -7------4

I _


S 1


-I


TI k I I I 1 11 1 11


Al i 1


I-


10.


A' I
(A A I


-I


!i


30'2d






30"15


~dI I_


I F- 4f 1 1 1 1 1

I It oI ,9 -- LKt CITY
142[ !J.3-- SbLPJSTEE
3~--2I i2


-1-1 1 VA
=, =..2-r 1 5' W


~I~~KK1222iI2JLLLL


s L 'I 241
II 8 -











-1--------]- cs-.A !^' "'-
-3000 300





-- r 0
-29150 a._2_ 000---
2 5 30000'4 iL 81 0 2






\ I I I^ II I I


Base compiled from maps of
Florida State Rfood Department,


Well inventory by F W. Meyer
Figure 14. Columbia County and surrounding area showing the locations of
wells and stream-gaging stations.


SI i,


.30020'


~~T~cRob


-30015






-3010


- --- -- ------ --- I --- --


- -~ ---------- --


1 1 1 1 1 1-4 1 .-1 4 1 1 11 1 11 1 1 .


| I I I III I I I i


1 0 1 'r SE14TONI


-r


i i I Wl I I I I i i I lii i --- )A i i i i i 1 i i 1 1 ,-1 1 i


am:;;h i i i i % i i i i i i i


61 1 kk 1 W Z M I 1 -


- ii i i i H i I i i


" -- -- ---- ----- ----


I-jI I I t I 16 1 1 1 1 .


I -R1ITI ~ II I II I I In ---IN~ 1 I I-I : --


)I II ,II r, i 1-07A, 1 b9.9&kl A kT 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1_11 1 1 1 1 ' '3


01W FI jfjjiw


300 3d


I


Fr


i


CI


., k


/


I-


I


"It


50


14 2:C]an


" 00








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 30


HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF THE FLORIDAN AQUIFER
The principal hydraulic characteristics of an aquifer are its
abilities to transmit and store water. The coefficient of trans-
missibility, T, is a measure of the capacity of an aquifer to transmit
water. This coefficient is defined as the quantity of water that
passes through a vertical section of the saturated thickness of the
aquifer 1 foot wide, under a unit hydraulic gradient, at the pre-
vailing temperature of the water. It customarily is expressed by
the U.S. Geological Survey in units of gallons per day per foot of
aquifer (gpd per foot). The coefficient of storage, S, is a measure
of the aquifer's capacity to store water. It is the volume of water
released or taken into storage per unit surface area of the aquifer
per unit change in the component of head normal to that surface.
The value of S varies approximately from 0.0001 to 0.001 in
artesian aquifers and from 0.05 to 0.30 in nonartesian aquifers.
An effective method of determining the coefficients of trans-
missibility and storage is by pumping a well and measuring the
consequent water-level drawdown in the vicinity of the well. When
a well is pumped, the piezometric surface in the vicinity of the well
assumes the shape of an inverted cone having its apex at the center
of withdrawal. The surface is generally referred to as the cone
of depression, and its size and shape depend on the transmissibility
and storage capacities of the aquifer, the rate of pumping, length
of pumping time, and influence of recharge or discharge in the
area.
Theis (Wenzel, 1942) developed a method of determining T and
S from time-drawdown data in observation wells in the vicinity of
a pumped well. The equations have assumptions and restrictions
which are not met in field testing; however, the equations permit
an approximation of the true values. Hantush (1956) developed a
solution introducing a correction for leakance, the ratio of the
vertical permeability of the confining bed to its thickness. The
equation provides a solution to the coefficient of leakance as well
as to the coefficients of transmissibility and storage. H. H. Cooper,
Jr. of the U. S. Geological Survey developed a family of leaky
aquifer curves which, when compared with the curve derived by
the Hantush method, gives values for T, S, and leakance.
In order to determine the transmissibility, storage coefficient,
and leakage of the Floridan aquifer in the Lake City area a
pumping test was conducted on October 17, 1957. Lake City
municipal well 010-237-2 was used as the discharging well and an







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


abandoned well, 011-237-1, a distance of 1,150 feet north northeast,
was used for observation of water levels, the test was begun at
6:35 a.m. and ended at 11:35 a.m. with well 010-237-2 discharging
at approximately 650 gpm. The data obtained was compared
with the Theis type curve and yielded a T value of 270,000 gpd
per foot and an S value of 0.0008 (fig. 15). The data was applied








= 5.85 x I0-'
.I s = C28 ft. -----

z -~Theis nonequilibrium formula a
---- r = l,150 feet
-- 650 gpm (est.)
0 16-- T 114.6 Q W(u270,Ooogpd -f l
T -s 270,000gpd/ft
SS =-T'1- 0.0008
l87rz








.001 -----0 -6
10' 10 106 10"' O
t
rt


Figure 15. Logarithmic plot of drawdown


t
versus -


compared with the Theis


type curve, Lake City pumping test, October 1957

to the Hantush assumptions for ground water flow in a leaky
aquifer and the resulting curve was compared to the leaky-aquifer
curves of Cooper. The coefficient of transmissibility was again
determined to be approximately 270,000 gpd per foot, the coef-
ficient of storage again was 0.0008, and the coefficient of leak-
age was 0.001 gpd per cubic foot. The values for T and S agree
in both computations and are undoubtedly good approximations
for the upper part of the Floridan aquifer. At present data are
insufficient to determine the accuracy of the coefficient of leakage.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30


However, approximations of transmissibility of other wells near
the periphery of Alligator Lake are higher, indicating a probable
source of leakage to the Floridan aquifer. Therefore, the coef-
ficient of leakage probably is invalid because recharge may occur
by means of sinks penetrating the semiconfining beds.
Table 4 shows theoretical values for the coefficient of trans-
missibility for seven wells. The values for T were obtained by
using the Theim (1906) method which is expressed by the
equation
Q re
T=527.7 logo -
Sw rIW
Q
where -is the specific capacity, re is the estimated radius of the
Sw
cone of depression at equilibrium and rw is the radius of the well.
Field measurements were made to obtain yield and water-level
drawdown data to compute the specific capacity, and values
for re were arbitrarily selected for the following ranges of
pumping rates to be:
rec (feet) pumping (gpm)
20,000 750-1,250
10,000 250- 750
2,000 less than 250
The values of T for wells 010-237-1, 010-237-2, 010-237-3,
010-238-2, and 011-238-3 are for the same part of the aquifer
that was tested in the Lake City well field. The values of T
obtained by the Thiem equation generally are higher than the
values obtained by the Theis equation because the drawdowns
probably did not reach a state of equilibrium and the high trans-
missibility values include the effects of leakage through the con-
fining beds and through many sinkhole lakes in the area. Well
010-237-2 had 4 times the amount of drawdown and a correspond-
ingly low value of transmissibility. This loss in head could be caused
by: (1) a local change in the water-transmitting capacity of the
aquifer, (2) encrustation of the well, and (3) poor well
development.
The data for well 011-238-3 appear to support the value of T
obtained by the pump test. The well is in an area of little apparent
leakage and the transmissibility is on the order of 270,000 gpd
per foot obtained by the Theis method and by the leaky-aquifer
method of Cooper. The lower transmissibility of well 010-238-1























TABLE 4. Theoretical Transmissibility of the Floridan Aquifer in Selected Wells
Estimated
Depth below Radius of radius of cone Specific capacity, Theoretical coefficient
Well Location land surface well, rw of depression, Q/sw (gpm/ft) of transmissibility T
(feet) (feet) re (feet) (gpd/ft) (rounded)
Columbia County
010237-1 0.3 miles N. of Alligator Lake 300 0.5 10.000 175 400,000
010-237-2 do. 275 .5 10,000 30 80,000
010-237-3 0.2 miles N. of Alligator Lake 310 .5 20,000 151 400,000
010438-1 600 feet W. of Alligator Lake 1,125 .5 2,000 50 100,000
010238-2 75 feet NW of Alligator Lake 360 .42 20.000 200 500,000
011-238-3 1.5 miles N. of Alligator Lake 400 1.25 20,000 100 200,000
Baker County
012-222-1 24 miles E, of Lake City 465 .33 10,000 47 100,000







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 30


probably indicates the lower part of the aquifer has a lower
coefficient of transmissibility than the upper zone. The approxi-
mate value of T for well 012-222-1 at the Florida Forest Nursery,
in Baker County, is about the same as that for well 010-238-1. This
may indicate lower values of T in those areas where the aquifer is
overlain by thick deposits of Miocene Age.
Figure 16 is a graph showing the theoretical drawdown in the
vicinity of a well pumping 1,000 gpm for different lengths of time.
The graph was computed by using 270,000 gpd per foot for the
coefficient of transmissibility and 0.0008 for the coefficient of
storage. It is based on the Theis nonequilibrium formula which
assumes there is no leakage or recharge to the aquifer during the
time, t, of continuous pumping. However, the drawdown curve in
figure 13 did show leakage or other recharge to the aquifer at the
test site; consequently, the expanding cone of depression will
intercept recharge and ultimately the recharge within the cone of
depression will equal the pumping rate. Thus, it is expected that
the actual drawdown during the initial period of pumping generally
would closely approximate the drawdowns computed from the
Theis formula. The actual drawdown would be smaller than the
computed drawdowns after the cone of depression began to inter-
cept recharge. The time required to reach a stabilized drawdown
condition possibly would be in the magnitude of months but there
are insufficient data to determine the exact length of time.
Greater or lesser pumping rates will increase or decrease the
drawdown by direct proportion. For example, using the graphs
on figure 16, under the assumed conditions, the drawdown 10 feet
from a well discharging 1,000 gpm for 10 days would be 9.9 feet.
If the well had discharged 100 gpm for the same length of time, the
drawdown at the same distance would be one-tenth as much or
0.99 feet.
The curves in figure 17 represent the change in drawdown, at
the center well of straight-line well systems, as the distance between
adjacent wells is changed. The total discharge of each line of
wells was arbitrarily set at 20,000 gpm and the period of discharge
at 1 year. An example of the use of this graph is as follows: If a
well system were required to yield 20,000 gpm with a maximum
drawdown of 120 feet, one would follow across the 120-foot
drawdown line to its intercepts of the curves to determine the
number of wells, discharge rate for each well, and spacing
between adjacent wells. The 120-foot drawdown line intersects
the curve for 40 wells discharging at 500 gpm each at a point



































DISTANCE, IN


FEET, FROM DISCHARGING WELL


Figure 16. Graph showing the theoretical drawdown in the vicinity of a well
discharging 1,000 gpm.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 30


20
Computations based on:
40 T 270,000 gpd/ft.
S= 0.0008
Well diameter = 12 inches
60 -= year

00
40_ Wells in eaoch pumPra 0u

" r-- 1 Well in e, c -""-umpin g 2.000 -m ------





IS


0 500


1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500
DISTANCE, IN FEET, BETWEEN PUMPING WELLS IN LINE.


Figure 17. Theoretical drawdowns after 1 year of pumping a group of wells
at a rate of 20,000 gpm.


corresponding to a spacing of 815 feet. The 120-foot drawdown
line intersects the curve for 20 wells discharging at 1,000 gpm
each where the spacing is 1,585 feet between wells, and intersects
the curve for 10 wells discharging at 2,000 gpm each where the
wells are spaced 3,140 feet apart. The graph could be used in a
similar manner for any given maximum drawdown. The draw-
downs are almost directly proportional to the total discharge.
Therefore, for greater or lesser rates of discharge, proportionately
lesser or greater maximum drawdown lines should be used. Thus,
in the example above, if the discharge rate had been 5,000 gpm
and the maximum drawdown 30 feet, the 120-foot drawdown line
would have been used.
The coefficients of transmissibility and storage obtained by
the pump test at the Lake City well field may not be representative
of the aquifer in other parts of Columbia County. For example, the
aquifer is probably more permeable in the area south of Lake City
and in this area the drawdown for a given rate of pumping will be
less than the theoretical value determined from the curves on figures
16 and 17. However, the coefficients obtained from the test may


3,000


3300







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


be applicable in the upper part of the Floridan aquifer in the
vicinity of Lake City.
CHEMICAL QUALITY
The suitability of ground water for municipal, agricultural,
and industrial supply depends largely on the chemical quality of
the water. A municipal supply requires the water to be: (1) free
of harmful bacteria and toxic materials; (2) pleasant tasting,
clear and odorless; (3) relatively soft, or low in calcium and
magnesium salts; and (4) noncorrosive. For industrial use hard-
ness and corrosiveness are most important and for irrigation the
quantities of dissolved salts and sodium content are most important.
Water first begins to change chemical composition as it absorbs
small quantities of carbon dioxide gas from the atmosphere and
organic material from the soil. The carbon dioxide gas reacts
with the water forming a weak solution of carbonic acid. The
acidic water then percolates through the various geologic forma-
tions dissolving the more soluble minerals. Therefore, the chemical
quality of the ground water generally reflects the mineral compo-
sition and solubility of the water-bearing formations.
Chemical analyses were made of ground-water samples taken at
different depths and at different locations in Columbia County and
vicinity (table 5, 6). Most of the samples were obtained from
wells tapping the Floridan aquifer. The results of the analyses are
given in tables 5 and 6 and the locations of the wells are shown in
figure 14. The analyses are expressed in parts per million; one
part per million is equivalent to a pound of dissolved matter in
a million pounds of water.
Locally important chemical characteristics of the water-hydro-
gen-ion concentration, hardness, dissolved solids, and hydrogen
sulfide-are discussed separately below.
HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION (pH)
The hydrogen-ion concentration, or pH value, of water is a
measure of its acidity or alkalinity. The pH of neutral or distilled
water is 7 which means the water is neither acid nor alkaline.
Values greater than 7 denote increasing alkalinity and values less
than 7 denote increasing acidity. Water with a low pH is corrosive;
that is, the acid reacts with metals to form salts, although not all
waters having the same pH are equally corrosive. Generally, waters
with pH values above 7 are not corrosive but react with metal to,
form encrustation and "boiler scale," the amount of encrustation







