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 Front Cover
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 Transmittal letter
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 Climate
 Drought
 Summary
 References
 Tables


FGS







STATEOF FLORIDA
STATE SBQARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY



FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert O. Vernon, Director






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 26







THE DROUGHT OF 1954-56,
ITS EFFECT ON FLORIDA'S SURFACE-WATER
RESOURCES

By
R. W. Pride and J. W. Crooks
U. S. Geological Survey









Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


S TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
1962





^ 3&/^ < '^':-



AGRI.


FLORIDA STATE BOARV"R

OF

CONSERVATION






FARRIS BRYANT
Governor


TOM ADAMS
Secretary of State



RAY E. GREEN
Comptroller



THOMAS D. BAILEY
Superintendent of Public Instruction


RICHARD ERVIN
Attorney General



J. EDWIN LARSON
Treasurer



DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGES, Director







LETTER OF -TRANSMITTAL


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Tallahassee

August 31,'1961



Honorable Farris Bryant, Chairman
Florida State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Governor Bryant:

The Florida Geological Survey has published as its Report of
Investigations No. 26, a summary of "The Drought of 1954-56,
Its Effect on Florida's Surface-Water Resources." This study was
prepared by R. W. Pride and J. W. Crooks of the U. S. Geological
Survey, Surface-Water Branch, in cooperation with the Florida
Geological Survey.
This is the most severe drought on record, and the statewide
runoff was about 43 percent of the average runoff. The study pro-
vides extensive data on the quality-of-water changes that were
brought about during the severe drought. Minimum flows were
recorded at 135 continuous record stations, and 190 low-flow
measurements were made. Quality-of-water stations numbering
133 are included in the study. The effects of this drought are
widespread and will be important in all future design and planning
work throughout the State.

Respectfully yours,
Robert O. Vernon, Director














































Completed manuscript received
April 14, 1961
Published by the Florida Geological Survey
Bulkley-Newman Printing Company
Tallahassee, Florida

iv








CONTENTS



Page
Abstract __ 1

Introduction 1_________
Purpose and scope ___ ___ 1
Acknowledgments _---_ ___ 2
Description of the area 2

Climate _______ 3

The drought 4-____ _
The rainfall index ____ 5
Deficiencies of rainfall __ 6
Surface-water records available -8
Deficiencies of surface-water supplies 9
Streamflow __ 9
West Florida ______10
The Florida Peninsula -_---l----- ------ 11
Lake levels ____ __ __-_12
Effect on chemical quality of water --13
Streams -__16
Springs -20
Economic effects of the drought 20
Summary ------- ---------21
References __--_--- -- -- ----------------22










ILLUSTRATIONS


Figure Page
1 Distribution of average annual rainfall, in inches, in Florida 4

2 Annual rainfall in Florida, 1881-1958 -.---...... --_..__ .... 6,

3 Rainfall deficiency in Florida, 1954-56 __ 7

4 Location of data-gathering points in Florida
during the drought in 1956 _- ____facing 10

5 Monthly flows and their relation to normal for
selected streams in Florida -___- ....-- --.--. ....... __ __ facing 12

6 Month-end stages and the departures from average
for selected lakes in Florida ____facing 14

7 Relation of dissolved solids to discharge,
St. Johns River near DeLand, Florida, 1948 _____ 15

8 Comparison of rainfall departure from normal at
Kissimmee with discharge and dissolved solids
concentration of Kissimmee River near
Okeechobee, Florida ----.-------_-.. 17

9 A comparison of rainfall departure from normal at
Merritt Island with discharge and dissolved
solids concentration of St. Johns River near
Cocoa, Florida 19


Table
1 Departure from normal annual rainfall in Florida, 1954-56 ---- __ 22

2 Minimum flow, in cubic feet per second, of Florida streams ___ 24

3 Low-flow measurements made at partial-record
gaging stations during the 1956 drought ____36

4 Chemical analysis of surface waters during the drought in 1956 __56

5 Chemical analysis of springs in Florida, 1946 and 1956 _______ _65


vii









THE DROUGHT OF 1954-56,
ITS EFFECT ON FLORIDA'S SURFACE-WATER RESOURCES
By
R. W. Pride and J. W. Crooks

ABSTRACT

The most severe drought of record occurred in Florida during
the 3-year period 1954-56. The drought was caused by rainfall
deficiencies in amounts ranging from 7 to 11 inches during each
of the 3 years.
The statewide runoff during 1955 was estimated to be 6 inches
as compared with 14 inches for an average year.
Observed facts concerning the effect of the drought on the
surface-water resources of the State are presented. Minimum
streamflow recorded -at 135 continuous-record stations, low-flow
measurements at 190 partial-record stations, and chemical analyses
of the water at 133 sites are summarized in tabular form.
Records of streamflow for 13 representative streams and rec-
ords of stage for 17 representative lakes are compared with
average flows or stages to indicate the severity of the drought.
Information is presented to show that the dissolved solids con-
centrations in most streams increased as the flows declined.



INTRODUCTION

PURPOSE AND SCOPE

During the 3-year period, 1954-56, a severe drought, caused
by deficient rainfall, occurred over most of Florida. Diminished
streamflow, lowered lake levels, and lack of soil moisture were di-
rect effects of the drought.
Normally, rainfall deficiencies in Florida are of short dura-
tion, and though some agricultural areas may suffer from lack of
rainfall during the crop season, the overall effects of dry periods
are not serious.
The 1954-56 drought caused critical shortages of surface water
in many areas of the- State and, because of its 3-year duration,
was an event of unusual occurrence.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


This report was prepared to give factual drought information.
It presents information on water levels, flows, and chemical quali-
ty of surface waters at a number of locations. It defines the areal
extent and relative intensity of the drought and the effect of the
drought on the quantity and quality of the surface waters of the
State. No special effort has been made previously to provide state-
wide information on the effect of drought on surface-water supplies
although Florida is known to experience frequent drought--varia-
ble in duration, intensity, and areal extent.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The study of the drought of 1954-56 was made in cooperation
with the Florida Geological Survey. Data included in the report
were obtained from special and continuing record studies con-
ducted in cooperation with the following agencies:
Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army
Florida Division of Water Survey and Research
Florida State Geological Survey
Florida State Road Department
Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District
Florida State Trustees of Internal Improvement Fund
Florida Board of Parks
Dade County
Hillsborough County
PineUas County
Polk County
City of Jacksonville
Cities of Miami and Miami Beach
City of Pensacola
City of Perry
City of Tampa
Florida Power Corporation
Climatological data furnished by the U. S. Weather Bureau
were used to define zones of rainfall deficiency. The compilation
and evaluation of the data were made by the U. S. Geological Sur-
vey in Ocala, Florida.
The report was prepared in the Ocala District of the U. S.
Geological Survey under the supervision of A. O. Patterson, district
engineer, Surface Water Branch, and J. W. Geurin, district chem-
ist, Quality of Water Branch.

DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA

The topography of Florida is relatively flat, with elevations
ranging from the highest known point of 345 feet down to sea level.
Rolling hills are predominant in the western part of the State,






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 26


lakes and some hills are extensive in the north central part, and
the flat swamplands of the Everglades are predominant in the
lower part of the State.
Florida is well endowed with water. Tens of thousands of
lakes and ponds, more than 50 river systems, and many bays and
estuaries comprise 3,805 square miles of water surface in the
58,666 square miles of the State. Replenishment of these water
sources occurs in several ways. Rainfall provides the greatest
amount of water. Additional water comes from streams that origi-
nate in other states and from underground flow from these states.
Water is lost from the State through evaporation, transpiration,
consumptive uses, and stream and underground flow to the Atlantic
Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.
On the Florida Peninsula the Central Highlands form the
divide between drainage to the east into the Atlantic Ocean and
that to the south and west into the Gulf of Mexico. In northwestern
Florida most of the area is drained by river systems that originate
in Georgia or Alabama and flow southward through Florida to the
Gulf of Mexico.

CLIMATE
Florida's climate is its greatest attraction to more than five
million people who visit the State each year. In general, tempera-
tures are not extremely low during the winter months, averaging
from 54 F. in the northern part to 750 F. in the southern part.
During the warmest months in July and August, the statewide
average temperature is 810 F.
SNearly all precipitation in Florida occurs as rain. The amounts
that occur as snow, sleet, and other forms are inconsequential. The
average annual rainfall is about 53 inches and varies from 46
inches to 64 inches in different parts of the State. Normally, rain-
fall is greatest from June through September and least from
November through January. Distribution of average rainfall for
the State is shown in figure 1.
Three patterns of rainfall occur in Florida. Thundershowers
during the summer provide over half of the annual rainfall. Rain-
fall at this time is frequent and intense but of short duration.
Thunderstorm activity in north central Florida has the highest
incident rate of the United States. Of longer duration are the
winter rains that result from contact between the warm moist air
from the Gulf and the cold air of invading cold fronts. Rainfall is
generally light at this time but may be continuous for several days.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 1. Distribution of average annual rainfall, in inches, in Florida.

Great amounts of rainfall occur in Florida as a result of hurricanes
that pass near or across the State. Rainfall at this time is intense,
widespread, and often of several days' duration.


THE DROUGHT

Drought conditions, as ordinarily defined in humid areas,
exist when there is insufficient moisture in the soil to maintain
plant life or when precipitation is insufficient to meet the needs of
established human activities. The severity of a drought depends on
many factors: the relation of the deficiency to the normal rainfall;
the land cover and use; the specific location and time of occurrence;
and the duration of the deficiency. In areas where rainfall is nor-
mally high, a deficiency of a few inches may cause only minor
adverse effects. On the other hand, in some areas this same amount
may be a high proportion of the total rainfall and may cause seri-
ous problems in crop production, in soil conservation, and in pro-
viding for domestic water supplies.


58 56














SOURCE: US. WEATHER BUREAU


caoDO






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 26


During periods of deficient rainfall, the removal of soil mois-
ture to support plant growth adds to the severity of a drought.
Heavy vegetal cover transpires more water than a sparse cover
and therefore increases the water deficiency,
The effects of drought are more severe on some types of vege-
tal cover than.on others. During drought conditions shallow-rooted
plants do not live as long as deep-rooted plants that derive water
from greater depths. Thus, a drought affects cropland sooner than
forests.
In northern climates, where vegetation is dormant in the
winter, water needs are less during winter than during the grow-
ing season, and a greater portion of the precipitation runs off in
streams. Precipitation deficiencies during the winter cause little
immediate inconvenience and result only in low stream discharges.
In most of Florida there is year-round vegetal growth, however,
and water is used in the winter months though in lesser amounts.
Variation in rainfall has an important influence on droughts.
Rainfall is not uniformly distributed really nor is it properly
timed for optimum utilization. Floods occur when the intensity and
timing of storms result in runoff of water in excess of immediate
utilization and storage. Drought could occur even though the rain-
fall for a given period was higher than the average, when the dis-
tribution is such that most of the rain falls during a short period.
Records of rainfall and streamflow provide data for studying
droughts-by defining the area covered, the severity, the frequency,
and the duration of drought.

THE RAINFALL INDEX
Records of the U. S. Weather Bureau provide data on annual
rainfall for Florida during the years 1881 to 1958. These data are
plotted as bar graphs in figure 2. Another type of plot, the moving
mean graph, is illustrated by the heavy line of figure 2. The mean
rainfall for successive 3-year periods has been plotted at the mid-
year position. The duration of the period of rainfall deficiency is
one of the more important factors that influence the severity of a
drought and is probably the most significant cause of extreme
drought in Florida. From the moving mean graph, it is possible to
observe critical wet and dry periods and to study climatic varia-
tions.
Annual rainfall totals in Florida for 1954, 1955, and 1956
were 45.89, 42.33, and 42.46 inches, respectively. Since 1881, lower
annual rainfalls have occurred for only two other years, 41.33






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


SEAI 7 YEARS.
53.2 INCH ES 3-YEAR MOVING






Sso



45




0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0o o o o o o
o, 0 0 0
CALENDAR YEAR
Figure 2. Annual rainfall in Florida, 1881-1958.

inches in 1917 and 40.78 inches in 1927. However, the moving mean
for the 3 years, 1954-56, is the lowest of the means for any 3-year
period since 1881. Thus, the rainfall pattern shows that the 1954-56
drought in Florida ranks as the most severe in the past 78 years.


DEFICIENCIES OF RAINFALL

Table 1 shows the departures from normal of the 1954-56
annual rainfall at several U. S. Weather Bureau stations. Normals
are based on long-term records collected at each station.
The areal extent, intensity, and duration of the rainfall
deficiency are shown in figure 3, which has been prepared from the
data shown in table 1. It shows that the maximum rainfall deficien-
cies in 1954 occurred in the northern part of the State, particularly
in the extreme northwest. The 1954 deficiency was nearly 33 inches
at the Pensacola station and ranged from 20 to 30 inches at most






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 26


0-10




Figure 3. Rainfall deficiency in Florida, 1954-56.


of the other stations in northwestern Florida. In 1954 the area of
rainfall deficiency did not extend into southern Florida except for
a small area along the southwestern Gulf coast. By contrast, along
the southeastern coast, from about the middle of the peninsula
southward, the 1954 rainfall was excessive in amounts up to 20
inches.
In 1955 rainfall deficiencies continued in the western part of
the State but in lesser amounts than in 1954. The area of deficient
rainfall- included the entire State except for three small areas on
the peninsula where rainfall was slightly above normal. However,
these areas of excess rainfall were insignificant in comparison with
the rest of the State. The areas of greatest rainfall deficiency in
1955 were along the northwestern Gulf coast and along the Atlantic
coastline.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


In 1956 rainfall was deficient throughout the State except
across the extreme northern part and in a small area in the central
part of the peninsula. In that year, the greatest deficiencies were
in the southern part of the peninsula.
The drought was ended by heavy rains during the latter part
of 1956 and in 1957. Statewide, the 1957 rainfall was above normal.
Amounts of about 25 inches above normal occurred at stations at
the Miami Beach Airport and at Tarpon Springs.

SURFACE-WATER RECORDS AVAILABLE

Information on water levels, spring and stream discharge, and
chemical quality of water is obtained regularly at various loca-
tions in Florida by the U. S. Geological Survey. During the period
1954-56 continuous records of stage and discharge were collected
by the Survey at 135 gaging stations in the State, and continuous
records of stage only were collected at 160 gaging stations on lakes
and streams. The minimum flows recorded at each of the stream-
gaging stations are shown in table 2. This table shows the minimum
for the period of record as well as for the 1954-56 drought. At
many gaging stations the minimum for the period of record oc-
curred during the 1954-56 drought.
Information on chemical quality of water is not as extensive.
Daily records of from 1 to 3 years of continuous operation are
available for 13 locations. Monthly, or less frequent, records are
available for 54 locations. Although these records are valuable in
showing chemical characteristics of the water at the time of opera-
tion, the lack of long-term records prevents definition of trends.
For example, data may be available for a period of high or low
water levels but often are not available for both of these conditions
or the intervening periods between such events.
These records of water level, streamflow, and chemical quality
show the effect of the drought on surface-water supplies. The long-
term records of water level and streamflow are particularly valua-
ble for studying the drought.
In 1956, particularly in April and May, discharge measure-
ments were made at 190 partial-record sites to supplement the
streamflow data collected at the stream-gaging stations. The re-
sults of these measurements are shown in table 3. Samples were
collected for chemical analyses at 133 of these locations and at 46
other locations during this period; the results of analyses on these
samples are shown in table 4. Locations of stream-gaging stations,







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 26


partial-record sites, and sample sources are shown in figure 4. Each
location has been numbered to provide a cross-reference with the
tables of flow data or analyses. These data have been used and
compared with earlier records, where available, for this report.

DEFICIENCIES OF SURFACE-WATER SUPPLIES
STREAMFLOW
As discussed earlier in the report, the 1954-56 drought was
caused by rainfall deficiencies for the 3-year period. The effects of
the drought on the stage and flow of streams and an indication of
its relative severity are revealed by records collected at gaging
stations, many of which have been operated for several years.
Table 2 gives the minimum flow recorded for the 1954-56 drought
and for the period of record at each stream-gaging station in the
State. The results of measurements of streamflow at many addi-
tional sites on the peninsula during one of the most severe periods
of the drought, the early part of 1956, are given in table 3.
The statewide effects of the drought on streamflow are rep-
resented by records from 13 selected gaging stations. These repre-
sentative stations were selected to provide geographic distribution,
antecedent records for comparison, variations in topography and
geology, and a range in sizes of drainage basins.
Figure 5 shows graphically the monthly flows and their rela-
tion to normal for the 13 representative gaging stations in Florida
for 1954-57. The normal for each month is the median value of the
monthly mean discharges for the period of record at each gaging
station.
Study of the rainfall and streamflow records indicates that
the most severe period of the drought occurred in northwestern
Florida earlier than on the peninsula. In the northwestern part
of the State the most severe years were 1954 and 1955. The drought
in this area was broken during the latter part of 1956. The years
of the most severe drought on- the peninsula were 1955 and 1956,
with minimum flows of most streams occurring in the first half
of 1956.
Owing to the statewide extent of rainfall deficiencies in 1955,
the total runoff from the State during that year was probably less
than in either 1954 or 1956. The runoff from the State during 1955
was estimated to be 24,000 cubic feet per second. This estimate was
based on the unit figures of runoff determined from the network
of gaging stations. This is equivalent to 151/2 billion gallons per






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


day, or a depth of about 6 inches per year over the total land sur-
face. The statewide runoff for an average year is estimated to be
14 inches (Patterson, 1955, p. 34). Rainfall over the State during
1955 was 42.33 inches; the difference between rainfall and runoff
was about 36 inches. This difference represents the composite
amount of water lost by evaporation and transpiration, and by net
changes in surface and ground water storage.
West Florida: Streamflow conditions in West Florida are
represented by index stations on Shoal River near Crestview, Per-
dido River at Barrineau Park, Econfina Creek near Bennett, and
Ochlockonee River near Havana. Above-normal rates of streamflow
occurred at the beginning of 1954. However, the flow dropped below
normal at each of the index stations by April and continued to
decline for the remainder of the year. Record-low flows occurred
in 1954 for many of the streams in this region. The occurrence of
new minimum flows for a long-term record is significant in estab-
lishing the relative severity of the drought. Records are available
for Ochlockonee River near Havana since June 1926. The minimum
monthly flow at this station occurred in October 1954; it was only
10 percent of the normal flow for October.
The base flows of streams in West Florida are fairly well
sustained by accretions from ground water and, even during the
prolonged drought, the streams continued to flow, though at reduced
rates.
Rainfall deficiencies persisted through the normally wet season
from June through September, and at the end of 1954 streamflow
was still low.
Streamflow increased slightly in this region in the early part
of 1955 but, in general, continued below normal; In contrast to the
drought conditions that existed over most of the State, flooding
occurred in the extreme western part. In April 1955 intense rain-
fall occurred over a narrow area in the extreme western part of
Florida and the southern parts of Alabama, Mississippi, and Lou-
isiana, producing flash floods of considerable magnitude in the Per-
dido River basin and in many of the smaller tributaries of the
Escambia River. Temporarily the drought in this area was broken.
However, the rain that produced the flood was concentrated within
a short time interval and the greater part ran off as flood flow.
Sustained effects of the flood were negligible and streamflow in
the western area again dropped below normal after A-pril 1955.
Other areas of West Florida received less than normal amounts
of rainfall during 1955, and for the second consecutive year, the

















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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 26


drought continued. Many streams with large ground-water inflows
declined gradually during the two years of deficient rainfall. By
the end of 1955 the prolonged period of ground-water depletion
without replenishment began to take a toll on the ground-water
accretions to base flow and these streams dropped to new record
lows. Figure 5 shows that the monthly mean flow for Econfina
Creek near Bennett declined rather uniformly for the 2-year peri-
od, 1954-55, and reached a minimum in December 1955, when the
flow was 62.6 percent of normal for the month.
The drought continued in West Florida during the early part
of 1956. Streamflow had increased slightly from the record lows
of 1954 and 1955 but generally was still below normal. However,
by the summer of 1956, the drought in the western part of the
State was broken and streamflow was generally back to normal.
Econfina Creek was an exception; owing to the lag in the replen-
ishment of ground-water supplies, it did not regain sustained nor-
mal flow until May 1957. This represents a 3-year period of below-
normal flow at this station and is an indication of the depleted
ground-water supply of the area.
The Florida Peninsula: Streamflow conditions on the penin-
sula are represented by nine index stations shown in figure 5. In the
northern part of the peninsula, streamflow dropped below normal
at some stations early in 1954. Records for Suwannee River at
Branford indicate the severity of the drought in that area. The
flow of Suwannee River dropped below normal in March 1954 and
remained below through May 1957 except for a temporary return
to normal during May 1956. The flow dropped to a low of 13.7
percent of normal in October 1955.
The flow of Silver Springs is perhaps the best index of the pro-
longed effect of the drought in the central part of Florida. The
flow dropped below normal in August 1954 and remained below
until May 1958. It remained about 70 percent of normal for the
greater part of this period. The minimum flow for Silver Springs
occurred in May 1957.
The St. Johns River at U. S. Highway 192, west of Melbourne,
did not flow on many days in 1955 and 1956. Water losses by evapo-
transpiration in this river channel are probably very high, account-
ing for the prolonged periods of deficient flows. The wide shallow
river channel in the upper basin affords the maximum opportunity
for evaporation. Water hyacinths and other aquatic plants grow
profusely in the channel and use considerable amounts of water
in the process of transpiration.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


At the gaging station on the St. Johns River near Christmas,
the longest period of deficient flow occurred from January to Au-
gust 1956. The minimum flow during this period was 23 cubic feet
per second on June 20. However, records indicated that flow ceased
at this station for several days in 1939. This is one of the few gag-
ing stations in the State at which flows less than the 1954-56 mini-
mum had been recorded.
The flow of the Kissimmee River declined rather steadily from
midyear of 1954 and was at a record low at the station near Okee-
chobee in May and June 1956. The flow was below normal for 23
consecutive months, November 1954 to September 1956.
Streamflow conditions in the southern part of the peninsula
are represented by records for Fisheating Creek near Palmdale,
Tamiami Canal Outlets, and Myakka River near Sarasota. At each
of these stations the flow ceased for many days in 1955 and 1956.
No flow has been recorded at times in most years at these stations.
However, the 1955 and 1956 drought caused minimum or no flows
of longer duration than other droughts of record.
By the latter part of 1956, the drought was broken in most
parts of the Florida Peninsula and streamflow generally was back
to normal. Exceptions were springs and streams deriving a large
percentage of base flow from ground-water accretion. The flow
hydrographs for Suwannee River and Silver Springs in figure 5
show the lag between the times of recovery of these streams and
those that react more immediately to surface runoff following heavy
rainfall. North Fork Black Creek, Myakka River, and Fisheating
Creek are streams that have high flood flows and poorly sustained
base flows.

LAKE LEVELS

During periods of excess rainfall the storage of water in
uncontrolled lakes which are parts of river courses substantially
reduces flood peaks downstream. During dry seasons some of the
water in storage returns to the drainage system and greatly aug-
ments the base flow of streams. Thus, lakes serve as a natural
buffer to reduce the extremes of both flood and drought.
During prolonged drought periods surface-vater supplies
stored in lakes, ponds, and reservoirs are usually depleted. Some
of the water is lost by evaporation and transpiration, and some of
it seeps into the ground to replenish the depleted ground-water
supply. When the rainfall over the tributary areas is insufficient to




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1955


I I I


FISHEATINO


, *S s ,


MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF INDEX

GAGING STATIONS IN FLORIDA


1956 I 1957


MYAKKA RIVER NEAR SARASOTA, FLA.



i : :: : : :: : : : :: : : :: : :: :! : : ;


o00


0
Normal (median for period 1928-1956)

2000 1 i n ,


I .. I I I


1000


1500


1000


NCRTH FORK BLACK CREEK NEAR MIOOLEBURG, FLA.



NmsI (median for period 192l-1945)




remol (mdiani tor period 1921-1945)


OCHLOCKONEE RIVER NEAR HAVANA, FLA.


100


Normal (median for period 1932-1956)



12000


600


400


1957


SILVER SPRINGS NEAR OGALA, FLA.


200



200


100


0


8000


6000


4000


2000


Normal (median for period 1941-1956)













1954 1955 1956 1957
PERDIDO RIVER AT BARRINEAU PARK, FLA.




Norm ll (md in or period 1921-194) ,l



Normal (median for period 1921-1945)


4000


3000


2000


1000


200


4000


3000


2000


1000


1954


1955


1957


SUWANNEE RIVER AT. BRANFORD, FLA.


Normal (median for period 1933-1956)













1954 1955 1956 1957
ST JOHNS RIVER NEAR CHRISTMAS, FLA.

i I I % I


I



Normal (median for period 1939-1956)












M I L IIE I -t -
I 94 i955 1956 1957
TAMIAMI CANAL OUTLETS, MIAMI TO MONROE, FLA.


Figure 5. Monthly flows and their relation to normal for selected streams
in Florida.


I I A,


100

nlo


tonic

FORK V
GREEK







ISt JOHN(S RIVER


1954 1


S00


430


*C0


200


ora ( mian for pried 1932--1956)










, ei i i
Ia3 13 193 I


400


300


zoo


200


40aa


3000


:i i i'lL i i i' i i iiH i i i iiiff n i



\ _' i






154 1955 195E 1957
SHOAL RIVER NEAR CRESTVIEW, FLA.


1955


1954


- w A


iI t T!; MIMI 611 1A I11 11


i


i


20A


z


L


. 1 I


t r I


19s I I95I


1 19s5


1957









REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 26


offset these natural losses, the lakes, ponds, and reservoirs expe-
rience declining stages and contracting surface areas.
The 1954-56 drought took its toll on the lakes on the Florida
Peninsula. The stages of many of the larger lakes were materially
lowered and many of the smaller ones practically dried up. The
lowest stages of record were established for many of the lakes
during this drought.
Records of lake stages are equal in importance to records of
streamflow for studying the effects of droughts in Florida. During
the drought of 1954-56 records of stage were collected for more
than 80 lakes on the peninsula. Several years of record are avail-
able for some of these lakes. Though the periods of lake record are
not as long as those for precipitation and streamflow, they never-
theless can be used for comparing the stages during the drought
with stages during previous years of average climatic conditions.
The effects of the drought on lake levels are represented by
records from 17 lakes. These lakes were selected to provide geo-
graphical coverage, antecedent records for comparison, and varia-
tions in geology and its effect on ground water.
Figure 6 shows graphically the month-end stages and depar-
tures from average for each of the 17 representative lakes from
1954 to 1957. The average month-end stage for each lake was
computed on the basis of a 10-year period, 1946-55. The statewide
average rainfall for this 10-year period was 54.4 inches compared
to the long-term average of 53.2 inches.
The graphs in figure 6 show that the stages of most of these
lakes were from 1 to 4 feet above average at the beginning of 1954.
However, the dry years of 1954, 1955, and 1956 caused a steady
decline in lake stages. The lowest stages of most lakes occurred
about midyear of 1956, when they were 2 to 4 feet below average.
Not all lakes in the peninsula followed this general pattern.
One of the lakes most critically affected by the drought was Orange
Lake, in Alachua County. The stage of this lake dropped to more
than 7 feet below average in the spring of 1956 and remained at a
low stage for more than a year. The surface area of Orange Lake
is normally about 26 square miles but during the lowest stage the
surface area shrank to about one-fifth of the normal size. The lake
began to recover by July 1957 but did not regain its normal stage
until the spring of 1958.
Lake Weir in Marion County and Crooked Lake in Polk Coun-
ty performed differently from most of the representative lakes
studied but their patterns of fluctuation during the drought were





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


remarkably similar to each other. The stages of these lakes declined
steadily from the beginning of 1954, reached their lowest at about
4 feet below average in early 1957, recovered only slightly in 1957
and 1958, and regained average stage in June 1959. These lakes
remained below average for more than 4 years and their rates of
recovery were slower than those of the other lakes studied.
Lake Trafford in Collier County is the southernmost of the
lakes studied. The stage of this lake remained near or slightly above
average through the entire period of the drought except for July,
August, and September, 1956, when the stage dropped to about
1 foot below average. The effect of the drought on this lake was
not severe.
The stages of some lakes in the north central part of the
peninsula were much lower than those in other areas. The condi-
tions at Orange Lake have been previously described. Brooklyn
Lake in Clay County declined to an extremely low stage and became
separated into several small lakes and ponds. Collection of stage
records for this lake was started in July 1957 and the lowest stages
were recorded in February 1958. There were no previous records
on this lake for comparative purposes. However, boat docks, beach
piers, and other waterfront structures which were exposed during
the low stages of the lake were again in water after the lake stage
recovered during the period of heavy rainfall in 1958 and 1959. The
rise in lake level from its lowest stage to the stage that was reached
in 1959 was about 15 feet. The range in stage of this lake is among
the widest of any in the State.
Other lakes near Brooklyn Lake also declined to low stages
as the result of the drought. One of these was Lake Geneva where
investigation of part of the exposed lake bottom during the drought
revealed several pine stumps which indicated that, at some time in
the unrecorded past, the stage had been lower for a sufficient
length of time to permit the growth of pine trees.


EFFECT ON CHEMICAL QUALITY OF WATER

Water is in a constant state of physical and chemical activity.
Some phases of water movement, such as precipitation and stream-
flow, are easily recognized. Less apparent are movements by proc-
esses of evaporation, transpiration, recharge to and discharge from
ground-water reservoirs, thermal movements of lakes and ponds,
and metabolism of aquatic plant life.


















B -iii:i
SB Ii



H~


a


-z-


o L
i,


15 as 195 | 1956 1957 I
LAKE APOPKA AT WINTER GARDEN, FLA





v I II


F77~'TTT1TT1111iIIIITTTtH4 LLIIIILLIIIIiA lit tIll


: !I I IiK r ~ I II II I I I lvl "1 II II


iii I11Itffiift1ii-ll M il..I-iVlpIIIIII


LA 4 U1955 I 1956N 1957
LAKE BUTLER AT WINDERMERE, FLA.


32'



95 195 195 1957I ii



a
-.IIIIII'F1
0 ., .


-Z V i I Itr1LL ILUILI


98 i I f



TI I Ii I -I
9. 1988 16 1957
-AKEE N4NEIiAHA AT CLERMONT, FLA.





. .


Spi:,7 i 1i1 I
_ I ,I


I i I iit i ELI i rII 1 L I IPTI 4fIII 1 111I111111


-- 4 ..: 1 1 ... .... .... 11 1


1 1 s T S1956 S


+2
+1
0



-3
56


54


52


50 1954 g 1955 1956 957
LAKE ARBUCKLE NEAR AVON PARK, FLA



a0
H0 1954 1955 1956 1957i
















LAKE CARROLL NEAR SULPHUR SPRINGS, FLA
-T
--2
-3
-4






32


3 1AK 1 1N U P1956 U SRG FLA.
LAKE CARROLL NEAR SULPHUR SPRINGS% FLA.


4+2
+1
0


-P
-2
33
40


S.. .. ....... ..... .. .. .. .

36 1954 1955 1956 1957
LAKE ISTOKPOGA NEAR DE SOTO CITY, FLA.

+2

-2 =

-*
0
-2

- 95 59
60






50 r1
1954 1955 1956 57


ORANGE LAKE AT ORANGE LAKE, FLA.


m1tjHujl F tUttl I JlTThTT fl 1 111"4!flh1


0thIhTThENhU-mIuiI uJ n


- ffl t11 ITT i I V IIlh1111Ui I i I uiJ1kUJ


-z




52:
Z iH+i1114-1


1957


4 I I1 I4 I I | I 1.. I ; .


LAKE TOHOPEKALIGA AT KISSIMMEE, FLA.

Month-end stage


LAKE


AKE POINSETT
AKE BUTLER
KE HOWARD
LAKE KISSIMMEE

LAKE ISTOKP06A


42


0 -2
-3
-4


In


0 -illllill~ ~i
'I''lllllllll1`3


1111Ifl1TH1+[ m1n111]


T


LAKE TRAFFORD


1954 1955 1956 1957
CROOKED LAKE NEAR BABSON PARK, FLA.


+1 LIIIIIIlIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII


0 111 111 11IIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIII !
o 0
0 -2 iimiiiim-

17 8 I I I I I I i I I-I- ll III------- ---- -HT i ll-- -- -
178


o 176

174 --- 9
174 1954 1955 1956 1957
KINGSLEY LAKE AT CAMP BLENDING, FLA.


+1
0




-4


12 -

-o I
1954 1955 1956 1957
LAKE OKEECHOBEE, FLA.


+2 ,
- '1 -



-2


20


0 0 ---18 -


1954 1955 1956 1957


IMMOKALEE, FLA.


MAP SHOWING


LOCATION OF


INDEX


LAKES IN FLORIDA.


+4
- +2

46 -2




56
54
g 52
0 50
4 8 - -- --
49
46
44
1954 1955 1956 1957
LAKE KISSIMMEE NEAR LAKE WALES, FLA.


+1
0



-3
94


90
0 92


1954 1955 1956 1957
LAKE PLACID NEAR LAKE PLACID, FLA.


+1
0
g -3


S-4


1954 1955 1956 1957
LAKE WEIR AT OKLAWAHA, FLA.


of lake, in feet above mean sea level


- ------ Departure from overcge month-end stage, in feet


Figure 6. Month-end stages and the departures from average for selected
lakes in Florida.


RECORD FOR PERIOD 1946-1955
USED TO COMPUTE AVERAGE
MONTH-END STAGES


LAKE POINSETT NEAR COCOA, FLA.


LAKE TRAFFORD NEAR


--


''' '''' '''" '' '''' ''' ''


t-f


,i i i ii i i t~i~tf~UUUIII II I I I 1 111111 1 II I II~H1111


1 i H 1 H il 1 illH VIIIII ill 1111H ILA III


1 MIM II I


. . . -9.r* i E i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i


- A I I I I I I I I 1 1 1 i T i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i


---


50U


0


,I I H i l 1111 II II I III


: ; : ;liI lii11171\11111111 ml~l~lMllllll\rll


-3
Ice


'YYfr


I~;fiIIL~~I111111111111 lill IIIIIIIIIII IMJS~


w


II III III111 11111 111I I I I I I 11


-4


-4IIIIIIIlln l lnrrlrrln ln lII


I. riii iiiiii I ii I I I I I I! F T I I II T I I I I I I I I III IIIII


9 I954 I 1955


I


I 1956 I 1957 I


I


I I


., !N~TM~K iiM R i11 Htm


'" l l lll


I (I )I ( I( I I ( ( II II I III I I( ff m




L._ ..







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 26 15

The various chemical changes that water undergoes are equally
difficult or more difficult to perceive. Concentration of dissolved
solids increases or decreases as a result of various physical and
chemical activities. Compositions are altered through variations in
the concentration of individual constituents as a result of these
processes.
Variations in streamflow and water levels are among the
factors that cause changes in water quality. Generally, dissolved
solids are higher during periods of low flow. Thus, in Florida, dis-
solved solids are usually highest instreams during the period April
through June. To a certain extent, the increases are in proportion
to the decreases in water level or stream flow. Figure 7 is an exam-
ple of this relationship.


6 0.000

,000
.0ooo00
a 000



.0ooo
400
too


Figure 7. Relation of dissolved solids to discharge, St. Johns River near
DeLand, Florida, 1948.

The ordinarily high concentrations that recur seasonally
become even higher in times of drought. New lows in water levels
and stream flows are coincident with new highs in chemical con-
centrations. These higher concentrations result from the greater
influence on surface water by more highly mineralized ground
water. As a result of evaporation and transpiration in which water
is lost but minerals are retained by the surface body, concentrations
may become quite high.


.........
.... ... .... .. .... .. .... ... .... ... ...
..... .. .... .. ........ ... .... .... .... .. .... .. ....
.. ... .... .. ..... .. ....
. . . . . . . . .
. .. . .. .






