<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Title Page
 Board of Conservation
 Transmittal letter
 Table of Contents
 Abstract and introduction
 Geography
 Hydrology
 Ground water
 Summary and conclusions
 References
 Copyright


FGS




38




Water resources of Brevard County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 28 )
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PDF VIEWER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001215/00001
 Material Information
Title: Water resources of Brevard County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 28 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Report of investigations 28 )
Physical Description: ix, 104 p. : maps (part cold.) diagrs., tables. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brown, Delbert Wayne, 1922-
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1962
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Water-supply -- Florida -- Brevard County   ( lcsh )
Groundwater -- Florida -- Brevard County   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000958598
oclc - 16762211
notis - AES1409
lccn - a 62009679
System ID: UF00001215:00001

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

UF00001215 ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Board of Conservation
        Page ii
    Transmittal letter
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    Abstract and introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Geography
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 12
        Page 11
        Page 7
        Page 12
        12a
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 16
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        20a
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Hydrology
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 32
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        38a
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 25
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Ground water
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        72a
        Page 73
        Page 74
        74a
        74b
        Page 75
        Page 76
        76a
        Page 79
        Page 77
        Page 78
        78a
        Page 79
        Page 80
        80a
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        86a
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        96a
        Page 97
        Page 98
        98a
        Page 99
        Page 67
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 99
    References
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Copyright
        Copyright
Full Text



STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert 0. Vernon, Director




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 28





WATER RESOURCES
OF
BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
D. W. Brown, W. E. Kenner, J. W. Crooks, and J. B. Foster
U. S. Geological Survey







Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT
the
U. S. ARMY, CORPS OF ENGINEERS
and the .
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


TALLAHASSEE
1962







AJO.z 7



FLORIDA STATE BOA ~"

OF

CONSERVATION






FARRIS BRYANT
Governor


TOM ADAMS
Secretary of State



THOMAS D. BAILEY
Superintendent of Public Instruction



RAY E. GREEN
Comptroller


J. EDWIN LARSON
Treasurer



RICHARD ERVIN
Attorney General



DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGES
Director







LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL








Qlo'ia Gelogoqicaf 5uveji



January 11, 1962
Honorable Farris Bryant, Chairman
Florida State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida
Dear Governor Bryant:
The Florida Geological Survey is pleased to publish as Report of In-
vestigations No. 28, a comprehensive study of the water resources of
Brevard County. This report was prepared by Messrs. D. W. Brown,
W. E. Kenner, J. W. Crooks, and J. B. Foster, of the U. S. Geological
Survey, in cooperation with the Central and Southern Florida Flood
Control District; U. S. Army, Corps of Engineers; and the Florida
Geological Survey.
This is a very timely study, since the development of adequate supplies
of fresh water and the prevention and alleviation of flooding are the
principal water problems in Brevard County. The rapid expansion of popu-
lation and the development of new industries associated with the space effort
have made large demands for increased supplies of fresh water, particularly
in the Atlantic Coastal Ridge area on Merritt Island and in the barrier
beach area. Flooding continues to be a problem in the St. Johns River Valley.
It would appear that nonartesian water is suitable for most demands,
after it has been treated for the removal of iron color and for the reduction
of hardness. For the most part, the mineralization of the artesian water in
the area prevents its use as a public water supply in the area east of the St.
Johns River, with the exception of the southeastern corner of the county
and two small areas north and west of Titusville.
Respectfully submitted,
Robert 0. Vernon, Director
Division of Geology





















































Completed manuscript received
December 1, 1961
Published by the Florida Geological Survey
H. & W. B. Drew Company
Jacksonville, Florida
January 11, 1962

iv





TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
A abstract ........................................................................................................................ 1
Introduction ............ ....................................... ...... ........................................ 2
Previous investigations ........................................................ 3
Present investigation ........ ............ .............. ............................. 4
Acknowledgments ............................................................................................. 5
Well-numbering system .............................................. ...................... 6
Geography ----- -----------...............-.--........................................... 7
Location ............................................................ ...................................... 7
Physical features ................................................... 7
St. Johns River valley ................................................................................ 7
Atlantic Coastal Ridge .................. .......................... 9
Barrier islands area .......................................................................................... 10
Terraces -..................................................... 11
C lim ate .................................................................................................................... 11
Population ............................................................................................................ 12
G eology ........................................................................................................................ 13
T est drilling ................................................................... ....................................... 14
Form nations ............................................................................................................ 17
Avon Park Limestone ........................................................ ......................... 18
Ocala Group ................................................ ... ........................ 19
Hawthorn Formation ..................-...........-...-.....- .............. ...........--- ...--- 20
Upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits ................................ ....................... 21
Pleistocene and Recent deposits .......................... -.......................... 21
Geologic structure .................................................................. .............................. 21
Geologic history ....................................................-..-..-..-.. ............................ 24
'Hydrology ...................... ......................-..................................................... 25
Chemical quality of natural waters ................................................................... 29
Water-quality criteria ........................- ................................... ............. 31
Surface water ........................................................-............................ 36
Scope of streamflow records ...........................-. ........................................ 36
Stream and lake characteristics ...... .............. .. ..................... 36
St. Johns River basin ..............................-................ ................................... 36
Flow and stage ............................. ......................................................... 40
Chemical quality ................................................................................ 44
Indian River basin ......................-.-......- ..................-....................... 59
Flow and stage ................................................................ 60
Chemical quality ................ ..... .. ........................... 66
Ground water .............................................. ........................-- ........................-- r67
Artesian water ................................................... ................................................. 9
Fluctuation in artesian pressure ........................... .... ................................ 71
Piezometric surface .................................................-- ................................. 71
Areas of flow......................................... ...................... ............................. 74
Recharge ........................................................................................................ 74
D discharge ................................................................. ................................. (5
Irrigation supplies ..................................................... ..............(7. 7.
Hydrologic properties of artesian aquifer ......-......-..- .......................... 78
Pumping tests .-.......................- ..........................--.......................... 78
Specific capacity ............................-----...................................................... 78

V







Chemical quality of artesian ground water ....................................................
Salt-water contamination ................................................................................
Construction of artesian wells .................................................................... ......
Nonartesian water ................................................................................................. 85
Shape and slope of the water table ............................................................ 86
Fluctuations of water table .......................................................................... 88
Recharge ...................................................................................................... 89
Discharge -.................................................. --------...................................------- 91
Storage of water in the nonartesian aquifer ............................................ 92
Chemical quality of nonartesian ground water ............................................... 94
Construction of wells .......... ............... ......................................... 95
Municipal use ..-------.....--....--...-....-........-------------.......-...............................---.................-----..-..--..... 96
Future program ....... ............................... -....--............ ---..- ...--..... 97
Summary and conclusions .........................-..- ........------------------------------------------------. 99
References .. .. ........................................... ......... .................................... 102





LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure Page
1. Well-numbering system ...... .............................................................. 1
2. Peninsula of Florida showing Brevard County .......................................... 8
3. Brevard County showing topographic contours ................................facing 10
4. Brevard County showing Pleistocene marine terraces ......................facing 12
5. Precipitation records at Titusville and Merritt Island, Florida................. 12
6. Brevard County showing the location of test wells and Atlantic Coastal
Ridge ...................................................................................................... facing 14
7. Sketch showing construction of and geologic formations penetrated by
observation well 822-051-1 ............................................................................ 16
8. Graphs showing data obtained from test well 822-051-1 ............................ 18
9. Brevard County showing contours on the surface of the limestone of
Eocene Age ........................................... .............................. ........... facing 20
10. Geologic section A-A' ................................................................................... 20
11. Geologic sections C-C' and D-D' ............................................................... 22
12. Geologic section B-B' .................................................................................. 23
13. Diagram showing the generalized hydrologic conditions in east-central
Florida ........................................................................................................... 26
14. The Florida Peninsula showing contours on the piezometric surface.....'.... 28
15. Duration of records at surface-water gaging stations .................................... 37
16. Brevard County showing the location of stream-gaging stations ........facing 38
17. Storage-duration curve for Lake Poinsett, Florida, 1941-55 ................. 41
18. Profile of maximum stages on the St. Johns River, Florida, during floods
of October 1953 and October 1956 ........................................................... 41
19. Flood-stage frequencies on the St. Johns River, Florida .............................. 42
20. Maximum periods of high stages of Lake Poinsett near Cocoa, Florida,
1941-55 .......................................................................................................... 43
21. Chloride content, stage, and pumpage, Clear Lake near Cocoa, Florida.... 45
22. Brevard County showing the water-quality sampling stations on streams
and lakes ............................................................................................. ......... 46
23. Graph showing analyses of water from the St. Johns River..................... 47
24. Duration curve of the chloride content at sampling station 17 on Lake
Poinsett and the St. Johns River at Lake Poinsett outlet near Cocoa,
October 1953-September 1955 ................................................................... 51
25. Maximum, average, and minimum daily chloride concentration at station
17 on Lake Poinsett ................................................................................... 52
26. Lake Poinsett near Cocoa, showing chloride concentration at various
points during period of approximate minimum flow of the St. Johns
River. Samples collected in May 1955 .................................................. 53
27. Maximum, average, and minimum specific conductance of the St. Johns
River near Cocoa, October 1953 to September 1957.............................- 54
28. Cumulative frequency curve of specific conductance of the St. Johns
River near Cocoa, October 1953-September 1957 ................................... 56
29. Relation of specific conductance to hardness, chloride, and sum of deter-
mined constituents for St. Johns River near Cocoa .................................... 57
30. Graph showing the range of observed chloride concentrations in Indian
River, Banana River, and Newfound Harbor during the period 1953-57.... 58
31. Brevard County showing the location of wells....................................facing 70






Figure Page
32- Brevard County showing the location of water-level and chloride observa-
tion wells ........ .... ............................................... ......... facing 72
33. Hydrographs of artesian pressure in selected artesian wells in Brevard
County .......-- ..--......-- ------...--------.. 72
34. Brevard County showing generalized contours on the piezometric surface
of the Floridan aquifer and flowing and nonflowing areas in
January 1957 .... ............................................................................... facing 74
35. Brevard County showing generalized contours on the piezometric surface
of the Floridan aquifer in July 1957 .-....-- .....---..-..................................acing 74
36. Brevard County showing generalized contours on the piezometric surface
of the Floridan aquifer in February 1958 ............ ....-.......................facing 76
37. Brevard County showing generalized contours on the piezometric surface
of the Floridan aquifer, October 1947 ..................................................facing 76
38. The central part of Brevard County showing well yield and well depth.... 76
39. Brevard County showing the chemical composition of artesian water....facing 78
40. Brevard County showing the chloride content of water from artesian
we ls ..-.......................................---.. ...................................-------- facing 80
41. Brevard County showing water-table contours ................................. facing 86
42. Water-table profiles across the Atlantic Coastal Ridge near Mims, Rock-
ledge, and Malabar, Florida .................................................................. 87
43. Hydrographs of water levels in selected nonartesian wells in Brevard
County, Florida --....................................-- ....................................... ....... 90
44. Brevard County showing variations in chloride content and water level
of nonartesian water ..... .........................--....................................- facing 96
45. Brevard County showing the location of permanent water-resource
observation stations ..... ........ ---.................................................. facing 98






Table


Page


1. Population of Brevard County and principal municipalities in Brevard
County, 1910-50 ......................................................................... ................. 13
2. Stratigraphic units of Brevard County, Florida ........................................ 15
3. Water-quality characteristics and their effects .............................................. 31
4. Industrial requirements for water ............................................................ 34
5. Suggested water-quality tolerances ..-..... -----------..................................................... 35
6. Location and type of record at surface-water gaging stations in the
Brevard County area ....................................................................... 38
7. Partial chemical analyses of samples collected in the St. Johns and Indian
River basins, September 1952 to September 1958 ....-----...............-.......----..........-----------.... 48
8. Discharge of small streams tributary to the Indian River ..-------------........................ --61
9. Summary of specific capacities of wells in the Floridan aquifer............... 79
10. Analyses of raw and treated water from the municipal supplies of Titus-
ville, Cocoa, Eau Gallie, and Melbourne ......-------......--------------.............-................ ----98









WATER RESOURCES OF BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA

By
D. W. Brown, W. E. Kenner, J. W. Crooks, and J. B. Foster

ABSTRACT

Brevard County comprises an area of 1,298 square miles along the
Atlantic Ocean in central Florida. Lying in bands roughly parallel to Indian
River are three distinct landforms: the St. Johns River valley, which
parallels the western border of the county; the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, which
forms the eastern boundary of the mainland; and the barrier islands, which
lie offshore and parallel to the mainland.
The county is underlain by a series of limestone formations having a
total thickness of several thousand feet. The upper several hundred feet
constitute the Floridan aquifer, which generally includes the Avon Park
Limestone and the overlying Ocala Group of limestone formations, all of
Eocene Age. Overlying the artesian aquifer are beds of sandy clay, shells, and
clay of the Hawthorn Formation of Early and Middle Miocene Age and
deposits of Late Miocene or Pliocene Age. These beds serve to confine water
under pressure in the underlying artesian aquifer. The confining beds are
overlain by unconsolidated deposits of sand and sandy coquina of Pleisto-
cene and Recent Age which completely blanket the entire county.
The development of adequate supplies of fresh water and the alleviation
of flooding are the principal water problems in Brevard County. Increased
supplies are needed, particularly in the Atlantic Coastal Ridge area, on
Merritt Island, and in the barrier beach area. Flooding is a major problem
in the St. Johns River valley.
Lakes and streams occur throughout the county. The more important
potential surface-water sources of supply are: (1) the St. Johns River;
(2) the lakes and sloughs of the coastal ridge area; and (3) the streams
flowing eastward into the Indian River. All the sources will provide water
supplies, but the quality and quantity of water vary greatly.
Records from stream-gaging stations span from 1 to more than 24 years.
The longer records, principally in the St. Johns River basin, enable fairly
reliable estimates to be made of future flow. The shorter records, principally
on streams in the coastal ridge area, do not provide enough data to project
reliable estimates of future flow.
Ground water in Brevard County occurs under artesian and nonartesian
conditions. Nonartesian water occurs in the sediments of Pleistocene and
1






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Recent Age, whereas artesian water is in the underlying limestone formations
of Eocene Age.
The piezometric surface of the artesian aquifer is higher than the land
surface over most of Brevard County, and hence wells drilled into the
aquifer will overflow at the surface. The top of the artesian aquifer is about
75 feet below sea level in the northwestern corner of the county and more
than 300 feet below sea level in the southeastern corner. In Brevard County,
the direction of movement of the artesian water is generally northeastward,
except under the barrier islands. On the barrier islands north of Cocoa
Beach, artesian water moves northwestwardly and south of Melbourne it
moves directly eastward. The mineralization of the artesian water in the
area under investigation does not meet the standards set by the U.S. Public
Health Service for public drinking supplies except in the following areas:
(1) west of the St. Johns River; (2) the southeastern corner of the county;
and (3) two small areas north and west of Titusville.
The sediments of Pleistocene and Recent Age average about 50 feet in
thickness in the coastal ridge area but are less than 20 feet thick in the
vicinity of the St. Johns River. Nonartesian water saturates about 40 feet of
these sediments in the coastal ridge area, and the zone of saturation thins
toward the St. Johns and Indian rivers. The lower part of the sediments
contains salty water in some places. Upward movement of salty water from
the artesian aquifer can occur in areas where the water table is below the
piezometric surface, including areas where the water table is, or in the future
may be, lowered by large withdrawals of ground water from the nonartesian
aquifer. Ground water in the nonartesian aquifer generally has a satisfactory
color and is low in all chemical constituents except iron. In general, the
nonartesian water is suitable for most purposes after it has been treated for
the removal of iron and color and for the reduction of hardness.

INTRODUCTION

The development of water supplies of suitable quality and quantity
for municipal, industrial, and agricultural purposes has long been a major
problem in Brevard County. This problem has become acute in the past
decade because of the rapid growth in population. The establishment of
potable water supplies for the expanding population is of first importance in
fostering the continued growth of the area, but the determination of po-
tential sources of water for agricultural and industrial use is important also.
In addition to local problems of water supply there are countywide and
regional problems of flood control and drainage.
This report is a summary of the available information on the quantity,
chemical quality, and availability of water in Brevard County. The report






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 28


should be useful as a convenient reference for those charged with the
responsibility of developing and protecting water supplies and for those who
use or control water in significant quantities.
Brevard County lies within the boundaries of the Central and Southern
Florida Flood Control District. The District has developed a comprehensive
plan for control of floods and other water conditions in the basins of streams
and lakes in southeastern Florida. The District's interest in Brevard County
is twofold: (1) to collect basic hydrologic data that will provide a sound
basis for the operation of its comprehensive plan, and (2) to obtain informa-
tion on specific water problems. These interests spring from the District's
fundamental aim-to promote the most beneficial use of the natural
resources within the area under its jurisdiction. The present cooperative
investigation, as a part of a systematic program of the U.S. Geological
Survey to determine the water resources of the nation, provides information
to aid the District in achieving this objective.
The water-resource problems in the area are of national importance
because of public welfare and because of large federal investments in
drainage and flood control works and in nearby military installations.
The following sources of water are described in this report:
1. The St. Johns River and associated lakes.
2. The tributaries to the St. Johns River.
3. The several small streams that flow eastward into the Indian
River.
4. The shallow ponds along the coastal ridge.
5. The artesian aquifer.
6. The nonartesian aquifer.
Most of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S.
Geological Survey in cooperation with the Central and Southern Florida
Flood Control District, the Florida Geological Survey, and the Corps of
Engineers, U.S. Army. In addition to data collected during this investigation,
the report contains published and unpublished data collected by other
agencies and individuals.

PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS

The water resources of Brevard County are described briefly in several
reports published by state and federal agencies and, unpublished reports by
consultants and other interested parties.
Specific information on Brevard County is contained in published
reports as follows: The geology and ground water are mentioned in a report
by Matson and Sanford (1913, p. 273-277). Sellards and Gunter (1913,
p. 232-245), in a report on the artesian water supply, give descriptions of






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


wells, water-level measurements, and a few chemical analyses of water.
Analyses of water from several wells in Brevard County are given in reports
by Collins and Howard (1928) and Black and Brown (1951, p. 31-33).
A report by Stringfield (1936) includes records of wells and artesian
pressure in Brevard County and a piezometric map of the principal artesian
aquifer in the Florida Peninsula. The U.S. Geological Survey has been
gaging streams in Brevard County since 1933 and making water-level
measurements in wells since 1946. These data are published in the regular
series of annual water-supply papers of the Survey. The water-supply papers
that contain records on surface-water supplies in Brevard County are
nos. 757, 782, 802, 822, 852, 872, 892, 922, 952, 972, 1002, 1052, 1082
1112,1142,1172, 1204, 1234, 1274, 1334, and 1384. Those that contain records
on ground-water levels and artesian pressures in Brevard County are nos.
1072, 1097, 1127, 1157, 1166, 1192, 1222, 1266, 1322, and 1405. Cooke's
"Geology of Florida" (1945, p. 47, 267, 301) describes some of the forma-
tions in Brevard County. Vernon (1951, figs. 11 and 33; pl. 2) has drawn
geologic structure maps which include Brevard County.
In 1947-48, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Florida
Geological Survey, conducted a ground-water reconnaissance of Brevard
County which served as a basis for the present work. A table of well records
and illustrations of the reconnaissance were released to the open file in a
report by Neill (1955).

