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 Front Cover
 Florida State Board of Conserv...
 Transmittal letter
 Table of contents
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Geography
 Geology
 Ground water
 Summary/Conclusions and Refere...
 Well logs
 Record of wells


FGS






STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Ernest Mitts, Director


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert O. Vernon, Director






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23




GEOLOGY AND GROUND-WATER RESOURCES
OF MARTIN COUNTY, FLORIDA


By
WILLIAM F. LICHTLER
U. S. Geological Survey



Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
and the
CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT


TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
1960








AGRI.
CULTURt4
FLORIDA STATE BOAR1^"RY

OF

CONSERVATION


LeROY COLLINS
Governor


R. A. GRAY
Secretary of State



RAY E. GREEN
Comptroller


RICHARD ERVIN
Attorney General



J. EDWIN LARSON
Treasurer


THOMAS D. BAILEY LEE THOMPSON
Superintendent of Public Instruction Commissioner of Agriculture (Acting)



ERNEST MITTS
Director of Conservation







LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


jiorida c Qeoloqical Survey

Callafassee

May 16, 1960

MR. ERNEST MITTS, Director
FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


DEAR MR. MITTS:


The Florida Geological Survey will publish as Report of Investi-
gations No. 23 a report on the "Geology and Ground-Water
Resources of Martin County, Florida." This report was prepared
as a cooperative study between the U. S. Geological Survey, the
Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District and the
Florida Geological Survey. Mr. William F. Lichtler wrote the
report and included an inventory of wells, which was made by Mr.
E. W. Bishop in 1953.
Both non-artesian shallow formations and artesian deep
formations yield water to wells in Martin County. The shell and
sand deposits of the Anastasia formation are probably the chief
aquifer of the shallow ground water. Eocene limestones, that are
very permeable and which compose the Floridan aquifer, are sepa-
rated from the shallow aquifers by sediments of low permeability.
The data contained in this report is necessary for the continued
development of water resources in the area.

Respectfully yours,
ROBERT O. VERNON, Director
























































Completed manuscript received
February 4, 1960
Published by the Florida Geological Survey
E. O. Painter Printing Company
DeLand, Florida
March 16, 1960

iv












CONTENTS



Abstract _.._. ------------. -------. -------------.. .. ...---.------------ -- --- ... ..1 1
Introduction -... __-..--------- -._-....----------- -._.----------- 3
Location and extent of area ----------_----.---------- 3
Purpose and scope of investigation------- ---------------- 4
Previous investigations--_--_---- ---------------------- 6
Acknowledgments ----.-__-------.._-__.__-_--------.---- 6
Geography ----------------- 6
Topography and drainage ----_-------------- 6 6
Atlantic Coastal Ridge .8------------------------------ 8
Eastern Flatlands and Orlando Ridge --------------------- 9
Everglades -------- ------- ------- -------11
Terraces --......-----__________--_-- -.-- 11
Climate ------------------------------ --12
Population and development ---------------------------- 13
Geology_ --- .-- -----------------14
Geologic formations and their water-bearing properties .------.---------. 14
Eocene series -------------- __ ------------ 14
Avon Park limestone --------------- ---------------- 14
Ocala group _---. ----------- --------15
Oligocene series .---------------------- ------------ 16
Suwannee limestone ----_- --_____-__-_-- 16
Miocene series -._---- ----------------------.. 18
Tampa formation --------------_- ----------18
Hawthorn formation ------------------------ 18
Tamiami formation ------------------------19
Post Miocene deposits ---------__---------------- 19
Caloosahatchee marl -------------- _- ------ 19
Fort Thompson formation --------------------19
Anastasia formation _------------- ----------- 20
Pamlico sand ---.--. ----------------------- 20
Ground water .. -.-------------------------------------------------------21
Shallow aquifer ----- -------_ ------- --------- 21
Aquifer properties .-- ...---------.--.-----------------------...22
Atlantic Coastal Ridge ---------------- -----------22
Eastern Flatlands, Orlando Ridge, and Everglades ---------- 23
Shape and slope of water table -- -------------------------------. 24
Water-level fluctuations -------- ----------------27
Recharge---------- --------------------------- 34
Discharge ...--------..... ------- ----------------- ----------- 34
Artesian aquifer ---- ..................---.--------------------------- 35
Aquifer properties. ----------_---_- -_.--...------. ----- 35
Piezometric surface -- -------------------------39
Water-level fluctuations -...-------------------------------- 41
Recharge --....-- .----..--.---..------------ ---- ---------- -- 43

v







Discharge -_--_- --- -..-__-- _-...--.....-- -------... 44
Quantitative studies -....--- -----.---.-..-_ ...----------------------- 45
Pumping tests .------ ----------------------- 46
Intrepretation of pumping-test data ..- ---------------------.---.. 50
Quality of water _---------- ---------------------- 51
Hardness --------- -----.-------.--- -------------55
Dissolved solids -------------- ----------------55
Specific conductance --------- -------------------- 656
Hydrogen-ion concentration ..------------------------------- 6 57
Iron and manganese -------------.---------------- 57
Calcium and magnesium --. ------------------------- 58
Sodium and potassium -- ---------------------------- 58
Bicarbonate ---------- ---------- --------------------58
Sulfate ------------------------------------- 59
Chloride ----- ---------------------------------- 59
Fluoride ----------------- -----------------------60
Silica ------------------------------------------------- 60
Nitrate .. ----------------------------------------------- 60
Hydrogen sulfide --- ------------------------------- 60
Color ....------- ------------------------------- --------- 61
Temperature _---------. ----------------.------.-.--.------ 61
Salt-water contamination .----------------------------------. 63
Recent contamination ----------------------------------------- -----------. 63
Stuart area _---_--------- --------_. -------.------- .---.._. .. 65
Contamination from surface-water bodies -----.--------70
Contamination from artesian aquifer ---- --._-------- 71
Jensen Beach and Rocky Point ----------------------------------- 73
Sewall Point .. __---------- ---------------..---------- ... ... 74
Hutchinson Island ---.-----. -----------------------... ..... 75
Jupiter Island ... ------------------------.-------. 75
Pleistocene contamination --..-----.----.......----------------.... 76
Shallow aquifer ..-----------.-- -----...................----------- 76
Artesian aquifer---------------- ------ 77
Use .-.... __ -------------------.... -----..--......-------- 77
Public supplies -...- -----------------------------------------. 79
Irrigation and stock supplies ------------------------------....... 79
Other uses ------------------------ ------------- 79
Summary and conclusions -----------------------.------------.... 81
References -. --- ... -----------------------------........ .... 81
Well logs _------_-- -___ ------__---------- ----- ---.... 84
Record of wells .------------------.------- ---------..-.--.......-. 96

ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure Page
1 Location of Martin County ... ...._.---------------------------------- 3
2 Location of wells .. .---___.--------------_...----....--... between p. 4 and 5
3 Northeastern part of Martin County showing the location of wells 4
4 City of Stuart showing the location of wells. ---... ----...-..--.--..---.... 5
5 Physiographic subdivisions of Martin County _......-------..--...--....... 6
6 Approximate altitude of the top of the Ocala group in
Martin County ...._._ -------_ --------------------------............... .....--....._-... 17







7 Water table in the Stuart area, July 6, 1955 --------------- 25
8 Water table in the Stuart area, October 5, 1955 __--- ____--- 26
9 Water table within the Stuart city limits, April 1, 1955 -------- 28
10 Water table within the Stuart city limits, May 3, 1955 ---------- 29
11 Hydrographs of wells 125, 140 and 147 and rainfall at Stuart ---- 30
12 Hydrographs of wells 928 and 933 and rainfall at St. Lucie
Canal Lock -.. ------._~_ ----------------------------------------------...... 31
13 Hydrograph of well 658 and rainfall at Stuart ..-- ----. ----------..... 32
14 Data obtained from wells 745 and 748 ----.-------------------------.. ......... 36
15 Data obtained from well 150 ------- --------------------------------.. 37
16 Piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer, 1957, in
peninsular Florida .--------------....... ----------..... .............-- 40
17 Piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer, April 1957, in
Martin County _.---- -------....._..-....._-- ----------------... 42
18 Location of wells used in pumping tests ---. -------------------------...._... 47
19 Drawdowns observed in wells 658 and 658A during pumping
test in new city well field, May 27, 1955 ------.....------- --- .. ......_ .. 48
20 Relation between specific conductance and dissolved solids
in water samples from Martin County .......--------- ----------........- 56
21 Temperature of water in artesian wells in Martin County ---------62
22 Relation between salt water and fresh water according to the
Ghyben-Herzberg theory -----------__ .... -----------------------------------......... 64
23 Chloride content of water in representative wells in the
shallow aquifer of Martin County ...--------........ between p. 64 and 65
24 Chloride content of water from shallow wells in Stuart area .....---.. 66
25 Discharge of fresh water into a salt-water body -....----.-.----------... -. 73
26 Chloride content of water in artesian wells in Martin County --.-..... 78

Table
1 Average monthly temperature and rainfall in Martin County --.----. 13
2 Artesian pressures in feet above land surface at selected
wells in Martin County, 1946-57 -...---------_---....-............. --43
3 Results of pumping tests in Martin County, 1955-57 ..-_........_.... 49
4 Analyses of water from wells in the artesian aquifer
in Martin County ------------__ -----------------------------------------........ 52
5 Analyses of water from wells in the shallow aquifer
in Martin County --------------------------------.------.------------.---------------------.. 53
6 Chloride concentrations in water samples from selected wells -----.. 67
7 Pumpage from Stuart well field, in millions of gallons per month --. 80
8 Record of wells in Martin County -------------- ------------- .... ....96









GEOLOGY AND GROUND-WATER RESOURCES
OF MARTIN COUNTY, FLORIDA

By
WILLIAM F. LICHTLER
U. S. Geological Survey


ABSTRACT

Martin County, in the southeastern part of peninsular Florida,
comprises an area of about 560 square miles. It is in the Atlantic
Coastal Plain physiographic province and includes parts of the
Atlantic Coastal Ridge, the Eastern Flatlands, and the Everglades.
Land-surface altitudes range from mean sea level to 86 feet above.
The slope of the land surface is gentle except in the sandhill
regions in the eastern part of the county.
The average annual rainfall in Martin County ranges from
about 56 inches at Stuart to about 48 inches at Port Mayaca. The
average annual temperature at Stuart is 75.20F.
Formations penetrated by wells in Martin County include
the Avon Park limestone and the Ocala group,1 of Eocene age; the
Suwannee limestone, of Oligocene age; the Hawthorn formation
and possibly the Tampa and Tamiami formations, of Miocene age;
the Caloosahatchee marl, of Pliocene age; and the Anastasia
formation and the Pamlico sand, of Pleistocene age.
There are two major aquifers in Martin County: (1) the
shallow (nonartesian) aquifer, 15 to 150 feet below the land sur-
face, and (2) the Floridan (artesian) aquifer, 600 to 1,500 feet
below the land surface. The Anastasia formation is probably the
principal source of ground water in the shallow aquifer. Permeable
parts of the Avon Park limestone and the Ocala group compose
the principal producing zones of the Floridan aquifer. The two
aquifers are separated by a thick section of sand and clay of
low permeability.

1The stratigraphic nomenclature used in this report conforms generally to
the usage of the Florida Geological Survey. It conforms also to the nomen-
clature of the U. S. Geological Survey, except that Ocala group is used in this
report instead of Ocala limestone, and Tampa formation is used instead of
Tampa limestone.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


At most places along the Atlantic Coastal Ridge open-end wells
60 to 130 deep can be constructed in thin rock layers or shell beds
of the shallow aquifer. Some wells are screened at depths ranging
from 15 to 60 feet. In the eastern part of the Eastern Flatlands,
the geologic and hydrologic conditions are similar to those of the
Atlantic Coastal Ridge. The rock layers wedge out in the central
part of the county, and it is difficult to obtain large quantities of
potable water at most places in the western part of the county.
In the Indiantown area, a shell bed at a depth of 95 feet is the
principal source of large ground-water supplies.
Most of the recharge to the shallow aquifer is supplied by rain-
fall within Martin County. Water from the shallow aquifer is
discharged by outflow into streams, canals, and other surface-water
bodies, by evapotranspiration, and by pumping. The principal
recharge to the artesian aquifer in central and southern Florida is
from rainfall in the topographically high areas centered in Polk
and Pasco counties. Water is discharged from the Floridan aquifer
in Martin County mostly through flowing wells.
Yields from wells in the Floridan aquifer range from about 10
to 750 gpm (gallons per minute). Yields from wells in the shallow
aquifer range from a few gallons per minute to more than 500
gpm. The coefficients of transmissibility and storage of the
shallow aquifer differ at different locations and depths, thus
indicating that the composition of the aquifer is not uniform.
Transmissibility coefficients obtained from test data range from
16,000 to 83,000 gpd (gallons per day) per foot, and storage
coefficients range from 0.0001 to 0.0065.
Chemical analyses of 56 water samples from Martin County
indicate that the water from the shallow aquifer, although hard,
is generally of good quality. The water from the artesian aquifer
is highly mineralized. Temperatures of water range from 700 to
82 F in the shallow aquifer and range from 750 to 910F in the
artesian aquifer.
Recent salt-water encroachment in the shallow aquifer has
occurred on Hutchinson Island, Jupiter Island, and Sewall Point
and in some coastal areas on the mainland. In some areas of
western Martin County the lower part of the shallow aquifer con-
tains salt water that entered the aquifer when the present land
surface was under the sea, during the Pleistocene epoch. Sea water
that entered the Floridan aquifer during that time is responsible
also for much of the high mineral content of the artesian water.
Most of the water used for public, domestic, and industrial
supplies and much of the irrigation and stock water is obtained






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


from the shallow aquifer. The water from the artesian aquifer is
used for irrigation, stock watering, and swimming pools.

INTRODUCTION
LOCATION AND EXTENT OF AREA
Martin County is an area of about 560 square miles in the
southeastern part of peninsular Florida. It is bounded by the
Atlantic Ocean on the east, Lake Okeechobee and Okeechobee
County on the west, St. Lucie County on the north, and Palm Beach
County on the south. It includes all or parts of Townships 37-40
South and Ranges 37-43 East, and it lies between 26057'24" and
2715'46" north latitude and 8004'49" and 80040'40" west longitude
(fig. 1). Martin County was established in 1925 from the northern
part of Palm Beach County and a small part of St. Lucie County.


Figure 1. Location of Martin County.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEYv


PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION


The extensive and expanding use of ground water for domestic,
municipal, industrial, and. irrigation supplies has resulted in the
need for a thorough understanding of the geology -and ground-
water hydrology of Martin County.
A preliminary inventory of wells was made during 1953 by
E. W. Bishop, formerly of the U. S. Geological Survey. Further
hydrologic and geologic data were collected by William F. Lichter
during 1956-57, and the major part of the fieldwork was completed
by June 1957. The investigation included a determination of the
occurrence, movement, quantity, and quality of the water in the


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Figure 3. Northeastern part of Martin County showing the location of wells. -


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Nonflowing well
SEE FIG 3
Flowing well J S-- ESE
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Recording gage 37


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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


nonartesian and artesian aquifers, and a study of the subsurface
geology of the area. Part of the field investigation included an
inventory of 939 representative wells in the county (figs. 2-4).
The investigation was under the general supervision of A. N.
Sayre, then Chief of the Ground Water Branch, U. S. Geological
Survey, Washington, D. C., M. I. Rorabaough, District Engineer,
Tallahassee, Florida, Dr. Herman Gunter, then State Geologist
and Director of the Florida Geological Survey, and under the
direct supervision of Howard Klein, Geologist in charge of the
Miami office. The Florida Geological Survey and the Central and
Southern Florida Flood Control District cooperated with the
Federal Survey in this study, which is part of a continuing pro-
gram designed to appraise the ground-water resources of the
State of Florida.


Figure 4. City of Stuart showing the location of wells.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS

A detailed study of the water resources of an area of about 25
square miles, in and adjacent to the city of Stuart, is contained in
a report by Lichtler (1957) entitled, "Ground-Water Resources
of the Stuart Area, Martin County, Florida."
Brief references to the geology or ground-water hydrology of
Martin County were made by Matson and Sanford (1913, p. 176,
381-384), Mansfield (1939, p. 29-34), Parker and Cooke (1944, p.
41), Cooke (1945, p. 223, 269), and Parker, Ferguson, and Love
(1955, p. 174-175, 814-815). Stringfield (1936, p. 170, 183, 193) in
his discussion of artesian water in the Florida peninsula, refers
to selected deep, flowing wells in Martin County.
References to water levels in Martin County were made in
U. S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers 1166 (1950, p. 80-
81), 1192 (1951, p. 65), 1222 (1952, p. 77), 1266 (1953, p. 80),
1322 (1954, p. 84), and 1405 (1955, p. 87). Data on the quality
of water in Martin County are contained in reports by Collins and
Howard (1928, p. 193-195, 220-221), Black and Brown (1951, p.
13), and Black, Brown, and Pearce (1953, p. 2, 5).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Appreciation is expressed to the many residents of Martin
County who furnished information about their wells, and to various
public officials of the county. Special acknowledgment is given to
the following well drillers of the area: Douglass Arnold, Stuart;
William Athey, Fort Pierce; George Dansby, Wauchula; and
McCullers and Raulerson, Vero Beach, who furnished logs of wells
and permitted sampling and observation during drilling operations.
Special appreciation is extended to Captain Bruce Leighton for his
cooperation in allowing his wells; pumps, and other facilities to
be used for pumping tests.

GEOGRAPHY
TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE
Martin County lies within the Atlantic Coastal Plain physio-
graphic province of Meinzer (1923, pl. 28). The county is
subdivided into three physiographic regions: (1) Atlantic Coastal
Ridge, (2) Eastern Flatlands, and (3) Everglades (Davis 1943,
p. 8). Each is a region in which a certain similarity of topography
or relief prevails or a certain soil type or vegetation cover is






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23 7
















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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


common. Figure 5 is a map of Martin County showing the outline
of these physiographic subdivisions.
Land-surface altitudes in Martin County range from mean sea
level, in areas adjacent to the shoreline or tidal streams, to about
85 feet above mean sea level on the tops of a few sandhills along
the coastal ridge. The sandhill areas in Jonathan Dickinson State
Park, in the southeastern part of the county, and the Jensen
Beach area north of Stuart are characterized by relatively great
relief. The remainder of the county is virtually flat, and surface
altitudes range from about 15 to 45 feet above mean sea level.
The St. Lucie River, the Loxahatchee River, and Lake
Okeechobee form the major drainage basins within the county.
The St. Lucie Canal is designed primarily to convey flood waters
from Lake Okeechobee to the south fork of the St. Lucie River.
After entering the St. Lucie River the water flows northward,
eastward, and southward through the coastal ridge to the Indian
River and then discharges into the Atlantic Ocean. Flow in the
St. Lucie Canal is controlled by a lock and dam structure 11/
miles upstream from the confluence of the canal and the south
fork of the St. Lucie River. The north and south forks of the St.
Lucie River drain a major part of eastern Martin County, and
their drainageways form part of the boundary between the Atlantic
Coastal Ridge and the Eastern Flatlands. The Loxahatchee River
drains a smaller area in the southeastern part of the county and
forms part of the boundary between the coastal ridge and the
flatlands. The several small streams that drain the western part
of Martin County flow westward to Lake Okeechobee. The
Allapattah Flats east of the Orlando Ridge (fig. 5) is a wide,
poorly defined drainageway which remains marshy during most
of the year. In general, drainage is to the southeast through
canals.

ATLANTIC COASTAL RIDGE

The Atlantic Coastal Ridge in Martin County parallels the
present coastline and varies in width from about three miles in the
southeast corner of the county to about six miles in the central
coastal area, and to about four miles in the northern area (fig.
5). The backbone of the coastal ridge is generally less than a mile
wide and includes: (1) the sandhills of Jonathan Dickinson State
Park, where altitudes are as high as 86 feet above mean sea level;
(2) a lower ridge, which parallels the Intracoastal Waterway to
Rocky Point with altitudes of about 25 to 35 feet above mean sea





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


level; (3) Sewall Point which rises to 37 feet above mean sea level;
and (4) the sandhills of Jensen Beach, which rise to 80 feet above
mean sea level. The St. Lucie River breaches the coastal ridge
between Rocky Point and Sewall Point. The high sandhills of
the coastal ridge are sand dunes built upon old beach ridges
(Parker and others, 1955, p. 145). These dunes are quiescent and
support growths of bunch grass, pines, and palmettos. They were
formed during the Pleistocene epoch and are in nearly parallel.
rows inland from the present shore.
From the top of the ridge the land slopes eastward to Hobe
Sound, the Intracoastal Waterway, and the Indian River. West-
ward from the top of the ridge the land slopes to what F. Stearns
MacNeil (1950, p. 19), called "the Pamlico Intracoastal
Waterway." In Martin County this ancient waterway is now
occupied by the drainage basins of the north and south forks of
the St. Lucie River and the north and northwest forks of the
Loxahatchee River.
Hutchinson Island and Jupiter Island were probably formed
as offshore bars during a high stand of the sea. They are now
separated from the mainland by the shallow waters of the Indian
River, Hobe Sound, and the Intracoastal Waterway. These bodies
of water are usually less than six feet deep, but they are as much
as nine feet deep in places. The land surface on Hutchinson
Island ranges from mean sea level to 19 feet above, and is
generally less than 10 feet. The land surface on Jupiter Island
ranges from mean sea level to about 30 feet above, and is generally
less than 20 feet.
The coastal ridge is blanketed by relatively permeable fine to
medium sand. Drainage of the ridge is chiefly underground
through the surface sands. Shallow depressions in the sandy
ridge are occupied by intermittent ponds which flood during rainy
seasons and dry up during dry seasons. These ponds are elongate
in the direction of the axis of the ridge.
Because of the good subsurface drainage and the relatively
high altitudes, the coastal ridge is flooded less frequently than
inland areas, and the population and industry of the county have
concentrated in the coastal areas.