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30


depends on the hardness of the water. Ground water that is non-
corrosive and nonencrustating is slightly alkaline and has low
hardness.
The analyses of ground-water samples from the Floridan aquifer,
given in tables 5 and 6, show the water to be alkaline with the pH
units ranging from 7.1 to 8.7. Water with pH value of 6.8 was
recorded in well 006-239-1 thereby indicating direct seepage of
acidic surface water to the artesian aquifer nearby.
HARDNESS
The hardness of water is commonly recognized by the increased
amount of soap needed to produce a lather and by the sticky,
insoluble precipitate that forms with soap. It is chiefly caused
by the presence of the alkaline earths, calcium and magnesium in
solution. These alkaline earths form encrustations, boiler scale,
and destroy the effectiveness of soap. The hardness of water is
usually expressed as total hardness but there are two types of
hardness: (1) temporary hardness and (2) permanent hardness.
Temporary or carbonate hardness is caused by carbonates and
bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium. It is easily removed by
softening processes such as: (1) heating, (2) soda-ash process,
(3) lime-soda process, and (4) the zeolite-ion-exchange.
Permanent or noncarbonate hardness is caused by sulfate,
chloride, and nitrate salts of calcium and magnesium. These salts
are not removed by most softening processes but can be removed
by an expensive zeolite-ion-exchange process. The ground waters
containing magnesium sulfate are usually not used because of the
laxative effect of the water. The recommended limit for sulfate
concentration by U.S. Public Health Service is 250 ppm. Analysis
of water from the Lake City Limestone shows that the sulfate
content is always greater than 250 ppm and that the concentra-
tion increases with depth. Two wells, 010-238-1 and 009-248-1,
developed in the Lake City Limestone have sulfate values which
greatly exceed 250 ppm (table 5). The sulfate probably originates
from anhydrite, gypsum and, perhaps epsonite within the Lake
City or Oldsmar Limestones.
Hardness of ground water from the upper 200 feet of the
Floridan aquifer ranges from about 100 to 350 ppm as CaCOs
and increases with depth in the aquifer. Figure 18 is a map of
Columbia County showing lines of equal total hardness in the
ground water of the upper part of the Floridan aquifer. Most of
the wells that were sampled had the casing seated in the top of the













TABLE 5, Chemical Analyses of Water from Wells in Columbia County and Vicinity
(Concentration of dissolved constituents, in parts per million)


Formation: L, Lake City Limestone; Oc, Ocala Group; 01, Oldsmar
Limestone; M, Miocene sandstone and limestone;
S, Suwannee Limestone,


Remarks: B, Black Laboratories, Inc.; F, Florida State Board of
Health; HuS, hydrogen sulfide gas; R, radio-chemical
data available; U, U.S. Geological Survey.


Columbia County


M. 5, Oc

Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
o
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oe
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Oc
Go


U; manganese 0.02 ppm
temp. 70F; partial
analysis in table 6
B
B
B

B
B

B

B


B
B
B
B

B



B; HaS
B. HaS


2-10-i5u au


5.3 i U.4


U19-233-1

011-236-3
011-236.4

0114.37-1
011-238-3

011-238-.4



010-234-1
010-234-2

010-235-1



010-237-1


4.0

...........



a20
al.8
a5.5
14

a25.
a3.2
a7.8
.o ..


7-19-48
7-12-49
7-1948
9-24-48
7-12-49
3-29-50
6-13-27
9-24-48
2- 3-50
-23
5- 7-42
9-24-48
2- 3-50
7-12-40
6- 2-48
7-12-48
9-24-48
7-19-48
9-24-48
7-12-41
7-19.48
9.24-48
7-12-49
2- 6-53


31
10
25
35
8.4
. 22
31
26
36
25
30
25
13
36
27
38
30
47
13
18
23
6.5
19


........ 0,28

9.2 .5
16 .2
9.2 .1
4,6 .1
3.0 .05
10 0
8 .01
...........12
32 .23
8.5 0
9.0 .01
25 .1
...... .01
23 .01
14 .4

14 .05
9.104 .210
10 .10


I 42


30
33
29
33
36.5
32
490
39
47
48
41
44
40
49
48
43
49
32
33
33
38
46
43
48


22

7.5
22
5.8
13
11
14
20
21
18
20
22
18
21
27
22
6.6
20
7.5
13
22
4.6
3.8
14
14.5


235

138
146
132
172
130
208
198
224
218
237
223
234
224
216
204
254
206
261
158
194
154
154
194
152
172


u

7
8.5
8
3.4
0
14
6
10
16
0
4
5
15
6.2
7
0

3.4
0

50


..........
.6 ~

.25



.25
.4


.........

.2
0


4
16
2
5
14
5
40
7
8
9.8
9
8.2
1
8
24
9
12
2
4
14
6
5
13
8


222





172
180
281
233
248
235
232
230
269
269
203

189


196 3

96 0
156 10
97 0
136 0
128 0
136 15


202 ....
192
184 0
186 9
214 10
210 6
135 0
111 0
136 0
156 2
114 0
131 0
154 2
167 0


7.4

7.8
7.6
7.8
7.9
7.9
7.8
7.6
7.6


7.6
7.6
7.6
8.1
7.6
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.8
7.7
7.8
7.8
7.5


10

15
13
8

6
0
14
14

16
14
7
4
3
15
...-
11
4

4


255
255~
174
163
170
163
268


r


--





5-26-54 27 4 ~ 1 15 ..3 8..... 162 4 14 ........--.. .. 176 14 225 7.3 7 Oc B
010-237-2 5-26-54 30 8 0 42 19 162 1 14 ......... ... 166 4 210 7.6 7 Oc A, HuS
2- 8-5625 22 .08 40 19 ..... 148 3 20 ..................... 163 15 180 7.5 5 Oc
S11-16-56 22 20 .04 41 17 .-. 150 4 12 ... ...... 158 8 165 7.5 15 Oc B
3-16-57 25 ..... 0 39 15 7.5 196 1.8 9.8 0.5 0.8 197 159 0 327 8.0 13 Oc haS, R, U; Aluminum
0.1 ppm, iron total
0.17 ppm, potassium
1.3 ppm, zinc 0.02 ppm,
phosphate 0.1 ppm,
lithium 0.1 ppm;
temp. 72F
010-237-3 4- 1-57 16 17 .28 56 11 ...... 160 2 16 ........ ............. 164 4 160 7.6 30 Oc B: HaS
010-237.4 7- 5-57 18 7.1 .25' 44 12 a6.3 189 0 8 .1 ........... 190 159 4 ........ 7.7 20 Oc B, HS
7-6-57 19 9.3 .29 46 12 ........154 0 9 ........ .... .-.....163 9 250 7.9 19 Oc B
010-237-6 4-20-56 13 23 .1 62 9 ... 164 4 10 ........ ... ...... 168 4 170 7.5 5 Oc B
010-237-7 7412-49 8.6 6 .1 46 16 166 6.8 18 .................. 168 2 181 7.9 4 0C B
01..38 2-20-29 ....... 53 12 .. 215 4.3 8.6 ....... 237 b18 4 .. 25 L 01 HS; depth 1,01& ft.
8-21-39 i: 11.2 .16 263 154 .__ 227 1.068 25 ... .... 2.000 1.297 1,111 7.1 15 L. 01 F, HaS; depth 1,125 ft.
9-11-39 ... .... ...--.-.-. ....-- 227 1.087 25 .. ............ 2.040 1,318 1.132 -. 7.1 L. 01 Do. ,
11-28-39 13 ......172 207 ... 227 1060 22 1.920 1289 1.103 .... 7.3 ... L F, S; depth 1001 ft.
... 1- 4-40 --.. .......-- ............... ....... 93 23 1,710 ...7.2 L FHaS; depth 924 ft.
010-238-2, 3 10- ?-3 14 25 45.4 12.7 a.3 192 2.5 12 ........ 0 209 16 ...... .. oc F s
7-31-37 6.8 .. 2.4 .. ... ...... a74 132 9.6 35 -- 0 237 183 51 c FO HaS
006-239-1 3-14-56 8 120 .04 89 26 ........ 192 13 30 ........ ....... 274 82 285 6.8 12 Oc B
003-238-1 2-10-58 16 ...........01 48 5.8 4.3 171 0 5.5 .3 1.0 16 144 4 271 7.5 3 c ; manganese 0.01 ppm,
potassium 0.5 ppm;
temp. 72-F.
Baker County
012-223-1 2-18-41 ............. 1.2 42 20 a7 232 0 8.7 2..... ...... 234 192 ....... ....... 7.7 -.. Oc F
011-226-1 2-18-41 .... .... .7 42 21 a9 243 0 8.5 .--..---- 233 204 .. ......- 7.7 o...c. 0c S
011-226-2 2-10-58 20 ........ .09 46 23 5.2 257 0 5.5 .4 .5 229 210 0 380 7.5 15 M, S FiS, U; manganese 0.01
ppm, potassium 0.9
ppm; temp. 720F;
partial analyses in table 6.
Hamilton County

019-245-1 7-1549 ......... .......... .05 44 18 a2.3 222 0 5 ............. 220 182 ..... ............ 7.5 .......... Oc F

Suwannee County
009-248-1 2- 8-58 18 ......... .01 110 8 8.9 168 405 12 1.0 0 708 554 416 933 17.4 3 L. 01 nls., u; anganese 0.01
ppm, potassium 2.2
ppm; temp. 77F.

AIn solution at time of analysis. aSodium and potassium expressed as sodium.
'Specific conductance in micromhos at 250C. bSoap hardness.
'Units based on the platinum-cobalt scale. cIron and aluminum oxide.












TABLU 6, Partial Chemical Analyses of Water from Wells in 00
Columbia and Adjacent Counties
(Analyses, in parts per million, by U.S. Geological Survey)




Well Date of e mak
number collection Remarks



Columbia County.v
035-240-2 5- 3-57 428 0 338 ...... 051 7.7 Slight iron stain
023-237-1 6.2847 352 0 284 7 ...... 530 7.6
019-233-1 5- 847 212 16 190 70 380 8.7 Complete analysis in
table 5
019-237-1 6- 6.57 200 8 174 -------- 327 8.6
018-239-1 6-2647 232 2 184 72 368 8.4 0
016-240-1 6- 647 158 4 133 75 267 8.6
010-241-1 6- 447 180 0 156 71 302 8.3
015-238-1 6-26.57 120 2 100 .,............. 207 8.4
015-239-1 6- 5-57 218 0 176 72 342 8.3
01&-240-1 6- 5.57 206 8 186 70 345 8.6 Slight iron stain
014-238-1 6-28-57 154 6 144 73 279 8.0
014-240-1 6- 447 324 0 252 73 494 8.3
013-238-5 6-2657 158 0 48 .----- 198 8.3 Slight iron stain
013-246-1 7-1147 104 0 126 74 255 8.1
012-238-2 6-2647 268 0 206 72 425 8.1
011-233-1 9-1947 284 0 232 72 442 7.9 HaS
011-239.2 7-1147 208 4 174 ....... 352 8.4 HaS
011-242-1- 7-1547 144 0 116 74 236 8.1
010-236-2 7- 9547 122 0 88 76 187 8.1
010-237-5 0-1747 208 0 188 72 368 8.0
010-239-3 7-1047 226 8 198 ............ 390 8.6
010-240-4 7-10-57 194 0 172 76 341 8.1 HaS
010240-6 7-1747 238 2 194 76 372 8.4
009-239-2 0-23-57 156 0 136 72 274 7.5
009-239-3 0-23-57 144 0 116 72 235 7.6
009-241-2 7-1547 214 0 178 76 340 8.3
009-241-3 8-1347 204 0 172 73 317 8.3
009-241-6 7-1747 140 2 118 72 236 8.4
009-244-1 8-1947 128 0 114 74 227 7.8
008-237-4 9-12-57 96 0 78 78 163 8.0
008-238-2 7-3047 196 0 164 70 315 8.0
008439-1 9-23-87 168 0 142 72 278 8.2
008-242-1 8-1547 128 0 114 ................ 214 8.1