PRESENT INVESTIGATION

The present intensive investigation was made by the Water Resources
Division of the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Central
and Southern Florida Flood Control District. Other agencies supporting the
investigation are the U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers and the Florida
Geological Survey. The progress of the investigation and the information
collected through 1955 are contained in the report entitled, "Interim Report
on the Water Resources of Brevard County, Florida," Florida Geological
Survey Information Circular no. 11. Records of streamflow, chemical
analyses, ground-water levels, etc., of the water resources of Brevard County,
Florida, are compiled in the report entitled "Water-Resource Records of
Brevard County, Florida," by D. W. Brown, W. E. Kenner, J. W. Crooks,
and J. B. Foster. This report is published as Florida Geological Survey
Information Circular no. 32.
The surface-water work of the investigation consisted of collecting stage
records on lakes, streams, and other water bodies and gaging the flow of the
streams. Much reconnaissance work was done to define the limits of
drainage areas, to determine flow patterns, and to select gaging sites.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 28 5

The collection of ground-water information for this investigation began
in the spring of 1954 and stopped in the spring of 1958, although water
levels of five wells in Brevard County have been recorded since 1946. The
major ground-water work of the current investigation included the
following:
1. Inventory of wells to determine location, depth, distribution, diameter, yield,
and other pertinent data.
2. Drilling of test wells in selected areas where information could not be
obtained from existing wells.
3. Collection and study of water-level records to determine the seasonal fluctua-
tions and progressive trends.
4. Collection of well logs and examination of well cuttings from test wells and
privately owned wells to determine the thickness, lithologic character, and
extent of the formations.
5. Conducting pump tests and analyzing the results to determine the water-
transmitting and water-storing capacities of the different water-bearing
formations.
The investigation of the quality of water in the upper St. Johns and
Indian River basins, begun in the fall of 1953, was intensified during 1955
to meet the requirements of the study. Water-sampling stations for daily
and periodic collection of water samples for chemical analyses were
operated. Samples were collected periodically to detect progressive changes
in the chemical quality of the water and to evaluate the effects of water use
on the chemical quality of water. In general, the sampling stations were
operated in conjunction with stream-gaging stations or ground-water re-
cording gages.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Thanks are extended to the municipalities of Cocoa, Cocoa Beach, Eau
Gallie, Melbourne, Rockledge, and Titusville for their cooperation and help
in the investigation. The commissioners of Brevard County kindly co-
operated in various ways during the investigation. Mr. Jerry Sellars, water-
plant superintendent of the Cocoa Water Department, kindly furnished data
on Clear Lake.
Appreciation is expressed for the support and cooperation of the fol-
lowing well drillers who have aided the investigation by either furnishing
file data or by collecting and saving rock cuttings from wells: Central
Florida Well Drillers, Orlando; M. J. Heidekruger, Melbourne; Knight and
King, Vero Beach; Layne-Atlantic, Orlando; Leon A. Merrow, Jr., Mel-
bourne; and Adger Smith, Melbourne.
The following residents, consultants, and companies have contributed to
the investigation: Roy.Platt, Melbourne; Bert .Thompson, Rockledge; Charles






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Black, Black and Associates, Gainesville; W. M. Bostwick, Bostwick Inc.,
Daytona; A. B. DeWolf, Gee and Jensen, Consulting Engineers, West Palm
Beach; Jerry Flipsie, A. Duda and Sons, Cocoa; Herbert Harrell, Nevins
Fruit Co., Mims; Will Osteen, Norris Cattle Co., Mims; Leo Ellsworth,
Orlando Livestock Co., Deerpark; Sottile, Micco Farms Division, Micco.
Special thanks go to the many residents of the area who furnished water
information and allowed access to their properties for the collection of
geologic and hydrologic data.

WELL-NUMBERING SYSTEM

The Florida well-numbering system is based on a statewide grid of 1-
minute parallels of latitude and 1-minute meridians of longitude. The wells
in a 1-minute quadrangle are numbered consecutively in the order in-
ventoried. In Florida, the latitude and longitude prefix north and west and
the first digit of the degree number are not included in the well number.


Figure 1. Well-numbering system.


w a of tm Grmnwch. England. p-n, mrndlan






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 28


The well number is a composite of three numbers separated by hyphens:
/ he first number is composed of the last digit of the degree and the two
digits of the minutes that define the latitude on the south side of a 1-minute
quadrangle; and the second number is composed of the last digit of the
degree and two digits of the minutes that define the longitude on the east
side of a 1-minute quadrangle; and the third number gives the numerical
order in which the well was inventoried in the 1-minute quadrangle (fig. 1).

GEOGRAPHY
LOCATION

Brevard County is on the Atlantic Coast near the middle of the Florida
Peninsula (fig. 2). It is bordered on the north by Volusia County, on the
west by Osceola, Orange, and Volusia counties, on the south by Indian
River County, and on the east by the Atlantic Ocean. Cape Canaveral forms
the central part of the Atlantic coastline of Brevard County. This cape is a
conspicuous interruption in the relatively smooth line of Florida's east coast.
The county has an area of 1,298 square miles. It has a north-south length
of 66 miles and an east-west width of about 20 miles.
Most of Brevard County is served by good transportation facilities.
Several state and federal highways, north-south and east-west, provide
ready access between population centers within the county and the state.
The Florida East Coast Railroad furnishes rail transportation. Airline service
is available only at the city of Melbourne and bus service is available be-
tween most cities in the county. The Intracoastal Waterway provides a
water route through the county via Indian River and Indian River Lagoon.

PHYSICAL FEATURES

Brevard County has been classified by Cooke (1939, p. 14-16) as part
of the coastal lowlands physiographic unit. The principal physical features
are the St. Johns River valley, the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, the barrier
islands area and the coastal terraces (fig. 6).

ST. JOHNS RIVER VALLEY

In Brevard County, the St. Johns River valley includes all of the area
west of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge. The source of the St. Johns River is the
marsh area in the southern part of the county. The river forms a definite
channel at Lake Hellen Blazes and passes through Sawgrass Lake, Lake
Washington, Lake Winder, and Lake Poinsett. From Lake Poinsett the
river flows along the western border- of Brevard County until it reaches a






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


point west of Titusville, where it flows out of the county and continues
flowing northward until it discharges into the Atlantic Ocean near Jack-
sonville.


Figure 2. Peninsula of Florida showing Brevard County.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 28


The St. Johns River channel at its source is approximately 20 feet above
sea level (fig. 3). Along the river's 275-mile course to the ocean the fall
in the water surface, when the river is at a low stage, is about 15 feet or
about 0.05 foot per mile. The gradient of the St. Johns River between
crest gages 1 and 19 (fig. 16, 18) is usually about 0.2 foot per mile during
flood stage. The stream channel is tortuous and is interrupted by numerous
lakes.
Much of the land immediately adjacent to the river is marshland and
when the river is at flood stage this marshland functions as part of the river
channel. During low stages, water from the marshland drains slowly back
into the channel and helps to sustain flow. The width of the marshland
ranges from less than 1 mile to more than 7 miles. In Brevard County the
marshland adjacent to the river is not generally present in areas higher than
20 feet above sea level. The vegetation in the marshland consists primarily
of marsh grasses and occasional hammocks or clusters of cypress trees.
A sandy prairie zone or dry prairie zone (Davis, 1943, p. 152) forms
the upland border of the marshland. It is several miles wide in some areas
and completely absent in others. The prairie zone is part of the flood plain
of the St. Johns River and is flooded frequently. The vegetation of the
zone consists principally of grasses, saw palmetto, many other low shrubs,
and occasional hammocks of cabbage palm trees.
A pine flatwoods forest (Davis, 1943, p. 147, 160-166) in Brevard
County lies between the prairie zone and coastal ridge. The combined width
of the prairie and forest areas ranges from less than 1 mile to more than
12 miles. Where the sandy prairie zone is absent, the pine flatwoods forest
borders the marshland. The forest area is relatively flat, poorly drained,
and there are numerous scattered intermittent ponds, lakes, and sloughs.
The altitude of the pine flatwoods forest ranges from a few feet above sea
level along the marshland border to about 35 feet above sea level along the
coastal ridge border. The vegetation consists mostly of pine, saw palmetto,
and wire grasses. The area is suitable for lumbering and cattle grazing.

ATLANTIC COASTAL RIDGE

The Atlantic Coastal Ridge in Brevard County is bordered on the west
by the pine flatwoods forest of the St. Johns River valley and on the east
by the Indian River (fig. 6). The ridge ranges in east-west width from
1/2 to 3 miles and is continuous along the full north-south length of Brevard
County. The area has a mature dune-type topography with parallel north-
south elongate ridges and intervening swales. The swales contain many
shallow ponds, lakes, and long narrow sloughs. The coastal ridge ranges in
altitude from sea level to 55 feet above sea level and it is the highest area






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


east of the St. Johns River valley. The crest of the ridge forms the natural
drainage divide between the St. Johns and Indian River basins. A series of
small streams flow out of the coastal ridge and flow eastward into the Indian
River. The western slope of the coastal ridge is drained by a series of small
interconnecting depressions that channel water westward into the St. Johns
River. The principal types of vegetation found on the coastal ridge are saw
palmetto, sand pine, scrub oak, and shrubs.

BARRIER ISLANDS AREA
In Brevard County the barrier islands area is separated from the main-,
land by the Indian River and is bordered on the east by the Atlantic Ocean.
The similarity of landforms in the barrier island area indicates that their
development was by similar depositional processes. The barrier islands are
composed of relict beach ridges formed by the action of wind and waves of
the ocean.
Merritt Island, one of the barrier islands, has a maximum east-west
width of about 7 miles and a north-south length of about 31 miles. It is
bordered on the west by the Indian River, on the southeast by the Banana
River, and on the north by Banana Creek. The land surface is undulating,
the troughs are near sea level, and the ridges generally are not more than
10 feet above sea level. The troughs and ridges, produced during deposition,
generally parallel the present coastline.
The development of Merritt Island was rather complex but, in general,
the deposition progressed from west to east. As Merritt Island formed,
erosional forces tended to smooth out the ridges. Consequently, the original
wavy surface of the western side has been reduced to a nearly level plain.
The range in altitude between the crests and troughs of the land surface
becomes greater from west to east. The surface drainage is primarily inter-
nal, being trapped in long, narrow lakes, ponds, and sloughs that have
formed in the troughs. Some of these water bodies, however, have outlets
to external drainage. The vegetation on Merritt Island is a mixture of the
types found in the pine flatwoods forest and the coastal ridge of the main-
Iand.
The barrier islands are a system of beach ridges that generally parallel
the present shoreline. These islands separate the Atlantic Ocean from the
Indian River, the Indian River Lagoon, and the Banana River. They are
continuous along the full north-south length of Brevard County, and
generally range in east-west width from a few hundred feet to a mile. How-
ever, at Cape Canaveral the barrier island is about 4/2 miles wide. The
land surface of these barrier islands ranges in altitude from sea level along
the shoreline to 20 feet above sea level along the crest of the dune ridges.




I" i ii 'II, ,. 1Z1:, I IIt 1 I, I 1 II1 II11 I I


Ii I''


Base and contour lines compiled from U, S.
Geological Survey topographic quadrangles,


Topography compiled In 1958 from 1949-53 editions
of Geological Survey topographic quadrangle.


Figure 3. Brevard County showing topographic contours.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 28


Vegetation on these barrier islands consists only of plants that can grow in
relatively saline soil and air. The most common of these are sea oats, saw
palmettos, sea grapes, cocoa plums, wax myrtles, lantanas, and bay cedars.

TERRACES

The Pleistocene Epoch, or "Great Ice Age," was a time of alternate
glaciation and deglaciation. The repeated retreat and growth of the
glaciers caused sea level to rise and fall. Whenever the sea remained long
enough at one level, a shoreline, marked by an escarpment, generally de-
veloped and the sea floor formed an essentially level surface, called a terrace.
Several of these ancient shorelines and terraces, both above and below the
present sea level, have been recognized. The higher shorelines are assumed
to be older than the lower.
The Pleistocene history and terraces in Florida are included in reports
by Cooke (1945, p. 245-312) and Parker (1955, p. 111-124, 135-147). The
shorelines recognized by Cooke and the approximate altitude at which they
stand are as follows:
Brandywine ---------......--....-.......--...--..-.....--..-..-.......--.--.--....--- 270 feet
Coharie ------------- ---...-..-... -------------. 215 feet
Sunderland ..--.......--------------....-....-...-..--------.........-....-....-........ 170 feet
Wicomico ..------....-..-..--.....---------....-.....-.-------..............--.........-- 100 feet
Penholoway ..----------.........--...-....--...---..-....---..........--.--......---- 70 feet
Talbot ..............................----------------------------.............................. 42 feet
Pamlico .....................-----------....-----..........-......-..------...----------- 25 feet
Silver Bluff ..........-.........---------.........-....--...........------.........--.... 5-8 feet
The terraces that were formed by the Pamlico and Silver Bluff seas are
shown in figure 4. The Pamlico and Silver Bluff terraces are at 25 to 35
feet and 5 to 8 feet above mean sea level, respectively, for which the closest
available topographic contours are 30 feet and 10 feet. Topographic maps
of the U.S. Geological Survey were used to delineate both terraces.

CLIMATE

The climate of Brevard County is humid subtropical. According to the
U.S. Weather Bureau, the normal monthly temperature at the Merritt
Island weather station ranges from 62.4*F. for January to 81.6*F. for August
and the average temperature for this station is 72.60F. The large bodies of
water in and near Brevard County temper the climate, reduce the amplitude
of the temperature range, and contribute to the generally high humidity of the
area. Most of the rainfall occurs from May through October. The average
annual precipitation is 51.70 inches at the Merritt Island weather station
and 55.29 inches at the Titusville station based on intermittent records for
the periods of 1878-1955 and 1888-1957, respectively. Summaries of the






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 28


The well number is a composite of three numbers separated by hyphens:
/ he first number is composed of the last digit of the degree and the two
digits of the minutes that define the latitude on the south side of a 1-minute
quadrangle; and the second number is composed of the last digit of the
degree and two digits of the minutes that define the longitude on the east
side of a 1-minute quadrangle; and the third number gives the numerical
order in which the well was inventoried in the 1-minute quadrangle (fig. 1).

GEOGRAPHY
LOCATION

Brevard County is on the Atlantic Coast near the middle of the Florida
Peninsula (fig. 2). It is bordered on the north by Volusia County, on the
west by Osceola, Orange, and Volusia counties, on the south by Indian
River County, and on the east by the Atlantic Ocean. Cape Canaveral forms
the central part of the Atlantic coastline of Brevard County. This cape is a
conspicuous interruption in the relatively smooth line of Florida's east coast.
The county has an area of 1,298 square miles. It has a north-south length
of 66 miles and an east-west width of about 20 miles.
Most of Brevard County is served by good transportation facilities.
Several state and federal highways, north-south and east-west, provide
ready access between population centers within the county and the state.
The Florida East Coast Railroad furnishes rail transportation. Airline service
is available only at the city of Melbourne and bus service is available be-
tween most cities in the county. The Intracoastal Waterway provides a
water route through the county via Indian River and Indian River Lagoon.

PHYSICAL FEATURES

Brevard County has been classified by Cooke (1939, p. 14-16) as part
of the coastal lowlands physiographic unit. The principal physical features
are the St. Johns River valley, the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, the barrier
islands area and the coastal terraces (fig. 6).

ST. JOHNS RIVER VALLEY

In Brevard County, the St. Johns River valley includes all of the area
west of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge. The source of the St. Johns River is the
marsh area in the southern part of the county. The river forms a definite
channel at Lake Hellen Blazes and passes through Sawgrass Lake, Lake
Washington, Lake Winder, and Lake Poinsett. From Lake Poinsett the
river flows along the western border- of Brevard County until it reaches a







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


precipitation records for the stations at Merritt Island and Titusville are
given graphically in figure 5. The collection of data at the Merritt Island
weather station was discontinued in 1956; consequently, figure 5 shows 1955
as the last complete year of data for this station.


POPULATION


The U.S. Bureau of Census reported the 1950 population of Brevard
County to be 23,653. Annual estimates of the population of Brevard County


Ic0


52 YEAR XfERAGE,
S: 29 INCHES






20


TITUSVILLE WEATHER STATION


VARIATIONS IN MONTHLY PRECIPITATION
TITUSVILLE WEATHER STATION
(Based on intermitlent records, 1888-
1957. as shown at left)


VARIATIONS IN MONTHLY PRECIPITATION
MERRITT ISLAND WEATHER STATION
(Based on intermittent records, 1878-
1955, as shown at left.)


MERRITT ISLAND WEATHER STATION
Figure 5. Precipitation records at Titusville and Merritt Island, Florida.




UNIT90 61AF94 DkPA9R!MfEN1 (* 711k IN~I1I'rn ) flC ,HI ucAji)"1yY
fi.4"OiICAL JUNVEY H0 fp't 110W


Geology by D. W Brown
In 1958


Base compiled from U l Gological
Survey topographil quadrangles.

Figure 4. Brevard County showing the Pleistocene marine terraces.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 28


prepared by Professor John N. Webb of the University of Florida indicate
an increase of about 320 percent from 1950 to July 1, 1959. The main
centers of population are on the Atlantic Coastal Ridge near Indian River.
Population figures by decades from 1910 to 1950, and annually since 1950,
are given in table 1.

TABLE 1. Population of Brevard County and Principal Municipalities in Brevard
County, 1910-50.
(Source: Reports of U.S. Bureau of Census)
Population unit 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950
Brevard County 4,717 8,505 13,283 16,142 23,653
Titusville 868 1,361 2,089 2,220 2,604
Cocoa 613 1,445 2,164 3,098 4,245
Rockledge 453 551 725 1,347
Eau Gallie 329 507 871 873 1,554
Melbourne 157 533 2,677 2,622 4,223

(Source:. Estimates by Dr. John N. Webb,
University of Florida)
Brevard County
1950 ..................................2. 3,700 1955 .............................42,400
1951 ....................................24,720 1956 ....-............... ............. 53,500
1952 ...................................25,570 1957 ..............................72,000
1953 ............. .................... 26,430 1958 ........................ 86,200
1954 ................................... 38,650 July 1,
1959 (Provisional) .........101,500


GEOLOGY

The occurrence, origin, quality, and availability of ground water in an
area are dependent largely upon the geology of the aquifers. Therefore, a
knowledge of the structure, stratigraphy, and lithology of the rock formations
is essential in the evaluation of an aquifer as a source of water supply.
A simple interpretation of the geology, adequate to evaluate the aquifers,
is presented in the following paragraphs. The classification and nomencla-
ture of the rock units conform to the usage of the Florida Geological Survey
and also, except for the Ocala Group and its subdivisions, with those of the
U.S. Geological Survey. Where the use of a formation name is questionable,
the geologic age of the deposit is used to denote the deposit.
The geology of Brevard County was studied from data collected on
existing water wells and exploratory test wells. Rock samples were collected
and described by U. S. Geological Survey personnel during the drilling
of selected water wells and test holes. Detailed examinations of samples
in the laboratory were made to determine the texture, lithology, and fauna.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


This information was used to prepare maps and cross sections to illustrate
graphically the thickness, general distribution, and structure of the sub-
surface formations.
The earth materials exposed at the surface in Brevard County are un-
differentiated deposits of Pleistocene and Recent Age that form the reservoir
rock for the nonartesian water. These surficial sediments are underlain by
unconsolidated beds of Late Miocene or Pliocene Age, which, in turn are
underlain by the Hawthorn Formation of Early and Middle Miocene Age.
The deposits of Late Miocene or Pliocene Age and the Hawthorn Formation
include beds for material of relatively low permeability which serve to
confine water under pressure in the underlying limestone formations of
Eocene Age. The limestone formations of Eocene Age are the major source
of ground water in Brevard County and form part of the principal artesian
aquifer in Florida and Georgia. In Florida, the principal artesian aquifer
has been called the Floridan aquifer by Parker and others (1955, p. 189).
The geologic formations generally penetrated by water wells in Brevard
County are listed in table 2, which gives the thickness, lithologic character,
and water-bearing properties of the formations.

TEST DRILLING

Most of the ground-water and geologic data in this report were obtained
from existing water wells. Test wells were drilled in areas where adequate
data could not be obtained from existing wells. Wells were drilled to obtain
information on the Pleistocene and Recent deposits that form the non-
artesian aquifer, and to obtain information on Miocene or Pliocene deposits
that form the confining beds for the Floridan aquifer and the limestone
formations of Eocene Age of the Floridan aquifer. During the investigation,
67 test wells were drilled into the Pleistocene and Recent deposits and 8
test wells were drilled into the Floridan aquifer. Of the 75 test wells in-
stalled, 13 were installed by cable-tool method and 62 by power auger
method-
Test drilling in the Pleistocene and Recent deposits was by power auger
and cable-tool drilling machine. The power auger was used to drill shallow
test holes and to construct shallow wells. These wells, 1 '4 inches in diameter,
were used to observe changes in water level and chemical quality of the
nonartesian water (fig. 6). A cable-tool drilling machine was used to drill
4-inch diameter test wells from which rock cuttings were obtained at 5-foot
intervals, water samples for chemical analysis were collected from the bailer
at various depths, drilling time was recorded, and water levels were meas-
ured. Water samples for chemical analysis were pumped from isolated
sections of the well at selected depths.




UN! I U AI t tJH tANII 1* IWP litINWOM
figoil"jCAL. 6WRAVY


ki WHOIJA (RIAtiiAL, bUI Vt.


VP


5 5 S g uiles


1-


CANAVERAL


EXPLANATION
o
Augured lest well, I+lnche
in diameter In nonorteslon
aquifer


Test well 4 inches in diamer
in nonarleson oquifer


Test well 3,4 or 6 inches in
diameter in FIordon aquifer


Atla e Costal Ridge


C)


Compiled by D. W Brown


Bos compiled from U. S. eologicol
Survey topographN quadrongles.


Figure 6. Brevard County showing the locations of test wells and Atlantic
Coastal Ridge.