EASTERN FLATLANDS AND ORLANDO RIDGE

The Eastern Flatlands occupy all the area from the Atlantic
Coastal Ridge westward to the Everglades and Lake Okeechobee.
This is a monotonously flat region with the exception of the





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


elongated ridge that MacNeil (1950, p. 103) calls the Orlando
Ridge (fig. 5), and the narrow elongate ridge referred to on
U. S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle maps as Green
Ridge. The altitude of the Orlando Ridge in Martin County ranges
from about 30 to 50 feet above mean sea level, the highest altitude
being near the southern part of the ridge. The altitude of Green
Ridge is lower than that of Orlando Ridge, ranging from 30 to
35 feet above mean sea level. The altitude of the land surface
in the remainder of the Eastern Flatlands generally ranges from
slightly less than 20 feet above mean sea level to 30 feet above
mean sea level.
In the area north of the St. Lucie Canal, the Eastern Flatlands
rise gradually from the valley of the St. Lucie River to Green
Ridge. West of Green Ridge the land surface is extremely flat,
having an average altitude of 28 feet above mean sea level and a
very slight slope to the south. West of the Orlando Ridge the
Eastern Flatlands slope gently to the Everglades and the shore
of Lake Okeechobee.
Immediately east of the Orlando Ridge is the poorly defined
drainageway or slough which is called Allapattah Flats on U. S.
Geological Survey topographic quadrangle maps, and Allapattah
Marsh by Davis (1943, p. 43). The land-surface altitude along
the Allapattah Flats is about 26 or 27 feet above mean sea level.
Drainage from the Flats is ill defined, but is usually toward the
southeast. Occasionally, during high-water stages some water may
flow northward. The divide between the northward and southward
flow probably shifts according to the relative surface-water stages
north and south of the Flat.
South of the St. Lucie Canal the surface of the Eastern Flat-
lands rises gently toward the west from the valleys of the south
fork of the St. Lucie River and the northwest fork of the
Loxahatchee River to a broad crest south of the Orlando Ridge
and then gradually slopes downward in a southwest direction to
the edge of the Everglades. The altitude of the crest is about 25
feet above mean sea level.
Drainage throughout the Eastern Flatlands is chiefly under-
ground, through the fine surface sands. Both surface and
subsurface drainage is very sluggish, owing to the flatness of the
land, and ponds are formed throughout most of the region during
the rainy season. Surface drainage in the area east of Green
Ridge is effected by the tributaries of the St. Lucie River. West of
Green Ridge the drainage is ill defined, but in general, it is
southward to the St. Lucie Canal or eastward through breaks in





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


Green Ridge. Drainage west of the Orlando Ridge is to streams
flowing westward and southwestward to the Everglades and Lake
Okeechobee. Because of the flatness of the land, drainage canals
are frequently required in farming and ranching operations.


EVERGLADES

The Everglades, in general, is a flat region covered by organic
soils formed by the growth and decay of saw grass. The narrow
strip of the Everglades (fig. 5) in the southwestern part of the
county, bordering Lake Okeechobee, is almost indistinguishable
from the Eastern Flatlands. The boundary between the Everglades
and the Flatlands is poorly defined, as the organic soils of the
Everglades and the quartz sands of the Flatlands are intermixed.
The Everglades area is maintained in a condition suitable for
extensive agriculture by means of water control measures
employing dikes, drainage canals, and a levee at the shore of Lake
Okeechobee.
The maximum width of the Everglades area in Martin County
is about 11/ miles. The altitude of the land surface ranges from
about 15 feet above mean sea level at the shore of Lake Okeechobee
to about 20 or 22 feet where the Everglades merges with the
Eastern Flatlands.


TERRACES

During warm interglacial stages of the Pleistocene epoch the
sea level was higher than at present, and parts of Florida were
covered by the ocean. Whenever the sea level remained relatively
stationary for a long period, wave and current action formed a
virtually flat surface on the ocean floor. During glacial stages
the sea retreated to lower levels, and the flat surfaces emerged as
marine terraces having a slight seaward dip. The landward margin
of such a terrace is the abandoned shoreline, which in some places
is marked by a scarp.
Cooke (1945, p. 245-248, 273-311) postulated the existence
of seven terraces which correlate with different levels of the sea
during Pleistocene time. The Pamlico terrace, at 9 to 25 feet
above mean sea level, the Talbot terrace, at 25 to 42 feet, and the
Penholoway terrace, at 42 to 70 feet are within the range of land-
surface altitudes in Martin County; however, the writer could






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


find no evidence of a shoreline scarp at the 25-foot, 42-foot, or
70-foot altitude.
F. S. MacNeil (1950, p. 99) states: "The Pamlico shoreline also
is well preserved. The toe of the scarp along certain intracoastal
shores is close to 40 feet, but the highwater mark was probably
a little lower than the toe. The 30-foot contour was selected to
show the coastal features of the Pamlico coast and is probably
correct within 7 or 8 feet for the Pamlico sea level. An altitude
higher than 30 feet is more likely than a lower altitude."
There is a pronounced scarp in Martin County at about 30 to
35 feet above mean sea level that fits the above description by
MacNeil. It appears that the Orlando Ridge was a narrow penin-
sula or series of islands and shoals during Pamlico time, when the
sea level was 30 to 35 feet higher than it is at present, and Green
Ridge was an offshore bar with its crest at about sea level.
The Atlantic Coastal Ridge probably is of pre-Pamlico origin
and was dissected and otherwise modified by the advance of the
Pamlico sea. The high sandhills in the vicinity of Jensen Beach
and Jonathan Dickinson State Park are believed to be remnants of
an extensive area of sandhills that once covered the Atlantic
Coastal Ridge in Martin County. A study of the topographic
maps of the area shows that the north and south boundaries of
the dune areas are sharply defined and have spitlike structures
projecting westward (fig. 5). These features, plus the relatively
high altitude of the sandhills, seem to indicate the possibility of
a pre-Pamlico origin of the sandhills. The relative softness of
the water from the dune areas (p. 55) lends support to this theory.
It may be that water is softer in the sandhill areas because those
areas were exposed to the leaching action of infiltrating rainfall
for a longer period of time than most of the rest of Martin
County.


CLIMATE

The climate of Martin County is subtropical, having an average
annual temperature of 75.20F. Rainfall is seasonal as 64 percent
occurs during the rainy season from June through October. The
average annual rainfall at Stuart is 56.15 inches (table 1).
During the summer and early fall the rain usually falls in
heavy showers that cover a small area. Short-term rainfall
records, therefore, are valid only in the immediate vicinity of a
particular station.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


TABLE 1.-Average Monthly Temperature and Rainfall in Martin County


Rainfall at
Temperature Rainfall at St. Lucie Rainfall at
at Stuart' Stuart2 Canal Lock. Port Mayaca3
Month (oF) (inches) (inches) (inches)

January 66.5 1.92 2.11 1.35
February 67.9 2.41 2.13 1.58
March 70.6 2.81 3.03 2.78
April 74.3 3.25 4.00 3.33
May 77.6 4.61 4.91 3.37
June 81.3 6.47 7.65 6.84
July 82.3 6.41 7.41 6.76
August 82.8 5.47 7.36 7.01
September 81.6 9.08 8.76 7.49
October 77.7 8.44 7.14 4.85
November 71.9 2.23 2.85 1.93
December 68.1 2.18 2.07 1.38
Yearly average 75.2 56.15 59.42 48.67

'U.S. Weather Bureau discontinuous record 1933-57.
2U.S. Weather Bureau discontinuous record 1935-57.
3U.S. Corps of Engineers record 1925-57.


POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT

There are three incorporated towns in Martin County: Stuart,
the county seat, is the largest; Jupiter Island is next in size; and
Sewall Point, which was incorporated in 1957, is the smallest. In
addition, there are several unincorporated communities including
Jensen Beach, Rio, Salerno, Palm City, Hobe Sound, and Indian-
town. In the 1950 census, Stuart had a population of 2,892 and
Martin County had a total population of 7,665, most of which
was concentrated along the Atlantic coast. During the winter
tourist season the population of the county approximately doubles.
The tourist industry and agriculture are both very important
to the economy of Martin County. The most important crops are
citrus and other fruits and winter vegetables, including beans,
tomatoes, cabbage, peppers, squash, eggplant, watermelons, lettuce,
and cucumbers. Potatoes, corn, sugarcane, timber, forage crops,
beef and dairy cattle, hogs, and poultry also are important.
Commercial fishing is important in Martin County, as is sport
fishing, which is one of the leading attractions for the tourist
industry.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The principal mineral resources of the county are sand, shell,
marl, and peat.

GEOLOGY

Because the source, occurrence, movement, quantity, quality,
and availability of ground water are directly related to the geology
of the region, a study of the geology of the county was an
essential part of this investigation.

GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS AND THEIR WATER-
BEARING PROPERTIES

The igneous and metamorphic rocks that form the basement
complex in peninsular Florida are covered in Martin County by
approximately 13,000 feet of sedimentary rocks, most of which
are of marine origin. In Martin County, the predominant rock
types at depths below 700 feet are limestone and dolomite, but
sediments above that depth are chiefly sand, silt, and clay. The
deepest water wells in the county penetrate about 1,500 feet of
sediments, which include the Avon Park limestone and limestones
of the Ocala group, of Eocene age; the Suwannee limestone, of
Oligocene age; the Hawthorn formation and possibly the Tampa
and Tamiami formations, of Miocene age; the Caloosahatchee marl,
of Pliocene age; and the Anastasia formation and the Pamlico
sand, of Pleistocene age.
The Avon Park limestone is the oldest formation in Martin
County for which geologic data are available, although there have
been reports of wells penetrating the older Lake City limestone,
of middle Eocene age. Most artesian wells in Martin County end
in the Avon Park limestone, and most wells in the shallow aquifer
probably end in the Anastasia formation.

EOCENE SERIES
Formations of the Eocene series known to have been penetrated
by deep wells in Martin County include the Avon Park limestone
and the Ocala group.
Avon Park limestone. The Avon Park limestone in Martin
County shows lithologic changes both vertically and laterally.
Generally it is a cream to tan, hard to medium soft, rather pure,
chalky to finely crystalline limestone. It is differentiated from
overlying and underlying formations primarily by its fossil content.
The most important index fossils are foraminifers, including







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


Coskinolina floridana, Lituonella, Rotalia avonparkensis, Flintina
avonparkensis, Valvulina avonparkensis, Spirolina coryensis,
Dictyoconus cookei, Dictyoconus gunteri, and Textularia coryensis.
The small echinoid Peronella dalli, which is an excellent index fossil
of the Avon Park limestone in some areas of Florida, was noted in
cuttings from a few deep wells in Martin County.
The thickness of the Avon Park limestone in Martin County
is not known, because no wells are known to penetrate it com-
pletely. On the basis of well studies in nearby counties, however,
it is estimated to be at least 400 feet thick.
Current-meter tests made in Martin County (see description
of artesian aquifer, p. 35) show that highly permeable zones of
the Avon Park limestone are separated by less permeable zones.
Where the salt content of its water is not excessive the Avon
Park limestone is a good source of water for irrigation.

Ocala group. The Ocala limestone, of late Eocene age (Cooke,
1945, p. 53; Applin and Jordan, 1945, p. 130), was subdivided by
Vernon (1951, p. 113-115), in descending order, into Ocala
limestone (restricted) and Moodys Branch formation with
Williston (top) and Inglis (bottom) members. Puri (1953, p. 130)
raised the Williston and Inglis members to formational rank and
dropped the name Moodys Branch. He also proposed the name
Crystal River to replace Vernon's Ocala (restricted) and raised
the name Ocala to group status to include all three formations.
Where the Ocala group is exposed, in northern Florida, the
Crystal River, Williston, and Inglis formations can be distinguished
by their lithology and fossil content. In Martin County only a
few well cuttings are available for study; therefore, the Ocala
group is not subdivided in this report.
The limestones of the Ocala group are generally granular,
white to cream or slightly pink, soft to medium hard, and contain
much crystalline calcite in some areas. In places the Ocala is a
foraminiferal coquina composed almost entirely of tests of
Lepidocyclina, Operculinoides and Nummulites. The Inglis forma-
tion, or lower part of the Ocala group, is usually characterized by
an abundance of miliolid Foraminifera.
Diagnostic Foraminifera of the Ocala group include
Lepidocyclina ocalana, Operculinoides moodybranchensis,
Heterostegina ocalana, Rotalia cushmani, Cibicides mississippiensis
ocalanus, and others. Further information about the fossils,
stratigraphy, and zonation of the Ocala group is contained in a
report by Puri (1957).






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The Ocala group is generally less than 100 feet thick in Martin
County, and it is only 20 feet thick at well 146. Figure 6, a contour
map of the top of the limestones of the Ocala group, shows a
general domelike structure in the north-central part of the county.
The top of the Ocala, however, is an erosional surface, and the
underlying formations do not have exactly the same configuration.
Nevertheless, evidence from well logs suggests that the major
features represented in figure 6 are present in the underlying
Avon Park limestone. The principal purpose of the map is to show
the approximate depth below sea level at which the first substantial
flow of water can be expected from wells penetrating the Floridan
aquifer.
Figure 6 shows a major subsurface fault having a displacement
of 300 to 400 feet and a strike that is approximately parallel to and
about five miles inland from the present coast. Available data are
insufficient to permit determination of the exact strike, dip, and
extent of the fault. There may be several faults or a wide fault
zone rather than one single fault. If it is a single fault it is
apparently hinged, as the dip of the top of the Ocala group west
of the fault is southeast at a moderate angle but the dip east of
the fault is apparently south-southwest at a much steeper angle.
The limestone of the Ocala group is generally porous and
permeable and is an important part of the Floridan aquifer.

OLIGOCENE SERIES

Sucwannee limestone. The Suwannee limestone is the only
known formation of Oligocene age in Martin County. It lies
unconformably on the eroded limestones of the Ocala group and
is overlain unconformably by the Tampa formation, or by the
Hawthorn formation where the Tampa is not present.
The Suwannee limestone is a cream colored, slightly porous,
soft, granular mass of limy particles, many of which seem to be
of organic origin. It contains very few distinguishable fossils.
The thickness of the Suwannee limestone ranges from about
20 to 60 feet on the western (upthrown) side of the fault, and
from 100 to 170 feet on the eastern (downthrown) side. These
differences in thickness indicate that movement along the fault
probably started during late-Oligocene or post-Oligocene time and
continued during post-Oligocene time when the Suwannee limestone
was exposed to erosion. The downthrown block was protected from
erosion; therefore, the thickness of the Suwannee limestone on the
east side of the fault is greater than it is on the west side.





EXPLANATION

Line show approximate alltitude Wall for which electric log ----8. -- -
of top of iOca group,n feet, Is available i
referred to mean sea level \
0.1r Well for which well cuttings
Qqa are avalloble IE
Top number Its number of well- an 9 \ i
Bottom number Is oltitude of Well for which electric logs and W
top or Ocola group, In feet, well cuttings are available
referred to mean so0 level Contour Interval 20 feet 7-
R111 R39 ... 0
-t---____--- UAR "AM

,/% -920





,1040

.1080









a_ ell_ z, .




; o Ns -I z

4Rq





Figure 6, Approximate altitude of the top of the Ocala group in Martin
County.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Additional slippage along the fault plane probably occurred during
Miocene time. The faulting is probably associated with the
crustal movements which formed the Ocala uplift, as discussed
by Vernon (1951, p. 54-62).
The Suwannee limestone is part of the Floridan aquifer, and
it yields moderate amounts of water to artesian wells. Its per-
meability is generally lower than that of the underlying formations,
and the chloride content of the water is usually higher.

MIOCENE SERIES

The Miocene series in Martin County includes the Hawthorn
formation of early and middle Miocene age and possibly the
Tampa formation of early Miocene age and the Tamiami formation
of late Miocene age.
Tampa formation. The Tampa formation is a fairly hard, dense,
white to yellowish, very sandy limestone in the type area, near
Tampa. Its presence in Martin County has not been definitely
established, but about 10 to 15 feet of limestone just below the
Hawthorn formation at well 841, about 2 miles south of Stuart (fig.
3, and well logs), is similar to the Tampa formation of the type
area and is here tentatively correlated with the Tampa. This
limestone forms the uppermost part of the Floridan aquifer in
Martin County. It has moderate permeability and yields some
water to artesian wells, but the chloride content of the water is
generally higher than it is in water from the main producing
zones of the Ocala group and the Avon Park limestone.
Hawthorn formation. The Hawthorn formation in northern
Florida consists largely of gray phosphatic sand and lenses of green
or gray fuller's earth (Cooke, 1945, p. 144). In Martin County the
Hawthorn formation is composed of beds of dark green to white
phosphatic clay containing silt and quartz sand. Thin layers of
sandy phosphatic limestone and chert occur within the Hawthorn,
especially in the lower part of the formation. Lenses and thin
layers of phosphatic sand and shell are prevalent at some locations.
The Hawthorn formation underlies all of Martin County and
probably rests conformably on the Tampa formation (where the
Tampa is present) (Cooke, 1945, p. 138) or unconformably on the
Suwannee or older limestones. Its contact with the overlying
Tamiami formation is probably conformable.
The formation is 350 to 550 feet thick in Martin County. Its
overall permeability is very low, and it serves as the confining bed







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 23


for the Floridan aquifer. It does not yield significant amounts
of water to wells in Martin County.
Tamiami formation. Parker (1951, p. 823) defined the Tamiami
formation as including all deposits of late Miocene age in southern
Florida. In areas where there is no distinct lithologic break
between the middle and upper Miocene sediments, the Tamiami
formation can be separated from the Hawthorn formation only by
a thorough examination of the fossils. There appears to be no
distinct lithologic change between the middle and upper Miocene
deposits in Martin County and its thickness and water-bearing
characteristics have not been established.

POST-MIOCENE DEPOSITS

The post-Miocene deposits in southern Florida include the
Caloosahatchee marl of Pliocene age and the Anastasia formation,
the Fort Thompson formation, and the Pamlico sand of Pleistocene
age.
Caloosahatchee marl. The Caloosahatchee marl is composed
largely of sand and shells. Cooke (1945, p. 223) states: "The St.
Lucie Canal cuts through the Pleistocene Anastasia formation into
the Caloosahatchee marl from the entrance at Port Mayaca on
Lake Okeechobee at a point about 3 miles below the Seaboard Rail-
road bridge at Indiantown. Throughout this distance Pliocene shell
marl, some of it hard rock, has been thrown up by the dredge.
There are no exposures of the Caloosahatchee marl along this
canal, for the Anastasia extends below water level."
The thickness of the Caloosahatchee marl in Martin County is
unknown, but well 910, 15 miles northwest of Indiantown, pene-
trated a shell marl from 100 to 150 feet below the land surface;
unfortunately, no samples were obtained from depths shallower
than 100 feet.
Julia Gardner (1952, personal communication) reported that
samples from the 188 to 209-foot interval in well 143, in the
eastern part of Martin County, may be of Pliocene age.
Fort Thompson formation. The Fort Thompson formation as
defined by Sellards (1919, p. 71-73) consists, in its type area, of
alternating beds of fresh-water and brackish-water deposits as
well as marine shell marl and limestone of Pleistocene age. A rock
sample collected by a driller at a depth of 60 feet below the land
surface, in a well north of Stuart, contains what appear to be







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


fresh-water gastropods; however, the rock samples collected at
an equivalent depth from test well 905, north of Stuart, contained
no fresh-water gastropods. In the absence of positive identification
of substantial fresh-water deposits of the Fort Thompson formation
in Martin County, all Pleistocene deposits below the Pamlico sand
are herein tentatively assigned to the contemporaneous Anastasia
formation.

Anastasia formation. The Anastasia formation differs in
composition from place to place, ranging from almost pure coquina
to almost pure sand. In Martin County, however, it consists mostly
of sand, shell beds, and thin discontinuous layers of sandy lime-
stone or sandstone. The Anastasia formation and the Pamlico
sand are the only formations exposed in Martin County, and the
Anastasia formation probably underlies the surficial Pamlico in
all parts of the county where it is not exposed. The consolidated-
coquina phase of the Anastasia formation crops out at Rocky Point,
Jupiter Island, Hutchinson Island, and Sewall Point (fig. 5). There
is evidence that the coquina is of two different ages, as it contains
rounded boulders of an older coquina. The beds of coquina are
probably not more than 10 to 20 feet thick, and only a few shallow
wells are developed in them.
The Anastasia formation furnishes most of the fresh-water
supplies east of the Indiantown area. It is probably more than 100
feet thick in the eastern part of the county, but it presumably
thins to the west and pinches out or merges with the Fort
Thompson formation west of Martin County.
The Anastasia lies unconformably on the Caloosahatchee marl
or older formations and is overlain unconformably by the Pamlico
sand. It is the principal source of fresh ground water in Martin
County. The thin beds of permeable shell, limestone, or sandstone
that occur at many places between 50 and 125 feet below the
land surface usually yields large quantities of potable water to
open-end wells. Moderate supplies of water can be obtained at most
places from sandpoint wells at shallow depths.

Pamlico sand. The Pamlico sand unconformably overlies the
Anastasia formation in Martin County, except in the high area of
the Orlando Ridge and in the sandhills (fig. 5) where the land was
not covered by the sea during Pamlico time. The Pamlico sand is
only a few feet thick over most of the county, and it is probably
just a thin veneer.west of the coastal ridge. It is not a source of
appreciable amounts of ground water in Martin County.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


GROUND WATER

Ground water is the subsurface water in the zone of saturation,
the zone in which all the voids of the soil or rocks are completely
filled with water under greater than atmospheric pressure.
An aquifer is a water-bearing formation, group of formations,
or part of a formation in the zone of saturation that is permeable
enough to transmit usable quantities of water.
Ground water may occur under either nonartesian or artesian
conditions. Where it only partly fills an aquifer and its upper
surface is free to rise and fall, it is said to be under nonartesian
conditions, and the surface is called the water table. Where the
water is confined in a permeable bed that is overlain by a less
permeable bed, its surface is not free to rise and fall, and water
thus confined under pressure is said to be under artesian conditions.
The height to which water will rise in tightly cased wells that
penetrate an artesian aquifer defines the pressure or piezometric
surface of the aquifer.
The zone of saturation, or ground-water zone, is the reservoir
from which all wells and springs obtain their water. It is
replenished by infiltration of precipitation, though not all
precipitation reaches it. Some is returned to the atmosphere by
evaporation and transpiration; some enters streams, lakes, oceans,
or other bodies of surface water. The remainder is added to the
ground-water reservoir. Ground water moves laterally under the
influence of gravity to points of discharge such as springs, wells,
streams, or the ocean.

SHALLOW AQUIFER

The shallow aquifer is the principal source of fresh-water
supplies in Martin County. It includes the Pamlico sand, the
Anastasia formation and possibly part of the Tamiami formation.
The aquifer extends from the water table to about 150 feet below
the land surface. It is. a nonartesian aquifer composed principally
of sand, but containing relatively thin beds or lenses of limestone,
sandstone, or shell; which are generally more permeable than the
sand. Most large-capacity wells are developed in the limestone,
sandstone or shell. Some fairly large supplies of water and many
small water supplies are obtained from the sand by the use of
sandpoints and well screens.
The lithology of the aquifer changes laterally as well as verti-
cally, so that the permeable beds are not always found at the same







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


depth; in fact, in some areas they are missing entirely. The
permeable limestone, sandstone, and shell strata are more prevalent
in the eastern part of the county than in the western part.