007-235-2 8- 9-57 152 0 134 74 260 8.2
007-237-3 9-12-57 178 0 150 282 8.0
007-237-6 9-12-57 93 0 79 .... 170 7.3
007-239-1 9-24-57 132 0 108 ..- 217 7.6
007-239-3 9-24-57 158 0 132 72 260 7.6
007-243-1 9-25-57 156 0 132 ...... 251 8.4
006-237-2 9-12-57 108 0 93 74 193 7.6
005-236-4 9-13-57 144 0 122 -.. 239 7.4
005-236-5 9-13-57 320 0 264 74 492 7.8
004-242-1 9-23-57 214 0 176 .. 362 8.2
004-246-1 8-12-57 160 0 134 72 258 7.9
002-236-4 6-14-57 186 4 196 ..... 384 8.5
959-235-1 8- 7-57 186 0 148 72 289 8.0
958-234-1 8- 6-57 158 0 144 .. 265 8.2 Slight H.-S
958-238-1 8- 6-57 124 0 150 ..... 333 8.1
956-236-1 8- 2-57 186 0 160 73 300 8.2
956-236-2 8- 2-57 166 0 150 72 294 8.3
955-237-1 9-11-57 62 0 48 72 108 7.6
964-235-1 8- 1-57 172 0 146 75 302 7.8
954-242-1 9- 1-57 166 0 156 .. ..... 308 8.3 0
953-236-2 8- 1-57 196 4 432 ..- 812 8.4
951-236-1 8- 1-57 194 0 168. ........... 317 8.2 Slight iron stain
Alachua County
955-228-1 8- 5-57 140 0 124 72 252 8.1
951-236-2 6-27-57 124 0 128 72 226 8.3
950-236-1 6-27-57 182 10 200 72 386 8.6
951-236- ........ 140 0 174 72 377 8.3 Flowing
(Spring) _______________________________________________
Baker County
012-221-1 5-30-57 254 0 218 74 456 7.9 HaS
011-226-2 9- 6-57 276 0 226 71 413 8.0 Slight HaS; hole at 183 ft.
011-226-2 9- 6-57 268 0 230 71 406 7.9 Slight HaS; hole at 185 ft. 2
011-226-2 9- 6-57 260 0 210 71 392 8.0 Slight HsS, pumping.
Complete analysis
___in-table 5
Hamilton County t
021-246-1 5- 8-57 178 2 148 ............ 314 8.4 9
019-244-1 7-30-57 196 0 168 69 327 8.0
019-245- .............. 184 0 182 ................. 364 8.3 Plowing
(White Springs)
Suwannee County
012-248-1 7-13-57 146 2 124 72 244 8.5 HaS
958-246-. ..... .......... 112 0 98 72 208 8.2 Flowing
(Itchatucknee
Spring)
Union County
958-233-1 8- 6-57 196 6 180 ................... 327 8.5






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


uppermost limestone; therefore, the water samples were assumed
to be from near the top of the aquifer. The lines of equal total
harness generally correlate with the piezometric pressure in the
aquifer. The highest concentrations occur in the northern re-
charge areas and the lowest concentrations occur in the southern
recharge and discharge areas. Apparently, the hardness in the
southern area indicates: (1) a mixture of ground water and
surface water, and (2) the amounts and rate of solution are
decreasing in the discharge areas. The local high concentrations
in some recharge areas of southern Columbia County could in-
dicate infiltration of acid surface water into less dissolved portions
of the aquifer. The high concentrations, in the northern part of
the area covered by thick Miocene sediments, result either from the
leaching of calcareous materials in the Hawthorn Formation by
ground water percolating downward to the Floridan aquifer or
by the influence of ground-water inflow from more distant
recharge areas in Georgia.
DISSOLVED SOLIDS
Dissolved solids reported in water are the residue left after
evaporation. In Columbia County dissolved solids range up to
2,040 ppm in well 010-238-1 but generally averaged about 200
ppm (table 5). The dissolved solid content increases with depth
in both the Floridan and the secondary artesian aquifer. Water
with less than 500 ppm dissolved solids is generally acceptable for
domestic use and water with greater than 500 ppm dissolved
solids is objectionable (U. S. Public Health Service, 1946).
HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S)
Hydrogen sulfide gas imparts a pronounced taste and odor to
ground water causing it to be commonly referred to as "sulfur
water." The chemical analyses in table 5 list those wells in which
hydrogen sulfide gas is most noticeable. Two possible sources of
this gas are: (1) the reduction of sulfates in the ground water to
metallic sulfides by anaerobic bacteria, and subsequent decomposi-
tion of the sulfides by free carbon dioxide in recharge water to
produce hydrogen sulfide gas; (2) the anaerobic reduction and
decomposition of organic materials to form hydrogen sulfide gas,
as in swamp areas.
Probably both types of reactions contribute to the hydrogen
sulfide content of ground water in Columbia County. Hydrogen
sulfide is prevalent at depth where there is a thick overburden on




bNH lE0 UHith K IfMt NI 4 110 INIH 0H ItI ( H11( iA u | 1 )1 l A| 'Ul/HVI i
(iE(t(.UIfjil;AI. LJUKV'. Y '( VWi lIn U (lIw hi

.\ '-'1- r-m-T-i-i-r--'r- -T-i-i-r-1---i--\--T--i-ra..
-30.35' C 0 1. UIM G A I "'"1V t:Y .0 35
02 46' v-3' C8I -' CLINCH t 8230'
-3G0o \ COUNTrY, GA,5
N C01 J COIJ N T Y





-30030' EXPLANATION E 30"TN-
e gBENTON
Well I
,fie !VIEW 0o
Upper number Is well number, --
upper letter S Is spring, U
Lower number Is total hardness
of water in parts per million,. 3
-3025' f 15 25d-

Line of equal total hardness 0% //
of water, In parts per -
million, z
Interval 100 0
parts per million I e
>SPRINOT .- ,T //,
30"201' 0 302d-



\ ,?c,/ /25 0 -

-30 15' 3015-






-3010' 22 ",-' 30100









f-0j5 / 30 00"-











'-
'3001' 3 0015'-








-29.50 SPRINGS ....-



Florida State Road Department.

Figure 18. Columbia County showing the total hardness of water from wells
that penetrate the upper part of the Floridan aquifer.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION NO. 30


the limestones. Usually it is absent in wells in the southern part
of the county except near swampy sinkholes.
Hydrogen sulfide can be removed from ground water by aeration.
HIGHLY MINERALIZED WATER
Electric log interpretations show highly mineralized water in
ten wells in Columbia County. This water first occurs in the
Cedar Keys Formation from 1,200 to 1,700 feet below msl and
it averages 1,470 feet below msl in the ten wells. No samples were
available for analysis.
In Nassau County, northeast of Columbia County, a sample of
the highly mineralized water was obtained from the Cedar Keys
Formation at a depth of 2,225 feet. The hardness of this water
was 9,660 ppm and it contained 3,910 ppm of sulfate, and 33,600
ppm of chloride. Water from the same well at 4,500 feet in the
Upper Cretaceous rocks contained 14,961 ppm hardness and 60,200
ppm chloride. At Cedar Keys in Levy County, south of Columbia
County, the hardness of water from the Lawson Limestone of Late
Cretaceous Age was 18,500 ppm and it contained 69,500 ppm of
chloride (Black, 1951, p. 18).
POLLUTION
The problem of pollution of ground water is of great importance
in Columbia County. The probability of pollution is greatest in
the sinkhole regions south of Lake City. The sinkholes facilitate
the direct flow of polluted surface water into the underlying
water-bearing formations.
An example of this type pollution occurred at Lake City. The
city well field was formerly located at the edge of a sinkhole lake
and the city sewer system emptied into a small creek that flowed
into the sinkhole lake. The polluted lake water drained through
open sinkholes in the lake bottom into the Floridan aquifer,
thereby, polluting the city well field. The city well field is now
located upgradient from the probable source of contamination and
a sewage-treatment plant has been built.
CLASSIFICATION OF IRRIGATION WATER
The use of ground water for irrigation is increasing in Columbia
County. The factors to be considered in the evaluation of irrigation
waters are the sodium-adsorption-rato (SAR) and the amount
of salts, or total dissolved solids, in the water. The sodium-
adsorption-ratio is the ratio of soluble sodium as compared with
concentrations of soluble calcium and magnesium. An excess of







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


exchangeable sodium or dissolved salts will adversely effect the
'"low tolerance" crops under certain conditions and concentrations.
The sodium-adsorption-ratios of four selected wells, 003-238-1,
019-233-1, 011-226-2, and 009-248-1, show that there is not an
excess of exchangeable-sodium-ion in the upper 1,000 feet of the
Floridan aquifer (fig 19; table 7).


TABLE 7. Classification of Irrigation Waters
(Adapted from U.S. Salinity Laboratory Staff, 1954, p. 79-81)


Sl low sodium water
S2 medium sodium water

S3 high sodium water

S4 very high sodium water


C1 low salinity water
C2 medium salinity water
C3 high salinity water
C4 very high salinity water


Sodium Hazard
- can be used on most crops except stone fruit trees
and avocados (sodium sensitive)
- not to be used on fine textured soils under low
leaching conditions unless gypsum is present in
the soil
- may be harmful unless drainage is good, high leach-
ing, and organic matter additions, or if soil
contains gypsum (CaSo4)
- is generally unsuitable except at low or medium
salinity where calcium or gypsum make use
feasible
namuty tiazara
- can be used for most crops with normal leach-
ing
- can be used if moderate amount of leaching occurs
- cannot be used on soils with restricted drainage
- is not suitable but may be used under very special
conditions. Plants with high salt tolerance and
adequate drainage and salinity control used.


A moderate amount of salts in irrigation water may be tolerated
in humid areas because there is sufficient rainfall to leach out
accumulated salts in the soil zone. Normally rainfall in Columbia
County is ample to leach out the salt; however, there are periods,
as from 1955 to 1956, when rainfall is below normal and saliniza-
tion of the soil could result from normally good irrigation water
applied to poorly drained land. When salinization of the soil occurs
salt-sensitive plants burn and their growth is stunted.
Of the four wells studied for irrigation classification only one,
009-248-1 (996 feet deep), showed a salinity figure large enough
to restrict its use as an irrigation supply (fig. 19; table 7).

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The northern two-thirds of Columbia County is a moderately
flat, poorly drained region that ranges in altitude from about 100
to 215 feet above msl. The southern one-third of the county is a
hilly, well-drained, sinkhole region that ranges in altitude from
about 25 to 200 feet above msl.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30 53


100 2 3 4 5 4 7 8 t,00 2 3 4 5000

-^ ----r----- ---m---m ---
30 _

\ 28

26




22

S20 --------__ 0-- ^ ------ --- *
o o





20
















.. I "1
S 10 0 2--- ---- ---T ---- 2,
9 0 bo










u C 2 C3 C4 r.
LOW MEDIUM HIGH VERY HIGH
SALINITY HAZARD

80
COP= w
0(
CO)Li
108







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


About 2,800 to 3,460 feet of sediments ranging from early
Cretaceous to Recent in age overlie dense basal rocks of Paleozoic
Age. The sediments overlying the Paleozoic rocks are thick in the
northern part of the county and thin over the crest of an anticlinal
high in the southern part of the county.
Permeable limestones, ranging from early Middle Eocene
through Early or Middle Miocene Age, form the Floridan aquifer.
Locally, however, the Floridan aquifer may include all the rocks of
Tertiary Age.
The oldest formation penetrated by a water well is the Oldsmar
Limestone of Early Eocene Age. The top of the formation, which
is generally the bottom of the Floridan aquifer, ranges from about
900 feet below msl in the southern part of the county to about
1,100 feet below msl in the northern part. Few water wells pene-
trate the Lake City Limestone and the Avon Park Limestone which
overlie the Oldsmar in ascending order. Most water wells penetrate
the Ocala Group, of Late Eocene Age, which crops out in the
southern part of Columbia County. The top of the group, which
is an erosional surface, ranges from more than 80 feet above msl
in southern Columbia County to about 200 feet below msl in
northern Columbia County.
The limestones of the Eocene Series are overlain by a varying
thickness of the Suwannee Limestone of Oligocene Age. The
Suwannee Limestone is approximately 40 feet thick in the northern
part of the county and thickens to about 50 feet in the western part
of the county. The Suwannee Limestone is thin to absent in the
extreme southern and eastern parts of- Columbia County. It is
overlain or filled by a varying thickness of sandstone and limestone
of Miocene Age in the northern part of the county. The sandstone
and limestone unit is approximately 60 feet thick in the northern
part of the county and is undifferentiated from the Suwannee
Limestone in the southern part of the county. The sandstone and
limestone unit is considered to be the upper part of the Floridan
aquifer in Colunbia County. The sandstone and limestone unit is
overlain either by clay of the marine Hawthorn Formation of
Miocene Age or sandy clay of the Alachua (?) Formation. The Haw-
thorn Formation is approximately 150 feet thick in the northern
part of the county and 100 feet thick in the eastern part of the
county. It serves as both a source of water for supply and forms a
semiconfining bed above the more permeable calcareous, marine
formations that comprise the Floridan aquifer. The Hawthorn
Formation appears to be equivelant to the terrestrial Alachua (?)








REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30


Formation over the structurally high limestone area in the southern
part of the county. Pleistocene and Recent sand deposits cover the
older formations. The sand deposits are about 40 feet thick in the
northeastern part of Columbia County and thin to absent in the
southern part of Columbia County.
There are three sources of ground-water supply in the county:
(1) the nonartesian aquifer, (2) the secondary artesian aquifer,
and (3) the Floridan aquifer. The nonartesian aquifer, which is
composed of sand of Pleistocene to Recent Age, is utilized for
domestic water supply in the northern part of the county. In the
southern part of the county, the ground water in the nonartesian
aquifer is "perched." Most of the "perched" ground water perco-
lates through the semiconfining beds of Hawthorn or Alachua(?)
Formations into the underlying Floridan aquifer.
The secondary artesian aquifer is composed of many small
water-bearing zones within the Hawthorn Formation. These zones
are principally limestone or sandstone beds interbedded with sand
and clay. Ground water within the water-bearing zones of the
Hawthorn is under low artesian pressure. Piezometric pressure in
the aquifer decreases with depth of penetration, probably indicating
downward percolation to the underlying Floridan aquifer. The
aquifer within the Hawthorn is about 100 feet thick and is an
important source of water supply in the northern and eastern
parts of Columbia County.
The Floridan aquifer, the principal source of ground water, is
composed of limestone and some sandstone of early Middle Eocene
through at least Early or Middle Miocene Age. The top of the
aquifer ranges from approximately 80 feet above msl in southern
Columbia County to about 100 feet below msl in northern Columbia
County. The aquifer in northern Columbia County is overlain by a
semiconfining bed composed of interbedded, sand, clay, and lime-
stone of the Howthorn Formation of Middle Miocene Age. The top
of the Floridan aquifer occurs approximately 100 feet above msl
at Lake City. The aquifer is exposed at land surface in the
southern part of Columbia County and in the valley of the
Suwannee River downstream from White Springs, Hamilton
County.
Ground water in the Floridan aquifer in the northern part of
the county is under artesian pressure while that in the southern
part is under nonartesian (water-table) conditions. The aquifer
has a thickness of about 1,100 feet in the northern part of the
county and about 900 feet in the southern part. Most of the







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


potable water is in the upper few hundred feet of the aquifer,
generally above the Lake City Limestone. The aquifer in northern
Columbia County is recharged by (1) local rainfall percolating
through the overlying semiconfining beds or through sinkholes that
penetrate the semiconfining beds, or (2) by ground-water inflow
from areas of higher artesian head in southern Georgia. The
aquifer in southern Columbia County is recharged by local rainfall
entering sinkholes or limestone exposures and by ground-water
inflow from areas of higher artesian head in the northern part
of Columbia County. Ground water is discharged from the aquifer
by means of springs and seeps, underflow to areas of lower artesian
head, and draft by wells. Records of the fluctuations of the
piezometric surface in a well at Lake City indicate a range of
17.5 feet during the period 1948-57. The 9-year period of record
began with excessive annual rainfall and ended with deficient
annual rainfall.
The Floridan aquifer is capable of providing large quantities
of ground water for municipal, industrial, and agricultural use.
Also, natural ground-water discharge from the Floridan aquifer
maintains the perennial or base flows of the Santa Fe, Ichatucknee,
and Suwannee rivers.
The analysis of a pumping test at Lake City indicates that the
upper 200 feet of the Floridan aquifer in the northern part of the
county has a transmissibility coefficient of approximately 270,000
gpd per foot and a storage coefficient of about 0.0008. The
analysis of the specific capacities of selected wells probably
indicates that transmissibility values decrease with depth and
increase toward the discharge areas in the southern part of the
county.
The chemical analyses show that hardness and dissolved solids
are important characteristics of the ground water in the Floridan
aquifer. Hardness of ground water from the upper 200 feet of the
aquifer ranges from approximately 100 to 350 ppm as CaCO3.
Analyses of the ground water from the Lake City Limestone show
that the sulfate content is greater than 250 ppm and that concen-
tration increases with depth. The amount of dissolved solids in the
ground water increase with depth in both the Floridan aquifer
and the low pressure artesian aquifer in the Hawthorn Formation.
An evaluation of irrigation water from wells penetrating the base
of the Floridan aquifer indicates that a salinity hazard exists
during droughts or when proper irrigation and leaching practices
are not observed.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30 57

The interpretation of resistivity curves of electric logs show
that highly mineralized water occurs in the Cedar Keys Formation
at an average depth of about 1,500 feet below msl.
Pollution of potable ground water by contaminated surface
water is a potential problem in the sinkhole area which extends
from Lake City southward to the Santa Fe River. Open sinkholes
and sinkhole lakes facilitate'the inflow of polluted surface waters
to the Floridan aquifer. Also, pollution may occur in the discharge
areas along the spring-fed rivers by the reverse flow of river
water when the piezometric surface of the aquifer is lower than
the level of the river.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


exchangeable sodium or dissolved salts will adversely effect the
'"low tolerance" crops under certain conditions and concentrations.
The sodium-adsorption-ratios of four selected wells, 003-238-1,
019-233-1, 011-226-2, and 009-248-1, show that there is not an
excess of exchangeable-sodium-ion in the upper 1,000 feet of the
Floridan aquifer (fig 19; table 7).


TABLE 7. Classification of Irrigation Waters
(Adapted from U.S. Salinity Laboratory Staff, 1954, p. 79-81)


Sl low sodium water
S2 medium sodium water

S3 high sodium water

S4 very high sodium water


C1 low salinity water
C2 medium salinity water
C3 high salinity water
C4 very high salinity water


Sodium Hazard
- can be used on most crops except stone fruit trees
and avocados (sodium sensitive)
- not to be used on fine textured soils under low
leaching conditions unless gypsum is present in
the soil
- may be harmful unless drainage is good, high leach-
ing, and organic matter additions, or if soil
contains gypsum (CaSo4)
- is generally unsuitable except at low or medium
salinity where calcium or gypsum make use
feasible
namuty tiazara
- can be used for most crops with normal leach-
ing
- can be used if moderate amount of leaching occurs
- cannot be used on soils with restricted drainage
- is not suitable but may be used under very special
conditions. Plants with high salt tolerance and
adequate drainage and salinity control used.


A moderate amount of salts in irrigation water may be tolerated
in humid areas because there is sufficient rainfall to leach out
accumulated salts in the soil zone. Normally rainfall in Columbia
County is ample to leach out the salt; however, there are periods,
as from 1955 to 1956, when rainfall is below normal and saliniza-
tion of the soil could result from normally good irrigation water
applied to poorly drained land. When salinization of the soil occurs
salt-sensitive plants burn and their growth is stunted.
Of the four wells studied for irrigation classification only one,
009-248-1 (996 feet deep), showed a salinity figure large enough
to restrict its use as an irrigation supply (fig. 19; table 7).

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The northern two-thirds of Columbia County is a moderately
flat, poorly drained region that ranges in altitude from about 100
to 215 feet above msl. The southern one-third of the county is a
hilly, well-drained, sinkhole region that ranges in altitude from
about 25 to 200 feet above msl.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATION No. 30


REFERENCES

Applin, E. R. (also see Applin, P. L., 1944)
1945 (and Jordan, Louise) Diagnostic Foraminifera from subsurface
formations in Florida: Jour. Paleontology, v. 19, no. 2, p. 129-148.
Applin, P. L.
1944 (and Applin, E. R.) Regional subsurface stratigraphy and struc-
ture of Florida and southern Georgia: Am. Assoc. Petroleum
Geologists Bull. v. 28, no. 12, p. 1673-1753.
1951 Preliminary report on buried pre-Mesozoic rocks in Florida and
adjacent states: U. S. Geol. Survey Circ. 91, 28 p.

Black, A. P.
1951 (and Brown, Eugene) Chemical character of Florida's waters-
1951: Florida State Board Cons., Div. Water Survey and Research,
Paper 6, 119 p.

Brown, Eugene (see Black, A. P., Cooper, H. H., Jr.)
Cole, W. Storrs
1944 Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells in Florida- No.
3: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 26, 168 p.
Collins, W. D.
1928 (and Howard, C. S.) Chemical character of waters of Florida:
U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 596-G, p. 177-233.

Cooke, C. W.
1915 The age of the Ocala Limestone: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper
95-I, p. 107-117.
1936 (and Mansfield, W. C.) Suwannee Limestone of Florida (abs.)
Geol. So. American Proc. 1935, p. 71-72.
1939 Scenery of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 17, 118 p.
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29, 339 p.
Cooper, H. H., Jr.
1953 (Kenner, W. E., and Brown, Eugene) Ground water in central
and northern Florida: Florida Geol; Survey Rept. Inv. 10, 37 p.

Ferguson, G. E. (see Parker, G. G.)
Hantush, M. S.
1955 (and Jacob, C. E.) Non-steady radial flow in an infinite leaky
aquifer: Am. Geophys. Union Trans., v. 36, no. 1, p. 95-100.
1956 Analysis of data from pumping tests in leaky aquifers: Am.
Geophys. Union Trans., v. 37, p. 702-714.
Howard, C. S. (see Collins, W. D.)
Jacob, C. E. (see Hantush, M. S.)
Jordon, Louise (see Applin, E. R.)







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Kenner, W. E. (see Cooper, H. H., Jr.)
Love, S. K. (see Parker, G. G.)
MacNeil, F. S.
1949 Pleistocene shore lines in Florida and Georgia: U. S. Geol. Sur-
vey Prof. Paper 221-F, p. 95-107.
Mansfield, W. C. (see Cooke, C. W., 1936)
Parker, G. G.
1955 (Ferguson, G. E., and Love, S. K.) Water resources of south-
eastern Florida, with special reference to the geology and ground-
water of the Miami area: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply
Paper 1255, 965 p.

Puri, H. S.
1957 Stratigraphy and zonation of the Ocala Group: Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 38, 248 p.
Stringfield, V. T.
1936 Artesian water in the Florida peninsula: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-
Supply Paper 773-C, p. 115-195.

Theis, C. V.
1935 The relation between the lowering of the piezometric surface and
the rate and duration of discharge of a well using ground-water
storage: Am. Geophys. Union Trans., 16th Ann. Meeting, pt. 2,
p. 519-524.

Thiem, Gunter
1906 (and Gibhardt, J. M.) Hydrologische Methoden [Hydrologic
methods]: Leipzig, 56 p.

U. S. Public Health Service
1946 Drinking water standards: Public Health Repts., v. 61, no. 11, p.
371-384.
U. S. Salinity Laboratory Staff
1954 Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils: U. S. Dept.
Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 60.

Vernon, R. 0.
1951 Geology -of Citrus and Levy Counties, Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 33, 256 p.
Wenzel, L. K.
1942 Methods for determining permeability of water-beariig materials,
with special reference to discharging-well methods, with a section
on direct laboratory methods and a bibliography on permeability
and laminar flow, by V. C. Fishel: U; S. Geol. Survey Water-
Supply Paper 88';,- 192 p.













TASiL 8. Records of Wells in Columbia County and Vicinity


Well number; See text for explanation of well-numbering system.
see figure Is.
Location: Township-range system or Georgia Military District system,
Drilling method: Dr, driven; Du, dug; R, rotary,
Aquifer: F, Floridan; H, secondary artesian; N, nonarteslan,
Pump type: C, centrifugal; J. jet; PI, piston; Su, submersible; Tu,
turbine; Pit, pitcher.


Use: D, domestic, In, industrial; Irrigation; 0, observation; OT,
ail test; P, public supply; 5, stock; T, test; U,unused,
Remarks: W---- Florida Geological Survey well number; CA-S,
chemical analysis in tabia 5, CA-o chemical analysis in table 0;
E, electric log on file at Florida Geological Survey.