CIO

0140


"P






TABLE 2. Stratigraphic Units of Brevard County, Florida

Approximate
Geologic age Stratigraphic unit thickness General lithologic character Water-bearing properties
(feet)

Recent Pleistocene Fine to medium sand, coquina and Permeability low due to small grain size, yields small quantities
_____and 0-110 sandy shell marl. of water to shallow wells, principal source of water for domestic
Recent deposits uses not supplied by municipal water systems.
Pleistocene

Pliocene Upper Miocene Gray to greenish gray sandy shell Permeability very low, acts as confining bed to artesian aquifer,
_or 20-90 marl, green clay, fine sand, and produces small amount of water to wells tapping shell beds.
Pliocene deposits silty shell.

Miocene Hawthorn Light green to greenish gray sandy Permeability generally low, may yield small quantities of fresh
Formation 10-800 marl, streaks of greenish clay, water in recharge areas, generally permeated with water from
phosphati radiolarian clay, black the artesian zone. Contains relatively impermeable beds, that
and brown phosphorite, thin beds prevent or retard upward movement of water from the under-
of phosphatic sandy limestone. lying artesian aquifer. Basal permeable beds are considered part
of the Floridan aquifer.

Crystal White to cream, friable, porous
River 0-100 coquina in a soft, chalky, marine
Formation limestone.
Floridan aquifer:
Permeability generally very high, yields large quantities of
8 Williston Light cream, soft, granular marine artesian water. Chemical quality of the water varies from one
U Formation 10-50 limestone, generally finer grained area to another and is the dominant factor controlling utiliza-
Sthan the Inglis Formation, highly tion. A large percentage of the ground water used in Brevard
fossiliferous. County is from the artesian aquifer. The Crystal River Forma-
___tion will produce large quantities of artesian water. The'Inglis
Eocene Formation is expected to yield more than the Williston Forma-
Inglis 70+ Cream to creamy white, coarse tion. Local dense, indurated zones in the lower part of the Avon
Formation granular limestone, contains abun- Park Limestone restrict permeability but in general the forma-
dant echinoid fragments. tion will yield large quantities of water.

Avon Park Limestone 285+ White to cream, purple tinted, soft,
dense chalky limestone. Localized
zones altered to light brown or
ashen gray, hard, porous, crystal-
line dolomite.


0

0
114





0

0







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


6-inc


Figure 7. Sketch showing construction of and geologic formations penetrated by
observation well 822-051-1.


itL m


H


1.0 foot
Land surface
PLEISTOCENE AND RECENT DEPOSITS

UPPER MIOCENE OR
I PLIOCENE DEPOSITS


HAWTHORN FORMATION
CRYSTAL RIVER FORMATION 0.
WILLISTON FORMATION a:
<
INGLIS FORMATION o
1I 0

AVON PARK
LIMESTONE











} Isolated test -section, 422'-434,
for water-level measurements and
water samples
I I

11












1s-Gravel and cement plug 493'-529'
j 4--Wood plug 529'
s- Slotted 2" pipe 530'-550'
Total depth 553'


50-


100 -


150 -


200


250-


300-


350


400-


450 -


500


550


I I


>






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 28


Test wells in the artesian aquifer and the confining beds overlying the
artesian aquifer were drilled by the cable-tool method. These wells were
drilled to determine the chemical quality of the water at different depths,
to determine the westward limits of the saline artesian water, and to obtain
geologic and hydrologic data in areas where such data could not be obtained
from existing wells.
Well 822-051-1, on the right-of-way of State Highway 520 about 1 mile
east of the St. Johns River bridge and 8 miles west of Cocoa, was drilled
to a depth of 553 feet to test deep zones in the artesian aquifer. Special
sampling methods were used during the construction of this well to collect
water samples and measure water levels in two isolated sections of the well.
The isolated sections were at depths of 422-434 feet and 530-553 feet.
Sections of the well were isolated by removing the 6-inch drilling bit from
the open hole and inserting inside the well a 4-inch diameter unperforated
casing that was driven 5 feet below the bottom of the 6-inch diameter
open hole. A 4-inch bit was then used to drill a 10-foot section of open
hole below the bottom of the 4-inch diameter casing. Then water-level
measurements were made and water samples were collected from the
isolated 10-foot section of the 4-inch diameter open hole. When the testing
of the isolated section had been completed, the 4-inch diameter casing was
removed from the well and the 4-inch diameter open hole was reamed to
6 inches in diameter.
When the well was completed a current-meter traverse was made to
locate the water-producing zones and to determine the rate of flow in the
well. Upon completion of construction and testing, the well was altered, as
shown in figure 7, so that water levels could be measured in sections of the
aquifer from 140-493 feet and 530-553 feet below land surface. A summary
of the pertinent data collected during and after construction of this well is
shown diagrammatically in figure 8.
To locate the western limits of the salty water in the Floridan aquifer,
wells 822-055-1, 822-058-1, and 823-056-1 were drilled in Orange County
west of the State Highway 520 bridge over the St. Johns River. They were
spaced about 2 miles apart in the east-west direction. These wells penetrated
about 50 feet into the Eocene Limestone and provided stratigraphic data
and water for chemical analysis.

FORMATIONS

Rocks older than the Avon Park Limestone are not described in this
report because only a few water wells in Brevard County penetrate below
the Avon Park Limestone. The Avon Park Limestone and younger rocks






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 8. Graphs showing data obtained from test well 822-051-1.

are described in the order of their ages, from the oldest to the youngest-
that is, from the deepest formation to the shallowest formation.

AVON PARK LIMESTONE

The Avon Park Limestone (Applin and Applin, 1944) of Late Middle
Eocene Age is the deepest formation generally penetrated by water wells
in Brevard County. The limestone is exposed at the surface in Citrus and
Levy counties (Vernon, 1951, p. 95), and is the oldest rock cropping out
in Florida. The thickness of the Avon Park Limestone ranges from 150 to
300 feet in the central part of the state (Applin and Applin, 1944, p. 1687)
and exceeds 300 feet in Brevard County. The Avon Park is overlain by
younger Eocene Limestones in all of Brevard County.
The Avon Park consists mostly of white to cream-colored soft, dense
chalky limestone. It ranges in color from white to light brown or ashen
gray and in composition from chalky limestone to a loose coquina of foramin-
ifera, echinoids, and other marine shells. In places the Avon Park has
been altered largely to dolomite (fig. 8). The graphs of drilling time and
the resistivity curve of well 822-051-1 (fig. 8) indicate the presence of dense,
highly resistant zones in the Avon Park and overlying limestones. These
zones retarded the drilling rate and registered a relatively high electrical
resistivity. They are most prominent below 420 feet, where several hard
zones were encountered. Similar zones, encountered in test wells in Volusia
County, were reported by Wyrick and Leutze (1955, p. 22) to be relatively






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 28


impermeable; thus, vertical movement of water probably is retarded by these
dense zones.
The Avon Park Limestone is an important unit of the Floridan aquifer
and is the principal source of water for the deep artesian wells in Brevard
County.
OCALA GROUP
The Ocala Group (Puri, 1957) is a series of limestone formations of
Eocene Age that unconformably overlie the Avon Park Limestone and
unconformably underlie the Hawthorn Formation of Miocene Age. The
major subdivisions of the Ocala Group are, from the bottom upward, the
Inglis, Williston, and Crystal River Formations. The formations are
differentiated on the basis of fossil content and lithology. The limestone in
the Ocala Group has been subdivided and renamed several times in recent
years by different investigators, but the above nomenclature is currently
being used by the Florida Geological Survey.
The Inglis Formation is a cream-colored to white marine fossiliferous
granular limestone. Rock cuttings from wells in Brevard County show that
the Inglis Formation ranges in thickness from 50 to 100 feet. The formation
contains abundant fragments of the echinoid, Periarchus lyelli floridanus,
which is the most readily identifiable fossil in the formation.
The Williston Formation is predominantly a cream-colored fossiliferous
marine limestone. It is distinguished from the Inglis Formation by being
somewhat finer grained and containing fewer echinoids. The Williston
Formation underlies all of Brevard County and averages about 30 feet in
thickness.
The Crystal River Formation is white to cream-colored. It is a soft
massive friable fossiliferous limestone. The lower section is distinguished
from the Williston on the basis of fauna and the fact that it is more granular
than the Williston. The formation underlies the southern part of Brevard
County but has been eroded away in the northern part (fig. 9). The thick-
ness of the formation gradually increases to as much as 100 feet at the
Indian River County line. In the southern part of the county the top of the
Crystal River Formation represents the top of the limestone of Eocene Age.
The hydraulic properties of the Inglis, Williston, and Crystal River
Formations are similar. These formations are hydrologically connected and
function as a part of the Floridan aquifer.
The Ocala Group supplies copious quantities of water to wells pene-
trating the upper part of the Floridan aquifer. The Crystal River and Inglis
Formations ordinarily will yield more water than the finer grained Williston
Formation. Nevertheless, the Williston Formation is a productive part of the
aquifer.



































Figure 10. Geologic section A-A'.





.JtjIE IATkb LwoAmridwDdr ',iistittti
*agxI, u~t~
14 I-

V 0LL Jb I A 0 7CJu 11y


q I I a 4 p Irm b


*o

EXPLANATION

Well

Upper rubber is well untber
Lower number Is ollihtd of the
top of the limestone of EOcmne
Age, in feet below mean sea ievet
Top of the limesion of Eocene
og determined from will cutting

Top of the limestone of Eccene
age determined from electric
logs.



Contour line represent os pper
m e ttly, uthe altitude of top
of the limestone of Eoene age
in feet, below mean se leeL
Conto ooInteooI
Line fpise'rtnk roughly the rathern
limit of hf t oe undr~loin by the
Crystal Rffr -formafin. Siith' of
this line the contours recent the
top of the Crytal RIver formation;
north of fhbis tei they present the
top of the Williston farmaolon of te
) Ocolo group.
!ault


Bose ompled from U.S. elogal Geolog
Sunr.y lopogroplN oualanglo.

Figure 9. Brevard County showing contours on the surface of the limestone
of Eocene Age.,


I I I 1 1?1






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 28


HAWTHORN FORMATION
The Hawthorn Formation of Miocene Age underlies all of Brevard
County and ranges in thickness from 10 feet in the northern part of the
county to about 220 feet in the southern part (fig. 10). The formation is
composed of greenish gray, calcareous clay; sandy, phosphatic limestone;
black and brown phosphorite; and light green to white, phosphatic, radio-
larian clay. It contains many layers of relatively impervious marl and clay
which serve as confining beds to the water in the underlying artesian aquifer.
In the formation the basal limestone beds that are permeable and connected
hydraulically with the underlying artesian aquifer are considered to be part
of the Floridan aquifer. Where the more permeable sands, shell marls, and
limestones of the Hawthorn Formation contain relatively fresh water they
constitute sources for domestic and public supplies.

UPPER MIOCENE OR PLIOCENE DEPOSITS
Unconsolidated beds of fine sand, shells, clay and calcareous clay of Late
Miocene or Pliocene Age overlie the Hawthorn Formation and underlie the
Pleistocene and Recent deposits. Similar material in surrounding counties
has been classified as the Caloosahatchee Marl of Pliocene Age by Cooke
(1945, p. 214, 226-227; pl. 1) and as beds of Late Miocene Age by Vernon
(1951, fig. 13, 33). Until further investigation determines the correct age
of these deposits in Brevard County, they will be referred to as deposits of
Late Miocene or Pliocene Age. Their permeability is generally low, and
hence, they retard upward leakage from the artesian aquifer. A few domestic
supplies of water are obtained from zones of sand or shell in the deposits.

PLEISTOCENE AND RECENT DEPOSITS
The material exposed at the surface in Brevard County consists chiefly
of unconsolidated, white to brown, medium to fine, quartz sand containing
beds of sandy coquina of Pleistocene and Recent Age. The thickness of the
deposits ranges from less than 20 feet in the St. Johns River valley to more
than 100 feet in the coastal ridge area (fig. 11). The deposits constitute the
principal source of relatively fresh ground water for hundreds of domestic
wells in the county.

GEOLOGIC STRUCTURE
The configuration of the top of the limestone formations of Eocene Age
is shown by a contour map (fig. 9). Profiles of the formations are shown
by geologic cross sections (fig. 10, 11, 12).
The contours indicate the top surface of the Crystal River Formation in
the southern part of the county and the top surface of the Williston Forma-
l tion in the northern part of the county. The Crystal River Formation has






























Iftumln




w -


Figure 11. Geologic sections C-C' and D-D'.





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 28


been removed in the northern part of the county by post-Eocene erosion and
the approximate northern limit of the formation is indicated on the map
(fig. 9).
The surface of the limestone formations of Eocene Age in Brevard
County generally slopes eastward in the northern and central part of the
county and southeastward in the southern part of the county. The gradient
of the surface ranges from about 3 to 17 feet per mile and averages about
9 feet per mile in most of the county.
The depth to the limestone formation of Eocene Age below land surface


Figure 12. Geologic section B-B'.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


may be obtained by adding the altitude of land surface (fig. 3) to the
altitude of the surface of the limestone formations (fig. 9).
The configuration of the contours on the surface of the limestone forma-
tions in the vicinity of Cape Canaveral shows a ridge-like structure that
roughly conforms to the shape of Cape Canaveral. The similarity of this
feature to Cape Canaveral suggests that the present Cape Canaveral may
have developed as an expression of this buried feature.
The Eocene Formations in the western part of the county have been
offset by a north-south trending fault. This fault and related structures have
been described by Vernon (1951, p. 57-58) and shown in Indian River
County by Bermes (1958, fig. 4). The fault forms the eastern boundary of
the Osceola low, which has been described by Vernon (1951, p. 57-58) as a
wedge-shaped downthrown block bounded on the northwest and east by
normal faults and open on the southwest.
Test wells 823-057-1 and 822-058-1 (fig. 12) show the Crystal River
and Williston Formations at appreciably greater depths than would be
expected from a western projection of the dip of these formations in the
eastern part of the county. These two wells also show a somewhat steeper
eastward component of dip of the Crystal River Formation. A third well
would be needed to give the true amount and direction of dip. The two
wells probably penetrated the Osceola low.
The downthrown block of the Osceola low has created a depression in
the surface of the limestone formations of Eocene Age which was later filled
with sediments of Miocene Age. The sediments of Miocene Age have a low
permeability and probably influence the direction of ground-water move-
ment in the upper part of the artesian aquifer in the local area. The effect
of the Osceola low on the chemical quality of water in the Floridan aquifer
is discussed in the section entitled "Chemical Quality of Artesian Ground
Water."
GEOLOGIC HISTORY
During the Eocene Epoch the Florida Peninsula was inundated repeat-
edly by the sea. Between periods of inundation the formations were exposed
to erosion. Missing sections in the limestone sequence are evidence of these
erosional periods.
The oldest of the formations of Eocene Age was laid down in Early
Eocene time. The deposition of the limestone was halted at the end of Early
Eocene time by emergence, after which the limestone was eroded. The
beginning of Middle Eocene time was marked by the return of the sea which
inundated Brevard County and deposited the Avon Park Limestone.
The limestones of Middle Eocene Age were deposited on the eroded
surface of the formations of Early Eocene Age. The contact between the






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 28


Avon Park Limestone and the underlying limestone is reported by Vernon
(1951, p. 92) as being unconformable. The deposition of the limestones
of Middle Eocene Age was followed by a period of erosion, so that an uncon-
formity separates the Avon Park Limestone and the overlying formations
of the Ocala Group. The formations of the Ocala Group were laid down
with no apparent break in deposition during Late Eocene time.
The retreat of the seas from Brevard County at the end of the Eocene
Epoch exposed the formations to erosion that reduced the thicknesses of these
formations. The absence in Brevard County of the formations that were
deposited elsewhere during Oligocene and Early Miocene time indicates
that either the area remained above sea level during this time or that
erosion before Middle Miocene time completely removed all vestiges of these
sediments. The absence of deposits of Oligocene and Lower Miocene Age
in Brevard County indicates that the area was structurally high in Early
Miocene or later time.
The structural movement that resulted in the Ocala uplift, the Osceola
low, and related flexures and faults was dated by Vernon (1951, p. 62) as
post-Oligocene and pre-Miocene.
In Middle Miocene time the seas again invaded the Florida Peninsula,
and the resulting sequence of beds progress by a series of overlaps that pinch
out against the Ocala uplift. The gradual thinning of the Hawthorn Forma-
tion toward the north in Brevard County and the absence of the formation
over the Sanford high (Vernon, 1951, fig. 33), in Volusia County, indicates
that either the Sanford high was above sea level during Middle Miocene time
or that the Hawthorn Formation was eroded after Middle Miocene time.
In Late Miocene or Pliocene time the sea invaded Brevard County but not
so extensively as in Middle Miocene time. The sediments deposited in Late
Miocene or Pliocene time were not subsequently exposed to prolonged
erosion; consequently, their upper surface is regular, and their thickness
is generally greater than that of the sediments of Middle Miocene Age.
When the sea stood at higher levels during the interglacial periods of
the Pleistocene Epoch the submerged areas were covered with a veneer of
marine sands (fig. 4).
The sea has been approximately at its present level since the beginning
of Recent time. During Recent time the major part of the windblown sand
was deposited.

HYDROLOGY

Water sources utilized by man for water supplies are replenished through
the hydrologic cycle-the endless circulation of water by evaporation, trans-
portation through the atmosphere, precipitation, and transportation back to






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


the ocean by surface and underground routes. Water that falls as precipita-
tion and is not immediately evaporated or transpired begins to move toward
the ocean above or beneath the ground. Water that remains above the
ground may be stored temporarily in lakes, ponds, sloughs, etc., or may flow
in streams toward the ocean. Water that filters into the ground and reaches the
zone of saturation also begins a slow movement toward the ocean or other
points of discharge. The amount of precipitation that runs off into the
streams is dependent on the climate, geology, topography, and vegetal cover.
Figure 13 is a generalized hydrologic cross section from the south-central

P R E C I P ITATI ON
t-" !! .... .. to 1 . .


Sr ONF NI" BE' -I
~-- rp^ TO-^- ^ B^J.-^S -r1^
CONFIHNI // G E
BEDS OF LOW PERMEABILITY COMPARED O HE ARTESIAN AQUIFER






-A R T E S I A N A Q U I F E R



.H.. I 'I-i l _
Figure 13. Diagram showing the generalized hydrologic conditions in east-central
Florida.

part of Orange County to the Atlantic Ocean. The general direction of
water movement is indicated by arrows in this figure.
Variations in annual stream runoff are closely associated with variations
in weather, particularly precipitation and temperature. The flows of some
streams increase quickly in response to changes in precipitation, whereas
those of other streams change more slowly, lagging behind changes in pre-
cipitation by many weeks, months, or even years. Temperature is important
because it affects the rate of evaporation and transpiration.
The type of soil mantle and underlying rocks has a pronounced influence
on the amount of storm runoff in a given drainage basin. In areas of perme-






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 28


able soils, such as the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, rainfall is absorbed quickly
and much of it infiltrates to the water table. In areas where the soil has poor
absorptive qualities, rainfall tends to remain on the surface until it evapo-
rates or flows off.
Most streams in Florida tend to be sluggish because of the comparatively
flat topography. The St. Johns River-the longest river within the state-
falls only 27 feet at high stage and 15 feet at low stage over the distance of
275 miles from its headwaters to the ocean.
The amount of water transpired by vegetation or evaporated reduces
the total amount of water available for streamflow or ground-water recharge.
In areas where the amount of water available is not adequate to meet the
demand, the amount of water consumed by vegetation may be large enough
to warrant an attempt to salvage a part of it.
Of the part of the rainfall that enters the soil, some is evaporated, some
is retained in the soil until used by vegetation, and some seeps downward to
the zone of saturation to become ground water. Once water reaches the
zone of saturation it begins to move more or less laterally under the influence
of gravity toward a place of discharge, such as a spring, a surface stream, or
the ocean. Ground water moving toward a point of discharge may be, at a
given moment, under either nonartesian conditions or artesian conditions.
Ground water in Brevard County occurs under both unconfined con-
ditions (nonartesian aquifer) and confined conditions (artesian aquifer).
The nonartesian aquiifer is composed of Pleistocene and Recent deposits
and is exposed at the land surface. Water will enter the aquifer until it is
filled, after which the water will either remain on the ground or run off
as surface flow. In the sandy coastal ridge area, nearly all the rainfall will
enter the soil during or immediately after dry seasons. During the wet
seasons the rainfall rate exceeds the infiltration rate and the surplus water
drains off. In the low-lying swampy areas very little rainfall enters the soil
because the aquifer is nearly full. In the barrier islands area where the soil
is very sandy, a large part of the rainfall soaks into the ground. Although
part of this water is returned to the atmosphere by evaporation and tran-
spiration, most of it seeps downward to the zone of saturation. Water in
the zone of saturation moves laterally toward the ocean or river.
The Floridan aquifer in Brevard County consists of a series of limestone
formations several thousand feet thick. The principal recharge area for this
aquifer is in central and northern Florida, where the piezometric surface is
high (fig. 14). West of the St. Johns River valley and in parts of the Atlantic
Coastal Ridge the water table is higher than the piezometric surface and
some water seeps down from the nonartesian aquifer into the artesian
aquifer (fig. 13). In such areas the amount of water seeping down into the







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


artesian aquifer is probably small, because of the low permeability of the
confining beds through which the water must pass and the rather small
water-level differential between the water table and piezometric surface.