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


STREAMS

Changes in the chemical quality of a stream may occur as a
direct or an indirect effect of drought.
An example of the direct effect of drought on a stream is
shown by records for Kissimmee River near Okeechobee. Dissolved-
solids at this location were twice as high in 1956 as they were
during 1940 and 1953. Figure 8 shows how dissolved solids in-
creased almost in proportion to cumulative rainfall deficiency and
decreasing discharge. Even so, the concentrations that were ob-
served in 1956 were still within acceptable limits for most water
uses. Had it not been for maximum flooding that occurred in the
fall of 1953, the concentrations could have exceeded acceptable
limits.
Indirect effects of drought on the chemical character of water
have been illustrated by incidents that have occurred in Florida.
One effect is that of salt-water intrusion. In some coastal regions
a natural balance between fresh water and salt water prevents salt-
water intrusion. Disruption of this balance has occurred in several
areas in which the amounts of fresh water needed to preserve the
balance have been depleted. Where drought has increased this
depletion, serious consequences result. Miami was confronted with
this problem in 1939 and 1945. Overdrainage combined with
drought conditions allowed salt water to enter the several canals
in the Miami area and the municipal well field was endangered by
intrusion in Miami Canal. Installations and operation of salinity
controls by Dade County since that time have prevented a repetition
of salt-water intrusion. Shown below are values for dissolved solids
on a number of samples collected from Miami Canal at Water Plant,
Hialeah, during periods of low discharge.
Discharge Dissolved solids
Date (cfs) (ppm)
May 21-31, 1941 ....-..... .. ...-.-....-- 459 270
May 31, 1944 __206 274
May 7, 1945 -- e 5 1,670
May 23, 1946 .- e350 296
Mar. 27, 1951 e 35 272
Mar. 13, 1953 -701 280
June 12, 1953 --. e 70 283
May 21, 1954 ___. 722 266
Apr. 21, 1955 .-- .... 569 278
May 24, 1956 -----.......-.....---....-... e 60 259
e Estimated
The relative stability of concentrations since 1945 may be
attributed to the operation of the salinity control structures.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 26 17


+10 -------- --- -| --------
+10
U -
S-0- -------







4i --







0 --- ------4---------
z -
-10









-2,0 ---- -------
s=Tul
-30


tO 0








40







0,0 ---
-40

0 00







10,000




5,000

0

















1000 1940 94 1953 1954 1955 I 956 I
1,000




soo











14 -i-0- j19_- i-
C.-- charge of' Kissimmeo River near Okeechobee
S1940 |- 194 | | 1953 | 1954 | 1O55 | 1956

Figure 8. Comparison of rainfall departure from normal at Kissimmee with
discharge: aiid dissolved solids concentration of Kissimmee River near
Okeechobee; Florida.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY:


Another indirect effect of the 1956 drought occurred in Bre-
vard County. Highly mineralized artesian water is tqed in this
county for irrigation, and the water eventually reaches the St.
Johns River. This results in high concentrations of dissolved solids
in the river during periods of low flow. Because of the drought,
greater amounts of artesian water than usual were used for irri-
gation, resulting in unusually high concentrations of dissolved
solids in the river.
Rainfall data for Merritt Island were used to show cumulative
departure from normal rainfall. The station at Merritt Island, un-
like the Kissimmee station, did not show a cumulative deficiency of
rainfall until September 1955. Figure 9 shows the relationships
between cumulative rainfall departure at Merritt Island and dis-
charge and dissolved solids of St. Johns River near Cocoa from
October 1953 to September 1956.
The most significant feature of these relationships is the great
increase in dissolved solids. During the period of record prior to
1956, the chemical quality of the water from the St. Johns River
near Cocoa was suitable for municipal use. Chloride concentration
was below 250 ppm (parts per million) and dissolved solids were
below 500 ppm, the limits recommended by the U. S. Public Health
Service for potable water. In 1956 these values were exc.eded.
Long-term records at this site are not available to show the relative
effect that this drought had on the chemical quality.
Comparative data on chemical quality for other locations in
Florida are meager. In most instances the only available informa-
tion is that obtained in 1956. Although the available information
has value in establishing the chemical characteristics of the water
at the time of collection, the effect of the drought cannot be ade-
quately defined at many locations because of the lack of information
on normal conditions. Information on chemical quality is most
deficient for streams in northwestern Florida-the area of greatest
rainfall deficiency in 1954. Antecedent data are available for only
two sites on streams in this area: Pine Barren Creek near Barth,
and Escambia River near Century.
Dissolved solids in Pine Barren Creek are quite low, usually
no more than 20 ppm. The drought had no effect on the.quality of
this water since ground water in this area is equally low in dis-
solved mineral content.
Dissolved solids of Escambia River near Century are usually
less than 100 ppm. Comparison of records for Escambia River





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO.- 26








A_- C lti- dptu frea v of lintell at M- -it -I -land
--*- - -----r- -i-4
(.--------.-^. <.I


- -a -.

A.--Cnll< fulII d Ir l >ttOo l *I firtlll *I uxilll llon<


L.. ODsllved ullil II St JMa River lr Coeco


,. _i.h. i. e f of ll Rivet near Ce ca
CR55 1954 1955 156
I-,. :. | r I H I I
-Figure 9. A comparison of rainfall departure from normal at Merritt Island
with discharge and dissolved solids, concentration of St. Johns River near
Cocoa, Florida. .





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


near Century do not disclose any significant changes in chemical
quality of the water as a result of the drought.
Records of analyses for Suwannee River at Branford show the
effect of the drought. Deficiencies of rainfall and runoff in the
Suwannee River basin were greater in 1955 than in 1956 and higher
concentrations of dissolved solids occurred at the Branford station
in May 1955 (180 ppm) than in May 1956 (148 ppm).
Records of analyses for Withlacoochee River near Holder do
not disclose any significant changes in the chemical character of
the water during the drought.

SPRINGS
Analyses of samples collected in 1946 and 1956 from selected
springs are shown in table 5. The data collected in 1946 were
included in a report: Springs of Florida, Bulletin 31, Florida Geo-
logical Survey. The two sets of analyses indicate only minor differ-
ences in the chemical character of the water from most of the
springs. Significant increases in dissolved solids occurred in Chassa-
howitzka Spring near Homosassa and Rainbow Springs near Dun-
nellon. The increase in concentrations of Chassahowitzka Spring
indicates contamination by sea water from the Gulf of Mexico.
Calcium, bicarbonate, and sulfate were the only ions that increased
in Rainbow Springs. This indicates increased solution activity that
may have been a direct result of the drought.
Significant decreases were noted in dissolved solids for Ponce
de Leon Springs near DeLand and Salt Springs near Eureka. These
springs normally produce water that contains proportionate
amounts of minerals indicative of contamination by residual saline
waters of ancient seas. Flushing of these residues is a continual
process. The three analyses, covering a 33-year span for Ponce de
Leon Springs, indicate that the flushing is continuing at this sta-
tion. Although Salt Springs shows some decrease in concentrations
of dissolved solids, the records are not sufficient to show whether
this is a result of a trend or of differences in sampling.

ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF THE DROUGHT

The economic losses resulting from the drought amounted to
millions of dollars. The yield, as well as the quality, of citrus fruits
and other crops was lowered by the lack of soil moisture. Irrigation
systems were installed in many groves, vegetable farms, and in





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 26


pastures where adequate nearby sources of water were available.
These systems, installed at great expense, helped to alleviate the
effects of the drought over limited areas during the growing sea-
son. The public water supplies of several small communities
dropped below their normal levels and the available supply was
restricted to necessary uses. The rural areas of the State were
probably more severely affected by the drought. In many areas stock
ponds went dry and the water level in farm wells dropped below the
pump intakes. Water for household use and stock consumption
was hauled to many rural areas in tank trucks.
There were forest fires in timber lands in the northern part
of the State and more than 300,000 acres were burned over between
January and May 1955. The peaty muck soils of the Everglades
dried out during the prolonged period of deficient rainfall and
thousands of acres caught fire and the topsoil burned away. At
times, the smoke from these smoldering fires carried into the urban
area along the east coast and caused considerable discomfort.
At many of the shallow lakes the situation became critical.
Thousands of fish, isolated in small pools as the lakes receded, died
as these pools dried up. Fish camps were isolated from several lakes
by receding shorelines and many fish camps ceased operating, some
permanently and some for the duration of the drought. Boat docks,
diving piers, and other waterfront structures were left exposed at
many popular resorts.
Serious completion developed for the use of the available water
supply in some areas. The pumpage of water from the dwindling
supply in some shallow lakes for irrigation of citrus groves and agri-
cultural lands was restricted by agreement of the riparian owners,
or, in some cases, by court injunction.

SUMMARY

The drought of 1954-56 caused a serious decline of water
levels and streamflow in Florida. New record-low stages and flows
were recorded at most gaging stations, several of which have rec-
ords of nearly 30 years duration.
In the northern and western parts of the State, the drought
was most severe during 1954 and 1955. The central and southern
parts of the Florida Peninsula were most severely affected during
the early part of 1956. Statewide, the drought was ended by the
latter part of 1956 although the flow of streams in some areas and
some lake levels did not return to normal until 1958.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The data on quality of water indicate characteristics that may
be expected during severe droughts. Although information on nor-
mal quality characteristics is available at only a few places, com-
parison of these records with the drought data indicates that
increased dissolved solids resulted from the drought and seriously
impaired the suitability of the water for many uses. The quality of
streams in northwestern Florida was hardly affected by the
drought.
Water shortages occurred in many parts of the State and the
economic losses amounted to millions of dollars.






REFERENCES

Ferguson, G. E. (see also Parker, G. G.)
1947 (and Lingham, C. W.; Love, S. K.; and Vernon, R. 0.)
Springs of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 31.
Florida Water Resources Study Commission
1956 Florida's water resources: Report to the Governor of Florida
and the 1957 Legislature.
Lingham, C. W. (see Ferguson, G. E.)
Love, S. K (see Ferguson, G. E.; Parker, G. G.)


Parker, G. G.
1955

Patterson, A. O.


(and Ferguson, G. E., Love, S. K., and others)
Water resources of southeastern Florida: U. S.
Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1255.


1955 Surface water in Florida: Florida Eng. and Ind.
Experiment Sta. Bull., series no. 72.
Vernon, R. 0. (see Ferguson, G. E.)


TABLE 1. Departure from Normal Annual Rainfall in Florida, 1954-56
Departure, in inches
Location 1954 1955 1956


Apalachicola ----...... ...... ....
Arcadia --- -------------............ --........-- ..
Avon Park
Bartow ..- .. --
Belle Glade -.----- ----- --
Blountstown _.
Bradenton -. .
Brooksville _..
Carrabelle .-...
Caryville -___ -
Cedar Key. .
Clermont 6 S _-_
Coconut Grove _-
Crescent City ____ ----.
Daytona Beach Airport


-17.39 -21.96 -9.95


+5.15
+2.33
-4.12
+1.34
-20.70
+2.08
-18.30
-18.59
-28.31
-20.75
-13.92
+5.35
-12.77
-17.11


-19.41
-17.36
-13.90
-1.44
-7.58
-5.90
-17.68
-19.00
-7.38
-11.91
-9.81
-10.49
-3.10
-12.27


-19.29
-6.83
-7.78
-18.23
+1.70
-11.18
-15.34
-3.60
-18.05
-0.37
-22.08
-10.77
-19.82






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 26 23


TABLE 1. (Continued)
Departure, in inches
Location 1954 1955 1956
DeFuniak Springs -------.--- -..-.......-....... -27.90 -12.56 +2.06
DeLand __. ------................... ............--. --11.24 -8.50 -6.08
Eustis -..-------.. ------- --.............................. -10.06 -3.47 -6.69
Everglades -........---..----... ...-..... +12.95 -0.92 -13.86
Federal Point --.-..........--....--................... ... --16.79 -8.44 -11.04
Fellsmere .-----.-- .... --.......-- --.......-......-.... +2.26 -0.51 +1.46
Fernandina Beach --...--..----....--..--....-----..._. --4.14 -7.00 -8.52
Fort Laudetdale -..-..---...--.......-...----...-........ +20.61 -23.99 -20.08
Fort Myers ..........................------............... --3.54 -9.31 -13.49
Fort Pierce ....-------................-----------........... +20.16 -1.22 -15.19
Gainesville ---......--..--......-.......---- ........- ......... -12.66 -4.51 -2.23
Glen St. Mary .............................................. -16.01 -5.34 -8.23
Homestead -----.....-.....-......... ......-....-..... +5.16 -10.01 -18.24
Hypoluxo --.....--.... --..........................---.-... +11.50 -20.44 -18.63
Inverness. ......-----... -............................. 6.91 -7.51 -18.68
Isleworth ........... ..-.................----.......... -13.23 -6.16 -3.73
Jacksonville Airport -...--........---................... -15.25 -8.75 -1.10
Jacksonville City .......-- ............--------... ----.... -20.54 -6.09 -
Key West '.--------.--.---.. +17.33 -15.41 -19.11
Kissimmee ....................----- -------- --8.46 -9.68 +1.72
LaBelle ....---............-------..........------ +9.53 +4.76 -10.73
Lake Alfred --------- --.------- -14.71 -17.32 -7.07
Lake City --...---.............-------------..----..... -- -13.22 -17.91 +0.59
Lakeland -- ...........................--- ----.... --. ....... -15.13 -7.35 -6.40
Madison -.................-----....................------ ---23.56 -10.60 -7.91
Marianna Ind. School ..............--- ...........--- .---- -18.66 -13.93 -2.56
Merritt Island .... ---------------------- +5.12 -11.47 -
Miami Beach ..----...-...........-------....--.... +7.69 -7.88. -16.32
Miami Beach Airport ......---..-....--......--.-..... +5.85 -15.06 -19.48
Miami Aiiport -----.--..------.--------------' +8.44 -6.86 -13.51
Monticello .--- -------.... ----- -26.68 -16.27 +0.43
Moore Haven ..----............---... -------- ---------.. +11.13 -5.37 -18.61
Mountain Lake ....--....--....--..-...--..-...-----4.52 -6.59 -11.35
Mount Pleasant ..--......--...--......-....... ........... --20.56 -20.11 +3.93
New Smyrna Beach .........-------- -9.30 -12.02 -10.74
Niceville .........-..... -------- -------------- -27.84 -13.58 -11.19
Ocala --------------------.............. ... .....---- -2.69 -9.05 --10.59
Orlando Airport ..........---- .........-- ---......... --- -3.26 -8.97 -7.40
Palatka ...-.... --.------ ------ -------22.54 -8.01 -9.70
Panama City ....-------... ---.-.--- -15.42 -17.15 -7.50
Pensacola -......---------.----- --.- .-- -32.94 -4.22 +4.62
Plant City ........... ----------- +0.92 -1.94 -17.31
Punta Gorda __--...---...---.---..-- --1.43 -15.69 -11.29
Quincy ----..-..-.....----....--.------ -26.00 -15.12 -5.02
Raiford ......-----.... ----- -- -12.35 -8.36 -
St. Augustine ----...-....--..------- -14.11 -0.70 -19.45
St. Leo -...-.. ..----... -----.-- ----- -10.48 -14.13 -11.23
St. Petersburg ..---......------.. -------.-------- +16.88 +11.49 -18.85
Sanford ...--- .-- __ -4.91 +2.54 -10.41
Tallahassee .........-..-- ..-----.---- ------.- -25.68 -12.55 -2.89
Tampa .--.--------------- -6.74 -1.13 -21.15
Tarpon Springs ....-----------.........----- -7.43 -10.34 -19.56
Titusville ..--- -------------- -4.12 4-2.83 -11.72
West Palm Beach -..-.---.. ------------- +8.71 -26.29 -19.44
West Palm Beach Airport .._---..---..+11.49 -24.41 -23.40
Data from U. S. Weather Bureau







TABLU 2, Minimum Flow, inl Cubic Feet Per Second, of Florida Streams

Drainage __ .._Minimum Flow
Map Period of area Period of record 1954-56 drought
No, Gaging Station Record (sq. mi.) Flow I Date D Flow I Date

ST. MARYS RIVER BASIN
1 North Prong St. Marys river 1921-:23; 19i7-30; '-
at Monac, Ga. I 1982.84; 1950-58 a, e 1(j0 0 Many days 0 Many days
2 Middle Prong St. Marys River Aug. 24-31; Sept. Aug. 24.81, Sept.
at Taylor, Fla. I 1955-58 b 127 I d 0.1 12-18, 28, 1956 d 0.1 12-18, 28, 1956
4 South Prong St. Marys River Many days in most
S near Sanderson. Fla._ 1955-58 b 58 0_ years 0 Many days
5 Turkey Creek at Macclenny,
Fla. 1955-58 20.9 I 0.2 Apr. 21-24. 1956 0.2 Apr. 21.24. 1956
6 South Prong St. Marys River 0.4
at Glen St. Mary, Fla. 1950-58 b 1i 0 May 23, 1950 1.1 June 15, 1955
7 St. Marys River near 12.0 June 21, 22, 28,
Macclenny. Fla. 1926-58 b 720 May 22, 1982 16 25. 26, 1955


ST. JOHNS RIVER BASIN


B
CT,






,.,





,,+


~














r
i,



49 St. Johns River near DeLand,
Fla. | 1934-58 b 2.960 g 0 At times ig 0, At times
,59 Palatlakaha Creek at Cherry
Lake Outlet near Grove- f 1956-57, Several days in Several days in
land,. Fla. 1957-58 b 120 0 1956, 1957 0 1956, 1957
60 Palatlakaha Creek near /- June 15, 16,
Mascotte, Fla. 1945-56 b 160 0.2 June 18. 19. 1945 0.7 1955
64 Haines Creek near Lisbon, Sept. 21 to Dec. Sept. 21 to Dec.
Fla. 1942-58 b 640 h 0 22, 1956 h 0 22, 1956
June 27, 29, 30, June 27, 29, 80,
65 Oklawaha River at Moss July 7, 8, 12-14, July 7, 8, 12-14,
Bluff, Fla. 1943-55 b 910 i 24 1955 'i 24 1955
T67 Oklawaha River near Ocala,
Fla. 1930-58 b 1.100 i12.0 Mar. 4, 1957 i 20 Apr. 24, 1956
68 Silver Springs near Ocala,
SFla. 1933-58 d 539 May 7, 1957 d 541 June 23, 1956
75 Orange; Lake Outlet near May 7 to Sept. May 7, 1955 to
dCitra, Fla. 1947-55 0 30, 1955 0 September 1957
76 Lochloosa Lake Outlet near
Lochloosa, Fla. 1947-55 0 Many days 0 Many days
77 Orange Creek at Orange f 1941-42 431 May 31, June 1, May 31, June 1,
Springs, Flia. 1942-52; 1955-58 d 2.0 3-5, 9-14, 1956 d 2.0 3-5, 9-14, 1956
81 Oklawaha River at Riverside
Landing near Orange
.Springs, Fla. 1943-58 b 2,100 697 Apr. 28. 29, 1957 720 June 15, 16, 1956
89: Little Haw Creek near July 31, Aug. 1,
Seville. Fla. 1951-58 b 120 0.2 2, 1952 0.6 June 23, 24, 1956
101 South Fork Black Creek near
Penney Farms, Fla. 1939-58 134 a 9.4 June 24, 1955 a 9.4 June 24. 1955
104 North Fork Black Creek near Aug. 18, 19,
Middleburg, Fla. 1931-58 174 3.6 June 8. 1985 3.9 1954 19
iMOULTRIE CREEK BASIN
108 Moultrie Creek near St. .
Augurstine. Fla. 1939-58 : 23.3 0.1 June 6, 7. 1958 0.2 May 22, 1956


0 :



0T ;,






TABLs 2, (Continued)

Drainage Minimum Flow
Map Period of area Period of record 1954-56 drought
No. Gaging Station Record (sq. ml.) Flow | Date Flow Date

SPRUCE CREEK BASIN
112 Spruce Creek near Samsula, several days in
Fla, 1951-58 b 32 0.1 1951 and 1952 0.21 Aug. 19. 1954
INDIAN RIVER BASIN
15 Elbow Creek near Eau Gallie, I June 16-22, 24, Several days in
Fla. I 1955-57 2.69 d 0.2 1957 0.8 May. June 1956
116 Crane Creek at Melbourne, June 25, 26, 27,
Fla. 1951-58 12.6 1.8 28, 1951 3.0 June 16, 1955
117 Turkey Creek near Palm Bay, f 1954-55 95.5 Mar. 80, 1956
Fla. 1951 and 1952 0.2 22 July 16, 1958 25
120.1 Fellsmere Canal near Fells-
mere, Fla. 1955-58 78.4 24 May 22, 27, 1956 24 May 22, 27, 1956
July 1, 2, 1952,
121 North Canal near Vero Beach, Mar. 9-12, 15, 17, Mar. 9-12, 15,
Fla. 1950-58 d 3.0 20, 1956 d 3.0 17, 20, 1956
122 Main Canal at Vero Beach,
Fla. 1950-58 2.6 Sept. 6, 1954 2.6 Sept. 6, 1954
.128 South Canal near Vero Beach,
Fla. I 1950-58 d 2.0 Aug. 14-16. 1956 d 2.0 Aug. 14-16. 1954
LAKE OKEECHOBEE AND I
THE EVERGLADES
126 Fisheating Creek near Venus,. Many days in Many days in
Fla. I 1955-58 b 195 0 most years 0 1955, 1956
127 Fisheating Creek at Palm- Many days in
dale, Fla. .1931-58 b 485 0 most years 0 Many days'


1'
co





188 Myrtle-Mary Jane Canal near
SNarcoossee, Fla. 19.49-58 111 0 At times 0 At times
S188 .East Tohopekaliga-Tohope-
kaliga Canal near St. Many days in Many days in
Cloud, Fla. 1942-58 300 0 1955, 1956 0 1955, 1956
11 Cypress Creek at Vineland, Many days in
la., 1945-58 30.3 0 most years 0 Many days
142 Tohopekaliga-Cypress Canal b
n ear St. Cloud, Fla. 1942-58 k 540 0 At times 0 At times
14 Canbe Creek near St. Cloud, Many days in Marny days in
Fla. 1949-58 1 86.5 0 1950, 1956 0 1956
1'4 Reedy, Creek near Loughman, b
..Fla. 1939-58 k 115 2:4 June. 15, 1956 2.4 June 15, 1956
145 Catfish Creek, near Lake
Wales, Fla. 1947-58 58.9 7.6 Apr. 10, 1956 7.6 Apr. 10, 1956
146 Hatchineha-Kissimmee Canal28,
near Lake Wales, Fla. 1942-58 m 1,185 d 27 July 28, 1956 d 27 July 28, 1956
149 Kissimmee River below Lake
Kissimmee, Fla. 1933-58 n 1.609 d 52 July 24, 1956 d 52 July 24. 1956
150 Reedy Creek near Frostproof, Mar. 21-23, 29, Mar. 21-2, 29,
Fla. 1946-58 62.2 d 0.1. Apr. 22, 1956 d 0.1 Apr. 22, 1956
Carter Creek near Sebring,
Fla. 1954-58 38.8 d 4.6 May 27, 1956 d 4.6 May 27, 1956
152 Arbuckle Creek near May 19, 27, 28, May 19, 27, 28,
De Soto City, Fla. 1939-58 o 385 4.3 1956 4.8 1956
Stearns'Creek near Lake At times in
Placid, Fla. 1955-58 44.0 0 most years 0 On several days
154 Josephine Creek near
De Sotb City, Fla. 1946-58 q 109 0.3 May 22. 1956 0.3 May 22,1956
155 Istokpoga Canal near Corn- At times in February to
well. Fla. 1934-58 624 0 several years 0 June 1956
156 Kissimmee River near Okee- May 29 to May 29 to
___ chobee. Fla. 1930-58 2.886 d 68 June 5, 1956 d 68 June 5. 1956
157 Taylor Creek near Basinger, Some days in Some days in
'la. 1955-58 15.7 0 most years 0 most years


'J i










s.
Q



0;






TABJU 2, (Continued)

Drainage Minimum Flow
Map Period of area Period of record 1954-56 drought
No, Gaging Station Record (aq, mi.) Flow _Date Flow I Date
158 Taylor Creek above Okee- At times in At times in
chobee, Fla. 1955-58 98.7 0 some years 0 1955, 1956
161 St. Lucie Canal at lock near Several periods Several periods
Stuart, Fla. 1952-58 .... (r) each year (r) each year
162 West Palm Beach Canal at
HGS-5 at Canal Point,
Fla. 1939-58 .._ 1,760 June 15, 1942 s 1,110 July 14, 1954
164 West Palm Beach Canal at Dec. 1956, Dec. 1956,
West Palm Beach, Fla. 1939-58 .... t30 Jan. 1957 t80 Jan. 1957
166 Hillsboro Canal at Belle 1940-50
Glade, Fla. 1954-57 .. s 1,500 June 22, 1957 s 526 Oct. 16, 1956
Dec. 16, 1939,
Apr. 11, June 18,
167 Hillsboro Canal near Deer- 1940, Sept. 21-23, December and
field Beach, Fla. 1989-58 0 28, 1958 a 15 January 1956
168 North New River Canal at
i South Bay, Fla. 1942-57 -- s 2.900 Jan. 22, 1957 s 552 Oct. 5, 1956
170 North New River Canal near November and
Fort Lauderdale, Fla. 1939-58 -- d 2.4 May 21, 22, 1947 d 20 December 1956
173 Miami Canal at Water Plant, Some days in
Hialeah, Fla. 1940-58 a 890 June 23, 1943 a 35 Mar. 1956
175 Tamiami Canal Outlets, Mi- Many days in Many days in
ami to Monroe, Fla. 1939-58 I 0 most years 0 1955, 1956
179 Barron River Canal near IMany days
SEverglades, Fla. 1952-58 1 0 May 17, 18, 1952 0.1 in 1956
180 Imperial River near Bonita I June 28, July 3,
Springs, Fla. 1940-54 ___0 1940 (u)
182 Caloosahatchee Canal at Several periods Several periods
Moore Haven, Fla. I 198-8 (r) in each year (r) in each year





PEACE RIVER BASIN
185 Peace Creek Drainage Canal At times in Some periods in
near Dundee, Fla. n 1946-58 b 50 0 some years 0 1955, 1956
186 Peace Creek Drainage Canal .
near Alturas, Fla. 1947-58 b 150 2.4 Aug. 12, 1956 2.4 Aug. 12, 1956
S' Several days
187 Lake Lulu Outlet near Eloise, Mar., Apr., 1951, Several days
Fla.. 1946-58 b 26 0 Aug., Sept. 1956 0 Aug., Sept. 1956
May 15, June 11,
1955, Mar. 28,
188 Peace River at Bartow, Fla. 1989-58 b 890 1.4 June 2, 1945 28 Apr. 8-6, 1956
198 Peace River at Zolfo Springs,
Fla.' 1938-58 b 840 40 Apr. 24, 26, 1956 40 Apr. 24, 26, 1956
194 Little Charley Bowlegs
Creek near Sebring, Fla. 1952-58 32.4 0 Many days 0 Many days
196'- Charlie Creek near Gardner, 1950-58 b 380
Fla* 0.8 Aug. 6-8, 1950 0.8 Apr. 3, 1956
197 Peace River at Arcadia, Fla. 1981-58 b 1,370 37 May 28, 1949 43 Apr. 25, 27, 1956
Nov. 18-20,
199 Joshua Creek at Nocatee, Fla. 1950-58 b 115 0 22-24, 1953 0.1 June 27, 28, 1956
June 7-9, 15,
SI r25-80, July 2, June 7-9, 15,
202 Horse Creek near Arcadia, Aug. 7, 1956; Feb. 25-30, July 2,
Fla. 1950-58 b 205 0 16-18, 1957 0 Aug. 7, 1956
MYAKKA RIVER BASIN
206 Myakka River near Sarasota, Many days in Many days in
.. Fla. 1986-58 b 235 0 some years 0 1955, 1956
MANATEE RIVER BASIN
214 Manatee River near Braden- 1 Apr. 23, 24, 26,
ton, Fla.. 1939-58 b 90 0.6 May 7. 1939 8.0 27. 1956





TABIU 2, (Continued)

Drainage Minimum Flow
Map Period of area Period of record 1954-56 drought
No. Aging Station Record (aq. mi.) Flow Date Flow I Date
LITTLE MANATEE RIVER
BASIN
B15~ Little Manatee River near
S Wiauma, Fla. 1989-58 b 145 1.2 June 0, 7. 1945 d 4.5 May 18, 1955
BULLFROG CREEK BASIN
i IOct. 21-28, 1967,
216 Bullfrog Creek near Wi- June 4, 5, 7, 10,
mauma, Fla, 1956-58 290.1 0 21, 1958 0 At times
ALAFIA RIVER BASIN
21I North Prong Alafia River
at Keyaville, Fla. ... 1950-58 b 17 May 17. 1952 12 June 11, 1955
221 Alafla River near Lithia, Fla. 1983-58 I b 885 6.6 June 6. 6. 1945 27 Apr. 28-25. 1956
PALM RIVER BASIN -
225 Sixmile Creek at Tampa. Fla. 1956-58 1 b 28 d 14 I Dec. 21-28. 1956 d 14 Dec. 21-28. 19566
S HILLSBOROUGH RIVER
S BASIN'
;227 Blackwater Creek near
S Knights, Fla. 1951-58 b 110 0.7.. May 28. 1952 d 2.7 Dec. 14. 1956
' d .. ... June 7, 9, 1955,
'28 Hillsborough River near May 28, June 8,
Zephyrhills. Fla. 1989-58 b 220 48 June 11-17, 1945 60 1956
:29 : Peniberton Creek near Dover,
Fla. 1956-58 b 24 1.1 Oct. 18, 1958 (v)
280 Flint Creek near Thono-
,tosassa, Fla. 1956-58 b 60 0 June 7-24, 195R (v)





- 232:' Hillsborough River near Nov. 30 to
: Tampa, Fla. 1938-58 650 0 ..Dec. 2, 1945 d 6.4 June 15, 1956
2388 Drainage Ditch at Bearss Many days in 0
Ave.,. Sulphur Springs, Fla. 1946-56 b 12 0 most years Many days
SWEETWATER CREEK
"R BASIN :BS I -- -
287 Sweetwater Creek near Sul- Many days in
: phur Springs Fla. 1951-58 b 6.4 I 0 Many days 0 each year

RCKY CREEK BASIN
8 ky Creek near Sulphur May 12, 16, June May 12, 16, June ;
SSpXrihgs, Fla. j 1958-58 b 85 0.4 9, 10, 1955 0.4 9, 10, 1955
LIGATOR CREEK
":'BASIN ","
2839 Alligator Creek at Safety "" Many days in Many days in
Harbor, Fla. 1949-58 b 9.0 0 most years 0 each year
LONG BAYOU BASIN
240 Seminole Lake Outlet near Many days in Many days in
S 'Lar Fla. 1950-58 b 14 0 each year 0 each year
LAKE TARPON BASIN
240.1 Brooker Creek near Odessa, __
Fla. 1946-56 b 10 0 Many days 0 Many days
!''40.2 Brooker Creek 'near Tarpon. At times At times
SSprin~s. Fla. 1950-58 b 30 0 each year 0 each year
,i'. ANCLOTE RIVER BASIN
0.'::5 Anclote River near Elfers, a a
S Fla. 1946-58 72.5 w 0.4 May 19, 1956' w 0.4 May 19. 1956
I,,i 'V""-------------------------"-----------






TAs~I 9, (Continued)

Drainage Minimum Flow
Map Period of area Period of record 1954.56 drought
No. Gaging Station Record (sq. mi,) Flow Date Flow Date
WITHLACOOCHEE RIVER
BASIN
549 Withlacoochee River at-
Trfiby, Fla. 1928-29, 1930-58 b 650 8.6 June 9-17, 1945 9.5 July 22, 1956
250 Withlacoochee River at .
room, Fla. 1939-58 b 900 10 July 24-25, 1956 16 July 24-25. 1956
264 Withlacoochee River near
Holder, Fla. 1928-29, 1931-58 b 1,710 112 June 18. 1956 112 June 18, 1956
SUWANNEE RIVER BASIN
261 Suwannee River at White _
Springs. Fla. 1906-08, 1927-8 c 1.990 4.8 Nov. 15. 1931 7.5 June 24-26, 1955
265 Withlacoochee River near
Pinetta, Fla. 1931-58 b 2,220 70 Aur. 23. 1955 70 Aug. 23, 1955
267 Suwanne River at Ellaville,
SFla. 1927-58 b 6.580 882 July 17, 1955 882 July 17, 1955
27". Suwannee River at Branford,
S Fla. 1931-58 b 7.090 1.530 July 1, 2, 1955 1,530 July 1. 2. 1955
277; New River near Lake Butler, Several days in Several days in
Fla. 1950-58 212 0.2 June 1955 0.2 June 1955
,278 Santa Fe River at Worthing-
S ton. :Fa.: 1931-58 b 630 0.5 June 24, 1955 0.5 June 24,1955
279 Santa Fe River near High Apr. 28 to Apr. 28 to
S Springs, Fla. 1931-58 b 950 31 May 5, 1956 31 May 5, 1956
281 Santa Fe River near Fort
White. Fla. 1927-30. 932-58 b 1.ORO 609 May 22. 1957 625 July 1, 1956
S2685 Suwannee River near Bell,
S Fla. 1932-56 b 9,260 2.460 Jan. 10, 11. 1956 2,460 Jan. 10, 11, 1956
287 wannee River near Wilcox, Dec 7, 1955;
Fla. 1980-31. 1951-58 a 9,500 (x)d 3.340 Jan. 6.1956;


(


~':1:'
~


;







STEINHATCHEE RIVER
BASIN


293 Steinhatchee River near Cross
;:i, .City. Fla. ___ 1950-58 b 3860 3.4 June 27, 28. 1950 3.6 Jan. 16. 1956,

i F HOLLOWAY RIVER

295 ReFenholloway: River near -
: Foley. Fla. 1955-58 a 70 1.9 June 9. 1956 1.9 June 9, 1956
298 Feholloway River atec. 26 1955
S, Fi':F v.ole. Fla.i I 1946-5Q a 80 5.1 Oct. 15. 1951. 9.2 Dee. 26.1955
ECONFINA RIVER BASIN
:82. I Econfina River near Perry,
S::. Fla. g b 195n-5 b 230 2. I July 8. 1955 2.3 July 8. 1955
j:' AUCILLA RIVER BASIN
808 Aucilla River at Lamont, 0 Many days in Many days in
Fla. 1950-58 b 680 0 1955, 1957 0 1955.
SiST. MARKS RIVER BASIN
317'! St. Marks River near New-
iport. Fla. 1956-58 b 220 325 Mar. 17, 1957 (v)
-/' OCHLOCKONEE RIVER
i ': BASIN
320 Ochlockonee River near Oct. 23-28, Nov. Oct. 23-28, Nov.
: Havana, Fla. 1926-58 b 1,020 17 1, 1954 17 1. 1954
322 Little River near Ouinev. Fla. 950-5~ b 250 6.8 June 9, 1956 6.8 June 9, 1956
324 Ochlockonee River near
i! Bloxham. Fla. 1926-58 b 1.660 (z) 39 Nov. 28. 1955
825 Telogia Creek near Bristol, Sept. 14, Oct. Sept. 14, Oct.
I Fla. 1950-58 b 130 28 26, 27, 1954 28 26, 27, 1954


I


:''




W
I-.


0'
0 '~

P






TA.bL 2. (Continued)

Drainage i onuMinimum Flow
Map Period of area Period of record 1054.56 drought
No. Gaging Station Record (sq. mi.) Flow Date Flow Date

APALACHICOLA RIVER
BASIN
327 Apalachicola River at
Chattahoochee, Fla. 1928-58 b 17,100 4,950 Oct. 27, 1954 4,950 Oct. 27, 1954
329 Chinola River near Altha, 1912-13; 1921-27; I Nov. 17, 18, Nov. 17, 18,
Fla. 1929-31; 1943.-58 1 781 356 19,. 1955 856 19, 1955
BEAR CREEK BASIN
0 Econfna Creek near Bennett,
Fla. 1935-58 182 307 Jan. 9, 1956 307 Jan. 9, 1956
CHOCTAWHATCHEE
RIVER BASIN
381 Choctawhatchee River at
Caryville, Fla. 1929-58 3.499 752 Sept. 4, 1957 775 Sept. 19. 1956
S332 "Holmes Creek at Vernon, Fla. 1950-58 386 234 July 8, 1955 234 July 8, 1955
333 Choctawhatchee River near
Bruce.. Fla. 1930-58 4,384 1,480 Oct. 9. 1954 1,480 Oct. 9, 1954
SALAQUA CREEK BASIN
884 Alaqua Creek near DeFuniak IJune 9, 21, 22, June 9, 21, 22,
Springs. Fla. 1951-58 65.6 27 30, July 1, 1955 27 30, July 1, 1955
YELLOW RIVER BASIN
"8 Yellow River at Milligan,
835 FYlal'ow 1938-58 624 143 Oct. 25, 1954 143 Oct. 25, 1954
386 Shoal River near Mossy Head,
.Fla. 1951-58 123 42 June 9. 1956 42 June 9, 1956







33887 Shoal River near Crestview, Ma 14. 196
Fla. 1938-58 474 263 May 13. 14. 1955 263 May18.14.1956


BLACKWATER RIVER
BASIN
338i Blackwater River near Baker,
.:.,Fla. 1950-58 205 60 Sept. 7. 8. 1954 60 Sept. 7. 8. 1954
389 Big Coldwater Creek near
S Milton; :Fla.. 1938-58 237 156 June 10. 11. 1956 156 June 10. 11. 1956

SESAMBIA RIVER BASIN
340: Esdambia River near Century, Sept. 15, Oct. 20, Sept. 15, Oct. 20,
S Fla. : A ;1984-58 3,817 600 21, 1954 600 21. 1954
341 :Pine Barren Creek near
; : e Barthe, CFla. 1952-58 75.3 51 June 8. 9. 1956 51 June 8. 9. 1956
S PERDIDO RIVER BASIN
342 Perdido River at Barrineau Set. 15. 194 207 Set. 15 1954
Park, Fla. 1941-58 394 07 Set. 15 195 207 t. 15954
.a About, n Includes area drained by Lakes Weohyakapka and Marian.


l Approximately.
c Includes part of watershed in Okeefenokee Swamp which is
indeterminate.
d Daily.
e Flow occasionally reversed by wind.
f Discharge measurements only.
g Flow occasionally reversed by high tide during periods of low
flow.
h Caused by placement of a coffer dam upstream.
i Regulated by Moss Bluff dam.
J Excludes area drained by Brick Lake.
k Includes part of watershed in Reedy Creek Swamp which is
indeterminate.
1 Includes area drained by Brick Lake.
m Includes Cypress-Kissimmee overflow.


p Excludes area drained by Lake Weohyakapka and includes area
drained by Lake Sebring.
q Excludes area drained by Lake Sebring.
r No flow except leakage through closed locks; estimated to be less
than 10 cfs.
s Maximum daily flow toward Lake Okeechobee; normal direction of
flow is away from Lake Okeechobee.
t Estimated.
u Not determined; station discontinued in November 1954.
v Not determined; station established in August 1956.
w Slight regulation by pumpage above station.
x Fragmentary records; low-water records not computed.
y Not determined; station established in October 1956.
z Indeterminate prior to 1954.


cI3
* C







TAsts 8, Low-Flow Meafurements Made at 'Partial-Itecord aging Stations During the 10i51 Drought

Drainage Dim-
Map area charge
No. Stream Tributary to Location (sq. mi.) Date (cfs)
ST. MARYS RIVER BASIN
3 Cedar Creek St. Marys River in NW% see. 10, T. 2 S., R. 21 E., at bridge
on State Highway 125, 5 miles northwest
of Glen St. Mary 61 Apr. 18 2.71
8 St. Marys River Atlantic Ocean in SW % sec. 4, T. 1 N., R. 23 E., at bridge
on county road, 2 miles east of St. George 920 Apr. 18 88.5
9 Little St. Marys St. Marys River in middle of sec. 2, T. 3 N., R. 25 E., at
River bridge on county road at Lessie, 1% miles
above Wilder Creek, and 8% miles east of
Hilliard. 39.6 Apr. 19 0
10 Wilder Creek Little St. Marys in S% sec. 35, T. 4 N., R. 25 E., at bridge on
River county road at Lessie, 1% miles above
I I___mouth, and 8% miles east of Hilliard. 7.32 Apr. 19 0


NASSAU RIVER BASIN


in SE4' sec. 3, T. 1 S., R. 24 E., 8% miles
east of Verdie and 5 miles south of Craw-
ford.