Casing Water level Pump

Well a
number Location Owner Driller I



I ... I I IiI I I

COLUMBIA COUNTY
---- ------- ------------------- -- --- --- --- -- --- -- --- -- -----,---- 0
035-240-3 NWi sec. 573 R. Carter Witt Electric Co. 1954 Dr 150 72 4 H 127 15 7/54 Su 1/2 D CA-6
034-234-1 See. 14, U.S, Corps of Engrs. U.S. Corps. of Engrs. 1034 Dr 80 ............. 6 H 120.3 ..................... ......... ... ... T W-1037
T. 2 N.. R. 17 E. 6
031-243,1 SWi E see. 4, E. Carter Rotary Tool Co. 1950 R 175. .......... 6 F? 112 50.7 5/28/57 Su ....... D
028-239-1 NWt NWN see. 19' layonlor Co. Kenneth Keen 1053 Dr 105 ........... 4 H 122 13.0 7/ 8/57 J 1 D
T. 1 X. R. 17 E.
028-230-1 SEI"NW14 sec. 22, I. P. Cone No. I Humble Oil Corp. 1048 R 4.285 1,359 9% F 128.8 --....... ........-. ......... OT W-1789,
027-231.1 SE'iWsiw sec. 33, Southern Resin Co. Burnett Co. 1057 R 105 ............. 2 H 120 28 4/ 7/57 J 3/4 OT
T. IN. R. 18 E.
023-237-1 NEhNEI,.sec 20 H. Gardiner Kenneth Keen 1955 R 204 ............. 4 F 110 55.6 8/28/57 Su 1 OT CA-6
022-237-1 NW'SW' sec. 28, D. Hull D. Hull 1957 R 60 48 2 H 1105 6 5/ 7/67 Z 3/4 OT
021-228-1 NE sec. 1, U.S. Corps. of Engrs. 'U.S. Corps. of Engrs. 1032 R 165 .......... 86 134.6 68.5 10/28/32 ..... -- T W-193
021-2324 qNEV'NE see. 6, do. do. 1032 R 100 ............ 6 H 121.7 13 10/24/32 ~.-- -- T W-192
T 2 S R 18 E.
020-237-1 NWl SWi. sec. 4. do. do. 1932 R 165 ......... 6 F 123.3 58 10/21/32 ...- -- T W-191
T. 2, R 17 E.
019-233-1 SE.'4NE sec. 13, U.S. Forest Service Acme Drilling Co. 1055 Dr 175 ......... 4 F 143 80.5 5/ 8/57 J 1 D CA-5;
T. 2 S R 17 E. CA-6
019-237-1 NEi'-SE' 'sec. 8 R. Thomas Kenneth Keen 1951 Dr 151 .......... 4 F 231 69.3 6/28/57 Su 1 D CA-6
019-241-1 SW2!NW'4 see. 14 R. Christy Capital City 1955 R 418 220 8 F. 128 54.9 1/27/58 Tu 75 Ir
T i S,' 16 DrilllnI Co.
018 T39-1 N16NItl sec. 24, New Hope School Witt Electric Co. 1955 I 182 85 4 F 129 66.6 6/26/57 SUt 2 P CA-6
018-240.1 E2 N'E4 see. 24, M. W. Sapp No. 1 Sun Oil Co. 1948 R 3.311 1.344 7%5, F 133 ................... -- OT W1832,
017-242-1 NW1,,SWt see. 22, R. Harkness T.--.. -- R I 4& --. 2 F 104 14.8 6/13/57 .0------- O
. ____ T. 2S., R. 16 E. __ ____,




TABLE 8. (Continued)


017-243-1
017-244-1
016-231-1
016-240-1
016-240-2
016-241-1
016-242-1
015-238-1I
015-230-1
015.240-1
015-241-1
015-242-1
01.-247-1
014-230-1
014-238-1
014-240-1
014-2844-1
014-246-1
013-238-1
013-238-2
013-238-3
013-238-4
013-238-5
013-246-1
012-237-1
012-238-1
012-238-2
012-239-1
012-240-1
011-233-1
011-233-2.
011-233-3


Acme Drilling Co.
Deep Well Drilling
Acme Drilling Co.


1954
1942
1956


R. Bowles
Mr. Saunders
U.S. Forest Service
Mr. Harris
do.
L. Dicks
W. Youngs
S. Register
0. Holliday
R. Kelley
Bailey's Truck Stop
A. Swaine
E. Owens
U. S. Forest Service
M. Wheeler
A. Dorsey
A. Bowles
M. Russell
S. Thomas
W. Green
Mr. Freeman
S. Thomas
do.
G. Richardson
C. Wieselthaler
A. Douglas
A. Herb
P. Giebeig
0. Ravndal
U. S. Forest Service
B. Hawkins
do.


Kenneth Keen
Acme Drilling Co.
Kenneth Keen


Witt Electric Co.
do.


Rotary Tool Co.


Witt Electric Co.
Kenneth Keen
do.
Rotary Tool Co.
........................................
Kenneth Keen
S. Thomas
Rotary Tool Co.
Witt Electric Co.
Rowe Bros.
Rotary Tool Co.
Witt Electric Co.
do.
do.
Kenneth Keen
......... .......................


1052
1955
1953
1947
1957
1955


1955


1955
1956
1952
1957


1955
1953
1957
1953
1947
1957
..........
1955
1957
1955


Rotary Tool Co. 1957
Witt Electric Co. 1957


R
R
R
R
R

Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr


Dr




Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr




Dr
Dr
R
Dr
Dr
Dr


Dr




Dr
Dr
Dr

Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr


Dr
Dr
Dr


44
230
234
125
10
147
105

138
130
112
150
90
161
17
185
..........
225
118
165
184
11
144
40
225
145
165
160
265
139
255
167
1S


63
177



72
60




70
115


151
17
104


151


105
100
11
60
40
135
78
113
............
.............
107
............15


1i


2
8
6
4
14
4
4

4
4
4
4
4
4
1 4
4
4
4
4
4
4
1M4
4
2
4
4
4
4
4
4
6
4
1N I


H?
F?
F
F
F
N
F
F

F
'F
F'
.
F
F
N
F
F
F
F
F
SF

N
F
H
F
F
F
F
F
F
F

N


113 23.9
94 32
152 81.5
142 82.5
142 2.1
145 92.1
140 74.8

147 87.3
132 78.6
127 71.8
144 86.1


173 113
......... 4.0
142 82.8
131 74.6
154 110
150 04
160 93.7
160 93.5
160 1.9
171 104
171 11
133 78
178 110
169 104
171 113
171 105.1
147 85
179 123
192 6
192 2.9


6/13/57
7/54
12/ /57
6/ 6/57
6/ 6/57
6/ 4/57
8/13/87

6/26/57
6/ 8/57
6/ 5/57
6/ 5/57
5/29/57
1/ 4/58
6/28/57
6/28/67
6/ 4/57
4/16/55
8/ 7/56
6/26/57
10/22/57
6/26/57
6/26/57
6/26/57
2/ 7/57
6/ 4/53
7/47
6/26/57
12/13/57
7/15/55
4/ 7/57
7/ 8/57
7/ 8/57


Pi
Tu


Su
Pit
Su
Su

J
Su
J
3


3
Pit
Su
3
3
J
3
Su
Su
Pit


J
j
Su
Tu
Tu
Su
3
3
Tu
JT
Pit


1/2 D
20 Ir
SO-
1/2 D
D--
1 P
3/4 D

3/4 D
1/2 D
1 D
'1 P
D



1 D
1 D
1 D
1 D
1 D
1 D
1/2 D
.-- O


1/2 D
1 D
4 D
2 p
1 D
2 D
1 D
10 Ir
1/2 D
0-


CA-6
CA-6
CA-0






CA-S
CA-6





W-4522



CA-6
CA-S


CA-6



CA-6


W-702
CA-4


CA-6


-- --













TAstL 8. (Continued)

Cault Water level Pump



number Location Owner Driller 1, 1 I



______________ _______ 1-~ I~ i ~I I


NW1iiNE4 HeC. 35,
NN N N see. 34,
T. 3 S., R. 17 E.
SWN!'N 4 see. 34,
T. 3 R. 17 E.
T.3S.,R. 17 E.
SE't.NE.4 sec. 33,
T. 3 S, R. 17 E.
SW3.NW'. sec. 34.
T. 3 ., 17 E.

NWSESNW', see. 93,
T. 3 S. R. 17E.
SWNNW. sec. 33.
T. 3 S. R. 17 E.
SEW'S W', sec. M.,
T. 3 S.. R. 17 E.
SW SNW% see. 29,
SWIMM4 iec .29,
T. 3S. R. 16 E.
NENS V4 sec. 29,
T. 38S R. 17 E.
WNE/ISWS sec. 29,
T. 3S, R, 17 E.





NWINV SA see. 31,
SW'S W' see. 31,
T 3 S.R. 17 E




T.S. R. 16 E.
SE,'4Si sec. 25,
T.3S. R. 1 E.
NE'" T. 3%., R. 16 E.
1 NW0 sec. 34,
T. 3S. R. 16 E.
NW1iNWi see. 32,
T. 3 S,9 R. 16 E.
SE'NMIV see. 32,
T. 3 S. R. 16 E.
SWO R s ee. 30,


SE'NE"4 see. 23,
T. 3S. R. 15 E.


Southern Wood Co. Rotary Tool Co.
E. Coast Lumber Co. .........................................


H. Kager
Kayo Service Sta.
Florida Power and
Light Co.
Hollngsworth Pool
Steak House
Lake City Laundry
do.
do.
Lake City
do.
Coca Cola Co.
Division Hospital
J. Carter
W. Hackney
0. Ravndal
do.
R. Justice
C. Calkins
H. McGuire
E. Jones
J. Ferguson
J. Hunter


Rotary Tool Co. 1956
Rowe Bros. 1952
Stevens Southern Co. 1945
I...................... ............ 1948


Rotary Tool Co.
do.
W. R. McGrew Co.


M. Miller
Rotary Tool Co.
Witt Electric Co.
do.
Witt Electric Co.
do.
Acme Drilling Co.
Gaylord Co.
Rotary Tool Co.
Luke Lang
Kenneth Keen
Gaylord Co.


1955
1955
1927
1905
1943
1956
1955


1955
1955
1955
1955
1957
1958

19465


Dr
R
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr



Dr



R
Dr
Dr




Dr
Dr
Dr







R
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Ri
Dr
Dr
Dr


110



157
150


...........
80o
35
127
105
300+
198
110
78







100
70


P 200
H 200
Ii 200
F 195
F 197
F 194
F 193
F 188
N 190ISO
F 190
F 198
F 197.5
F 190
F 185
F 180



F 100
F 163
F 98
F 112
F 102
F -
F -


135
8.0
10
133
131.9



125


120
133.2
134.7
137.5
123
104.0

16
46.3
120.9
50
68.5
61


45


9/55
7/23/57
7/22/57
10/12/56
7/23/57



7/11/57


8/20/58
12/16/57
4/12/34
2/6/58
6/10/56
1/20/55


5/ 6/57
5/ 6/57
7/15/87
?/5a
1/25/88
1/25/58


7/57


Su


S3
Su
Su
Tu
PI



Tu
Tu
A

Su
J
J



Su
J


3


P1


In
0
D
P
In
P
P
0
In
In
0
0
0
P
D
D
In
In
D
D
D
D
D
D


CA4-
CA-& 0
CA-



W.34.
CA-S
CA-5


W-4548
CA-"


011-234-1
011-235-1
011-235-2
011-236-1
011-236-2
011-236-3
011-236-4
011-237-1
011-238-1
011-2382
011-238-3
011-238-4
011.238-8
011-239-1
011439-2
011-239-3
011-240-1
011-241-1
011-242-1
011-244-1
011-244-2
011.-245-1
011-245-2
011-246-1


CA4

W-4w4


I





TABLE 8. (Continued)


010-234-1
010-234-2
010.35-1
010-235-2
010-23-3
010-235-4
010-235-5
010-238-1
010-230-2
010-237-1
010-237-2
010-237-3
010-237-4
010-237-5
010-2374-
010-237-7
010-238-1

010-238-2
010-238-3
010-2384
010-239-1
010-23S-2
010-239-3
010-240-1
010-240-2
010-2404-3
010-240-4
010-240-5
010-240-6
010-241-1


NE'4SW sec. 1, U. S. Navy
rNE.SW4 see. 1, do.
T. 4. R. 17 E.
NW',SE4 sec. 34, Fla. Forest Service
T. 3 if, R. 17 E.
T SE' sec. 34, Columbia Machine Co.
T. 3 S.,R 17 E.
NE',WW, 4 see. 2, T. Daniels
T. 4 S.. R. 1T E.
SE'NW,; sec. 2. U. S. Navy
T. 4 S.. R. 17 E.
SESE. sec E, R. Bishop
T 4 S R 17 E
NE'iSEM- sec 34, Newton Corp.
W1 SWW se. 3. L. Hill

T.3 S., H. 17 E.
WNSWi sec. 33, do.
T. 3 S.. R. 17 E.
NWtSWt. sec. 33. do.
T. 3 S.. R. 17 E.
NWtSWIM sec. 33, do.
T3S., R. 17 E.
NES 1 sec. 33, J. Alderman
., 3s., iR. 17 E.
NE" ,NE.' see. 4, Country Club
T. 4 S.. R. 17 E.
NEk ANEA sec. 4, do.
T. 4., R, 17 E.
NW NE,4 sec. 5, Lake City
T. 4 S., R. 17 E.

SWNEti, sec. 5 do.
T. 4 S., H. 17 E.
SW NE', sec. 5, do.
T. 4 S., H. 17 E.
WSEE% see. 5, 0. Bradley
T. 4 .,R R 17 E.
NENSE, see. 36. W. Epperson
T. 3 S.. R. 16 E.
NEf E1 ec 1, P. Sandlln
E.ON sec. 1. J. Stewart
T.4 S.. R. IS E.
SE!8SE'4 see. 35, Connetts Florist
T. 3.. R. 16 E.
VS WIt sec. 36, C! York
T. 3 .. R. 10 E.
NE4NW sec. 1. C. Cornman
NW E4E se 1. L. Davis
T. 4 S.. R. 16 E.

TS7 N~ R E.1. E. Hostord
SWNW, see. 1. W. Rimes
T. 4 S.. R. 16 E.
NW14SW- see, 35, L. Turner
T. 3 S.. R. 10 E.


Gable-Rosa
...........................................
Stevens Southern Co.
Kenneth Keen
Rotary Tool Co.


Rotary Tool Co.
Stevens Southern Co.
Rotary Tool Co,
Libby and Freeman
do.
Moerrell Gray
Kenneth Keen
Rotary Tool Co.
do.
Rowe Bros.
Layne-Atlantic Co.