EXPLANATION
Contour lines represent approximately the height,
in feet above mean sea level, to which water will
r:se in tightly cased wells that penetrate the
nrncipal artesian aquifer in 1949.
(Revised from Stringfield, 1936)


Figure 14. The Florida Peninsula showing contours on the piezometric surface.






REPORT OP INVESTIGATIONS No. 28


The Floridan aquifer acts as a natural conduit through which water
moves from areas of high artesian (pessure to areas of lower artesian pres-
sure. The artesian pressure of the water may be determined by measuring
the height to which water will rise in tightly cased wells that penetrate the
aquifer. The height is shown by means of contours that connect points of
equal artesian pressure. In the center of the peninsula water stands at 110
feet above sea level, higher than any other place in the state. Ground water
flows downgradient and perpendicular to contours.
The movement of water, both above and below ground, is extremely
complex in Brevard County. It is important to understand the natural
conditions that govern the occurrence of water when planning to make
optimum use of local source of water.
CHEMICAL QUALITY OF NATURAL WATERS
Various materials, dissolved or otherwise picked up and retained by water,
characterize the quality of water. Minerals from rocks, organic residues of
plant, animal, and industrial wastes, and biological organisms contribute in
varying degrees to the ultimate composition of water. Excessive amounts of
any constituents decrease the value of water for municipal, agricultural or
industrial purposes.
Water in nature is seldom found devoid of extraneous substances. Even
as rain or atmospheric vapor, where purity is approached, minute particles
of dust and molecules of gaseous elements are absorbed. Upon contact with
the earth's crust following precipitation, additional materials are taken up
to further change the characteristics of the water. The degree of change is
dependent on many factors. Of these, geology, topography, water use, and
the chemical composition of the water itself exert considerable influence.
Carbon dioxide, absorbed by the water in the atmosphere and dissolved
from decayed vegetal matter on the earth's surface, forms carbonic acid,
which aids in the solution of minerals. Difference in composition and
solubility of the rocks causes variations in the amount of minerals dissolved
by the water. Where rocks are easily dissolved, water in contact with them
becomes highly mineralized in a short time. This is particularly true in areas
where limestones are predominant in the aquifer. Where granite, gneiss, or
other hard rock comprises the geologic environment, solution activity pro-
ceeds at a much slower rate and usually has a low mineral content.
Topography is a factor that influences the rate of water movement.
Where water movement is rapid the concentration of dissolved solids will
be less than water in contact with similar materials under conditions of
slower water movement. The contact time with soluble materials governs
in part the mineralization of the water.
Man, in using water, causes additional changes in the quality of the






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


water. Streams are used, often indiscriminately, for disposal of industrial and
municipal wastes and agricultural drainage. Waste water introduced into
underground formations may change the quality of the water as a result
of direct contamination or by providing conditions by which chemical
processes are stimulated.
Water movement in the ground is relatively slow. As a result, concentra-
tion of minerals in ground water is more uniform but often higher than in
surface water in the same area. The concentration usually increases with depth
or distance from the point where the water first enters the ground. Artesian
water, for instance, is often highly mineralized at the point of discharge
because of the time it has been in contact with minerals during its period
of underground flow.
Surface water moves at a faster rate than ground water and is exposed
to a larger number of influences that alter its quality. Usually the water
responds quickly to these influences. For instance, water in the soils is often
highly mineralized as a result of evaporation, transpiration, solution of the
soils, and organic acids. When the mineralized water is flushed from the
soils by rain and enters the streams, the concentration of chemicals in the
streams may be greatly increased. The frequency and amount of rainfall,
the types of soil, and the volume of the stream determine the magnitude
of these increases in concentration. Once the water has been flushed out and
the readily soluble materials leached from the soil, subsequent rains only
serve to lower the concentration of the minerals in the stream.
A stream may receive considerable amounts of ground water. This water
usually is more mineralized than surface water and increases the mineral
content of the stream in proportion to the amount added and the volume
of the stream. During periods of low streamflow ground-water inflow
increases and the concentration of dissolved solids of the stream may be-
come very high.
Losses of water by evaporation and transpiration cause some increase
in the chemical concentration of a stream. When high losses are concurrent
with low flow, the increases may be appreciable.
Each tributary of a river system influences, to some extent, the chemical
characteristics of the major stream. Whether these added sources of water
will cause dilution, increased concentrations, or change the chemical charac-
teristic of the water in the major stream will depend on the amount or type
of material contained in the tributary, the proportionate volume that it
provides, and the chemical reaction that occurs when the two sources are
combined.
Thus, it may be seen that water from any source, whether from a stream
or underground formation, possesses an individual quality as a result of
various influences by climate, geology, and other factors.





ol fol ,.,, Or w


oA










001
-I xrfs-


o -l


0 1 5 1 4 5 S t )ail


k -


at~





I'a'










2so




Is. 4.4 5


3-'3

I-20 _IVJ4 11g a I"
*~~ji i M 1-----04


'191 1 LI P- I' I L'I
1I1 1 111I j 1,


aiLI


IALI FOR IN89TS 'A-D*ML











151






lS~t~'TtASO'


00-37

ism 10,a36,


If- -0-134 t 7w" o


III le

oi~ 5 leis I R50 IM

- 0362 9 -
- -- L~ ~ ..14.1 02.-4 ,


1A 1 REV I4cOUNTY44 I


,rI 'T.


i------ ----U-U-UI-Y-O-


S _- _- __ I -.


*,*4...J........I 1 1 11 1 I __ L..LI -I I I I I I I I


Bose compelled from U. S, Geological
Survey topographic quadrangles


J8s ,44'
19fW


Compiled by J. B. Foster
In 1958


Figure 31. Brevard County showing the location of wells.


4


-I \w


II Iy kl ir


oz


?l


CANAVFRAL


Ul;trHH:


80o=


A I


lIl-T'


n ymw








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 28


WATER-QUALITY CRITERIA

The value of water for a particular use depends on the types and
amounts of materials it contains. Of the materials, those contributing to
the chemical quality pose the greatest problems of water treatment. Patho-
genic organisms and suspended particles are readily removed by treatment,
but certain chemical constituents are difficult to remove and may require
treatment that is so costly as to prohibit the utilization of the supply.
Minute quantities of some chemical ions influence considerably the value
of water. In order that these quantities may be expressed in a usable man-
ner, concentrations are reported in parts per million. Thus, the concentra-
tion of any determined constituent is reported on the basis of comparative
weight with the water in which it is dissolved. A solution containing 1 ppm
(parts per million) of calcium, for instance, would contain 1 pound of
calcium dissolved in a sufficient quantity of water (approximately 120,000
gallons) to make a total weight of 1 million pounds. To illustrate un-
wieldiness of using percentage values this same concentration of calcium
would be reported as 0.0001 percent. Table 3 shows the more common
characteristics of water quality and their effects.

TABLE 3. Water-Quality Characteristics and Their Effects


Constituent


Dissolved solids ..........


Silica.... ...........
Sulfate .................
Nitrate .................

Fluoride................

pH .....................

Iron and Manganese.....


Calcium and Magnesium..
Chloride ................
Sodium ..................

Hardness ...............


Alkalinity ...............

Color ...................

Suspended solids .......


Effects


A measure of the total amount of dissolved matter, usually determined by
evaporation. Excessive solids interfere in most processes and cause foaming
in boilers.
Causes scale in boilers and deposits on turbine blades.
Excessive amounts are cathartic and unpleasant to taste. May cause scale.
High concentrations indicate pollution. Causes methemoglobinemia in in-
fants. Helps to prevent intercrystalline cracking of boiler steel.
Excessive concentrations cause mottled tooth enamel, small amounts pre-
vent tooth decay.
Values below 7.0 indicate an acid water and a tendency for the water to be
corrosive toward metal.
On precipitation cause stains; unpleasant taste in drinking water; scale
deposits in water lines and boilers; interferes in many processes such as
dyeing and paper manufacture.
The cause of hardness in water.
Unpleasant taste in high concentrations. Increases corrosive nature of water.
Large amounts injurious to humans with certain illnesses and to soils and
crops.
Due to calcium and magnesium salts causes excessive soap consumption,
scale in heat exchangers, boilers, radiators, pipes, and interferes in dyeing,
textiles, food, paper, and other manufacturing processes.
Causes foaming in boilers and carryover of solids with steam, embrittle-
ment of boiler steel.
Stains products in process use. May cause foaming in boilers. Unsightly
in drinking water.
Unsightly appearance in water. Causes deposits in water lines, process
equipment, and boilers.


I






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


To facilitate comparisons of different water in geochemical studies, parts
per million may be converted to a form that shows the chemical equivalent
weights of the ions or radicals in the water, e.g., equivalents per million.
Parts per million may be converted to equivalents per million by multiplying
the parts per million of the particular ion or radical by the reciprocal of
the equivalent weight of the ion, as shown by the equation below:
1
Equivalents per million = Parts per million x ----------------
Equivalent weight of
the ion or radical
For convenience in making this conversion the reciprocals of chemical
equivalent weights (1 divided by the equivalent weight) of the most com-
monly reported constituents (ions) are given in the following table:
Constituent Factor Constituent Factor
Iron (Fe-) 0.0358 Carbonate (C03-) 0.0333
Iron (Fe..+) .0537 Bicarbonate (HCO3-) .0164
Calcium (Ca+) .0499 Sulfate (SO.,--) .0208
Magnesium (Mg++) .0822 Chloride (CI-) .0282
Sodium (Nae) .0435 Fluoride (F-) .0526
Potassium (K+) .0256 Nitrate (NO3-) .0161
The average person appraises water on the basis of the physical charac-
teristics. If the water he uses is clear, odorless, colorless, and of pleasant
taste, he is unconcerned about the various mineral constituents of the
water. Not until the effects of these constituents become apparent does he
become concerned. Iron and manganese, for instance, will stain plumbing
fixtures, sidewalks, and house footings when present in concentrations of
several parts per million. Excessive amounts of calcium and magnesium,
the predominant ions causing hardness, require large amounts of soap in
washing, and cause a reduced efficiency of hot-water heaters as a result of
scale deposits. Conversely, when concentrations of these ions are low, the
water may be so corrosive as to dissolve iron from pipes and containers.
Compounds of sulphur in water are objectionable. Hydrogen sulfide,
a gas. has a disagreeable odor similar to rotten eggs and may tarnish metal
surfaces. Sulfates produce a bitter taste and laxative effects when present in
excessive amounts.
Chloride is one of the predominant ions found in many natural waters.
As such, it is used often as an indication of the potability of a water because
when present in moderate concentrations the water tastes salty.
Nitrate is a final oxidation product of animal and vegetable matter and
when found in appreciable quantities in a water, is indicative of contamina-
tion. Methemoglobinemia or cyanosis in infants has been attributed to the
ingestion of water containing nitrate of about 45 ppm or more.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 28


The drinking of water containing fluoride by children during the period
when their permanent teeth are being formed reduces the incidence of
dental caries (Dean, 1936). Research has indicated that a fluoride concen-
tration of about 1.0 ppm is optimum for the purpose, with mottling of the
enamel occurring when water containing more than 1.5 ppm is used. While
fluoride is a natural element found in various concentrations in the waters
of Florida, it is often added at water treatment plants to bring the concen-
tration to the optimum level.
Certain chemical ingredients in water cause undesirable effects when
present in high concentrations. A water containing these substances may be
satisfactorily used, however, provided the concentrations of the salts do not
exceed certain limits. The U.S. Public Health Service has proposed certain
standards for water supplies used on interstate carriers, which generally have
been accepted for public water supplies. To be acceptable by these standards,
the water shall not have objectionable turbidity, color, taste, or odor and
must be essentially free of toxic salts. The maximum concentrations of the
more common chemical substances taken from standards prescribed by the
U.S. Public Health Service (1946) are as follows:
Maximum concentration
Constituent (parts per million)
Iron (Fe) and Manganese (Mn) together 0.3
Fluoride (F) 1.5
Magnesium (Mg) 125
Chloride (Cl) 250
Sulfate (SO4) 250
Dissolved solids 500 (1,000 permitted
when water of better quality
is not available)
The requirements of industry are variable as to both quantity and
chemical quality of water. The amount and type of water needed will
depend on the size and type of industry and the manner in which the water
is used. Where water is intended for washing or cooling, great quantities
may be used with little concern as to the chemical quality of the water as
long as there is little tendency on the part of the water to corrode pipes
or form deposits. On the other hand, if the water is used in preparing a food
or beverage and the water is incorporated in the product, it must, in addi-
tion to meeting prescribed health standards, be of such composition that it
will not alter the flavor or otherwise diminish the value of the finished
product. The limits imposed by some industries on the chemical constituents
of a water supply are so critical that often times treatment is required in
addition to that performed by municipal or other water-supply agencies.
Since the requirements of industry are so variable, standards of quantity
and quality of water can be established as only general guides for deter-
mining the suitability of a supply for industrial purposes. Tables 4 and 5






34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


illustrate the approximate quantity and quality of water needed by several
specific industries.

TABLE 4. Industrial Requirements for Water1

Water required,
Product Unit gal. to.produce or
process one unit

Alcohol................ ................. Gallon........................... 100
Aluminum ............................ Pound................... ....... 160
Brewing (beer) ......................... 1 barrel .......................... 470
Butadiene............................. Pound........................... 160
Canning .............................. 100 cases No. 2 cans............... 2,500 25,000
Cement............................... Ton.............................. 750
Coke ................................. Ton............................. 8,600
Distilling
Grain............................. 1,000 bu. grain mashed.............. 600,000
Molames............................ 1,000 gal., 100-proof .............. 8,400
Cooling water........................ 1,000 gal., 100-proof ............... 120,000
Electric power...................... .... Kilowatt ........................ 80
Gasoline .............................. Gallon ......................... 7 10
Iron ore (brown ore) .................... Ton ............................ 1,000
Meat, slaughterhouse and packing....... 100 hogs killed ................... 550
Milk............................... 1,000 raw pounds ................. 100- 300
Oil refining ............ ......... Barrel........................... 770
Paper................................ Ton ............................ 5,000- 85,000
Rail freight............................ Ton/mile....... ................. 0.1
Soap ................................ Ton............................ 500
Steam power .......................... Ton of coal.................................. 60,000- 120,000
Tanning ............................. 100 lbs. rawhide .................. 800
Textiles ............................. 1,000 lbs. processed ............... 1,000- 20,000
Rayon............................... 1,000 lbs. produced ............... 135,000 160,000
Woolens............................... 1,000 lbs. finished. ................ 70,000

'Data reported in Journal of American Water Works Association, vol. 38, no. 1, January 1946.

There are no steadfast rules by which water may be evaluated for agri-
cultural uses. The chemical reactions that may result in the combination of
soils, plants, and water are so complex that very few guidelines are available
in predicting the applicability of any specific type of water to a single area
or crop. Climate, soil characteristics, chemical quality of the water, and
salt tolerance of the crops are a few of the factors that must be considered
in such evaluations.
In general, where highly mineralized water is used for irrigation, crop
losses may occur because of a buildup of salts in the soil. In sandy or other
highly porous soils, irrigation waters percolate rapidly through the root
zone leaving behind only minor amounts of salts. Continued application of
water helps to flush these salts from the soils. If the soils are less permeable
or react chemically with the irrigation water, the soil solutions may become
extremely high in mineral content and deprive the plants or crops of
moisture needed for continued growth. Often the salt content of an irriga-
tion water supply may be well below the tolerance limits of the particular
crop but, because of increased concentration caused by water losses through
evaporation and transpiration or because of improper flushing, the con-
centration eventually exceeds the tolerance limits and injures the crop.
Because the studies needed to determine these individual relationships are









TABLE 5. Suggested Water-Quality Tolerances|
(Allowable limits in parts per million)


Industry or use Turbidity


Air conditioning.....
Baking .............
Brewing:
Light beer .......
Dark Beer........
Canning:
Legumes.........
General ..........
Carbonated beverages
Confectionery .....
Cooling. ....... ...
Food: General.....
Ic: ... ........
Laundering.........
Plastics, clear,
uncolored.........
Paper and pulp:
Groundwood ..... .
Kraft pulp......
Soda and sulfite...
High-grade light
papers..... ......
Rayon (viscose):
Pulp production,..
Manufacture ......
Tanning ............
Textiles: General ....
Dyeing......'.....
Wool scouring.......
Cotton bandage.....


Color


Hardness
as CaCOl


Iron Manganese Total
as Fo as Mn solids


Alkalinity
as CaCO:


Odor,
Taste


I I- I-- l C-- -: I I I -


.I6*::::


.. 25-75




... 6 .. ....
...... 50


10
10

10
10
2


5


2
50
25
15
5
5

20

56


5


180
100
100
50
8
55
50-185



. .. .......
. .. ... ....


2
20
15
10


5

10-100
20
6-20
70
5


*0.5
* .2

* .1
* .1

*.2
*.2
.2
*.8
*.2
* .5
S.2
* .2
* .2
* .02

*1.0
* .2
*.1
* .1
* .05
.0
* .2
.26
* .25
*1.0
* .2


500
1,000


1860 0 50-100
100 .... .....


200
. .. .. .
800
200
200

100



200


total 50;
hydroxide 8
total 185
hydroxide 8
,. o. ..


low
low

low
low

low
low
low
low
low
low


Hydrogen
sulfide


.2

.2
.2

1
1
.2
.2
6


.:I::::::w. .


Other requirementat


No corrosiveness, slime formation.
P.

P. NaCI less than 275 ppm (pH 6.5-
7.0). ,
P. NaCI less than 275 ppm (pH 7.0
or more).
P.
P. 0
P. Organic color plus oxygen con-
sumed less than 10 ppm. 4
P. pH above 7.0 for hard candy. a
No corrosiveness, slime formation.
P. SiOs less than 10 ppm. ,



No grit, corrosiveness. 0




Als0s less than 8 ppm, IOs less than
25 ppm, Cu less than 5 ppm. t
pH 7.8 to 8.8.


Constant composition. Residual
alumina less than 0.6 ppm.


Moore, E. W., Progress report of the committee on quality tolerances of water for industrial uses: Jour. New England Water Works Assoc., vol. 54, p. 271, 1940.
P indicates that potable water, conforming to U.S.P.H.S. standards, is necessary.
Limit given applies to both iron alone and the sum of iron and manganese.


I __


I I


I


I I





___ ___I






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


beyond the scope of this investigation, no effort has been made to classify
types of water in Brevard County for irrigation.

SURFACE WATER

SCOPE OF STREAMFLOW RECORDS

Stream gaging by the U.S. Geological Survey was begun in Brevard
County in 1933 with the establishment of a gaging station on the St. Johns
River at State Highway 50 west of Indian River City. In 1939 another
gaging station was installed on the St. Johns at the U.S. Highway 192
crossing west of Melbourne. In 1940 stage gages were installed on the
Indian River at Melbourne and at Wabasso in Indian River County. The
coverage was gradually increased to 15 gaging stations in 1953. During
1954, the number of stations was increased to 24 to provide the coverage
required for a reasonably comprehensive study of the water resources. The
duration of records at these stations is shown by graphs on figure 15, and
the locations of surface-water gaging stations that have been operated in
the area are shown on figure 16. The type of record collected at these
stations in the Brevard County area is presented in table 6. In addition to
the stage and flow data, reconnaissance-type information was collected to
delineate drainage areas and determine flow patterns. The monthly and
yearly mean discharge at gaging stations on the following streams for the
period of record are presented in tabular form in Florida Geological Survey
Information Circular no. 32: Crane Creek, Elbow Creek, Fellsmere Canal,
Jane Green Creek, St. Johns River near Christmas and Melbourne, Turkey
Creek, and Wolf Creek. The results of discharge measurements of small
streams tributary to the Indian River are also presented in Information
Circular no. 32.

STREAM AND LAKE CHARACTERISTICS
ST. JOHNS RIVER BASIN

The St. Johns River, in Brevard County, flows northward through a
wide shallow valley. Because the valley has nearly flat side slopes near its
edges there are few well defined streams and practically all of the surface
flow is overland. Near the middle of the basin the stream forms a definite
channel and there are several well defined tributaries.
The important tributaries of the St. Johns that drain the western slope
are Jane Green Creek, Pennywash Creek, Wolf Creek, Taylor Creek, and
Jim Creek. There are no sizeable tributaries draining the eastern slopes.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 28 37



The St. Johns River basin contains numerous lakes, of which several

have a large storage capacity. The large storage capacity of these lakes could

be of great value in the utilization of the water resources of the area.