AQUIFER PROPERTIES

Atlantic Coastal Ridge. The Atlantic Coastal Ridge parallels
the coastline and ranges from 3 to 6 miles in width. The
crest of the coastal ridge is about a mile wide and includes the
Jensen Beach sandhills, Sewall Point, Rocky Point, and the
Jonathan Dickinson State Park sandhills (fig. 5).
In some places, such as Rocky Point and Sewall Point, coquina
crops out, but at most places there does not appear to be any well
defined rock core beneath the crest of the coastal ridge. In general,
consolidated rock is first encountered at depths ranging from 40 to
60 feet below the land surface, and additional beds of consolidated
rock are encountered to depths of about 150 feet. They are
generally calcareous sandstones or sandy limestones in thin layers
or lenses interbedded with sand and shells. In some places they
are composed of masses of nodules, many of which are formed by
the replacement of fossils. Very rarely can more than 5 to 10
feet of open hole be maintained below the well casing. The bottom
of the shallow aquifer is about 150 feet below the land surface.
The predominant materials between 150 and 750 feet are fine sand
and clay, which will not yield appreciable quantities of water to
wells.
Coarse sandstone was reported between depths of 40 and 60
feet in well 121, in Jonathan Dickinson State Park. (See fig. 2 for
location.) Similar sandstones were reported between depths of 40
and 70 feet and depths of 95 and 117 feet in the Hobe Sound
municipal well field. Well 617, south of Stuart, was drilled to 87
feet and penetrated only loose sand, except for a few rounded
pieces of sandstone between 60 and 63 feet below the land surface.
Well 820, at Salerno, was drilled to a depth of 166 feet and
penetrated a single thin layer of sandstone at a depth of 105 feet.
The remaining material was sand and fine shell fragments. Well
656, in the Stuart municipal well field, penetrated beds of lime-
stone between depths of 52 and 88 feet and between depths of
103 and 136 feet. Well 615, near Jensen Beach, penetrated loose
sand to a depth of 65 feet. A driller's log of well 80, at the Stuart
airfield, reported that the well was uncased in a shell bed between
depths of 72 and 80 feet. Well 841, four miles south of Stuart,
penetrated limestone between depths of 82 and 87 feet and 126






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


and 140 feet. Well 905, north of Stuart, penetrated layers of
limestone and sandstone between depths of 60 and 65 feet and
100 and 135 feet.
The foregoing data illustrate the nonuniformity of the shallow
aquifer beneath the coastal ridge and the lack of continuity of the
highly permeable zones. Exploratory drilling is desirable in any
attempt to develop a ground-water supply in unexplored areas of
the coastal ridge.
Open-end wells sometimes can be constructed in shell beds
which contain loose sand and nodular sandstone. Wells are
developed by pumping, or by blowing with compressed air, to
remove the loose sand and finer material from the section below
the casing, which thus forms a natural gravel pack around the
end of the casing. The gravel pack tends to prevent further en-
trance of sand during normal use of the well.
In most areas of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge the sandy
components of the shallow aquifer will yield potable water in
quantities sufficient for domestic use. Most wells in the sand are
15 to 30 feet deep and are finished with 3- to 5-foot well points.

Eastern Flatlands, Orlando Ridge, and Everglades. The Eastern
Flatlands extends throughout the major part of Martin County
west of the coastal ridge (fig. 5). The thickness and character
of the shallow aquifer in this area is about the same as it is on
the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, but in general it does not contain as
much consolidated rock.
A study of geologic samples taken during the drilling of well
GS 23, 10 miles southeast of Indiantown, shows that there is no
appreciable thickness of consolidated rock to a depth of 90 feet
below the land surface. Well 1, drilled to a depth of 161 feet, on the
Orlando Ridge at the Indiantown water plant, did not penetrate
any consolidated rock. In the Indiantown area, small-diameter
open-end wells can be constructed immediately below the hardpan,
in permeable sand from 25 to 35 feet below the land surface. Open-
end wells can be developed in shell beds from 95 to 110 feet below
the land surface to yield moderate amounts of potable water.
North of Indiantown, on the Orlando Ridge, wells 937 and 938
penetrated dense sandy limestone from 126 to 196 feet below the
land surface. At this interval the open hole beneath the casing
will remain open even when blasted with a moderate charge of
dynamite, in attempting to improve permeability. Well 937, 4
inches in diameter, is uncased between depths of 156 and 210 feet.
Well 938, 3 inches in diameter, is uncased between depths of






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


126 and 180 feet. These two wells yielded 60 gpm (gallons per
minute) and 70 gpm, respectively.
Consolidated material occurs locally at shallow depth in the
Eastern Flatlands. One such location is south of the St. Lucie lock
and dam (fig. 2), where many small-diameter open-end wells are
constructed between 22 and 25 feet below the land surface. Con-
solidated material was also encountered in the vicinity of Port
Mayaca, between 11 and 21 feet below the land surface.
Shell beds occur in many parts of the county but they are dis-
continuous and differ in thickness, character, and depth. They
are more prevalent in the eastern part of the Flatlands than in
the western part and are usually between 60 and 120 feet below
the land surface.
As in the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, nodular sandstone is often
associated with the beds of shell. Open-end wells capable of yielding
relatively large quantities of water are often constructed in these
beds by removing the fine material from an area around the bottom
of the well and leaving the shells and rock fragments as a coarse
gravel pack. Well 871, an 8-inch well at the Stuart maintenance
station of the Sunshine State Parkway, yielded an estimated 500
gpm from a bed developed in this manner.
Most of the sand of the Eastern Flatlands area is of low to
medium permeability, but sandpoint wells will yield enough water
for most domestic needs. Where sufficient water cannot be obtained
from a single well, two or more wells are sometimes connected to
produce the required quantity. Most sandpoint wells are 15 to
45 feet deep and 11/4 to 2 inches in diameter.
The subsurface lithology in the Everglades is a continuation of
the type of materials underlying the adjoining Eastern Flatlands
area.


SHAPE AND SLOPE OF WATER TABLE

The water table is an undulating surface conforming in a
general way to the topography of the land. It is higher beneath
hills and ridges than it is beneath low areas and its slope is usually
not as steep as the slope of the land surface. Generally, the depth
to water is greater beneath the ridges than it is in the Flatlands.
For example, the water level in well 837 on the Orlando Ridge is
about eight feet below land surface or about 40 feet above mean
sea level, and the water level in the Allapattah Flats, 1.5 miles
west of the well, is above land surface or about 26 feet above mean






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 23


Figure 7. Water table in the Stuart area, July 6, 1955.


sea level. Most of Martin County west of the coastal ridge is
relatively flat and the water table is close to the land surface.
The water levels in observation wells in the Stuart area were
measured at various times to determine the altitude and shape
of the water table in the area and to determine changes in ground-
water storage in the aquifer.
The water table is highest in the south-central part of the
Stuart area, and slopes east, north, and west toward points of
ground-water discharge in the Manatee Pocket, the St. Lucie






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 8. Water table in the Stuart area, October 5, 1955.

River, and the South Fork of the St. Lucie River (figs. 7, 8).
Ground water flows approximately at right angles to the contour
lines; therefore, it is apparent from figures 7 and 8 that practically
all the recharge to the nonartesian aquifer in the Stuart area is
derived from local rainfall. Much of the rainfall is quickly absorbed
by the permeable surface sands and infiltrates to the water table.
Evidence of this lies in the fact that the water level in well 656
(Stuart well field), 144 feet deep, rose 1.11 feet within 12 hours
after a rainfall of 1.09 inches was recorded at Stuart. Surface






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


runoff generally is small, except after an exceptionally heavy rain-
fall.
Figures 9 and 10 show how pumping in the city well fields
affects the water table. Figure 9 shows the water table on April
1, 1955, when the supply wells at the old city well fields, at the
water plant and the ball park, were being pumped. Figure 10
shows the water table on May 3, 1955, when wells in the old well
fields were shut down and wells in the new city well field, south
of 10th Street and west of Palm Beach Road, were being pumped.

WATER-LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS

Six automatic water-level recording gages were installed on
wells in Martin County. Five of the six gages, installed at different
locations in the county, record data on the natural rise and fall of
the water table during the year. The sixth gage, in the Stuart
well field, records the natural fluctuations and the effects of
pumping on the water levels (figs. 11-13). In addition, tape
measurements of water level were made in many wells (table 8).
Well 125, in the sand-hills area of Jonathan Dickinson State
Park, is 90 feet deep, and the water level in this well responds
very slowly to rainfall, compared to the water levels in the other
wells, because of the relatively greater depth to water. The water
table in well 125 is 11 to 18 feet below the land surface, and down-
ward infiltration of rainfall through the thick sand section is so
retarded that the water is appreciably delayed in reaching the
water table. Consequently, rainfall is added to the ground-water
zone over relatively long periods.
The record from the gage on well 140 shows that the water level
in this well responds more rapidly to rainfall than the water level
in well 125. Well 140, 30 feet deep, is 13 miles southeast of Indian-
town at the edge of a slough area in the Eastern Flatlands, and
its water level usually is less than four feet below the land surface.
During heavy rains the water rises as much as 2.5 feet within a
few hours, because the rain has to infiltrate only a few feet to
the water table. When the water table reaches the land surface,
additional recharge is rejected and the excess water runs off as
surface-water flow. The decline -of the water table in the area of
well 140 is gradual, owing to the slight slope of the water table. A
large part of the water is discharged from the area by
evapotranspiration, especially when the water table is within a
foot of the surface. At such times, a distinct diurnal fluctuation
of as much as 0.2 foot occurs.


















LUCIE


OLD WELL FIELDS
WATER PLANT BALL PARK
FIELD FIELD


EXPLANATION
LINE SHOWING APPROXIMATE ALTITUDE
OF WATER TABLE,IN FEET ABOVE MEAN
SEA LEVEL.NOTE CHANGE IN CONTOUR
INTERVAL AT 2.0 FEET.
MUNICIPAL WELL
.I00 0b I000


Figure 9. Water table within the Stuart city limits, April 1, 1955.


RIVER















OLD WELL FIELDS


EXPLANATION
.-5.01
LINE SHOWING APPROXIMATE ALTITUDE
OF WATER TABLE,IN FEET ABOVE MEAN
SEA LEVEL. NOTE CHANGE IN CONTOUR
INTERVAL AT 2.0 FEET.
MUNICIPAL WELL
1000 IN 1O0O


Figure 10. Water table within the Stuart city limits, May 3, 1955.


LUGIE


RIVER


















X4 i "A i-m


"A lia h~is


n 1 1 1 1 I J , ,- ... I I L ; 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 .1 1 1 iJ J


i I L




S I I; 1 17 i , i I i -

]1 ? .. ...... I I i I I i !, I I t J l1 1. I I t II I 1 I 1 1 li

" I 0 1
9:9" ::]: : :: aZOw": ]:f:I1Ow":::]
MIT 1! 0 1 11


1-4
c

be
a
Q"


Figure 11. Hydrographs of wells 125, 140 and 147 and rainfall at Stuart.


J. r r;-l r.;. -~11111;


_IIL~ I.L~L )


1Y___
--1'- __, --~Y~..-. -.-. -I--~-.rCC -- ~



r r r i r F r w r .I
























,,,J& l.it.jI ,. -,.I I ---, I. ,.iL-L IlElt,


Figure 12. Hydrographs of wells 928 and 933 and rainfall at St. Lucie
Canal Lock.


L ly rJ d I _~











Isis I".?


a I











I I I H I i ii I i II I I iI I I ii L f
Figure 1. ydrgraph well 8 and rainfall at Stuart.



Foa





Figure 13. Hydrograph of well 658 and rainfall at Stuart.


sdS4






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 23


Well 147, in the city of Stuart, is 74 feet deep, and its water
level ranges from about 1 foot to 10 feet below the land surface.
The material from the surface to a depth of 10 feet consists of
fine to medium quartz sand. The hydrograph of this well (fig. 11)
shows that the water table responds to rainfall more rapidly when
it is near the surface. The record shows also a daily fluctuation of
about 0.2 foot caused by pumping in the Stuart municipal well
field, which is about one-quarter mile east of the well.
The gage on well 988, six miles west of Stuart, was installed
in June 1957. The water level in this well is within three feet of
the land surface most of the year, and it is often above the top
of the ground during the rainy season (fig. 12). The well is 14
feet deep and about 50 feet from a drainage ditch. The material
from the land surface to the bottom of the well is mostly fine,
clean, quartz sand. The water level rises sharply (as much as
1.75 feet in an hour) because the rainfall can easily reach the water
table through the permeable surface sand. The water level in the
well usually drops rapidly from its peak because of the drainage
effect of the nearby ditch. However, during prolonged periods of
heavy rain the drainage ditch is filled and cannot accept ground-
water inflow; under these conditions the water table remains high
for a relatively long period.
Well 928, at Indiantown, is 11 feet deep and penetrates only
fine quartz sand, except for a layer of hardpan between four and
five feet below the land surface. The water level in the well
fluctuates from slightly above land surface to about three feet
below (fig. 12). It does not rise as fast as in well 933, probably
because the surface sand is not as permeable and the vertical
movement is impeded by the hardpan.
The gage on well 658, in the Stuart well field, records water-
level fluctuations caused by pumping in addition to the natural
fluctuations (fig. 13). Well 658 is 100 feet from a municipal
supply well and about 300 feet from the center of the cone of
influence caused by pumping the three municipal supply wells.
The purpose of the installation is to record the progressive trend
of water levels in the well field and to ascertain when they have
reached equilibrium. A persistent decline eventually would expose
the well field to salt-water encroachment from the St. Lucie River.
Figure 18 shows the daily high and low water levels in well 658
for the period of record. The lowest point reached was 1.82 feet
below mean sea level in February 1957, and the highest was 10
feet above mean sea level in October 1957 and January 1958. A
study of the hydrograph reveals that the average water level does







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


not indicate a progressive decline at the existing pumping rate.
The water levels in late 1957 and early 1958 were higher than
they were shortly after the well field was put in operation, in
1955.
Comparison of the hydrograph of well 658 (fig. 13) with the
daily rainfall at Stuart and the hydrograph of well 147 (fig. 11),
on the edge of the well field, shows that water levels in the well
field respond to changes in rainfall and reflect, in general, the
natural fluctuations of water levels in the area. If hydrologic
conditions remain essentially as they were during the period shown
in figure 13, the well field should not be endangered by salt-water
encroachment.

RECHARGE

The shallow aquifer in Martin County receives most of its
recharge from rainfall in and immediately adjacent to the county.
The average rainfall is about 60 inches a year, of which 65 percent
occurs from June through October. Most of the county is covered
by sand that is sufficiently permeable to absorb practically all the
rainfall. In general, surface-water runoff is small except in the
slough areas where the water table is at or above the land surface.
The hydrographs in figures 11, 12, and 13 indicate a general
increase in ground-water storage due to abundant rainfall during
June through October, and discharge of ground water from storage
during November through April or May. A small amount of water
may seep from the St. Lucie Canal during low ground-water
stages; however, except near the St. Lucie locks, the water level in
the canal is generally lower than the water table and ground
water is discharged into the canal. A small amount of recharge to
the shallow aquifer comes from the downward seepage of artesian
water that was used for irrigation.

DISCHARGE

Ground water is discharged by flow into streams, springs, or
lakes, by direct flow into the ocean, by evapotranspiration, and by
pumping from wells. Many small streams and sloughs in Martin
County discharge ground water to the Atlantic Ocean and Lake
Okeechobee. In the central part of the county, where the water
table is at or near the surface during most of the year, evapo-
transpiration is a very important means of discharge. In addition
to natural means of discharge, much ground water is carried away







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


by canals and ditches. The amount discharged by wells during
1957 was very small compared to the total amount discharged
from the shallow aquifer. This is discussed more fully in the
section on use.

ARTESIAN AQUIFER

The artesian aquifer in Martin County is part of the Floridan
aquifer, which underlies all of Florida and southern Georgia. The
Floridan aquifer as defined by Parker (1955, p. 189) includes
"parts or all of the middle Eocene (Avon Park and Lake City
limestones), upper Eocene (Ocala limestone), Oligocene (Suwannee
limestone), and Miocene (Tampa limestone, and permeable parts
of the Hawthorn formation that are in hydrologic contact with the
rest of the aquifer)."

AQUIFER PROPERTIES

Wells penetrating the Floridan aquifer will flow in all parts
of Martin County, except at the tops of the high sandhills in the
eastern part of the county where the land surface is more than
50 feet above mean sea level. The top of the Floridan aquifer
in Martin County is usually between 600 and 800 feet below the
land surface. The thickness of the aquifer is unknown, as no wells
have completely penetrated it. The deepest known wells extend
1,300 to 1,500 feet below mean sea level.
Wells drilled into the Floridan aquifer in the area west (up-
thrown side) of the fault (fig. 6) usually begin to show an
appreciable flow from about 660 to 800 feet below mean sea level.
East (downthrown side) or the fault, wells must be drilled 800 to
1,000 feet below mean sea level before they will flow.
Figure 6 is a contour map drawn on the top of the limestone
of the Ocala group. West of the fault this limestone usually
provides the first significant flow of water, as the overlying Tampa
and Suwannee beds are either very thin or missing. East of the
fault the Suwannee limestone is relatively thick and will yield
small quantities of water.
Most of the artesian wells in the county include limestone of
the Ocala group in the producing part of the open hole, and end
in the underlying Avon Park limestone. No wells are known to
penetrate the Lake City limestone. A well north of Indiantown
was reported to have been drilled to a depth of 1,800 feet and may
have penetrated the Lake City limestone. The water at that depth







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


was reported to be too salty for irrigational use, and the well was
sealed off at 1,100 feet, before its initial depth could be verified.
Most wells are cased only into the Hawthorn formation to a.
depth below which the driller feels the hole will stay open.
This depth differs throughout the county ranging from 275 feet
below the land surface, in well 448 near Palm City, to 795 feet,
in well 128 in Stuart. The amount of casing in a well is generally
related to the depth to the top cf the Ocala group (fig. 6), but
lithologic variations within the Hawthorn formation and the
personal factor of the driller's judgment account for some of the
differences in the length of casing in different wells.
Current-meter traverses were made in wells 748 (2 miles
west of Palm City), 745 (12 miles west of Palm City), and 150
(3 miles south of Salerno) (figs. 14, 15) to determine the zones
that were contributing water to the wells. A current-meter traverse
in a well furnishes measurements of the velocity of the water at
different depths. If the open hole that penetrates the aquifer is
reasonably uniform in diameter, an increase in velocity in a
particular interval indicates that water is entering the well bore
within that interval. It is reasonable to assume, from the evidence
gathered from lithologic and electric well logs and from
observations made during the drilling of artesian wells, that the
limestone of the Floridan aquifer in Martin County is fairly


Figure 14. Data obtained from wells 745 and 748.









REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23 37

-L
AO PCd,%jIAL LITHOLOY Ej Y' RELATIVE VELOCITY
.aL R.V,/MIN, Or CUIRRNT METER
MSL--- --" I ....

t Estimated flow 140 gpr

100 -

casing
200 *___



300. L- -



S400



3 o

G00 ------ --
g


700 -
CO


- 7000- _

I B .

ooo-


Figure 15. Data obtained from well 150.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


homogeneous. The open hole is probably slightly smaller in the
dense, less permeable zones than it is in the more permeable zones.
This probably accounts for the small reversals in the velocity
graphs of wells 748 and 150 (figs. 14, 16). By current-meter
traverses it is possible to determine the main producing zones with-
in the aquifer. If many strategically spaced wells were available
for study in an area, the zones could probably be correlated.
Unfortunately, there were only a few wells in Martin County of
sufficient diameter to accommodate the current-meter tube.
A current-meter traverse of well 748, 2 miles west of Palm
City (estimated flow 300 gpm), shows that about 30 percent of
the flow enters the well between depths of 660 and 675 feet, about
25 percent between 700 and 720 feet, about 25 percent between
740 and 760 feet, and the remaining 20 percent from intervening
sections and below 760 feet to the bottom of the well which is 773
feet below the land surface (fig. 14). Thus, it can be seen that
about 80 percent of the water comes from 55 feet of the total 110
feet of open hole.
Well 745, 10 miles west of well 748, is 696 feet deep and has
an estimated flow of 190 gpm. Nearly 100 percent of the water is
entering the well between depths of 685 and 696 feet (fig. 14).
Well 150 (estimated flow 300 gpm) is located east of the fault
(tig. 6). This traverse shows a different pattern of flow distribution
because the producing zone is thicker than the producing zone
west of the fault and the permeability is more uniform. Water is
contributed to the well at a rather uniform rate throughout the
part of the aquifer penetrated by the well; 18 percent of the water
enters the well between depths of 960 and 970 feet, 18 percent
enters between 1,235 and 1,245 feet, and the rest enters more or
less uniformly from the intervening sections and between 1,246
feet and the bottom of the hole at 1,315 feet (fig. 15).
Well 841 (estimated flow 140 gpm) is south of Stuart and east
of the fault line. The flow pattern in this well was noted during
drilling operations and is similar to that in well 150; 20 percent
of the water enters the well between depths of 820 and 830 feet,
20 percent enters between 866 and 888 feet, and the remaining 60
percent enters rather uniformly from the rest of the producing zone
to the bottom of the well at 1,057 feet.
Well 910 (estimated flow 225 gpm) first began to flow at a
depth of 850 feet. This well was drilled with a cable-tool machine,
and only a part of the rock cuttings was cleared from the well
during each bailing. The heavy drilling mud thus formed during
drilling may have retarded the flow of water. The well might have







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 28


flowed at a shallower depth if all the rock cuttings had been
removed from the well during drilling operations.

PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE

The piezometric surface is an imaginary surface representing
the pressure head of the water confined in an artesian aquifer. It
is the height to which water will rise in tightly cased wells that
penetrate the artesian aquifer. In areas where the water level will
rise above the land surface, the pressure head is usually measured
with a pressure gage at the well outlet. The first survey of the
piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer was presented by
Stringfield (1936) from data obtained in 1934. Figure 16 shows
the piezometric surface of peninsular Florida, as defined by String-
field, but revised to include the most recent data available in
December 1957.
The artesian pressure head in Martin County ranges from 48
to 58 feet above mean sea level. The piezometric surface slopes in
an east-southeasterly direction in Martin County; however, local
cones of depression caused by relatively large withdrawals distort
the regional pattern (fig. 17). The depressions in the vicinity
of Palm City and Indiantown are caused by heavy use of water
within these areas, and the depression in the northwest corner of
the county is caused by heavy use in the southeastern part of
neighboring Okeechobee County. Pressure measurements made in
wells 150 and 306, in T. 39 S., R. 41 E., show a sharp drop in the
piezometric surface compared to measurements made in nearby
wells; however, wells 150 and 306 yield water having a relatively
high salt content and, consequently, a higher specific gravity
than that in other wells in the county. The column of water in
wells 150 and 306 exerts a greater pressure against the aquifer
than an equal column of fresh water. The pressure readings
obtained at the top of these wells, therefore, do not represent the
true pressure within the aquifer in terms of fresh water.
When corrections are made in accordance with the Ghyben-
Herzberg principle (p. 64), to correlate the pressures observed
in wells 150 and 306 with the pressures in areas where the water
has less salt, the adjusted pressure head is about 48 feet. This
pressure is consistent with the regional slope of the piezometric
surface (fig. 16).
The piezometric surface is higher than the water table in all
parts of Martin County. It is also above the land surface, except
on the tops of some of the sandhills in the eastern part of the










FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


EXPt.ANAT0N
Uni jrnt epealma altitude
of t> prolmefric urfoace In
feet above mean seu lvel ln1949,
t11 rntlns tmrougb 1957.
Canto.r Intermal 10 fest.
SCALE IN MILtE
I0 S o 10 0 30 40 so


Figure 16. Piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer, 1957, in peninsular

Florida.