Apr. 19 < .01


in NE%4 sec. 15, T. 1 N., R. 25 E., at bridge
on U. S. Highway 1, 5 miles southeast of
Callahan. 46.1 Apr. 18 0
ST. JOHNS RIVER BASIN


0


N


-~----







15 Unnamed Fort Drum Creek in NWI sec. 23, T. 34 S., R. 35 E., at bridge
tributary on U. S. Highway 441, 1.4 miles south of
_Fort Drum. May 1 0
16 Fort Drum Creek St. Johns Marsh in NE% sec. 14, T. 34 S., R. 35 E., at bridge
on county road, 0.6 mile southeast of
_Fort Drum. May 1 0
17 Unnamed Fort Drum Creek in NE sec. 10, T. 34 S., R. 35 E., at bridge
tributary on U. S. Highway 441, 0.6 mile north of
Fort Drum. May 1 0
18 Fort Drum Creek St. Johns Marsh in sec. 2, T. 34 S., R. 35 E., at Bear Island
fords on private road, 1.5 miles north of
Fort Drum. May 1 0
19 Sweetwater Fort Drum Creek in SW/ sec. 28, T. 33 S., R. 35 E., at bridge
Branch on U. S. Highway 441, 3.4 miles northwest
of Fort Drum. May 1 0
20 Sweetwater Fort Drum Creek in NW% sec. 34, T. 33 S., R. 35 E., at bridge
Branch on private road, 2.8 miles north of Fort
Drum. May 1 .44
21 Boggy Branch Sweetwater Branch in NW% sec. 3, T. 34 S., R. 35 E., at bridge
on U. S. Highway 441, 1.8 miles northwest
_of Fort Drum. May 1 0
22 Jim Green Creek Fort Drum Creek in SEY4 sec. 22, T. 33 S., R. 35 E., at ford
on private road, 4.3 miles north of Fort
Drum. May 1 0
28 Padgett Branch Blue Cypress Lake in NW% sec. 26, T. 32 S., R. 35 E., at bridge
on State Highway 60, 6.7 miles southeast
of Yeehaw Junction. Apr. 24 0
24 Blue Cypress Blue Cypress Lake in NW%1 sec. 36, T. 31 S., R. 34 E., at Big
Creek Lolly Bridge on county road, 3.3 miles
north of Yeehaw Junction. .Apr. 24


Cow Log Branch


Blue Cypress Creek


in SE1% sec. 13, T. 32 S., R. 34 E., at t
on State Highway 60, 1.6 miles soul
of Yeehaw Junction.


bridge
;heast
Apr. 24 0


---






TAisLE 3. (Continued)

Drainage Dia.
Map area charge
No. Stream Tributary to Location (sq. mi.) Date (cfs)
28 Pennywash Creek St. Johns River in NW%' sec. 35, T. 20 S., R. 34 E., at bridge
on county road, 61% miles north of Deer
Park. 17.2 Apr. 26 t.06
30 St. Johns River Atlantic Ocean in NE% sec. 25, T. 24 S., R. 34 E., at bridge
on State Highway 520, at outlet of Lake
Poinsett, and 10% miles west of Cocoa. 1,237 Apr. 24 *93.3
31 Taylor Creek St. Johns River in SW% sec. 33, T. 24 S., R. 34 E., at bridge
on county road, 3% miles above mouth
and 10% miles west of Cocoa. 52.2 Apr. 23 0
32 Jim Creek St. Johns River in SE% sec. 36, T. 23 S., R. 33 E., at bridge
on county road, 7% miles southeast of
Christmas. 23.0 Apr. 23 0
34 Econlockhatchee St. Johns River in NEk sec. 13, T. 22 S., R. 31 E., at bridge
River on State Highway 420, 9% miles north-
west of Christmas. Apr. 25 t.15
35 Little Econlockhatchee in NW% sec. 4, T. 22 S., R. 31 E., at bridge
Econlockhatchee River on Iron Bridge Roasi, 4 miles south of
River Oviedo and 10 miles east of Orlando Apr. 27 13.7
37 St. Johns River Atlantic Ocean in NE% sec. 32, T. 20 S., R. 33 E., at bridge
on State Highway 46, 1 mile above Lake
Harney, and 5% miles southeast of Geneva. 1,910 June 6 *72.0
38 Deep Creek St. Johns River on line between sec. 12 and 13, T. 19 S., R.
Canal 32 E., at bridge on State Highway 410
5% miles east of Osteen. Apr. 25 .38
39 Cow Creek Deep Creek in SW % sec. 16, T. 19 S., R. 33 E., at bridge
on county road, 2 miles above mouth and
__8 miles east of Osteen. Apr. 25 0
40 Little Canal St. Johns River at corner of sec. 10, 11, 14, 15, T. 19 S., R. 32
E., at bridge on State Highway 410, 3%
miles east of Osteen. Apr. 25 t.3







41 St. Johns River Atlantic Ocean in sec. 16, T. 19 S., R. 30 E.. at bridge on
U. S. Highways 17 and 92, near down-
stream end of Lake Monroe, and 4 miles
northwest of Sanford. 2,420 June 6 *0
42 Wekiwa Springs Wekiva River at corner of sec. 25, 36, 30, 31, T. 20 S., R.
28 and 29 E., at headwater of Wekiva
_River, 3% miles northeast of Apopka. Apr. 27 62.0
43 Rock Springs Rock Springs Run on line between sec. 10 and 15, T. 20 S., R.
28 E., 8 miles above Wekiva River, and 6
miles north of Apopka.' Apr. 26 54.7
44 Sanlando Springs Little Wekiva on line between sec. 2 and 3, T. 21 S., R. 29
River E., on east bank of Little Wekiva River,
__ 3 miles west of Longwood. Apr. 27 13.9
45 Palm Springs Little Wekiva on line between sec. 2 and 3, T. 21 S., R. 29
River E., on east bank of Little Wekiva River, 3
miles west of Longwood. Apr. 27 8.91
47 Blackwater Creek St. Johns River in SW% sec. 35, T. 18 S., R. 28 E., at bridge
on State Highway 44, 1% miles southwest
of Cassia. Apr. 26 5.94
48 Blue Spring St. Johns River in sec. 8, T. 18 S., R. 30 E., 800 feet up-
stream from St. Johns River, a quarter of
a mile downstream from head of spring,
and 2%1 miles west of Orange City. Nov. 29 '125
50 Alexander Alexander in Levy Land Grant, T. 16 S., R. 27 E., 1 /
Springs Spring Creek miles above bridge on State Highway 445,
and 6 miles southwest of Astor. Apr. 23 136
51 Ponce de Leon Spring Garden in sec. 2, T. 16 S., R. 29 E., %Y mile west of
Springs Lake De Leon Springs, and 8% miles northwest
of DeLand. Apr. 18 23.4
52 Juniper Juniper Creek in sec. 17, T. 15 S., R. 26 E., 10 miles west
Springs of Astor, and 27 miles east of Ocala. Apr. 23 9.66
53 The Aquarium Juniper Creek in sec. 17, T. 15 S., R. 26 E., 10 miles west
of Astor, and 27 miles east of Ocala. Apr. 23 11.6


*Minimum of measured
tField estimate.


discharges at monthly intervals.







TAUL: 3. (Continued)

Drainage Did.
Map area charge
No. Stream Tributary to Location (sq. mi.) Date (cfs)
54 Silver Glen Lake George in SE4 sec. 25, T. 15 S., R. 27 E., 9 miles
S Springs northwest of Astor. Apr. 24 108
55 Salt Springs Salt Spring Creek in Jos. Hernandez Grant, T. 13 S., R. 26 E.,
near town of Lake Kerr, 28 miles north-
east of Ocala. Apr. 24 79,9
56 Big Creek Lake Louisa in NWV4 sec. 32, T. 23 S., R. 26t E., 1 mile
above Lake Louisa, and 7/m miles south of
Clermont. 67 May 4 5.05
57 Little Creek Lake Louisa in NE % sec. 25, T. 23 S., R. 25 E., at bridge
on county road % mile above Lake Louisa,
and 6 1 miles south of Clermont. 15 May 4 0
61 Palatlakaha Lake Harris in sec. 26, T. 20 S., R. 24 E., at bridge 2 miles
Creek southeast of Okahumpka, and 4 miles
above mouth. Sept. 4 *.01
62 Bugg Spring Lake Markham on line between sec. 10 and 15, T. 20 S., R.
24 E., at Okahumpka. Apr. 26 10.3
63 Unnamed Spring Lake Harris in SW1A sec. 16, T. 20 S., R. 25 E., at south
edge of Lake Harris, and V4 mile north of
Yalaha. Apr. 30 3.59
65 Oklawaha River St. Johns River in sec. 22 or 23, T. 16 S., R. 24 E., at bridge
on State Highway 464, and 0.4 miles
_____________southwest of Moss Bluff. 910 Apr. 26 17.8
69 Hatchet Creek Newnans Lake in SW% sec. 22, T. 9 S., R. 21 E., at bridge
on State Highway 26, 8 miles northeast of
Gainesville. 57 Avr. 24 .54
70 Little Hatchet Newnans Lake in SW% see. 29, T. 9 S., R. 21 E., at bridge
Creek on State Highway 26, 6 miles northeast
of Gainesville. 10.9 Apr. 24 0
71 Prairie Creek Camps Canal in NW% sec. 19, T. 10 S., R. 21 E., at bridge
on State Highway 20, 5% miles southeast
of Gainesville. 111 Apr. 23 .37






73 Lochloosa Creek Lake Lochloosa in NE%4 sec. 30, T. 10 S., R. 22 E., at bridge
on State Highway 20, 1 mile east of Grove
Park. 34.7 Apr. 28 0
74 Magnesia Springs Lochloosa Creek in NW% sec. 31, T. 10 S., R. 22 E., 3% miles
____west of Hawthorne. Apr. 23 ..02
78 Little Orange Orange Creek in NW1% sec. 19, T. 11 S., R. 24 E., at bridge
Creek on State Highway 315, 1% miles north of
Orange Springs. 78.9 Apr. 24 3.77
79 Bruntbridge Brook Oklawaha River in SE4. sec. 15, T. 11 S., R. 24 E., at bridge
on State Highway 815, 4 miles northeast
of Orange Springs. 4.63 Apr. 24 0
80 Deep Creek Oklawaha River in NW% sec. 18, T. 11 S., R. 25 E., at bridge
on State Highway 310, 7 miles northeast
of Orange Springs. 54.3 Apr. 24 40.3
82 Nashua Spring St. Johns River in NEY% sec. 28, T. 11 S., R. 26 E., on east
bank of St. Johns River at Nashua, 2%
miles south of Satsuma. Apr. 19 0
83 Unnamed Spring St. Johns River in SE% sec. 21, T. 11 S., R. 26 E., on east
bank of St. Johns River at Nashua 2%
miles south of Satsuma. Apr. 19 2.49
84 Black Branch Haw Creek in NE% sec. 21, T. 12 S., R. 30 E., at bridge
on State Highway 11, 1% miles south-
west of Bunnell. Apr. 18 0
85 Sweetwater Haw Creek. in NW14 sec. 32, T. 12 S., R. 30 E., at bridge
Branch on State Highway 11, 4 miles south-
west of Bunnell. Apr. 18 0
86 Haw Creek Crescent Lake on line between sec. 2 and 3, T. 13 S., R. 29
E., at bridge on State Highway 305, 7%1
miles southwest of Bunnell. Apr. 18 0
87 Middle Haw Creek Haw Creek in middle of sec. 19, T. 13 S., R. 30 E., at
bridge on State Highway 11, 8 miles south
of Bunnell. Apr. 18 0

*Minimum of measured discharges at monthly intervals.






TABLE 3. (Continued)

Drainage Dis.
MAP area charge
No, Stream Tributary to Location (sq. mi.) Date (eCa)
88 Middle Haw Creek Haw Creek on line between sec. 10 and 11, T. 13 S., R.
20 E., at bridge on State Highway 305, 8
miles southwest of Bunnell. Apr. 18 0
90 Magnolia Lake Lake Brooklyn in sec. 8, T. 8 S., R. 23 E., 2 miles north
Outlet of Keystone Heights. 14.8 Apr. 20 0
91 Etonia Creek Rice Creek in SE % sec. 2, T. 9 S., R. 25 E., at bridge
on county road, 11/ miles east of Flora-
home. __Apr. 20 2.82
92 Etonia Creek Rice Creek in NW% sec. 17, T. 9 S., R. 26 E., at bridge
on State Highway 809, 6% miles north-
west of Palatka. Apr. 20 10.1
93 Simms Creek Etonia Creek on line between sec. 33, T. 7 S., and sec. 4,
T. 8 S., R. 26 E., at bridge on State High-
way 214, 1%A miles east of Sun Garden,
_and 6 miles northwest of Bostwick. 6.89 Apr. 24 0
94 Unnamed Branch Palmetto Branch in SWA sec. 15, T. 9 S., R. 25 E., at bridge
on State Highway 100, %A mile northwest
of Carraway and 10 miles northwest of
Palatka. 1.81 Apr. 19 .25
95 Rice Creek St. Johns River in sec. 29, T. 9 S., R. 26 E., at bridge on
State Highway 100, 3 miles southeast of
Carraway, and 7 miles northwest of Pa-
latka. 42.8 Apr. 19 2.53
96 Unnamed Branch Rice Creek in SE % sec 33 T 9 S., R. 26 E., at bridge
on State Highway 100, % mile northwest
of junction with State Highway 216, and
4 miles northwest of Palatka. 1.97 Apr. 19 0
97 Sixmile Creek St. Johns River in SW% sec. 4, T. 7 S., R. 28 E., at bridge
on State Highway 13A, at Bakersville,
10,% miles west of St. Augustine. 45.7 May 23 .62







98 Green Cove St. Johns River in sec. 38, T. 6 S., R. 26 E., at side of U. S.
Springs Highway 17 in Green Cove Springs. Apr. 25 2.74
99 Governors Creek St. Johns River on line between sec. 9 and 16, T. 6 S., R. 26
E., at bridge on U. S. Highway 16, 1 mile
west of Green Cove Springs. 10.5 May 23 2.29
100 South Fork Black Creek on line between sec. 27 and 28, T. 6 S., R.
Black Creek 24 E., at bridge on State Highway 21, 6
_miles southwest of Penney Farms. 34.8 Apr. 20 9.46
102 North Fork Black Creek on line between sec. 11 and 14, T. 6 S., R.
Black Creek 23 E., at bridge on State Highway 16,
8% miles southwest of Middleburg. 9.17 Apr. 20 .35
103 Yellow Water Black Creek on line between sec. 32, T. 3 S., and sec. 5,
Creek T. 4 S., R. 24 E., on county road at Duval-
Clay county line, 5% miles east of Max-
ville. 61.2 Apr. 19 3.07
105 Durbin Creek Julington Creek in NEI sec. 6, T. 5 S., R. 28 E., at bridge
on county road 5 miles northwest of Dur-
bin. 26.9 May 23 0
106 Wadesboro Spring Doctors Lake in sec. 25, T. 4 S., R. 26 E., 0.9 miles south-
west of Orange Park. Apr. 20 .71
107 McGirts Creek Ortega River on line between sec. 10 and 15, T. 3 S., R.
25 E., at bridge on Jacksonville Heights
_____Road. 5 miles southwest of .TaRonville. 27.8 Apr. 19 1.09
PELLICER CREEK BASIN
109 Pellicer Creek Matanzas River in sec. 47, T. 10 S., R. 80 E., at F.E.C. rail-
road bridge, at Flagler-St. Johns county
Line. and 10 miles north of EsDanola. 34.4 May 24 2.19
TOMOKA RIVER BASIN.
110 Tomoka River Halifax River in SW% sec. 27, T. 15 S., R. 32 E., at bridge
on U. S. Highway 92, 5% miles west of
I Daytona Beach. Apr. 18 0
111 Little Tomoka Tomoka River in NW14 sec. 34, T. 14 S., R. 31 E., at bridge
River on Tomoka Ave., 8 miles northwest of
Daytona Beach. Apr. 19 0






TAULl II. (Contilued)

Drainage DUi.
Map area charge
No, Stream Tributary to Location (sq, mi,) Date (cfa)
INDIAN RIVER BASIN
112.1 Ellis Canal Indian River in Delespine Grant, at bridge 1 mile above
Indian River, and 11/ miles south of In.
S_ dian River City. June 4 *1.15
118 Goat Creek Indian River in NW% sec. 18, T. 29 S., R. 38 E., at bridge
on county road, 1 miles west of Val-
S____ _karia, and 2 miles above Indian River. 12.0 June 0 *+.8
119 South Prong Sebastian Creek in SWY sec. 28, T. 81 S., R. 38 E., at bridge
Sebastian Creek on State Highway 512, 4 miles southwest
______ of Sebastian. June 6 *9.86
120 North Prong Sebastian Creek in Fleming Grant, at bridge on county road,
Sebastian Creek 214 miles southwest of Micco, and 2.1
miles above Sebastian Creek. 56.0 Mar. 15 *6.44
LAKE OKEECHOBEE AND THE
EVERGLADES
180 Brick-Alligator Alligator Lake in SW sec. 34, T. 26 S., R. 31 E., at bridge
Canal on State Highway 534, 5 miles southeast
of Ashton, and 7 miles southeast of St.
_Cloud. Apr. 12 *t.8
182 Lizzie-Lost Lake Lost in sec. 2, T. 26 S., R. 31 E., at bridge on
Canal north side of Lake Lizzie, 3 miles
northeast of Ashton, and 4 miles south-
east of Narcoossee. 31.5 July 16 *0
183.1 Mary Jane-Hart Lake Hart in sec. 23, T. 24 S., R. 31 E., at bridge just be-
Canal low Lake Mary Jane and 6% miles north-
_east of Narcoossee. 124 May 22 *14.5
135 Ajay-East East Tohopekaliga in sec. 4, T.. 25 S., R. 81 E., at bridge on
Tohopekaliga Lake State Highway 15, 3 miles north of Nar- May 21 *+2.8
Canal coossee. 171 July 6 *t2.8





--~-


in NW%4 sec. 14, T. 30 S., R. 29 E., at bridge
on State Highway 60, 11.8 miles east of
Lake Wales.
in SE% sec. 20, T. 31 S., R. 29 E., at cul-
verts on State Highway 630, 5.7 miles east
of Frostproof.


74.7


on line between sec. 4 and 33, T. 24. S., R. 80
E., at bridge on State Highway 530, 6
miles northeast of Kissimmee.
in SW1. sec. 32, T. 25 S., R. 29 E., at bridge
on State Highway 531, 2% miles south-
west of Kissimmee.


96.8


IMPERIAL RIVER BASIN
180 Imperial River Gulf of Mexico in sec; 36, T. 47 S., R. 25 E., 1% miles east
of Bonita Springs. Apr. 25 .92

MULOCK CREEK BASIN
181 Line-A Canal Mulock Creek in sec. 6, T. 46 S., R. 25 E., mile above
U. S. Highway 41 and 9. miles south of
.Fort Myers. Aur. 24 0
CALOOSAHATCHEE RIVER BASIN
184 Orange River Caloosahatchee in sec. 9, T. 44 S., R. 26 E., 1 % miles south-
River east of Buckingham and 8 miles northeast
_of Fort Myers. Apr. 25 0
PEACE RIVER BASIN
189 Kissengen Spring Peace River in sec. 28, T. 30 S., R. 25 E., 41A miles south- Jan. 18
east of Bartow. to
S____Dec. 12 *0
190 Bowlegs Creek Peace River in sec. 2, T. 32\ S., R. 25 E., at bridge on
county road, 2 miles southeast of Fort
Made. Apr. 25 3.68


*Minimum of measured
tField estimate.


discharges at monthly intervals.


Apr. 24


Apr. 24


*.78


12.5

.07


o
I,


July 9

May 19


*t.02


182







TABL. 3. (Continued)

Drainage Dis.
Map area charge
No, Stream Tributary to Location (sq. mi.) Date (efa)
191 Whidden Creek Peace River in sec. 10. T, 82 S., R. 25 E., at bridge on
U. S. Highway 17, 8 miles south of Fort
Meade. Apr. 25 8.99
192 Paynes Creek Peace River in sec. 8, T. 38 S., R. 25 E., at bridge on
U. S. Highway 17, 1% miles south of
Bowling Green. Apr. 25 1.47
195 Charlie Creek Peace River in sec. 82, T. 33 S., R. 27 E., at bridge on
State Highway 64, 8 1/ miles west of Avon
Park. Apr. 25 0
198 Joshua Creek Peace River in sec. 17, T. 88 S., R. 25 E., at bridge on
State Highway 81, 8 miles southeast of
Arcadia. Apr. 25 0
200 Hawthorne Branch Joshua Creek in sec. 24, T. 88 S., R. 24 E., at bridge on
State Highway 760, 1% miles east of
Nocatee. Apr. 25 t.08
201 Horse Creek Peace River in sec. 20, T. 883 S., R. 28 E., at bridge on
State Highway 62, 5 % miles west of Fort
Green Springs. Apr. 24 0
203 Prairie Creek Peace River in sec. 26, T. 89 S., R. 25 E., at bridge on
State Highway 81, 9% miles southeast of
Nocatee. AApr. 25 0
MYAKKA RIVER BASIN
204 Wingate Creek Myakka River in sec. 6, T. 35 S., R. 22 E., at bridge on
State Highway 64, 8 miles north of
Myakka City. Apr. 24 t0.05
205 Myakka River Upper Myakka in sec. 18, T. 36 S., R. 21 E., at bridge on
Lake State Highway 70, % mile east of Myakka
City. A____ pr. 24 0
208 Warm Salt Spring Salt Creek in sec. 24, T. 89 S., R. 20 E., at outlet, 8
Warm Sl miles northwest of Murdock. Apr. 24 9.58







209 Little Salt Spring Big Slough Canal in sec. 20, T. 39 S., R. 21 E., at outlet 8 I
miles northwest of.Murdock. Apr. 24 1.22

SHAKETT CREEK BASIN
210 Gum Slough Cow Pen Slough in sec. 24, T. 36 S., R. 19 E., at bridge on
State Highway 780, 111 miles east of
Sarasota. Apr. 24 0

UNNAMED CREEK BASIN
211 Pinehurst Spring Unnamed creek in SW%4 sec. 21, T. 37 S., R. 18 E., at outlet
7 miles south of Sarasota. Apr. 24 < .01

MANATEE RIVER BASIN
212 Manatee River Gulf of Mexico in sec. 29, T. 83 S., R. 22 E., at bridge on
State Highway 62, 11 miles west of Fort
Green Springs. Apr. 24 0
218 Manatee River Gulf of Mexico in sec. 4, T. 35 S., R. 21 E., at bridge on
State Highway 64, 9 miles north of My-
akka City. Apr. 24 1.06

ALAFIA RIVER BASIN

217 Lake Drain North Prong in SE% sec. 14, T. 29 S., R. 23 E., at culvert
Alafia River on county road 0.6 mile south of Medulla. Apr. 25 0
219 South Prong Alafia River in sec. 22, T. 31 S., R. 23 E., at bridge on
Alafia River State Highway 37, 2 miles south of Brad-
ley Junction. Apr. 25 t.05
220 South Prong Alafia River in sec. 28, T. 30 S., R. 22 E., at bridge on
Alafia River county road, 2 miles southwest of Keys-
ville. Apr. 25 2.93
222 Lithia Springs Alafia River in sec. 20, T. 30 S., R. 21 E., at outlet 3
miles west of Lithia. Apr. 25 39.7


*Minimum of measured
tField estimate.


discharges at monthly intervals.






TAaus 8, (Continued)

Drainage DisN
Map area charge
No. Stream Tributary to Location (sq, mi.) Date (oea
PALM RIVER BASIN
224 Eureka Springs Sixmile Creek in sec. 31, T. 28 S., R. 20 E., 8 miles east of
I Tampa. May 1 1.02
HILLSBOROUGH RIVER BASIN
226 Crystal Springs Hillsborough in see. 35, T. 26 S., R. 21 E., mile down-
River stream from Crystal Springs, 1% miles
west of village of Crystal Springs and 3
miles south of Zephyrhills. June 25 *44.0
231 Cypress Creek Hillsborough in NE% sec. 4, T. 28 S., R. 19 E., at bridge May 2 0
River on Skipper Ave. Extension, 4% miles Aug. 28 0
northeast of Sulphur Springs. Sept. 26 0
234 Purity Springs Hillsborough in NW% sec. 25, T. 28 S., R. 18-E., on-the
River n o r th bank of Hillsborough River at
Tampa. May 1 t1.2
235 Sulphur Springs Hillsborough in NEA sec. 25, T. 28 S., R. 18 E., at swim-
River ming pool 100 feet west of U. S. Highway
41 in Sulphur Springs and 500 feet up-
Sstream from Hillsborough River. May 1 *34.6
236 Palma Ceia Hillsborough on line between sec. 27 and 34, T. 29 S., R. 18
Springs River E., at Tampa. May 2 .49
HEALTH SPRINGS BASIN
240.8 Health Springs Gulf of Mexico in SE% sec. 26, T. 27 S., R. 15 E., at Wall
Springs, 3 miles south of Tarvon Snrines. May 2 t1.5
ANCLOTE RIVER BASIN
240.4 Seven Springs Anclote River in NW%4 sec. 24, T. 26 S., R. 16 E., on south
bank of Anclote River, near bridge on
State Highway 54, 3% miles east of El-
.. fers. May 8 < .01






PITHLACHASCOTEE RIVER BASIN
241 Pithlachascotee Gulf of Mexico in NW% sec. 1, T. 26 S., R. 16 E., 3% miles
River east of New Port Richey. 149 May 3 .88

WEEKIWACHEE RIVER BASIN
243 Weekiwachee Weekiwachee in sec. 2, T. 23 S., R. 17 E., at pool at head
Springs River of Weekiwachee River, 12 miles south-
west of Brooksville. July 24 *101

CHASSAHOWITZKA RIVER BASIN
244 Chassahowitzka Chassahowitzka in SW% sec. 26, T. 20 S., R. 17 E., at head
Springs River of Chassahowitzka River, 61 miles south
of Homosassa. May 1 112

HOMOSASSA RIVER BASIN
245 Homosassa Homosassa in sec. 28, T. 19 S., R. 17 E., at head of
Springs River Homosassa River at town of Homosassa
Springs, 2 miles northeast of Homosassa. May 1 144

WITHLACOOCHEE RIVER BASIN
247 Withlacoochee Gulf of Mexico on line between sec. 28 and 33, T. 24 S., R.
River 25 E., at bridge on State Highway 33,
2% miles north of Eva, and 12% miles
north of Polk City. May 1 .54
248 Withlacoochee Gulf of Mexico in NE1 sec. 17, T. 24 S., R. 25 E., at cul-
River overflow vert on State Highway 33, 2.7 miles north
channel of main channel. May 4 10.4
251 Fenney Springs Panasoffkee River on line between sec. 31 and 32, T. 19 S., R.
1 23 E., 2 miles east of Coleman. Apr. 26 4.66


*Minimum of measured
tField estimate.


discharges at monthly intervals.







TABrsL 3, (Continued)


Location


NWI/4 sec. 12 i1, T u ., K. 22 E., at bridge
on U. S. Highway 301, 2 miles south of
Coleman.


at corner of sec. 25, 36, 80, and 31, T. 19 S.,
on line between R. 21 E. and R. 22 E., at
bridge on State Highway 470, 5 miles west
of Coleman.


Drainage
area
(sq. mi.)


Date


Apr. 26


Apr. 26


Dis-
charge
(oWa)


10.1


55.5


2655 Rainbow Springs Withlacoochee in sec. 12, T. 16 S., R. 18 E., 4 miles north-
River east of Dunnellon. I July 26 *504
WACCASASSA RIVER BASIN
256 Glen Springs Hogtown Creek in SW'% sec. 30, T. 9 S., R. 20 E., 2 miles
_northwest of Gainesville. Apr. 24 0.36
257 Waccasassa River Waccasassa Bay in sec. 17, T. 13 S., R. 16 E., at bridge on
State Highway 24, 2% miles northeast of
village of Otter Creek. __May 2 10.6
258 Wekiva Springs Wekiva River in SWA sec. 7, T. 14 S., R. 17 E., 4% miles
east of Gulf Hammock. May 1 34.7
259 Otter Creek Waccasassa River in sec. 26, T. 13 S., R. 15 E., at bridge on
State Highway 24, % mile southwest of
___________village of Otter Creek. _____ May 2 0
SUWANNEE RIVER BASIN
260 Suwannee River Gulf of Mexico in NW% sec. 10, T. 1 N., R. 16 E., at bridge
on State Highway 6, 3% miles northwest
of Benton. Anr. 24 114
261.1 White Springs Suwannee River in sec. 7, T. 2 S., R. 16 E., on north bank of
Suwannee River, at town of White
Springs. Apr. 25 7.61
262 Suwannee Springs Suwannee River in NE% sec. 20, T. 1 S., R. 14 E., on south
bank of Suwannee River at town of Su-
wannee Springs, 1% miles east of Su-
wannee. Apr. 25 2.35


I J-


- .. .. 0 .1







263 Suwannee River Gulf of Mexico in SE% sec. 17, T. 1 S., R. 14 E., at bridge
on U. S. Highway 129 at town of Su-
wannee Springs, 1% miles east of Su-
wannee. Apr. 25 282
264 Alapaha River Suwannee River on line between sec. 5, T. 1 N., and sec. 32,
T. 2 N., R. 13 E., at bridge on U. S. High-
way 41, 5% miles west of Jasper. Apr. 24 119
266 Blue Spring Withlacoochee in sec. 20, T. 1 N., R. 11 E., on southwest
River bank of Withlacoochee River, 10 miles
east of Madison._ Apr. 24 77.8
268 Falmouth Springs Suwannee River in NE% sec. 32, T. 1 S., R. 12 E., at Fal-
mouth, 10 miles northwest of Live Oak. Apr. 24 0
269 Charles Spring Suwannee River in NW4 sec. 4, T. 4 S., R. 11 E., on north-
east bank of Suwannee River near Lura-
ville, 6 miles north of Mayo. Apr. 25 7.97
270 Suwannee River Gulf of Mexico in SE% sec. 25, T. 4 S., R. 11 E., at bridge
on State Highway 51 at Luraville, 3 miles
north of Mayo. Apr. 26 2,520
272 Branford Springs Suwannee River on line between sec. 16 and 21, T. 6 S., R.
14 E., on east bank of Suwannee River
at Branford. Apr. 26 8.52
273 Santa Fe River Suwannee River in sec. 36, T. 7 S., R. 21 E., at bridge on
U. S. Highway 301, 2% miles southwest
of Hampton. 115 Apr. 24 0
274 Alligator Creek Lake Rowell in NW% sec. 33, T. 6 S., R. 22 E., at bridge
on U. S. Highway 301, % mile south of
Starke. 24.3 Apr. 24 1.65
275 Santa Fe River Suwannee River on line between sec. 18 and 19, T. 7 S., R.
20 E., at bridge on State Highway 235,
__ mile south of Brooker. 245 Apr. 24 .59
276 Heilbronn Spring Water Oak Creek in NE % sec. 36, T. 5 S., R. 21 E., on the
south bank of Water Oak Creek, 6 miles
northwest of Starke. May 2 .03
*Minimum of measured discharges at monthly intervals.







TABLE 8, (Continued)

Drainage Dis-
Map area charm
No, Stream Tributary to Location (sq mi,) Date (cafs
278.1 Swift Creek Olustee Creek near center of sec, 16, T. 5 S., R. 10 E., at
bridge on State Highway 100, at Guilford,
5 miles northwest of town of Lake Butler. 27 May 2 1.82
278.2 Olustee Creek Santa Fe River in SW%1 sec. 36, T. 5 S., R. 17 E., at bridge
on State Highway 288, % mile west of
Providence and 10 miles northeast of Fort
White. 88 May 2 0
280 Poe Springs Santa Fe River on line between sec. 5 and 6, T. 8 S., R. 17
E., on south bank of Santa Fe River, 3
miles west of High Springs. May 2 39.2
282 Ichatucknee Santa Fe River in sec. 28, T. 6 S., R. 15 E., on Ichatucknee
Springs River, at U. S. Highway 27, 1 mile east
of Hildreth, 2 miles upstream from mouth,
and 2% miles downstream from head of
springs. Jan. 28 *241
283 Santa Fe River Suwannee River on line between sec. 1 and 6, T. 7 S., R. 14
E., and R. 15 E., at bridge on State High-
way 49, 8 miles above mouth and 4 %
miles southwest of Hildreth. 1,440 Apr. 27 1,020
284 Rock Bluff Suwannee River in SW1 sec. 9, T. 8 S., R. 14 E., on left
Spring bank of Suwannee River, 5 miles north- Apr. 19 25.0
west of Bell. Apr. 28 28.8
286 Hart Spring Suwannee River in NW%A sec. 30, T. 9 S., R. 14 E., near left
bank of Suwannee River, 5 miles north-
west of Wilcox. Apr. 27 58.6
288 Fanning Spring Suwannee River in NW% sec. 29, T. 10 S., R. 14 E., near left
bank of Suwannee River, 2 miles south-
__west of Wilcox. May 1 64.0
289 Manatee Spring Suwannee River in sec. 25, T. 11 S., R. 13 E., near left bank
of Suwannee River, 7 miles west of Chief-
land. Apr. 27 110
.............






STEINHATCHEE RIVER BASIN
290 Kettle Creek Steinhatchee near center of sec. 27, T. 7 S., R. 10 E., at
River bridge on State Highway 51, 3% miles
north of Clara, and 16 miles southwest of Apr. 16 0
Mayo. May 1 .57
291 Steinhatchee Gulf of Mexico in SE%4 sec. 27, T. 7 S., R. 10 E., just above
River Steinhatchee Springs, 3 miles north of
Clara, and 16 1 miles southwest of Mayo. May 28 1.45
292 Steinhatchee Steinhatchee in SE% sec. 27, T. 7 S., R. 10 E., near left
Spring River bank of Steinhatchee. River, 3 miles north
of Clara, and 16% miles southwest of
Mayo. May 28 .12
FENHOLLOWAY RIVER BASIN
294 Fenholloway Gulf of Mexico in SWY4 sec. 29, T. 4 S., R. 9 E., 1 mile
River above U. S. Highway 27, and 5% miles
__northeast of Foley._ Apr. 24 1.02
296 Fenholloway Gulf of Mexico in NE%' sec. 85, T. 4 S., R. 8 E., 1%, miles
River above county road at Fenhblloway, 3 miles
northeast of Foley.v__ IApr. 24 3.69
297 Fenholloway Gulf of Mexico near center of sec. 2, T. 5 S., R. 8 E., at
River bridge on county road at Fenholloway, 22z
miles east of Foley. Apr. 24 4.06
299 Waldo Springs Fenholloway River in NE1% sec. 16, T. 5 S., R. 7 E., 5 miles
southwest of Perry. May 1 0
300 Hampton Springs Spring Creek in NE%1 sec. 6, T. 5 S., R. 7 E., at town
of Hampton Springs on left bank of
Spring Creek, 51/ miles southwest of
Perry. May 3 .05
301 Spring Creek Fenholloway River in NE'/ sec. 6, T. 5 S., R. 7 E., just below
Hampton Springs, 1% mile below U. S.
Highway 98, and 5% miles southwest of
Perry. 470 May 1 49.0
'*Minimum of measured discharges at monthly intervals.






TAm uo (Continued)
Drainage Dia-
Map area charge
No, Stream Tributary to Location (sq, ml.) Date (cia)

AUCILLA RIVER BASIN
303 Gum Creek Auclla River in SWI/ sec. 21, T. 2 N., R. 7 E., at bridge
on U. S. Highway 221, 61/ miles north of
Greenville. _May 2 0
804 Aucilla River Gulf of Mexico in NW1A sec. 16, T. 1 N., R. 6 E., at bridge
on U. S. Highway 90, 1% miles northeast Mar. 9 1.62
of Aucilla. May 2 .68
805 Pettis Spring Aucilla River on line between sec. 27 and 28, T. 1 N., R.
6 E., 6 miles west of Greenville. May 2 0
306 Wolf Creek Aucilla River in SE sec. 19 T. 1 N., R. 6 E., at bridge
on State Highway 257, % mile south of
Aucilla. May 2 0
807 Beasleys Creek Aucilla River in SE% sec. 15, T. 1 S., R. 5 E., at bridge
on State Highway 257, 1% miles north of
Lamont. May 2 0
309 Aucilla River Gulf of Mexico in NW% sec. 81, T. 2 S., R. 5 E., at bridge
on State Highway 257, 71 miles south of
Lamont. Mar. 9 50.0
310 Aucilla River Gulf of Mexico at corner of sec. 21, 22, 27 and 28, T. 3 S., R.i
4 E., at bridge on sand road, 5 miles north
of Scanlon, and 11/ miles south of Wa-
cissa. Mar. 9 58.1
811 Welaunee Creek Wacissa River in NW% sec. 3, T. 2 S., R. 4 E., at bridge
on county road, 4 miles east of Wacissa. May 8 0
312 Aucilla River Gulf of Mexico in SW% sec. 7, T. 4 S., R. 4 E., at bridge on
U. S. Highway 98, 4 miles west of Scan-
lon, and 18 miles east of Newport. May 2 48.6






LAKE MICCOSUKEE BASIN


on line between sec. 20 and
3 E., at bridge on State


29, T. 3 N., R.
Highway 59, 3


miles north of Miccosukee. Apr. 23 0
NEU% sec. 2, R. 4 E., T. 2 N., at bridge
on county road, 41% miles north of Monti-
cello. Apr. 23 0


in SE% sec. 15, R. 3 E., T. 1 N., at bridge
on county road, % mile east of Lloyd.