Gray-Stevens
do.
Rotary Tool Co.
Witt Electric Co.


Witt Electric Co.


1934
1934
1056
1056


1956


do. 1956
Rotary Tool Co. 1955
Wilt Electric Co. 1955
Rowe Bros. 1944
Acmo Drilling Co. ............
Luke Long 1056
........ .. ........ ........ ... ........


I


162 10
............

4
104 4


183 1123.E


W-656.
CA-S
CA-S
CA-S


1042 Dr
1043 Dr
1045 Urp
Dr
1956 R
.. Dr
1057 R
1045 Dr
1057 R
1951 Dr
1051 Dr
19057 R
1050 Dr
1957 R
1953 R
1947 Dr
1940 R


I


4
14
4
4
4
12
12
12
4
4
4
4
12


372
1065
400
115


225 110
10 10
228 86
350 120
152 104
300 145
275 157
310 126
345 ............
175 130
225 124
133 03
1.125 650


360 180
325 160
225 84
160 .... .......
130 110
174 42


225 84
162 62
200 ...........
138 ...........
130 ...........
145 .............


F
F
F
H
F
N
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F


182
202

200
189


168
190
150
188
185
'186
185
163



143,6


123.


10.5
134
4.1
103


101.4
128
125
124.7


108

960

92.6


12/18/57
8 12/18/87


7/24/57
7/86
6/ 7/87
9/ 1/57


7/ 0/57
0/14/51
10/ 7/51
12/20/57
..............
0/17/87
7/63
7/47
11/ 1/57


I1/ 7/34
I1/ 7/34
6/17/56
7/56


7/10/57
7/10/57
7/10/57
5/27/55
7/10/57
8/15/97
7/17/57
.... ..........


Tu 40
Tu 15
Tu 5

j 1
Su 3
Pit ..
3 1
Tu 15
Su 3/4
Tu 40
Tu 40
Tu 80


3 2
Su 5
Su 5
. .... ...........


Dr
Dr
R
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
R
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
............


10 F
12 F
4 F
4 F
2 N
4 F
4 F
4 F
4 F
4 F
4 F
4 F.
6 F


101.1 38.8
104.4 42.2
1105 50
176 125
171 ........
174 120.5
107 125
165 124.4
165 120
161 120.5
159 110.3
186 113.1
1505 ..........


C
C
Su
3
Pi
3


Su


Su
Su


Tu


20 U
20 U
2 D
1 D
_. D
1 D


1 D

114 P
li& P
1 D
1 D
100 Ifr


CA-6


CA-6


d


---


0

P


D
In


D
In
D

P
P
P
T
D
P
Ir
0


0
tv




0

1.i
Co
'4i
0
'4

0j



I

P2
p.


' '


CA-5
W-4520,
CA4
CA-S

W.4216,
CA-5

CA-E
W-45
CA-6
CA4

W-299
CA-5
(plugRed
at alft)
W-268.
CA-S
CA-5




CA-6












TABLA 8. (Continued)

Casnl Water level Pump



e oea Dfler Owi Je


S H see. 34,.
T. .iE.
;Vk see. 33,


BEti'W1 secB. 34.
T.3 16 E.

WSSW sea. 34,

T 3S Ri 18 E.
SEP1 % sec. 34,
T.3. 1335
T R. 1E.


NEJWI see. 3,.
T.3 W. 15 E.

8T.1 14 sec. 103
.T R lSE.

SWV'I 'i sec. 10.
T. 4& S. 17-E.
T. 4 IS. 17 E.
NW'4KE'/ see. 10,




Se 28,

S sec. 1,
T74 S. 17E.




SE; Viseef 10.
T. 4S. 17 E.
NE114 see. 4,

R. ITE.
YE. N,. sec. 8,
T. 4 RS.R 17 E.
NEW.N W see. 8,

T. s4.,8,


T. 4S. R. 17 E.
Ev4%Ws,. S


Koeran's
H. Van AndaU
W. Morrell
M. Putch
J. Meyers
W. Morrell
R. Dunaway
do,
Mr. Bales
W. Hunter
P. Browning
Dubols Fence Co.
S. Williams
R. M. Bishop
do.
do.
R. M. Bishop No. I
LH. Hll
J. Fraser
R. Catholic Church
G. Summeral
L. Shaw
do.
C. Baldwin


Witt Electric Co.
Rotary Tool Co.


Rowe Bros.
Luke Lang
Rotary Tool Co.
do.
do.
Kellog Co.
Rotary Tool Co.


Rotary Tool Co.


Rotary Tool Co.


Rotary Tool Co.
Sun Ol Co.
do.
do.


Rotary Tool Co.
do.
do.


19So
1967


1947
1940
1967
1966
1955

1956
196

1955


1956


1966
1949
1957
1956


1956
1956
1956


Dr
R


Dr
Dr
R
R
R
Dr
R



R
R


R
R
R
R

R
RH
R


137
200
113
301
188


185
350


265
147
225
200
205
88
225
2.827
305
250
178
320
145
160
145


93
110


150


121
145
64
05






84


90
7688
180
96


105


-1


4
5
2
4
2
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4


5
8


6
4
3
4


r
r
r
r


r


F
F
r
r
r
F
F


147
162
165
158
156
147
164
155
150
144
155
167
135
164
167
167
164
109






1305
130+5


00.0
127
Dry
105


103.5
128.4
119
111
113
122
110



14.0
120
101
73
58
122.3
87
85
84


7/55
2/ 1/57
7/15/57
7/47


1/ 5/57
7/10/57
6/30/55
9/ 0/56
1/25/58
7/56
7/55


7
7/25/57
7/5836
8/ ?/49
7/23/57
6/12/56
1/28/58
6/17/56
6/20/56
6/19/56


Su
Su


Pt
Pi
Su
Su


Su
Tu
Su
Su
Pt
Su


Su



Tu


Su
J
J
3


1
2



3/4
1
3/4


1/2
42
1
1
1





1

6


2
1
1
2


P
D
0
D



D


D
D
D
In
D
S


D
or




0- I
D
D
D
D


0104414
0104421
0104454
01044-43
0104424
0104424
010434.1
01044342

010447-1
01044u74

01M4(74
000434-1
000-235-1


004364.
00436-4
00904364
0004384
000437-2


009437
000. 384
000.384-

0084384


W.4520


W-1981,
W-4530


' '


' '





TABLE 8. (Continued)
00"0384 3. W i see. 8, L. La." Witt Electric Co, 1953 Dr 125 66 4 F 120. '66 10/ 7/53 -..-....- P
00439-1 SW see. 7, E. Burnette Rotary Tool Co. 1955 R 205 88 4 F 75.0 7/55 Su 1 D
0043942 NZNE f 1 se. 7, R. Dicks Acm'e Drilling Co. 1956 Dr 158 -- 4 F 167 120.8 9/23/57 Su 3/4 D CA-6
009-239-5 NE 1EVs am.7, W. Miller Bradley? Dr 148 2 F 172 .- -..... Pi 1/2 D CA4
.009 44.394 4 sec. 7 J. Bullard, Jr. Witt Electric Co. Dr 128 ._ 4 F 119 95.5 4/17/56 J I D
000 -239-6 hSW 27, J.Ha l do. 1953 Dr 114 92 4 F 116 76.5 7/53 Pi 3/4 D
009-239 SW st. ,i S. Jones Rotary Tool Co. 1957 R 168 108 4 F 120 83 11/ 1/57 Su 3/4 D W-s36
009-241-1 SE SE e. 3, L. Curry Witt Electric Co. 1057 Dr 150 84 4 F 126 88 6/20/57 Su I D W-4539
T.4S. I lE.
009-2414-2EWR secI 11,Mrs.H ____________ ___ Dr 7 7 4 F 167 130.7 7/15/57 J 1 D CA-6
009-41-3 % see. 0 Ostendorf Rotary Tool Co. 1957 R 148 112 4 F 118 81.7 8/13/57 Su 3/4 D W-4526,
009441-4 fSW 11, S. Robbinson Rowe Bros. 7 Dr 198 115 4 F 147 120 3/ 7/57 Pi 3/4 D
009-241-5 1, see. 10, _____Dr 7 7 4 F 94 57.9 8/15/573 1 D
0089441-6 .W see. 11 E.Jones A. B. Clark Dr 108 4 F 104 72.5 7/17/57 Su 1 D CA4
000424-1 e.. F. Crawford Acme Drilling Co. Dr -- 4 F 116 80.4 8/9/57 Su I S CA-S .
00O-244-1 W26
009447-1 SE sec. 2, Kle Vning No.1 Gul Oil Corp. 1950 R 3.470 1.457 7% -- 107 .... ----........... OT W 164, <
00- .1 s see. 14. M. Rock Rotary Tool Co. 1956 R 185 84 4 F 146 102.1 7/25/57 Su 3/4 D E E
T.14S. E.1V2
00- 35.1 sNWW Aee. .14. J. Perry Luke Lang 1985 Dr 150 4 F 154 100.4 7/25/57 Su 3/4 D
0084W-.1 tS1' e i, W. Tyre Dr 75 75 2 F 107 69.4 7/29/57 .......... O
008=-4.1 V sE .16, do. Witt Electric Co. 1953 Dr 100 73 4 F 105 67.5 7/20/57 3J I, S
T. 4 R. 17
00837-2 SW S sec iS, K. Tyre do. 1954 Dr 188 ..-- 4 F 97 55.7 1/20/58 ......... In
00647 SWIS, f see 16, do. Rotary Tool Co. 1956 R 175 .... 4 F 103 67.9 7/25/57 Su 3/4 D
008 T37-4 SE se17, W. Wager Henderson 1954 R 138 70 4 F 103 65 7/ /54 J 1 P CA-6 z
00-238.1 SE .4W.. see. 17, W. Douberly Rotar~ Tool Co. 1957 R 137 130 4 F 108 67.6 12/18/57 J Ilk D W.4534 P
T. 4 S., R. 17 E.
00042384 Center see. 17. Sundial Motel Acme Drilling Co. 1953 Dr 102 ....... 4 F 99 64.3 7/30/57 Su 1Ik P CA-6
T. 4 S.. R. 17 E.
008 -2 M SW E. see. 17, Howard Johnson Rotary Tool Co. 1957 R 229 98 6 F 101 68.8 6/13/57 Tu 5 P
T. 4 S.I t. 17 E.
000 239-1 NI 4' 18, A. Penner Warren 1954 Dr 125 ..... 4 F 131 91.4 9/23/57 J I D CA-6
006-2W32 NETRW see. 18, J. Bullard Kellog 1950 Dr 185 -..... 4 F 139 100 7/50 J 1 ,J D
T. 4., R. 17 E.
008-42-1 SWNW'4 see. 15, L. Owens Rotary Tool Co. 1956 R 254 84 4 F 104 66.5 8/15/57 J 3/4 D CA.6
T. 4 S., R. 1i E.
0068442 SENWt see. 15, A. Baugh Witt Electric Co. 1956 Dr 155 .-.-.. 4 F ..... 60 7/56 1 D
T. 4 S.. R.. 16 E.
007-234-1 SWI SW'I, sec. 24, E. Dicks Rotary Tool Co. 1956 R 168 .............. 4 F 151 108.2 7/29/57 Su 3/4 D
T 4%5 R 17 E.
001435-1 S. W slec. 23 W. Houston Acme Drilling Co. 1954 Dr 135 ............. 4 F 150 107.7 7/25/57 Su 3/4 D
007-4354 SE NE' sec. 22, W. Crews Rotary Tool Co. 1957 R 167 102 4 F 134 99 8/ 9/57 *Su 3/4 S W4525.
T. 4 5., R. 17 E. CA-











TAuL 8. (Continued)