Mo. .ttion


1. Atlantlc Ocean t Canaveral llrbor, Fla.

2. .ttsntl Ocean near U.u OGll., Fla..

3. Banana River it Canaveral Harbor. Fla.
(forerly Banana River at Audubon, Fla.)

4. Crane Cr.ok at Melbourne, Fla.

S. Clear Lke near Cocos, Fla.

0. Elbow Creek near Eau il0.11 Fla.

7T. Ellis Canal near Indian River City, Fla.

s. rellamere Canal near .ellanere, Fla.

0. Goet creek near Valkeria, Fl.

10. Indian River at Melbourne. rm..

11. Indian River At Sebantlan, Fla.

12. Indian River at Tltusvil.e, Fla.

13. Indian River at hasso., Fla.

14. Jane GOren Cree..k m.r Deer,Park. la.

1b. Lake oinsett near Cocoa, r1..

18. LAke Washington near CEau 0.lli. Vla.

17. North Prong Sebastian Croek near MIcco. Fla.

Is. St. Johns River near Christeas, Fl.

19. St. Johns River Crest-Stage cases

20. t. Johns River shboe lAke Harney near Geneva, Fla.

21. St. John. ltadwaters near KXna.nslle. rIm.

22. St. Johns River near Melbourne. Fla..

23. St. Johns Headwaters near vor. Beach. Fla..

24. South Prong Sebastlan Creek near Sebastian, Fla.

25. Surface Water Slo.gh near Cocoa, Fla.

28. Sykes Creek near Sharpo, Fla.

27. Turkey Creek near PsI Bay,. Fla.

25. Wolt Creek near Deer Park, Fla.



Figure 15. Duration of records at surface-water gaging stations.













TABLE 6, Location and Type of Record at Surface-Water Gaging Stations In the Brevard County Area

Station Name Location Type of Data Establihed Disontinued
Atlantic Ocean at Canaveral Harbor, Florida at U.S.A., Crash Boat Headquarter in harbor entrance....... Stage.............. June 24, 1954
Atlantic Ocean near Eau Galle, Florida..... at Canova' pier, Canova Beach ....... .......... ... Stage............. Feb. 18, 1941 June 24, 194
Banan River at Canaveral Harbor, Florida. on the eat bank of Banana River X mile north of harbor...... Stage............ Feb. 17, 1941
J(Forrly Banana River at Audubon,
Floridav)
Crane Crek at Melbourne, Florida......... at U. S 192 croeng at Melbourne Country Club and 21
miles upstream from the Indian River...................... Stae and Discharge Mar. 14, 1951
Clear Lake near Cocoa, Florida......... 2 miles northwest of Cooa............. ........ St............. Stae.Nov. 9,194 Sept. 12,1958
Elbow Creek near Eau Gallie, Florida...... at north-aouth graded road croeain 1 mile west of Eau Gallie
and 2 mile upstream from the Indian River ............... Stage and Diharge Sept. 28,1954
Ells Canl near Indian River City, Florida.. at dirt road cromeing 1% miles outh of Indian River City and 1
mile upstream fromthe Indian River................ ... Stage and Dicharge Sept. 27, 1954 Oct 29, 1958
FelUmere Canal near Fellamere, Florida..... at State Highway 507 croeing 8.8 miles north of Fellnmere and
5 miles upstream from the North Prong of Sebastian Creek. Stage and Discharge Oct. 1, 194
Goat Creek near Valkarl, Florida ........ at dirt road crowing 1 mile west of Valkaria ................. Stage and Discharge Oct. 1,1954 Oct. 28, 1958
Indiaz River at Melbourne, Florida ....... at U. S Highway A1A crowing at Melbourne, Florida......... Stage.............. De. ,1940 July 28, 1948
Indian River at Sebastian, Florida......... on private dock 0.7 mile north of intersection of U.S Highway
I, land Main Street in Sebatan................ .......... Stage.............. July 29, 1948 July 8, 1954
Indian River at Titusville, Florida ......... at State Highway 402 croeing and 1 mile northeast of Tituville Stage............. Sept. 11,1951
Indian River at Wabaeco, Florida.......... at eroesing at Wabaso. ............. ................ Stage.............. Nov. 5, 1940'
Jne Green Creek near Deer Park, Florida.. at graded road crossing 1j miles southeast of Deer Park...... Stage and Dicharge Oct. 22,1958
lkePoinett near Cocoa, Florida ......... 56 mnle west of Cocoa at Polnaett Lodge................... Stage............ Nov. 25,1941





ljYlTk 6IAT&9 4L PANNWN O il)1 111t i kHI(J
GUMA)ICAI WLPmVy


UI0joi i(CAi. bijilt V
yfC VivieJ)lli,i~


I I I"4


g~p

A


oq I j 14mill$


No 8)


CVANAVRAL


Bose compiled from U. S. Geological
Survey topographic quadrangles.


EXPLANATION
M25

Surface-water gaging station
and station number,
Crest-stage gages in the
St Johns River valley are
all numbered station 19,with
the gage number In paren-
thesis.


Compiled by W, E. Kenner
In 1958


Figure 16. Brevard County showing the location of stream-gaging stations.


No.?)


19
(Crest gage No. 2)


19
Cr0tgogs No.I)









TABLE 6. (Continued)

Station Name Location Type of Data Established Discontinued
Lake Washington near Eau Gallic, Florida.. 6 miles west of Eau Gallie at Lake Washington Resort ...... Stage .............. July 24, 1942
North Prong Sebastian Creek near Micco,
Florida .............................. at dirt road crossing 2.2 miles southwest of Micco............ Stage and Discharge Oct. 1, 1964 Oct. 28, 1958
St. Johns River near Christmas, Florida.... at State Highway 60 crossing, 4 miles east of Christmas....... Stage and Discharge Dec. 14, 1988
St. Johns River Crest-stage Gages......... 11 crest-stage gages distributed along the St. Johns River op-
posite Brevard County............................... Maximum Stage..... Sept. 14, 1958
St. Johns River above Lake Harney near
Geneva, Florida..................... at bridge at State Highway 46 crossing..................... Stage and Discharge Sept. 4, 1948
St. Johns Headwaters near Kenansville,
Florida ...... .................. on old county road 11 H miles east of Kenansville............. Stage............... Feb. 21, 1942
St. Johns Headwaters near Vero Beach,
Florida............................... at bridge on State Highway 60, 16 miles west of Vero Beach.. Stage.............. Feb. 27, 1942
St. Johns River near Melbourne, Florida.... at U. S. Highway 192 crossing, 9.2 miles west of Melbourne.... Stage and Discharge Nov. 8, 1989
South Prong Sebastian Greek near Sebastian,
Florida ............................. at State Highway 612 crossing, 4 miles southwest of Sebastian.. Stage and Discharge Oct. 1, 1964 Oct. 28, 198
Surface Water Slough near Cocoa, Florida.. at culvert on graded road, 1.6 miles north of the Cocoa Water
Plant......................................... Stage.............. Dec. 14,1954 Oct. 81, 1958
Sykes Creek near Sharpes, Florida ........ on Merritt Island, at dirt road crossing of canalized portion of
creek 1.1 miles southeast of Courtenay..................... Stage and Flow
Estimates........ Dec. 18, 1984 Oct. 81, 1968
Turkey Creek near Palm Bay, Florida,... 00 feet west of power line crossing, 2.2 miles southwest of Palm
_u eo Bay and 2.6 miles'upstream from the Indian River .......... Stage and Discharge Oct. 2, 1954
Wolf Creek near Deer Park, Florida........ at graded road crossing 8.5 miles north of Deer Park.......... Stage and Discharge Jan. 10, 1956





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


At the present time, flooding is a serious water problem in the St. Johns
valley portion of Brevard County. In the early years when the area was used
primarily for the seasonal pasturing of cattle, flooding did not constitute a
serious problem. However, as the agricultural potentialities of the rich
mucklands along the river became known, dikes were constructed to obtain
the uninterrupted use of this land. At times high water has caused consider-
able damage to the dikes and resulted in the loss of livestock, truck crops,
and improved pastures.
Flow and stage: Jane Green Creek drains an area of 248 square miles
west and southwest of Deer Park. Its average flow from October 1953 to
September 1957 was 370 cfs (cubic feet per second). However, there is con-
siderable variation in the flow. The maximum flow recorded during this
period was during the storm of October 1956 at which time the creek flowed
at a rate of 18,400 cfs. In both 1955 and 1956 there were long periods when
this creek ceased to flow. The longest period of no flow, which began in
March 1956, lasted 116 days.
Wolf Creek, located about 12 miles north of Jane Green Creek, has
more variation in its flow than does Jane Green Creek. Wolf Creek drains
an area of only 26.3 square miles and had a peak discharge during the
October 1956 storm of 7,700 cfs. Its average flow from January 1956, when
the record began, to September 1957 was 36.0 cfs. It ceased to flow during
the dry weather in the spring of 1956. Flow occurred on only 8 of the 99
days from March 15 to June 21 of that year.
Although the St. Johns River has no well defined channel south of Lake
Hellen Blazes, the valley extends some 40 miles southward. In this section
of the valley the water moves slowly northward through a wide, flat expanse
of sawgrass and willows. Manmade canals aid the northward flow in some
places. From Lake Hellen Blazes northward the river flows through fairly
well defined channels at low and medium stages. At high stages the
water spreads out and covers a strip of valley bottom 5 or 6 miles wide.
The St. Johns River flows through several lakes in the section bordering
Brevard County. From south to north, the larger of these are: Lake Hellen
Blazes, Sawgrass Lake, Lake Washington, Lake Winder, and Lake Poinsett.
The estimated amount of water in the lakes at the lowest stage during the
period of record is as follows: Lake Hellen Blazes, 650 million gallons;-Saw-
grass Lake, 650 million gallons; Lake Washington, 3,200 million gallons;
Lake Winder, 1,080 million gallons; and Lake Poinsett, 1,660 million
gallons. The percent of time during the period of record that Lake Poinsett
contained various amounts of water is shown by a storage-duration curve
(fig. 17). This curve indicates that all of the time there was a minimum of
1.6 billion gallons of water in the lake, that 50 percent of the time the lake
contained at least 9.5 billion gallons of water.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 28


IS

t o
z 14


0
21















0 to 20 30 40 50 60 7 o_ 90 i00


PERCENT OF -TIME STORAGE EQUALLED OR EXCEEDED THAT SHOWN
Figure 17. Storage-duration curve for Lake Poinsett, Florida, 1941-55.

Some flooding takes place nearly every year in the St. Johns River basin,
but extremely high water occurred in 1948, 1953, and again in 1956. The
peak stages during the floods of October 1953 and October 1956 plotted













> 0z o I


0 0 20 3 40 50 6 7 8 90
0





















IM LES FROM FLORIDA HIGHW_____Y 60_________





FigurSome flooding takes place nearly every year is on the St. Johns River, Florida, during floodsin,


of October 1953 and October 1956 plotted
30 1 --- i -- --- ---_--- --- --- --- | --_---



^ 25 S ---_____- ---____---- ---- ---- ---- ---


I L 1 0 -

0 S





U -5 1 95
K~~~ ~ 10 --- --- ---N- -- --2----^ ~ ~ -






October 1953


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
MILES FROM FLORIDA HIGHWAY 60
Figure 18. Profile of maximum stages on the St. Johns River, Florida, during floods
of October 1953 and October 1956.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


stream. In the 1953 storm the rainfall was widespread and of relatively low
intensity. The result was fairly uniform flooding throughout the upper
100 miles of the basin. In contrast, in the 1956 storm the rainfall was short-
lived but intense in the upper reaches and light to moderate in the lower
reaches and produced extreme stages in the Kenansville area but practically
no flooding in the lower sections.
The frequencies of floods of various magnitudes likely to occur on the
St. Johns River are shown by profiles in figure 19. These profiles are based,

30

20-YEAR FLOOD
uj25 1 0-YEAR FLOOD-
5- YEAR FLOOD














0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 00
MILES FROM FLORIDA HIGHWAY 60
Figure 19. Flood-stage frequencies on the St. Johns River, Florida.

of course, on past records and apply only so long as the flow pattern is not
altered by ditching, diking, or other control measures. A proposed dam, for
example, to control the stage of Lake Washington would alter the profiles
appreciably.
Damage to crops because of flooding is a function of the length of time
that the root systems of the plants are under water. For this reason it is of

value to know the probable length of time that a plot may be subject to
inundation. Figure 20 shows inundation times in the vicinity of Lake
Poinsett. This graph shows that, under the worst conditions that occurred
between 1941 and 1955, the land would have been under water for 5 con-
secutive days if it was at an elevation of 172/ feet above sea level, for 14
consecutive days if it was 17 feet above sea level, and for almost 2 months
if it was 16 feet above sea level.

The nearly flat prairie and flatwoods area which runs the length of the
county between the flood plain of the St. Johns River and the coastal ridge
4I-


























county between the flood plain of the St. Johns River and the coastal ridge






REPORT OF' INVESTIGATIONS NO. 28


Is



17



16



15
Is




Ia


- 14
0
,<

13



12


___ ^ _ _

-\ -


- ^ _ .. _

^Z:""^:!!::"-\

\






\
___ ._ _
\










____ 2 3 4 5" 6 7 8 10 ____ O 20 1 __,_I__ 3 4 5 6 B I 10 IZ 8 2


4


CONSECUTIVE DAYS CONSECUTIVE MONTHS
Figure 20. Maximum periods of high stages of Lake Poinsett near Cocoa, Florida,
1941-55.
is sparsely populated and is principally a cattle raising and citrus producing
area. The recurring problem in this area is alternately too much water or
too little water. These lands are frequently flooded, not because of high
stages on the St. Johns River, but because water from rain drains away
very slowly in such flat terrains. In order to remove excess water more
quickly extensive ditching has been done. As an economic necessity the
smaller landowners usually construct relatively small uncontrolled ditches
to drain the water to the St. Johns River. However, many of the ditches are
inefficient because only low gradients can be obtained. In dry seasons the
lands are irrigated by using artesian wells. This water is high in chloride
content and is usually applied indiscriminately, often from free-flowing
wells. Any excess runs off via the ditches and considerable salt-water con-
tamination of surface streams and lakes is caused by this practice. The
chloride content of artesian water is discussed in the section entitled "Chemi-
cal Quality of Artesian Ground Water."


,v






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Efforts to control the water and thus allow more productive use of land
on the eastern slope of the St. Johns River valley have resulted in the forma-
tion of several drainage districts within the county. These drainage districts
are political and physical entities. They are created by Acts of the State
Legislature, and are empowered to issue bonds, to collect taxes on lands
within their designated boundaries, and to construct water-control facilities.
In the Melbourne-Tillman Drainage District, the largest (80 square miles)
in Brevard County, a perimeter dike, constructed along the District bounda-
ry, prevents the inflow of water from other areas. Within the diked area,
surplus water flows by gravity through collecting ditches and canals to a
"main" canal and thence to the Indian River. Pumps and control structures
help to maintain near-optimum water levels.
There are a number of lakes and sloughs in the coastal ridge from which
small supplies could possibly be developed. The determination of the po-
t -ntialities of any one of these, or of a combination of several of them,
would require intensive local investigation. However, some idea of the
possibilities may be gained from the experience of the city of Cocoa, which
developed Clear Lake as a municipal supply.
Clear Lake, 3 miles northwest of Cocoa, has a surface area of about 15
acres. No natural streams flow into or out of it. In 1937, when its use as a
municipal supply began, its surface drainage area was 0.17 square mile (109
acres). In 1950 its drainage area was increased to 0.26 square mile (166
acres) and in 1951 it was increased to 4.94 square miles (3,162 acres), each
time by connecting it to nearby sloughs.
From January 1951 to August 1957 rain falling on the Clear Lake
drainage area amounted to an average of 11,850,000 gpd (gallons per day).
During the same period the average pumpage, computed from records
furnished by the city of Cocoa was 670,000 gpd. The yield, therefore, was
5.6 percent of the total input. The remainder was lost by evaporation, tran-
spiration. and seepage. The record of stage, pumpage, and chloride content
of Clear Lake is presented in hydrograph form (fig. 21).
Chemical quality: In order to ascertain the chemical quality of the
surface water of the St. Johns River basin, samples were collected at 26
sites. The locations of these stations are shown on a map (fig. 22). Samples
for comprehensive analysis were collected daily at station 18 and at approxi-
mately 6-week intervals at stations 4, 6, 20, 25, 26, 31, and 32. Samples for
determination of chloride were collected daily for nearly 2 years at station
17 and at approximately 6-week intervals at station 12. Samples for com-
prehensive analysis were collected semi-annually from the other locations.
The results of chemical analyses of these samples are presented in tabular
form in Florida Geological Survey Information Circular 32.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 28


Avon Park Limestone and the underlying limestone is reported by Vernon
(1951, p. 92) as being unconformable. The deposition of the limestones
of Middle Eocene Age was followed by a period of erosion, so that an uncon-
formity separates the Avon Park Limestone and the overlying formations
of the Ocala Group. The formations of the Ocala Group were laid down
with no apparent break in deposition during Late Eocene time.
The retreat of the seas from Brevard County at the end of the Eocene
Epoch exposed the formations to erosion that reduced the thicknesses of these
formations. The absence in Brevard County of the formations that were
deposited elsewhere during Oligocene and Early Miocene time indicates
that either the area remained above sea level during this time or that
erosion before Middle Miocene time completely removed all vestiges of these
sediments. The absence of deposits of Oligocene and Lower Miocene Age
in Brevard County indicates that the area was structurally high in Early
Miocene or later time.
The structural movement that resulted in the Ocala uplift, the Osceola
low, and related flexures and faults was dated by Vernon (1951, p. 62) as
post-Oligocene and pre-Miocene.
In Middle Miocene time the seas again invaded the Florida Peninsula,
and the resulting sequence of beds progress by a series of overlaps that pinch
out against the Ocala uplift. The gradual thinning of the Hawthorn Forma-
tion toward the north in Brevard County and the absence of the formation
over the Sanford high (Vernon, 1951, fig. 33), in Volusia County, indicates
that either the Sanford high was above sea level during Middle Miocene time
or that the Hawthorn Formation was eroded after Middle Miocene time.
In Late Miocene or Pliocene time the sea invaded Brevard County but not
so extensively as in Middle Miocene time. The sediments deposited in Late
Miocene or Pliocene time were not subsequently exposed to prolonged
erosion; consequently, their upper surface is regular, and their thickness
is generally greater than that of the sediments of Middle Miocene Age.
When the sea stood at higher levels during the interglacial periods of
the Pleistocene Epoch the submerged areas were covered with a veneer of
marine sands (fig. 4).
The sea has been approximately at its present level since the beginning
of Recent time. During Recent time the major part of the windblown sand
was deposited.

HYDROLOGY

Water sources utilized by man for water supplies are replenished through
the hydrologic cycle-the endless circulation of water by evaporation, trans-
portation through the atmosphere, precipitation, and transportation back to






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 28


SAiA PiO1tlI01 It ta tT, l.


2

z22
0,

W0.
Dc
F, .
0
2j


0 025
9< 20
15
1o

m 5
_o


Figure 21. Chloride content, stage, and pumpage, Clear Lake, near Cocoa, Florida.

Measurements of temperature and specific conductance were made on
samples collected daily from the St. Johns River near Cocoa and the samples
composite at 10-day intervals for comprehensive chemical analysis. Specific
conductance, an approximate measure of dissolved solids, provided a day-to-
day record of the changes that occurred in the concentration of dissolved
solids at this location during the period of study.
Analyses of the samples collected at 6-week intervals show the general
chemical characteristics of the water and, over a long period of time, show
the manner in which these characteristics respond to influences of climate


900 .. ------------l
Boo ... -..--- --- -....-.- ..- .. ....-i--........... . .
700o o --- - .. . --... .- .- . ..... ...,
600 -- J.-..................
500 ..... --- -----.. ... ( ------
400
300
3 0 10 -- - f - -- - <--- --- -- -- ,'- ...-- --
200 ---------
' 00 i L ... t...... .H:11 .1 1..................... 1 1 1 1 1 ,




26
2J 25
> 24
_ 23
W 22 ..
z 2 1 -- ^ 4 - - - -- .-----
W 20 --
S 19iii

S17 ---
6 M1 -
s 1 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1


W-
W
'a,
IL


---





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


VOLUSIA CO. \
j4 Lo Horney A



kS23 28
5

21 / Titusville z 0
13 29 30
Christmas L _
19, Cape
19 3 32 Canaveral

Lake\

17C3
)SCEOLA CO. Co J 35
116 15 1 34
13 Lake

9 8 363

-7A 37
EX ANATION 39 \\\\\ 38
6 5 4 Melbourne

Quality of water 41 42 Malabar
sampling station
and station number I
0o 5 10 milesI 2 42 3


Figure 22. Brevard County showing the water-quality sampling stations on streams
and lakes.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 28


and other factors. They are used also to indicate relationships that exist
between locations in the same basin. Table 7 shows maximum and minimum
values of hardness, chloride, and color observed at these stations and other
periodic stations in the county during the period of study.