Apr. 23


0


ST. MARKS RIVER BASIN
316 River Sink Wakulla River in sec. 28, T. 2 S., R. 1 W., in area known as
River Sink Precinct, 12 miles southwest
_of Tallahassee. Apr. 25 102
318 Wakulla Spring St. Marks River in sec. 11, T. 3 S., R. 1 W., 6 miles northeast
of Crawfordville, and 14 miles south of
Tallahassee. May 31 '109
SOPCHOPPY RIVER BASIN
819 Sopchoppy River Ochlockonee Bay in NWV% sec. 24, T. 4 S., R. 3 W., at bridge on
_county road 48% miles north of Sopchoppy. 104 Apr. 23 2.51
OCHLOCKONEE RIVER BASIN
321 Quincy Creek Little River in NW% sec. 8, R. 3 W., T. 2 N., at bridge
T__ on State Highway 12 at Quincy. Apr. 26 11.8
323 Rocky Comfort Lake Talquin in NE 1, see. 42 in Forbes Purchase at
Creek bridge on. State Highway 267, 7 miles
south of Quincy. Apr. 24 5.27
APALACHICOLA RIVER BASIN
328 Glen Julia South Mosquito in sec. 23, T. 3 N., R. 5 W., 1 mile southwest.
Springs Creek of Mount Pleasant. Apr. 24 .54
*Minimum of measured discharges at monthly intervals.


0
0

-4




%I
U

0

z
0


--






TA ua 4, Chemical Analysis of Surface Waters During the Drought in 1056
(Chemical analyses in parts per million)

Stations C&COA





1986
3 Cedar Creek near Macclenny, F ...... April 18.., 2.71 3. 0.05 11 4.0 5.6 0.6 52 1.0 8.0 0.0 0.3 60 44 2 110 6.6 25
8 St, Marys River near St. George, Ga.... April 18... 38.5 4.1 .27 0.6 4.1 6.1 .5 38 .5 11 .0 .0 55 41 10 106 6.4 5
11 Su.No-Wa Spring near Verdie, Fla...... April l... <,0 7.1 .05 12 .5 3.5 .3 37 .5 .0 .0 .1 48 3 2 70.8 6.0
13 Ft. Drum Creek at Ft. Drum, Fla..... May I... 0 5.2 .03 47 1.6 13 2.5 140 11 16 .4 .3 170 124 2 294 7.0 20
20 Sweetwater Branch near Ft. Drum, Fla.. May I... .44 11 .06 15 .6 8.2 .6 45 8.5 10 .3 .4 77 40 3 112 7.5 75
27 St. Johns River near Melbourne, Fla.... April 26... 0 4.0 .01 24 2.0 2 36 2.0 71 ..... .3 18 72 42 311 .8 55
28 Pennywash Creek near Deer Park, Fla.. April 26... a .06 1.3 .03 0.6 1.0 7.4 1,3 22 6.5 12 .1 .6 52 32 14 100 6.8 45
30 St. Johns River near Cocoa, Fla...... May 21-31 d 56 4.1 .06 78 16 156 3.5 74 74 330 .2 .7 e 845 260 200 1,320 7.3 45
33 St. Johns River near Christmas, Fln.... April 21... d 75 6 .01 62 21 155 02 73 320 ..... .5 003 241 100 1,200 7.2 55
34 Econlockhatchee River near Christmas,
F la ............ April25... c .15 1.7 .04 24 2.0 3.0 .2 84 12 14 .1 .7 100 72 3 183 7.9 55
35 Little Econlockhatehee River near
Union Park, Fla................. April 27 .. 13.7 13 .03 25 5.2 40 2.5 60 42 35 .5 35 200 84 27 362 7.1 45
36 Econlokhbatcheo River near Chuluota,
FP...... ................... April24... d 18 7. .05 42 14 1 1112 58 17 ..... .7 468 162 70 873 7.3 40
37 St. Johns River above Lake Harney
near Geneva, Fla............. April25........ 3.4 .05 10 3 388 104 163 710 ..... 1.4 ,460 412 328 2,640 7.2 40
42 Wekiva Springs near Apopka, Fl...... April 27.. 02.0 0.3 .00 28 10 4.8 .7 120 6.0 8.0 .2 .0 126 11 12 225 7.3 5
43 Rock prin nearApopka,Fla......... April26... 54.7 8.2 .00 28 0.7 3.9 .3 105 16 7.0 .2 .1 125 110 24 215 7.3 5
4 Sanlando Springs near Longwood, Fla.. April27... 13.0 4.6 .000 8.3 5..1 4 125 .0 0.0 .2 .1 120 100 6 220 7.3 5
45 PalmSpringsnearLongwood, Fla...... April27... 8.1 5.8 .01 32 0.0 5.0 .4 1 12 8.5 .2 .0 134 117 16 243 7.8 5
47 Blackwater Creek near Casia, Fla...... April 2... 56,4 6.3 .06 32 10 i .4 1.0 80 40 14 .1 .3 150 121 72 258 6.0 45










82
8853

584
85
56
57
s
89
S60
.61

62


64


66


68


71
S72


136 8 .4


Alexander Springs near Astor, las.
(Main boil) i........ ............... April 23...
Ponce de Leon Spring at DeLeon
Springs, Fla...................... April 18...
Juniper springs near Astor, Fla...... April 23...
Spring Pool at Juniper Spring near
Astor, Fla......................... April23...
Silver Glen Springs near Astor Park, Fla. April 24...
Salt Springs near Lake Kerr, FIa........ April 24...
Big Creek near Clermont, Fla............. May 4...
Little Creek near Clermont, Fla........ May 4...
Lake Minnehaha at Clermont, Fla...... May 1...
Palatlakaha Creek near Groveland, Fla.. May I...
Palatlakaha Creek near Mascotte, Fla... May 1...
Palatlakaha Creek near Okahumpka,
Fla........... .. ..... ... ... April 30...
Bugg Spring at Okabumpka, Fla....... April 26...
Unnamed spring at'Yalaha, Fla........ April 30...
Haines Creek at Lisbon, Fla........... April 30...
Oklawaha River at Moss Bluff, Fla..... April 28...
Lake Weir at Oklawaha, Fla.......... April 30...
Oklawaha River near Ocala, Fla........ April 27...
Silver Springs near Ocala, Fla......... May 2.,.
Hatchett Creek near Gainesville, Fla.... April 24...
Prairie Creek near Gainesville, Fla...... April 23...
Orange Lake a near Boardman (Mike's
Camp), Fla....................... May 4...
Orange Lake at Orange Lake, Fl...... May 4...
Magnesia Spring near Hawthorne, Fla. Apr. 23...
Orange Creek at Orange Springs, F.... April 24...


23.4
9.68

11.6
108
79.9
5.05
0






2.66
10.3
3.89
d 150
17.8


d 30
d 856
.84
,37




.02


d 3.1 1.9 .031


TABLE 4. (Continued)

,00 49 17 121 3.

.01 40 6.8 40 I.
.00 14 6.1 2.8


5.6
9.1

9.8
9.7
12
2.7

.7
1.7
3.6
2.2

1.2
9.8
12
4.2
2.9
.1
1.9
11
1.0
.6

.0
5.0
285


2.8
340
878
7.5
8.8
5.8
6.1
6.0

10
4,0
3,7
9.0
7.5
16
5.0
7.5
3.2
12

13
12
9.8
3.8


4.4 1.7
.48 1.8
32 5.8
32 7.3
30 8.8
4.8 4.4
37 11
72 9.4
2.8 1.9
25 3.8

6.0 1.7
17 3.5
40 13
14 2.7


97

127
54

44
82
67
10


6




16
150
123
131
122
17
119
222
18
7

10
f48
177
83


61

12
12

5.5
202
378
18
.0
.0
7.5
6.5

.0
,0
.5
9.58
12
4.5
38
45
.0
4.0

12
14
.0
7.0


232

66
5.0

5.0
638
1,800
0.0
9.0
8.5
12
10

18
8.0
7.0
17
18
35
18
12
6.0
66

21
18
12
5.0


.1


.1

.1
.1
.2

.1
.1
.2
.2
.0
.1
.2


.,1
.1

.4
.2
.2
.2


2 .0
.0

.0

.2
1 .3


.0
.0
.6
1.3

.0
.1
.0
1.0

.6
.0
1.7
.6
.0
.1

5.0
10
.2
.1


540 192

236 128
76 00

03 82
1,380 404
3,170 787
43 14
23 11
23 11
39 17
35 13

45 18
146 126
122 104
141 110
141 110
66 30
172 138
257 218
23 15
116 78

65 22
100 87
188 184
61 48


113

24
16
I

16
336
732
6
7
6

12
6



3
3

2
10
16
40
36
2
72

14
18
8
2


988

438
129

110
2,480
5,520
62.2
75.0
58.7
60.1
66.1

89.3
252
215
267
201
159
301
425
44.8
248

114
173
317
107


8

7 5
5 5
S.... .
4 5


1 5
25



45



iso
25
10





2 45
28

5
45


30
20
10
28
8
50
35

30
45


35


I I


I I


I


I F


' iz
/
,:,,,







TAiUs 4, (Continued)


Little Or Creek near Orange
Spring Fla ........... .. ... .
Deep Creek near Rodman, Fla.........
Oklawaha Rive RiveRivermide Landing
near Orange Sprin, Fla............
Unnamed spring near Satuma, Fa ....
Etonia Creek near Florhome, Fla......
Etonia Creek near Palatka, Fla .......
Unnamed branch near Palatka, Fla.....
Rice Creek near Carraway, Fla.........
Green Cove Springs at Green Cove
Spring, Fla. ...................
South Fork Black Creek near Penney
Farms, Fla..... ....... .........
North Fork Black Creek near Middle.
burg, Fin....... .................
Yellow Water Creek near Maxville,
Fla.. ...... ................
Wadesboro Springs at Orange Park, Fla.
M'`Oirti Creek near Jacksonville, Fla..
Moultrie Creek near St. Augustine, Fla..
Ellis Canal near Indian River City, Fla.,
Surface. water slough near Cocoa, Fla...


'1


April 4.,,
April 24...

April 27...
April 1...
April 20...
April 20...
April 10...
April 10...

April 28..,

April 20...

April 20...

April 19...
April 20...
April 19...
April 11-20
April 23,..
April 25...


3.77 5.8 0,01 0.
40.3 8.2 .01 22


d 855
2.40
2.82
10.1
.25
2.53


2.741 13 .011 30 18


80
81

83
01


04
05
98
OB

100

103

103.

106
107
108
112.1
118


5.2 .2

13 .0

15 3.8
30 5.1
11 3,0
69 15
190 32
3.4 .. .4


. b .. l d ..... .
Mluar
as, Ccog


0.2 0.1
.21 .0


9.46 2.2

.35 4.5

3.07 8.2
.71 7.5
1.09 8.0
d'.8 19
d 1.36 8.7
....... 2.4


22 C
82 C

214 9S
208 125
82 IS
32 2
11 !
1II 1
104 80


.jt js


3.2
2.0

30
105
5.3
5.0
5,1
22


4.1 1.2

3.1 .2

4.2 .8

10 1.4
4.8 .3
7.9 .0
56 2.3
307
9.8


4,6


04



0.5
1,0
17





10

15
8.5
.5
52


5.0
5.5

80
350
0.0
7.0
9.8
43

0.0

5.0

5.5

12
7.0
11
102


7.8
7.8

8.0
8.0
a,
7.4
6.9
7,.

8.1


82.8
172

617
1,370
145
85,0
50.8
S 315

295

41.9

94.5

151
203
113 .
713
2,570
93.9
a, ,


178! 138


6.0 25

6., 20


25

58

91
112
604
e 460
1,490
39


14

35

52


40
234
620
10


264 229 590 .....
0 3.0 20 .....


6.5
7,0
6.5
7.7
7.5
4,4


35
10
45
80
35
400


__ _. __ ___ _____


-- ---~ --- -----






,,,,.






114

.li6

122
123
;24

128 .

128

'129

181
184
138

189
147

148

155
186
160
161

162,

168

1865


Clear Lake near Cocoa, Fla...........
Crano Creek at Melbourne, Fla.......
North Canal near Vero Beach, Fla......
Main Canal at Vero Beach, Fla .......
South Canal near Vero Beach, Fla......
Norh Fork St. Lucle River at White'
': City, FPa.'....... .... ...
Rim Ditch (Diversion Canal) near
,White City, Fla........ .....
Harney Pond Canal near Moore Haven,
Fla... ..... .. ..............
Indian Prairie Canal near Okeechobee,
Fl .... ........... .....
Alligator Lake near Asbton, Fla........
Hart Lake near Narcoosee, FIa.......
East Tohopekaliga Lake at St. Cloud,
Fla .... ..., .. ,, ., ... .
Tohopekalga Lake at Kissimmee, Fla...
Weohyakapka-Rosalie Canal near Lake
Wales, Fla..........................
Blue Jordan Swamp (at Hwy. 080) near
Frestproof, Flia....................
Istokpoga Canal near Conwell, Fla....
Kiasimmee River near Okeechobee, Fla..
St. Lucie Canal at Port Mayaca, Fla....
St. Lucie Canal above lock near Stuart.
FlaI........... I.................
West Palm Beach Canal at Canal
Point, Fla...........................
West Palm Beach Canal at Rangeline
Road near Loxahatchue, Fla........
Hillsboro Canal at Belle Glado, Fla.....


April 25...
April 27...
May 12...
May 12...
May 12.,.

May 13...


.......... 18


M ay 13... .......... 7.5


April 30... ........ ..


April 80...
April 12...
'May 20...

April 10...
April 11...

April 24...

April 24...
May I...
May 11-20
May 10...


0


,,.,,...,.


.......... 6.5
........... 2.1


dO
d 140
..........


May 13 ..........

May 10... d.273

May 18. ... .......
May 10... d .188


TABLE 4. (Continued)
.021104 a 58 418


.071148


82

29
2.0
3.0

7.6
9.6

5.0

1.2
19
18
61

100


.05 88

.03 82
.03 60


152

189

62

21
7.0
6.7

10
9.7

4.1

1.7 .1
25


213

30

75
37


d 8.3
dO
d 48
d 6


1,610
726


94 1839
210 74
170 41
264 70
170 40


840
280
93
200
103

290

840

118

81
12
12

16
17

9.0

3.0
31
22
42

370

48.

102
59


8581 410


498 42
410 28
204 6
355 13
208 6


1 2,970
8 1,810
4 602
a
8 1,150
8 653,

5 1,500

5 1,630

S 779

3855
58.6

67.2

123
118

79.6

20.8
238
187
406

1,750

540

757
890


938

41(

190
80
34

72
508

42

13
130
e 136
280

045


7.2 40
7,8 85
7.9 45
7.9 50:
7.8 65

7.6 30

7.6 45

7.6 9

8.0 605
6.8 45 ;


&.8 25
6.5 80 0

7.2 18 .

6.2 80
7.6 25
7.0 65
7.5 88

7.8 88

7.8 85

7.8 60
8.0 65


.888

250

180
10
'14

82
36

25

3
01
51
202

373

210

244
224


S8



5
83



27
11

7

0
0
20
42

145

40

480
:00


.1


.8 804

.2 424
3.9 834


- -- ---- ---












htutiloo


Iliilboro Canal at I angeline Road near
Deerfeled Beach, Fla.............
North New liver Canal at South Day,
FlaI .... .. .. ...............
North New River Canal at Holloway
Lateral near Ft. Lauderdale, Fla.....
South New River Canal at Davie, Fla...
Miami Canal at Lake Harbor, Fla......
Miami Canal at water plant, Ilialesh,
Fla....... ......... ...
Tamiaml Canal at Bridge 45, 27 miles
west of Miami, Fla........ .......
Everglades Station 1-7 (Conservation
Area No. 1)....... .........
Everglades Station 1-0 (Conservation
Area No. 1) ....... .............
Everglades Station 2-17 (Conservation
Area No. 2)....................
Imperial River near Bonita Springs, Fla,
'Line "A" Canal near Fort Myers, Fla...
Caloosahatchee Canal at Moore Haven,
' Fla.......... ........ ...........
Caloosahatchee Canal at Ortona look
near LaBelle, Fla..............
Orange River near Fort Myers, FiA....


I

.5


May 9...

May 10,.,

May 7...
May 7...
May 10...

May 24..,

May 15...


a



11


... .. .... 10

d 494 7,.


. . . .
. . .. .


d 00

d 0


May 17... ....... 10

May 17,. .......... 10


May 17.,.
April 25...
April 25...

April 30.,.

April 30...
April 4....


.92
0

0


0 5.5
0 4.1


TAa~ 4. (Continued)


.031 57


.01 82

.03 00

.03 20

.03 34


39 1'2

40 12
50 15


.ja jP


jI~


116e


iii'


176

177

178

180
.181
182

183

181


262

206

164
258
274

272

320

58

88

259
h 282
h 214

140


172 33
204 12


118

08

45
35
62

22

23

36

40

70
20
179

54

49
44


In
80

45
05

150



00
180





60




55
30
35

20

25
25


82 730 7.7
9 500 8.4
102 057 8.85

32 456 8.0

24 468 7.4
10 4551 7.8


268 164
281 180


~1,..---.: -- .. ._. -cl--cle


'a i


I- I


I


i


- -------


.... w






100
101
192'
198

200
.205
207
208
200
211
212

213

220'

222
228
224
234
235
230
240.3
240.4
241

242
243


Bowlegs Creek near Fort Meade, Fla...,
Whidden Creek near Fort Meado, Fla...
Paynes Creek near Bowling Green, Fla..
Joshua Creek near Arcadia, Fla, (at
State Road 81)........... ...
HawthorneoBranch near Nocatee, Fla...
Myakka River at Myakka City, Fla....
Big Slough Canal near Murdock, Fin....
Warm Salt Spring near Murdock, Fla...
Little Salt Spring near Murdock, Fla....
Pinchurst Springs near Sarasota, Fla...
Madatee River near Fort Green
Springs, Fla. ..................
Manatee River at State Road 64 near
Myakka City, Fla ....... ....
South Prong Alafia River near Keys-
ville, Fla.................... .....
Lithia Springs near Lithia, Fla. ......
Buckhorn Spring near Riverviow, Fla...
Eureka Springs near Tamp, Fla .....
Purity Springs at Tampa, Fin .........
Sulphur Springs at Sulphur Sprinp, Fla.
Palma Ceia Springs at Tampa, Fla ....
Health Springs at Wall Springs, Fl....
Seven Springs near Elfers, Fla........
Pithbibcascotee River near Now Port
Richey, Fla......... .. ... ..
Unnamed Springs at Hudson, Fla......
Weekiwachoe Springs near Brooksville,
Fla.............. .........


April 26..,
April 25...
April 25,,.

April 25...
April 25...
April 24...
April 24...
April 24...
April 24...
April 24...

April 24...

April 24...,,

April 25..,
April 25...
April 20...
May 1..,
May 1..
May 1...
May 2...


May a,.,
. .. . ..
May 3,,,

May 3...
May 8...

May 2 ..


130


3.03
3.99
1.47

0
o .08
0


9.53
1.22
<.01

0

1,00

2,0893
39,7


1.02
c 1.2
34.0
.49
c 1.5
<.01

.83


TABLE 4. (Continued)


11
8.2
3.1

12
8.2
1.4
7.7
17
21
12

2.7

3.6

4.1
1.0
1.9
11
9,7
8.5
15
0.8
i3

4,8
7.5

9.7


.01 189

.01 48


7.5 4.1
12 10
3.4 5.9

7.1 21
9.2 21
1.7 3.3
279. 1,730
556 4,930
125 720
34 28

4.5 7.8

4.4 4.3

4.4 4.8
9.1 13
11 15
6.9 4.0
3.6 14
13 100
10 84
10 161
.4.7 5.2

2.8 4,2
393 8,290

6.8 l 3.1


.4 87
.3 607
.3 37

1.8 J 89
.9 219
.2 20
48 182
143 102
27 171
2.4 k 357

.3 99

.4 40

.3 35
.7 133
.7 136
.4 158
.7 164
1.3 157
2.5 192
0.3 100
.5 204

.4 175
100 170

,4 101


4.
130
8.5

26
38
1,0
724
1,000
535
40

0.0

4.5

15
75.
00
40
.12
78
'28
41
2.0

10
857

0.0


4,.
8.0
9.0

380
30
5.5
3,810
9,210
1,350



9.0

7.0

'8.0
18
24
8.5
24
170
16e
240
8. ..

7.5
0,030

5,0


.4
1.1
.5

.0
.0
.6


.4
.6
1.8



.5





.3
.5


.8




.2
.2



.3



.8


92 71
255 164
58 86


S 177
1 289
1 20
1 6,410
117,200
3,160
415

105

57

06
241
242
210
205
522
500
503
192

174
11,000

101


99
220
14
1,760
38,640
993
334

81

40

43
-182
184
178
152
238
278
109
104

150
2,0901

148


0 153 8.1
110 394 7.7
0 100 7.0

28 295 8.4
440 95 8.8
0 48.7 7.3
1,610 10,300 7.8
3,51024,100 7.8
853 4,890 8.2
48 696 8.0


183

98.2

111
410
414
361
407
901
932
1,020
318

312
10,900

288


.031 8.8


7.81


20
7


30

60

30 .
I0






1



18
20
10
15 0

5

15


7.9 10
7,5 10

7.9 5












Hattlio


ChRuashowitka Springs near Homo-
SF l .... ............
ITomn au Sprin at Hlnmoanua
Spring., lia. (Main boil)............
Haomoau Sparina at llomoasa
Springs, Fla. (Small spring).........
Withlaoochee River (Main branch)
near Eva, Fla....... .............
Withlaroohoe River (Overflow branch)
near Eva, Fla......................
Withaecoochee River at Trilby, Fla....
Witbilaoocheo River at Croom, Fla.....
Fenney Springs near Coleman, FLi......
Panasoffkee River at U. 8. Hwy. 301
near Coleman, Fla..................
Panaoffkee River at State Hwy. 470
near Coleman, Fla.................


I


May I...

May I...



May 2...

May 4..
May 1...
May 2...
April 20...

April 20...

April 26...


P;,


112

87.1

50.7


m 10.4
d 48
d 60
4.6

10,1

55.5


Withlaooochee River near Holder, Fla... May 2... d 195


Rainbow Springs near Dunnellon, Fla...
Glen Springs near Oaineville, Fla......
Waccaassa River near Otter Creek, Fla.
Wekiva Springs near Gulf Hammock,
Fla........... ................
Suwannee River near Benton, Fla.
(Hw., No. 6)..... .........


May 2...
April 24...
May 2...

May 1...

April 21...


..........
.86
10.0

84.7

114


TAMsI 4, (Continued)
,- -r ., .- T_


8,5 0.00


8.1 .00 54

8.2 .00 43

2.4 .21 6.4


7.5 .00

3.8 .01


.02 30

.21 2.8


209

370


4. .
0.9 .5


5.4 .7


95

21

.0

.0
7.0
0.5
.5

1.0

82
27
18
.5
8.0

5.0

.01


P 116111


380 ...


080

110

12

5.5
11
9.0
0.5

0.5


11 .1
9.2 .2
5.5 ..
5.5 .3
8.5 .2

3.5 .1

9.0 .1


Hardnsis
as e 0cos


2.51 e 99S1 299 148


1,830

e 341


411 26


.0 152 135

.0 109 80
.1 e 181 139
.2 148 120
1.I 85 70
.0 121 106

.0 107 97

.1 25 15


249
250
251
252


254
255
256
257
258

200


i~IIi


1,020

2,590

023

83.8

49.0
809
310
273

275

265
280
253
151
212

180

80.2


254

59
08

9

4


4





31
34
12


0
0

11

12


8.2 3
7.9 3a


0.7 100

5.1 200
7.9 25
8.06
8.0 7

7.90 10


'3

22.


-- 1 I


- II. ___


1 -- 1 I I I I ----. .


I 1






201.1

2021
2083

204
200
'208
269
270
271
272
274
275
276
278.1
280
281
284
280S
288


289
200

294

207
298


White Springs ,at White Springs, F
Suwannee Springs at Suwannee Sp
Fla.................. .
Suwannee River at Suwannee Spri
FlaP..... ............
Alapnha River near Jasper, Fla...
Blue Spring near Madison, Fla...
Falmouth Spring at Falmouth, Fla
Charles Spring near Luraville, Fla'
Suwannee River at Luraville, Fla.
Suwanneo River at Branford, Fla.
Branford Springs at Branford, Fla
Alligator Creek at Starke, Fla....
Santa Fe River at Brooker, Fla...
Heiibronn Springs near Starke, Fla
Swift Creek at Guilford, Flai.....
Poe Springs noer High Springs, Fli
Santa Fe River near Fort White, F
Rock Bluff Springs near Bell, Fla.
Hart Springs near Wilcox, Fla....
Fanning Spring near Wilcox, Fla,,.


Manatee Spring near Chiefland, Fl
Kettle Creek at State Hwy. 51 nea
SClara, Fla...... .......... .
Fenholloway River, 5 miiles NE 4
Foley, Fla ... .......
Fenholloway River at Fenholloway
Fenhalloway Riverat Foley, Fla..


:'. .. ... TABLE 4. (Continued)
's... April2d .'., 2 .00 60 21 9.1
rings,
.. April 25.,.. 2.8A 17 .00 66 13 0.6
ngs,
... April 2... 282 7.7 .09 20 5.0 5.7
......April 24... 11" 0.5 .00 2.0 2.2 4.4
...... April 24... 77.8 10 .00 40.. 8.0 2.8
...April24... 0 0.6 .00 02 12 2.4
.....April25... 7.97 7.2 .00 1 15 2.0
......April20.. 2,520 8 028 28 6. 5.8
..... Aprilil-20 d 2,795 8.9 .14 88 7.1 4.8
..... April20... 8.52 0.3 .00 66 9.1 2.3
...... April24... 1.65 11 .02 88 5.1 26 1.
. .. April24.. .59 1.0 .04 22 10 5.2
.... May 2... .03 21 .01 38 17 10
...... May 2... 1.82 0.8 .09 12 7.5 7.4 ,I
a.... May 2... 39.2 13 .02 05 5.8 4.8
la... April 27.. 1,020 9.0 .01 69 9.0 4,2
...... April 20... ......... 5.3 .00 40 2.7 2.0 .,
.....April27.,. 58.6 0.3 .00 08 0.4 2.4
... April27............. 6.0 .01 65 5.4 2,7
May 1... 04.0 0,3 .01 04 5.5 2,7
a .... April27., 110 6.1 .00 74 7.7 3,1 .
r
May I... ,57 .0 .03 45 0.2 4.4
of
..... April24... 1.02 0.0 .06 53 15 3.4 .
SFla. April24.. 4.00 4.3 .08 62 15 3.4 .
.....April24.. 2.42 6.0 .03 39 11 3.8


12 ..3

7.5 .3


213 30

190 29


69 8.5
8 .0
148 .12
215 10
194 20
97 12
128 14
211 11
27 130
113 2.0
200 .0
42 7.5
1 211 18
187 23
141 7.0
200 10
200 4.0
212 12
215 22

141 9.0

210 0.5
219 5.0
131 4.0


11
7.5
. ... ..5
4.5
5.5
7.5
8.0
5.0
9.0
9.0
13
14
7.0
7.5
4.0
6.0
4.5
4.5
0.5


.1
.1
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1
2
.3
.0
.3
.1
.1
.2
.2


.2


254

224

93
27
149
204
198
117
145
204
234
107
1097
77
218
205
137
1099
187
200
226

145

201
190
148


212 37

193 38

73 10
14 8
183 16
204 28
188 30
96 10
124 19
202 29
116 104
90 4
100 0
l1 20
180 13
184 31
126 10
190 27
184 20
182 8
210 40


408

309

159
40.0
260
355
841
209
252
300
369
203
342
141
807
844
250
530
342
330
300


225
65
10
10
10
40
55
10
10
25
i5
a
300
0




10

14
5


I
0


S: :
10





.1
IN,


11 I .1


.2 .0
.1 .0
.0 .0


138 22 263

194 14 382
191 12 354
142 17 258


7.9 80

7.5 20
7.0 14
7.2 27


_











HNftilll


209
800
801
303
304
367
811
312
S810

317
319
321
323
320
328


I


Waldo Spring near Perry, Fla .........
lHalpton Sprlngs Iear Perry, Fia......
Spring Creek near Perry, Fn ..........
Oun Creek near Greenville, Fai .......
Aucllia River near Aucilla, Fla.........
Deoaleya Creek near Lament, Fas.......
Welaunee Creek near Waclasa, Fla......
Aucllla River near Banlon, Fla........
River Sink in River Sink Precinct near
Tallahassee, Fla........ .........
St. Marks River near Newport, Fla....
Sopchoppy River near Sopchoppy, Fla..
Quincy Creek at Quincy, Flae..........
Rocky Comfort Creek near Quincy, Fla.
New River at Owens Bridge, Fla.......
Glen Julia Spring at Mount Pleasant,
Fla.... ................. .
Escambia River near Century, Fla......
Pine Barren Creek near Barth, Fla.....


May 1...
May 1,,.
May 1...
May S~,,

May 2...
May 2...
May 3...

Maypril 2...

April 26,..
April 28...

April 20...
April 24...
April 24,,,

Apr. 24....
May 3..
May 4,.


TAsl~ 4, (Continued)


(I



0
.03
0
0
43.0

102


2.51
11.8
5.27



.54
d 1.780
99


35
214
50
2,4
3,2
4,8
8,2
69

30
42
35
5.2
0.4
13

2.8
12
.0


2.4
7.,
4,8
5.2
0,2
7.0
4.9
2.8

0.1
3.56
4,2
4.0
2,8
3.8

2.7
4,.
2.3


0.2
1,
.3
.3
1.2
.3
1,1
.3

.2
.3
.2
.4
.3
.2

.1
.7
.4


8,0
60O
21
.0
3.5
5.5
.0
14

14
9.5
.0
.0
.5
.5

8,0
3.6
8.0
.O0


157
1,180
218
20
30
30
28
202

130
159
114
38
38
49

25
50
13


a In solution when analyzed.
b Calculated from determined constituents, except as noted.
o Estimated.
d Mean discharge.
e Residue on evaporation at 1800C.
f Includes equivalent of 10 ppm of carbonate (COs).
,g Negative.
h Includes equivalent of 4 ppm of carbonate (C8O).
S* J Includes equivalent of 1 ppm of carbonate (COs).
k Includes equivalent of 11 ppm carbonate (COs).
m Include discharge in Withlacoochee River main branch.
n Includes equivalent of 2 ppm of carbonate (COs).
p 0.64 ppm acidity (H+).


164
037
100
13
10
22

16
188

118
135
103
20
23
80

13
34
2


I


270
1,440


07.4
74.0
170
72.1
350

230
274
210
04.1
56.5
82.0


38.8
91.1
108,5


7.7 17
8,0 35
7,8 20
4,6 2R0
5.3 150.
3.8 800
4.4 500
8.0 25

7.4 5
8.0 8
7.7 05
0.0 85
0.0 15 Is
0.7 130

0.0 5
6.9 25
0.2 15


,


I-












Source and
Location


TABLE 5. Chemical Analyses of Springs in Florida, 1946 and 1956
(Chemical analyses in parts per million)


I


AI


4-23-40 21.7
4-27-50 13.9

4- 2-40 ......
4-23-50 136

10-20-23 .....
4-23-46 41.8
4-18-50 23.4

4- 1-40 ......
4-24-50 108
4- 4-46 ......
4-24-50 79.0
10-21-40 ......
5- 2-56 550

7- 5-40 ..
5- 2-50 130

7-25-40 80.9
5- 1-50 112

4- 3-40 .....
5- 1-50 87.1

0-18-40 ..
5- 2-50 ......

7-23-40 145
4-24-50 77.8 1
1 I


13 0.09
4,0 .00

8.8 .03
9.4 .00

19 .15
0.0 .00
5.6 .01

0.0 .08
0.7 ,00
11 .10
12 .00
9.2 .04
11 .01

8.9 .05
9.7 .01

8.0 .04
8.5 .00

0.0 .12
8,1 .00

7.7 .08
0.2 .00

9.2 .04
0 ,00


Sanlando Springs near Long-
.wood, Fla........ .....

Alexander Springs near Astor,
Fla...................

Ponoc deLeon Spring at
DeLeon Spring, Fla.........


Silver Glen Springs near
Astor Park, Fla ............

Salt Springs near Eureka, Fit..

Silver Springs near Ooala, Fla..

Weekiwauheo Springs near
Brooksvillo, Fla.............

Cliassahowitzka Spring, near
IIoniosnssa, Fin............

Hoinosassa Springs at Hono-
eases Springs, Fla.........

Rainbow.Springs near Dun-
nellon, Fia.......... ..... .

Blue Springs 10 mi. E of
M adison, Fli. ....... .......


S7.
S8.3

1 18
17

44
17
6.8

4(6
S40
167
98
0.6
0.4

5.8
0.8

13
37

45
50

4.0
4.5

8,7
8.0


0


0lI-.0
I? .L i


5
5

103
121


124
40

334
340
1,540
878
4
7

4.
3,

201


308.


2.
2.

2.
2.


.8 0.0
.1 ..4

2.3
3.0

332
4.0
1.9

10
0.5
38
24
.0 1.1
.5, ,5

0 .7
1 .4

1.5
201)

9.0
370

9 .4
8 .1

4 .7
8 .3


a Values for samples collected in 1950 are calculated from determined constituents.


cM


125 3.3
125 .0

98 50
97 01

30 93
122 35
127 12

85205
82 202
87 613
67375
201 34
222 45

168 6.4
166 0.0

178 13
184 02

136 87
130 95

78 4.7
139 18

148 10
143 12


Hardness


Hardness
as CaCOs

-- -- -


105 ..
109 0

176 .. .
192 113

340 ..
128 24

406 ....
404 336
1,290
787 732
209 ....
218 30

144 .....
148 12

176 .....
299 148

310 . .
365 254

60 .. ...
126 12

134 .....
133 10


228
229

920
088


1,030
438

2,480
2,460
9,330
5,520
401
t125

287
283

470
1,620

2,240
2,500

145
253

202
260


244


240


7.2
7.3

0.9
7.8


7.4
7.7

7.4
7.7
7.1
7.0
7.8
7.0

7.7
7,.

7.5
7.8

7.4
8.2

7.0
7.4

7,0
7.9
7.0


7.8
0.0

102
232

022
231
60

610
038
2,800
1,600
7.8
12

4.8
5.0

53
380

570
080

3.5
5,.

3.0
5.5


0I


ad"


I
A*F


I





.0
.2

.0
.1
.1







.1

.3
.1


.0

.0



.1
.2


0.1 123
.1 120

.9 508
.0 540

1.1 1,250
.8 541
.0 236

.81,400
.21,880
.... 5,850
.33,170
1.3 237
.0 267

.0 101
.0 101

.3 201
2.5 849

.09 1,200
.0 1,330

.8 81
.2 148

1,5 147
.0 149


5

0
5
0
S





8
3




2
13

0
10
10


- 1 1


--


---~-~ '




The drought of 1954-56, its effect on Florida's surface-water resources ( FGS: Report of investigations 26 )
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS DOWNLOADS PDF VIEWER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001213/00001
 Material Information
Title: The drought of 1954-56, its effect on Florida's surface-water resources ( FGS: Report of investigations 26 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Report of investigations 26 )
Physical Description: 65 p. : diagrs., maps ;
Language: English
Creator: Pride, R. W
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1962
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Droughts   ( lcsh )
Droughts -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by R. W. Pride and J. W. Crooks.
General Note: Prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000958527
oclc - 01721103
notis - AES1337
lccn - a 62009862
System ID: UF00001213:00001

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Florida State Board of Conservation
        Page ii
    Transmittal letter
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Abstract and introduction
        1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Climate
        Page 3
    Drought
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        10a
        Page 11
        Page 12
        12a
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 16
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Summary
        Page 22
        Page 21
    References
        Page 22
    Tables
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
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STATEOF FLORIDA-
STATE .BQARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY



FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert 0. Vernon, Director






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 26







THE DROUGHT OF 1954-56,
ITS EFFECT ON FLORIDA'S SURFACE-WATER
RESOURCES

By
R. W. Pride and J. W. Crooks
U. S. Geological Survey









Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
1962









AGRI.


FLORIDA STATE BOAR "Y

OF

CONSERVATION






FARRIS BRYANT
Governor


TOM ADAMS
Secretary of State



RAY E. GREEN
Comptroller



THOMAS D. BAILEY
Swperintendent of Public Instruction


RICHARD ERVIN
Attorney General



J. EDWIN LARSON
Treasurer




DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGES, Director







LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Tallahassee

August 31,'1961



Honorable Farris Bryant, Chairman
Florida State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Governor Bryant:

The Florida Geological Survey has published as its Report of
Investigations No. 26, a summary of "The Drought of 1954-56,
Its Effect on Florida's Surface-Water Resources." This study was
prepared by R. W. Pride and J. W. Crooks of the U. S. Geological
Survey, Surface-Water Branch, in cooperation with the Florida
Geological Survey.
This is the most severe drought on record, and the statewide
runoff was about 43 percent of the average runoff. The study pro-
vides extensive data on the quality-of-water changes that were
brought about during the severe drought. Minimum flows were
recorded at 135 continuous record stations, and 190 low-flow
measurements were made. Quality-of-water stations numbering
133 are included in the study. The effects of this drought are
widespread and will be important in all future design and planning
,work throughout the State.