*







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 23


county. The land surface rises to 49 feet above mean sea level
north of Indiantown, and there the piezometric surface is only
slightly higher; consequently, most of the wells are equipped with
pumps.
There is no apparent change in artesian pressure with depth
in the aquifer, at least within the range of depths observed in
Martin County.

WATER-LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS

The piezometric surface fluctuates in response to recharge by
rainfall, discharge from wells, earthquakes, passing trains, and
variations in barometric pressure (Parker and Stringfield, 1950,
p. 441-460). The changes due to earthquakes, passing trains, and
barometric pressure are of short duration, but changes due to
recharge by rainfall and discharge from wells usually occur over
a relatively long period. The fluctuations due to recharge by rain-
fall decrease in magnitude with increased distance from the
recharge area. The principal recharge area for the artesian
aquifer in southern Florida is centered in Polk and Pasco counties,
approximately 100 miles from Martin County. At this distance,
fluctuations of the piezometric surface due to seasonal rainfall in
the recharge area are probably small.
No continuous, long-term records of the artesian pressure in
Martin County are available, but changes in the amount of rainfall
in the recharge area over a period of years would probably be
reflected in the piezometric surface in Martin County. There is
no evidence that rainfall within the county itself has any direct
effect on the piezometric surface. Artesian water levels usually
rise during the rainy season, probably because most wells are shut
off during wet weather, not because the artesian aquifer is
receiving local recharge.
Discharge from wells causes the greatest changes in the
piezometric surface. A pressure gage was installed on well 748,
2 miles west of Palm City (fig. 2), and left for several weeks
to record the natural fluctuations of the piezometric surface. Then,
well 752, which had been closed during this period, was allowed
to discharge at the rate of about 300 gpm for 24 hours. The
pressure in the observation well, which is about 1,000 feet from
the discharging well and about the same depth, showed a decline of
about 0.5 foot at the end of the test. Continuous discharge of
water from a number of wells over a period of years causes a
wide cone of depression to form, as shown in figure 17.

















EXPLANATION

Line hoing opprounole alttiude
of the palome1tric surface an fhl
obove mNon ~o level in 1957

Well in which water level was measured


- _-6


Contour


interval


I foot


1 e


H uig


-5 c -


I


- -


0

In


0
m


In
TU


i


I -


I


I'-

- 4. -- -- -


'sH


-- "-----


rf

f42E


--- --- "F-- .-


SjALF I


Figure


17. Piezometric


surface


of the Floridan


aqu ifer.


April


1957


in Martin


.39c


140


UILES


II -r I =


r ^-*







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


The available data on long-term trends of water levels in the
artesian aquifer in Martin County are shown in table 2. The
artesian pressure measurements, of the four wells that have the
longest periods of record, show apparent declines of the piezometric
surface ranging from 1.7 to 6.7 feet between 1946 and 1957. Some
of the declines may be due to local water use at the time of
measurement or to leakage through breaks in the casing below the
ground level; however, declines are shown in all wells for which
long-term records are available. They can probably be attributed
to one or both of the following factors: (1) increased use of
artesian water in the recharge area or the area between Martin
County and the recharge area, either of which would reduce the
flow of artesian water into Martin County; and (2) increased use
of artesian water in Martin County.

TABLE 2. Artesian Pressures, in Feet Above Land Surface, at Selected Wells
in Martin County, 1946-57


Well 33 Well 86 Well 143 Well 146
Water Water Water Water
Date level Date level Date level Date level

7- 2-46 12.7 7-23-46 45.0 5-24-51 27.5 9-10-51 18.5
3- 2-53 11.0 3-27-52 43.2 3-27-52 27.7 3-26-52 17.7
1-25-57 6.0 7- 6-56 40.0 4-25-57 25.5 2-19-53 18.2
5- 7-57 42.5 3- 6-57 16.8


RECHARGE

The Floridan aquifer is recharged where the permeable rocks
that constitute the aquifer are at or near the surface or where the
water table is higher than the piezometric surface and the confining
bed is thin or relatively permeable.
The principal recharge area for central and southern Florida
is in and around Polk County, where the piezometric surface is
highest (fig. 16). In much of Polk County, limestone of the
Floridan aquifer is overlain by semiconfining beds of the Haw-
thorn formation, which are not impermeable and may permit
downward leakage. The semiconfining beds may have been
penetrated by sinkholes which now are occupied by lakes. Possibly
these sinkholes are filled with somewhat permeable sand which, in
some places, permits downward movement of water.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


DISCHARGE

The water level in the Floridan aquifer in Polk County and
vicinity is at a higher altitude than it is in the surrounding areas.
The water in the aquifer moves downgradient, perpendicular to
the contour lines shown in figure 16, to points of discharge. The
principal points of discharge are springs and wells, and where
upward leakage occurs through the confining bed.
There are no known natural springs in Martin County, but
there probably are submarine springs where the Floridan aquifer
crops out on the ocean floor. If the slope of the top of the Floridan
aquifer east of Martin County is approximately the same as it
is in Martin County, the Floridan aquifer should crop out on the
floor of the ocean about 25 miles offshore. Also if the slope of the
piezometric surface and the salinity of the water are uniform,
the pressure head near the outcrop area would be about 36 feet
above mean sea level, or about eight feet higher than is necessary
to balance the pressure of the sea water at 1,100 feet below mean
sea level. The artesian water could, therefore, discharge into
the ocean; however, the outcrop area is probably covered by
somewhat impermeable sediments of relatively recent origin, which
could restrict such discharge.
The total discharge from wells in Martin County was relatively
small in 1957. The yields of the 80 artesian wells ranged from
less than 10 gpm, in wells obstructed by an accumulation of clay
in the open-hole part of the well, to 750 gpm, in free-flowing wells.
The average yield is probably about 200 gpm; thus, the total dis-
charge, if all wells were opened would be about 25 mgd (million
gallons per day). The discharge probably averages less than 10
mgd, as most wells are used only a few months of each year and
others are not used at all. A few wells in the high area north of
Indiantown are equipped with pumps to increase their yields,
because the artesian pressure and the natural flow are low.
Discharge by upward leakage through the confining beds of
the Hawthorn formation is probably small in Martin County.
The confining bed is composed of more than 500 feet of fine sand,
silt, and "tough" green clay of extremely low permeability. The
low permeability was illustrated in the following test made during
the drilling of well 841, south of Stuart. Drilling operations were
temporarily suspended, owing to mechanical failure. The casing
was set at 230 feet and there was 400 feet of open hole in the
Hawthorn formation. The well was being jetted with clear water,
and when the jetting rods were removed the water level was







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


about 10 feet below the top of the casing. The water level
remained static until the next day, when the casing was filled to
the top with water and allowed to remain for 24 hours. During
this 24-hour period the water level declined only about 2 feet,
showing that the Hawthorn formation could absorb only a few
gallons of water through 400 feet of open hole in 24 hours.
Further evidence that very little leakage was taking place
through the confining bed was noted during the drilling of test
well 656, in the Stuart well field. This well was drilled 150 feet
below land surface, to the top of the Hawthorn formation. The
chloride content of water samples taken during the drilling of the
well remained constant at about 18 ppm (parts per million) as
the well approached the top of the confining bed, even though the
underlying artesian water had a chloride content of more than
1,000 ppm.

QUANTITATIVE STUDIES

The ability of an aquifer to transmit water is expressed as the
coefficient of transmissibility. In customary units, it is the quantity
of water, in gallons per day, that will move through a vertical
section of the aquifer one foot wide and extending the full
saturated height of the aquifer, under a unit hydraulic gradient
(Theis, 1938, p. 892), at the prevailing temperature of the water.
The coefficient of storage is a measure of the capacity of the
aquifer to store water and is defined as the volume of water
released from or taken into storage per unit surface area of the
aquifer per unit change in the component of head normal to that
surface. The "leakage coefficient" indicates the ability of the beds
above and below the aquifer to transmit water to the main
producing zone. It may be defined as the quantity of water that
crosses a unit area of the interface between the main aquifer and
its semiconfining bed, if the difference between the head in the
main aquifer and in the bed supplying the leakage is unity. These
coefficients are generally determined by means of pumping tests
on wells.
The withdrawal of water from an aquifer causes a decline of
water level (drawdown) in the vicinity of the point of withdrawal.
As a result of this drawdown, the water table or piezometric
surface assumes the approximate shape of an inverted cone having
its apex at the center of withdrawal. The size and shape of this
cone of depression depend on the transmissibility and storage
coefficients of the aquifer and the rate of pumping.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


PUMPING TESTS

Six pumping tests were made of the shallow aquifer in Martin
County, four of these within the city limits of Stuart.
The first test was made in the new city well field on March 9,
1955, well 657 (municipal supply well 1) being pumped at the rate
of 135 gpm for 11 hours. Water-level measurements were made
during the test in wells 656, 658, and 659, respectively 11, 100,
and 300 feet from the pumped well. Wells 658 and 659, are.cased
to 115 feet and have 10 feet of open hole in the underlying lime-
stone. Well 656 is cased to 144 feet and has one foot of open hole.
The water from well 657 was discharged into a ditch about 75
feet away, but because the ditch was choked with vegetation and
has only a slight gradient, water remained in the vicinity and
recharged the aquifer during the test.
The second test was made on March 23, 1955, also in the new
city well field. Well 724 (municipal well 3) was pumped at a rate
of 140 gpm for five hours, and water levels were observed in wells
659, 658, and 657, respectively 300, 500, and 600 feet from the
pumped well. The wells are all cased to 115 feet, and have 10 feet
of open hole in the underlying limestone. The water was discharged
into a ditch 200 feet from the pumped well and remained in the
area and recharged the aquifer, but this recharge did not affect
the water levels as quickly as that in test no. 1.
The third test was made on the following day, March 24, at
the same location as tests 1 and 2 (fig. 18). Well 723 (municipal
well 2) was pumped at a rate of 112 gpm for 5 hours, and water
levels were observed in wells 658 and 724, respectively 500 and
780 feet from the pumped well. All wells are cased to 115 feet,
and have 10 feet of open hole in the underlying limestone. The
water was discharged into a depression near the wells and
remained in the area, probably recharging the aquifer.
The fourth test was made on May 27, 1955 in the new well
field, which had been in operation prior to the test. Observation
well 658A, 13 feet deep, was installed 100 feet from well 657
(municipal well 1) and immediately adjacent to observation well
658. Prior to the test the well field was shut down overnight to
allow recovery of the water levels in the area. On the next morning
the measured water level in both the deep and the shallow
observation wells (658 and 658A) was 6.38 feet above mean sea
level. Well 657 was pumped at a rate of 103 gpm for nine hours
and at the end of this period the drawdowns in wells 668 and
658A were 3.58 and 0.34 feet, respectively (fig. 19). The water







REPORT; OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


Figure 18. Location of wells used in pumping tests.


level in well 658 began to decline almost immediately after
pumping started, and had fallen three feet after 21 minutes. Near
the end of the test the water level in well 658 had nearly stabilized,
whereas that in well 658A was still falling, but at a decreasing
rate. The water was discharged into the city mains and so did not
return to the aquifer.
Two pumping tests were made on the farm of Captain Bruce
Leighton, about 10 miles west of Palm City, during the periods







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


TIME, IN MINUTES AFTER PUMPING STARTED
so 0 100 5O0 t o SOO 350 400 450 Soo0 50



"-WELL 658A --




M3 -













Figure 19. Drawdown observed in wells 658 and 658A during pumping test
in the new city well field, May 27, 1955.

October 25-26, 1956, and July 10-12, 1957, using the irrigation
wells on the farm. In the first test, well 891 was pumped for two
hours at 500 gpm and 25 hours at 725 gpm. The water was
discharged into a nearby irrigation ditch and remained in the
area. During this test, tape measurements of the water level
were made in observation well 892, located 190 feet from the
pumped well (fig. 18). Automatic recording gages were installed
on observation wells 894, 898, 900, 896, and 897, which were
1,300, 2,600, 2,700, 3,400, and 3,430 feet, respectively, from the
pumping well. Significant drawdowns were observed in wells 892
and 894, but if any drawdowns occurred in wells 898, 900, 896,
and 897, they were very slight and were masked by the natural
decline of the water table and by the effects of barometric
fluctuations.
The second test was made in the same area of the Leighton
farm (fig. 18). Well 894 was pumped for 48 hours at the rate of
340 gpm. Automatic recording gages were installed on observation
wells 899, 900, 898, and 896, which were 1,400, 1,400, 1,700, and




TABLE 3. Results of Pumping Tests in Martin County, 1955-57

Depth of well
(feet)










3- 9-55 657 656 125 144 11 135 18,000 0.0025 0.287 5.75
3- 9-55 657 658 125 125 100 135 23,000 .00015 .095 3.39
3-9-55 657 659 125 125 300 135 27,000 .00035 .048 1.29
3-23-55 724 659 125 125 300 140 17,000 .00035 .048 1.76
3-23-55 724 658 125 125 500 140 23,000 .00051 .075 .67
3-23-55 724 657 125 125 600 140 24,000 .00056 .098 .41
3-24-55 723 658 125 125 550 112 26,000 .00038 .085 .63
3-24-55 723 724 125 125 780 112 22,000 .00064 .174 .10 7
5-27-55 657 658 125 125 100 103 16,000 .00010 .016 3.58

LEIGHTON FARM
10-25-56 891 892 75 40 190 725 30,000 .00023 .027 9.86
10-25-56 891 894 75 75 1,300 725 83,000 .0065 .126 .38
7-10-57 894 899 75 35 1,400 340 35,000 .0021 .072 .25
7-10-57 894 900 75 135 1,400 340 55,000 .0012 .040 .44

-Ha2tush, 1956, p. 706.
"Gallons per day per square foot per foot of vertical head.
1Gallons per day per square foot per foot of vertical head.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


2,100 feet, respectively, from the pumped well. Significant draw-
downs were observed in wells 899 and 900 (table 3).

INTREPRETATION OF PUMPING TEST DATA

Theis (1935, p. 519-524), using basic heat-transfer formulas,
developed a method to analyze the movement of water through an
aquifer which is (1) homogeneous and isotropic, (2) of infinite
areal extent, (3) of uniform thickness, (4) bounded above and
below by impermeable beds, (5) receiving no recharge, (6) fully
penetrated by the discharging well, and (7) losing water only
through the discharging well. If an aquifer meets all these
conditions, the Theis nonequilibrium method, as described by
Wenzel (1942, p. 87-90), will give a true transmissibility value
for the aquifer, regardless of the distance of the observation well
from the pumped well or the rate of pumping.
When the data from the tests in Martin County were analyzed
by the Theis method, the computed values of the coefficient of
transmissibility ranged from 18,000 to 170,000 gpd per foot for
the same area, indicating that the aquifer does not meet all the
above conditions. From well logs and cuttings and the performance
of individual wells, the main producing zone which is at a depth of
103 to 140 feet in the new Stuart well field, appears to be reasonably
homogeneous, isotropic, and uniform in thickness. For a test of
short duration the aquifer is, in effect, of infinite areal extent,
but it is not bounded above and below by an impermeable bed, as
is shown by the fact that the water level in shallow well 658A
(fig. 4) began to decline 8 minutes after pumping in well 657 began
(fig. 19). The water was discharged on the ground in the vicinity
of the pumped wells in tests 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6; consequently, the
aquifer was receiving recharge. In addition, the pumped wells
did not fully penetrate the aquifer.
After corrections were made for the effects of partial penetra-
tion and for the natural fluctuations of the water table, the
corrected data were plotted on logarithmic graph paper as s versus
t
-, or drawdown (s) versus time (t) since pumping began divided
by the square of the distance (r) between the pumped well and the
observation well. The resulting curves were compared with a
family of leaky-aquifer type curves developed by H. H. Cooper, Jr.
of the U.S. Geological Survey. This family of curves is based upon
the equation for nonsteady flow in an infinite leaky aquifer
developed by Hantush and Jacob (1955, p. 95-100) and described







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


by Hantush (1956, p. 702-714). The equations assume a permeable
aquifer overlain by semipermeable beds through which water, under
a constant head, can infiltrate to recharge the aquifer. The
transmissibilities obtained by the leaky-aquifer method apply
to the permeable aquifer and a second factor-called the leakage
coefficient-applies to the semipermeable beds overlying the main
producing zone. The coefficients of transmissibility, storage, and
leakage for the six tests made in Martin County are shown in
table 3.
The wells used in the pumping tests in the new Stuart well
field were nearly uniform in depth. The observation wells were
spaced at different distances from the pumped well (fig. 18), so
the observed drawdowns gave a good picture of the cone of
depression due to pumping. When the data for each test were
analyzed, the calculated values for the coefficients of transmissibility
(table 3) all fell within the narrow range of 16,000 to 27,000
gpd per foot, and it is reasonable to assume a value of about
20,000 gpd per foot for the area. The wells used in the pumping
tests on the Leighton farm were irrigation wells, and they were
not ideally situated for observing drawdowns. Most of the
observation wells were spaced too far from the pumped wells, and
all but one were developed at depths different from those of the
pumped wells. As a result, the tests in the Leighton farm area
show a much wider range of values for the coefficient of
transmissibility than do the tests made in the Stuart well field.

QUALITY OF WATER

The water that falls on the earth's surface as rain or snow is
relatively free of dissolved mineral matter except for very small
quantities of atmospheric gases and dust. As it runs off or
infiltrates into the ground, the water dissolves some of the material
with which it comes in contact. Some minerals are dissolved much
more easily than others; thus, the degree of mineralization of
ground water depends generally upon the composition of the
material through which the water passes.
Chemical analysis of 52 samples of water from Martin County
(23 from the artesian aquifer and 29 from the shallow aquifer)
has been made by the U. S. Geological Survey. The results of
these analyses are listed in tables 4 and 5. In addition,
determinations were made of the chloride content of the water
from 767 wells; and these are shown in table 8. Determinations
of 140 samples from 26 selected wells are listed also in table 6.





T'AuLE 4. Analyise of Water from Wulls in the Artesian Aquifer in Martin County
(Analyise by U. 8, Geological Survey, Chumlical constituent" are expressed in parts pur million,)


ti


ri2


19











17
17


0.04
.43
.15
.04
.04
.11
.08
.14
.02
.03
.28
.06
.06



.11
.0


144
70
61
82
98
114
108
99
92
89
82
92
84



131
148


118
72
47
52
69
104
87
122
83
82
78
83
72



94
79


C


905
453
200
250 6.4
337
746
596
984
506
501
..... ......
725
537
473



545 14
541 4.0



..... ......


180
74
176
169
186
188
182
156
192
192
228
190
200



164
162


836
309
188
182
216
276
292
223
235
232
226
247
232



215
148


1,640
760
310
450
625
1,340
1,040
1,790
900
885
890
1,190
940
800
810
950
4,050
252
1,150
1,140
1,180
350
1,310
2,900
258


I-
Fa
1
0


0.7
.9
.8
.8
.7
.8
.8
1.6
.1
.1
,1
.1
.1



.8
1.0


0.8
.3











.0
.9


-6
1B
'g
0

0=


3,280
1,740
894
1,126"
1,440
2,670
2,210
3,800
1,900
1,880
2,070"
2,410
1,990
1,760
1,950"
2,280"'
7,400"
674:"
2,250
2,910"1
8,050"
878"
2,860b
6,0801
778"


844
471
345
418
528
712
627
749
571
559
550
525
570
506
540
610
1,310
220
714
696
740
320
780
1,100
300


1;
a
i
8

f II!I~~u
rna


5,710
3,130
1,00
2,020
2,610
4,770
3,950
5,990
3,450
3,410
3,440
4,370
3,570
3,190
3,150
3,580
11,300
1,190
4,040
3,950
4,760
1,450
4,470
9,380
1,310


0
uro


7- 3-56
6-27-40
6-28-46
3-25-58
6-28-46
7-17-46
7- 7-46
7-18-46
7-19-46
7-23-46
7-15-57
7-23-46
7-23-40
7-24-46
7-15-57
7-16-57
7-15-57
7-17-57
6-22-57"
3-11-58
7-16-57
7-17-57
7-17-57
7-16-57
7-18-57


27
29
30
31
43
47
64
65
86
87
88
95
106
110
150
172
186
740
744
745
841
901


7.0
6.5
7.1
7.3
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.3
7.2
8.1
7.1
7.2



7.4
7.3


"Other determinations: Aluminum .0, Manganese .00, Lithium 2.0, Phosphate .00, Beta-gamma activity (Micromicrocuries
per liter) 200, Radium (Micromicrocuries per liter) 11, Uranium (Micrigrams per liter) 1.2.
bResidue on evaporation at 180 C-other values for dissolved solids are sum of determined constituents.


1_ I _( L ( ) I





TABLE 5. Analyses of Water from Wells in the Shallow Aquifer in Martin County
(Analyses by U. S. Geological Survey. Chemical constituents are expressed in parts per million.)
@J


Cd 0
I l I Ih

wU 4
i ~ 1 i *I i A 8 .l-


GS 23 8-12-43 .... 0.03 128 26 182 418 139 238 ...... 0.6 920 426 1,560 12 7.2
1 10- 3-45 .... .... 64 7.4 16 231 17 13 ..... .2 231 190 428 105 7.4
8 9-12-41 .... .1 82 5.7 3.2 269 9.7 5 ...... .0 238 231 449 50 ......
9 9-12-41 .... .4 148 19 6.7 489 39 10 ...... 8.2 472 447 802 140 ......
13) 3-24-48n .... .01 39 2.1 9.7 120 l 5.1 16 0.1 ".6 132 106 233 6 7.1
14) .... ...... ...... ...... .....
15 10- 3-41 .... .91 124 10 51 396 724 9 ... .1 489 351 887 150 ......
17 10- 3-41 .... .79 59 5.0 1.2 189 8.0 5 ...... .1 172 168 327 160 ......
19 6-27-46 .... .96 86 18 126 278 1 235 .4 1.0 605 289 1,150 53 7.3
22 7- 2-46 .... .08 128 30 124 548 34 161 ......-...... 747 443 1,380 60 7.0
36) ------
37) 7-16-46. .... .02 93 .0 2 2 19 258 .24 7 .3 18 i305 248 7558 28 7 1
66 7-19-46 .... .04 77 3.2 7.8 244 1 15 .0 .1 224 205 411 1 7.4
81 7-28-46 .... .06 80 3.8 11 248 1 24 .0 1.0 243 215 461 18 7.1
97)
98) 3-24-48" .... .04 102 4.6 35 224 12 108 "1 .8 373 273 701 7 7.0
99) .... .........------......----- -----------
127 7-15-57 .... ...... ...... ...... ..... ........ 30 ...... ...... 96' "64 180 ..... ......
151 7-16-57 .... ...... .... ... .... ... ..... ..... 32 6691 470 916 ...... ......
161 7-16-57 .... .. ... ...- .. .. .... ... ..... ....... 605 .... ...... 1,540b 440 2,570 -.. ......
214 7-16-57 .... ..... ...... .. ...... ..... ...... ........ 92 .... .... 443b 266 746
221 7-17-57 ....___ ...... __ ..... 570 1,450b 390 2,520 ..
"Composite sample.
bResidue on evaporation at 180 0C-other values for dissolved solids are sum of determined constituents.


o
0
I




0
0
z

0
CpO
M

I
m

to











TABLE 5. (Continued)

-7


[I :5


I 0


7-17-57
3-25-58
6-14-57
7-18-57
7-15-57
7-15-57
7-18-57
7-18-57
7-17-57
7-18-57
7-17-57
8-13-57
3-25-58


12
14







24
19


ito
M
a s 0 1 A
'-0 i z

E K K aL
"3 a a


.02 70 .9
.73 86 2.3







.28 134 i35
.03 109 3.4


7.8
9.8


...
.7
.4
I--


"--


459
7.4 1.4


220
272







362
492
362


.5
.0



iii


128
1.8


.. z


I I
V


35
16 .1
15 .1
23 .
26
21
27
17


626 .4
16 .3


.4
.0







6.6
.1


a


Asl8
a iQ
U)a


2341' 186
218b 178
262 224
340b 270
229" 176
289b 238
2241 188
138" 67
478b 314
526" 312
483b 322
1,660 554
334'' 266


398 -
386 I
459 2
561
384
486
382_
240
742
862
802
2,850 30
588 21


455
655
657
750
755
776
8835
875
894
929
930
936
939


7.6
7.4







7.6
7.4


6


V 0Q
iv
o 5

s&

1a 0 O
co o


M M-1 I en


11 --- I "


I -


-I -


I


I


1,


I






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


The water from the shallow aquifer generally has a much lower
mineral content than the artesian water and is more potable.