Causn Water level Pwmp









007-4364 SWiN' sec. 23, H. Peacock do. I56 R 150 ... 4 7 154 110.8 7/29/57 Su 3/4 D
00743601 22, L. Coleman Wtt Electric Co. 1955 Dr 122 .--- 4 134 7 10/, /5 J 1 D
007-22371 NE4, aeco. 20, A. Cargola Rotary Tool Co. 197 t 3612 73 4 106 07.8 11/ 6/b7 Su 3/4 D
0074174 NW L W 21i. Buckeye Motel -- 85 -- 4 F 100 d2 7/57 J 1 P
T. 4. R1.. 17 E,
007437.3 SW NWi see. 21. J. Johnson ..- -- 5 -. 4 F 03 80 11/7/57 J I D CA.
00,437.4 .NWr see. 21, S. KuschU Rotary Tool Co. 1957 R 185 106 4 F 91 58.1 ll/7/57 Su I P W-428
007-37 6 SW SWi! see. 21. C. HIl Acme Drilling Co. 1966 Dr 106 4 F 98 59.7 II/ 4/57 Su 1 D
T. 4S, R 17 E.
007-237- SW SE% 'sec. 21. Holiday Motel Rowe Bros. Dr 150 4 F 105 67 /57 Tu 3 P CA.
T. 4S R 17E.
0074-391 SE% 14 e 1 sec Akins Rotary Tool Co. 19S6 R 165 80 4 F 84 44.5 9/24/57 Su 3/4 D CA-
'T. 4 S.. S. 17 E.
007-23-2 NWfiSWi see. 19, W. Bedenbaugh do. 157 R 143 63 4 F 92 50 10/23/n 7 J 1 D W4523
T. 4 S., R. 17 E.
00722394 SESW sec.19. H. Nettles Luke Lang 1957 Dr 90 4 F 87 57.2 9/24/57 J 1/2 D CA-
T., 4S.. R. 17 E.
007.240-1 SE'SNW sec 24, H. Douberly Rotary Tool Co. 1158 R 148 95 4 F 102 68.5 1/27/58 J I D
007-43-1 SE;N t ee. 21, A. Stevens Kenneth Keen 1995 Dr 150 4 F 182 120 1/ 7/35 Su 3/4 D CA-"
T. 4 S, R. 16 E.0/
00-642-1 4SE :,.E s Rayonler Co. 1934 Dr 300 -- 4 H 152 3= /50 : 3/4 D
T. 4S. R. 18 E.
006-234-1 SE .NZ' see. 26, J. Pyle Acme Drilling Co. 19 Dr 140 120 4 F 124 88.1 7/29/57 J I D
T. 4S., R. 17 E.
006.234-2 NW SW ec. 28, D. Doppler Rotary Tool Co. 1S6 R --..-- 4 F 119 82 7/29/57 Su 1 D
T 4SR 17 E.
006S38-1 SEfl' ee. i. E. Roberts do. 195 R 163 80 4 F 118 75 10/ 7/55 Su 3/4 D
T. 4S R. R E.
006436-2 NESk sec. 28, R. Bedenbaugh Witt Electric Co. 1951 Dr 118 -- 4 F J 1 D
005436-3 R Sec. 33, Rose Creek Tower -D__ -- Dr 147 -- 2 F 138 -- J 1/2 D
006 4 371 N I, see. 28, G. PetfUjohn Kenneth Keen 1951 Dr 95 4 F 100 60 61 7/51 J 3/4 D
T.4S. R. 17 E.
006437-2 SW 1 Im. 28, N. Sellers -- Dr 4 F 121 79 9/f2/57 Su 1 D CA-6
006-23O-1 S NE sec. 30, J. ce Libby and Freeman 1956 Dr 280 135 6 F 92 63.0 6/ ?/58 Tu Ir CA-5
T.4 S.. R. 11 E. 1
006-239-2 NWjSW see. 30 B. Summers Dr 100 --- 2 F 105 go ./.57 D
T 4 R. 17 E.
006-241-1 SEilcNfel sec. 27. W. F. Johnson No. 1 Sun Oil Corp. 1949 R 3.0650 1,316 7 76 ___ __ OT W-1915,
T. 4 S.. R. 16 E. E_ .




TABLE 8. (Continued)


006-247-1
0054-34-1
005-234-2'
006-234
005-236-21

05-23-3
0055-23

0054-2304





006-236-10
005-236-11
005-26-12
005240-1

006-245-1
0044344
004-4351
004-236-1


004-2364-1
00442364-

004.2314
004437-1
004-237-2
004-238-1
0044239-1
004242-1
004-246-1
004-246-2
005334-1


SE' sec. 26,
T. 4 S.. R. 15 E.
SEiSW'% see. 36,
T 4 S. R. 17 E.

NE*.SW*' sec. 34.
T. 4., R. 17 E.
SWNENSW1 sec. 34,

T. 4 S.. R. 17 E.
w ce34,.


TSW',SEV sec. 34,


SEV4NWJ sec. 3,
T. S R. 17 E.

SEV.NW'4 sec. 3,
T. 5 S., R. 17 E.

SWVWl sec. 3,
T. I R 17 E.
WSENE. sec. 3,
T. S.. R. 17 E.
T SWN smec. 1.

T. 5 S.R N. 17 E.
NS~WNsW. sec. 3.
T.5 S.'R. N1 E.


SWE'fW"4 sec. 3,
T. 5S.. R. 17 E.
T. 5 S.. 17 E.
SEV sec. 3,
T. 5 S., R. 17 E.



NWISNEI1 sec 10,
SE.NW%' sec. 3.
T. 5 S.. R. 17 E.



SE4NW4 sec. 3,
T. 5 S.. R. 17 E



.NE4SW% see. 3,
T. 5 S..R. 17 E.




SE'N. sec. 3,10
T. 5 S., R. 17 E.
NIW'N% see. 10,
T. 5 S.. R. 17 E.1




SENSW14 see. 1.
SWE'4NW"4 sec. 9,13
T. 5 S.. R. 17 E.



T.5 S.R. 17 E.


Kenneth Keen
do.
Rowe Bros.


C. Allison
R. Cox
R. Dicks
State Road Dept.
L. Jones
R. Nettles
J. Nettles
R. Meyer
F. Jones
J. McKolsky
W. Tippins
A. Pohill
H. Woods
L. Hutchinson
W. Eppling
Pine Rose Church
M. Feagle
C. Rogers
Clarence Loyd No. 1
W. Tippins
W. Subanco
Ramona Park Motel
G. Rogers

3. Rigdon
S. Keen
S. Lamb
D. Dicks
R. Robbinson
R. McCormick
A. Noll
C. Terry
O. Dicks


Rotary Tool Co.
R. Meyer
Acme Drilling Co.
Kenneth Keen
Kenneth Keen
do.
Witl Electric Co.
Kenneth Keen
do.
Henderson
Luke Lang
Rotary Tool Co.
Sun Oil Corp.
do.
Wilt Electric Co.
Joe Hare


Witt Electric Co.
Rotary.Tool Co.


Witt Electric Co.
Libby and Freeman


Kenneth Keen
Luke Lang
Rotary Tool Co.


1955
19635


Rotary Tool Co. 1957


Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
R
Dr
R
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
R
Dr
R

R
R
Dr
Dr


1957


1952
1950
1950
1950
1955
1951
1950


1957
19568
1949
1955


1956


150
128
126
102
160
100
130
85
120
112
112
112
115
125
125
115
140
154
2.929


86
125
73
101
165
200
180
220
88
156
152
150


90








81
60


80
80
80
74


80


100
110
1.376



55


62
80+


88



48


86


10
4
4
2
4
2
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4


4
4
4
7%
4
2
4
4
4
4
4
4
10
4
4
4
4


' '


F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F


F
F
F
F

F
F
F

F
F
F
F
F
F


121
142
144
136
100
100
97
96
1005
100.
1005
1005
1005
1005
1005
96
104
147
125
1005
1005
109
112
99.4
157
151
171
79
57
96
105
144


88
113


99.5
61.6


60
55.1
60
60
60.0
60
55
60
60
62.1
68
105


.-


75
Dry
66.50
122
117
139
44.3
31.1
74.4


104


1/28/58
?/53


11/ 4/57
11/ 7/57


9/ 7/57
9/13/57
7/52
7/50
2/50
7/50
2/5/55
7/91
7/50
10/ 8/57
1/27/S8
2/ 4/58





7/4/56
9/23/57

6/13/57
9/27/57
9/27/57
7/ ?/56
9/28/57
9/23/57
8/12/57


10/14/57


Tu
3
PI


Su
J
J
J



3

Jr
J



SU
Su
Su



3S
SU
Su
Su











Su





Su


J
3Y


I-I Dr


82
1
1/


1


1/2
I1





1/24
3/4
1


1/2
1
1/4
3/4
3/4
1



3/4
3/4
1







3/4
1


3/4
3/4
3/4
1


Ir
D
D
O
P
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D

S
D
OT
OT
OT
P
0

0
D
D
D
Ir
D
D
D
D


Dr
R
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
R


1957


1954
1956


1956
1957
1957


CA-6
CA-S














W-4=3
W-1101.
E


CA-6
CA-6


W-4524










TAtU 8. (Continued)

CausE Water Weve PUmp


35& Ownar 0 Drer Al





U.M,1 I W4 w. C. Dicks do. 17 R 173 120 4 F 143 107.4 926/,7 Su I D
4MSM w i eR. 1 ,e J. Witt Witt Electrft Co. -- Dr 1US -- 4 F 129 9.57 9T /9 J 1 D
M8334 S2"ti5 10, do. do. 1N5 Dr 146 5 4 7 130 SO 10/02/%5 Su 3/4 D
T. 5L5. 3.1 1
11USEs sec*S. 10. do. Dr 100 -- 4 F 127 1.2 U9/W7 P 0
T. 55. 3. 17 ."
0B4a-'1 -Wsee. 17, D Dicks by and Freeman l196 Dr 150 6 10 83 51A 2/10/5M Ts 3 Ir CA,4
T. I .I. 17 Z.
O140T-1 %W Mi. 11. A. Terry Luke Lang 1O3 Dr 145 80 4 F 85 50 Sf 7/5 Su 2 D
T.S R. .15E.
0M84" SWS'.% ?e. 1S. L, Nlih LEngligh Dr 15 15 1% N 1i 5 .9 6/14o,57 0
T ". 3. 17 r-. .
on=1 NWS se. 22. Mason Ceontral School Rowe Bre. 1547 Dr 150 IS 4 F 10s -- Pi I P
4 NWj s c.22 S. Osteen do. 1944 Dr 141 4 F I at ?/44 J I D
60t-AST4 IE 't e. U W. Tire Rotary Tool Co. IS17 R 145 4 F 106 72.4 /6114 S7 S 1 D C4
.4 16W8 meW 2., P. Pierce Luke Lang IM6 Dr 140 45 4 F 152 112 12/ 7/MS Pi I D
T .;5 IL17S.
4V. Piawi2 s21, do. Dr 12 1I 2 F 152 "11t ll/ll/ 0
44 0 sec. 17. C. ixon Flornda Growers Is5 Dr E2 0o 8a F 0- 3/ ?/55 Tu -- Ir
T. S 3.. .17 -.
B4 SW rw.se. 20. W. Graham do. H11 Dr 280 08 10 F 70 /56 TU 55 Ir
T..5 5.. 3. 17 3.
001.21MI U *1EtI, E s H. Markham 1 Dr III 2 F 142 l0ot 7/7 P7 3/4 D
I1-uii- SWv sec. 27. P. Baria Acme Drilling Co. ISa Dr 123 2 F 12 5s0 7/0 P1 3/4 D
o1n1-a"- '. ee 27, do. Dr 0 2 F 1.26 50 ___ 0
*TV W k17'.-2.
014 s4*, a. 27. T. Waltso T. Watsona US7 Dr 55 0 3 F s 55.0 10/8/57 J 1 D W-454
0501444- ISE i 5 mc S. Watson Fla. State Road Dept. Dr 7 F 43 10/ /
IW.41.M S sec. 35"' Mr. Falkner IS0 Dr 1 2 TO S/8/ 3/4 D
043 SW.1 sc.I 34.3. JBaler Florida Growers 1SS Dr 0 ..-- 8 F 105 67 11/12,/ Tu 40 Ir
O NW%3S sec. 36. do. J. Baley Dr 65 6 2 F 61 1 4/134 D
o00= T. 5 5-. R. 1 .. .
00534- 37S R-. Haldwanger Robb non Bros. IS6 Dr 7 80o 2 103 ) 2/7/S P7 3/4 D
B00.,51 S'i. see. L,. Maxwell ~Ibby and Freeman 1SS9 Dr 235 S 10 F 95 MJS a/ 7/7 TU 50 Ir
._.. ______T. 5 3.. IT.




TABLE (Cotinued)


9Si43-1















a7-(7-1


ma"
9503=







95604


S9M37-1









05"0131


SS'3S,


SWWsIW. me. 33.
srwgt313 sec. U

SWW6EM msee.
T. 6 S.. R. 1T E.
SEwiSSw'J sec. 10,
T. S S.. R.17 E.
SE.,SWt see. 10,
T. S- R. 17 E.
SW6g-w'i sec. 15.
T. 6 75.. Z 17.
SEWNWir sec. 16.
T. 6 S.. I. 17 Z.
SEf.NSEw see. 17.

S. L TE.


Swm K sem. 22,
T. U S.. R. 17 .



.Sl sec 17,

EA sme. 23,
T. IL 17 iE.





T. S... 173E.
sec. 1,
T.B 3.13I.


T. O 1 E.




S IfES.
EIEf sec. 83,


T se. 1 9,
.. .
S e. 3.3,


T. 6... 17 E.
3see. 73.




R. 16 E.
N3WAV sem. 33,





T. 1. 5 E.
^W* fc. 33,


T7 .3.17 E.


S. Walon
W. Moody
3. Pope
L. Bailey
3.Hysne
0. Knreh


H. Pope
Haswkbns
G. Graham
W. Johnstor
H. Byals
J. Marlti
Fla. Power Corp.
A. Gtrah b
*C. Norton
D. Btorns
Mreans
Rev. Erkel
E. mosare
Mr. Wlsom
J. Carter
B oy Wbson
C. Coomce
M.L Feale
B. Owase
Cob bla Co. School
Ft. White School
do.
t. Pearson
Atlantic COastlime R.
Olno State Park


Eotary Taol Cb.
J. Martin
Acme Dring Co.


Erow Bros.


Acme Dri ng Cb.
do.
Ame aDr Ilh co.



Io coon
John Martin



Witt Electric O.