The chemical composition of the water in the streams of Brevard
County varies with changes in the amount of streamflow. Concentrations
of constituents generally are high during periods of low flow and are
low during periods of high flow. In order to define relationships, samples
were collected during a dry period and again during a wet period in each
year. Samples were collected from points throughout the basin in as short
a time as possible in order to obtain a nearly instantaneous picture of the
chemical composition of the streams in the county, to indicate the type and
magnitude of changes that occur as the water moves downstream, and to
establish approximate ranges in concentration of chemical constituents.
The chemical composition of the St. Johns River at several locations during
a period of relatively low flow is shown graphically (fig. 23). As shown by
the bar graph, the concentration of chemical constituents increases progres-
sively downstream but the greatest increase in concentration was down-
stream from Lake Poinsett. Maximum, minimum, and average values of
chemical constituents are shown for samples obtained at the daily sampling
station on the St. Johns River near Cocoa during the period October 1,
1953 to September 30, 1957.
The results of the investigation show that most of the surface waters of
the St. Johns River basin in Brevard County would be suitable for most

20
EXPLANATION
IB -


I6 Sodwm and Chlorie and

Mognsium Sulfate

Cociu Bicarbnot
10 Adl analyses ore from single samples __________
colltectd CA each station during May
1954. seuept fa slotaion IB


6

4



MALABAR I LAKE WIER NEAR CHRISTrMAS
SI COCOA IS S A N IL
STATION 2 STATION 14 STATION 18 STATION 20 S


Figure 23. Graph showing analysis of water from the St. Johns River.


MAIU


AVERAGE
OCT A-SEPTEMBER 30,
1957
MINIMUM
OCT. 11-20, 1953


ABOVE NEAR COCOA
AKE HARNEY
STATION 26 STATION 18


















TALEz 7. Partial Chemical Analyses of Samples Collected in the St. Johns and Indian River Basins, September 1952 to September 1958

Chloride Hardness Color
Location No. of _____________
Samples
Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum

Jane Green Creek near Deer Park ................ 81 86 7.5 54 18 860 25
St. Johns River near Melbourne .................. 88 125 11 124 28 270 45
St. Johns River near Cocoa ...................... 188 408 21 294 80 280 45
St. Johns River near Christmas .................. 41 5665 20 886 28 220 45
Econlockhatchee River near Chuluota ........... 86 179 8.0 162 18 600 40
St. Johns River above Lake Harney near Geneva,. 84 680 80 412 81 800 40
Ellis Canal near Indian River City................ 85 1,150 815 690 410 160 85
Clear Lake near Cocoa.............. ..... ... 82 980 25 568 86 180 1
Surface Water Slough near Cocoa. ............... 85 40 6.5 47 9 600 90
Elbow Creek near Eau Gallie..................... 85 260 19
Crane Creek near Melbourne ................... 86 800 88 462 84 280 80
Turkey Creek near Palm Bay .................... 84 840 7.0
Goat Creek, 2 m. W. of Valkaria,................ 84 620 56
Fellamere Canal near Fellamere.................. 82 270 46 t 284 t li2 t 00 t 650

Samples collected only during period September 1954 to August 1956.
t Samples collected only during period October 1956 to July 1968.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 28


purposes following treatment for the removal of color and hardness. How-
ever, at times during the study, concentrations of various ions exceeded
desirable limits. These excessive concentrations were most noticeable down-
stream from Lake Poinsett during periods of low flow in the early summer of
1956.
Although rainfall, discharge, and use are factors influencing the chemi-
cal composition of water in the St. Johns River, the inflow of artesian water,
especially during periods of low flow, is the greatest single factor that affects
the chemical quality. This water becomes mineralized by mixing with sea
water that was left when the sea inundated the state several times during
the Pleistocene Epoch (fig. 4, 25). Artesian water is used for irrigation
throughout most of the county and is added to the St. Johns River and
other streams by drainage, free-flowing wells, and flushing of soil solutions.
In some areas, contamination of surface water may result from upward
seepage of artesian waters through underlying faults and crevices.
Water in the headwaters of the St. Johns River is generally low in dis-
solved solids, highly colored, and receives little contamination from artesian
water. During periods of high flow, pumpage from the Melbourne-Tillman
Drainage District causes a slight increase in the mineral content.
The water of Jane Green Creek near Deer Park is also highly colored
and low in dissolved solids. The creek starts in an area of sandy soils and
the water has little opportunity to contact and dissolve materials. Color is
derived from cypress trees and water grasses that grow in the lower reaches
of the stream. Although there is an indication of a relationship between
solids concentration and water discharge at this station, this relationship is
disrupted by periods in which the river ceases to flow. At these times, con-
centration of solids in the stream increases as a result of evaporation and
transpiration and increased influences of the more highly concentrated
ground water. In general, the water of Jane Green Creek would be suitable
for most purposes after color removal. The creek would not provide a con-
tinuous supply unless it could be impounded.
The quality of the water of the St. Johns River near Melbourne is
similar in many respects to that of the headwaters of the St. Johns River
and of Jane Green Creek (fig. 23; table 7). There is an increase in con-
centration of mineral constituents. near Melbourne, but at no time during
the study did concentrations, at the time of sampling, exceed the recom-
mended maxima for municipal supplies. There is some correlation between
the specific conductance and dissolved-solids content of the water at this
station and an indication of correlation between the dissolved-solids content
and sustained water discharge.
Results of analyses of samples collected at downstream locations show
that there is a general increase in most chemical constituents as the St. Johns






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


River flows northward. As previously mentioned, the greatest increases were
noted during early summer and were particularly evident during the drought
of 1956. Samples collected in June 1956 show that chloride and dissolved-
solids concentrations as far south as Lake Winder at Bonaventure ap-
proached maximum allowable concentrations established for municipal
supplies by the U.S. Public Health Service. There are several drainage
canals entering the St. Johns River between the station near Melbourne and
the station at Lake Poinsett. The increase in concentration of dissolved
solids in the St. Johns River between these locations may be attributed to
drainage of irrigation waters from these canals.
Investigations conducted to evaluate the quality of the water of Lake
Poinsett included several phases of collection and analysis of water samples.
Initially, samples were collected daily from St. Johns River (at Lake
Poinsett outlet) near Cocoa and from Lake Poinsett at Poinsett Lodge on
the northeastern shore. Measurements of temperature and conductance
were made on samples collected at the outlet station and determinations
of chloride were made on samples collected near the lakeshore. Correlation
between conductance and chloride at the outlet station provided daily
values of chloride concentrations that were compared to those obtained at
the lakeshore station. Results of this comparison are shown by the duration
curve of chloride content (fig. 24). Although the chloride concentration at
the lakeshore station was consistently higher than the concentration at the
lake outlet, the relation between these locations was not uniform, particularly
during periods of low flow. This is due primarily to the inflow of highly
mineralized irrigation water near the lakeshore station. The irregularity of
this flow accounts for the disuniformity of the duration curve for this station
during periods of high chloride concentrations. The wide range in con-
centration that occurred at the station during the period of study is shown
by bar graph (fig. 25).

Because of the differences noted between the two daily stations and the fact
that chloride concentrations increased more than 100 percent between the
St. Johns River near Rockledge and the outlet of Lake Poinsett, a re-
connaissance of the lake was made to determine the source of this influence.
Samples were collected at 74 points in the lake and its tributaries. Results
of this reconnaissance are shown on a map (fig. 26). The major contributors
of highly mineralized water are the tributaries along the northeastern shore
of the lake. They are recipients of irrigational drainage and add considerably
to the mineral content of the lake water.
Daily records obtained at St. Johns River (at Lake Poinsett outlet) near
Cocoa show the variations in chemical quality of the water that occurred







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 28 51

at this station during the study. Figure 27 shows the maximum, average,
and minimum values of specific conductances observed each month, and
illustrates the ranges and seasonal trends of the quality of the water. As
mentioned before, concentrations of minerals are higher during periods of
low flow and lower during high flow. Thus, concentrations of dissolved solids
increased in the winter and spring and decreased in the summer and fall in
direct response to rainfall. The variations that occurred are well illustrated
by that portion of the graph for September 1956 wherein the conductance
dropped from 1,340 to 140 micromhos or from approximately 700 to 75 ppm
of dissolved solids.
Floods and the drought that occurred during the study did much to
exaggerate the variations in mineral content of the water. Continuous rains
and flooding occurred in the St. Johns River basin just before and soon
after the establishment of the daily station near Cocoa in 1953. This was
sufficient to flush the soils of highly mineralized soil solutions to the extent


2000


1000




400
600 --- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ---_ ----


SSampling station 17 on
-Lake Poinsett
SExample: The chloride
200 concentration exceeded
-- 100 p.pm. 28 percent
of the time during the
0 lo period 1953-1955

60 ---

40


St. Johns River
at Lake Poinsett outlet


0.1 0.5 I 2 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 95 98 99 995 999 99.
PERCENT OF TIME CHLORIDE EXCEEDED VALUE SHOWN


Figure 24. Duration curve of the chloride content at sampling station 17 on Lake
Poinsett and the St. Johns River at Lake Poinsett outlet near Cocoa, October 1953-
September 1955.


19






52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

that low concentrations of dissolved solids were observed during October
1953. Rainfall was less during subsequent years of the study with a resultant
buildup of dissolved solids.
The drought, caused by deficient rainfall, was most severe in this area in
June 1956. Stages were low during this period with the major portion of


350




300


z
o

-250


150
En
1-200

a-
z




0 0
U



-r


- - -~, ,- _
Incomplete
or e ____r

EXPLANATION


Maximum

Average

Minimum ------- -
- Minimum ---- ..-
y U_ __ __ l i _


50 -


0
ONDJIFIMIAIMIJ J ASONDJFIMAMJ J AS
1953 1954 1955
Figure 25. Maximum, average, and minimum daily chloride concentration at station
17 on Lake Poinsett.


I-


i






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 28


stream discharge being derived from ground-water discharge and irrigation
drainage. The high mineral content of water from these sources increased
the dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations of the water at the daily
station beyond the recommended maxima of public water supplies. It must
be emphasized that the interval between flooding and drought at this time
was only a little more than 2/2 years. If the time interval should increase
between these extreme conditions, the effect of water losses due to transpira-
tion and evaporation, and the addition of minerals by irrigation flow could
cause such high concentrations in the soil solutions and shallow ground
water that the ultimate concentration of the river would exceed those ob-
served during the present study.


Figure 26. Lake Poinsett near Cocoa, showing chloride concentration at various
points during period of approximate minimum flow of the St. Johns River. Samples
collected in May 1955.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Following the drought of 1956 the discharge of St. Johns River in-
creased as a result of heavy rainfall to the extent that, in some areas, dis-
charge values exceeded those observed in October 1953. Because of shorter
duration of the rainfall and the buildup in concentration of the soil solu-
tions that had occurred during the drought, flushing during the 1956 flood
was not as complete as that which occurred during 1953. Thus higher con-
centrations of dissolved solids were observed at the lake outlet during the
period October 1956 to September 1957 than during corresponding periods
from October 1953 to the early part of 1956.


1,700

1,600

1,500

1,400

e 1,300
0
o 1,200
n-,
5 1,100


Z 1,000

'900
z
800


0
UO


----^----------------------------- -.__ -__ -__._____.
IIIII HIM




EXPLANATION
.-MAXIMUM

L 'ERAGEI I
MINIMUM
- I | i I [ I -


600

500

400

300


200

100

0
SjSNDJF JJ DSNJF hJJ O DJF A NJJASONDJF A JJASOND
1953 1954 1955 1956 1957

Figure 27. Maximum, average, and minimum specific conductance of the St. Johns
River near Cocoa, October 1953 to September 1957.


- - . .

11111111 H IM III I II I III

H IM 1111 11 1 1 11






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 28


During the early part of the investigation, an approximate relationship
existed between chloride and discharge in that chloride concentration in-
creased with a decrease in discharge. It was noted, however, that concentra-
tions did not decrease immediately in response to rising discharge. This may
be attributed to the initial flushing of the minerals from the soils into the
river and then additional volumes of water served to dilute the river so that
concentrations decreased with continued increases in discharge.
During the drought of 1956 there was a departure from the earlier cor-
relation between chloride and discharge in that chloride concentrations were
higher than previously observed for the same discharge. Even following the
flood of 1956, concentrations of chloride, although lower than those observed
in 1956, were still higher than those observed during the first 2 years of
record. This may have been caused by increased use of artesian water
during the period of deficient rainfall. Some of this irrigation water
eventually reached the St. Johns River and caused increases in chloride
concentration at the daily station. Where this quantity had been relatively
constant before, approximate values of chloride could be predicted on the
basis of variations in discharge of the stream. With the introduction of use
of artesian water as another variable, however, the chloride-discharge rela-
tionship became less definite.
More detailed chloride and discharge data would probably result in
better definition of the relationships. Chloride values, determined from
conductance of once-daily samples, do not represent changing conditions
that occur during the day. Discharge records for the station at the lake outlet
were calculated on the basis of discharge near Melbourne and gage height
at Lake Poinsett and later, on the basis of several measurements at the sta-
tion and gage height of Lake Poinsett. Although these records have some
value in showing approximate relationships, adverse effects of wind and
storage in Lake Poinsett limit the value in defining predictable correlations.
If precautions were taken to prevent contamination of the river by
artesian water and if the water level of the river were maintained at a
sufficiently high level by control structures, the concentration of dissolved
solids in the river would be more uniform and at a more desirable level.
There is, of course, the possibility of contamination by upward leakage
of artesian water. The reconnaissance of Lake Poinsett in May 1955 did not
indicate such contamination at that time. Leakage from the artesian aquifer
would create a depression in the piezometric surface but the piezometric
contours, figures 34, 35, and 36, do not indicate a depression or leakage.
The chloride concentration increased from 87 ppm at the lake inlet to
103 ppm at the lake outlet. This increase is attributed to the inflow of
highly mineralized waters from tributaries and canals along the north-
eastern shore of Lake Poinsett.






56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Quantitative measurements were not made to determine the amount of
upward seepage from the artesian aquifer, if any; this should be determined
if the lake is to be completely evaluated as a water supply. A discussion on
the contamination of the nonartesian aquifer by artesian water is on
pages 94-95. Even with the possibility of contamination from the artesian
aquifer, it is felt that if the water level in Lake Poinsett were maintained
at a sufficient level, the effect of this influence would be minimized.
In order to present a brief summary of the chemical-quality conditions
that were observed at the daily station during the 4-year study, a cumulative
frequency curve showing the percentage of time that conductance exceeded
a given value is given in figure 28. Conductance has been correlated with
some individual constituents and the curves in figure 29 may be used to ob-
tain approximate values for chloride, total hardness, and sum of determined
constituents (dissolved solids) by use of the conductance values.
As shown by the frequency distribution curve for conductance and by
the correlation curves, chloride concentrations exceeded 250 ppm only 6


<:,uuu --- - -- -- -- -- ----- -- --- --
1.800 --- --- -- ----- - -- -- ---- --- --
1,600 --- -- - -- -- -- --

1,400



1.20C ---- ---- -- -- -- -- --- ------ -- --- ---



1.000 - -- - -
. 800






200 - - - -



o00



OI 0.5 I 2 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 95 98 9999.5 99.9 99.


PERCENT OF TIME SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE EXCEEDED VALUE SHOWN
re 28. Cumulative frequency curve of specific conductance of the St.
River near Cocoa, October 1953-September 1957.


99


Figure


Johns






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 28


percent of the time or approximately 88 days during the 4 years of the
study. Similarly, dissolved solids exceeded a concentration of 500 ppm only
about 12 percent of the time.
Clear Lake was used by the city of Cocoa as a municipal supply from
1937 to 1957. Although the supply was generally sufficient during this pe-
riod, concentrations of dissolved solids were often excessive (fig. 21). This
was evident particularly in 1956 when low rainfall and high withdrawal
rates caused chloride concentrations of nearly 1,000 ppm.


2,000


1,80


1,60


0l,40
0
0



z

uz
0
0
I 8
o)


4C


2C


0- ------------------
0


0
CHLORIDE
HARDNESS/ SUM OF DETERMINED
CONSTITUENTS
0 L
0// -
0


IC


-Ii- --------------------
- - -- ~1


IC -
0


A------------- -
'=o =2/=====/


**o2==,: ===/
*o --///

./~>r-H 1111 -


100 200 300 400 500
PARTS PER MILLION


600


700


800


Figure 29. Relation of specific conductance to hardness, chloride, and sum of deter-
mined constituents for St. Johns River near Cocoa.


II


I


0






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Clear Lake was unable to meet the increased demands of Cocoa and
was discontinued as a water supply in 1957 in favor of a more adequate
ground-water source in Orange County. The lake could still be used as a
small water supply as before and could be expected to provide water of
suitable quality during normal rainfall conditions.
Results of analyses on samples from the surface water slough near
Cocoa indicate that this source is suitable for most uses. Concentrations of
all mineral constituents were low but the water would have to be treated for
adjustment of pH and removal of color before it could be used for some
purposes. The water was often acidic, pH values being well below the
neutral point of 7.0. With low pH, low mineral content and high color,
the water would be corrosive to metal surfaces.
The water in the St. Johns River near Christmas (station 20) is quite
similar in character to that at Lake Poinsett outlet but is more mineralized.
Lack of data prevents accurate interstation correlations, but calculations
based on available information indicate that the increased concentration
of the water is not due to a large inflow or upward leakage of highly
mineralized artesian water. This increased concentration at Christmas
probably is due to some inflow of ground water and surface water of
moderate concentration. As with the water at Lake Poinsett outlet, St. Johns
River near Christmas could be used, after treatment, for many purposes.
Dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations did exceed recommended maxi-
ma for municipal supply for several months during 1956 but the water could
be used if a better supply was not available.
Loughmans Lake and Salt Lake near Mims are shallow lakes that con-
tain water with relatively high concentrations of dissolved solids. These
dissolved solids are believed to be introduced through upward leakage of
the artesian waters. The composition of the water in the lakes is quite
similar to the artesian water of the area. Because of the large surface areas
and relatively shallow depths of these two lakes, high evaporation and
transpiration losses cause an increase in the concentration of solids so that
at times it exceeds that of the water from artesian sources.
Reports of springs in these lakes led to investigations in October 1957
and August 1958. Conductance readings taken at many locations showed
that a fairly uniform composition existed throughout both lakes with some
dilution by surface inflow on the northern edge of Salt Lake. There were
no indications of spring sources within the lakes at that time. Drainage
from these two lakes enters the St. Johns River and causes a considerable
increase in the mineral content of that stream.
A few miles downstream from Loughmans Lake and Salt Lake the
Econlockhatchee River flows into the St. Johns River. The drainage area






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 28


of the Econlockhatchee River at Chuluota is 260 square miles, or about 13
percent of the total drainage area of the St. Johns River above Lake
Harney. Approximately 15 percent of the average flow of the St. Johns
River at Lake Harney is contributed by the Econlockhatchee River. The
quality of the water of Econlockhatchee River is good. Even during the
period of the drought the dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations did
not exceed the recommended maxima for municipal supplies. This flow
has a dilution effect on water of the St. Johns River but because the per-
centage of flow to that of the St. Johns River is low, the dilution effect is
not sufficient to lower the mineral concentration to desirable limits.
The dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations of samples collected
from the St. Johns River above Lake Harney were far in excess of the
maxima recommended for municipal supplies. The quality of water at this
location limits its use for purposes other than irrigation during most of the
year.
In addition to contamination by drainage from Salt Lake and Lough-
mans Lake there are indications that upward leakage of artesian water
occurs for some distance upstream above Lake Harney, adding large
amounts of minerals directly to the St. Johns River. A depression has been
created in the piezometric surface (fig. 35) that indicates discharge from
the artesian aquifer and probably upward leakage to the St. Johns River.
There is some correlation of chemical concentrations of water among the
stations in the St. Johns River basin. Better definition of these relationships
will be of considerable value in future planning of water use and control
of the river. Installation and operation of conductivity-recording instruments
at several of these locations concurrent with the operation of daily discharge
stations could provide considerable information on the effect that conditions
at one location have on another location. The city of Melbourne, for in-
stance, will soon be withdrawing water from Lake Washington at the rate
of 10 mgd (million gallons per day) (15.5 cfs) for a municipal supply. This
withdrawal will amount to about 1.3 percent of the amount of water in
Lake Washington each day when the lake is at normal stage or about 2 per-
cent of the average flow of the St. Johns River near Melbourne. Because
the water at this source is rather low in mineral content withdrawal during
periods of low flow will probably-cause an increase in the concentration of
dissolved solids in the water at downstream locations.