HARDNESS

The hardness of water is commonly recognized as the soap-
consuming property of water. It is the CaCO., equivalent of
calcium, magnesium, and other cations having similar soap-
consuming properties. The following table shows the hardness
scale that is generally used by the U. S. Geological Survey in the
classification of water.

Degree of
Hardness as CaCO,, (ppm) hardness

0 to 60 -...-.=. .. Soft
61 to 120 ...-. ---...... Moderately hard
121 to 200 ..-.. ..-..-.-.....-- Hard
More than 200 .......-... --..... .. Very hard

None of the samples collected in Martin County can qualify as
soft. Three samples are in the slightly hard range, five samples
are in the hard range, and the rest, including all from the artesian
aquifer, are in the very hard range. One of the three samples in
the slightly hard range was collected from a shallow well developed
in the sandhills in the vicinity of Jensen Beach and the other
samples came from shallow wells developed in the sandhills near
Jonathan Dickinson State Park.
Outside these two areas most of the water in Martin County
is either hard or very hard, but it may be commonly softened for
household use. The greatest hardness noted in the shallow aquifer
was 554 ppm in water from well 986, near Indiantown, and the
lowest was 64 ppm from well 127, south of Jonathan Dickinson
State Park. The greatest hardness in the artesian water was
1,310 ppm in well 150 on the Harris ranch six miles south of
Stuart, and the lowest was 220 ppm in well 172 on the Adams
ranch four miles northwest of Indiantown.

DISSOLVED SOLIDS

The amount of dissolved solids in water is approximately equal
to the amount of mineral matter that remains after a quantity of
water is evaporated. The maximum amount recommended by






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


the U. S. Public Health Service for drinking water is 500 ppm,
although as much as 1,000 ppm is permissible if water of better
quality is not available. Water having a dissolved-solids concentra-
tion greater than 1,000 ppm probably would have a noticeable taste
and also would be unsuitable for many industrial uses. Most of
the water from the shallow aquifer in Martin County has a
dissolved-solids concentration of less than 500 ppm (table 5).
All samples of water from the artesian aquifer contained dissolved
solids in excess of 500 ppm, and only four had less than 1,000
ppm; thus, the artesian water in most instances is not suitable for
public or domestic supplies.

SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE

Specific conductance is a measure of water's ability to transmit
an electric current. Distilled water and water of low mineral
concentration is resistant to the conduction of electricity, whereas
highly mineralized water conducts an electric current with relative
ease.
The values for specific conductance can be used to estimate
values for dissolved solids in the water samples from Martin
County by multiplying by a factor of 0.6. The accuracy of the


PI3.20 OrArPN sOWi~I rT NEtLAt'ONi SETWtEN SPECIFic CONDUCTANCE AND DISSOLVCO SOLIDS IN WATER SAMPLES rfOM
MARTIN COUNTY
Figure 20. Relation between specific conductance and dissolved solids in water
samples from Martin County.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


approximation is indicated by figure 20, which is a graph of
specific conductance versus dissolved solids of samples for which
both have been determined.


HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION (pH)

The hydrogen-ion concentration, expressed as pH, indicates
whether the water is acid or alkaline. Values for pH higher than
7.0 indicate increasing alkalinity, and values lower than 7.0
indicate increasing acidity. A pH of 7.0 indicates a neutral
solution.
Most of the water in the shallow aquifer is nearly neutral and
only slightly alkaline. All water samples from the artesian aquifer
except one were neutral or alkaline. This sample may have been
contaminated or altered before analysis.


IRON (Fe) AND MANGANESE (Mn)

Iron differs from most other chemical constituents normally
found in ground water, in that concentrations of only a few tenths
of a part per million may cause the water to have a disagreeable
taste and cause staining of fixtures, laundry, the outside of
buildings, and even grass and shrubbery if it is used in a sprinkler
type irrigation system. The iron remains in solution as a ferrous
bicarbonate, Fe(HCO:).,, and the water is clear until it is exposed
to the atmosphere, whereupon the iron is oxidized to the ferric
state and precipitates as the hydroxide Fe(OH)., or oxide FeO:,.
The U. S. Public Health Service recommends that the
concentration of iron or iron and manganese together be under
0.3 ppm. Water having greater concentrations is not injurious to
health, but will generally be unsatisfactory because of staining.
The iron content of water from the shallow aquifer in Martin
County ranges from 0.00 to 0.96 ppm. The occurrence of water
having a high concentration of iron is unpredictable and may differ
with depth as well as location. A well that produced iron-free
water when it was first drilled may, with time and pumping,
intercept water of high iron content from nearby areas.
Iron can be removed from water by aeration and filtration.
Aeration exposes the water to the oxygen in the air and most of
the iron is precipitated. The water is then passed through a filter,
usually sand or charcoal, where the precipitate is removed.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


CALCIUM (Ca) AND MAGNESIUM (Mg)
Dissolved calcium and magnesium are responsible for most of
the hardness of water. These elements are dissolved from lime-
stone (predominantly calcium carbonate) and dolomite
(predominantly calcium and magnesium carbonate), and from
shell material incorporated in sand deposits.
Water in Martin County is most readily available in layers of
carbonate rock and shell, which accounts for the generally high
calcium-magnesium content of the water.
The calcium concentration (59 to 148 ppm) in the shallow
aquifer is generally much higher than the magnesium concentra-
tion (2 to 30 ppm), indicating that most of the carbonate material
in Martin County is limestone rather than dolomite.
The artesian aquifer is composed principally of limestone and
contains only minor amounts of dolomite; however, the magnesium
content of the water is about as high as the calcium content. This
is because the artesian aquifer in Martin County has not been
completely flushed of the sea water which entered it during the
Pleistocene epoch when the ocean stood above its present level.
The magnesium content of ocean water is much higher than the.
calcium content; thus the high concentration of magnesium in the
artesian water probably is the result of contamination by sea
water rather than solution of dolomitic rock.
SODIUM (Na) AND POTASSIUM (K)
Small amounts of sodium and potassium are found in almost
all natural water, and moderate amounts do not affect its potability.
Large concentrations of these elements, however, make the water
unsuitable for most purposes. The sodium concentration is usually
much higher than the potassium concentration, and in tables of
analyses one value is often given for both elements (tables 4, 5).
High concentrations of sodium are usually associated with
contamination by salt water, since most of the sodium is associated
with chloride in the form of salt solutions. Calculated values for
sodium range from 1.2 to 459 ppm in samples from the shallow
aquifer and from 200 to 984 ppm in samples from the artesian
aquifer.
BICARBONATE (HCOO,)
The total alkilinity of a water sample is the sum of its
hydroxide (OH), carbonate (CO:,) and bicarbonate (HCO:,) ions,
expressed in terms of equivalent quantities of CaCO,. Bicarbonate






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 23


results from the solvent action of water containing carbon dioxide
on carbonate rocks (CaCOa+H2O+CO---Ca(HCO,) ,.
In the samples from the shallow aquifer in Martin County the
bicarbonate content ranged from 120 to 548 ppm. The bicarbonate
content of the artesian water (74 to 228 ppm) is generally lower
than that of the shallow water.

SULFATE (SO4)

The sulfate ion is of little significance in domestic water
supplies, except where the concentration is so large (more than
about 500 ppm) as to have a laxative effect. U. S. Public Health
Service recommends that the concentration be no higher than 250
ppm in public water supplies. Industrial operators using steam
boilers may consider high concentrations of sulfate objectionable
if the water is high in calcium and magnesium, because of the
character of the boiler scale produced.
Most of the water in the shallow aquifer in Martin County
contains little sulfate. The range in the samples analyzed was
from 0 to 39 ppm, except for a sample from well GS 23 (90 ft),
which was 139 ppm, and one from well 936, which was 128 ppm.
These samples may have been contaminated by trapped Pleistocene
sea water, as the chloride contents were 238 and 626 ppm.
Generally, a high sulfate concentration is associated with a high
chloride content, although this is not always the case. The sulfate
content of water in the artesian aquifer ranges from 188 to 336
ppm. The sulfates of calcium and magnesium cause noncarbonate
hardness, which is more difficult to remove than carbonate
hardness.

CHLORIDE (Cl)

The chloride content of water is generally a good indication of
the extent of contamination by salt water. The U.S. Public
Health Service has. set a limit of 250 ppm of chloride for public
supplies, except where no other water is available. Water with a
chloride content of 500 ppm begins to taste salty to most people,
and water with a chloride content much in excess of 750 ppm
will cause damage to plants, shrubs, and even grass, if it is used
for a long period of time; occasional wettings with water of high
chloride content probably would not be harmful to most grasses. A
high chloride content makes water more corrosive. Chloride will
be discussed more thoroughly under "Salt-Water Contamination."






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FLUORIDE (F)

Studies in some areas of the United States have shown that
children who drink water that contains about one ppm of fluoride
have fewer dental cavities than those who drink water with much
less than one ppm (Black and Brown, 1951, p. 15). However, the
presence of fluoride in concentrations of more than 1.5 ppm tends
to mottle the enamel of the permanent teeth of young children
who drink the water for a prolonged period of time. Only a few
of the water samples from the shallow aquifer have been analyzed
for fluoride content. In these samples it ranged from 0.0 to 0.4
ppm. The fluoride content of the artesian water ranges from 0.1
to 1.6 ppm.

SILICA (SiO,)

A small amount of silica is present in almost all ground-water
samples, but it is of relative unimportance, except in water in
boilers, where it contributes to the formation of scale. Silica in
two samples of water from the shallow aquifer was 14 ppm and
24 ppm (wells 657 and 936) and in one sample from the artesian
aquifer was 17 ppm (well 186).

NITRATE (NO,)

The presence of nitrate in excess of 50 ppm may be a
contributing factor in the development of cyanosis, or methemoglo-
binemia, in infants (Black and Brown, 1951, p. 12). Most of the
samples of water from the shallow aquifer contained less than
two ppm of nitrate; however, two samples (from wells 9 and 936)
contained 8.2 ppm and 6.6 ppm, respectively. The nitrate
concentrations in water from the artesian aquifer were less than
one ppm. The analyses indicate that nitrate is relatively
unimportant in the water of Martin County.

HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H,S)

Hydrogen sulfide is a gas which is held in solution in some
ground water. Upon exposure to air some of the gas escapes and
gives "sulfur water" its characteristic odor. Hydrogen sulfide is
found in all water from the artesian aquifer in Martin County and
in a few samples from isolated areas of the shallow aquifer.
However, quantitative figures as to the amounts present are not







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 23


available. Most of the gas can be easily removed from water by
aeration.

COLOR

Color in water generally is due to the presence of organic
material dissolved from organic matter with which the water comes
in contact. Color is sometimes due to precipitated iron, the water
usually being clear when it comes from the well but becoming
colored upon exposure to the air. Organic color is present in the
sample as collected and is usually accompanied by a moldy odor,
which is a clue to its origin.
Color in water from the shallow aquifer in Martin County
referred to units on the platinum cobalt scale ranges from 1 to 160
and is usually higher in the western part of the county than it is
in the eastern part. The color in the water from the artesian
aquifer ranges from one to five.

TEMPERATURE

Collins (1925, p. 97-104) reported that "The temperature of
ground water available for industrial supplies is generally from
2 to 30F above the mean annual air temperature if the water is
between 30 and 60 feet below the surface of the ground. An
approximate average for the increase in temperature with depth
is about 1F for each 64 feet."
The mean annual temperature in Martin County is 75.2F
(table 1), and the water temperature of the shallow aquifer would
be expected to average about 77.5F. The actual average
temperature of 120 water samples taken from the shallow aquifer
was 75.50F. The readings ranged from a low of 70oF to a high
of 820F in wells ranging in depth from 10 feet to 110 feet. The
temperature of the water in the shallow aquifer varies with the
seasons, the greater variance being in the water close to the
surface. Water temperatures from individual wells are listed in
table 8.
The temperature of the water from the artesian aquifer ranges
from 750 to 910F (fig. 21). If the above statement by Collins were
valid for Martin County, the temperatures should range from
870F in the north-central part of the county, where the aquifer
is nearest the ground surface (fig. 6) to 940F in the southeastern
part of the county, where the aquifer is deepest. Instead, the coolest
water (750F) is found in the eastern part of the county, and the










EXPLAdAY V-I

.1t;IW*O 3:OF7V1 \
I.
I\^ L\ r


1 6 T cf \ A






"*' W" ,- ,
I \rrp\, 0




II -4.

Fgr \ T re r in aa w in Mrin


F ige -- --- -2.- --T--p--r-t- ---of- -wae ia arw---- in Mri Con


Figure 21. Temperature of water in artesian wells in Martin County.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


warmest water (910F) is found in the north-central part. The
temperature of the artesian water in Martin County does not seem
to be controlled by the depth of the well. Wells 186 and 747, in
the north-central part of the county, are about the same depth and
only three miles apart, yet the water in well 186 is 910F while
that in well 747 is only 810F. The low temperature of the artesian
water in the eastern part of the county may be due to the cooling
effect of the ocean water, but that does not explain the temperature
differences in other parts of the county. The radioactivity of the
water (well 186, table 5) may be a factor; however, further
investigation including additional analyses of radioactivity of water
from different parts of Martin County will be needed to determine
the cause of the temperature differences.

SALT-WATER CONTAMINATION

Salt-water contamination of the water in an aquifer is usually
the result of encroachment of ocean water. In Martin County
there are two major types of salt-water contamination: (1) recent
contamination, where the salt water is in dynamic equilibrium
with the fresh water, and the salt front fluctuates in accordance
with changes in fresh-water head in the aquifer, and (2)
contamination during the Pleistocene epoch, wherein ocean water
entered the aquifer when the sea level was higher than it is at
present and most of Florida was covered by the ocean. A third
type of contamination may be due to connate sea water that was
trapped in the sediments at the time of deposition; this type
probably is not very important in Martin County.

RECENT CONTAMINATION

Recent encroachment of salt water is restricted to a relatively
narrow strip of land bordering the ocean and other bodies of salt
water. The relationship between fresh water and sea water was
first investigated by William Badon-Ghyben in 1887 and
apparently independently by Alexander Herzberg about 1900
(Brown, 1925, p. 16). These investigators found that in an area
such as a small island or narrow peninsula the fresh water floats
upon the salt water. This occurs because the density of fresh
water is lower than that of sea water. The amount of fresh water
below mean sea level is a function of the height of the fresh water
above mean sea level, and the density of the sea water (fig. 22).







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


I -
Figure 22. Relation between salt water and fresh water according to the
Ghyben-Herzborg theory.

If
h=depth of fresh water below mean sea level;
t=height of fresh water above mean sea level;
g=specific gravity of sea water,
1.0-specific gravity of fresh water
then
t
g-1
The formula is illustrated in figure 22 which compares the
occurrence of fresh water and sea water in a small island or
narrow peninsula, with a large imaginary U-tube having one leg
beneath the land and one leg in the sea. In such a U-tube the
column of water which has ta height of h+t will balance the
column of sea water with a height h. The ratio of the heights of
the columns of fresh and sea water is equal to the ratio of their
specific gravities. That is h which reduces to the above'
formula.
The specific gravity of sea water is about 1.025. When this
value is substituted in the above equation, then h=40t. This
indicates that the depth of fresh water below mean sea level is
40 times the height of the water table above mean sea level, or,
stated simply, for each foot that the water table stands above mean







EXPLANATION
141 Chloride content
0 W -8 (parts per million) R41 E
Well,Upper number O 4
is number of well; 0-30 86
lower number is
depth of well 3 1-100, 3E

101-250 T
37 84 -
251-1000 Ae

More than 1000 77 3
-, -, 4. River 19
R 37E R38E R39E R40E St~ L-u
.- -- -

1STUAR 2
3 m
85 I P0



761 1 64


44 a4

55
SI 4'0 at2- 42
40/



-0




,, % I-\\ 7 O




4=0024
F51 i2\ Co

g 2 o naee v, ,o q






.-a I t 230
2 SS






4- 2 8 7










o 4 ['


Figure 23. Chloride content of water in representative wells in the shallow 1aqer of Martin County.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


sea level, the fresh water will extend an additional 40 feet below
sea level.
Further research by Hubbert (1940, p. 924), Glover (1959),
and Henry (1959) has shown that under natural conditions this
ratio is somewhat modified by the movement of the water,
especially where the slope of the water table is steep. Variations
in the composition of the water-bearing material and the salinity
of the salt water can also produce modifications of the 1 to 40
ratio (Kohout and Hoy, 1953, and Cooper, 1959). The modifications
are usually relatively minor and the Ghyben-Herzberg ratio is
useful in estimating the minimum depth to salt water in areas
adjacent to sea water.
The contact between fresh and salt water is gradational
through a zone of diffusion in which the water gradually increases
in salinity with depth. The zone of diffusion is formed by the
mixing action caused by the fluctuation of the water table, the
rise and fall of the tides, and the molecular diffusion of the salt
water. The thickness of the zone of diffusion is variable. Parker
(1945, p. 539) reports a thickness of about 60 feet in the Miami
area and in Martin County it is probably about the same.
The concentration of chloride in the ground water is generally
a reliable index to the degree of salt-water contamination, because
more than 90 percent of the dissolved solids in ocean water are
chloride salts. One or more chloride determinations have been
made of water samples from 771 wells in Martin County.
Locations of representative wells and the chloride content of their
water are shown in figures 23, 24, and 26. Results of
determinations of chloride content are shown in table 8.

Stuart Area

Salt water may enter the shallow aquifer in the Stuart area
from either of two sources: (1) by lateral encroachment from
bodies of sea water, including the St. Lucie River, the Manatee
Pocket, and tidal creeks and canals, and (2) by upward movement
of salt water from the artesian aquifer.
The most concentrated withdrawals of ground water in the
county are made in and near the city of Stuart, and some salt-
water encroachment has occurred in isolated areas during periods
of dry weather. Water samples were collected from several
hundred wells in the Stuart area for determinations of chloride
content (fig. 24). Those wells yielding water having an
appreciable chloride content were sampled periodically to detect






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Fir~ure 24. Chloride content of water from shallow well in Stuart area,

any variations (table 6). In most cases the fluctuations are caused
by variations in the amount of rainfall in the area or in the
amount of pumping. Usually it is a combination of the two,
because more ground water is needed for irrigation during dry
periods, as in 1955, and less during wet periods, as in 1947-48.
In a few cases, notably in wells 647 and 722, the chloride
content of the water dropped during a dry period, owing to the
cessation of pumping in the old city well field and the plugging of
a leaky artesian well, well 128 (fig. 4). Wells 619 and 654 showed







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO, 23


TABLE 0. Chloride Concentrations in Water Samples from Selected Wells

Depth of well Chloride
Well (feet below content
No. land surface) Date of collection (ppm)

100 47 Sept, 20, 1946 110
Oct. 7, 1940 181
Dec. 10, 1940 188
Feb. 0, 1947 124
Mar. 18, 1947 158
Apr. 24, 1947 118
May 12, 1947 104
June 25, 1947 111
Mar. 10, 1948 104
June 10, 1948 89
Sept. 15, 1948 94
Dee. 10, 1948 74
Feb. 11, 1949 110
July 1, 1949 118
Apr. 27, 1092 185
Jan. 28, 1955 101
May 11, 1955 166
June 29, 1965 148
105 88 Aug. 13, 1946 84
Sept. 20, 1940 27
Nov. 7, 1940 41
Dee, 19, 1946 07
Feb. 6, 1947 58
Mar. 18, 1947 40
June 25, 1947 49
Mar. 10, 1948 87
June 10, 1948 61
Sept. 15, 1948 87
Dee. 10, 1948 27
Feb. 11, 1949 08
Apr. 7, 1950 188
Jan. 1 18 1951 102
Aug. 21, 1951 109
Mar. 27, 1952 107
858 80 July 28, 1958 545
Jan. 20, 1055 670
June 80, 1955 580
Aug. 10, 1955 080
802 28 Aug. 4, 1968 85
Jan. 21, 1055 615
June 80, 1955 1,870
Aug. 10, 1955 2,020
Sept. 8, 1955 1,980







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 6. (Continued)

Depth of well Chloride
Well (feet below content
No. land surface) Date of collection (ppm)

515 60 Oct. 6, 1953 106
Jan. 11, 1955 131
Apr. 20, 1955 123
June 29, 1955 121
Sept. 5, 1955 157
Oct. 5, 1955 117
518 57 Oct. 6, 1953 46
Jan. 10, 1955 160
Jan. 27, 1955 103
Apr. 20, 1955 87
May. 11, 1955 80
June 29, 1955 96
Aug. 16, 1955 132
Sept. 7, 1955 136
520 35 Oct. 6, 1953 64
Jan. 10, 1955 66
Apr. 20, 1955 75
June 29, 1955 83
Sept. 7, 1955 79
523 45 Oct. 6, 1953 53
Jan. 10, 1955 36
Apr. 20, 1955 33
June 10, 1955 32
Sept. 7, 1955 36
525 49 Oct. 6, 1953 91
Jan. 10, 1955 85
Apr. 20, 1955 95
Sept. 7, 1955 124
588 50 Oct. 22, 1953 265
Jan. 10, 1955 328
Apr. 20, 1955 258
June 29, 1955 400
590 20 Oct. 22, 1958 45
Jan. 10, 1955 67
Apr. 20, 1955 67
June 29, 1955 70
597 15 Nov. 9, 1958 40
Jan. 10, 1955 86
Apr. 20, 1955 89
June 29, 1955 29







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


Table 6. (Continued)

Depth of well Chloride
Well (feet below content
No. land surface) Date of collection (ppm)

608 58 Nov. 23, 1953 100
Jan. 10, 1955 88
Apr. 20, 1955 87
June 29, 1955 80
619 57 Apr. 15, 1955 550
June 29, 1955 700
Aug. 16, 1955 650
Sept. 7, 1955 645
Oct. 7, 1955 650
620 56 May 11, 1955 42
June 29, 1955 43
Aug. 16, 1955 49
Sept. 7, 1955 47
622 56 Apr. 20, 1955 20
May 11, 1955 16
June 29, 1955 18
Aug. 16, 1955 15
Sept. 7, 1955 43

637 15 Jan. 11, 1955 245
Apr. 29, 1955 48
June 30, 1955 32

638 38 Apr. 20, 1955 230
June 29, 1955 272
Aug. 16, 1955 352
642 45 Apr. 20, 1955 56
June 29, 1955 76
Aug. 16, 1955 65

647 113 Apr. 15, 1955 98
June 29, 1955 40
Sept. 7, 1955 34

654 63 Feb. 3, 1955 197
Apr. 20, 1955 312
June 29, 1955 348
Sept. 7, 1955 348
Oct. 5, 1955 280

687 60 Apr. 19, 1955 775
June 29, 1955 780
Aug. 16, 1955 810








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 6. (Continued)


Depth of well
(feet below
land surface)

104
84





112



84



69


Chloride
content
Date of collection (ppm)

Apr. 22, 1955 9,180
Apr. 23, 1955 19
May 11, 1955 14
May 23, 1955 15
June 29, 1955 30
Aug. 16, 1955 15
Sept. 7, 1955 15
Apr. 20, 1955 78
May 26, 1955 61
June 29, 1955 37
Sept. 7, 1955 27


June 30, 1955
Aug. 16, 1955
Sept. 8, 1955
Oct. 7, 1955
June 30, 1955
Sept. 8, 1955
Oct. 7, 1955
Nov. 2, 1955


176
940
930
1,430
34
94
185
307


an increase and then a decrease in the chloride content of the
water in 1955 (table 6). The decrease was probably caused by
the flushing of the salty artesian water from the aquifer.
Contamination from Surface-Water Bodies. Encroachment
from the St. Lucie River and the Manatee Pocket is not extensive
at present. It has occurred only in areas near the coast, and no
encroachment has been found more than half a mile from the river.
The fresh-water head is high close to the shoreline, and in many
places fresh water can be obtained from wells within 100 feet of
salt-water bodies. It is reported that fresh water has been obtained
from wells driven in the river bottom, but the writer has not
confirmed this.
Heavy pumping in the areas adjacent to the St. Lucie River
may cause sufficient lowering of the water table to allow salt
water to invade the fresh-water zone. Water of high chloride
content was detected in well 720, about 1,500 feet from the St.
Lucie River, about midway between the river and the water-plant


Well
No.