Respectfully yours,
Robert 0. Vernon, Director













































Completed manuscript received
April 14, 1961
Published by the Florida Geological Survey
Bulkley-Newman Printing Company
Tallahassee, Florida

iv








CONTENTS



Page
Abstract 1

Introduction 1
Purpose and scope 1
Acknowledgments 2
Description of the area 2

Climate 3

The drought 4-
The rainfall index 5
Deficiencies of rainfall 6
Surface-water records available -8
Deficiencies of surface-water supplies 9
Streamflow 9
West Florida _10
The Florida Peninsula ------ -_-------- 11
Lake levels __12
Effect on chemical quality of water -13
Streams .-16
Springs 20
Economic effects of the drought 20
Summary 21
References -----------------------22










ILLUSTRATIONS


Figure Page
1 Distribution of average annual rainfall, in inches, in Florida 4

2 Annual rainfall in Florida, 1881-1958 ---..... .. .... 6,

3 Rainfall deficiency in Florida, 1954-56 7

4 Location of data-gathering points in Florida
during the drought in 1956 -f_-facing 10

5 Monthly flows and their relation to normal for
selected streams in Florida -- ---.---.- -........- -- facing 12

6 Month-end stages and the departures from average
for selected lakes in Florida facing 14

7 Relation of dissolved solids to discharge,
St. Johns River near DeLand, Florida, 1948 __ 15

8 Comparison of rainfall departure from normal at
Kissimmee with discharge and dissolved solids
concentration of Kissimmee River near
Okeechobee, Florida ---------------- 17

9 A comparison of rainfall departure from normal at
Merritt Island with discharge and dissolved
solids concentration of St. Johns River near
Cocoa, Florida 19


Table
1 Departure from normal annual rainfall in Florida, 1954-56 -___ 22

2 Minimum flow, in cubic feet per second, of Florida streams ____ 24

3 Low-flow measurements made at partial-record
gaging stations during the 1956 drought ___36

4 Chemical analysis of surface waters during the drought in 1956 __56

5 Chemical analysis of springs in Florida, 1946 and 1956 _. .... 65


vii









THE DROUGHT OF 1954-56,
ITS EFFECT ON FLORIDA'S SURFACE-WATER RESOURCES
By
R. W. Pride and J. W. Crooks

ABSTRACT

The most severe drought of record occurred in Florida during
the 3-year period 1954-56. The drought was caused by rainfall
deficiencies in amounts ranging from 7 to 11 inches during each
of the 3 years.
The statewide runoff during 1955 was estimated to be 6 inches
as compared with 14 inches for an average year.
Observed facts concerning the effect of the drought on the
surface-water resources of the State are presented. Minimum
streamflow recorded -at 135 continuous-record stations, low-flow
measurements at 190 partial-record stations, and chemical analyses
of the water at 133 sites are summarized in tabular form.
Records of streamflow for 13 representative streams and rec-
ords of stage for 17 representative lakes are compared with
average flows or stages to indicate the severity of the drought.
Information is presented to show that the dissolved solids con-
centrations in most streams increased as the flows declined.



INTRODUCTION

PURPOSE AND SCOPE

During the 3-year period, 1954-56, a severe drought, caused
by deficient rainfall, occurred over most of Florida. Diminished
streamflow, lowered lake levels, and lack of soil moisture were di-
rect effects of the drought.
Normally, rainfall deficiencies in Florida are of short dura-
tion, and though some agricultural areas may suffer from lack of
rainfall during the crop season, the overall effects of dry periods
are not serious.
The 1954-56 drought caused critical shortages of surface water
in many areas of the- State and, because of its 3-year duration,
was an event of unusual occurrence.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


This report was prepared to give factual drought information.
It presents information on water levels, flows, and chemical quali-
ty of surface waters at a number of locations. It defines the areal
extent and relative intensity of the drought and the effect of the
drought on the quantity and quality of the surface waters of the
State. No special effort has been made previously to provide state-
wide information on the effect of drought on surface-water supplies
although Florida is known to experience frequent drought--varia-
ble in duration, intensity, and areal extent.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The study of the drought of 1954-56 was made in cooperation
with the Florida Geological Survey. Data included in the report
were obtained from special and continuing record studies con-
ducted in cooperation with the following agencies:
Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army
Florida Division of Water Survey and Research
Florida State Geological Survey
Florida State Road Department
Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District
Florida State Trustees of Internal Improvement Fund
Florida Board of Parks
Dade County
Hillsborough County
PineUas County
Polk County
City of Jacksonville
Cities of Miami and Miami Beach
City of Pensacola
City of Perry
City of Tampa
Florida Power Corporation
Climatological data furnished by the U. S. Weather Bureau
were used to define zones of rainfall deficiency. The compilation
and evaluation of the data were made by the U. S. Geological Sur-
vey in Ocala, Florida.
The report was prepared in the Ocala District of the U. S.
Geological Survey under the supervision of A. 0. Patterson, district
engineer, Surface Water Branch, and J. W. Geurin, district chem-
ist, Quality of Water Branch.

DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA

The topography of Florida is relatively flat, with elevations
ranging from the highest known point of 345 feet down to sea level.
Rolling hills are predominant in the western part of the State,






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 26


lakes and some hills are extensive in the north central part, and
the flat swamplands of the Everglades are predominant in the
lower part of the State.
Florida is well endowed with water. Tens of thousands of
lakes and ponds, more than 50 river systems, and many bays and
estuaries comprise 3,805 square miles of water surface in the
58,666 square miles of the State. Replenishment of these water
sources occurs in several ways. Rainfall provides the greatest
amount of water. Additional water comes from streams that origi-
nate in other states and from underground flow from these states.
Water is lost from the State through evaporation, transpiration,
consumptive uses, and stream and underground flow to the Atlantic
Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.
On the Florida Peninsula the Central Highlands form the
divide between drainage to the east into the Atlantic Ocean and
that to the south and west into the Gulf of Mexico. In northwestern
Florida most of the area is drained by river systems that originate
in Georgia or Alabama and flow southward through Florida to the
Gulf of Mexico.

CLIMATE
Florida's climate is its greatest attraction to more than five
million people who visit the State each year. In general, tempera-
tures are not extremely low during the winter months, averaging
from 54 F. in the northern part to 750 F. in the southern part.
During the warmest months in July and August, the statewide
average temperature is 810 F.
I Nearly all precipitation in Florida occurs as rain. The amounts
that occur as snow, sleet, and other forms are inconsequential. The
average annual rainfall is about 53 inches and varies from 46
inches to 64 inches in different parts of the State. Normally, rain-
fall is greatest from June through September and least from
November through January. Distribution of average rainfall for
the State is shown in figure 1.
Three patterns of rainfall occur in Florida. Thundershowers
during the summer provide over half of the annual rainfall. Rain-
fall at this time is frequent and intense but of short duration.
Thunderstorm activity in north central Florida has the highest
incident rate of the. United States. Of longer duration are the
winter rains that result from contact between the warm moist air
from the Gulf and the cold air of invading cold fronts. Rainfall is
generally light at this time but may be continuous for several days.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 26


lakes and some hills are extensive in the north central part, and
the flat swamplands of the Everglades are predominant in the
lower part of the State.
Florida is well endowed with water. Tens of thousands of
lakes and ponds, more than 50 river systems, and many bays and
estuaries comprise 3,805 square miles of water surface in the
58,666 square miles of the State. Replenishment of these water
sources occurs in several ways. Rainfall provides the greatest
amount of water. Additional water comes from streams that origi-
nate in other states and from underground flow from these states.
Water is lost from the State through evaporation, transpiration,
consumptive uses, and stream and underground flow to the Atlantic
Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.
On the Florida Peninsula the Central Highlands form the
divide between drainage to the east into the Atlantic Ocean and
that to the south and west into the Gulf of Mexico. In northwestern
Florida most of the area is drained by river systems that originate
in Georgia or Alabama and flow southward through Florida to the
Gulf of Mexico.

CLIMATE
Florida's climate is its greatest attraction to more than five
million people who visit the State each year. In general, tempera-
tures are not extremely low during the winter months, averaging
from 54 F. in the northern part to 750 F. in the southern part.
During the warmest months in July and August, the statewide
average temperature is 810 F.
I Nearly all precipitation in Florida occurs as rain. The amounts
that occur as snow, sleet, and other forms are inconsequential. The
average annual rainfall is about 53 inches and varies from 46
inches to 64 inches in different parts of the State. Normally, rain-
fall is greatest from June through September and least from
November through January. Distribution of average rainfall for
the State is shown in figure 1.
Three patterns of rainfall occur in Florida. Thundershowers
during the summer provide over half of the annual rainfall. Rain-
fall at this time is frequent and intense but of short duration.
Thunderstorm activity in north central Florida has the highest
incident rate of the. United States. Of longer duration are the
winter rains that result from contact between the warm moist air
from the Gulf and the cold air of invading cold fronts. Rainfall is
generally light at this time but may be continuous for several days.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 1. Distribution of average annual rainfall, in inches, in Florida.

Great amounts of rainfall occur in Florida as a result of hurricanes
that pass near or across the State. Rainfall at this time is intense,
widespread, and often of several days' duration.


THE DROUGHT

Drought conditions, as ordinarily defined in humid areas,
exist when there is insufficient moisture in the soil to maintain
plant life or when precipitation is insufficient to meet the needs of
established human activities. The severity of a drought depends on
many factors: the relation of the deficiency to the normal rainfall;
the land cover and use; the specific location and time of occurrence;
and the duration of the deficiency. In areas where rainfall is nor-
mally high, a deficiency of a few inches may cause only minor
adverse effects. On the other hand, in some areas this same amount
may be a high proportion of the total rainfall and may cause seri-
ous problems in crop production, in soil conservation, and in pro-
viding for domestic water supplies.


5856














SOURCE: U.S& WEATHER BUREAU


%aDo dI






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 26


During periods of deficient rainfall, the removal of soil mois-
ture to support plant growth adds to the severity of a drought.
Heavy vegetal cover transpires more water than a sparse cover
and therefore increases the water deficiency.,
The effects of drought are more severe on some types of vege-
tal cover than.on others. During drought conditions shallow-rooted
plants do not live as long as deep-rooted plants that derive water
from greater depths. Thus, a drought affects cropland sooner than
forests.
In northern climates, where vegetation is dormant in the
winter, water needs are less during winter than during the grow-
ing season, and a greater portion of the precipitation runs off in
streams. Precipitation deficiencies during the winter cause little
immediate inconvenience and result only in low stream discharges.
In most of Florida there is year-round vegetal growth, however,
and water is used in the winter months though in lesser amounts.
Variation in rainfall has an important influence on droughts.
Rainfall is not uniformly distributed really nor is it properly
timed for optimum utilization. Floods occur when the intensity and
timing of storms result in runoff of water in excess of immediate
utilization and storage. Drought could occur even though the rain-
fall for a given period was higher than the average, when the dis-
tribution is such that most of the rain falls during a short period.
Records of rainfall and streamflow provide data for studying
droughts-by defining the area covered, the severity, the frequency,
and the duration of drought.

THE RAINFALL INDEX
Records of the U. S. Weather Bureau provide data on annual
rainfall for Florida during the years 1881 to 1958. These data are
plotted as bar graphs in figure 2. Another type of plot, the moving
mean graph, is illustrated by the heavy line of figure 2. The mean
rainfall for successive 3-year periods has been plotted at the mid-
year position. The duration of .the period of rainfall deficiency is
one of the more important factors that influence the severity of a
drought and is probably the most significant cause of extreme
drought in Florida. From the moving mean graph, it is possible to
observe critical wet and dry periods and to study climatic varia-
tions.
Annual rainfall totals in Florida for 1954, 1955, and 1956
were 45.89, 42.33, and 42.46 inches, respectively. Since 1881, lower
annual rainfalls have occurred for only two other years, 41.33






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


SMEA 7" YEARS
53.2 INCHES 3-YEAR MOVING















0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 o W to In
0 o 0_ 0M 0 _
CALENDAR YEAR
Figure 2. Annual rainfall in Florida, 1881-1958.

inches in 1917 and 40.78 inches in 1927. However, the moving mean
for the 3 years, 1954-56, is the lowest of the means for any 3-year
period since 1881. Thus, the rainfall pattern shows that the 1954-56
drought in Florida ranks as the most severe in the past 78 years.


DEFICIENCIES OF RAINFALL

Table 1 shows the departures from normal of the 1954-56
annual rainfall at several U. S. Weather Bureau stations. Normals
are based on long-term records collected at each station.
The areal extent, intensity, and duration of the rainfall
deficiency are shown in figure 3, which has been prepared from the
data shown in table 1. It shows that the maximum rainfall deficien-
cies in 1954 occurred in the northern part of the State, particularly
in the extreme northwest. The 1954 deficiency was nearly 33 inches
at the Pensacola station and ranged from 20 to 30 inches at most






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 26


0-10




Figure 3. Rainfall deficiency in Florida, 1954-56.


of the other stations in northwestern Florida. In 1954 the area of
rainfall deficiency did not extend into southern Florida except for
a small area along the southwestern Gulf coast. By contrast, along
the southeastern coast, from about the middle of the peninsula
southward, the 1954 rainfall was excessive in amounts up to 20
inches.
In 1955 rainfall deficiencies continued in the western part of
the State but in lesser amounts than in 1954. The area of deficient
rainfall- included the entire State except for three small areas on
the peninsula where rainfall was slightly above normal. However,
these areas of excess rainfall were insignificant in comparison with
the rest of the State. The areas of greatest rainfall deficiency in
1955 were along the northwestern Gulf coast and along the Atlantic
coastline.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


In 1956 rainfall was deficient throughout the State except
across the extreme northern part and in a small area in the central
part of the peninsula. In that year, the greatest deficiencies were
in the southern part of the peninsula.
The drought was ended by heavy rains during the latter part
of 1956 and in 1957. Statewide, the 1957 rainfall was above normal.
Amounts of about 25 inches above normal occurred at stations at
the Miami Beach Airport and at Tarpon Springs.

SURFACE-WATER RECORDS AVAILABLE

Information on water levels, spring and stream discharge, and
chemical quality of water is obtained regularly at various loca-
tions in Florida by the U. S. Geological Survey. During the period
1954-56 continuous records of stage and discharge were collected
by the Survey at 135 gaging stations in the State, and continuous
records of stage only were collected at 160 gaging stations on lakes
and streams. The minimum flows recorded at each of the stream-
gaging stations are shown in table 2. This table shows the minimum
for the period of record as well as for the 1954-56 drought. At
many gaging stations the minimum for the period of record oc-
curred during the 1954-56 drought.
Information on chemical quality of water is not as extensive.
Daily records of from 1 to 3 years of continuous operation are
available for 13 locations. Monthly, or less frequent, records are
available for 54 locations. Although these records are valuable in
showing chemical characteristics of the water at the time of opera-
tion, the lack of long-term records prevents definition of trends.
For example, data may be available for a period of high or low
water levels but often are not available for both of these conditions
or the intervening periods between such events.
These records of water level, streamflow, and chemical quality
show the effect of the drought on surface-water supplies. The long-
term records of water level and streamflow are particularly valua-
ble for studying the drought.
In 1956, particularly in April and May, discharge measure-
ments were made at 190 partial-record sites to supplement the
streamflow data collected at the stream-gaging stations. The re-
suIts of these measurements are shown in table 3. Samples were
collected for chemical analyses at 133 of these locations and at 46
other locations during this period; the results of analyses on these
samples are shown in table 4. Locations of stream-gaging stations,






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 26


partial-record sites, and sample sources are shown in figure 4. Each
location has been numbered to provide a cross-reference with the
tables of flow data or analyses. These data have been used and
compared with earlier records, where available, for this report.

DEFICIENCIES OF SURFACE-WATER SUPPLIES
STREAMFLOW
As discussed earlier in the report, the 1954-56 drought was
caused by rainfall deficiencies for the 3-year period. The effects of
the drought on the stage and flow of streams and an indication of
its relative severity are revealed by records collected at gaging
stations, many of which have been operated for several years.
Table 2 gives the minimum flow recorded for the 1954-56 drought
and for the period of record at each stream-gaging station in the
State. The results of measurements of streamflow at many addi-
tional sites on the peninsula during one of the most severe periods
of the drought, the early part of 1956, are given in table 3.
The statewide effects of the drought on streamflow are rep-
resented by records from 13 selected gaging stations. These repre-
sentative stations were selected to provide geographic distribution,
antecedent records for comparison, variations in topography and
geology, and a range in sizes of drainage basins.
Figure 5 shows graphically the monthly flows and their rela-
tion to normal for the 13 representative gaging stations in Florida
for 1954-57. The normal for each month is the median value of the
monthly mean discharges for the period of record at each gaging
station.
Study of the rainfall and streamflow records indicates that
the most severe period of the drought occurred in northwestern
Florida earlier than on the peninsula. In the northwestern part
of the State the most severe years were 1954 and 1955. The drought
in this area was broken during the latter part of 1956. The years
of the most severe drought on. the peninsula were 1955 and 1956,
with minimum flows of most streams occurring in the first half
of 1956.
Owing to the statewide extent of rainfall deficiencies in 1955,
the total runoff from the State during that year was probably less
than in either 1954 or 1956. The runoff from the State during 1955
was estimated to be 24,000 cubic feet per second. This estimate was
based on the unit figures of runoff determined from the network
of gaging stations. This is equivalent to 151/2 billion gallons per






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


day, or a depth of about 6 inches per year over the total land sur-
face. The statewide runoff for an average year is estimated to be
14 inches (Patterson, 1955, p. 34). Rainfall over the State during
1955 was 42.33 inches; the difference between rainfall and runoff
was about 36 inches. This difference represents the composite
amount of water lost by evaporation and transpiration, and by net
changes in surface and ground water storage.
West Florida: Streamflow conditions in West Florida are
represented by index stations on Shoal River near Crestview, Per-
dido River at Barrineau Park, Econfina Creek near Bennett, and
Ochlockonee River near Havana. Above-normal rates of streamflow
occurred at the beginning of 1954. However, the flow dropped below
normal at each of the index stations by April and continued to
decline for the remainder of the year. Record-low flows occurred
in 1954 for many of the streams in this region. The occurrence of
new minimum flows for a long-term record is significant in estab-
lishing the relative severity of the drought. Records are available
for Ochlockonee River near Havana since June 1926. The minimum
monthly flow at this station occurred in October 1954; it was only
10 percent of the normal flow for October.
The base flows of streams in West Florida are fairly well
sustained by accretions from ground water and, even during the
prolonged drought, the streams continued to flow, though at reduced
rates.
Rainfall deficiencies persisted through the normally wet season
from June through September, and at the end of 1954 streamflow
was still low.
Streamflow increased slightly in this region in the early part
of 1955 but, in general, continued below normal. In contrast to the
drought conditions that existed over most of the State, flooding
occurred in the extreme western part. In April 1955 intense rain-
fall occurred over a narrow area in the extreme western part of
Florida and the southern parts of Alabama, Mississippi, and Lou-
isiana, producing flash floods of considerable magnitude in the Per-
dido River basin and in many of the smaller tributaries of the
Escambia River. Temporarily the drought in this area was broken.
However, the rain that produced the flood was concentrated within
a short time interval and the greater part ran off as flood flow.
Sustained effects of the flood were negligible and streamflow in
the western area again dropped below normal after April 1955.
Other areas of West Florida received less than normal amounts
of rainfall during 1955, and for the second consecutive year, the

















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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 26


drought continued. Many streams with large ground-water inflows
declined gradually during the two years of deficient rainfall. By
the end of 1955 the prolonged period of ground-water depletion
without replenishment began to take a toll on the ground-water
accretions to base flow and these streams dropped to new record
lows. Figure 5 shows that the monthly mean flow for Econfina
Creek near Bennett declined rather uniformly for the 2-year peri-
od, 1954-55, and reached a minimum in December 1955, when the
flow was 62.6 percent of normal for the month.
The drought continued in West Florida during the early part
of 1956. Streamflow had increased slightly from the record lows
of 1954 and 1955 but generally was still below normal. However,
by the summer of 1956, the drought in the western part of the
State was broken and streamflow was generally back to normal.
Econfina Creek was an exception; owing to the lag in the replen-
ishment of ground-water supplies, it did not regain sustained nor-
mal flow until May 1957. This represents a 3-year period of below-
normal flow at this station and is an indication of the depleted
ground-water supply of the area.
The Florida Peninsula: Streamflow conditions on the penin-
sula are represented by nine index stations shown in figure 5. In the
northern part of the peninsula, streamflow dropped below normal
at some stations early in 1954. Records for Suwannee River at
Branford indicate the severity of the drought in that area. The
flow of Suwannee River dropped below normal in March 1954 and
remained below through May 1957 except for a temporary return
to normal during May 1956. The flow dropped to a low of 13.7
percent of normal in October 1955.
The flow of Silver Springs is perhaps the best index of the pro-
longed effect of the drought in the central part of Florida. The
flow dropped below normal in August 1954 and remained below
until May 1958. It remained about 70 percent of normal for the
greater part of this period. The minimum flow for Silver Springs
occurred in May 1957.
The St. Johns River at U. S. Highway 192, west of Melbourne,
did not flow on many days in 1955 and 1956. Water losses by evapo-
transpiration in this river channel are probably very high, account-
ing for the prolonged periods of deficient flows. The wide shallow
river channel in the upper basin affords the maximum opportunity
for evaporation. Water hyacinths and other aquatic plants grow
profusely in the channel and use considerable amounts of water
in the process of transpiration.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


At the gaging station on the St. Johns River near Christmas,
the longest period of deficient flow occurred from January to Au-
gust 1956. The minimum flow during this period was 23 cubic feet
per second on June 20. However, records indicated that flow ceased
at this station for several days in 1939. This is one of the few gag-
ing stations in the State at which flows less than the 1954-56 mini-
mum had been recorded.
The flow of the Kissimmee River declined rather steadily from
midyear of 1954 and was at a record low at the station near Okee-
chobee in May and June 1956. The flow was below normal for 23
consecutive months, November 1954 to September 1956.
Streamflow conditions in the southern part of the peninsula
are represented by records for Fisheating Creek near Palmdale,
Tamiami Canal Outlets, and Myakka River near Sarasota. At each
of these stations the flow ceased for many days in 1955 and 1956.
No flow has been recorded at times in most years at these stations.
However, the 1955 and 1956 drought caused minimum or no flows
of longer duration than other droughts of record.
By the latter part of 1956, the drought was broken in most
parts of the Florida Peninsula and streamflow generally was back
to normal. Exceptions were springs and streams deriving a large
percentage of base flow from ground-water accretion. The flow
hydrographs for Suwannee River and Silver Springs in figure 5
show the lag between the times of recovery of these streams and
those that react more immediately to surface runoff following heavy
rainfall. North Fork Black Creek, Myakka River, and Fisheating
Creek are streams that have high flood flows and poorly sustained
base flows.

LAKE LEVELS '

During periods of excess rainfall the storage of water in
uncontrolled lakes which are parts of river courses substantially
reduces flood peaks downstream. During dry seasons some of the
water in storage returns to the drainage system and greatly aug-
ments the base flow of streams. Thus, lakes serve as a natural
buffer to reduce the extremes of both flood and drought.
During prolonged drought periods surface-water supplies
stored in lakes, ponds, and reservoirs are usually depleted. Some
of the water is lost by evaporation and transpiration, and some of
it seeps into the ground to replenish the depleted ground-water
supply. When the rainfall over the tributary areas- is insufficient to










200


Sao







300


S00


600

400


Normal (median for period 1931-1956)
i.A


eneml (dian ar period 1936-1956)


_____|_!!i iii iNii || i | |!I ||nft
.. LL....L ''i. t _..l_ l








I 1L9 I l 1993 9 1957
ECONF1NA CREEK NEAR SENNETT, FLA.








lorrml (median for period 1939-1956)






!11. i, i Hl i ::::1 ::::i 111





54[ l S 1955 ls 1957
HiLLs5CRCUGH RIVER NEAR ZEPHYRHILLS, FLA.


1955 I 1956


1957


FISHEATING CREEK AT PALMDALE, FLA.

200 ,.


4000


3000


2000


Normal (median faM period 1921-1945)













1954 1955 1956 1957
KISSIMMEE RIVER NEAR OKEECHOBEE, FLA.


I I I I
_ T -r-.rT Ir*


PERDIDO


SMANNEE F


100



Normal (median for period 1936-1956)






400 -:
400 [[lIf~l[l I'fflIffllf4fl1l4


1954


1955


S I I


FISHEATINO


, s ,


MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF INDEX

GAGING STATIONS IN FLORIDA


19e I 1957


MYAKKA RIVER NEAR SARASOTA, FLA.


100


Normal (median for period 1928-1956)

2000 1,,,n, ,,i, ,


I .. I I I


1000


1500


1000


NCRTH4 FORK BLACK CREEK NEAR MIOOLEBURG, FLA.



NmsI (median for period 192I-1945)




remol (median tor period 1921-1945)


OCHLOCKONEE RIVER NEAR HAVANA, FLA.


100


Normal (median for period 1932-1956)


600


400


1957


SILVER SPRINGS NEAR OGALA, FLA.


200



200


100


0


8000


6000


4000


2000


Normal (median for period 1941-1956)













1954 1955 1956 1957
PERDIDO RIVER AT BARRINEAU PARK, FLA.


11rMall d iaforp ioid 192 9 ,5 i




Normal (median for period 1921-1945)


4000


3000


2000


1000


200


4000


3000


2000


1000


1954


1955


1957


SUWANNEE RIVER AT. BRANFORD, FLA.


Normal (median for period 1933-1956)













1954 1955 1956 1957
ST JOHNS RIVER NEAR CHRISTMAS, FLA.

i I I % I






Normal (median for period 1939-1956)










S l OE I 111 L

1954 i955 1956 1957
TAMIAMI CANAL OUTLETS, MIAMI TO MONROE, FLA.


Figure 5. Monthly flows and their relation to normal for selected streams
in Florida.


I I A,


100

lo


St. JOHNS RIVER


1954


So00


430


*Cc


zoo


Nomal ( mWia for period 1932-1956)










I a 1 3 193 I 1 7
IL__. )1 ; ass ase ( e?


400





zoo
ZQo


200


40aa


4 195 1956 195?
SHOAL RIVER NEAR CRESTVIEW, FLA.


1955


1954


- T .... w A i w


i :t T !; M IM I 6,11 1AII1 1 1


i


i


20A


z


L


. 1 I


. I I


19s I I4 1


115ss


1957






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 26


offset these natural losses, the lakes, ponds, and reservoirs expe-
rience declining stages and contracting surface areas.
The 1954-56 drought took its toll on the lakes on the Florida
Peninsula. The stages of many of the larger lakes were materially
lowered and many of the smaller ones practically dried up. The
lowest stages of record were established for many of the lakes
during this drought.
Records of lake stages are equal in importance to records of
streamflow for studying the effects of droughts in Florida. During
the drought of 1954-56 records of stage were collected for more
than 80 lakes on the peninsula. Several years of record are avail-
able for some of these lakes. Though the periods of lake record are
not as long as those for precipitation and streamflow, they never-
theless can be used for comparing the stages during the drought
with stages during previous years of average climatic conditions.
The effects of the drought on lake levels are represented by
records from 17 lakes. These lakes were selected to provide geo-
graphical coverage, antecedent records for comparison, and varia-
tions in geology and its effect on ground water.
Figure 6 shows graphically the month-end stages and depar-
tures from average for each of the 17 representative lakes from
1954 to 1957. The average month-end stage for each lake was
computed on the basis of a 10-year period, 1946-55. The statewide
average rainfall for this 10-year period was 54.4 inches compared
to the long-term average of 53.2 inches.
The graphs in figure 6 show that the stages of most of these
lakes were from 1 to 4 feet above average at the beginning of 1954.
However, the dry years of 1954, 1955, and 1956 caused a steady
decline in lake stages. The lowest stages of most lakes occurred
about midyear of 1956, when they were 2 to 4 feet below average.
Not all lakes in the peninsula followed this general pattern.
One of the lakes most critically affected by the drought was Orange
Lake, in Alachua County. The stage of this lake dropped to more
than 7 feet below average in the spring of 1956 and remained at a
low stage for more than a year. The surface area of Orange Lake
is normally about 26 square miles but during the lowest stage the
surface area shrank to about one-fifth of the normal size. The lake
began to recover by July 1957 but did not regain its normal stage
until the spring of 1958.
Lake Weir in Marion County and Crooked Lake in Polk Coun-
ty performed differently from most of the representative lakes
studied but their patterns of fluctuation during the drought were





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


remarkably similar to each other. The stages of these lakes declined
steadily from the beginning of 1954, reached their lowest at about
4 feet below average in early 1957, recovered only slightly in 1957
and 1958, and regained average stage in June 1959. These lakes
remained below average for more than 4 years and their rates of
recovery were slower than those of the other lakes studied.
Lake Trafford in Collier County is the southernmost of the
lakes studied. The stage of this lake remained near or slightly above
average through the entire period of the drought except for July,
August, and September, 1956, when the stage dropped to about
1 foot below average. The effect of the drought on this lake was
not severe.
The stages of some lakes in the north central part of the
peninsula were much lower than those in other areas. The condi-
tions at Orange Lake have been previously described. Brooklyn
Lake in Clay County declined to an extremely low stage and became
separated into several small lakes and ponds. Collection of stage
records for this lake was started in July 1957 and the lowest stages
were recorded in February 1958. There were no previous records
on this lake for comparative purposes. However, boat docks, beach
piers, and other waterfront structures which were exposed during
the low stages of the lake were again in water after the lake stage
recovered during the period of heavy rainfall in 1958 and 1959. The
rise in lake level from its lowest stage to the stage that was reached
in 1959 was about 15 feet. The range in stage of this lake is among
the widest of any in the State.
Other lakes near Brooklyn Lake also declined to low stages
as the result of the drought. One of these was Lake Geneva where
investigation of part of the exposed lake bottom during the drought
revealed several pine stumps which indicated that, at some time in
the unrecorded past, the stage had been lower for a sufficient
length of time to permit the growth of pine trees.


EFFECT ON CHEMICAL QUALITY OF WATER

Water is in a constant state of physical and chemical activity.
Some phases of water movement, such as precipitation and stream-
flow, are easily recognized. Less apparent are movements by proc-
esses of evaporation, transpiration, recharge to and discharge from
ground-water reservoirs, thermal movements of lakes and ponds,
and metabolism of aquatic plant life.










HS


a*


- -


0 s


1-5 as a95 1956 I 157
LAKE APOPKA AT WINTER GARDEN, FLA.




v iifI II


F77~'TTT1TT1111iIIIITTTtH4 LLIIIILLIIIIiA lit tIll


: !I I IiK r ~ I II II I I I lvl "1 II II


i i 1i : M tffiifII ll illpIwi-VI IIII I


LAE 194 T 195A 195N 1
LAKE BUTLER AT WINDERMERE, FLA.


954 19w IS569 S5.M
LAKE H%A.M AT YR14T M HAVEN. FIIIIIILA~T1


-Z V lltiLL iift3lL ILUILI


I IILLIL



9. .... . . . .


S ::,71 111111 1 II I L
_I~~~~~~~~1 11 TT,%rIJ. LIIL I


Si iii I i I I Ei l I i rII 1 L I I rIT4f III 1 111I111111


-- 4 ...: 1 ... -1. .. .... 1111.111.
4

1l


S1956


+2
-41
0

-3
+i I




.. 54 -





LAKE ARBUCKLE NEAR AVON PARK, FLA



H0 1954 1955 1956 1957i















LAKE CARROLL NEAR SULPHUR SPRINGS, FLA
TIN


--4


+111 HI
0


-P

40


.... ......!,4,I>1....... ............

36 1954 1955 1956 1957
LAKE ISTOKPOGA NEAR DE SOTO CITY, FLA.


0
-2
,-4 ------ T[M --- :^W^^II; :

60----- TH -- 1955 l MUM6 1
58 1 T -II1111I


52
50 1


ORANGE LAKE AT ORANGE LAKE, FLA.


44


0thIhTThENhU-mIuiI uJ n


- ffl t11 ITT i I V IIlh1111Ui I i I uiJ1kUJ


-. . . . .
S~rrn~nn~rr~ml~rr~rnln~hmli

56 SI I I I HI LM I I I LLrLThLN


1957


S, ,1 I I I ; I ...


LAKE TOHOPEKALIGA AT KISSIMMEE, FLA.

Month-end stage


LAKE


AKE POINSETT
AKE BUTLER
KE HOWARD
LAKE KISSIUMEE
LAKE ISTOKPOG6A


42


o -2
-3
-4


In


0 -~t


1111Ifl1TH1+[ m11 1]


A

11OlEI.





T


LAKE TRAFFORD


1954 195 156 19571
CROOKED LAKE NEAR BABSON PARK, FLA.


+1 LIIIIIIlIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII


1 111 111 11 111 1IIIIIIIIIII IIi 11 IIIIIIIII



17 8 I I I I I I i I I-I- ll III------- ---- -HT i ll-- -- -
170

o 176

174 1954 1955 1956 1957
KINGSLEY LAKE AT CAMP BLENDING, FLA.



0



-3
-4


12" -



1 954 1955 1956 1957
LAKE OKEECHOBEE, FLA.

+ 2 IT I! I,
-, I


-2


20
2 _, H .. .. .. .. .-I-I -W -fl-I.-1T 4A-I.- I-I- .. .- .. .. ..


IMMOKALEE, FLA.


MAP SHOWING


LOCATION OF


INDEX


LAKES IN FLORIDA


+4
-+2
0
0 -2-- --
-9 --4 -.-.- 1wH-H-H-H-H+ +H-H+H-H.- I-- +-I-H-H-1+-


56
54
g 52
0 50
4 8 - -- ----
46
44
44 1954 1955 1956 957
LAKE KISSIMMEE NEAR LAKE WALES, FLA.



o o-


-3


0 9 2


90 1954 1955 1956 1957
LAKE PLACID NEAR LAKE PLACID, FLA.


+1



o -


1954 1955 1956 1957
LAKE WEIR AT OKLAWAHA, FLA.


of lake, in feet above mean sea level


----- Departure from overcge month-end stage, in feet


Figure 6. Month-end stages and the departures from average for selected
lakes in Florida.


RECORD FOR PERIOD 1946-1955
USED TO COMPUTE AVERAGE
MONTH-END STAGES


LAKE POINSETT NEAR COCOA, FLA.


LAKE TRAFFORD NEAR


''' '''' '''" '' '''' ''' ''


t-f


,i i i ii i i t~i~tf~UUUIII II I I I 1 111111 1 II I II~H1111


1 i H 1 H il 1 illH VIIIII ill 1111H ILA III


1 MIM II I


. .. .. .. .. -9 .r* iE i ii i ii i i i i i i


- A I I .I I I 11 T ii ii ii ii ii


--- ---


-


50U


0


,I I H i l 1111 II II I III


: ; : ;liI 11111171111111111 ml~l~lMllllll\rll


-3


"' f


I~-t~llllllt 1I11I11I 11 II III IIII II IIILfKI


w


II III III111 11111 111I I I I I I 11


-4


-4IIIIIIIlln l lnrrlrrln ln lII


I. riii iiiiii I ii I I I I I I! F T I I II T I I I I I I I I III IIIII


S I I 1955


I


I 1956 I 1957 I


I


I I


,.!rVvMRiiM R il Htm


'" l l lll


IIIIIII IIIII II IIII IIIIII IIIff mI I I







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 26 15

The various chemical changes that water undergoes are equally
difficult or more difficult to perceive. Concentration of dissolved
solids increases or decreases as a result of various physical and
chemical activities. Compositions are altered through variations in
the concentration of individual constituents as a result of these
processes.
Variations in streamflow and water levels are among the
factors that cause changes in water quality. Generally, dissolved
solids are higher during periods of low flow. Thus, in Florida, dis-
solved solids are usually highest in through June. To a certain extent, the increases are in proportion
to the decreases in water level or stream flow. Figure 7 is an exam-
ple of this relationship.


- 6.000

3 .000
a .000



.,ooo
,00



too

si o

S;, Moo


Figure 7. Relation of dissolved solids to discharge, St. Johns River near
DeLand, Florida, 1948.

The ordinarily high concentrations that recur seasonally
become even higher in times of drought. New lows in water levels
and stream flows are coincident with new highs in chemical con-
centrations. These higher concentrations result from the greater
influence on surface water by more highly mineralized ground
water. As a result of evaporation and transpiration in which water
is lost but minerals are retained by the surface body, concentrations
may become quite high.


........ o...
..........

.. ...... .... ...... .. ...o



.. o . . ................... ........ -L .......... o .........
.. .. .. .. .. .






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


STREAMS

Changes in the chemical quality of a stream may occur as a
direct or an indirect effect of drought.
An example of the direct effect of drought on a stream is
shown by records for Kissimmee River near Okeechobee. Dissolved-
solids at this location were twice as high in 1956 as they were
during 1940 and 1953. Figure 8 shows how dissolved solids in-
creased almost in proportion to cumulative rainfall deficiency and
decreasing discharge. Even so, the concentrations that were ob-
served in 1956 were still within acceptable limits for most water
uses. Had it not been for maximum flooding that occurred in the
fall of 1953, the concentrations could have exceeded acceptable
limits.
Indirect effects of drought on the chemical character of water
have been illustrated by incidents that have occurred in Florida.
One effect is that of salt-water intrusion. In some coastal regions
a natural balance between fresh water and salt water prevents salt-
water intrusion. Disruption of this balance has occurred in several
areas in which the amounts of fresh water needed to preserve the
balance have been depleted. Where drought has increased this
depletion, serious consequences result. Miami was confronted with
this problem in 1939 and 1945. Overdrainage combined with
drought conditions allowed salt water to enter the several canals
in the Miami area and the municipal well field was endangered by
intrusion in Miami Canal. Installations and operation of salinity
controls by Dade County since that time have prevented a repetition
of salt-water intrusion. Shown below are values for dissolved solids
on a number of samples collected from Miami Canal at Water Plant,
Hialeah, during periods of low discharge.
Discharge Dissolved solids
Date (cfs) (ppm)
May 21-31, 1941 ....-.....-- .. ..-... 459 270
May 31, 1944 ___ 206 274
May 7, 1945 e 5 1,670
May 23, 1946 e350 296
Mar. 27, 1951 e 35 272
Mar. 13, 1953 701 280
June 12, 1953 e 70 283
May 21, 1954 ____ _.. 722 266
Apr. 21, 1955 569 278
May 24, 1956 ----....... ..........-- ....... e 60 259
e Estimated
The relative stability of concentrations since 1945 may be
attributed to the operation of the salinity control structures.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 26 17

+10 -------- --- -| --------
+10





-30





A.- Cumulative departure from normal of rainfall at Kissimmes
S-0- --------













t0
-10 00------ -------



















40
lo-












B.-- Dissolved solid siIn Kissimmee River ne ar Okeechobee
O -20---- --- --- ---
.