INDIAN RIVER BASIN
The Indian River is a lagoon rather than a stream. The Brevard County
section of this lagoon, including the part called Banana River, covers 235
square miles and receives the runoff from 838 square miles of the sur-
rounding land area. The Indian River is separated from the Atlantic Ocean






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


by a long narrow island ranging from a few hundred feet to a few thousand
feet in width except near Cocoa where it widens to form Cape Canaveral.
This section of the Indian River has only one direct connection to the
ocean, Sebastian Inlet. It has two indirect connections. At the northern end
an indirect connection is through Haulover Canal to Indian River Lagoon
and thence through Ponce de Leon Inlet to the Atlantic. Southward the
connection is through Fort Pierce Inlet at Fort Pierce.

Flow and stage: A number of small streams on the east slope of ihe
coastal ridge flow into the Indian River. In practically every case the natural
flow of these streams has been increased by connecting the upper reaches
to ponds and sloughs on top of the coastal ridge. The natural flow has been
increased tremendously in those that now-receive the runoff from the diked
areas west of the ridge. These creeks in Brevard County, including Sebastian
Creek, now carry to the Indian River the excess water from about 240
square miles of land that formerly drained to the St. Johns River.
Discharge measurements of eight of these creeks show that several of
them would provide a good source of supply. Turkey Creek in particular,
which carries the outflow from the Melboume-Tillman Drainage District,
seems to be an excellent supply source. The streamflow information on this
creek consists of flow determinations made at 6-week intervals (table 8)
from October 1954 to January 1956 and a record of daily discharge from
January 1956 through October 1958. The minimum flow from October 1954
to October 1958 was 25 cfs (16.5 mgd) on March 30, 1956, during the
widespread drought of that year. The minimum flow of Fellsmere Canal was
also 25 cfs and occurred in the same year. The other streams on which dis-
charge measurements (table 8) were made are Ellis Canal, Elbow Creek,
Crane Creek, Goat Creek, and the North Prong and South Prong of
Sebastian Creek.
Fluctuations in the level of the Indian River are relatively small. From
September 1951 to September 1957, at Titusville, the highest stage that
occurred was 2.32 feet above mean sea level. The lowest stage that occurred
during the same period was 0.78 foot below mean sea level. Because of the
large surface area, wind causes considerable short-term fluctuation. Strong
winds blowing in a north-south direction may produce as much as 2 feet of
rise at one end of the river with a concurrent lowering at the opposite end.
Rains produce rapid rises in the river, the amount of rise depending upon
the intensity and areal extent of the rain. The storm rains during the middle
of October 1956 averaged about 12 inches over the entire river area in a
2-day period and produced a 1-foot rise in the river. Inspection of the stage-
recorder chart from the Titusville station indicates that the water level rose





TABLE 8. Discharge of Small Streams Tributary to the Indian River.

Discharge (in cu. ft. per see.) and date of measurement
Stream
1954 1955

Ellis Canal..................... 11.2 (Sept. 27) 2.82 (Nov. 8) 2.74 (Dec. 18) 2.68 (Jan. 81) 2.26 (Mar. 15) 1.97 (Apr. 25)
Elbow Creek .................. 11.8 (Sept. 28) *1.75 (Nov. 10) 2.58 (Dec. 14) 1.57 (Feb. 1) .642 (Mar. 16) .546 (Apr. 25)
Crane Creek................... 24.5 (Sept. 29) 28.1 (Nov. 17) 10.1 (Dec. 14) 7.87 (Feb. 8) 6.44 (Mar. 16) 4.88 (Apr. 26)
Turkey Creek ................. 144 (Oct. 2) 68.2 (Nov. 10) 47.8 (Dec. 15) 57.8 (Feb. 8) 81.8 (Mar. 22) 81.6 (Apr. 26)
Goat Creek ................... 18.4 (Oct. 1) 5.18 (Nov. 11) 8.60 (Dec. 15) 5.87 (Feb. 8) 2.80 (Mar. 17) 1.95 (Apr. 27)
North Prong Sebastian Creek .... 228 (Oct. 1) 85.4 (Nov. 18) 27.4 (Dec. 15) 19.4 (Feb. 2) 8.87 (Mar. 17) 8.71 (Apr. 27)
Fellamere Canal................ 184 (Oct. 1) 184 (Nov. 11) 106 (Dec. 16) 124 (Feb. 2) 82.7 (Mar. 28) 69.1 (Apr. 27)
South Prong Sebastian Creek.... 114 (Oct. 1) 886 (Nov. 18) 28.2 (Dec. 16) 42.4 (Feb. 2) 25.0 (Mar. 28) 21.0 (Apr. 27)
Sum.............. 725.4 841.45 228.42 261.09 160.012 189.706

*Fied estimate


Stream Discharge (in cu. ft. per sec.) and date of measurement

1955

Ellis Canal .................. 1.68 (June 6) 2.78 (July 19) 2.80 (Aug. 29) 2.45 (Oct. 10) 2.25 (Nov. 16) 2.14 (Dec. 19)
Elbow Creek................... .621 (June 8) .660 (July 20) 1.15 (Sept. 1) 11.8 (Oct. 14) .815 (Nov. 17) .788 (Dec. 19)
Crane Creek ............... 4.48 (June 8) 5.89 (July 22) 4.84 (Sept. 1) 19.8 (Oct. 14) 6.00 (Nov. 17) 5.45 (Dec. 21)
Turkey Creek ..,.............. 40.5 (June 7) 55.2 (July 22) 68.8 (Aug. 80) 81.9 (Oct. 11) 50.6 (Nov. 18) 41.2 (Dee. 22)
Goat Creek. .1... ......... .. 1.25 (June 9) 1.18 (July 21) 1.17 (Sept. 1) 87.9 (Oct. 14) 1.68 (Nov. 18) 1.52 (Dec. 20)
North Prong Sebastian Creek. ., 7.11 (June 9) 7.57 (July 21) 9.16 (Aug. 81) 82.8 (Oct. 12) 7.94 (Nov. 19) 7.79 (Dec. 20)
Fellemere Canal .............. 46.8 (June 9) 72.8 (July 21) 75.8 (Aug. 81) 207 (Oct. 12) 51.8 (Nov. 18) 59.7 (Dec. 20)
South Prong Sebastian Creek... 12.1 (June 9) 18.8 (July 21) 28.8 (Aug. 81) 80.0 (Oct. 12) 21.1 (Nov. 18) 15.1 (Dec. 20)
Sum,............... 114.491 168.880 186.52 472.15 142.185 188.688








TABIs 8, (Continued)

Stream Discharge (In cu. ft, per eer,) and date of measurement

1956

Ells Canal .................... 1.08 (Jan. 80) 1.75 (Mar, 12) 1,86 (Apr, 28) 1.16 (June 4) 1,86 (July 18) 1.28 (Aug. 28)
Elbow Creek .................. 1,12 (Jan. 28) .525 (Mar. 18) ,887 (Apr, 27) .46 (June 6) .484 (July 19) .67 (Aug. 81)
Crane Creek .................. 7.65 (Jan. 27) 4.94 (Mar, 12) 7.68 (Apr. 27) 8.68 (June 5) 6.68 (July 18) 4.06 (Aug. 81)
Turkey Creek ................. 40.6 (Jan. 80) 28,7 (Mar, 18) 61.8 (Apr. 80) 89.6 (June 6) 86.8 (July 19) 81.9 (Aug. 81)
Goat Creek .................. 1.58 (Jan. 29) 1.04 (Mar. 15) 1.75 (Apr. 80) .80 (June 6) 2.1 (July 19) 1.54 (Aug. 80)
North Prong Sebastian Creek,,., 7.87 (Jan. 29) 6.44 (Mar. 15) 8.70 (Apr. 80) 8.82 (June 6) 8.76 (July 19) 11.6 (Aug. 80)
Fellamere Canal................ 9.8 (Jan. 29) 87,2 (Mar, 14) 82.7 (Apr. 80) 44.1 (June 7) 52.4 (July 17) 162 (Aug. 29)
South Prong Sebaatlan Creek.... 17.4 (Jan. 29) 16.9 (Mar. 14) 19.1 (Apr. 80) 9.86 (June 6) 87.4 (July 16) 66.1 (Aug. 29)
Sum............ 186.9 96.495 128.277 107.81 146.794 829.15

*Field estimate...


Stream Discharge (in cu. ft. per see.) end date of mersurement
1966

Elle Canal .................... 10.7 (Oct. 8) ................... 28.7 (Oct. 19) ................... .................. 9.16 (Nov. 19)
Elbow Creek................... 2.84 (Oct. 9) 88.8 (Oct. 17) 80.9 (Oct. 18) 11.8 (Oct. 28) 7.98 (Oct. 24) 1.26 (Nov. 20)
Crane Creek ............. .... 21.2 (Oct. 9) 264 (Oct. 16) .................. ................... ................... ...................
Turkey Creek................ ................... 2,280 (Oct. 16) 1,680 (Oct. 19) 1,820 (Oct. 28) 1,270 (Oct. 24) 218 (Nov. 21)
Goat Creek .................. 17.4 (Oct. 9) ................... 877 (Oct. 19) ................... 87.2 (Oct. 24) ...................
North Prong Sebastlan Creek ... 58.1 (Oct. 9) 981 (Oct. 18) 777 (Oct. 19) ................... ................... .......... ........
Fellamere Canal................ 186 (Oct. 10) 1,680 (Oct. 16) 1,5660 (Oct. 18) 1,460 (Oct. 19) 1,210 (Oct. 28) ...................
South Prong Sebastlan Creek....... 142 (Oct. 10) 1,780 (Oct. 18) 1,490 (Oct. 19). ...... .. ................ ...
Sum .............. ... ............ ... ... ......... .. .......... ..... ..... ..... ....... ... .........






TABLE 8. (Continued)

Discharge (in cu. ft. per see.) and date of measurement
Stream
1957

Ellis Canal ................... 8.16 (Jan. 8) 2.46 (Feb. 19) 2.58 (Apr. 8) 4.52 (May 15) 2.98 (June 26) 2.08 (Aug. 6)
Elbow Creek ................... .75 (Jan. 10) 1.47 (Feb. 20) 2.04 (Apr. 5) 1.81 (May 12) .22 (June 24) 9.02 (Aug. 9)
Crane Creek................... 5.61 (Jan. 10) 7.28 (Feb. 21) 9.84 (Apr. 9) 6.25 (May 12) 5.10 (June 24) 12.8 (Aug. 5)
Turkey Creek ................. 92.6 (Jan. 9) 82.2 (Feb. 18) 79.1 (Apr. 9) 90.6 (May 14) 47.6 (June 26) 212 (Aug. 7)
Goat Creek .................... 1.56 (Jan. 9) 2.16 (Feb. 20) 16.6 (Apr. 5) 14.8 (May 14) 7.80 (June 26) 85.9 (Aug. 7)
North Prong Sebastian Creek,... 7.68 (Jan. 8) 8.78 (Feb. 19) 82.2 (Apr. 8) 9.56 (May 18) 16.9 (June 26) 442 (Aug. 7)
Fellsmere Canal............... 68.2 (Jan. 8) 52.8 (Feb. 19) 148 (Apr. 8) 190 (May 18) 82.2 (June 25) 228 (Aug. 6)
South Prong Sebastian Creek..... 22.8 (Jan. 8) 29.0 (Feb. 19) 115 (Apr. 8) 45.2 (May 18) 19.6 (June 25) 57.8 (Aug. 6)
Sum.............. 207.36 186.14 454.86 862.24 182.85 1,044.05

*Field estimate

Discharge (in cu. ft. per ser.) and date of measurement
Stream __
1957 1958

Ellis Canal.................... 10.8 (Sept. 18) 4.07 (Oct. 29) 2.86 (Dec. 10) 8.88 (Jan. 24) 8.04 (Mar. 18) 2.27 (May 12)
Elbow Creek..................... 8.22 (Sept. 18) 1.86 (Oct. 29) 1.37 (Dec. 2) 127 (Jan. 24) 20.5 (Mar. 19) 2.01 (May 12)
Crane Creek ................... 12.0 (Sept. 16) 6.84 (Oct. 29) 6.85 (Dec. 2) 7.56 (Jan. 20) 17.7 (Mar. 17) 8.08 (May 12)
Turkey Creek ................. 205 (Sept. 16) 68.1 (Oct. 29) 43.0 (Dec. 4) 858 (Jan. 22) 151 (Mar. 19) 45.2 (May 14)
Goat Creek.................... 25.2 (Sept. 18) 8.08 (Oct. 29) 5.45 (Dec. 8) 54.6 (Jan. 22) 6.70 (Mar. 18) 2.50 (May 14)
North Prong Sebastian Creek .... 164 (Sept. 18) 15.1 (Oct. 80) 9.86 (Dec. 8) 158. (Jan. 22) 22.8 (Mar. 18) 12.7 (May 18)
Fellsmere Canal................ 299 (Sept. 17) 51,5 (Oct. 80) 45.0 (Dec. 8) 67.4 (Jan. 21) 189 (Mar. 18) 55.6 (May 18)
South Prong Sebastian Creek..... 289 (Sept. 17) 28.8 (Oct. 80) 21.1 (Dec. 8) 40.1 (Jan. 21) 48.3 (Mar. 18) 85.9 (May 18)
Sum .............. 1,018.22 178.86 184.99 816.54 408.54 164.21

















TABLE 8. (Continued)

Discharge (In cu. ft. per see.) and date of measurement
Stream
1958

Ellis Canal..................... 1.88 (July 7) 1.05 (Sept. 2) 1.89 (Oct. 29)
Elbow Creek................... 1.80 (July 9) 2.05 (Sept. 1) 2.19 (Oct. 29)
Crane Creek .................. 5.71 (July 7) 9.61 (Sept. 1) 18.0 (Oct. 27)
Turkey Creek.................. 81.9 (July 9) 80.9 (Sept. 3) 71.5 (Oct. 27)
Goat Creek.................... 1.20 (July 8) 1.28 (Sept. 8) 2.62 (Oct. 28)
North Prong Sebastian Creek .... 6.92 (July 8) 6.14 (Sept. 2) 11.0 (Oct. 28)
Fellamere Canal................ 67.1 (July 8) 65.5 (Sept. 2) 68.5 (Oct. 28)
South Prong Sebastian Creek..... 46.6 (July 8) 17.2 (Sept. 2) 21.4 (Oct. 28)
Sum .............. 162.56 142.68 191.60







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 28


rapidly the 15th and 16th, was steady on the 17th and 18th, then fell
gradually, returning to normal on the 27th.
The problem of obtaining water supplies economically is prevalent
throughout the Brevard section of the Indian River basin. With the proper
precautions to prevent chloride contamination, several of the streams on the
eastern slope of the coastal ridge can be used as sources. In several cases
the topography is well suited for small-scale impoundment. However, on
Merritt Island and the barrier islands it appears that there is no suitable
surface source available. Although the rainfall is sufficient to meet the needs
were it possible to provide catchment and impoundment works, the flat
topography and porous soils appear to make such a course economically
infeasible.
Sykes Creek is the only stream on Merritt Island of appreciable size.
This creek, more aptly described as an arm of the Indian River, occupies
the low, marshy area down the center of the island and is canalized through-
out much of its length. The movement of water in the creek is erratic, the
rate and direction of flow being dependent upon inflow, wind, and changes
of stage in the Indian River. Estimates or measurements of flow, made at
times of periodic inspections, are listed below:


Flow*
10 cfs
Slight
None discernible
5 cfs
10 cfs
30 cfs
9 cfs
6 cfs
15 cfs
None discernible
30 cfs
2 cfs
No flow
Slight
25 cfs
6 cfs
20 cfs
No flow
10 cfs
24 cfs
44 cfs
7 cfs
10 cfs
10 cfs
15 cfs
5 cfs
No flow
No flow
No flow
No flow


Direction of flow
To the south
To the south
To the south
To the north
To the north
To the south
To the south
To the south
To the north
To the north
To the south
To the south
To the south
To the south
To the south
To the south
To the south
To the south
To the south
To the south
To the south
To the south


*Estimates were made when flow conditions were unsuitable for measuring.


Date
12-13-54
3-22-55
4-28-55
6- 8-55
7-19-55
9- 2-55
11-17-55
12-19-55
1-28-56
3-13-56
4-25-56
6- 4-56
7-19-56
8-28-56
10- 8-56
1- 7-57
2-21-57
4- 5-57
5-15-57
6-27-57
8- 9-57
9-20-57
10-31-57
12- 5-57
1-24-58
3-21-58
4-16-58
7-10-58
9- 4-58
10-31-58






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Chemical quality: In order to determine the quality of surface water
in the coastal ridge of Brevard County, samples were collected for compre-
hensive analysis at 6-week intervals from three locations. These stations
included Ellis Canal near Indian River City, Crane Creek near Melbourne,
and Fellsmere Canal near Fellsmere. Samples for determination of chloride
were collected at 6-week intervals at several other locations. Samples were
collected for comprehensive analysis at some of these stations so that through
comparison of the chloride content, a more comprehensive evaluation .of
the water quality could be made. Also two samples were collected and
analyzed from South Lake near Titusville.
Ellis Canal near Indian River City drains a relatively high area com-
posed of sand, clay, and coquina shell. Analyses indicate that this water
would be suitable for only a few purposes. Thirty samples were collected
over a 4-year period. During the first 2 years of the study comprehensive
analyses were made; during the last 2 years chloride and conductance deter-
minations were made. During the 4-year period only one sample had a
chloride concentration of less than 500 ppm. This sample was collected in
January of 1958 and had a concentration of 315 ppm of chloride. A sample
collected on October 8, 1956, had the highest chloride concentration, 1,150
ppm. The chloride concentration ranged between 505 and 715 ppm for all
of the other samples. Samples collected during the first 2 years of the study
showed concentrations of sulfate ranging from 199 to 278 ppm, dissolved
solids from 1,380 to 1,640 ppm, and hardness of 410 to 690 ppm.
Determinations of chloride and specific conductance of 33 samples
collected from Elbow Creek near Eau Gallie showed the water to be
acceptable for municipal water supplies. Chloride concentrations ranged
from 19 to 250 ppm and the conductance ranged from 116 to 1,140 mi-
cromhos. Although the chloride concentrations did not exceed the recom-
mended maximum, color in some of the samples collected exceeded the
permissible maximum.
Chloride concentrations and conductance of 32 samples collected from
Turkey Creek near Palm Bay indicate that the quality of the water of this
stream is similar to that of Elbow Creek except for slightly higher concen-
trations of dissolved solids. Chloride concentrations ranged from 7.0 to
340 ppm. The quantity of water available from Turkey Creek is considerably
greater than that from Elbow Creek.
Thirty samples for comprehensive analysis were collected from Crane
Creek at Melbourne during the investigation. Of these samples concentra-
tions of chloride ranged from 38 to 300 ppm and the dissolved solids from 131
to 808 ppm. It is reported that the stream is polluted by untreated sewage, but
there were no high concentrations of nitrate in samples collected.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 28


Determinations of chloride and specific conductance of samples collected
at 6-week intervals from the North Prong of Sebastian Creek near Micco
indicate that this stream is suitable as a municipal or industrial water source
only part of the time. During the period from October 1954 to September
1958 the chloride content of the samples exceeded 250 ppm only during
August 1955 and from December 1955 to July 1956.
Chemical analyses of samples collected from Fellsmere Canal near
Fellsmere indicate that the water, after treatment, would be satisfactory
for most uses. This canal receives irrigation-drainage water from a system
of laterals west of Fellsmere. A reconnaissance in October 1957 showed that
the chloride concentration of the canal near its western end was 18 ppm.
Progressively higher concentrations were noted at points east of this location
to as much as 67 ppm at State Highway 507 just north of Fellsmere. A
sample collected from one of the contributing laterals just west of State
Highway 507 had a chloride concentration of 187 ppm. Free-flowing
artesian wells in the vicinity of Fellsmere increase the mineral content of
Fellsmere Canal.
Samples for the determination of chloride as an indication of the salinity
of Indian River were collected semiannually during the investigation. Con-
centration ranges observed during the 4-year period are shown graphically
(fig. 30).