720O







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


well field. When the well was drilled, water containing 9,180 ppm
of chloride was encountered at a depth of 104 feet. The well
casing was immediately pulled back 20 feet, to a depth of 84 feet,
where the chloride content of the water was only 19 ppm. A
layer of fine sand between 84 and 104 feet apparently acts as a
confining bed, because no appreciable increase in the chloride
content occurred after several months of intermittent pumping to
irrigate a lawn. It is believed that the salinity of the water in
well 720 is the result of direct encroachment from the St. Lucie
River, caused by heavy pumping at the water-plant and ball-park
well fields. However, when well 622, in the city ball-park well
field, was deepened from 56 feet to 115 feet the chloride content
of the water decreased slightly, from 36 to 20 ppm, indicating
that encroachment had not reached the vicinity of the well field
at the ball park. The water in well 722, 600 feet east of the city
water plant and 600 feet from the St. Lucie River, contained 78
ppm of chloride at a depth of 112 feet, indicating that encroach-
ment of water of high chloride content had not reached the vicinity
of the well field at the water plant. The salt-water front is probably
now stationary or is being pushed back toward the river because
of the increase of fresh-water head due to the cessation of pumping
of the city water-plant and ball-park fields. The position of the
salt-water front cannot be determined accurately because of the
lack of deep observation wells.
Some salt-water encroachment is occurring along the eastern
side of the Stuart area immediately adjacent to the St. Lucie River
and the Manatee Pocket. A relatively high, discontinuous ridge
parallels the eastern shoreline and is flanked on the west by low,
swampy land. The lowland'is drained by streams and ditches that
flow parallel to the ridge until they reach gaps where they cross
the ridge and discharge into the St. Lucie River and Manatee
Pocket. They reduce the fresh-water head under the ridge by in-
tercepting recharge from inland areas and depleting ground-water
storage beneath the ridge. Streams are also subject to
contamination during low ground-water stages and high tides.
Even moderate pumping in such an area results in movement of
salt water into the aquifer. The chloride content of the water in
well 362 in this area (fig. 3) increased from 35 ppm in 1953 to
more than 2,000 ppm in 1955 (table 6). This locality is especially
vulnerable to contamination because of its proximinity to a
drainage canal.
Contamination from Artesian Aquifer. The beds of relatively
impermeable clay and fine sand of the Hawthorn formation act as






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


an effective barrier to the vertical migration of salt water from
the artesian aquifer, except where the beds have been punctured
by wells. In the Stuart area, the artesian water contains between
800 and 4,500 ppm of chloride and is under a pressure head of
about 40 feet above the land surface. If this water were allowed
to flow freely at the surface it could contaminate the fresh water in
the shallow aquifer. The artesian water is highly corrosive, and,
after a period of years, it may corrode the casings of the wells and
create perforations through which the salty water can escape into
the fresh-water aquifer even though the top of the well is tightly
capped. An electric log, made by the Florida Geological Survey,
of well 128, an artesian well within 300 feet of the Stuart water-
plant well field, indicated many breaks in the casing at various
intervals below the land surface. Salt water escaping through
holes in the casing of this well is believed to be the source of
chloride contamination in the old well field. The contamination
could not be direct encroachment from the river because wells of
the same depth as the municipal wells and situated a few hundred
feet from the river bank, directly between the well field and the
river, yielded water whose chloride content was lower than that
in the municipal wells.
Evidence to support this conclusion was noted after the water-
plant and ball-park well fields were shut down. The water in
certain wells in the area increased markedly in chloride content
and when the data were plotted on a map, the wells in which an
increase had occurred formed a fan-shaped pattern extending down-
gradient from the artesian well, the axis of the pattern closely
paralleling the direction of the ground-water flow. The water in
well 619, nearest the artesian well, had the greatest increase in
chloride content, whereas that in wells farther away showed a
smaller increase. Water in wells outside the area did not change
appreciably. The observed changes in chloride concentration
probably were caused by leakage of salty water from the artesian
well. Prior to the shutting down of the water-plant well field,
most of the salty artesian water was being drawn into the supply
wells, where it was diluted by fresh water from within the area
affected by pumping.
Well 128 was filled with cement on April 25, 1955, the day that
pumping ceased in the water-plant well field, and the salty water
in the aquifer after that time was artesian water which had not
been flushed away. This residual artesian water moved down-
gradient and was diluted by fresh water. As the salty water was







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


dispersed, the water from wells downgradient from the artesian
well became fresher.

Jensen Beach and Rocky Point

Little or no salt-water encroachment has occurred in the Jensen
Beach area from the St. Lucie County line southward to Sewall
Point (fig. 5). Most wells in this area are sandpoint wells, 15
to 20 feet deep, and some are only a few feet from the Indian
River. The high fresh-water heads that are maintained in the
sandhills of the area keep the salt water from moving into the
shallow aquifer. Much of the ground water discharges into the
Indian and the St. Lucie rivers, through a zone extending from
slightly above the shoreline to points some distance from the river
banks (fig. 25). The upward seepage of fresh water along the
river bottoms makes it possible to obtain fresh ground water
immediately adjacent to the salt-water bodies. In some instances
shallow wells drilled a short distance out in the rivers may yield


Figure 25. Discharge of fresh water into a salt-water body.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


fresh water. These wells would probably pass out of the fresh
water into salt water if they were drilled deeper,
A similar situation exists in the area west of the Intracoastal
Waterway from Rocky Point southward to the Palm Beach County
line (fig. 5). The fresh-water head is high enough along the
coastal ridge to depress the salt front beyond the river banks in
most areas.

Sewall Point

Sewall Point is a narrow peninsula almost surrounded by salt
water. The source of the natural fresh water on the point is the
rain that falls on and immediately north of the peninsula. The
rainfall is rapidly absorbed by the permeable surface sand and
much of it reaches the water table. However, as Sewall Point is
very narrow, ground water has to travel only 500 to 1,000 feet
to points of discharge.
The average height of the water table in the Sewall Point area
is probably less than a foot above mean sea level, and from 15 to
30 feet below land surface. In accordance with the Ghyben-
Herzberg ratio, this indicates a maximum of about 40 feet of
fiesh water beneath most of the peninsula. In the northern part,
where the water table probably is slightly higher than in the rest
of the peninsula, a sample of water with a chloride content of 14,500
ppm was obtained at 70 feet below mean sea level in well 903 (fig.3).
Salt water was also reported at about 75 feet in a well drilled
near well 809. Most wells extend only a few feet below mean sea
level, so there is a considerable amount of fresh water beneath the
bottom of the well. However, under conditions of sustained, heavy
pumping the water table will decline below sea level and the salt
water will rise and move laterally and vertically toward the well.
(See 'Quantitative Studies," p. 45.) Eventually, the water from
the zone of diffusion may enter the well and temporarily destroy
the usefulness of the well. This usually happens during prolonged
periods of deficient rainfall when the aquifer received little or
no recharge and the demand for water is great. With the cessation
of pumping or the occurrence of heavy rainfall, the salt water will
gradually move outward and downward in the aquifer.
A long period of deficient rainfall occurred during 1955-56.
Analyses of water samples collected in June 1956 from many
wells on Sewall Point show that salt water had encroached into
the aquifer. Well 816, which is actually four closely spaced wells
connected in manifold, was heavily pumped for lawn irrigation:







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 28


and had the highest chloride content (1,000 ppm) on Sewall
Point. In addition, well 816 is quite close to wells 98 and 814, which
were being pumped. The combined pumpage of the wells in the
small area lowered the water table sufficiently to allow the salt
water to move in.

Hutchinson Island

The hydrologic conditions on Hutchinson Island are some-
what similar to those on Sewall Point except that the land is
narrower and the land-surface altitudes are much lower.
Consequently, the average altitude of the water table is lower than
it is on Sewall Point, probably only a few inches above mean sea
level.
Wells in many places on the island are still in fresh water a
foot or so below the water table; however, even moderate pumping
reduces ground-water levels below sea level and allows salty water
to enter the well. Small supplies of water for domestic purposes
might be developed in the most favorable locations on the island,
but even these would be subject to contamination during prolonged
drought periods.

Jupiter Island

The fresh-water lens on Jupiter Island is thicker than that on
Hutchinson Island, but not as thick as it is on Sewall Point. The
island ranges from 1,000 to 1,500 feet in width and from 0 to 30
feet in land-surface altitude,-greater than Hutchinson Island,
but narrower and lower than Sewall point. Differences in the
geologic and hydrologic conditions of the three insular areas
probably account for some of the differences in the relative
thickness of the fresh-water lenses.
Seven wells were inventoried and sampled during the investi-
gation of Jupiter Island in August 1956. Water samples from
four wells had chloride concentrations ranging between 570 and
1,190 ppm and samples from three wells had chloride concentrations
ranging between 57 and 61 ppm. The three wells containing the
smaller concentrations were near the golf course and were
probably receiving recharge from the large quantities of fresh
water used to irrigate the fairways and greens. Most of the water
used on Jupiter Island is piped across Robe Sound and the
Intracoastal Waterway from wells on the mainland.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


PLEISTOCENE CONTAMINATION

When Martin County and the rest of south Florida emerged
from the ocean after the last major advance of the sea, all the
land was saturated with salt water. Rain falling on the land and
moving through the ground has gradually carried most of the salt
water back to the ocean. The rate at which the salt water is
carried away depends upon the rate at which the water can move
through the ground. This in turn depends on the slope of the
water table or piezometric surface and the permeability of the
material.

Shallow Aquifer. Most of the Pleistocene sea water has been
flushed from the shallow aquifer in Martin County. The residual
Pleistocene sea water that has not been flushed out is mostly in
the lower part of the aquifer, especially in the western part of the
county. The shallow aquifer in the area of the Atlantic Coastal
Ridge has been almost flushed of sea water, probably because of
the generally steep slope of the water table and the high
permeability of the material. West of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge
and at considerable distances from present salt-water bodies, are
many areas where salty water occurs in the lower part of the
aquifer. One such area is east of Indiantown at the site of the
Westbury Farm horse-training track. Analyses of water samples
from wells 934, 935, and 936 (fig. 4) show that the chloride content
of the water in general increases with depth in the aquifer. The
chloride concentrations were as follows: at 22 feet, 82 ppm; at
44 feet. 42 ppm; at 63 feet, 86 ppm; at 86 feet, 810 ppm; and at
108 feet, 615 ppm.
The permeability of the material at 86 feet is quite high, but
that between 60 and 80 feet is very low. Possibly, the rainwater
cannot move rapidly through the relatively impermeable material
between 60 and 80 feet to clear the 86-foot stratum of its salt
contact. The area is very flat and is near the poorly defined divide
between water draining toward Lake Okeechobee and water
draining toward the Loxahatchee River and the Atlantic Ocean.
This tends to create a water table with very little slope and
consequently there is little ground-water flow.
Another example of apparent residual Pleistocene sea water
is shown by data from well 161. This well (117 feet deep) is near
the shore of Lake Okeechobee and yields water with a chloride
content of 650 ppm (fig. 28). The water from a nearby well (of
unknown depth) has a chloride content of 805 ppm. The geologic







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 28


and hydrologic conditions of this area probably are similar to those
near the Westbury Farm racetrack.

Artesian Aquifer. The piezometric surface of the Floridan
aquifer in Martin County is about 50 feet above mean sea level at
the present time. In accordance with the Ghyben-Herzberg ratio
this pressure head should be sufficient to insure at least 2,000 feet
of fresh water below sea level. Artesian wells in Martin County
range in depth from 700 to 1,485 feet; therefore, it appears that
the high chloride content of the water (fig. 26) is due to con-
tamination during the Pleistocene epoch rather than recent
encroachment of sea water.
Analyses of water samples taken at 5-foot intervals during the
drilling of wells 841 and 910 showed that the chloride content of
the water decreased with increasing depth in the aquifer. In well
841, south of Stuart, the chloride content decreased from 4,050
ppm at 845 feet to 2,900 ppm at 1,057 feet. In well 910, north-
west of Indiantown, the chloride content decreased from 935 ppm
at 850 feet to 770 ppm at 1,096 feet. The water will probably be
saltier again at greater depths. Very salty water was reported
at a depth of 1,800 feet in a well at the Adams ranch north of
Indiantown, but the well was sealed off at 1,100 feet before a
sample could be taken.
It appears that there are relatively fresh and salty zones
within the artesian aquifer. The fresh zones probably correlate
with the permeable strata, and the salty zones with the relatively
impermeable strata. Unfortunately, data are not sufficient to
define accurately the zones of fresh water. It might prove
profitable during drilling to analyze the water at different depths
in the aquifer, so that the salty zones can be recognized and sealed
off, and, thus, develop only the fresher zones in the well.
The artesian aquifer in Martin County in 1957 contained a
certain amount of salt water. The quality of the water should
improve as the salty water is discharged and replaced by fresh
water from the recharge area. However, considering the great
thickness and areal extent of the aquifer and the amount of salty
water in storage in the aquifer, a considerable amount of time
will have to elapse before any improvement is noticed.

USE

All public and most domestic supplies of water in Martin
County are obtained from ground-water sources. In addition,









----------------------------
00
o -hlu- gll E--. -- --. ,





















: ii \-, ,,,
r
r 2 C i c e of W e zw













26. Chloride content of ater in artesian wells in Martin County.
1 --7- -1- HSf -1- -- ---- -*1 -Tit - -- -i


Fiur 26 hoiecneto ae natsa el nMri ony







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 28


ground water is used extensively for irrigation, stock watering,
industry, and air conditioning.
PUBLIC SUPPLIES

Three towns in Martin County have public water supplies:
Stuart, Hobe Sound, and Indiantown. In 1.957 Stuart obtained its
supply from three wells (657, 723, and 724) developed in the
shallow aquifer, and the pumpage in 1957 totaled 103 million
gallons (table 7). Hobe Sound obtained its water from six wells
located in the sandhills near Jonathan Dickinson State Park.
Water from the town of Hobe Sound is pumped across the
Intracoastal Waterway to the town of Jupiter Island because no
large dependable supplies are available on Jupiter Island. The total
pumpage in 1957 for Hobe Sound is not available. Indiantown
obtained its water supply from 10 shallow wells and pumpage in
1957 was about 8.5 million gallons.
IRRIGATION AND STOCK SUPPLIES
Irrigation and stock watering probably account for the largest
withdrawals of ground water in Martin County.
Water from the shallow aquifer is used for irrigation by the
flower growers in the Stuart area, by farmers growing vegetables,
citrus fruits, watermelons, potatoes, etc., and Py ranchers for
pastureland, stock watering, and feed crops.
Approximately 80 artesian wells have been drilled in Martin
County for various types of irrigation and other uses. Many of
the wells were originally drilled for irrigating such crops as
tomatoes and watermelons. The land is often farmed for only one
or two years, after which it is seeded for pasture. The wells are
then used to irrigate the pasture and water the stock. The total
use of artesian water for irrigation may be as much as 10 mgd
during the dry season; however, during the rainy season most
wells are turned off.
The shallow aquifer is the main source of water for the many
small wells used to irrigate lawns and shrubbery. The greatest
concentration of these wells is in and around the city of Stuart. A
small amount of water from the artesian aquifer is used for lawn
irrigation.
OTHER USES
Small quantities of ground water are used in other activities,
such as industrial and cooling processes, and for swimming pools.













TABLE 7. Pumpage from Stuart Well Field, in Millions of Gallons Per Month

Year Jan Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total

1941 2.63 2.77 3.23 2.89 2.70 2.82 2.48 2.68 2.57 2.69 2.91 2.62 32.98 ?
1942 3.26 3.54 3.29 3.26 3.67 3.24 3.40 3.30 3.06 3.47 3.48 3.53 40.51 0
1943 3.53 3.42 3.57 3.62 3.80 3.57 3.49 3.61 3.44 3.63 3.74 3.94 43.35
1944 3.93 4.04 4.41 4.36 4.38 4.29 3.88 3.50 3.40 3.23 3.28 3.63 46.31
1945 3.86 3.60 4.25 3.89 3.71 3.34 3.02 3.28 3.12 3.11 3.18 3.64 42.00 0
1946 3.91 3.85 4.00 4.30 3.40 2.94 3.05 3.21 3.16 3.80 3.55 3.86 43.04
1947 4.14 3.74 3.98 3.61 3.77 3.11 3.48 3.50 3.10 3.27 3.29 3.50 42.47 o
1948 3.61 4.36 5.00 4.56 4.14 3.74 3.53 3.41 3.25 3.79 4.04 4.22 47.65 8
1949 4.32 4.17 4.77 4.27 3.94 3.13 3.34 2.83 3.96 3.58 3.74 4.01 46.05
1950 4.00 4.84 5.18 4.56 4.79 4.12 4.15 4.28 5.00 4.90 4.81 5.78 56.43
1951 6.08 5.71 6.73 5.30 6.73 5.18 4.27 5.43 4.19 3.68 4.55 5.01 62.86
1952 6.11 5.39 4.76 4.98 5.20 5.39 5.54 5.75 5.59 5.90 5.59 5.56 65.74
1953 6.34 5.85 6.35 6.18 6.47 5.37 5.93 5.34 5.44 5.03 5.23 5.90 69.42
1954 6.42 6.65 6.75 6.48 6.40 6.26 5.89 6.70 5.82 6.34 6.75 7.57 78.02
1955 8.32 7.23 8.21 7.54 8.15 7.91 6.85 7.11 6.67 7.55 7.95 7.57 91.07
1956 8.19 8.08 8.23 7.23 7.38 7.26 7.33 7.37 6.78 7.10 7.62 9.32 91.89
1957 9.24 9.19 9.57 8.05 8.30 8.08 7.96 7.77 7.95 8.32 9.33 9.08 102.83







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 23


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The principal source of fresh water in Martin County is a
shallow nonartesian aquifer which extends from the land surface
to a depth of about 150 feet. This aquifer is composed of sand,
thin limestone layers, and shell beds. It is nonuniform in its water-
bearing properties but generally is more permeable in the eastern
part of the county than in the western part. The aquifer in the
western part of Martin County has only been partially explored and
it may contain large quantities of water. In general, only a small
part of the potential yield of the shallow aquifer was being used
in 1957.
Salt-water encroachment into the shallow aquifer has not been
extensive but it is a problem in areas bordering bodies of salt
water, such as Sewall Point and Hutchinson and Jupiter Islands.
Leaky artesian wells also have caused salt-water contamination
in a few areas. Diluted sea water that entered during the
Pleistocene epoch remains trapped in some parts of the shallow
aquifer in western Martin County.
The artesian aquifer is composed of limestones of Eocene age
that range from 600 to 800 feet below the surface. Large
quantities of water are available from this aquifer but the water
is usually highly mineralized. The degree of mineralization differs
in different areas of the county and in different zones within the
aquifer. The dissolved solids range from 674 to 7,400 ppm and
the chloride concentrations range from 252 to 4,050 ppm. The
fresh-water zones within the aquifer probably correspond to the
more permeable layers and lie between saltier less permeable zones.
Few wells tap the artesian aquifer in Martin County and much
water of fair to poor quality could be developed.

REFERENCES
Applin, Esther R.
1945 (and Jordan, Louise) Diagnostic Foraminifera from subsurface
formations in Florida: Jour. Paleontology, v. 19, no. 2, p. 129-
148, pls. 18-21.
Black, A. P.
1951 (and Brown, Eugene) Chemical character of Florida's waters
-1951: Florida State Board Cons., Div. Water Survey and
Research, Paper 6.
1953 (and Brown, Eugene, and Pearce, J, M.) Salt-water intrusion in
Florida-1958: Florida State Board Cons., Div. Water Survey
and Research, Paper 9.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Brown, Eugene (see Black, A. P.)
Brown, John S.
1925 A study of coastal ground water, with special reference to
Connecticut: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 537.
Collins, W. D.
1925 Temperatures of water available for industrial use in the United
States: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 520-F.
1928 (and Howard, C. S.) Chemical character of waters of Florida:
U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 596-G.
Cooke, C. W. (see also Parker, G. G.)
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29.
Cooper, H. H., Jr.
1959 A hypothesis concerning the dynamic balance of fresh and salt
water in a coastal aquifer: Jour. Geophys. Research, v. 64, no.
4, 461-467.


Davis, John
1943


H., Jr.
The natural features of southern Florida, especially the vegeta-
tion and the Everglades: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 25.


Ferguson, G. E. (see Parker, G. G.)