SO- -



















5,000
u,.-- 60-------- -





















0
0- i- -





























500
0 9 19_r-- -

diharke'B. -d- dissnolved solids con centration of Kissimmee River- near



















oke obee-Flori .-...-. .
so - _Ua- _

::::.:::::::
0 ..__ ^





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY:


Another indirect effect of the 1956 drought occurred in Bre-
vard County. Highly mineralized artesian water is qted in this
county for irrigation, and the water eventually reaches the St.
Johns River. This results in high concentrations of dissolved solids
in the river during periods of low flow. Because of the drought,
greater amounts of artesian water than usual were used for irri-
gation, resulting in unusually high concentrations of dissolved
solids in the river.
Rainfall data for Merritt Island were used to show cumulative
departure from normal rainfall. The station at Merritt Island, un-
like the Kissimmee station, did not show a cumulative deficiency of
rainfall until September 1955. Figure 9 shows the relationships
between cumulative rainfall departure at Merritt Island and dis-
charge and dissolved solids of St. Johns River near Cocoa from
October 1953 to September 1956.
The most significant feature of these relationships is the great
increase in dissolved solids. During the period of record prior to
1956, the chemical quality of the water from the St. Johns River
near Cocoa was suitable for municipal use. Chloride concentration
was below 250 ppm (parts per million) and dissolved solids were
below 500 ppm, the limits recommended by the U. S. Public Health
Service for potable water. In 1956 these values were exceeded.
Long-term records at this site are not available to show the relative
effect that this drought had on the chemical quality.
Comparative data on chemical quality for other locations in
Florida are meager. In most instances the only available informa-
tion is that obtained in 1956. Although the available information
has value in establishing the chemical characteristics of the water
at the time of collection, the effect of the drought cannot be ade-
quately defined at many locations because of the lack of information
on normal conditions. Information on chemical quality is most
deficient for streams in northwestern Florida-the area of greatest
rainfall deficiency in 1954. Antecedent data are available for only
two sites on streams in this area: Pine Barren Creek near Barth,
and Escambia River near Century.
Dissolved solids in Pine Barren Creek are quite low, usually
no more than 20 ppm. The drought had no effect on the.quality of
this water since ground water in this area is equally low in dis-
solved mineral content.
Dissolved solids of Escambia River near Century are usually
less than 100 ppm. Comparison of records for Escambia River





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 26


-- I r- -e -o - -


--*-- -- -/-----,r- -i-4
(.--------.-^. <.I


- -a -.

A._-- C --VIlli d -fulu fr o of nwl o* flintll *I ulf-ll- lland


L.. OlDsslved sllil I St Ja River %*or Ceo


,. _i.h. i. e f of ll Rivet near Ce ca
CR55 1954 1955 156
-Figure 9. A comparison of rainfall departure from normal at Merritt Island
with discharge and dissolved solids, concentration of St. Johns River near
Cocoa, Florida.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


near Century do not disclose any significant changes in chemical
quality of the water as a result of the drought.
Records of analyses for Suwannee River at Branford show the
effect of the drought. Deficiencies of rainfall and runoff in the
Suwannee River basin were greater in 1955 than in 1956 and higher
concentrations of dissolved solids occurred at the Branford station
in May 1955 (180 ppm) than in May 1956 (148 ppm).
Records of analyses for Withlacoochee River near Holder do
not disclose any significant changes in the chemical character of
the water during the drought.

SPRINGS
Analyses of samples collected in 1946 and 1956 from selected
springs are shown in table 5. The data collected in 1946 were
included in a report: Springs of Florida, Bulletin 31, Florida Geo-
logical Survey. The two sets of analyses indicate only minor differ-
ences in the chemical character of the water from most of the
springs. Significant increases in dissolved solids occurred in Chassa-
howitzka Spring near Homosassa and Rainbow Springs near Dun-
nellon. The increase in concentrations of Chassahowitzka Spring
indicates contamination by sea water from the Gulf of Mexico.
Calcium, bicarbonate, and sulfate were the only ions that increased
in Rainbow Springs. This indicates increased solution activity that
may have been a direct result of the drought.
Significant decreases were noted in dissolved solids for Ponce
de Leon Springs near DeLand and Salt Springs near Eureka. These
springs normally produce water that contains proportionate
amounts of minerals indicative of contamination by residual saline
waters of ancient seas. Flushing of these residues is a continual
process. The three analyses, covering a 33-year span for Ponce de
Leon Springs, indicate that the flushing is continuing at this sta-
tion. Although Salt Springs shows some decrease in concentrations
of dissolved solids, the records are not sufficient to show whether
this is a result of a trend or of differences in sampling.

ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF THE DROUGHT

The economic losses resulting from the drought amounted to
millions of dollars. The yield, as well as the quality, of citrus fruits
and other crops was lowered by the lack of soil moisture. Irrigation
systems were installed in many groves, vegetable farms, and in





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 26


pastures where adequate nearby sources of water were available.
These systems, installed at great expense, helped to alleviate the
effects of the drought over limited areas during the growing sea-
son. The public water supplies of several small communities
dropped below their normal levels and the available supply was
restricted to necessary uses. The rural areas of the State were
probably more severely affected by the drought. In many areas stock
ponds went dry and the water level in farm wells dropped below the
pump intakes. Water for household use and stock consumption
was hauled to many rural areas in tank trucks.
There were forest fires in timber lands in the northern part
of the State and more than 300,000 acres were burned over between
January and May 1955. The peaty muck soils of the Everglades
dried out during the prolonged period of deficient rainfall and
thousands of acres caught fire and the topsoil burned away. At
times, the smoke from these smoldering fires carried into the urban
area along the east coast and caused considerable discomfort.
At many of the shallow lakes the situation became critical.
Thousands of fish, isolated in small pools as the lakes receded, died
as these pools dried up. Fish camps were isolated from several lakes
by receding shorelines and many fish camps ceased operating, some
permanently and some for the duration of the drought. Boat docks,
diving piers, and other waterfront structures were left exposed at
many popular resorts.
Serious completion developed for the use of the available water
supply in some areas. The pumpage of water from the dwindling
supply in some shallow lakes for irrigation of citrus groves and agri-
cultural lands was restricted by agreement of the riparian owners,
or, in some cases, by court injunction.

SUMMARY

The drought of 1954-56 caused a serious decline of water
levels and streamflow in Florida. New record-low stages and flows
were recorded at most gaging stations, several of which have rec-
ords of nearly 30 years duration.
In the northern and western parts of the State, the drought
was most severe during 1954 and 1955. The central and southern
parts of the Florida Peninsula were most severely affected during
the early part of 1956. Statewide, the drought was ended by the
latter part of 1956 although the flow of streams in some areas and
some lake levels did not return to normal until 1958.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The data on quality of water indicate characteristics that may
be expected during severe droughts. Although information on nor-
mal quality characteristics is available at only a few places, com-
parison of these records with the drought data indicates that
increased dissolved solids resulted from the drought and seriously
impaired the suitability of the water for many uses. The quality of
streams in northwestern Florida was hardly affected by the
drought.
Water shortages occurred in many parts of the State and the
economic losses amounted to millions of dollars.






REFERENCES

Ferguson, G. E. (see also Parker, G. G.)
1947 (and Lingham, C. W.; Love, S. K.; and Vernon, R. 0.)
Springs of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 31.
Florida Water Resources Study Commission
1956 Florida's water resources: Report to the Governor of Florida
and the 1957 Legislature.
Lingham, C. W. (see Ferguson, G. E.)
Love, S. K. (see Ferguson, G. E.; Parker, G. G.)


Parker, G. G.
1955

Patterson, A. 0.


(and Ferguson, G. E., Love, S. K., and others)
Water resources of southeastern Florida: U. S.
Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1255.


1955 Surface water in Florida: Florida Eng. and Ind.
Experiment Sta. Bull., series no. 72.
Vernon, R. 0. (see Ferguson, G. E.)


TABLE 1. Departure from Normal Annual Rainfall in Florida, 1954-56
Departure, in inches
Location 1954 1955 1956


Apalachicola _...... .....---....--
Arcadia ..... .............. .. .. .... ...
Avon Park
Bartow -.. .. __ --
Belle Glade --. __ _____ _- -
Blountstown _....-
Bradenton
Brooksville
Carrabelle ....
Caryville _- -
Cedar Key .
Clermont 6 S --
Coconut Grove _-
Crescent City --
Daytona Beach Airport


-17.39 -21.96 -9.95


+5.15
+2.33
-4.12
+1.34
-20.70
+2.08
-18.30
-18.59
-28.31
-20.75
-13.92
+5.35
-12.77
-17.11


-19.41
-17.36
-13.90
-1.44
-7.58
-5.90
-17.68
-19.00
-7.38
-11.91
-9.81
-10.49
-3.10
-12.27


-19.29
-6.83
-7.78
-18.23
+1.70
-11.18
-15.34
-3.60
-18.05
-0.37
-22.08
-10.77
-19.82





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 26


pastures where adequate nearby sources of water were available.
These systems, installed at great expense, helped to alleviate the
effects of the drought over limited areas during the growing sea-
son. The public water supplies of several small communities
dropped below their normal levels and the available supply was
restricted to necessary uses. The rural areas of the State were
probably more severely affected by the drought. In many areas stock
ponds went dry and the water level in farm wells dropped below the
pump intakes. Water for household use and stock consumption
was hauled to many rural areas in tank trucks.
There were forest fires in timber lands in the northern part
of the State and more than 300,000 acres were burned over between
January and May 1955. The peaty muck soils of the Everglades
dried out during the prolonged period of deficient rainfall and
thousands of acres caught fire and the topsoil burned away. At
times, the smoke from these smoldering fires carried into the urban
area along the east coast and caused considerable discomfort.
At many of the shallow lakes the situation became critical.
Thousands of fish, isolated in small pools as the lakes receded, died
as these pools dried up. Fish camps were isolated from several lakes
by receding shorelines and many fish camps ceased operating, some
permanently and some for the duration of the drought. Boat docks,
diving piers, and other waterfront structures were left exposed at
many popular resorts.
Serious completion developed for the use of the available water
supply in some areas. The pumpage of water from the dwindling
supply in some shallow lakes for irrigation of citrus groves and agri-
cultural lands was restricted by agreement of the riparian owners,
or, in some cases, by court injunction.

SUMMARY

The drought of 1954-56 caused a serious decline of water
levels and streamflow in Florida. New record-low stages and flows
were recorded at most gaging stations, several of which have rec-
ords of nearly 30 years duration.
In the northern and western parts of the State, the drought
was most severe during 1954 and 1955. The central and southern
parts of the Florida Peninsula were most severely affected during
the early part of 1956. Statewide, the drought was ended by the
latter part of 1956 although the flow of streams in some areas and
some lake levels did not return to normal until 1958.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The data on quality of water indicate characteristics that may
be expected during severe droughts. Although information on nor-
mal quality characteristics is available at only a few places, com-
parison of these records with the drought data indicates that
increased dissolved solids resulted from the drought and seriously
impaired the suitability of the water for many uses. The quality of
streams in northwestern Florida was hardly affected by the
drought.
Water shortages occurred in many parts of the State and the
economic losses amounted to millions of dollars.






REFERENCES

Ferguson, G. E. (see also Parker, G. G.)
1947 (and Lingham, C. W.; Love, S. K.; and Vernon, R. 0.)
Springs of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 31.
Florida Water Resources Study Commission
1956 Florida's water resources: Report to the Governor of Florida
and the 1957 Legislature.
Lingham, C. W. (see Ferguson, G. E.)
Love, S. K. (see Ferguson, G. E.; Parker, G. G.)


Parker, G. G.
1955

Patterson, A. 0.


(and Ferguson, G. E., Love, S. K., and others)
Water resources of southeastern Florida: U. S.
Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1255.


1955 Surface water in Florida: Florida Eng. and Ind.
Experiment Sta. Bull., series no. 72.
Vernon, R. 0. (see Ferguson, G. E.)


TABLE 1. Departure from Normal Annual Rainfall in Florida, 1954-56
Departure, in inches
Location 1954 1955 1956


Apalachicola _...... .....---....--
Arcadia ..... .............. .. .. .... ...
Avon Park
Bartow -.. .. __ --
Belle Glade --. __ _____ _- -
Blountstown _....-
Bradenton
Brooksville
Carrabelle ....
Caryville _- -
Cedar Key .
Clermont 6 S --
Coconut Grove _-
Crescent City --
Daytona Beach Airport


-17.39 -21.96 -9.95


+5.15
+2.33
-4.12
+1.34
-20.70
+2.08
-18.30
-18.59
-28.31
-20.75
-13.92
+5.35
-12.77
-17.11


-19.41
-17.36
-13.90
-1.44
-7.58
-5.90
-17.68
-19.00
-7.38
-11.91
-9.81
-10.49
-3.10
-12.27


-19.29
-6.83
-7.78
-18.23
+1.70
-11.18
-15.34
-3.60
-18.05
-0.37
-22.08
-10.77
-19.82






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 26 23


TABLE 1. (Continued)
Departure, in inches
Location 1954 1955 1956
DeFuniak Springs ----.---.--- -..-.............. -27.90 -12.56 +2.06
DeLand .------.......-........ --................. --11.24 -8.50 -6.08
Eustis .------..-------................................... -10.06 -3.47 --6.69
Everglades -.............---..---..........-...... +12.95 -0.92 -13.86
Federal Point .----.......-.--..---................--... ----16.79 -8.44 -11.04
Fellsmere -----...- .... ---....-.... --.......-......-.... +2.26 -0.51 +1.46
Fernandina Beach --...--..---------....-..-.... -... -4.14 -7.00 -8.52
Fort Laudeodale ..---..--...---------...--...--..--..... +20.61 -23.99 -20.08
Fort Myers .------..........---..-- ---................... -3.54 -9.31 -13.49
Fort Pierce ....--...---------.............-----.....--.....- +20.16 -1.22 -15.19
Gainesville ..-- -------......-----.......................... -12.66 -4.51 -2.23
Glen St. Mary .............................................. 16.01 5.34 -8.23
Homestead ---.....---.....-....... .............---- ----- +5.16 -10.01 -18.24
Hypoluxo .-------------.............---------.......................................------. +11.50 -20.44 -18.63
Inverness ............-------..--....................................-- -6.91 -7.51 -18.68
Isleworth .................................---- --- -- ................ --- -13.23 -6.16 -3.73
Jacksonville Airport ...--................................. -------- -15.25 -8.75 -1.10
Jacksonville City ...........-- ...............................---------- -20.54 -6.09 -
Key West ----.----- ---. +17.33 -15.41 -19.11
Kissimmee .........................................----- -------- --8.46 -9.68 +1.72
LaBelle ......---..............................-------...................------ +9.53 +4.76 -10.73
Lake Alfred -----.----------- -14.71 -17.32 -7.07
Lake City ..................................--------------.----......--.....-----....... -13.22 -17.91 +0.59
Lakeland ...................................------............-...... -15.13 -7.35 -6.40
Madison ...................................................-------------------------..... --23.56 -10.60 -7.91
Marianna Ind. School .............------..............----........ -18.66 -13.93 -2.56
Merritt Island ...----------- +5.12 -11.47 -
Miami Beach .......................----------...................-------- +7.69 -7.888 -16.32
Miami Beach Airport .....---..-....-....-.....--.......-..-. +5.85 -15.06 -19.48
Miami Aiiport -----.------------------ +8.44 -6.86 -13.51
Monticello --...................---.-.-........----- -26.68 -16.27 +0.43
Moore Haven ---......................--- ....------------------------ +11.13 -5.37 -18.61
Mountain Lake ....-....-----.....--..-...-............---.............. ---4.52 -6.59 -11.35
Mount Pleasant ..-.-...-.........................--.........-..-- -20.56 -20.11 +3.93
New Smyrna Beach ...- .......- -------.. -9.30 -12.02 -10.74
Niceville .........--.........------------------------ -27.84 -13.58 -11.19
Ocala ..------------------............................................-----..--... -2.69 -9.05 -10.59
Orlando Airport ...-.................---- .........---- .........---- --- -3.26 -8.97 -7.40
Palatka ...-----..-..--..-------------- .------ -22.54 -8.01 -9.70
Panama City ....-------------.-. --- -15.42 -17.15 -7.50
Pensacola --......-----------.-..--------..- .-- -32.94 -4.22 +4.62
Plant City .......-..... ....----.------- +0.92 -1.94 -17.31
Punta Gorda ._ -......---.. --- --- -1.43 -15.69 -11.29
Quincy..--..-.........--------------- -26.00 -15.12 -5.02
Raiford -...-....-----........---- ------- -12.35 -8.36 -
St. Augustine --...----....-- -------- -14.11 -0.70 -19.45
St. Leo -..... .....------------- ---- 10.48 -14.13 -11.23
St. Petersburg ..-----........------------------- +16.88 +11.49 -18.85
Sanford ...---.-.---. __ ..-4.91 +2.54 -10.41
Tallahassee ...........-... ----------.- -25.68 -12.55 -2.89
Tampa ..--..---------------- -6.74 -1.13 -21.15
Tarpon Springs ............-------- -- -----7.43 -10.34 -19.56

Titusville ....---- -------------- -4.12 4-2.83 -11.72
West Palm Beach --....---------------- +8.71 -26.29 -19.44
West Palm Beach Airport ... .--------- +11.49 -24.41 -23.40
Data from U. S. Weather Bureau







TAMtU 2, Minimum Flow, in, Cubic Feet Per Second, of Florida Streams

Drainage __ ... _. Minimum Flow
Map Period of area Period of record 1954-56 drought
No, Gaging Station Record (sq. ml.) Flow I Date Flow I Date
ST. MARYS RIVER BASIN
1. North Prong St. Marys river 1921-2.3; 19'7-30; '
at Moniac, Ga. I 1982.84; 1950-58 a, e 1(0 0 Many days 0 Many days
2 Middle Prong St. Marys River Aug. 24-31; Sept. Aug. 24.81, Sept.
at Taylor, Fla. I 1955-58 b 127 I d 0.1 12-18, 28, 1956 d 0.1 12-18, 23, 1956
4 South Prong St. Marys River Many days in most
near Sanderson. Fla.__ 1955-58 b 58 __ 0 years 0 Many days
5 Turkey Creek at Macclenny, j I
Fla. 1955-58 20.9 0.2 Apr. 21-24, 1956 0.2 Apr. 21.24. 1956
6 South Prong St. Marys River 0.4
at Glen St. Mary, Fla. 1 1950-58 b 1i 0 May 23, 1950 1.1 June 15, 1955
7 St. Marys River near 12.0 June 21, 22, 28,
Macclenny. Fla. 1926-58 b 720 May 22, 1982 16 25. 26, 1955


ST. JOHNS RIVER BASIN


0*





49 St. Johns River near DeLand,
Fla. | 1934-58 b 2.960 g 0 At times ig 0, At times
,59 Palatlakaha Creek at Cherry
Lake Outlet near Grove- f 1956-57, Several days in Several days in
land,. Fla. 1957-58 b 120 0 1956, 1957 0 1956, 1957
60 Palatlakaha Creek near /- June 15, 16,
Mascotte, Fla. 1945-56 b 160 0.2 June 18. 19. 1945 0.7 1955
64 Haines Creek near Lisbon, Sept. 21 to Dec. Sept. 21 to Dec.
Fla. 1942-58 b 640 h 0 22, 1956 h 0 22, 1956
June 27, 29, 30, June 27, 29, 80,
65 Oklawaha River at Moss July 7, 8, 12-14, July 7, 8, 12-14,
Bluff, Fla. 1943-55 b 910 i 24 1955 'i 24 1955
T67 Oklawaha River near Ocala,
Fla. 1930-58 b 1.100 i12.0 Mar. 4, 1957 i 20 Apr. 24, 1956
68 Silver Springs near Ocala,
SFla. 1933-58 d 539 May 7, 1957 d 541 June 28, 1956
75 Orange; Lake Outlet near May 7 to Sept. May 7, 1955 to
dCitra, Fla. 1947-55 0 30, 1955 0 September 1957
76 Lochloosa Lake Outlet near
Lochloosa, Fla. 1947-55 0 Many days 0 Many days
77 Orange Creek at Orange f 1941-42 431 May 31, June 1, May 31, June 1,
Springs, Flia. 1942-52; 1955-58 d 2.0 3-5, 9-14, 1956 d 2.0 3-5, 9-14, 1956
81 Oklawaha River at Riverside
Landing near Orange
.Springs, Fla. 1943-58 b 2,100 697 Apr. 28. 29, 1957 720 June 15, 16, 1956
89: Little Haw Creek near July 31, Aug. 1,
Seville. Fla. 1951-58 b 120 0.2 2, 1952 0.6 June 23, 24, 1956
101 South Fork Black Creek near
Penney Farms, Fla. 1939-58 134 a 9.4 June 24, 1955 a 9.4 June 24. 1955
104 North Fork Black Creek near Aug. 18, 19,
Middleburg, Fla. 1931-58 174 3.6 June 8. 1985 3.9 1954 19
MOULTRIE CREEK BASIN
108 Moultrie Creek near St. .
Augustine. Fla. 1939-58 2 23.8 0.1 June 6, 7. 1958 0.2 May 22, 1956


0






I

i
U>":: -
CT0 ,






TABLE 2, (Continued)

Drainage Minimum Flow
Map Period of area Period of record 1954-56 drought
No. Gaging Station Record (sq. ml.) Flow | Date Flow Date

SPRUCE CREEK BASIN
112 Spruce Creek near Samsula, several days in
nearlamula,191.8 b 32 01 1951 and 1952 T 0.2 I Aug. 19. 1954
INDIAN RIVER BASIN
115 Elbow Creek near Eau Gallice, I June 16-22, 24, Several days in
Fla. I 1955.57 2.69 d 0.2 1957 0.8 May. June 1956
116 Crane Creek at Melbourne, June 25, 26, 27,
Fla. e 1951-58 12.6 1.8 28, 1951 83.0 June 16, 1955
117 Turkey Creek near Palm Bay, f 1954-55 95.5 Mar. 80, 1956
Fla. 1951 and 1952 0.2 22 July 16, 1958 25
120.1 Fellsmere Canal near Fells-
mere, Fla. 1955-58 78.4 24 May 22, 27, 1956 24 May 22, 27, 1956
July 1, 2, 1952,
121 North Canal near Vero Beach, Mar. 9-12, 15, 17, Mar. 9-12, 15,
Fla. 1950-58 d 3.0 20, 1956 d 3.0 17, 20, 1956
122 Main Canal at Vero Beach,
Fla. 1950-58 2.6 Sept. 6, 1954 2.6 Sept. 6, 1954
.128 South Canal near Vero Beach,
Fla. I 1950-58 d 2.0 Aug. 14-16. 1956 d 2.0 Aug. 14-16. 1954
LAKE OKEECHOBEE AND I,
THE EVERGLADES
126 Fisheating Creek near Venus, Many days in Many days in
Fla. 1955-58 b 195 0 most years 0 1955, 1956
127 Fisheating Creek at Palm- Many days in
dale, Fla.. 1931-5R b 485 0 most years 10 Many days'





188 Myrtle-Mary Jane Canal near
SNarcoossee, Fla. 19.49-58 111 0 At times 0 At times
188 East Tohopekaliga-Tohope-
kaliga Canal near St. Many days in Many days in
Cloud, Fla. 1942-58 300 0 1955, 1956 0 1955, 1956
11 Cypress Creek at Vineland, Many days in
Pla., 1945-58 30.3 0 most years 0 Many days
142 Tohopekaliga-Cypress Canal b
n ear St. Cloud, Fla. 1942-58 k 540 0 At times 0 At times
148 Canbe Creek near St. Cloud, Many days in Many days in
Fla. 1949-58 1 86.5 0 1950, 1956 0 1956
1'4 Reedy, Creek near Loughman, b
..Fla. 1939-58 k 115 2:4 June. 15, 1956 2.4 June 15, 1956
145 Catfish Creek, near Lake
Wales, Fla. 1947-58 58.9 7.6 Apr. 10, 1956 7.6 Apr. 10, 1956
16 Hatchineha-Kissimmee Canal28,
near Lake Wales, Fla. 1942-58 m 1,185 d 27 July 28, 1956 d 27 July 28, 1956
149 Kissimmee River below Lake
Kissimmee, Fla. 1933-58 n 1.609 d 52 July 24, 1956 d 52 July 24. 1956
150 eed Creek near Frostproof, Mar. 21-23, 29, Mar. 21-2, 29,
Fla. 1946-58 62.2 d 0.1. Apr. 22, 1956 d 0.1 Apr. 22, 1956
Carter Creek near Sebring,
Fla. 1954-58 38.8 d 4.6 May 27, 1956 d 4.6 May 27, 1956
152 Arbuckle Creek near May 19, 27, 28, May 19, 27, 28,
De Soto City, Fla. 1939-58 o 385 4.3 1956 4.8 1956
Stearns'Creek near Lake At times in
Placid, Fla. 1955-58 44.0 a0 most years 0 On several days
154 Josephine Creek near
De Sotb City, Fla. 1946-58 q 109 0.3 May 22. 1956 0.3 May 22,1956
155 Istokpoga Canal near Corn- At times in February to
well. Fla. 1934-58 624 0 several years 0 June 1956
156 Kissimmee River near Okee- May 29 to May 29 to
__ chobee. Fla. 1930-58 2.886 d 68 June 5, 1956 d 68 June 5. 1956
57 Taylor Creek near Basinger, Some days in Some days in
'la. 1955-58 15.7 0 most years 0 most years


*5^:

mH;






TABxJ 2, (Continued)

Drainage Minimum Flow
Map Period of area Period of record 1954-56 drought
No, Gaging Station Record (aq, mi.) Flow _Date Flow I Date
158 Taylor Creek above Okee- At times in At times in
chobee, Fla. 1955-58 98.7 0 some years 0 1955, 1956
161 St. Lucie Canal at lock near Several periods Several periods
Stuart, Fla. 1952-58 .... (r) each year (r) each year
162 West Palm Beach Canal at
HGS-5 at Canal Point,
Fla. 1939-58 .._ 1,760 June 15, 1942 s 1,110 July 14, 1954
164 West Palm Beach Canal at Dec. 1956, Dec. 1956,
West Palm Beach, Fla. 1939-58 .... t30 Jan. 1957 t80 Jan. 1957
166 Hillsboro Canal at Belle 1940-50
Glade, Fla. 1954-57 .. s 1,500 June 22, 1957 s 526 Oct. 16, 1956
Dec. 16, 1939,
Apr. 11, June 18,
167 Hillsboro Canal near Deer- 1940, Sept. 21-23, December and
field Beach, Fla. 1989-58 0 28, 1958 a 15 January 1956
168 North New River Canal at
i South Bay, Fla. 1942-57 -- s 2.900 Jan. 22, 1957 s 552 Oct. 5, 1956
170 North New River Canal near November and
Fort Lauderdale, Fla. 1939-58 -- d 2.4 May 21, 22, 1947 d 20 December 1956
173 Miami Canal at Water Plant, Some days in
Hialeah, Fla. 1940-58 a 890 June 23, 1943 a 35 Mar. 1956
175 Tamiami Canal Outlets, Mi- Many days in Many days in
ami to Monroe, Fla. 1939-58 I 0 most years 0 1955, 1956
179 Barron River Canal near IMany days
SEverglades, Fla. 1952-58 1 0 May 17, 18, 1952 0.1 in 1956
180 Imperial River near Bonita I June 28, July 3,
Springs, Fla. 1940-54 ___0 1940 (u)
182 Caloosahatchee Canal at Several periods Several periods
Moore Haven. Fla. 1 198-58 (r) in each year (r) in each year





PEACE RIVER BASIN
185 Peace Creek Drainage Canal At times in Some periods in
near Dundee, Fla. n 1946-58 b 50 0 some years 0 1955, 1956
186 Peace Creek Drainage Canal .
near Alturas, Fla. 1947-58 b 150 2.4 Aug. 12, 1956 2.4 Aug. 12, 1956
S' Several days
187 Lake Lulu Outlet near Eloise, Mar., Apr., 1951, Several days
Fla.. 1946-58 b 26 0 Aug., Sept. 1956 0 Aug., Sept. 1956
May 15, June 11,
1955, Mar. 28,
188 Peace River at Bartow, Fla. 1989-58 b 890 1.4 June 2, 1945 28 Apr. 8-6, 1956
198 Peace River at Zolfo Springs,
Fla.' 1938-58 b 840 40 Apr. 24, 26, 1956 40 Apr. 24, 26, 1956
194 Little Charley Bowlegs
Creek near Sebring, Fla. 1952-58 32.4 0 Many days 0 Many days
196'- Charlie Creek near Gardner, 1950-58 b 380
Fla* 0.8 Aug. 6-8, 1950 0.8 Apr. 3, 1956
197 Peace River at Arcadia, Fla. 1981-58 b 1,370 37 May 28, 1949 43 Apr. 25, 27, 1956
Nov. 18-20,
199 Joshua Creek at Nocatee, Fla. 1950-58 b 115 0 22-24, 1958 0.1 June 27, 28, 1956
June 7-9, 15,
SI r25-80, July 2, June 7-9, 15,
202 Horse Creek near Arcadia, Aug. 7, 1956; Feb. 25-30, July 2,
Fla. 1950-58 b 205 0 16-18, 1957 0 Aug. 7, 1956
MYAKKA RIVER BASIN
206 Myakka River near Sarasota, I Many days in Many days in
S Fla.1986-58 b 235 0 some years 0 1955, 1956
MANATEE RIVER BASIN
214 Manatee River near Braden- 0 Apr. 23, 24, 26,
S ton, Fla. 1939-58 b 90 I 0.6 May 7. 1939 38.0 27. 1956





TABIU 2, (Continued)
SDrainage Minimum Flow
Map Period of area Period of record 1954-56 drought
No. Aging Station Record (aq. mi.) Flow Date Flow I Date
LITTLE MANATEE RIVER
BASIN

I WiMauma, Fla. 1989-58 b 145 1.2 June 0, 7. 1945 d 4.5 May 18, 1955
BULLFROG CREEK BASIN
I IOct. 21-28, 1957,
216 Bullfrog Creek near Wi- June 4, 5, 7, 10,
mauma, Fla. 1956-58 29.1 0 21, 1958 0 At times
ALAFIA RIVER BASIN
218 North Prong Alafia River
at Keyaville, Fla. ... 1950-58 b 175 .8.6 May 17. 1952 12 June 11, 1955
221 Alafla River near Lithia, Fla. 1988-58 I b 885 6.6 June 6. 6. 1945 27 Apr. 28-25. 1956
PALM RIVER BASIN -
225 Sixmile Creek at Tampa. Fla. 1956-58 1 b 28 d 14 I Dec. 21-28. 1956 d 14 Dec. 21-28. 1956
HILLSBOROUGH RIVER
BASIN'
|227' Blackwater Creek near -
Knights, Fla. 1951-58 b 110 0.7.. May 28. 1952 d 2.7 Dec. 14. 1956
' .. ...... ... June 7, 9, 1955,
228 Hillsborough River near .... .. May 28, June 1 8,
Zephyrhills. Fla. 1989-58 b 220 48 June 11-17, 1945 60 1956,
2,9 Peniberton Creek near Dover,
Fla. 1956-58 b 24 1.1 Oct. 18, 1958 (v)
280 Flint Creek near Thono-
tosassa, Fla. 1956-58 b 60 0 June 7-24, 195R (v)





232;' Hillsborough River near Nov. 30 to
: Tampa, Fla. 1938-58 650 0 ..Dec. 2, 1945 d 6.4 June 15, 1956
388 Drainage Ditch at Bearss Many days in 0
SAve.,. Sulphur Springs, Fla. 1946-56 b 12 0 most years Many days
SWEETWATER CREEK
"R BASIN :BS I -- -
287 Sweetwater Creek near Sul- Many days in
.phur Springs Fla. 1951-58 b 6.4 0 Many days 0 each year
RCKY CREEK BASIN
8 by Creek near Sulphur May 12, 16, June May 12, 16, June
j .; :Sprihgs, Fla. .1958-58 b 85 0.4 9, 10,1955 0.4 9 10 1955
ALIGATOR CREEK
"' ":,,,BASIN ""
289 Alligator Creek at Safety "" Many days in Many days in
S' Harbor. Fla. 1949-58 b 9.0 0 most years 0 each year
LONG BAYOU BASIN
240 Seminole Lake Outlet near Many days in Many days in
Largo Fla. 1950-58 b 14 0 each year 0 each year

LAKE TARPON BASIN
240.1 Brooker Creek near Odessa, __
Fla. 1946-56 b 10 0 Many days' 0 Many days
!'40.2 Brooker Creek near Tarpon. At times At times
Springs. Fla. 1950-58 b 30 0 each year 0 each year
ANCLOTE RIVER BASIN
"0.5 Anclote 'River near Elfers, a a
24:.5 AFla. ner_ rs1946-58 72.5 w 0.4 May 19, 1956 w 0.4 May 19. 1956
I,,i 'V""-------------------------"-----------





TABI 9, (Continued)

Drainage Minimum Flow
Map Period of area Period of record 1954.56 drought
No. Gaging Station Record (sq. mi,) Flow Date Flow Date
WITHLACOOCHEE RIVER
BASIN
549 Withlacoochee River at-
Trfiby, Fla. 1928-29, 1930-58 b 650 8.6 June 9-17, 1945 9.5 July 22, 1956
250 Withlacoochee River at .
room, Fla. 1939-58 b 900 10 July 24-25, 1956 16 July 24-25. 1956
264 Withlacoochee River near
Holder, Fla. 1928-29, 1931-58 b 1,710 112 June 18. 1956 112 June 18, 1956
SUWANNEE RIVER BASIN
261 Suwannee River at White _
Springs. Fla. 1906-08, 1927-8 c 1.990 4.8 Nov. 15. 1931 7.5 June 24-26, 1955
265 Withlacoochee River near
Pinetta, Fla. 1931-58 b 2,220 70 Aur. 23. 1955 70 Aug. 23, 1955
267 Suwanne River at Ellaville,
Fla. 1927-58 b 6.580 882 July 17, 1955 882 July 17, 1955
27"T Suwannee River at Branford,
S Fla. 1931-58 b 7.090 1.530 July 1, 2, 1955 1,530 July 1. 2. 1955
277; New River near Lake Butler, Several days in Several days in
Fla. 1950-58 212 0.2 June 1955 0.2 June 1955
278 Santa Fe River at Worthing-
S ton. Fla.: 1931-58 b 630 0.5 June 24, 1955 0.5 June 24,1955
279 Santa Fe River near High Apr. 28 to Apr. 28 to
S Springs, Fla. 1931-58 b 950 31 May 5, 1956 31 May 5, 1956
281 anta Fe River near Fort
White. Fla. 1927-30. 932-58 b 1.00 609 May 22. 1957 625 July 1, 1956
S2856 Suwannee River near Bell,
Fla. 1932-56 b 9,260 2.460 Jan. 10, 11. 1956 2,460 Jan. 10, 11, 1956
287 Swannee River near Wilcox, Dec. 7, 1955;
Fla. 1980-31. 1951-58 a 9,500 (x)d 3.340 Jan. 6.1956;


: ::


;





STEINHATCHEE RIVER
BASIN


293 Steinhatchee River near Cross 2 .
;i, City. Fla. 1950-58 b 360 3.4 June 27,28.1950 3.6 Jan. 16.1956
S FENHOLLOWAY RIVER
295 Fenholloway River near -
: i Foley. Fla. 1955-58 a 70 ___ 1.9 June 9. 1956 1.9 June 9, 1956
298 : Feniholloway River at ( .:
28 i'Fe: oleyv. Fla.I 1946-5Q a 80 5.1 Oct. 15. 3951. 9.2 Dee. 26. 1955
ECONFINA RIVER BASIN
o802I *' Econfina River near Perry,
E::. Fla. neae. 195n-58 b 230 2.3 July 8. 1955 2. July 8. 1955
r : AUCILLA RIVER BASIN
8 Fla. 1950-58 b 680 0 1955, 1957 0 1955.
ST. MARKS RIVER BASIN
'317 St. Marks River near New-
`port. Fla. 1956-58 b 220 8325 Mar. 17, 1957 (v) -
-/: OCHLOCKONEE RIVER
'BASIN
320 Ochlockonee River near Oct. 238-28, Nov. Oct. 23-28, Nov.
: Havana, Fla. 1926-58 b 1,020 17 1, 1954 17 1. 1954
322 Little River near Ouinev. Fla. I 950-5~ b 250 6.8 June 9, 1956 6.8 June 9, 1956
324 Ochlockonee River near b ,, Z
Bloxham. Fla. 1926-58 b 1.660 (z) 39 Nov. 28, 1955
825 Telogia Creek near Bristol, Sept. 14, Oct. Sept. 14, Oct.
I Fla. 1950-58 b 130 28 26, 27, 1954 28 26, 27, 1954


I


0
Z:''
W






TA.bL 2. (Continued)

Drainage i onuMinimum Flow
Map Period of area Period of record 1954.56 drought
No. Gaging Station Record (sq. mi.) Flow Date Flow Date

APALACHICOLA RIVER
BASIN
327 Apalachicola River at
Chattahoochee, Fla. 1928-58 b 17,100 4,950 Oct. 27. 1954 4,950 Oct. 27, 1954
329 Chinola River near Altha, 1912-13; 1921-27; I Nov. 17, 18, Nov. 17, 18,
Fla. 1929-31; 194-358 1 781 356 19,. 1955.. 856 19, 1955
BEAR CREEK BASIN
380 Econfina Creek near Bennett,
S Fla. 1985-58 182 307 Jan. 9, 1956 307 Jan. 9, 1956
CHOCTAWHATCHEE
RIVER BASIN
331 Choctawhatchee River at
Caryville, Fla. 1929-58 3.499 752 Sept. 4, 1957 775 Sept. 19. 1956
8332 Holmes Creek at Vernon, Fla. 1950-58 386 234 July 8, 1955 234 July 8, 1955
333 Choctawhatchee River near
Bruce. Fla. 1930-58 4,384 1,480 Oct. 9. 1954 1,480 Oct. 9, 1954
ALAQUA CREEK BASIN
884 Alaqua Creek near DeFuniak I June 9, 21, 22, June 9, 21, 22,
Springs, Fla. 1951-58 65.6 27 30, July 1, 1955 27 30, July 1. 1955
YELLOW RIVER BASIN
" 5 Yellow River at Milligan,
835 FYlalowRir a 1938-58 624 143 Oct. 25, 1954 143 Oct. 25. 1954
386 Shoal River near Mossy Head,
.Fla. 1951-58 123 42 June 9. 1956 42 June 9, 1956







337 Shoal River near Crestview, M i.. 1a9
Fla. 1938-58 I 474 263 May 13. 14. 1955 263 May18.14.1956


SBLACKWATER RIVER
BASIN
338i8 Blackwater River near Baker,
.:.,Fla. 1950-58 205 60 Sept. 7. 8. 1954 60 Sept. 7. 8. 1954
389 Big Coldwater Creek near
S Milton; :Fla.. 1938-58 237 156 June 10. 11. 1956 156 June 10. 11. 1956
ESCAMBIA RIVER BASIN
340 Esdambia River near Centiry, Sept. 15, Oct. 20, Sept. 15, Oct. 20,
S :: : Fla.'.: A 1984-58 3,817 600 21, 1954 600 21. 1954
341 :Pine Barren Creek near
; P : e Barth, CFla.r 1952-58 75.3 51 June 8. 9. 1956 51 June 8. 9. 1956
PERDIDO RIVER BASIN
342 Perdido River at Barrineau Sept. 15 194 207 Seut. 15 1954
Park, Fla. 1941-58 394 207 Sept. 15, 1954 207 Sept. 15, 1954
a "Abou, n Includes area drained by Lakes Weohyakapka and Marian.


l Approximately.
c Includes part of watershed in Okeefenokee Swamp which is
indeterminate.
d Daily.
e Flow occasionally reversed by wind.
f Discharge measurements only.
g Flow occasionally reversed by high tide during periods of low
S flow.
h Caused by placement of a coffer dam upstream.
i Regulated by Moss Bluff dam.
J Excludes area drained by Brick Lake.
k Includes part of watershed in Reedy Creek Swamp which is
indeterminate.
1 Includes area drained by Brick Lake.
m Includes Cypress-Kissimmee overflow.


p Excludes area drained by Lake Weohyakapka and includes area
drained by Lake Sebring.
q Excludes area drained by Lake Sebring.
r No flow except leakage through closed locks; estimated to be less
than 10 cfs.
s Maximum daily flow toward Lake Okeechobee; normal direction of
flow is away from Lake Okeechobee.
t Estimated.
u Not determined; station discontinued in November 1954.
v Not determined; station established in August 1956.
w Slight regulation by pumpage above station.
x Fragmentary records; low-water records not computed.
y Not determined; station established in October 1956.
z Indeterminate prior to 1954.


cI3







TAsts 3, Low-Flow Meafurements Made at PaItial-Itecord Gaging StationM During the 10511 Drought

Drainage Dim-
Map area charge
No. Stream Tributary to Location (sq. mi.) Date (cfs)

ST. MARYS RIVER BASIN
3 Cedar Creek St. Marys River in NW% see. 10, T. 2 8., R. 21 E., at bridge
on State Highway 125, 5 miles northwest
of Glen St. Mary 61 Apr. 18 2.71
8 St. Marys River Atlantic Ocean in SW % see. 4, T. 1 N., R. 23 E., at bridge
on county road, 2 miles east of St. George 920 Apr. 18 88.5
9 Little St. Marys St. Marys River in middle of sec. 2, T. 3 N., R. 25 E., at
River bridge on county road at Lessie, 1% miles
above Wilder Creek, and 8% miles east of
_illiard. 39.6 Apr. 19 0
10 Wilder Creek Little St. Marys in S% see. 35, T. 4 N., R. 25 E., at bridge on
River county road at Lessie, 1% miles above
I I___mouth, and 8% miles east of Hilliard. 7.32 Apr. 19 0


NASSAU RIVER BASIN


in SE 4 sec. 3, T. 1 S., R. 24 E., 8% miles
east of Verdie and 5 miles south of Craw-
ford.