GROUND WATER

The following discussion of the occurrence of ground water has been
adapted in part from Meinzer (1923a, p. 2-102), whose report includes a
more detailed discussion of the general principles of ground water.
The materials that form the outer crust of the earth contain numerous
open spaces called voids or interstices. These interstices are the receptacles
that hold the water found below the land surface. The amount of water
that can be stored in any rock depends upon the size and number of
interstices. The permeability of a rock may be defined as its ability for
transmitting water under hydraulic head, and is measured as the rate at
which a rock will transmit water through a given cross section under a given
head per unit of distance. Rocks that will not transmit water are said to be
impermeable. Some deposits, such as well sorted silt or clay, may have a
high porosity but, because of the minute pores, transmit water very slowly.
Other deposits, such as well sorted gravel containing large openings that are
freely interconnected, transmit water readily. Part of the water in any
deposit is not available to wells because it is held against the force of gravity
by molecular attraction-that is, by the cohesion of the molecules of the
water itself and by their adhesion to the walls of the pores. The ratio of the







68 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

volume of water that a rock will yield by gravity, after being saturated, to
its own volume is known as the specific yield of the rock.
Below a certain level, which in Brevard County is near the land surface,
the permeable rocks are saturated with water. These saturated rocks are


Indian River at Titusville
Indian River at Cocoa
Newfound Harbor near Cocoa
Banana River near Cocoa
Indian River at Eau Gollie
Indian River at Melbourne
Indian River at Roseland


0 10 20 miles


SITE

2

4
5
6
7
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 2;
THOUSANDS OF PARTS PER MILLION OF CHLORIDE


Figure 30. Graph showing range of observed chloride concentrations in Indian
River, Banana River, and Newfound Harbor during the period 1953-57.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 28


said to be in the zone of saturation, and the upper surface of this zone is
called the water table. Wells dug or drilled into the zone of saturation will
become filled with water to the level of the water table.
The permeable rocks that lie above the zone of saturation are said to be
in the zone of aeration. As water from the surface percolates slowly down-
ward to the zone of saturation, part of it is held in the zone of aeration by
molecular attraction to the walls of the open spaces through which it passes.
In fine grained material there is invariably a moist belt in the zone of
aeration just above the water table known as the capillary fringe. Although
water in the zone of aeration is not available to wells, much of it is with-
drawn by transpiration and by evaporation from the soil.

ARTESIAN WATER

Ground water that rises in wells above the point at which it is first en-
countered is said to be artesian water (Meinzer and Wenzel, 1942, p. 451).
The artesian pressure that causes water to rise in a well develops in a for-
mation that is overlain by a confining layer that inhibits upward movement
of the water. If the artesian pressure is sufficient to cause the water to flow
at the ground surface, the well is termed a flowing artesian well; if water
does not flow, the well is called a nonflowing artesian well.
The pressure head or artesian pressure of water at a given point in a
formation is expressed as the height of a column of water that can be sup-
ported by the pressure. It is the height that a column of water will rise in a
tightly cased well and is expressed in feet of water in reference to a datum.
A rock stratum or formation that will yield water in sufficient quantity
to be of consequence as a source of supply is called an "aquifer," or simply
a "water-bearing formation." It is water bearing not in the sense of holding
water but in the sense of yielding or conveying water. The Floridan aquifer
in Brevard County consists of a series of limestone formations of Eocene to
Miocene in age which have a total thickness of several thousand feet and
underlies all of Florida and parts of Georgia and Alabama. Stringfield
(1936) described the aquifer and mapped the piezometric surface in 1933
and 1934. The name "Floridan aquifer" was introduced by Parker and
others (1955) to include "parts or all of the middle Eocene (Avon Park
and Lake City limestones), upper Eocene (Ocala limestone), Oligocene
(Suwannee limestone), and Miocene (Tampa limestone and, permeable
parts of the Hawthorn formation that are in hydrologic contact with the rest
of the aquifer)." The aquifer is overlain by confining beds that, although
porous and capable of absorbing water slowly, will not readily transmit
water. The confining beds overlying the limestone in Brevard County are
comprised chiefly of clays, silts, marls, dense limestones, and fine sediments






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


with greater or lesser admixtures of sand, fine gravel, and shell. The per-
meability is extremely low and this layer of confining material prevents
appreciable upward movement of water and thus maintains the artesian
pressure within the aquifer.
The artesian pressure in flowing wells and the water level in nonflowing
wells were measured during the inventory of wells. There were 1,024 artesian
wells inventoried during the investigation. The locations of these wells are
shown on a map, figure 31. The water levels and artesian pressure in many
of the artesian wells that had been measured during the 1946-47 investiga-
tion were measured again for comparative purposes. The number of wells
in the flood plain of the St. Johns River has increased greatly since the
1946-47 investigation.
In areas where information could not be obtained from existing wells,
test wells were constructed to collect geologic and hydrologic data.
The test-drilling program in the Floridan aquifer was divided into two
parts: (1) Three wells were drilled to locate the eastern limits of the fresh
water in the Floridan aquifer in the area near the north end of Lake
Poinsett, and (2) five wells were drilled in the St. Johns River valley for
general information on the Floridan aquifer (fig. 5).
Test well 822-051-1, west of Cocoa, was constructed to determine the
artesian pressure at different depths in the Floridan aquifer. In general, it
appears that the artesian pressure increases very little with depth into the
aquifer. When the well was completed it was equipped with a 2-inch dia-
meter casing inside the 6-inch diameter casing from land surface to 550
feet below land surface as shown in figure 6. A concrete plug was installed
at a depth of 493-529 feet with the 2-inch casing extending through the
plug to a depth of 550 feet.
Thus, it was possible to measure the artesian pressure in the zone
between 530 and 553 feet through the 2-inch casing and the artesian pres-
sure in the zone between 138 and 493 feet through the outer 6-inch casing.
The artesian pressures of the two zones were measured periodically for 2/2
years and the artesian pressures were found to be essentially the same. The
difference in artesian pressure between the two zones varied from 0 to 1.5
feet during the period of observation. It was observed also that as this test
well and other test wells were drilled deeper into the aquifer the composite
artesian pressure did not increase appreciably.
The artesian pressure at a well head is the composite pressure of all
producing zones. When a well has zones of varying pressure, the water from
the zones of higher artesian pressure will move into zones of lower artesian
pressure. Thus, the pressure measured at the discharge pipe may not repre-
sent the maximum pressure within the well.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 28


FLUCTUATION IN ARTESIAN PRESSURE

The artesian pressure in 12 wells was measured periodically during this
investigation to determine the characteristics of the artesian-pressure fluc-
tuations. Water-level recorders were installed on two wells to obtain data on
the daily and seasonal changes in the water level due to tidal and barometric
effects. Five wells have been measured periodically since 1948 as a part of
the statewide water-level program. Locations of the water-level observation
wells are shown on figure 32.
The hydrographs of five wells (fig. 33) show, in addition to seasonal
variations, a gradual downward trend from 1946 to 1956 and a slight re-
covery during 1957 and 1958. The average monthly precipitation graph in
figure 4 indicates that the highest rainfall generally occurs in Brevard Coun-
ty from June through October. Accordingly, the water levels are generally
highest during or slightly after this period. The period of low rainfall
generally occurs from November to May. Water levels begin to decline near
the end of the year and generally are lowest in June or July.
In areas where there are a large number of wells, such as the Melbourne-
Eau Gallie area, the artesian pressure in wells fluctuated several feet during
a year. Well 805-045-1, 9 miles west of Melbourne, is in an area of heavy
withdrawal of ground water. The well had a record high water level of
30.0 feet above land surface on October 15, 1949, and a record low water
level of 20.2 feet above land surface on May 21, 1956. The average water
level in the well during the period of record, August 1934 to July 1958, was
26.34 feet above land surface. During this period the yearly range of
fluctuation was smallest in 1950 (1.6 feet) and greatest in 1956 (6.3 feet).
Well 847-051-1, northeast of Scottsmoor near the Volusia County line,
is not affected by the withdrawal from other wells, and the hydrograph
shows the fluctuations caused by changing rates of recharge and discharge.
This well had a record high water level of 6.7 feet above land surface on
June 26, 1946, and again on August 29, 1946. The record low water level
was 0.14 foot above land surface on May 20, 1956. The average water level
during the period June 1946 to July 1958 was 3.53 feet above land surface.
In this well the yearly range of fluctuation was smallest in 1953 (1.60 feet)
and greatest in 1950 (4.12 feet) .

PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE
The piezometric surface is an imaginary surface to which water will rise
in tightly cased wells that penetrate an artesian aquifer. It is mapped by
determining the altitude of the water level in a network of wells. This sur-
face is represented on-maps by contours that connect points of the same
altitude.






72 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


In
18 --I-- --I--i-- --s--r -|--,--------- ----|-

17-


15 --- --
14 -

12

Well 834-039-1
S at Orsinca Meitt Island
91 I I I -
14 -- -- -- --- i -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- ---
91
































Wall 759-045-2
95 mil \est of MElar
0
S Well 821-041




5--


SI Sco
25 W--- | ----------------W-J-



__ l8 0 1 9 9 9 93 95 95 19 -- 15 9
24


9 miles wo s of Melbourne







27
2 28 L i I--


,25 -,, I A, v k
23 _o-- -- -- --_--- - 1 _




9.5 miles west of Molab_ \


21-Wel81--I








C 0 1950 1 1955 1956 1957 1

Figure 33. Hydrographs of artesian pressure in selected artesian wells in Brevard
County.





WNII(i bIA'Ikb 104HIMM (A Cd 'lkINURIN F~ LONI(A if(JIDIJiCA4. liumVity
QAOtLC(iA1, OUROVY H 0 Yorwani, Oreclof
I-* r t


Vol. AIA DOQUNTV








10 oA0












0













EXPLANATIONd


A N

Lowernumbw erIldleolis IMI
notesi oflgslel oquI.N s-
nots Inonottakin WOqfff.



MIMI, WWII:d







~,- IN



If- ~pWft, lilalbWdit


Baes compiled from U. S. Geologlool Copled bt J.B. Foster
Survy topographlo quadrongles In 95
Figure 32. Brevard County showing the location of water-level and chloride
observation wells.





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 26


The direction of flow within an aquifer is shown by the configuration
of the piezometric contours. Water moves from a contour of higher altitude
to one of lower altitude in a direction nearly perpendicular to the contour.
In Brevard County, wells used to prepare the piezometric maps were
selected to give an optimum areal distribution. In the northeast and north-
west parts of the county the poor chemical quality of the artesian water has
restricted its utilization. Consequently, there were few wells in which water-
level measurements could be obtained. The depth of each well into the
Floridan aquifer was not a critical factor in the selection of the well as a
control point because variation in the depth the wells penetrate the aquifer
makes little or no difference in the artesian pressure. It was necessary to
select wells with water-tight casings so that none of the artesian pressure
would be lost through leaks in the casing.
Three maps (fig. 34, 35, 36) of the piezometric surface were compiled
to show the piezometric surface under different seasonal conditions and
weather conditions. The maps represent conditions during the following
periods: January 1957, a period of low artesian pressure (fig. 34); July
1957, a period of average artesian pressure (fig. 35); February 1958, a
period of high artesian pressure (fig. 36).
The piezometric surface in February 1958 was more than 45 feet above
sea level in the southwestern part of the county and sloped to less than 10
feet above sea level in the northeast part of the county. As shown in figure
14, ground-water movement in the Floridan aquifer is eastward or north-
eastward in the adjacent counties of Osceola, Orange, and Seminole. In
Brevard County, the direction of flow shifts from eastward in the southern
part of the county to northeastward in the central part of the county. In the
area west of Indian River from Rockledge to Mims, the direction of ground-
water movement is northeastward, but on the barrier islands north of Cocoa
Beach, the direction shifts from northward to Cocoa Beach, to northwest-
ward at Cape Canaveral, and to nearly westward at the northern end of
Merritt Island.
The direction of ground-water movement in Brevard County changes
near the Osceola-Brevard county boundary and along Indian River in the
northern half of the county. The fault (fig. 9) in the formations of the
Floridan aquifer in the western part of the county probably causes the
eastward moving water in Osceola County to move northeastward in
Brevard County. In the northern half of the county the water moves north-
eastward in the area west of Indian River and northwestward in the area
east of Indian River. The change in direction of water movement in the
area near Indian River is probably caused by upward leakage of water from
the artesian aquifer.




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Depressions in the piezometric surface reveal areas in which water was
being discharged from the aquifer; either by natural outlets, such as springs
or upward leakage through the confining bed or by manmade features, such
as wells. The biggest depression, and hence the area of greatest discharge,
is in the northeastern part of the county. Inasmuch as there is a relatively
small number of wells in this area the depression is probably the result of
natural discharge of large quantities of water from springs or upward leak-
age through the confining beds.
The small depression at the north end of Lake Poinsett indicates that
artesian water is probably being discharged by upward leakage into the St.
Johns River, where the confining beds are thin. There are several shallow
depressions in the area south of Eau Gallie that are probably the result of
the withdrawal of water by the many wells in the area.
A comparison of the piezometric surfaces in October 1947 (fig. 37),
as shown by Neill (1955), and in February 1958 (fig. 36), shows a decline
of 5 feet in the piezometric surface in the county. The decline may be
attributed to an increased use of ground water during the past 10 years and
drought conditions during 1954-56.

AREAS OF FLOW
Wherever the piezometric surface stands higher than the land surface,
artesian wells will flow. The areas of flowing and nonflowing artesian wells
are shown on figure 34. This figure shows that artesian wells flow in all
but a small part of the county. The area in which artesian wells do not flow
is in the Atlantic Coastal Ridge from Cocoa northward into Volusia County.
During periods of dry weather, as in 1956, the artesian pressure dropped to
I or 2 feet above land surface in the area along the high ridge of the city of
Eau Gallie and consequently reduced the yield of the wells in this area.
The approximate water level to be expected in a well can be determined
by a comparison of the altitude of land surface at the well site with the
altitude of the piezometric surface. If the piezometric surface (fig. 34-37)
is above the land surface (fig. 3), the well will flow and the artesian pres-
sure (in feet of head) will be approximately the difference in feet between
the two surfaces. A well will not flow where the land surface is above the
piezometric surface. In this case the difference in feet between the two
surfaces will give the approximate depth to water below land surface in a
well penetrating the artesian aquifer.
RECHARGE
In central Florida the Floridan aquifer receives much of its recharge in
Polk and surrounding counties. One of the most conspicuous features of the





els vk/[/.1 Af1 '0 A 1


810-0 -W
BOae compiled from U. S. Geological
Survey topogroapl quodrongle.


Hyoogy by J. B6. er
In 1958


Figure 34. Brevard County showing generalized contours on the plezometric
surface of the Floridan aquifer and flowing and nonflowing areas in January 1957.




I I i


Base compiled from U, S, Geological Hydrology by J. B. Foster
Survey topographic quadrangles,. In 1958
Figure 35. Brovard County showing generalized contours on the plezometric
surface of the Florldan aquifer in July 1957.


I WAM






REPOR-T OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 28


piezometric surface of Florida (fig. 14) is the dome centered in Polk
County, which indicates that considerable recharge enters the aquifer in this
area (Stringfield, 1936, p. 148).
In Brevard County an area of local recharge has been defined in the
Atlantic Coastal Ridge north of Indian River City. The area has been
delineated largely on the basis of the chemical quality of the water and the
relationship of water levels in the artesian and nonartesian aquifers. Water
samples from wells penetrating the top of the Floridan aquifer in the local
recharge area had chloride concentrations of less than 100 ppm, while
water from artesian wells both east and west of the recharge area had
chloride concentrations ranging from 850 to 13,300 ppm.
A comparison of the piezometric contours and the water table (fig. 35,
41) in the Mims area shows the water table to be 12.5 feet higher than the
piezometric surface in the center of the recharge area. Thus, fresh water
from the nonartesian aquifer moves downward into the artesian zone and
has developed a zone of fresh water in the upper part of the artesian
aquifer. Spicer (1947) made resistivity studies in the vicinity of Mims
along State Highway 46, and drew a cross section showing the top of the
water of high chloride content to be 125 feet below land surface in the
highest part of the ridge. This is also confirmed by wells in the same general
area that penetrate the aquifer to depths of 128 and 132 feet below land
surface and produce water with chloride concentrations of less than
100 ppm.

DISCHARGE

Discharge of water from the Floridan aquifer in Brevard County is by:
(1) wells, (2) upward leakage into the nonartesian aquifer, (3) springs and
seeps, and (4) ground-water underflow out of the county.
Ground water is discharged by flowing wells in all of Brevard County
except in a small area in the Atlantic Coastal Ridge where wells do not flow
at the surface (fig. 34).
The area of highest yielding wells in the artesian aquifer is bordered on
the north by Lake Poinsett, on the south by Lake Washington, on the west
by Lake Winder, and on the east by Indian River. The yield and depth of
the wells in the area are shown in figure 38. There are 8-inch diameter wells,
125 to 225 feet deep, which flow at a rate of about 3,000 gpm (gallons per
minute) and other 8-inch diameter wells within the area as deep as 600
feet that have yielded from 550 to 1,000 gpm. The wells with high yields
are apparently penetrating zones in the top of the limestone of Eocene Age
that contain solution cavities.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


There are a few turbine pumps used to boost the natural flow of artesian
water for municipal and industrial supplies. In areas of nonflow or where
the artesian pressure above land surface is low, portable centrifugal pumps
are used for irrigation of groves and the flooding of tide lands for mosquito
abatement. Small jet pumps are used to supply water from the nonflowing
artesian wells in the Atlantic Coastal Ridge for domestic or commercial
purposes.


5BO U 4 4 -5 45 .45 44. 4 80"42z
Figure 38. The central part of Brevard County showing well yield and well depth.-.




I o I i IN I I IA I I I illt


I I I I I I I i


COUNTY


0 I I a 5 4 5 p mll


CANAtRAIL


EXPLANATION

Will

Upper number is well number
Lower number i oltiflude of
the pitometric surface,ln
February 1958.


--55

Contour line showing the altitude of
the pileometric surface; dashed.
where Inferred. Contour Interval
S feet


S Dolum Is mmen m level


Bose compiled from U. S. Geological
Survey topogrophic quadrongles.


Hydrology by J. B. Fbstr
in 1958


Figure 36. Brevard County showing generalized contours on the piezometric
surface of the Floridan aquifer in February 1958.




A II k it; k AI, Mt 141 it Is j 1101t 111it(i 1


A^


q I I L Tmtie


IA


CANAVUURAL


EXPLANATION


Contour line showing the altitude of
the piezometric surface, in
October 1947; dashed where
Inferred. Contour interval 5 feet

S-4-


Direction of ground-waer movement
In the arosion oquifer

Datum is mean sea level


Bae compiled from U. S. GeoloIlol
Survey topograpNo quoadrangles.


Hydrom g by R MK Nel
In 9I5


Figure 37. Brevard County showing generalized contours on the plezometric
surface of the Floridan aquifer in October 1947.


A KOC





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 28


Depressions in the piezometric surface in the northeast part of the county
and north of Lake Poinsett indicate that large quantities of water are being
discharged from the aquifer. These depressions are probably the result of
natural discharge from the aquifer by springs or seeps. Small seeps or springs
have been reported by local residents along the St. Johns River and they are
referred to locally as "soup doodles" or "salt boils." The water from these
seeps is reported to have a very salty taste. The salty water would indicate
upward leakage of artesian water from the Floridan aquifer. Two large
submarine springs have been reported off the coast of Brevard County, one
is about 20 miles east of Eau Gallie and the other is northeast of Cape
Canaveral.

IRRIGATION SUPPLIES

During the past few years several thousand acres of the St. Johns River
valley between Lake Poinsett and the Indian River County line have been
cleared and diked off for improved pasture: Artesian wells have been drilled
in the area to irrigate the pastures during the periods of low rainfall. A
network of canals and smaller ditches has been constructed to control the
water for these pastures. When properly planned, installed, and maintained
such systems provide drainage during the rainy season and irrigation ditches
for the distribution of water from the flowing wells in periods of low rainfall.
The irrigation wells are usually located on the highest land to be irrigated
and the water is distributed by gravity through the system of main ditches
and field laterals.
Subirrigation is used extensively in Brevard County by raising or lowering
the water level, in the ditches surrounding the irrigated field. The water
table is maintained in dry seasons by flooding the ditches with water from
artesian wells. Water is maintained in the field laterals until the water table
rises to within 12 inches of the surface, then the wells are shut off and the
water table .is allowed to recede by plant transpiration, evaporation, and
downward percolation to 24 inches below land surface. When the water
table is at a depth of .24 inches the wells are turned on again and the
procedure is repeated.
The minimum amount of water in addition to precipitation required for
efficient operation of the system is about 7.5 gpm per acre irrigated, if the
system is operated for 24 hours.a day (Renfro, 1955, p. 278). One acre re-
quires about 11,000 gpd for optimum grass growth.
The major citrus growing areas in the county are along Indian River
from the south edge of the city of Rockledge to the Volusia County line
and on Merritt Island. In these areas artesian water with as much as 1,800
to 2,000 ppm of chloride is used for subirrigation. Some groves have been