Glover, R. E.
1959 The pattern of fresh-water flow in a coastal aquifer: Jour.
Geophys. Research, v. 64, no. 4, p. 457-459.
Hantush, M. C.
1955 (and Jacob, C. E.) Nonsteady radial flow in an infinite leaky
aquifer: Am. Geophys. Union, v. 36, no. 1, p. 95-100.
1956 Analysis of data from pumping tests in leaky aquifers: Am.
Geophys. Union Trans. v. 37, no. 6, p. 702-714.
Henry, R. H.
1959 Salt intrusion into fresh-water aquifers: Jour. Geophys. Research,
v. 64, no. 11, p. 1911-1919.
Howard, C. S. (see Collins, W. D.)
Hoy, N. D. (see Kohout, F. A.)

Hubbert, M. K.
1940 The theory of ground-water motion: Jour. Geology, v. 48, no.
8, pt. 1, p. 785-944.

Jacob, C. E. (see Hantush, M. C.)

Jordan, Louise (see Applin, Esther R.)

Kohout, F. A.
1953 (and Hoy, N. D.) Research on salt-water encroachment in the
Miami area, Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey open-file rept (dupl.).








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


Lichtler, W.
1957


F.
Ground-water resources of the Stuart area, Martin County,
Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 12.


Love, S. K. (see Parker, G. G.)
MacNeil, F. S.
1950 Pleistocene shorelines in Florida and Georgia: U. S. Geol. Survey
Prof. Paper 221-F, p. 95-107.
Mansfield, W. C.
1939 Notes on the upper Tertiary and Pleistocene mollusks of
peninsular Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 18.
Matson, G. C.
1913 (and Sanford, Samuel) Geology and groundwaters of Florida:
U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 319.
Meinzer, O. E.
1923 The occurrence of ground water in the United States, with a
discussion of principles: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper
489.
Parker, G. G.
1944 (and Cooke, C. W.) Late Cenozoic geology of southern Florida,
with a discussion of the ground water: Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 27.
1945 Salt-water encroachment in southern Florida: Am. Water Works
Assoc. Jour., v. 37, no. 6, p. 526-542.
1950 (and Stringfield, V. T.) Effects of earthquakes, trains, tides,
winds, and atmospheric pressure changes on water in the
geologic formations of southern Florida: Econ. Geology, v. 45,
no. 5, p. 441-460.
1951 Geologic and hydrologic factors in the perennial yield of the
Biscayne aquifer: Am. Water Works Assoc. Jour., v. 43, no. 10.
1955 (and Ferguson, G. E., Love, S. K., and others) Water resources
of southeastern Florida, with special reference to the geology and
ground water of the Miami area: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-
Supply Paper 1255.
Pearce, J. M. (see Black, A. P.)


Puri, H. S.
1953


Zonation of the Ocala group in peninsular Florida (abstract):
Jour. Sed. Petrology, v. 23, no. 2.


1957 Stratigraphy and zonation of the Ocala group: Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 38.

Sanford, Samuel (see Matson, G. C.)
Sellards, E. H.
1919 Geologic sections across the Everglades of Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey 12th Ann. Rept., p. 67-76.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Stringfield, V. T. (see also Parker, G. G.)
1936 Artesian water in the Florida peninsula: U. S. Geol. Survey
Water-Supply Paper 773-C.


Theis, C. V.
1935


The relation between the lowering of the piezometric surface
and the rate and duration of discharge of a well using ground-
water storage: Am. Geophys. Union Trans., pt. 2, p. 519-524.


1938 The significance and nature of the cone of depression in ground-
water bodies: Econ. Geology, v. 33, no. 8.
U. S. Geological Survey, Water levels and artesian pressures in observation
wells in the United States, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, Pt.
2. Southeastern States: Water-Supply Papers 1166, 1192, 1222,
1266, 1322, and 1405.
Vernon, R. O.
1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 33.
Wenzel, L. K.
1942 Methods for determining permeability of water-bearing materials,
with special reference to discharging-well methods, with a section
on direct laboratory methods and bibliography on permeability
and laminar flow, by V. C. Fishel: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-
Supply Paper 887.

WELL LOGS

Well 143
(NW1%SW% sec. 9, T. 38 S., R. 40 E.)


Depth, in feet
below land surface


Material


No sample --- -- --------------.-------------------------
Anastasia formation:
Sand, brown, quartz, coarse to very coarse, average coarse,
rounded to subrounded, frosted, with a few grains of
smoky quartz; a few mollusk fragments --.----------
Shell fragments and quartz sand; the sand ranges from fine
to grit, rounded to subangular, frosted to clear, and
contains small clusters of quartz grains cemented to-
gether with crystalline calcite; well-worn light to dark
shell fragments containing numerous fragments of
Donar sp., some of which show traces of original color. .-----
As above, plus some gray-brown micaceous, sandy clay
containing foraminiferas, Elphidium sp., Nonion sp., and
others -.--- --- --- -------.---.-. ---------- -- -- --------- --------
As above, plus some white to gray-brown very sandy, hard
limestone .....- ---...


0- 30


30- 42





42- 63


63-105


105-147 4







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23 85

Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
No sample ,---......-,--,-- ,-..--------1--718... .. .. 147-186
Sand, light green, quartz, medium to very coarse, rounded,
clear to frosted; mollusk fragments, coral, echinoid spines .-- 186-188
Caloosahatohee (?) marl:
Limestone, gray-brown, hard to soft clayey, very sandy
calcitic, and some light green quartz sand and shells ----- 188-209
Tamiami formation:
As above plus foraminifers, Amphistegiwa lessonii ,--------_-- -----. 209-230
Sand, gray, quartz, medium to coarse, rounded, clear; a few
grains are smoky; some clay and many fragments of
pelecypods, gastropods, and coral -_- --------- --- --------- ------- 230.252
Shell fragments and sand as above, plus some very dark
olive-drab montmorillonite clay ------------ ----- ------ 252-273
No sample .. ------------ ---------------------- 273-294

Hawthorn formation:
Clay, very dark olive-drab, micaceous, nonplastic; very fine
sand and white mollusk fragments ----- --.---- -- --- -- 294-336
No sample .------...------ ---------------------------- --- ------ 336-339
As at 294-336 feet, plus some nonplastic cream colored clay;
mollusk fragments; foraminifers, Robulus americanus,
Uvigerina sp., and others ----------- ----- ----------.---- --- 339-420
As above, plus Cibiidesa oncentrious -..,-- .-----------. --- -------- 420-441
As above, plus some cream, hard to soft, dense, sandy,
phosphatic limestone; coral ---.----- __-- ,------ ------------- 441-462
Limestone, cream, hard to soft, dense, sandy, phosphatic,
plus some gray to black translucent chert, tan non-
plastic clay, and a small amount of olive-drab clay;
mollusk fragments, coral, and foraminifers -4----------- 462-483
Clay, tan to olive-drab, nonplastic, plus some material as
above; mollusk fragments, coral, shark's teeth, barnacle
plates; foraminifers, Robulus americanus and others ------ 483-525
As above, plus Robulus americanus var. spinosus and
many others --._--------_. ------- ----- ------- 525-546
No sample --- ------------- .--------- ----- .-.---------------- 5- 546-567
Limestone, clay, quartz sand and chert; the limestone is hard
to soft, finely crystalline to chalky or sandy, calcitic; the
sand is tan to white, coarse, rounded, clear, some grains
containing dark micaceous inclusions; dark colored chert;
light green clay; mollusk fragments and coral; fora-
minifers, Robulus americanus and others --- ----------- 567-588

Suwannee (?) limestone:
Limestone, cream, soft to hard, coarsely granular, porous;
some light to dark phosphorite grains and much material







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Depth, in feet
Material below land surface

as above; mollusk fragments, echinoid spines, coral fora-
minifers. Dentalina sp. (common), Lepidocyclina sp.
(rare) ..-...-- -............------.... .. ............-- .................- ....--------------- .... 588-668

Ocala group:
Coquina, composed of large foraminifers: Lepidocyclina
ocalana, var., Operculinoides sp. and others; much gran-
ular limestone as above and some cream,. medium hard,
porous, miliolid limestone; mollusk fragments, small
gastropods, and echinoid spines ...............................-....----.. 668-688
Limestone, cream, soft, coarsely granular, porous; fora-
minifers as above .....-------....---................--- ....-..--- .......---.--.. 688-722
No sample .-...--.. --...--.............. .. ...--.......... ......---- ........---.............. 722-728
As at 688-722 feet .--....---...-...--...-...-...................-..--.....--................... 728-732

Avoi Park limestone:
Limestone, cream to white, chalky to granular, soft, por-
ous; foraminifers Coskinolina floridana, Dictyoconus
cookci, Textularia, coryensis, Lituonella floridana and
others --..------... ...---.............----------..---.. ...-................-.............. 732-748
As above, plus light tan soft porous calcitic miliolid lime-
stone, and some white to brown hard, dense, cryptocrys-
talline limestone; fauna as above -...--.......-.............-......... 748-768
Miliolid limestone, tan, soft, porous, slightly calcitic; some
white, hard, dense cryptocrystalline limestone; Avon
Park fauna ...--......-- ..- ..-..-....-----..---...........- .......-.............--...... ..... 768-788
Limestone, white to tan, soft to hard, chalky to granular,
porous; Avon Park fauna ----...----..--......... .---... --... ...............-- ... ---788-848
As above, plus some tan, hard, granular, porous, very cal-
citic limestone; Peronella dalli .--..-.............--...............---... ...... 848-888
Limestone, white to tan, soft to hard, chalky to granular,
porous; Avon Park fauna, plus numerous specimens of
Dictyoconus? gunteri .-..--...-..-..- ---------..................................... 888-948
Limestone, tan, soft to hard, porous, coarsely granular,
crystalline, with limestone as in 788-848 feet; Dictyoconus
gunteri abundant --..----.------...-..-...--....---........--.................. 948-958

Well 146
(SEY4NWY4 sec. 36, T. 39 S., R. 38 E.)

No sample .......-- --....... .... --...... .........-......-................-.......-................. 0-168

Upper Miocene:
Shell marl, gray-brown, clay, silt, sand (sand, fine to very
coarse, average medium, rounded to angular, clear),
phosphorite; some cream medium hard, sandy limestone;
pelecypod fragments, small gastropods, barnacle plates,







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
echinoid spines; foraminifers Cibicides concentricus,
Amphistegina lessonii, and others --------.. -.........-----......---.. 168-189

Hawthorn formation:

Clay, olive-drab, silt and fine sand, micaceous, phosphoritic;
mollusk fragments, barnacle plates; foraminifers, mostly
Nonion, a few Cibicides concentricus and Bulimina
gracilis ------------------ ---------- --------... .------- --.-.......................... 189-210
Clay, dark blue-green; silt, very fine sand, mica; mollusk
fragments, foraminifers Nonion, Bulimina gracilis ......---........ 210-231
Clay, blue-green, fissile; silt, sand, mica; mollusk frag-
ments, foraminifers Nonion, Bulimina gracilis, Bulimina
curta -- --------------------------------- --------------......... .......................... 231-252
As above, plus some very dark blue-green clay ....---....-............... 252-273
As above, but with more sand, silt, and mica; Bulimina
gracilis abundant ....-------......----------------------------................. ... 273-294
Shell marl, clayey, silty, sandy; (sand is fine to coarse,
frosted); cream, medium-hard, sandy limestone; pelecy-
pod fragments, small gastropods, scaphopods, coral,
echinoid spines, foraminifers, mostly Nonion -----...................... .. 294-315
Clay, dark blue-green, silty, sandy, micaceous; mollusk
fragments and foraminifers as above ---.......-------------............... 315-336
Sand, green, fine to very coarse, average coarse, rounded
to subrounded, clear to frosted; some glauconite and
material as above ---.........-....... .. -------..... ....... ..... 336-357
Limestone, cream, medium hard, very sandy, phosphatic; sand
as above; clay as in 315-336 feet; mollusk fragments,
sponge spicules, echinoid fragments; foraminifers Vir-
gulina cf. punctata, Globorotalia menardii, Bolivina sp.,
Uvigerina sp., and others -....-..-- --... ---------..-----................ -....... 357-378
Silt, blue-green, clay, fine sand; mollusk fragments, sponge
spicules, foraminifers Textularia, miliolids, and others ---.. .. 378-399
Silt, olive-drab; foraminifers Textularia, miliolids, No-
dosaria sp., Dentalina sp., Candorbulina? Uvigerina sp ....... 399-420
Limestone, cream, slightly glauconitic, dense, finely crystal-
line; with some gray clay, silt, dark chert, phosphorite
and sand; shark's teeth, sponge spicules, mollusk frag-
ments, foraminifers-Robulus americanus var. spi-
nosus abundant, Marginula sp., and others ----....--...-.........-...-.-. 420-437
Limestone, cream, soft, granular, much clay and fine sand;
fossils as above, plus coral -------------.... --------.......................... 437-461
As above, plus much coral and some brown chert .........-.--.......... 461-482
Clay, gray-green to tan, some material as above -----------............... 482-524
Shell fragments, sand as in 336-357 feet, dark phosphorite,
and chert; pelecypod fragments, scaphopods, small gas-
tropods, shark's teeth, ostracods, foraminifers -----..-................. 524-609
Shell fragments and some tan clay, dark phosphorite, and
and chert; mollusk fragments, coral -----......--....--......--.......... .... 609-630







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Clay, tan to olive-drab, plus materials as above .............-- -......... 630-651
As above, but clay is tan -.------- .. ---.......-.. .................. 651-698
As above; foraminifers common-Cibicides concentricus
and others ...................................... .... ..-...-.. .. .. .. 693-714
Clay, tan; with cream to gray, sandy, phosphatic, dense
limestone, dark chert, and phosphorite; mollusk frag-
ments and coral -----------------.... .....-------......-............,---..... 714-756

Suwannee limestone:
Limestone, cream, soft, porous, granular, with some ma-
terial as above; mollusk fragments, coral, Lcpidocy-
clina sp -.. -----------...-.-----.----.... .-.-.......... .................. 7.. 756-777
Ocala group:
Miliolid limestone, cream, soft to hard, calcitic; mollusk
fragments, very small echinoids, large foraminifers,
Lepidocyclina ocalana vars. Hcterostegina ocalana,
Operculinoides floridensis, and others .-........-. -............. 777-798
Avon Park limestone:
Limestone, white, soft, chalky, slightly porous, calcitic;
much material as above. Fossils as above, plus Cribro-
bulimina cushmani, Textularia corye sis, Coskinolina
floridana, Dictyoconus cookei, Lituonella floridana, and
others .. ...- .........------..---- .. .. ... ...-- -..... ..-.............. ..... .. 798-815
Limestone as above, plus some miliolid limestone as in
777-789 feet. Fauna as above ....---.....-...._.. .. ......... 815-819
As above, plus some finely crystalline, cream to tan, hard
limestone. Fauna as above -...-....-..--......--... .-..... .... 819-840
Limestone, cream to tan, soft, porous, granular; some
cream, porous, calcitic miliolid limestone; and some tan,
hard, dense, cryptocrystalline limestone. Abundant
Charophyte oogonia, Coskinolina floridana ....-......... .. 840-861
As above, plus small gastropods ---.. ................ ......... 861-882
Miliolid limestone, tan, soft, porous, calcitic, and some
white, soft, slightly porous, chalky limestone. Avon
Park fauna .-...-..-- -.....=.. ....... ..................... .. 882-898
As above but less chalky limestone .-...------..................... ... 898-903
Miliolid limestone, tan to cream, soft, porous, calcitic.
Avon Park fauna ----------------........ ....-.......... ......... 903-945
As above but less porous. Charophyte oogonia ........................ 945-966
As 903-945 feet plus some cream, soft, slightly porous,
chalky limestone ....------- ------.... ----------............ ......... 966-987
As above, plus some very large miliolids .-----..--................ ..- 987-1,008
Miliolid limestone, tan-cream, soft, porous, calcitic, and
and brown finely crystalline, dense, fairly hard dolomitic
limestone; clear crystalline calcite, white, chalky lime-
stone. Avon Park fauna --.................... .......................... 1,008-1,029N








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Miliolid limestone, cream, soft to medium hard, very porous,
calcitic .................................................................... .... 1,029-1,071
As above, plus much crystalline calcite -.. ..........--.....1,071-1,092
Miliolid limestone, cream, soft, porous, calcitic. Avon
Park fauna ..................................................1,092-1,113
As above, plus some cream colored, hard to soft, chalky,
porous limestone. Avon Park fauna ............=-- -..- 1,118-1,184
As above, plus some light brown, medium hard to hard,
finely crystalline, dolomitic limestone ..- .-........ 1,184-1,155

Well 596
(NE YSEVY sec. 7, T. 88 S., R. 41 E.)

Panlico sand:
Sand, gray, quartz, fine to medium, average fine, subrounded
to angular, clear to frosted ......... .......-. .. .....-. ......- 0- 5
Anastasia formation:
Sand, tan-gray, quartz, fine to medium, average fine, sub-
rounded to angular, clear to frosted; noncalcareous .. 5- 10
As above, but light tan-gray ........................ ..................... 10- 21
Sand, light to dark tan-gray, quartz, fine to coarse, average
fine, surrounded to angular, clear to frosted, clayey,
(light blue clay in jet water), slightly calcareous .........__ 21- 26
Sand, dark olive-drab, quartz, very micaceous, clayey, (dark
blue clay in jet water); sand is very fine to coarse,
average fine, rounded to subangular, clear to frosted;
contains organic particles; slightly calcareous .......-........ 26- 31
Sand, dark-gray to yellow-green, quartz, slightly clayey,
slightly calcareous; fine to coarse, average medium, sub-
rounded to angular, frosted to clear, plus organic particles 31- 36
Sand, gray, quartz, slightly calcareous, very fine to medium,
average fine, subrounded to angular, frosted to clear,
and organic particles as above ........................ ... 86- 42
As above to 44 feet; from 44 feet to 47 feet-sand, gray,
quartz, slightly micaceous, very fine to coarse, average
medium, subrounded to angular, frosted; contains some
soft, gray, sandy limestone, small dark rounded particles
of phosphorite, and poorly preserved fossils ................... -. 42- 47
Limestone, tan to dark gray, hard to soft, sandy, calcitic,
plus small shell fragments; fine to very coarse quartz
sand, phosphate as above, and a few mica flakes; very
few foraminifers ..................... .... .... ... -.....- ..- ..... 47- 52
As above, and numerous shells and shell fragments ............... 52- 57
Shell marl, gray to tan, with material as in 47-52 feet. Well-
preserved microfauna .....5........ ....... ............... ............ =.. 57- 58
As above, but contains fewer shells ................. ....5....------.......... 58- 59







90 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Depth, in feet
Material below land surface

Limestone, tan to dark gray, hard, dense to porous, sandy,
calcitic; small shell fragments phosphatic; fine to very
coarse quartz sand ................. ........ _....................... .... 59- 60
As above, but limestone is more porous ......----......--------.......... .----- 60- 61

Well 615
(SW /SE% sec. 22, T. 37 S., R. 41 E.)
Pamlico sand:
Sand, cream, quartz, medium to coarse, average coarse,
rounded to subangular, frosted, a few grains stained
with orange-red clay; noncalcareous --..----.---..-..-.................... 0- 10
A nastasia formation:
Sand, dark red-brown, quartz, medium to very coarse,
average coarse, rounded to subangular, frosted, car-
bonaceous, noncalcareous; some clay ------....-......................------- 10- 15
Sand, dark orange-red, quartz, medium to very coarse,
average coarse, rounded to subangular, frosted; a few
small shell fragments and clusters of calcite; some clay ....... 15- 20
Sand, red-orange, quartz, medium, subrounded to subangu-
lar, clear to frosted, noncalcareous ---........-......_... .......-........ 20- 25
Sand, red-orange to cream, quartz, medium to coarse,
average coarse, rounded to subangular, frosted to clear,
and a few small red shell fragments ........................--- -- ...-------. 25- 30
Sand, cream, quartz, slightly micaceous, fine to very coarse,
average medium, rounded to subangular, large grains
frosted, small grains frosted to clear, scattered worn
mollusk fragments and well preserved foraminifers;
contains orange-red clay ----................--................---------------.. 30- 35
Sand, light tan-gray, quartz, fine to coarse, average medium,
rounded to subangular, frosted to clear; a few scattered
mollusk fragments, foraminifers, clear calcite particles,
and mica flakes -.------....---.-.-------------.....---------.........- -........-... 35- 40
Sand, tan-gray, quartz, medium to coarse, average medium,
rounded to subangular, frosted to clear; a few mica
flakes, slightly calcareous ------------------ -- --..... ...-.........---. -40- 45
As above, but noncalcareous ..------... -----------.......... .. --..-........ 45- 60
Sand, dark orange-red, quartz, fine to very coarse, average
medium, subrounded to subangular, frosted to clear;
contains much clay and mica flakes; noncalcareous .---..--......... 60- 65

Well 617
(NW% NE% sec. 14, T. 38 S., R. 41 E. Township and Range
projected in Hanson Grant.)
Pamlico sand:

Sand, cream, quartz, fine to medium, average medium,
subangular to subrounded, clear, noncalcareous --...-.........-..---... 0- 5








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 23


Depth, in feet
Material below land surface

Anastasia formation:
Sand, red-brown, quartz, medium to coarse, average med-
ium, subangular to subrounded, clear to frosted, non-
calcareous, carbonaceous -----..-................--.--.....--- --.....-----. 5- 10
Sand, tan-gray, quartz, medium to coarse, average medium,
subangular to subrounded, clear to frosted, noncalcareous ----. 10- 15
Sand, tan, quartz, medium to coarse, average coarse,
rounded to subrounded, clear, noncalcareous ...--..---....------. 15- 20
Sand, tan, quartz, slightly clayey, slightly micaceous,
noncalcareous ...........----- ........-..........------------------------ 20- 25
Sand, dark gray, quartz, fine to coarse, average medium,
rounded to subangular, with small shell fragments,
very micaceous, calcareous, phosphatic (small, rounded,
dark particles), clayey; few foraminifers ------ ------------- 25- 30
Sand, dark gray, quartz, micaceous, very phosphatic (as
above), clayey, fine to medium, average fine, angular to
subrounded; some clear calcite particles and shell frag-
ments as above; no micro-fossils noted ---..------------- 30- 40
As above, but with many foraminifers ...---.....- .......-- ...... ....... 40- 50
Sand, dark gray, quartz, very fine to fine, average fine,
angular; micaceous, calcareous, very phosphatic, clayey
(dark gray clay in jet water); small clusters of minute
clear calcite particles and abundant mollusk remains __-- --- 50- 60
As above; numerous macrofossils recovered at 63 feet
(material from 50 to 63 feet) when well was blown with
compressed air; sample consists of marine pelecypods,
gastropods, echinoid fragments, crab claws, coral, and
a few fresh-water gastropods; also, contains well-
rounded pieces of hard, dark gray calcitic limestone ---------- 50- 63
Sand, dark gray, fine to medium, average fine, micaceous,
calcareous, very phosphatic, clayey; small clusters
of clear calcite along with numerous mollusk fragments;
microfossils very abundant .......----...---.--.--- .--- ------------ 63- 73
As above, but medium to coarse, average medium --.........-----... 73- 75
Sand, tan-gray, quartz, fine to medium, average medium,
angular, micaceous, phosphatic, clayey (white clay .in
jet water); shell fragments, small clusters of minute
clear calcite particles and particles of brown, hard,
fossiliferous, calcitic limestone ......---........------ .....------- 75- 80
Sand, tan, quartz, fine to medium, average medium, angu-
lar to subangular, slightly micaceous, slightly phos-
phatic (as above), clayey; shell fragments ......---........-__ ------ 80- 87