Apr. 19 < .01


in NE%4 see. 15, T. 1 N., R. 25 E., at bridge
on U. S. Highway 1, 5 miles southeast of
Callahan. 46.1 Apr. 18 0

ST. JOHNS RIVER BASIN


0
0


N


-~----







15 Unnamed Fort Drum Creek in NWI sec. 23, T. 34 S., R. 35 E., at bridge
tributary on U. S. Highway 441, 1.4 miles south of
_Fort Drum. May 1 0
16 Fort Drum Creek St. Johns Marsh in NE%4 sec. 14, T. 34 S., R. 35 E., at bridge
on county road, 0.6 mile southeast of
Fort Drum. May 1 0
17 Unnamed Fort Drum Creek in NE see. 10, T. 34 S., R. 35 E., at bridge
tributary on U. S. Highway 441, 0.6 mile north of
Fort Drum. May 1 0
18 Fort Drum Creek St. Johns Marsh in sec. 2, T. 34 S., R. 35 E., at Bear Island
fords on private road, 1.5 miles north of
_Fort Drum. May 1 0
19 Sweetwater Fort Drum Creek in SW/ sec. 28, T. 33 S., R. 35 E., at bridge
Branch on U. S. Highway 441, 3.4 miles northwest
of Fort Drum. May 1 0
20 Sweetwater Fort Drum Creek in NW% sec. 34, T. 33 S., R. 35 E., at bridge
Branch on private road, 2.8 miles north of Fort
Drum. May 1 .44
21 Boggy Branch Sweetwater Branch in NW%4 sec. 3, T. 34 S., R. 35 E., at bridge
on U. S. Highway 441, 1.8 miles northwest
_of Fort Drum. May 1 0
22 Jim Green Creek Fort Drum Creek in SEY see. 22, T. 33 S., R. 35 E., at ford
on private road, 4.3 miles north of Fort
Drum. May 1 0
28 Padgett Branch Blue Cypress Lake in NW% sec. 26, T. 32 S., R. 835 E., at bridge
on State Highway 60, 6.7 miles southeast
of Yeehaw Junction. Apr. 24 0
24 Blue Cypress Blue Cypress Lake in NWY sec. 36, T. 31 S., R. 34 E., at Big
Creek Lolly Bridge on county road, 3.3 miles
north of Yeehaw Junction. Apr. 24 0


Cow Log Branch


Blue Cypress Creek


in SE1% sec. 18, T. 32 S., R. 34 E., at t
on State Highway 60, 1.6 miles soul
of Yeehaw Junction.


bridge
;heast
Apr. 24 0


---






TAIsLE 3. (Continued)

Drainage Dia.
Map area charge
No. Stream Tributary to Location (sq. mi.) Date (cfs)
28 Pennywash Creek St. Johns River in NW%' sec. 35, T. 20 S., R. 34 E., at bridge
on county road, 61% miles north of Deer
Park. 17.2 Apr. 26 t.06
30 St. Johns River Atlantic Ocean in NE% sec. 25, T. 24 S., R. 34 E., at bridge
on State Highway 520, at outlet of Lake
Poinsett, and 10% miles west of Cocoa. 1,237 Apr. 24 *93.3
31 Taylor Creek St. Johns River in SW% sec. 33, T. 24 S., R. 34 E., at bridge
on county road, 3% miles above mouth
and 10% miles west of Cocoa. 52.2 Apr. 23 0
32 Jim Creek St. Johns River in SE% sec. 36, T. 23 S., R. 33 E., at bridge
on county road, 7% miles southeast of
Christmas. 23.0 Apr. 23 0
34 Econlockhatchee St. Johns River in NEk sec. 13, T. 22 S., R. 31 E., at bridge
River on State Highway 420, 9% miles north-
west of Christmas. Apr. 25 t.15
35 Little Econlockhatchee in NW% sec. 4, T. 22 S., R. 31 E., at bridge
Econlockhatchee River on Iron Bridge Roasi, 4 miles south of
River Oviedo and 10 miles east of Orlando Apr. 27 13.7
37 St. Johns River Atlantic Ocean in NE% sec. 32, T. 20 S., R. 33 E., at bridge
on State Highway 46, 1 mile above Lake
Harney, and 5% miles southeast of Geneva. 1,910 June 6 *72.0
38 Deep Creek St. Johns River on line between sec. 12 and 13, T. 19 S., R.
Canal 32 E., at bridge on State Highway 410
5% miles east of Osteen. Apr. 25 .38
39 Cow Creek Deep Creek in SW % sec. 16, T. 19 S., R. 33 E., at bridge
on county road, 2 miles above mouth and
__8 miles east of Osteen. Apr. 25 0
40 Little Canal St. Johns River at corner of sec. 10, 11, 14, 15, T. 19 S., R. 32
E., at bridge on State Highway 410, 3%
miles east of Osteen. Apr. 25 t.3







41 St. Johns River Atlantic Ocean in sec. 16, T. 19 S., R. 30 E.. at bridge on
U. S. Highways 17 and 92, near down-
stream end of Lake Monroe, and 4 miles
northwest of Sanford. 2,420 June 6 *0
42 Wekiwa Springs Wekiva River at corner of sec. 25, 36, 30, 31, T. 20 S., R.
28 and 29 E., at headwater of Wekiva
__River, 3% miles northeast of Apopka. Apr. 27 62.0
43 Rock Springs Rock Springs Run on line between sec. 10 and 15, T. 20 S., R.
28 E., 8 miles above Wekiva River, and 6
miles north of Apopka.' Apr. 26 54.7
44 Sanlando Springs Little Wekiva on line between sec. 2 and 3, T. 21 S., R. 29
River E., on east bank of Little Wekiva River,
3 miles west of Longwood. Apr. 27 13.9
45 Palm Springs Little Wekiva on line between sec. 2 and 3, T. 21 S., R. 29
River E., on east bank of Little Wekiva River, 3
miles west of Longwood. Apr. 27 8.91
47 Blackwater Creek St. Johns River in SW% sec. 35, T. 18 S., R. 28 E., at bridge
on State Highway 44, 1% miles southwest
of Cassia. Apr. 26 5.94
48 Blue Spring St. Johns River in sec. 8, T. 18 S., R. 30 E., 800 feet up-
stream from St. Johns River, a quarter of
a mile downstream from head of spring,
and 21/2 miles west of Orange City. Nov. 29 '125
50 Alexander Alexander in Levy Land Grant, T. 16 S., R. 27 E., 1 A/
Springs Spring Creek miles above bridge on State Highway 445,
and 6 miles southwest of Astor. Apr. 23 136
51 Ponce de Leon Spring Garden in sec. 2, T. 16 S., R. 29 E., %Y mile west of
Springs Lake De Leon Springs, and 8% miles northwest
of DeLand. Apr. 18 23.4
52 Juniper Juniper Creek in sec. 17, T. 15 S., R. 26 E., 10 miles west
Springs of Astor, and 27 miles east of Ocala. Apr. 23 9.66
53 The Aquarium Juniper Creek in sec. 17, T. 15 S., R. 26 E., 10 miles west
of Astor, and 27 miles east of Ocala. Apr. 23 11.6


*Minimum of measured
fField estimate.


discharges at monthly intervals.







TAULE 3. (Continued)

Drainage Did.
Map area charge
No. Stream Tributary to Location (sq. mi.) Date (cfs)
54 Silver Glen Lake George in SE4 sec. 25, T. 15 S., R. 27 E., 9 miles
S Springs northwest of Astor. Apr. 24 108
55 Salt Springs Salt Spring Creek in Jos. Hernandez Grant, T. 13 S., R. 26 E.,
near town of Lake Kerr, 28 miles north-
east of Ocala. Apr. 24 79,9
56 Big Creek Lake Louisa in NWV4 sec. 32, T. 23 S., R. 26t E., 1 mile
above Lake Louisa, and 7/m miles south of
Clermont. 67 May 4 5.05
57 Little Creek Lake Louisa in NE % sec. 25, T. 23 S., R. 25 E., at bridge
on county road % mile above Lake Louisa,
and 6 1 miles south of Clermont. 15 May 4 0
61 Palatlakaha Lake Harris in sec. 26, T. 20 S., R. 24 E., at bridge 2 miles
Creek southeast of Okahumpka, and 4 miles
above mouth. Sept. 4 *.01
62 Bugg Spring Lake Markham on line between sec. 10 and 15, T. 20 S., R.
24 E., at Okahumpka. Apr. 26 10.3
63 Unnamed Spring Lake Harris in SW1A sec. 16, T. 20 S., R. 25 E., at south
edge of Lake Harris, and V4 mile north of
Yalaha. Apr. 30 3.59
65 Oklawaha River St. Johns River in sec. 22 or 23, T. 16 S., R. 24 E., at bridge
on State Highway 464, and 0.4 miles
_____________southwest of Moss Bluff. 910 Apr. 26 17.8
69 Hatchet Creek Newnans Lake in SW% sec. 22, T. 9 S., R. 21 E., at bridge
on State Highway 26, 8 miles northeast of
Gainesville. 57 Avr. 24 .54
70 Little Hatchet Newnans Lake in SW% see. 29, T. 9 S., R. 21 E., at bridge
Creek on State Highway 26, 6 miles northeast
of Gainesville. 10.9 Apr. 24 0
71 Prairie Creek Camps Canal in NW% sec. 19, T. 10 S., R. 21 E., at bridge
on State Highway 20, 5% miles southeast
of Gainesville. 111 Apr. 23 .37






73 Lochloosa Creek Lake Lochloosa in NE%4 sec. 30, T. 10 S., R. 22 E., at bridge
on State Highway 20, 1 mile east of Grove
Park. 34.7 Apr. 28 0
74 Magnesia Springs Lochloosa Creek in NW% sec. 31, T. 10 S., R. 22 E., 3% miles
______west of Hawthorne. Apr. 23 ..02
78 Little Orange Orange Creek in NW1% sec. 19, T. 11 S., R. 24 E., at bridge
Creek on State Highway 315, 1% miles north of
Orange Springs. 78.9 Apr. 24 3.77
79 Bruntbridge Brook Oklawaha River in SE4. sec. 15, T. 11 S., R. 24 E., at bridge
on State Highway 815, 4 miles northeast
of Orange Springs. 4.63 Apr. 24 0
80 Deep Creek Oklawaha River in NW% sec. 18, T. 11 S., R. 25 E., at bridge
on State Highway 310, 7 miles northeast
of Orange Springs. 54.3 Apr. 24 40.3
82 Nashua Spring St. Johns River in NEY% sec. 28, T. 11 S., R. 26 E., on east
bank of St. Johns River at Nashua, 2%
miles south of Satsuma. Apr. 19 0
83 Unnamed Spring St. Johns River in SE% sec. 21, T. 11 S., R. 26 E., on east
bank of St. Johns River at Nashua 2%
miles south of Satsuma. ._Apr. 19 2.49
84 Black Branch Haw Creek in NE% sec. 21, T. 12 S., R. 30 E., at bridge
on State Highway 11, 1% miles south-
west of Bunnell. Apr. 18 0
85 Sweetwater Haw Creek. in NW14 sec. 32, T. 12 S., R. 30 E., at bridge
Branch on State Highway 11, 4 miles south-
west of Bunnell. Apr. 18 0
86 Haw Creek Crescent Lake on line between sec. 2 and 3, T. 13 S., R. 29
E., at bridge on State Highway 305, 7%1
miles southwest of Bunnell. Apr. 18 0
87 Middle Haw Creek Haw Creek in middle of sec. 19, T. 13 S., R. 30 E., at
bridge on State Highway 11, 8 miles south
of Bunnell. Apr. 18 0

*Minimum of measured discharges at monthly intervals.






TABLE 3. (Continued)

Drainage Dis.
MaP area charge
No, Stream Tributary to Location (sq. mi.) Date (eCa)
88 Middle Haw Creek Haw Creek on line between sec. 10 and 11, T. 13 S., R.
20 E., at bridge on State Highway 305, 8
miles southwest of Bunnell. Apr. 18 0
90 Magnolia Lake Lake Brooklyn in sec. 8, T. 8 S., R. 23 E., 2 miles north
Outlet of Keystone Heights. 14.8 Apr. 20 0
91 Etonia Creek Rice Creek in SE % see. 2, T. 9 S., R. 25 E., at bridge
on county road, 11/2 miles east of Flora-
home. Apr. 20 2.82
92 Etonia Creek Rice Creek in NW% sec. 17, T. 9 S., R. 26 E., at bridge
on State Highway 809, 6% miles north-
west of Palatka. Apr. 20 10.1
93 Simms Creek Etonia Creek on line between sec. 33, T. 7 S., and see. 4,
T. 8 S., R. 26 E., at bridge on State High-
way 214, 11% miles east of Sun Garden,
_and 6 miles northwest of Bostwick. 6.89 Apr. 24 0
94 Unnamed Branch Palmetto Branch in SWA sec. 15, T. 9 S., R. 25 E., at bridge
on State Highway 100, %A mile northwest
of Carraway and 10 miles northwest of
Palatka. 1.81 Apr. 19 .25
95 Rice Creek St. Johns River in see. 29, T. 9 S., R. 26 E., at bridge on
State Highway 100, 3 miles southeast of
Carraway, and 7 miles northwest of Pa-
latka. 42.8 Apr. 19 2.53
96 Unnamed Branch Rice Creek in SE '% sec. 33, T. 9 S., R. 26 E., at bridge
on State Highway 100, % mile northwest
of junction with State Highway 216, and
4 miles northwest of Palatka. 1.97 Apr. 19 0
97 Sixmile Creek St. Johns River in SW% sec. 4, T. 7 S., R. 28 E., at bridge
on State Highway 13A, at Bakersville,
10% miles west of St. Augustine. 45.7 May 23 .62







98 Green Cove St. Johns River in sec. 38, T. 6 S., R. 26 E., at side of U. S.
Springs Highway 17 in Green Cove Springs. Apr. 25 2.74
99 Governors Creek St. Johns River on line between sec. 9 and 16, T. 6 S., R. 26
E., at bridge on U. S. Highway 16, 1 mile
west of Green Cove Springs. 10.5 May 23 2.29
100 South Fork Black Creek on line between sec. 27 and 28, T. 6 S., R.
Black Creek 24 E., at bridge on State Highway 21, 6
__miles southwest of Penney Farms. 34.8 Apr. 20 9.46
102 North Fork Black Creek on line between sec. 11 and 14, T. 6 S., R.
Black Creek 23 E., at bridge on State Highway 16,
8% miles southwest of Middleburg. 9.17 Apr. 20 .385
108 Yellow Water Black Creek on line between sec. 32, T. 3 S., and sec. 5,
Creek T. 4 S., R. 24 E., on county road at Duval-
Clay county line, 5% miles east of Max-
ville. 61.2 Apr. 19 3.07
105 Durbin Creek Julington Creek in NEA sec. 6, T. 5 S., R. 28 E., at bridge
on county road 5 miles northwest of Dur-
bin. 26.9 May 23 0
106 Wadesboro Spring Doctors Lake in sec. 25, T. 4 S., R. 26 E., 0.9 miles south-
west of Orange Park. Apr. 20 .71
107 McGirts Creek Ortega River on line between sec. 10 and 15, T. 3 S., R.
25 E., at bridge on Jacksonville Heights
Road. 5 miles southwest of .TackRonville. 27.8 Apr. 19 1.09
PELLICER CREEK BASIN
109 Pellicer Creek Matanzas River in sec. 47, T. 10 S., R. 80 E., at F.E.C. rail-
road bridge, at Flagler-St. Johns county
_Iline, and 10 miles north of Esnanola. 34.4 May 24 2.19
TOMOKA RIVER BASIN.
110 Tomoka River Halifax River in SW% sec. 27, T. 15 S., R. 32 E., at bridge
on U. S. Highway 92, 5% miles west of
I_ Daytona Beach. Apr. 18 0
111 Little Tomoka Tomoka River in NW14 sec. 34, T. 14 S., R. 31 E., at bridge
River on Tomoka Ave., 8 miles northwest of
Daytona Beach. Apr. 19 0






TAULla i. (Contiilued)

Drainage DiN.
Map area charge
No, Stream Tributary to Location (sq, mi.,) Date (cfa)
INDIAN RIVER BASIN
112.1 Ellis Canal Indian River in Delespine Grant, at bridge 1 mile above
Indian River, and 11/ miles south of In.
dian River City. June 4 *1.15
118 Goat Creek Indian River in NW% see. 18, T. 29 S., R. 38 E., at bridge
on county road, 1 % miles west of Val-
_______ _karia, and 2 miles above Indian River. 12.0 June 6 *t.8
119 South Prong Sebastian Creek in SWY sec. 28, T. 81 S., R. 38 E., at bridge
Sebastian Creek on State Highway 512, 4 miles southwest
________ of Sebastian._ June 6 *9.86
120 North Prong Sebastian Creek in Fleming Grant, at bridge on county road,
Sebastian Creek 214 miles southwest of Micco, and 2.1
miles above Sebastian Creek. 56.0 Mar. 15 *6.44
LAKE OKEECHOBEE AND THE
EVERGLADES
180 Brick-Alligator Alligator Lake in SW seec. 84, T. 26 S., R. 31 E., at bridge
Canal on State Highway 534, 5 miles southeast
of Ashton, and 7 miles southeast of St.
_Cloud. Apr. 12 *t.8
182 Lizzie-Lost Lake Lost in sec. 2, T. 26 S., R. 31 E., at bridge on
Canal north side of Lake Lizzie, 3 miles
northeast of Ashton, and 4 miles south-
east of Narcoossee. 31.5 July 16 *0
188.1 Mary Jane-Hart Lake Hart in sec. 23, T. 24 S., R. 31 E., at bridge just be-
Canal low Lake Mary Jane and 6% miles north-
_____ east of Narcoossee. 124 May 22 *14.5
185 Ajay-East East Tohopekaliga in sec. 4, T.. 25 S., R. 81 E., at bridge on
Tohopekaliga Lake State Highway 15, 3 miles north of Nar- May 21 *+2.8
Canal coossee. 171 July 6 *t2.8





--~-


in NW%4 sec. 14, T. 30 S., R. 29 E., at bridge
on State Highway 60, 11.8 miles east of
Lake Wales.
in SE% sec. 20, T. 31 S., R. 29 E., at cul-
verts on State Highway 630, 5.7 miles east
of Frostproof.


74.7


on line between sec. 4 and 33, T. 24. S., R. 80
E., at bridge on State Highway 580, 6
miles northeast of Kissimmee.
in SW1A sec. 32, T. 25 S., R. 29 E., at bridge
on State Highway 531, 2% miles south-
west of Kissimmee.


96.8


IMPERIAL RIVER BASIN
180 Imperial River Gulf of Mexico in sec. 36, T. 47 S., R. 25 E., 1 miles east
of Bonita Springs. Apr. 25 .92

MULOCK CREEK BASIN
181 Line-A Canal Mulock Creek in sec. 6, T. 46 S., R. 25 E., mile above
U. S. Highway 41 and 9. miles south of
Fort Myers. Aur. 24 0
CALOOSAHATCHEE RIVER BASIN
184 Orange River Caloosahatchee in sec. 9, T. 44 S., R. 26 E., 1 % miles south-
River east of Buckingham and 8 miles northeast
_of Fort Myers. Apr. 25 0
PEACE RIVER BASIN
189 Kissengen Spring Peace River in sec. 28, T. 30 S., R. 25 E., 41A miles south- Jan. 18
east of Bartow. to
S____Dec. 12 *0
190 Bowlegs Creek Peace River in sec. 2, T. 32\ S., R. 25 E., at bridge on
county road, 2 miles southeast of Fort
Made. Apr. 25 3.68


*Minimum of measured
tField estimate.


discharges at monthly intervals.


Apr. 24


Apr. 24


*.78


12.5

.07


z
.o


July 9

May 19


*t.02


182







TAnL. 3. (Continued)

Drainage Dis.
Map area charge
No, Stream Tributary to Location (sq. mi.) Date (efa)
191 Whidden Creek Peace River in sec. 10. T, 82 S., R. 25 E., at bridge on
U. S. Highway 17, 8 miles south of Fort
Meade. Apr. 25 8.99
192 Paynes Creek Peace River in sec. 8, T. 38 S., R. 25 E., at bridge on
U. S. Highway 17, 1% miles south of
Bowling Green. Apr. 25 1.47
195 Charlie Creek Peace River in sec. 82, T. 33 S., R. 27 E., at bridge on
State Highway 64, 8 1/ miles west of Avon
Park. Apr. 25 0
198 Joshua Creek Peace River in sec. 17, T. 88 S., R. 25 E., at bridge on
State Highway 81, 8 miles southeast of
Arcadia. Apr. 25 0
200 Hawthorne Branch Joshua Creek in sec. 24, T. 88 S., R. 24 E., at bridge on
State Highway 760, 1% miles east of
Nocatee. Apr. 25 t.08
201 Horse Creek Peace River in sec. 20, T. 883 S., R. 28 E., at bridge on
State Highway 62, 5 % miles west of Fort
Green Springs. Apr. 24 0
203 Prairie Creek Peace River in sec. 26, T. 89 S., R. 25 E., at bridge on
State Highway 81, 9% miles southeast of
Nocatee. AApr. 25 0
MYAKKA RIVER BASIN
204 Wingate Creek Myakka River in sec. 6, T. 35 S., R. 22 E., at bridge on
State Highway 64, 8 miles north of
Myakka City. Apr. 24 t0.05
205 Myakka River Upper Myakka in sec. 18, T. 36 S., R. 21 E., at bridge on
Lake State Highway 70, % mile east of Myakka
City. A____ pr. 24 0
208 Warm Salt Spring Salt Creek in sec. 24, T. 89 S., R. 20 E., at outlet, 8
Warm Sl miles northwest of Murdock. Apr. 24 9.58







209 Little Salt Spring Big Slough Canal in sec. 20, T. 39 S., R. 21 E., at outlet 8 I
miles northwest of. Murdock. Apr. 24 1.22

SHAKETT CREEK BASIN
210 Gum Slough Cow Pen Slough in sec. 24, T. 36 S., R. 19 E., at bridge on
State Highway 780, 11% miles east of
Sarasota. Apr. 24 0

UNNAMED CREEK BASIN
211 Pinehurst Spring Unnamed creek in SW%4 sec. 21, T. 37 S., R. 18 E., at outlet
7 miles south of Sarasota. Apr. 24 < .01

MANATEE RIVER BASIN
212 Manatee River Gulf of Mexico in sec. 29, T. 83 S., R. 22 E., at bridge on
State Highway 62, 11 miles west of Fort
Green Springs. Apr. 24 0
218 Manatee River Gulf of Mexico in sec. 4, T. 35 S., R. 21 E., at bridge on
State Highway 64, 9 miles north of My-
akka City. Apr. 24 1.06

ALAFIA RIVER BASIN

217 Lake Drain North Prong in SE% sec. 14, T. 29 S., R. 23 E., at culvert
Alafia River on county road 0.6 mile south of Medulla. Apr. 25 0
219 South Prong Alafia River in sec. 22, T. 31 S., R. 23 E., at bridge on
Alafia River State Highway 37, 2 miles south of Brad-
ley Junction. Apr. 25 t.05
220 South Prong Alafia River in sec. 28, T. 30 S., R. 22 E., at bridge on
Alafia River county road, 2 miles southwest of Keys-
ville. Apr. 25 2.93
222 Lithia Springs Alafia River in sec. 20, T. 30 S., R. 21 E., at outlet 3
miles west of Lithia. Apr. 25 39.7


*Minimum of measured
tField estimate.


discharges at monthly intervals.






TAaun 8, (Continued)

Drainage DisN
Map area charge
No. Stream Tributary to Location (sq, mi.) Date (cfa)
PALM RIVER BASIN
224 Eureka Springs Sixmile Creek in see. 81, T. 28 S., R. 20 E., 8 miles east of
I -[ Tampa. May 1 1.02
HILLSBOROUGH RIVER BASIN
226 Crystal Springs Hillsborough in see. 385, T. 26 S., R. 21 E., mile down-
River stream from Crystal Springs, 1% miles
west of village of Crystal Springs and 3
miles south of Zephyrhills. June 25 *44.0
231 Cypress Creek Hillsborough in NE% see. 4, T. 28 S., R. 19 E., at bridge May 2 0
River on Skipper Ave. Extension, 4% miles Aug. 28 0
northeast of Sulphur Springs. Sept. 26 0
234 Purity Springs Hillsborough in NW% see. 25, T. 28 S., R. 18-E., on-the
River n o r th bank of Hillsborough River at
Tampa. May 1 t1.2
235 Sulphur Springs Hillsborough in NEA sec. 25, T. 28 S., R. 18 E., at swim-
River ming pool 100 feet west of U. S. Highway
41 in Sulphur Springs and 500 feet up-
3 stream from Hillsborough River. May 1 *34.6
236 Palma Ceia Hillsborough on line between sec. 27 and 34, T. 29 S., R. 18
Springs River E., at Tampa. May 2 .49
HEALTH SPRINGS BASIN
240.8 Health Springs Gulf of Mexico in SE% sec. 26, T. 27 S., R. 15 E., at Wall
Springs, 3 miles south of Tarvon Snrines. May 2 t1.5
ANCLOTE RIVER BASIN
240.4 Seven Springs Anclote River in NW%4 sec. 24, T. 26 S., R. 16 E., on south
bank of Anclote River, near bridge on
State Highway 54, 3% miles east of El-
fers. May 3 < .01






PITHLACHASCOTEE RIVER BASIN _
241 Pithlachascotee Gulf of Mexico in NW%4 sec. 1, T. 26 S., R. 16 E., 3% miles
River east of New Port Richey. 149 May 3 .88

WEEKIWACHEE RIVER BASIN
243 Weekiwachee Weekiwachee in sec. 2, T. 23 S., R. 17 E., at pool at head
Springs River of Weekiwachee River, 12 miles south-
west of Brooksville. July 24 *101

CHASSAHOWITZKA RIVER BASIN
244 Chassahowitzka Chassahowitzka in SW% sec. 26, T. 20 S., R. 17 E., at head
Springs River of Chassahowitzka River, 61 miles south
of Homosassa. May 1 112

HOMOSASSA RIVER BASIN
245 Homosassa Homosassa in sec. 28, T. 19 S., R. 17 E., at head of
Springs River Homosassa River at town of Homosassa
Springs, 2 miles northeast of Homosassa. May 1 144

WITHLACOOCHEE RIVER BASIN
247 Withlacoochee Gulf of Mexico on line between sec. 28 and 33, T. 24 S., R.
River 25 E., at bridge on State Highway 33,
2% miles north of Eva, and 12% miles
north of Polk City. May 1 .54
248 Withlacoochee Gulf of Mexico in NE1 sec. 17, T. 24 S., R. 25 E., at cul-
River overflow vert on State Highway 33, 2.7 miles north
channel of main channel. May 4 10.4
251 Fenney Springs Panasoffkee River on line between sec. 31 and 32, T. 19 S., R.
1 23 E., 2 miles east of Coleman. Apr. 26 4.66


*Minimum of measured
tField estimate.


discharges at monthly intervals.







TABLIS 3, (Continued)


Location


NWI/4 sec. 12 l u ., K. 22 E., at bridge
on U. S. Highway 301, 2 miles south of
Coleman.


at corner of sec. 25, 386, 80, and 31, T. 19 S.,
on line between R. 21 E. and R. 22 E., at
bridge on State Highway 470, 5 miles west
of Coleman.


Drainage
area
(sq. mi.)


Date


Apr. 26


Apr. 26


Dis-
charge
Wcar


10.1


55.5


2655 Rainbow Springs Withlacoochee in sec. 12, T. 16 S., R. 18 E., 4 miles north-
River east of Dunnellon. I July 26 *504
WACCASASSA RIVER BASIN
256 Glen Springs Hogtown Creek in SW'% sec. 30, T. 9 S., R. 20 E., 2 miles
__northwest of Gainesville. Apr. 24 0.36
257 Waccasassa River Waccasassa Bay in sec. 17, T. 13 S., R. 16 E., at bridge on
State Highway 24, 2% miles northeast of
village of Otter Creek. May 2 10.6
258 Wekiva Springs Wekiva River in SW% sec. 7, T. 14 S., R. 17 E., 4% miles
east of Gulf Hammock. May 1 34.7
259 Otter Creek Waccasassa River in sec. 26, T. 13 S., R. 15 E., at bridge on
State Highway 24, % mile southwest of
__ _________________ village of Otter Creek. May 2 0
SUWANNEE RIVER BASIN
260 Suwannee River Gulf of Mexico in NWA sec. 10, T. 1 N., R. 16 E., at bridge
on State Highway 6, 3% miles northwest
of Benton. IAnr. 24 114
261.1 White Springs Suwannee River in see. 7, T. 2 S., R. 16 E., on north bank of
Suwannee River, at town of White
Springs. Apr. 25 7.61
262 Suwannee Springs Suwannee River in NE% sec. 20, T. 1 S., R. 14 E., on south
bank of Suwannee River at town of Su-
wannee Springs, 1% miles east of Su-
wannee. Apr. 25 2.35


I J-


- .. .. 0 .1







263 Suwannee River Gulf of Mexico in SE% sec. 17, T. 1 S., R. 14 E., at bridge
on U. S. Highway 129 at town of Su-
wannee Springs, 1% miles east of Su-
wannee. Apr. 25 282
264 Alapaha River Suwannee River on line between sec. 5, T. 1 N., and sec. 32,
T. 2 N., R. 13 E., at bridge on U. S. High-
way 41, 5% miles west of Jasper. Apr. 24 119
266 Blue Spring Withlacoochee in sec. 20, T. 1 N., R. 11 E., on southwest
River bank of Withlacoochee River, 10 miles
east of Madison._ Apr. 24 77.8
268 Falmouth Springs Suwannee River in NE% sec. 32, T. 1 S., R. 12 E., at Fal-
mouth, 10 miles northwest of Live Oak. Apr. 24 0
269 Charles Spring Suwannee River in NW4 sec. 4, T. 4 S., R. 11 E., on north-
east bank of Suwannee River near Lura-
ville, 6 miles north of Mayo. Apr. 25 7.97
270 Suwannee River Gulf of Mexico in SE% sec. 25, T. 4 S., R. 11 E., at bridge
on State Highway 51 at Luraville, 3 miles
north of Mayo. Apr. 26 2,520
272 Branford Springs Suwannee River on line between sec. 16 and 21, T. 6 S., R.
14 E., on east bank of Suwannee River
at Branford. Apr. 26 8.52
273 Santa Fe River Suwannee River in sec. 36, T. 7 S., R. 21 E., at bridge on
U. S. Highway 301, 2% miles southwest
of Hampton. 115 Apr. 24 0
274 Alligator Creek Lake Rowell in NW% sec. 33, T. 6 S., R. 22 E., at bridge
on U. S. Highway 301, % mile south of
Starke. 24.3 Apr. 24 1.65
275 Santa Fe River Suwannee River on line between sec. 18 and 19, T. 7 S., R.
20 E., at bridge on State Highway 235,
__ mile south of Brooker. 245 Apr. 24 .59
276 Heilbronn Spring Water Oak Creek in NE % sec. 36, T. 5 S., R. 21 E., on the
south bank of Water Oak Creek, 6 miles
northwest of Starke. May 2 .03
*Minimum of measured discharges at monthly intervals.







TABLE 3, (Continued)

Drainage Dis-
Map area charm
No, Stream Tributary to Location ar (sqmi) Date ar(f)
278.1 Swift Creek Olustee Creek near center of sec, 16, T. 5 S., R. 10 E., at
bridge on State Highway 100, at Guilford,
5 miles northwest of town of Lake Butler. 27 May 2 1.82
278.2 Olustee Creek Santa Fe River in SW1A sec. 36, T. 5 S., R. 17 E., at bridge
on State Highway 238, % mile west of
Providence and 10 miles northeast of Fort
White. 88 May 2 0
280 Poe Springs Santa Fe River on line between sec. 5 and 6, T. 8 S., R. 17
E., on south bank of Santa Fe River, 3
miles west of High Springs. May 2 39.2
282 Ichatucknee Santa Fe River in sec. 28, T. 6 S., R. 15 E., on Ichatucknee
Springs River, at U. S. Highway 27, 1 mile east
of Hildreth, 2 miles upstream from mouth,
and 2% miles downstream from head of
springs. Jan. 28 *241
283 Santa Fe River Suwannee River on line between sec. 1 and 6, T. 7 S., R. 14
E., and R. 15 E., at bridge on State High-
way 49, 8 miles above mouth and 4 %
miles southwest of Hildreth. 1,440 Apr. 27 1,020
284 Rock Bluff Suwannee River in SW%1 sec. 9, T. 8 S., R. 14 E., on left
Spring bank of Suwannee River, 5 miles north- Apr. 19 25.0
west of Bell. Apr. 28 28.8
286 Hart Spring Suwannee River in NW%A sec. 30, T. 9 S., R. 14 E., near left
bank of Suwannee River, 5 miles north-
west of Wilcox. Apr. 27 58.6
288 Fanning Spring Suwannee River in NW% sec. 29, T. 10 S., R. 14 E., near left
bank of Suwannee River, 2 miles south-
____west of Wilcox. May 1 64.0
289 Manatee Spring Suwannee River in sec. 25, T. 11 S., R. 13 E., near left bank
of Suwannee River, 7 miles west of Chief-
land. Apr. 27 110
.............