I


Atlantic Coastlne RR. -
Maxwell (Camp L39
R=,ager)_


FlPrida Growers
A. B. Clar
owe Bros.
BHedeson
Fla. State Road Dept


Rowe Brs.
do.
3. Martin


..m


T.am.z 8. (mitinued)


IS55
1555
1.51
1945
IS=5
IS3O





1908
lans
1931








ism
ISO





1.55
1164
1938






290
1946





ises
1=
I1





ri-s I
1166


3w0
135




US
225
230
152
212
142


120

ISO
115
150
as


147

105




140
150


75
53
65
8S
125
50


TD
70
110


60



134
















so






SO





10


160






100


ICA
I CA&4


72


177
11
171
179
I"
124
148



S9









143.0
147

81
106









26

14
57.
ds


30.4DA
231.9
144


142
145.0
85.1


114
im0
111.2
m.7


115
1G0
S24

100e



122i
5.5A
45
35
40-
ST
T75
3S-1
34.3


34.5
271


2f /55
8/ 7/57

/ 7/357


4/14/34



8/95
8/29/

5/ 2/57

10/9r37
4/12/M4
7/w6
7/45
T/S6
8/2/57


1/ Was

10/5 /5
/9/S S
7/m
9/17/5
7/0
1/ 7/5


9/11/57
10/ a/m
4/17/3
4/23/34
T/3B


Th
S.
J

Su
Pl
Pi


Pi
PI
Pi
SP



J
P1
Pi
Pi
SPA

Sm
Su










TnI


So



j


- I I I


5
1/4








3/4
324
3/4
3/4
1


1
3/4
3/4
3/4
*2
3/4
1



3/1
3/4
1/2
1/2
5


5



3


o Jr
3 S


D
2 D


S In

D
D
D

D

D


D
D
D
D
S
D
D
D
0
D
D
D
D
P
O
P
D


P


CA-







C&S


CA4


I


I I


I I











TAUSL 8. (Continued)

Casins Water level Ptunp



auIbw LZcatiom Owner Driller H 1I






9644M NWl'4 NE ec. 2. O'Leno State Park Maxwell (Camp 19S3 Dr 110 100 3 1 60 27.0 9/30 J 3 P
T. 7 17 E. Ranger)
994,6-1 W se'e. 3, Sky Road Inn .... Dr 76 2 F 70 38 8/ 1/5 J 3/4 P
964* 364. Ssl. 4. J. Silleo ________ 4 F 63 31.3 8/ /57 Su ..... D
6644-2.1 m1e. 3, J. Henderson -- -- --- Dr 180 ----4 64 40 10/24/57 Su 1 In CA-4
M346 SW sec. 10, M. Speakes Acme Drilling Co. 19586 Dr 73 48 4 T 71 34.6 8/2/57 J 1/3 P
S343n %4k see. 9. M. Brandt do. 1986 Dr 100 14 4 F 72 37.8 8/ 1/57 J 1 P CA-6
90043 1 iW T se. 15, E. Moore Dr 68 --- 64 24 2/ 7/57 J 1/2 D
T. 7 R ITE,
OM 4 SW sec. 16. Mr. Riberd Acme Driling Cn. 1954 Dr 200 40 10 8 6s 33.3 11/13/57 Tu 55 Ir
0.38041 SEiS see. 17, D. Lee do. 1965 Dr 200 42 10 a2 35 1/ ?/55 Tu 55 Ir
T. t 17 Z.
95.3 -1 W 1Q sem. 19, H. Bussey A. Miller 19567 Dr 70 -- 4 72 39.5 1/4/58 J 1%, D
T. S R.17E.
961-23641 sk Sik sec. 21. J. Cane Libby and Freeman 1986 Dr 53 -- 4 r 45 10.5 8/ 1/37 C 1/4 P CA.8
T. 4S8.. R. 17 E. ._____I___ I I_____
ALACHUA COUNTY


A4~5 $
T. R. 18 E.

T.8. S .'
SWiNEe sec. U,
T. S.. R. 18SE.
TOME' me. a.
T 7S R1 SE.
Sfli 'itW aet. 27

ST. R.HE .
1E'44 ec 273.
T71S.. 17 E.


SfE4'SW sec. 3,
T.81W 17 E.
SNE20 sec. 3,
T.8S. .B17E.
SW 11. M4 see. 3.


Santa re R=acn
S. Swilley
do.
V. OQI8good
Youth Camp 1
Youth Camp 2
T. Barber
Mr. Newell
.. Winters
City of High Springs
do.


Acme DUMling o.
do.
do.
Rotiry Tool Co.
do.
do.
Hare
Acme Driling Co.



Stevens Southern Co.


Fla. State Road Dept. Acme Drilling Co. --


1954
1985
1857
1957
1957



1933
19S3
19M6


Dr
Dr
Dr
R
R
R
Dr
Dr
Dr



Dr


162
387
171
235
225
70
a5
72
400
243
75


180
78
42
43


58



215


154
180.0
159
46
43


65


71
71
62


112.0
120.5
127
125.6
13.5
14.1
39
33
25
39.6
34
30.5


?/55
12/5/57
12/ 5/57
12/ 5/57
8/27/57
8/27/57
7/54
8/ 1/57


10/24/57
9/18/46
10/24/57


2
1
45
1
2
1I



1/6
40
40
-1


CA.6


-1


























V
M
0











0

c-
CO


w

Li


W-4535,
E
CA-6
CA.-






W-1379


53421I




960236-1

9504M34
904237-1
949-236-1


,4.12





TABLE 8. (Continued)
____~~~______ ____________ ___________ BAKER COUNTY __


026-223-1'
020- 41
014-224-1
'014-22&-1


012-222-1


01,-2233-2
012-22S-1
S0124,=,1
0122252
,,:,0 1-3S6-1'
011-226-1
011-226-2
011-226-3
000-27-1


NENEil4 sec. 3.
T. 1 S., R. 19 E.
SEINWV4 sec. 11,
T. 2 S.. R. 19 E.
SE14SEE- sec. 9,
T. 3 S.. H. 19 E.
SWSE V sec. 8,
T. 3 S.. R. 19 E.
NWi,'SEt, sec. 24,
T.3 S.. R. 19 E.
SWSE. see. 24,
T. 3 S.. R. 19 E.
NWiDSW;, sec. 23,
iT.3 S.. 19 E.
NEB1SW'/ sec. 23,
T. 3.. R. 19 E.


NW4 sec. 29.
T. 3 S.. R. 19 E.
T. 3 S;. R. 19 E.
NE14SWI,4 see. 20,
*T. 3 S.. R. 19 'E.
MW3 SW, sec. 29.
T. 3 R 19 E.
NWINSW4 sec. 29.
T. 3 S.. R. 19 E.
NErjSW4 see. 29,
T. 3 S., R. 19 E.
NWN,,i', see. 7,
T. 4 S1, R. 19 E.


Surveyors Bay
U. S. Forest Service
do.
do.
Fla. Forest Service
Nursery
do.
U. S. Forest Service
Olustee Memorial
Park
T. Barnes
U. S. Forest Service
Community Camp
U. S. Forest Service
do.
U. S. Forest Service
National Turpentine
No. I


Gray-Stevens
U. S. Forest Service


Rowe Bros.
Duval Drilling Co.
Gray-Stevens"
Rowe Bros.
Rotary Tool Co.
Witt Electric Co.
do.
Gray-Stevens
Rotary Tool Co.
Witt Electric Co.
Sun Oil Co.


...- Dr
1939 Dr
......... Dr
........ Dr
1957 Dr
1952- Dr
1939 Dr
1954 Dr
1957 R
1956 Dr
1957 Dr
1939 Dr
1957 R
1955 Dr
1950 R


23
263
15
168+
335
465
260
310
246
340
220
230
190
45
3.043


T 8. (Corifinued)
BAKER COUNTY


23
227
14
...............
243
229
188


162
150


210
170


1.643


14 N
6 F
1 N
3 F
8 F
8 F
6 F
6 F
4 F
6 F
4 F
4 F
4 F
4 N
7 -


136
162
164
164
165
178
176
162
165


165
165
164
145


3.6
77
1.0
100.5
100.6
106.3
104
114
101
110
95
102.1
102.1

8


5/21/57
7/ 1/39
6/4/57
6/18/57
5/30/57
5/ 9/57
7/ 7/39
4/ 1/54
11/21/57
8/ 7/56
6/11/57


9/9/57

4/18/55


________HAMILTON COUNTY
00244-1 SW SE. see. 8, J. Hughes Kellog Co. 1951 Dr 140 .---- 2 F 134 40 2/51 X 1/2 D
026-254-1 SE'NE' see. 21, Fla. Foiest Service Rotary Tool Co. 1956 R 225 148 .4 F 140 94.5 6/ 2/56 Su --- D
023449-1 N'Wi4w' see. 21, Mr. Huggins Littleton 1966 Dr 210 185 4 F 139 89 7/56 Su 1 D
021-246-1 SW siv sec. 36, S. Beauchamip Rotary Tool Co. 1956 R 145 95 4 F 131 74.7 S/ 8/57 J 1 D CA-8
T. I R. 15 E.
02024,41 SESE-4 see. 1, Stephen Foster U. S. Corps of Engrs. 1956 R 150 ___ 4 F 130 68.5 6/ 7/56 J 3 P
T. 2 S.. R. 15 E. Memorial
020-24-2 SESE, sec. 1, do. .. .. 1957 R 176 147 6 F 117 51.1 6/11/57 Su 5 P
T. 2'S.. R.'15 E.
019-244-1 SWY4SW. sec. 8, P. Hillhouse Kellog Co. 1956 Dr 205 105 6 F --_ 60 9/ 2/56 Tu 4 D CA-S
T. 2 S.. R. 16 E.
019-244-2 SWSW;i sec. 8, U. S. Corps of Engrs. U. S. Corps of Engrs. 1932 Dr 130 ? 6 F 94.88 T ---.. .... T W-190
T. 2 S.. R. 16 E.
019-245-1 SE,%NW. sec. 7, City of White Springs W. R. McGrew 1926 Dr 303 205 10 F 139 76.8 11/25/57 Tu W-69.
_____ T. 2 S., R. 10 E. CA-5

SUWANEE COUNTY
015-248.1 SESE se 3, N. Crow E. Owens .. Dr 15 ---- 3 N 174.0 2.0 12/13/57 C Ir
T..3.. R.15.E.
01450-o1 SW SWI sec. 8, Leesburg Bulb and F. A. Nelson 1945 Dr 198 138 6 r 198.84 ...- Ir W89
T. 3S., Rs 15 E. Flwer Co. ......
012-248-1 SEINWM see. 22, Mr. McIannus Rotary Tool Co. 1955 R 185 100 4 F 184 130 7/13/57 Su 1 S CAs 6
012-248-2 NWSE1 sec 22, Mr. Cabrey do. 1955 R 29 --- 6 N ----... 4 7/10/57 C 100 Ir
T. 3S., R. 19 ..


Pit


Pit


Tu
Tu
Tu
Tu
Su
Tu



Su

J


40
30
30
30
1





5
1
---i


W-4547,
CA-6
W-826
W-447,
CA-$
W-3206
W-4521
W-4056


CA-6
W-4538.,
CA-5,
CA-6

W-2187,











TAmLs 8. (Continued)


do.
Georgla-Florlda Co.
J. W. Phillips
Sun Oil Co.
Henderson
Sun Oil Cn.


9096
612
3.138
225
3.161


545
66
1.320
80
1.282


122
88.5
86
82
68


2.6
76.2


40.3


7/10/57 -
3/ 8/58 Tu


8/12/57 Tu"


00


150


CAW4
W.450
W.1924,

W.1450
H


____UNION COUNTY.
00oo.7-1 SzSW sec. 0, J. Croft Rotary Tool Cr,. 1955 R 175 140 2 F 148.0 110.0 7/55 Pi 1 D
-, T. T ._R,10 E.
003424-*1 ,'M&Sf1'nee. 10, Owens-Illinois Co. Duval Drilling Co 1952 Dr 396 --., a F 132.6 77.8 10/2/57 Tu 15 Ir
0 ,0 T. 5 B.1 R. 19 I. ,
00033-1 NW *see. 5, R. Tanner Rotary Tool Co. 1956 R 165 90 4 F 152 105 10/11/57 Su 1 1D
T 5'. t 18 E .
000234-1 ,iNEi see. 1. C. Woodley Henderson 1955 R 125 105 4 F 130 98 9/ 7/55 Su 1 D
T9233-1 W Asee.6, J. Smith Rotary Tool Co. 1957 R 131 78 4 F 133 97.5 12/10/57 J 3/4 D W-4533
959-33. NE see. 12, E. Smith do. 1055 R 106 --... 4 F 128 93.6 12/ 6/57 0. ....-.
9 S 233- S eS, sc. i2, A. Brown do. 1957 R 205 4-_. 4 F 96 5Q.1 8/6 /57 Su 3/4 D CA6
T. S., R.;JE. ______/ ___5 _
ECHOLS CCIUNTY, GEORGIA
035440.1 NWj4NEi s aec.573 G. Murphy E. Carter -- Du 17 30 N 126 2.07 '/7/57 C 1/2 D


woni


IIII .......


::


: :