STEINHATCHEE RIVER BASIN
290 Kettle Creek Steinhatchee near center of sec. 27, T. 7 S., R. 10 E., at
River bridge on State Highway 51, 3% miles
north of Clara, and 16 miles southwest of Apr. 16 0
Mayo. May 1 .57
291 Steinhatchee Gulf of Mexico in SE%4 sec. 27, T. 7 S., R. 10 E., just above
River Steinlatchee Springs, 3 miles north of
Clara, and 16 1 miles southwest of Mayo. May 28 1.45
292 Steinhatchee Steinhatchee in SE% sec. 27, T. 7 S., R. 10 E., near left
Spring River bank of Steinhatchee. River, 3 miles north
of Clara, and 16% miles southwest of
Mayo. May 28 .12
FENHOLLOWAY RIVER BASIN
294 Fenholloway Gulf of Mexico in SWY& sec. 29, T. 4 S., R. 9 E., 1 mile
River above U. S. Highway 27, and 5% miles
___northeast of Foley. Apr. 24 1.02
296 Fenholloway Gulf of Mexico in NE%, sec. 85, T. 4 S., R. 8 E., 1%, miles
River above county road at Fenhblloway, 3 miles
northeast of Foley. ____ Apr. 24 3.69
297 Fenholloway Gulf of Mexico near center of sec. 2, T. 5 S., R. 8 E., at
River bridge on county road at Fenholloway, 2/z
miles east of Foley. Apr. 24 4.06
299 Waldo Springs Fenholloway River in NE1% sec. 16, T. 5 S., R. 7 E., 5 miles
southwest of Perry. May 1 0
300 Hampton Springs Spring Creek in NE%1 sec. 6, T. 5 S., R. 7 E., at town
of Hampton Springs on left bank of
Spring Creek, 51/ miles southwest of
Perry. _May 3 .05
301 Spring Creek Fenholloway River in NE'/ sec. 6, T. 5 S., R. 7 E., just below
Hampton Springs, Y% mile below U. S.
Highway 98, and 5% miles southwest of
Perry. 470 May 1 49.0
1*Minimum of measured discharges at monthly intervals.






TAm uL (Continued)
Drainage Dia-
Map area charge
No, Stream Tributary to Location (sq, ml.) Date (cia)

AUCILLA RIVER BASIN
303 Gum Creek Aucllla River in SWI/& see. 21, T. 2 N., R. 7 E., at bridge
on U. S. Highway 221, 61/ miles north of
Greenville. __ May 2 0
804 Aucilla River Gulf of Mexico in NW1A sec. 16, T. 1 N., R. 6 E., at bridge
on U. S. Highway 90, 1% miles northeast Mar. 9 1.62
of Aucilla. ---__May 2 .68
805 Pettis Spring Aucilla River on line between sec. 27 and 28, T. 1 N., R.
6 E., 5 miles west of Greenville. ____ May 2 0
306 Wolf Creek Aucilla River in SE sec. 19, T. 1 N., R. 6 E., at bridge
on State Highway 257, % mile south of
Aucilla. May 2 0
807 Beasleys Creek Aucilla River in SE% sec. 15, T. 1 S., R. 5 E., at bridge
on State Highway 257, 1% miles north of
Lamont. May 2 0
309 Aucilla River Gulf of Mexico in NW% sec. 81, T. 2 S., R. 5 E., at bridge
on State Highway 257, 7%1 miles south of
Lamont. Mar. 9 50.0
310 Aucilla River Gulf of Mexico at corner of sec. 21, 22, 27 and 28, T. 3 S., R.<
4 E., at bridge on sand road, 5 miles north
of Scanlon, and 11/ miles south of Wa-
cissa. Mar. 9 58.1
811 Welaunee Creek Wacissa River in NW% see. 3, T. 2 S., R. 4 E., at bridge
on county road, 4 miles east of Wacissa. May 8 0
312 Aucilla River Gulf of Mexico in SWY% sec. 7, T. 4 S., R. 4 E., at bridge on
U. S. Highway 98, 4 miles west of Scan-
lon, and 18 miles east of Newport. May 2 48.6






LAKE MICCOSUKEE BASIN


on line between sec. 20 and
3 E., at bridge on State


29, T. 3 N., R.
Highway 59, 3


miles north of Miccosukee. I Apr. 23 0
NEU% sec. 2, R. 4 E., T. 2 N., at bridge
on county road, 41% miles north of Monti-
cello. Apr. 23 0


in SE% sec. 15, R. 3 E., T. 1 N., at bridge
on county road, % mile east of Lloyd.


IApr. 23


0


ST. MARKS RIVER BASIN
316 River Sink Wakulla River in sec. 28, T. 2 S., R. 1 W., in area known as
River Sink Precinct, 12 miles southwest
_of Tallahassee. Apr. 25 102
318 Wakulla Spring St. Marks River in sec. 11, T. 3 S., R. 1 W., 6 miles northeast
of Crawfordville, and 14 miles south of
Tallahassee. May 31 '109
SOPCHOPPY RIVER BASIN
819 Sopchoppy River Ochlockonee Bay in NWV% sec. 24, T. 4 S., R. 3 W., at bridge on
_county road 48% miles north of Sopchoppy. 104 Apr. 23 2.51
OCHLOCKONEE RIVER BASIN
321 Quincy Creek Little River in NW% sec. 8, R. 3 W., T. 2 N., at bridge
T__ on State Highway 12 at Quincy. Apr. 26 11.8
323 Rocky Comfort Lake Talquin in NE 1, see. 42 in Forbes Purchase at
Creek bridge on. State Highway 267, 7 miles
south of Quincy. Apr. 24 5.27
APALACHICOLA RIVER BASIN
328 Glen Julia South Mosquito in sec. 23, T. 3 N., R. 5 W., 1 mile southwest,
__ Springs Creek of Mount Pleasant. Apr. 24 .54
*Minimum of measured discharges at monthly intervals.


0
0.
-4


I

0
z
0


--






TA ua 4, Chemical Analysis of Surface Waters During the Drought in 1056
(Chemical analyses in parts per million)








1986
3 Cedar Creek near Macelenny, Fla...... April 18.. 2.71 3.9 0.05 11 4.0 5.0 0..6 52 1.0 8.0 0.0 0.3 60 44 2 110 6.6 25
8 St, Mary River near St. George, Ga.... April 18... 38.5 4.1 .27 0.6 4.1 6.1 .5 38 .5 11 .0 .0 55 41 10 106 6.4 85
11 Su.No-Wa Spring near Verdle, Fla...... April 1... <,01 7.1 .05 12 .5 3.5 .3 37 .5 6.0 .0 .1 48 32 2 70.8 6.0 5
13 Ft. Drum Creek at Ft. Drum, Fla...... May I... 0 5.2 .03 47 1.6 13 2.5 140 11 16 .4 .3 170 124 2 294 7.0 20
20 Sweetwater Branch near Ft. Drum, Fla.. May I... .44 11 .06 15 .6 8.2 .6 45 8.5 10 .3 .4 77 40 3 112 7.5 75
27 St. Johns River near Melbourne, Fla.... April 26... c 0 4.0 .01 24 2.0 28 36 2.0 71 ..... .3 18 72 42 311 0.8 55
28 Pennywash Creek near Deer Park, Fla.. April 26... a .06 1.3 .03 0.6 1.0 7.4 1,3 22 6.5 12 .1 .6 52 32 14 100 6.8 45
30 St. Johns River near Cocoa, Fla ....... May 21-31 d 56 4.1 .06 78 16 156 3.5 74 74 330 .2 .7 e 845 260 200 1,320 7.3 45
33 St. Johns River near Christmas, Fla.... April 21... d 75 .6 .01 62 21 155 02 73 320 ..... .5 003 241 100 1,200 7.2 55
34 Econlockhatchee River near Christmas,
F la ............ .. April 25... c .15 1.7 .04 24 2.0 3.0 .2 84 12 14 .1 .7 100 72 3 183 7.0 55
35 Little Econlockhatel;hee River near
Union Park, Fla............... April 27.. 13.7 13 .03 25 5.2 40 2.5 60 42 35 .5 35 200 84 27 362 7.1 45
36 Econloekbatcheo River near Chuluota,
PFi............................. April24... d 18 7.5 .05 42 14 112 112 58 179 ..... .7 468 162 70 873 7.3 40
37 St. Johns River above Lake Harney
near Geneva, Fla.............. April25.......... 3.4 .05 106 3 388 104 163 710 ..... 1.4 1,460 412 328 2,640 7.2 40
42 Wekiva Springs near Apopka, Fl...... April27... 2.0 0.3 .00 28 10 4.8 .7 120 6.0 8.0 .2 .0 126 111 12 225 7.3 5
43 Rock Sprinp near Apopka, Fla......... April26... 54.7 8.2 .00 28 0.7 3.9 .3 105 16 7.0 .2 .1 125 110 24 215 7.3 5
41 Sanlando Springs near Longwood, Fla... April27... 13.0 4.6 .00 30 8.3 5.1 .4 125 .0 0.0 .2 .1 120 100 6 220 7.3 5
45 Palm Springs near Longwood, Fla ..... April27... 8.91 5.8 .01 32 0.0 5.0 .4 123 12 8.5 .2 .0 134 117 16 243 7.8 5
47 Blackwater Creek near Cassia, Fla...... April20... 6,04 6.3 .06 32 10 8.4 1.0 80 40 14 .1 .3 150 121 72 258 6.0 45










82
8853

854
85
56
57
s 8
89
60
.61

62
88.
64
** 5 1

66
87
88
89
71
S72


136 8 .4


Alexander Springs near Astor, Fla.
(Main boil) ...................... April 23...
Ponce de Leon Spring at DeLeon
Springs, Fla...................... April 18...
Juniper Springs near Astor, Fla....... April 23...
Spring Pool at Juniper Spring near
Astor, Fla........................ April 23...
Silver Glen Springs near Astor Park, Fla. April 24...
Salt Springs near Lake Kerr, FIa........ April 24...
Big Creek near Clermont, Fla.......... May 4...
Little Creek near Clermont, Fnla........ May 4...
Lake Minnehaha at Clermont, Fla...... May 1...
Palatlakaha Creek near Groveland, Fla.. May I...
Palatlakaha Creek near Mascotte, Fla... May 1...
Palatlakaha Creek near Okahumpka,
Fla................................ April 30...
Bugg Spring at Okabumpka, Fla....... April 26...
Unnamed spring at'Yalaha, Fla........ April 30...
Haines Creek at Lisbon, Fla.......... April 30,..
Oklawaha River at Moss Bluff, Fla..... April 28...
Lake Weir at Oklawaha, Fla ......... April 30...
Oklawaha River near Ocala, Fla........ April 27...
Silver Springs near Ocala, Fla ........ May 2.,.
Hatchett Creek near Gainesville, Fla.... April 24...
Prairie Creek near Gainesville, Fla...... April 23...
Orange Lake near Boardman (Mike's
Camp), Fla........................ May 4...
Orange Lake at Orange Lake, Fla...... May 4...
Magnesia Springs near Hawthorne, Fla. Apr. 23...
Orange Creek at Orange Springs, Fla.... April 24...


23.4
9.06

11.6
108
79.9
5.05
0






2.66
10.3
3.89
d 150
17.8


d 30
d 856
.84
.37




.02


d 3.1 1.9 .031


TABLE 4. (Continued)

,00 49 17 121 3.

.01 40 6.8 40 I.
.00 14 6.1 2.8


5.6
9.1

9.3
9.7
12
2.7

.7
1.7
3.6
2.2

1.2
9.8
12
4.2
2.9
.1
1.9
11
1.0
.6

.0
5.0
285


2.8
340
878
7.5
5.8
5.8
6.1
6.0

10
4,0
3,7
9.0
7.5
16
5.0
7.5
3.2
12

13
12
9.8
3.8


4.4 1.7
.48 1.8
32 5.8
32 7.3
30 8.8
4.8 4.4
37 11
72 9.4
2.8 1.9
25 3.8

6.0 1.7
17 3.5
40 13
14 2.7


S 97

127
54

44
82
67
10





8

10
150
123
131
122
17
119
222
18
7

10
f 48
177
83


61

12
12

5.5
202
375
13
.0
.0
7.5
6.5

.0
.0
.5
9.5
12
4.5
38
45
.0
4.0

12
14
.0
7.0


232

66
5.0

5.0
638
1,600
0.0
9.0
8.5
12
10

18
8.0
7.0
17
18
35
18
12
6.0
66

21
18
12
5.0


.1
.1

.1

.1
.1

.2

.1
.1

.2
.2
.0
.1
.2


,1
.1

.4
.2
.2
.2


2 .0
1 .0

1 .0
1 .2
.3
.0
.0



1.3

.0
.1
.0
1.0
.6
.0
1.7
.6
.0
.1

5.0
10
.2
.1


540 192

236 128
76 00

03 82
1,380 404
3,170 787
43 14
23 11
23 11
39 17
35 13

45 18
146 126
122 104
141 110
141 110
66 30
172 138
257 218
23 15
116 78

65 22
100 87
188 184
61 48


113

24
16

16
336
732
6
7
6
12
6

5
3
3

2
10
16
40
36
2
72

14
18
8
2


988

438
129

116
2,460
5,520
62.2
75.0
58.7
60.1
66.1

89.3
252
215
267
2061
159
301
425
44.8
248

114
173 !
317
107


8 8

7 5
5 5
S.... .
4 5


1 5
25





45
25
1 10





2 45
'8

5
30
20
10
25
8
50
35

30
45
5
35


I


I I I


I


I


' iz
/
,:,,,







TArs 4, (Continued)


Little OrU n Creek near Orange
Spring Fla ........... .. ... .
Deep Creek near Rodman, Fla.........
Oklawaha Rive RiveRiverside Landing
near Orange Sprinp, Fla............
Unnamed spring near Satuma, Fla....
Etonia Creek near Florahome, Fla......
Etonia Creek near Palatka, Fla ........
Unnamed branch near Palatka, Fla.....
Rice Creek near Carraway, Fla.........
Green Cove Springs at Green Cove
Springs, Fla........ ..... .........
South Fork Black Creek near Penney
Farms, Fla...........
North Fork Black Creek near Middle.
burg, Fin..................... .....
Yellow Water Creek near Maxville,
Fla.... ............................
Wadesboro Springs ait Orange Park, Fla.
M`cirts Creek near Jacksonville, Fla...
Moultrie Creek near St. Augustine, Fla..
Ellis Canal near Indian River City, Fla.,
Surface water slough near Cocoa, Fla....


'1


April 4.,,
April 24...

April 27...
April 10...
April 20...
April 20...
April 10...
April 10...

April 28...

April 20...

April 20...

April 19...
April 20...
April 19...
April 11-20
April 23...
April 25...


3.77 5.8 0,01 0.
40.3 8.2 .01 22


d 855
2.40
2.82
10.1
.25
2.53


2.741 13 .011 30 18


80
81

83
91
92
04
05
98


JOB.
100

103

103.

106
107
108
112.1
118


5.2 .2

13 .0

15 3.8
30 5.1
11 3.0
69 15
196 32
3.4 .. .4


. b rl d....n ...s .
Mluar
as ,Ccog


0.2 0.1
.21 .0


9.46 2.2

.35 4.5

3.07 8.2
.71 7.5
1.09 8.0
d'.8 19
d 1.36 8.71
....... 2.4


22 C
82 C

214 9S
208 125
82 IS
32 2
II 1
104 30


.jt js


3.2
2.0

30
105
5.3
5.0
5,1
22


4.1 1.2

3.1 .2

4.2 .8

10 1.4
4.8 .3
7.9 .0
56 2.3
307
9.8


4,6
.6

04


12
9.5
1.0
17

58

3.5

10

15
3.5
.5
52


5.0
5.5

80
350
0.0
7.0
9.8
43

0.0

5.0

5.5

12
7.0
11
102


7.8
7.8

8.0
8.0
s,8
7.4
6.0
7.6

S.1


S 82.8
172

617
1,370
145
85,0
50.8
315

295

41.9

94.5

151
203
113
713
2,570
93.9


178! 138


6.0 25

6.5 20


25

58

91
112
604
e 460
1,490
39


14

35

52


40
234
620
10


264 229 590 .....
0 3.0 20 .....


6.5
7.0
6.5
7.7
7.5
4,4


35
10
45
80
35
400


__ _. __ ___ _____





114
' 1
.l6
121
122
128
;24

128 .

128

129

181
184
13

189
147

148

155
186
160
161

162,

168

165


Clear Lake near Cocoa, Fla ...........
Crano Creek at Melbourne, Fla.......
North Canal near Vero Beach, Fla......
Main Canal at Vero Beach, Fla .......
South Canal near Vero Beach, Fla ......
North ork St. Lucie River at White'
': City, FPa.'....... .... ...
Rimun Ditch (Diversion Canal) near
,White City, Fla.. .... .....
Harney Pond Canal near Moore Haven,
Fla. ....... .. .. .............
Indian Prairie Canal near Okeechobee,
Fla............... .... ...
Alligator Lake near Ashbton, Fla........
Hart Lake near Narcoosee, Fa .......
East Tohojekaliga Lake at St. Cloud,
Fla .. .. .. .. ..
Tohopekaliga Lake at Kissimmee, Fla...
Weohyakapka-Rosalie Canal near Lake
Wales, Fla..........................
Blue Jordan Swamp (at Hwy. 680) near
Frsetproof, Fia.....................
Istokpoga Canal near Cornwell, Fla....
Kiesimmee River near Okeechobee, Fla..
St. Lucie Canal at Port Mayaca, Fla....
St. Lucie Canal above lock near Stuart.
FlaI........... I.................
West Palm Beach Canal at Canal
Point, Fla...........................
West Palm Beach Canal at Rangeline
Road near Loxahatchoe, Fla.........
Hillsboro Canal at Belle Glado, Fla.....


April 25...
April 27...
May 12...
May 12...
May 12.,.

May 13...


.......... 18


M ay 13... .......... 7.5


April 30... ........ ..


April 80...
April 12...
'May 260...

April 10...
April 11...

April 24...

April 24...
May I...
May 11-20
May 10...


0


,,.,,...,.


.......... 6.5
........... 2.1


dO
d 140
..........


May 13 ..........

May 10... d .273

May 18 ..........
May 10... d .188


TABLE 4. (Continued)
.021104 l 58 | 418


.071148


82

29
2.0
3.0

7.6
9.6

5.0

1.2
19
18
61

100


.05 88

.03 82
.03 60


152

189

62

21
7.0
6.7

10
9.7

4.1

1.7 .1
25


213

30

75
37


d 8.3
dO
d 43
d 6


1,610
726


94 1839
210 74
170 41
264 76
170 40


840
280
03
200
103

290

340

118

31
12
12

16
17

9.0

3.0
31
22
42

370

48.

102
59


8581 410


498 42
410 28
204 6
355 13
208 61


1 2,970
8 1,810
4 602
8 1,150
8 653,

5 1,500

5 1,630

1 779

3855
58.6
67.2

123
118

79.5

20.8
238
187
406

1,750

540

757
890


983

41(

190


34

72
508

42

13
130
e 136
280

045


7.2 40
7.8 85
7.9 45
7.9 50
7.8 65

7.6 30

7.6 45

7.6 98

8.0 605 '0
., ,
.8 45 -

6.2 50



6. .80 0

7.2 18

6.2 80
7.6 25 ,
7.0 65
7.5 88

7.8 88

7.8 85

7.8 60
8.0 65


888

250

180
10
'14

82
36

25

3
04
51
202

373

210

244
224


6 8




81

27
11

7

0
0
20
42

145

40

480
:00


.1


.8 804

.2 424
38.9 834


- -- ---- ---












htutiloo


1illsboro Canal at Itangeline Road near
Deerfield Beach, Fla ............
North New River Canal at South Day,
FlaI .... .. .. ...............
North New River Canal at Holloway
Lateral near Ft. Lauderdale, Fla.....
South New River Canal at Davie, Fla...
Miami Canal at Lake Harbor, Fla......
Miami Canal at water plant, Hlialeah,
Fla........ ............
T-miaml Canal at Bridge 45, 27 miles
west of Miami, Fla ....... ...
Everglades Station 1-7 (Conservation
Area No. 1) ....... ............
Everglades Station 1-9 (Conservation
Area No. 1) .......................
Everglades Station 2-17 (Conservation
Area No. 2)....................
Imperial River near Bonita Springs, Fla,
'Line "A" Canal near Fort Myers, Fla...
Caloosahatchee Canal at Moore Haven,
SFla.... ...........................
Calooeahatchee Canal at Ortona look
near LaBelle, Fla...................
Orange River near Fort Myers, FiA ....


I
.5
A


May 9...

May 10..,

May 7...
May 7...
May 10...

May 24...

May 15...


a



~


... .. .... 10

d 494 7,.


. . . .
. . .. .


d 00

d 0


May 17... ... .... 10

May 17 .. ......... 10


May 17.,.
April 25...
April 25...

April 30.,.

April 30...
April 4....


.92
0

0


0 5.5
0 4.1


TAa~ 4. (Continued)


.031 57


.01 82

.03 00

.03 20

.03 34


39 1'2

40 12
50 15


.jB j


b


llrdlo
fai c~oo




11' ,I


iii'


176

177

178

180
181
182

183

181


262

206

164
255
274

272

320

58

88

259
h 282
h 214

140


172 33
204 12


11l

08

45
35
62

22

23

36

40

70
260
179

54

49
44


80


45
05
150



00
180





60


45

55
30
35

20

25
25


82 730 7.7
9 500 8.4
102 057 8.85

32 456 8.0

24 468 7.4
10 .455 7.8


268 164
281 180


1~ g


~1,-----.: -- .. ._. -cl---cle


'a i


I- I


I


i


.... w






100
101
192
198

200
.205
207
208
200
211
212

213

220

222
228
224
234
235
230
240.3
240.4
241

242
243


Bowlegs Creek near Fort Meade, Fln...,
Whidden Creek near Fort Meado, Fla...
Paynes Creek near Bowling Green, Fla..
Joshua Creek near Arcadia, Fla,. (at
State Road 81)........... ...
Hawthorne Branch near Nocatee, Fla...
Myakka River at Myakka City, Fla....
Big Slough Canal near Murdock, Fla....
Warm Salt Spring near Murdock, Fla...
Little Salt Spring near Murdock, Fla....
Pinchurst Springs near Sarasota, Fla...
Manatee River near Fort Green
Springs, Fla. ... .............. ..
Manatee River at State Road 64 near
.Myakka City, Fla........ ...
South Prong Alafia River near Keys-
ville, Fla.... ... ..........
Lithia Springs near Lithia, Fla........
Buckhorn Spring near Riverviow, Fla...
Eureka Springs near Tampa, Fla .....
Purity Springs at Tampa, Fin ..........
Sulphur Springs at Sulphur Sprinp, Fla.
Palma Cola Springs at Tampa, Fla .....
Health Springs at Wall Springs, Fl....
Seven Springs near ElIers, Fla.........
Pithbitbascotee River near Now Port
Richey, Fla......... .. ... ..
Unnamed Springs at Hudson, Fla .....
Weekiwacheeo Springs near Brooksville,
Fla......... .. ........


April 26...
April 25...
April 25...

April 25...
April 25...
April 24...
April 24...
April 24...
April 24...
April 24...

April 24...

April 24...,,

April 25..,
April 25...
April 20...
May 1..,
May 1..
May 1...
May 2...
. .. . ..
May 3...

May 3...
May 8...

May 2 ..


130


3.03
3.99
1.47

0
o .08
0


9.53
1.22
<.01

0

1,00

2,93
39,7


1.02
e 1.2
34.6
.49
c 1.5
<.01

.83


TABLE 4. (Continued)


11
8.2
3.1

12
8.2
1.4
7.7
17
21
12

2.7

3.6

4.1
1.0
1.9
11
9.7
8.5
15
0.8
i3

4.8
7.5

9.7


.01 189

.01 48


7.5 4.1
12 10
3.4 5.9

7.1 21
9.2 21
1.7 3.3
279. 1,730
556 4,930
125 720
34 28

4.5 7.8

4.4 4.3

4.4 4.8
9.1 13
11 15
6.9 4.0
3.6 14
13 100
10 84
10 161
.4.7 5.2

2.8 4,2
393 8,290

6.8 l 3.1


.4 87
.3 607
.3 37

1.8 J 89
.9 219
.2 20
48 182
143 102
27 171
2.4 k357

.3 99

.4 40

.3 35
.7 133
.7 135
.4 158
.7 164
1.3 157
2.5 192
0.3 100
.5 204

.4 175
100 170

,4 101


4.
130
8.5

26
38
1,0
724
1,600
535
40

0.0

4.5

15
75.
00
40
. 12
78
'28
41
2.0

10
857

0.0


4.5
8.0
9.0

80
30
5.5
3,810
9,210
1,350
388

9.0

7.0

'8.0
18
24
8.5
24
170
160
240
8.8 ..

7.5
0,030

.0


.4
1.1
.5

.0
.6
.8
.4


1.8



.6

.0

1.5
.5
.4
.3





.2



.3



.8


92 71
255 164
58 86


1 289
1 20
1 6,410
1 17,200
3,160
415

105

57

065
241
242
210
205
522
500
503
192

174
11,000

101


99
220
14
1,760
38,640
993
334,

81

40

43
-182
184
178
1652
238
278
109
104

150
2,0901

148


0 153 8.1
110 394 7.7
0 100 7.0

28 295 8.4
40 495 8.3
0 48.7 7.3
1,610 10,300 7.8
3,510 24,100 7.8
853 4,890 8.2
48 690 8.0


183

98.2

111
410
414
361
407
901
932
1,020
318

312
10,900

283


.031 8.8


7.81


20 ,
7


80


50
30

35


20


10
18
15 t

5

15


7.9 10
7.5 10

7.9 5












Hattlio


Chumasbowitska Springs near Homo-
SF l .... ............
romonia Sprin at Honmoaua
Spring., Fla. (Main boll)............
Homosas Sprinas at llomota
Springs, Fla. (Small spring)........
Withiacoochee River (Main branch)
near Eva, Fla....... ...........
Withlaeooehe River (Overflow branch)
near Eva, Fla......................
Withiacoochee River at Trilby, Fla.....
Withlacoocheo River at Croom, Fla.....
Fenney Springs near Coleman, FLi......
Panasoffkee River at U. 8. Hwy. 301
near Coleman, Fla..................
Panaaoffkee River at State Hwy. 470
near Coleman, Fla.................


I


May I...

May I...

May 1...

May 2...

May 4..
May I...
May 2...
April 20...

April 20...

April 26...


;-


112

87.1

50.7


m 10.4
d 48
d 60
4.06

10.1

55.5


Withlasoooche River near Holder, Fla... May 2... d 195


Rainbow Springs near Dunnellon, Fla...
Glen Springs near Gnineville, Fla......
Waceasaa River near Otter Creek, Fla.
Wekiva Springs near Gulf Hammock,
Fla........... ................
Suwannee River near Benton, Fla.
(Hwy. No. 6)......................


May 2...
April 24...
May 2...

May 1...

April 21...


..........
.386
10.0

34.7

114


TAMsI 4, (Continued)


8,5 0.00


8.1 .00 54

8.2 .00 43

2.4 .21 6.4


7.5 .00

3.8 .01


.02 30

.21 2.8


209

370

5. .

0.9 .5


5.4 .7


95

21

.0

.0
7.0
0.5
.5

1.0

32
27
18
.5
8.0

5.0

.01


P 116111


380 ...


080

110

12

5.5
11
9.0
0.5

0.5


11 .1
9.2 .2
5.5 ..
5.5 .3
3.5 .2

3.5 .1

9.0 .1


Hardnsis


2.51 e 99S1 299 148


1,830

e 341


411 26


.0 152 13(

.0 109 80
.1 e 181 139
.2 148 120
1. 85 70
.0 121 106

.0 107 97

.1 25 15


249
250
251
252


254
255
256
257
258

200


i~IIi


1,020

2,500

023

83.8

49.0
309
310
273

275

265
280
253
151
212

180

80.2


254

59


08
9

4
3
4
4

3

31
34
12
0
0

11

12


8.2 3

7.9 3

0.7 100

5.1 200
7.9 25 )
8.0 a
8.0 7

7.9 10


'3

28'


-- 1 I


~ I" ---


I 1






201.1

2021
283

204
200
'208
269
270
271
272
274
275
276
278.1
280
281
284
280
288


289
200

294

207
298


White Springs ,at White Springs, F
Suwannee Springs at Suwannee Sp
Fla.................. .
Suwannee River at Suwannee Spri
Fla.... .............
Alapaha River near Jasper, Fla...
Blue Spring near Madison, Fla...
Falmouth Spring at Falmouth, Fla
Charles Spring near Luraville, Fla'
Suwannee River at Luraville, Fla.
Suwanneeo River at Branford, Fla.
Branford Springs at Branford, Fla
Alligator Creek at Starke, Fla....
Santa Fe River at Brooker, Fla...
Heiibronn Springs near Starke, Fla
Swift Creek at Guilford, Fla .....
Poe Springs near High Springs, Fli
Santa Fe River near Fort White, F
Rock Bluff Springs near Bell, Fla.
Hart Springs near Wilcox, Fla....
Fanning Spring near Wilcox, Fla,.


Manatee Spring near Chiefland, Fl
Kettle Creek at State Hwy. 51 nea
SClara, Fla...... ............
Fenholloway River, 56 miles NE 4
Foley, Fla .... ..........
Fenholloway River at Foenholloway
Fenhalloway Riverat Foley, Fla..


.r :l'.2 ... TABLE 4. (Continued)
'i.. April2.', .;.61 2 .00 60 21 9.1
rings,
.. April25..... 2.38 17 .00 66 18 0.5
wings,
.. April 25... 282 7.7 .09 20 5.0 5.7
. April 24.." 119" .5 .06 2.0 2.2 4.4
...... April 24... 77.8 10 .00 40 8.0 2.8
.....April24... 0 0.6 .00 02 12 2.4
..... April25... 7.97 7.2 .00 51 15 2.0,
..... April20... 2,520 8.8 .03 28 60.8 5.8
..... Aprilil-20 d 2,795 8.9 .14 88 7.1 4.8
...... April20... 8.52 0.3 .00 66 9.1 2.3
...... April24... 1.605 11 .02 88 5.1 26 1.:
. ... April24... .59 1.0 .04 22 10 5.2
.... May 2... .03 21 .01 38 17 10
...... May 2... 1.82 0.8 .09 12 7.5 7.4 ,
a..... May 2... 39.2 13 .02 05 5.8 4.8
la.... April 27... 1,020 9.0 .01 69 9.0 4.2 .,
...... April 20........... 5.3 .00 40 2.7 2.0 .,
.....April 27.,. 8.6 0.3 .00 08 0.4 2.4
..... April27............. 6.0 .01 65 5.4 2,7
May 1... 04.0 0,3 .01 04 5.5 2.7
a .... April27.,. 110 6.1 .00 74 7.7 3,1 .
r
. May I... ,57 .0 .03 45 0.2 4.4 .
of
..... April24... 1.02 0.6 .06 53 15 3.4 .i
.Fla. April24.., 4.00 4.3 .08 52 15 3.4 .,
.....April24.. 2.42 06.0 .03 39 11 3.8 .,


12 .3

7.5 .3


213 30

190 29

69 8.5
8 .0
143 .12
215 10
194 20
97 12
128 14
211 11
27 130
113 2.0
200 .0
42 7.5
1 211 18
187 23
141 7.0
200 10 '
200 4.0
212 12
215 22

141 9.0

210 0.5
219 5.0
131 4.0


11
7.5
. ....6.5B
4.5
5.5
7.5
8.0
5.0
9.0
9.0
13
14
7.0
7.5
4.0
6.0
4.5
4.5
0.5


.1
.1
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1
2
.83
.0
.3
.1
.1
.2
.2


.2


254

224

93
27
149
204
198
117
145
204
234
107
1097
77
218
205
137
1099
187
200
226

145

201
190
148


212 387

193 38

73 10
14 8
183 16
204 28
188 30
96 10
124 19
202 29
116 104
90 4
100 0
61 20
180 13
184 31
126 10
190 27
184 20
182 81
210 40


408

309

1509
40.0
260
355
341
209
252
300
369
203
342
141
307
844
250
533
342
330
300


225
55

10
10
10
40
55
10
10
20
i
300



8
10


14
5


0-

0


; .1- ';








10
00


11 .1


.2 .0
.1 .0
.0 .0


138 22 263

194 14 382
191 12 354
142 17 258


7.9 80

7.5 20
7.0 14
7.2 27


_











HNftilll


209
800
801
303
304
367
811
312
S810

317
319
321
323
320
328


I


Waldo Spring near Perry, Fla.........
Hamapton Springs ear Perry, Fi ......
Spring Creek near Perry, Fia..........
Oun Creek near Greenville, Fla........
Auclla River near Aucilla, Fla.........
Deasleys Creek near Lament, Fsla.......
Welaunee Creek near Waciass Fla ......
Aucllla River near Banlon, Fla.........
River Sink in River Sink Precinct near
Tallahassee, Fla...................
St. Marks River near Newport, Fla....
Sopchoppy River near Sopchoppy, Fla..
Quincy Creek at Quincy, Fla...........
Rocky Comfort Creek near Quincy, Fla.
New River at Owens Bridge, Fla.......
Glen Julia Spring at Mount Pleasant,
Fla.................. ...
Escambla River near Century, Fla......
Pine Barren Creek near Barth, Fla.....


May I...
May 1,,,
May 1...,
May S...
May 2...
May 2...
May 3...
May 2...

April 256,..
April 28...
April 23...
April 20...
April 24...
April 24,..

Apr. 24....
May 3...
May 4...


TAusI 4, (Continued)


0
.03
0
0
43.0

102


2.51
11.8
5.27


.54
d 1.780
99


35
214
50
2.4
3,2
4.8
8.2
69

30
42
35
5.2
0.4
13

2.8
12
.0


2.4
7.5
4,8S
5.2
0,2
7.0
4.9
2.8

0.1
3.56
4.2
4.0
2,8
3.83

2.7
4.5
2.3


0.2
1.
.3


1.2
.3
1.1
.3

.2
.3
.2
.4
.3
.2

.1
.7
.4


8,0
605
21
.0
3.5
5.5
.0
14

14
9.5
.0
.0
.5
.5

8,0
8,3.
.0


157
1,180
218
20
30
30
28
202

130
1509
114
38
388
49

25
50
13


a In solution when analyzed.
b Calculated from determined constituents, except as noted.
o Estimated.
d Mean discharge.
e Residue on evaporation at 180*C.
* f Includes equivalent of 10 ppm of carbonate (COs).
g e Negative.
h Includes equivalent of 4 ppm of carbonate (COs).
SJ Includes equivalent of 1 ppm of carbonate (COs).
k Includes equivalent of 11 ppm carbonate (COs).
m Include discharge in Withlacoochee River main branch.
n Includes equivalent of 2 ppm of carbonate (COs).
p 0.64 ppm acidity (H+).


164
037
100
13
10
22

16
188

118
135
103
20
23
80

13
34
2


I


270
1,440
8 5
07.4
74.0
170
72.1
350

230
274
210
04.1
56.5
82.0


38.8
91.1
108,5


7.7 17
8,0 35
7.8 20
4,6 2R0
5.3 150
3.8 300
4.4 500
8.0 25

7.4 5
8.0 5
7.7 05
0. 385
0.0 15 Is
6.7 130

0.0 5
0.9 25
0.2 15





1.












Source and
Location


TABLE 5. Chemical Analyses of Springs in Florida, 1946 and 1956
(Chemical analyses in parts per million)


I


4-23-40 21.7
4-27-50 13.9

4- 2-40 ......
4-23-50 130

10-20-23 ......
4-23-46 41.8
4-18-50 23.4

4- 1-40 ... .
4-24-50 108
4- 4-46 ......
4-24-50 79.0
10-21-40 ......
5- 2-56 550

7- 5-40 ......
5- 2-56 130

7-25-40 80.9
5- 1-50 112

4- 3-40 .....
5- 1-50 87.1

0-18-40 ......
5- 2-50 ......

7-23-40 145
4-24-50 77.8 1
1 1. .


13 0.09
4.0 .00

8.8 .03
9.4 .00

19 .15
0.6 .00
5.6 .01

0.0 .08
9.7 .00
11 .10
12 .00
0.2 .04
11 .01

8.9 .05
9.7 .01

8.0 .04
8.5 .00

0.0 .12
8.1 .00

7.7 .08
0.2 .00

9.2 .04
0 .00


Sanlando Springs near Long-
.wood, Fla...................

Alexander Springs near Astor,
Fia.... ...............

Ponoc deLeon Spring at
DeLeon Spring, Fla.........


Silver Glen Springs near
Astor Park, Fla. ............

Salt Springs near Eureka, Fit..

Silver Springs near Ooala, Fla..

Weekiwauheo Springs near
Brooksvillo, Fla.............

Cliassahowitzka Spring, neur
HIoniosassa, Fin............

Hoinosassa Springs at Homo-
sases Springs, Fla........ .,

Rainbow.Springs near Dun-
nellon, Fin.......... ..... ..

Blue Springs 10 mi. E. of
M adison, Fli. ....... .......


S7.09
O 8.3

1 18
17

44
17
6 0.8

46(
p 40
'167
98
0.6
0.4

5.8
0.8

13
37

45
50

4.0
4.5

8.7
8.0


0


0
I? .L i


S5


103
121


124
40

334
340
1,540
878
4
7

4.
.,

201


308.


2.
2.

2.
2.


.8 0.0
.1 ..4

2.3
3.0

332
4.0
1.9

10
9.5
38
24
.0 1.1
.5 ,.5

0 .7
1 .4

1.5
201)

9.0
370

9 .4
8 .1

4 .7
8 .3


a Values for samples collected in 1950 are calculated from determined constituents.


0


125 3.3
125 .0

98 50
97 01

30 93
122 35
127 12

85205
82 202
87 613
67375
201 34
222 45

168 6.4
166 0.0

178 13
184 02

136 87
130 95

78 4.7
139 18

148 10
143 12


Hardness


Hardness
as CaCOs

--jI -I $2


105 ..
109 0

176 .. .
192 113

340 .....
180 ......
128 24

406 .. .
404 336
1,290.
787 732
209 ....
218 30

144 .....
148 12

176 .....
299 148

310 . .
365 254

60 .. ...
126 12

134 .....
133 10


228
229

920
088


1,030
438

2,480
2,460
9,330
5,520
401
*t25

287
283

470
1,620

2,240
2,500

145
253

202
260


244


240


7.2
7.3

0.9
7.8


7.4
7.7

7.4
7.7
7.1
7.0
7.8
7.0

7.7
7.9

7.5
7.8

7.4
8.2

7.0
7.4

7.9
7.0


7.8
0.0

102
232

022
231
60

610
038
2,800
1,600
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FLRD GEOLIOWC( ICA SURflViEWY~


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