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Well 623
(NE YSW% sec. 4, T. 38 S., R. 41 E.)
Pamlico sand:
Sand, light gray, quartz, medium to coarse, average coarse,
rounded to subrounded, clear to frosted --...---................------.....-- 0- 5
Anastasia formation:
Sand, dark brown, quartz, medium to coarse, average coarse,
rounded to subrounded, clear to frosted, carbonaceous .......... 5- 10
Sand, cream, quartz, medium to coarse, average coarse,
rounded to subangular, clear to frosted, with some red-
brown clay; slightly carbonaceous --..........--..........---....... -----. 10- 20
Sand, cream, quartz, medium to coarse, average medium,
rounded to subangular, clear to frosted, and a few
particles of red-brown clay ........... ...- .....-........ .... ..- 20- 25
As above, but coarse -...........---....... -.................... .........- 25- 35
Sand, tan, quartz, very fine to fine, average fine, angular
to subangular; contains a few particles of dark gray
sandy clay and mica -............ ..- ................. ......... _.... 35- 40
Sand, white, quartz, fine to medium, average medium, angu-
lar to subrounded, and a few particles of gray to red-
brown clay and mica ........--...-. ... ----..-----... ............ 40- 45
Sand, white, quartz, very fine, angular; a few small clusters
of sand grains cemented together with iron oxide and a
few particles of clear calcite; micaceous --.......-....-.................. 45- 50
Sand, white, quartz, fine to coarse, average medium,
rounded to angular, with some brown sandy clay, crys-
talline calcite and a very few dark shell fragments some
of which are encased in crystalline calcite; micaceous;
a few foraminifers ....- ..-----.. ....-- ---........... ..-...--.--........_............. 50- 52
Limestone, tan-gray, hard, porous, vuggy, fossiliferous;
some dark particles of phosphorite -----.................-............ 52- 55
Sand, fine to medium, quartz, clear, subrounded; layers of
soft, cream limestone, and hard gray, nodular sand-
stone, composed of quartz sand and some shell fragments
cemented with calcite ....-- --..---- ---------......... -------....... 55-100
Sand, tan, quartz, fine to medium, clear, subangular to
subrounded; shell fragments and foraminifers ....-.............----- .. 100-110
Well 841
(NE SW14 sec. 16, T. 38 S., R. 41 E.)
Pamlico sand:
Sand, quartz, medium, clear, angular; brown organic stains -.... 0- 21
Anastasia (?) formation:
Sand, quartz, medium, clear, subangular to subrounded,
stained brown; some grains cloudy ---................--...--............... 21- 42,.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Sand, quartz, fine to medium, clear, angular, slight brown
stain -..-..... .....................-...... .. ......--.... .. ----............. 42- 55
Sand, light tan, quartz, medium, clear to cloudy, angular
to subangular; a few shell fragments ...-............----............----.... 55- 63
Sand, tan, quartz, fine to medium, clear to cloudy, angular
to subangular, some shell material, a few small fora-
minifers; thin limestone and sandstone layers -..............-.....- 63- 84
Sand, tan, quartz, very fine to medium, subrounded to
angular, clear to cloudy; shell material; "quicksand" at
about 88 feet .................---............-----------..----------....--.. 84-105
Sand, tan, quartz, very fine, clear, angular; shell fragments -.. 105-116
Sand, tan-gray, quartz, very fine to fine, clear, angular;
shell and very small phosphorite nodules -.....--...............----... 116-126
Sand, light gray, quartz, fine to medium, clear, angular;
shell fragments and thin layers and lenses of limestone
and sandstone; some phosphatic nodules. Sand coarser
at 136-147 feet ..--....... ... ....---..-------.-...-....................... 126-147
Sand, light tan-gray, quartz, fine, clear, angular; shell
fragments, some black grains of phosphorite or lime-
stone; hard limestone layer at 150-152 feet; small
foraminifers ......----.....................--- ........... ....------ -- ...-.-- .. -.. ......-- 147-168

Miocene (?) :

Sand, light gray, quartz, fine, clear, angular; slightly
shelly; some phosphorite and small foraminifers .------------ 168-189
Sand, quartz, fine, clear, angular; gray-green clay, shell,
and limestone lenses; micaceous .......---.....-- ...-.......---------------. 189-210
Sand, gray-green, quartz, fine, clear, angular; green clay,
silt, phosphorite; layer of clay at 220 feet -............--- --.......---- 210-231

Hawthorn (?) formation:

Clay, green, sandy, silty, slightly shelly; few pebbles ce-
mented by calcium carbonate; black and brown phos-
phorite grains; few foraminifers ..---..--...-.....--- --... .......... 231-252
As above, but more foraminifers, Cibicides concentricus ...----...... 252-378
As above, and a few mica flakes -----..---...... ... -....... -- ... --._-- 378-615
No sample (Driller reports "flint" layer 18 inches thick at
about 6 45 feet) ---..-......---.............. ... .. ...... ............------------ 615-647
Clay, dark green, silty and fine quartz sand; phosphatic
nodules and flint fragments. Cibicides concentricus ........----. 647-653
Clay, light green, silty and sandy; many foraminifers,
Cibicides concentricus and others; thin limestone layers
and phosphatic nodules --......------...........----. --....... --... --- 653-660
As above, but dark green .....--.......-..... .......-- ----- 660-664
As above, but less limestone and more sand ............--.............---....--- 664-681
Clay, very light green; foraminifers as above; little sand
or phosphate, flint fragments -............--.-----------.....--.... -- ._ 681-683






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
As above, but darker green color -..-.- ..... ................................. 683-697
Sand, black and brown, phosphatic; some clear, sub-
rounded medium, quartz grains, foraminifers, and dark
green clay --..-- .................... .........-..... ..-....................--...----- ......... 697-702
Limestone, cream, and light green clay in alternating
layers; many foraminifers; some fine quartz sand, silt
and shell fragments .-..- --.. --.............................-.........--............- 702-715
As above, but more limestone ........... ..-............-..........-..-.....-...-...... 715-726
As above, but much phosphate .-.............--- .....-- .--...-------...... ..... -726-736
Limestone, cream, and light green to white clay layers;
much brown and black phosphatic sand, fine to medium,
clear quartz sand -------------------------..................................... -.......... 736-747
As above, but a layer of tough, dark green clay at 752-755 feet .. 747-774
Clay, light green, and a few limestone layers; consider-
able quartz sand, clear to frosted, subrounded, medium
to fine and dark phosphatic nodules (First flow of water
at 779 feet; approximately 1 gpm) ..--...-................-.............. 774-779
As above, except more phosphatic sand -..-......--.----..-...--................. 779-789
Sand, brown and black, phosphatic, and clear to cloudy,
medium, subrounded quartz sand; light green to white clay 789-810
As above 810-820 feet; white, shelly hard limestone at 820
feet; estimated flow 30 gpm at 820-831 feet; water salty ........ 810-831
Limestone, cream to white, and shell fragments; hard layer
835-837; foraminifers ....--------... ..................----------------...... .......... 831-842.
Clay, green, tough, phosphatic, and fine to medium quartz
sand; thin limestone lenses and shell fragments ...................... 842-856
As above but more sand ..-...-..-------------------------...................--.....-. 856-858
Tampa(?) formation:
Limestone, white to cream, cryptocrystalline, sandy, phos-
phatic, chalky, much calcite; shell fragments and few
foraminifers; hard limestone at 862-866 feet ............................ 858-866
Suwannee (?) limestone:
Limestone, cream, soft, porous, granular, sandy, phosphatic;
contains black flint fragments, calcite crystals, shell
fragments and few distinguishable foraminifers; water
flow increased from 30 to 60 gpm ......---........------........-............... 866-888
As above, but more fine sand and harder; foraminifers ................ 888-893
As above, but less sand, and softer ................................-................... 893-914
Same as above, but more sand .------- --.............-.. .... ...........- ...... 914-935
Same as above, but less sand ............................................................ 935-956
Same as above, but more calcite -. ---..---------..--.. ........-.......-.. .......... -----956-967
Ocala group:
Limestone, cream to light pink, hard, porous, many fora-
minifers, Lepidocyclina ocalana, Operculinoides moody-
branchensis, and others; coral fragments, echinoid spines ...... 967-987 .







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23 95

Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
Same as above, but few foraminifers .-...----.........----..... ....--- ..--.--- 987-1,010
As above, but white and hard ..................-....................-.................---1,010-1,023
Limestone, cream, soft, little sand, many foraminifers and
shell fragments; Lepidocyclina sp ......................................--- 1,023-1,030
As above, Lepidocyclina, Operculinoides -...----.............................1,030-1,044
As above, but hard ..-....... --.........--........--..............-----..-- --- 1,044-1,057












TABLE 8, Record of wells in Martin County,


Lr il inn


TT]I


0G 2) W W 23 40 40

1 SE SE 6 40 39

2 SE SE 6 40 39

3 SE SE 6 40 39

4 SE SE 6 40 39

5 SE SE 6 40 39

6 SE SE 6 40 39

7 SE SE 6 40 39

8 SE NE 13 40 37

9 BS SE 15 40 37
10 HE NE 22 40 37

11 SE SW 17 39 37

12 SE NE 27 39 42

13 SW HE 27 39 42

14 SV NE 27 39 42

15 SW NW 13 40 37

16 SE NE 13 40 37

17 SE NE 13 40 37


Ownur


Soil Conservation Service

Indiantovn Pevelopment Co,

Indiantown Development Co.

Indlantovn Development Co.

Indiantoun Development Co.

Indiantovn Development Co.

Indiantown development Co.

Indiantown revelopment Co.

Port Mayaca

Spender

Port Mayaca

L. H. Maxey

Hobe Sound Co.

Hobe Sound Co,

Hobe Sound Co.
Kauts Dairy

Port Mayaoa

Bessemer Properties


r- i


I I '.
o 1&
a -


Casn Si


br B
.a '4


as
t 0.-
1. r


C,,'


Z U
*SJ"
- r
61S
.5 '4


a$

'IS



*g1
sas!


8-122-4

10- 3-4


reeee.


**f**

9-12-43

9-12-41


9-11-43

8- 7-4f
7-13-56


7-13-56

10- 3-43

9-12-43

10- 3-41


Reoarkm


Ca.

Ca.











Ca. battery 4 veils.

Ca.


Ca.


Compoaito


N
0

0


;I Inlrrl I. Irl-~l II I---I -_I-- I-- I-- I--


t I I


* .


f. I ..i.


r



rri~


* *





TABLE 8. (Continued)

Location Causing a .-4
Ij,
I t on v e l marks


I 1 "M :1 411
a 5 0. I
0 4 30 43wi ~ W 3 4 ~ 430 3


18

19
20
21
22

23
24
25
26

27

28
29


Indiantown Development Co.

W. T. Goode

State Road Department
Sam Chastain
W. F..Galloway

Orange State Oil Co.
State Road Department
Troup Bros.
Louise Wineian
M. O. Phipps

Unknown
H. C. Williamson


Indiantown Development Co.



Indiantown Development Co.


Indiantown Pevelopment Co.

Indiantown Development Co.


*31

38
38
21

*94
25
118
105
38
1,000

'13

1,100


1,100



1,100


1,100

1,100


430 05


450 OE



. OE


OE

.. OE


12.00


14.02


p24.0

3.42

020.8



H11.0
... *


+7.0

12.7


5-13-44
6-27-4(

7- 2-44
7- 2-41

7- 2-4E
7- 2-46
7- 2-46
7- 3-A1
7- 3-46
7- 3-46
4-22-57
7- 3-46
6-27-46
2-19-53
3- 6-57
6-28-46
3- 2-53
1-25-57
3-25-58
6-28-46
3- 2-53
1-25-57
6-28-46
1-25-57
6-28-46
7- 2-46


Ir. 82


Ca.




Ca.







Ca.j flowing well.



Ca. flowing well.


da.i flowing well.



Ca. flowing woll.


Flowing well.

Flowing uoll.


NE SW 27 39 40
SE SW 21 38 37


NW SE 26 39 38



NE SE 26 39 38


NE SE 26 39 38

SE NE 26 39 38


0










II,
0

z


P



Co


I I.I .. I I I I I I I i~ou.l rwu I L-~F~I


**










TABLE 8, (Continued)


L ral ton

nil


a +-~ :


Wi 361 39


. 24

SW 2


Owner


Indlantown 'evelopomnt Co.


L. M. Boone

Aru~del Corporation

Arundel Corporation

Arundel Corporation

J. B. 'oodham

J. B. doodha~

Henry Crevs

Vence Fars

V. A. Hires



W. A. Hires

A. J. hBrett



Vida Evans

L. Van Kess


Joseph Dilda

V. C. Delaag


3 I
Si.

a -4


Ccstns



bI

9- 'P a
Hi I


Cu

:ra
- .1
ees


L .61
0UO


i5Y
C LI
16
SU
+


.6

uI

*-4
a s

auu


1 t 1 t t--I


1,100


60

35

37

*23

60

30

30

35
800



60

700



50

500


60

30


..


L

I

1

I

i

I

I



I


.. ICE


700
720



47




32

30
57

64

1,340
1,400
1,360
1,390
28

1,350
1,350
1,370
1,400

68

1,020
1,010

42

30


.... 6-28-46
.... 3- 2-53
+12.2 1-30-58


*8.50


7-16-46


7-16-46

7-16-46

7-16-46

7-16-46

7-17-46

7-17-4,
B-25-53


7-17-46

7-17-46
8-25-53
8-14-56
4-24-57

7-17-46

7-17-4
4-23-57

7-17-46

7-17-46


...
+28.0

+19.0


S30.0


Remarks


400 Ir. I 831 Plovia vell.


.1 74

Ir. 78


Ca. opposite saMple wells 36-37.












Ca.; flowing well.





Flwovln well.


771 Ca.; flowing vell.


Ih





Li


05

0C


IAt 8 Cniud


i* *





TABLE (Continued)

Location CasiL ng

1 Own er '

S W 39 .. SP .. .59 .- g-- ... 0 ..
SS U 39 1 1 1 1 .. SP .. --j I
W_ U) ad a' c u-o- u a.A3l 2 ________r_
505 S SE 17 38 41 V.n. DoPaldsoan 75nh .. .. 30 ... 7-17-6 ... D 74
51 SE SW 17 38 4 H. 0. Tordan 30 ..OE .. ... ..... ... D
52 Sd SE 4 39 41 Henry Paulson Ranch 30 2 ..SP 29 ... 7-1-46 ... S 76
53 S SE 4 39 4.1 Henry Paulson Ranch 054 21 ..S .. .59 7-18-46 ... .!
54 W ST. 4 39 41 HenryPaulson Ranch 421 1 S .. SP .. 4.73 7-18-46..
55 SW SE 4 39 41 enr Paulson Panch 40 2 .. SP 15 .... 7-18-46 .. D,S 76
56 SW SE 4 3941 Henry Paulson Ranch 30 2.. .. .... .......
57 SE Sd 4 39 41 Henry Paulson Rasch 30 li .. ... ...... DS o
58 SE r' 5 39 .1 E. J. Rhoades 28 2 .. SP 25 .... 7-18-46 .. D
59 b S' I' 6 39 41 Corps of Eiginers 78 8 .. OE 89 .... 7-18-6 .. DIn..

60 SE SE 6 39 1 D. S. Greenlees 32 2 .. .. 8 .... 7-18-46 .. D,r .
8.6 3-28-57

61 S' SW 5 39 41 F. '. Loy 32 2 .... 25 .... 7-18-46 .. 74
62 Sf SE 30 37 42 P. S. Fagin 8 1+ .... 3,920 .... 7-18-4 .. D
63 SE WI 30 37 42 ras. Eanford 10 1 .. SP 4,080 .... 7-18-46 .. D
64 S5E h 13 37 41 Cordon Breuer 600 4 OE 1,790 +30.3 7-18-46 .. Ir. 78 Ca.;' flouan. vell.
65 SW S' 26 37 41 V. C. Langford 500 4 .. OE 890 .... 7-19-46 100 S,Ir 76 Ca.,; flowing vell.
875 +27.0 5- 7-57 ..

66 SW S 26 37 41 V. C. Langford 81 3 .. OE 15 .... 7-19-46 .. D,r 76 Ca.; battery 3 uells.
67 S' SW 26 37 41 V. C. Langford 81 2 .. ... ..... ... Ir.
66 hS M SE 21 38 41 0. D. Quinlivan 5. 1 .... 18 .... 7-19-46 .. D
69 b S'W ;E 21 38 41 0. D. Quinlivan 54 2 .. OE .. .... ...... .. Ir. ..










TABLE 8. (Continued)


- I I


70 h SW e 33 38 41

71 bh R I 34 38 41

72 bSV SE 27 38 41

73 SE S 32 38 41


261 37


26) 37 411


own r


Jeslie Ollver

C. H. Harduiek

J. C. Mor.e

Paul Jeffers


Paul Jeffers

Cowrge Cpoer
G. S. Vilklanac

G. S. VilkLinon

F. A. Hertal

L. J. Gamble

V. S. ravy

Sperti-Agr, Inc.

Sperti-Agar, Inc.

Sperti-gar, Inc.

R. I. Hoke

Lil A. Cary

Mt. St. Jsa ph iovlate



Mt. ft. Joseph lirviate


o u
- S


C ing


s i
gal
'* d4 *
a.^ A E


5so 1

32 2


100

56

60

23

53

26

80

60


24

19

19

26

1,200



750


4 ..


.. CE


*1
6 -
Alr


U~4
q U
MU

MA


B I.*..


.. : *

.* ..


31

27

23
14

23


46

23

61

9


25
20

13

16

26

15

880
870
880
890

1,210


r
- i


U-
U -


I I 1 r I r r


7-23-461 ..


RIamarks
U/


-- II I T


Ir. I 75


II II I I I I


7-19-46

7-19-46

7-19-46

7-19-46
8- 5-53

7-19-46


7-22-.4

7-22-46

7-22-46

7-22-46


7-23-46
2-11-49

7-23-46

7-23-46

7-23-46

7-23-46

7-23-46
3-26-52
7- 6-56
5- 7-57


a
03$








CO


L ', [ I


F


Ca.; battery 2 wells.


Battery 2 velgs.

Battery 4 auels.

Battery 8 wells.



Ca.; loving well.



Ca.; flcviln well.


" A


i r I I I


I m I I k --. p -a


I II I I I L


+43.3
+42.2
+40.0
+42.5

+28.2


... *





TABLE 8. (Continued)

Location CasLng a S
,~~ >e- ""w.-
la a a u
on .n ffIr -
a U -40 6. :r U a a--
a 5 a ?, usa *sJ. umg "-'a
WI | U u we 2-^ a>- 5- S.. a a S~ I. Rmk
&.1 S 2 a s a a b o > a-
S I U a -
f u u Sa" a a ame a.. .p...., ...~ f oo
9 a ca C
A,_AIn__ __= 0 C m I-_2 3
_i __ A -_____a sa a a g s SA a & s_____


88 I SE SW


SRE
rNEIME


38 41 A. J. L. Writs


38 41 A. J. L. Maritz
38 41 A. J. L. KMarit
37 41 M. Pery
38 41 1. E. Blocmingdale

38 41 T. 0. Dunlap

38 WI V. M. KUplinger

38 41 V. N. Kiplinger


38 41 V. H. Kplingur
38 41 City of Stuart



38 41 City of tuart

3A 43 City of "tuart

9 41 :John's Dry Cleaning



731 4A Thoas Collins


1,180 5


28

31
30
32
28

30

*1,058


36
551


1! 2


300
196
410
25
378
805
830
790
40
75
320
206
160
152
141
98
156
110
89
185

15


7-23-46
6-20-56
5-9-57
7-23-46
.......


.... 7-24-46
.... 7-24-46
6-20-56
.... 7-24-46
.... 6-20-56
.30.9 7-24-46
6-20-56
033.0 5- 9-57
.... 7-24-46
.... 8- 7-46
1-20-54
5-2-55
12-15-55
.... 5-26-55
12-15-55
.... 5-26-55
12-15-55
.... 9-20-46
6-10-48
3-27-52
6-29-55
.... 8-12-46


Tr. 75 Ca. fui ving well.


78 eattery 2 walls.


.. battery 3 vel1s.
SBattery 2 Wells.

.. hNttery A veils.


Ir. 751 Ca.; flavulg vail.


I I I


Ca.; composite sample veils 97,98,99


78 Cravel packed.


h-Z
0






W
0

z
P






00








fr-
0
I-'


I I I


i I I I


... *


...


















Owner


R. F. Wiley

H. L. Lance


Port Sevall Corporation

Port Fewall Corporation

Port Sevall Corporation

J. E. Kiernan


102

103



104

105




106

107
108

109


110



111

112

113


1n4

115


P. 0. Smith

H. D. Smith

J. W. Stokes


J. W.

H. E.


Stokes

Hooper


TABLE 8. (Continued)




% "I -- *'


.P ..... a ..


65 2
602



24 2


'1,020

22

*24

88


1,379 6


27

15
960


3 698 C0


I L '


20

144
26
55
132

49

34
53
61
188
167

810
810

41


50
62
100
950
950
965
950
15


2,150
1,650
1,600

78

34


u(.


44 4 40
4 u-
LA B
^s
as
' a
S.Sl
L58L


8-12-4

8-12-41
4-24-4'
7- 1-4e
4- 7-5C

8-13-4f
8-13-41
2- 6-41
6-10-4i
4- 7-5C
3-27-5;

8-13-46
5- 3-5'

8-13-46

813-46

8-13-46
7-28-53
1-20-55



8-13-46

7-21-45
1-20-55
5- 7-57

8-13-L




8-13-41

8-13-L4

8-14-44


Remarks


1 ... ID .. I


... Ir.


... I Ir. 175 Cp. flowing uell.


.. Gravel packed.




75 Cp. fl moving well.


Flowing vell.


L...I Luall




:: B S
41
4'I 1 ul


W SE3
,I/ SE


2 38 41 A. M. BDuer
2 38 41 A. M. Bauer


SV 12 I 38 41


S1 NWI 131 38 4.11 J. E. E. Kiernan


b SW

hSI




hlW
h IN


-


'


+36.6
+36.0


11.35







+40.0




+28.0

+30.0
*...


M


2


*e.





TABLE 8. (Continued)


Casi nO gI
SLocaton a. .


r M Owne.r W- U Remarks
a a C: 13 10 Ma :p s12
V 10, a 'a a' a' Z, a a
&n a al__________ AJ 0 3~.A8
116 gSE SW 22 39 42 Andrew Lester 30 2 ... SP 12 .... 8-14-6 .....
117 SW IW 26 39 2 Andrew Lester 75 4 ... OE 2 .... 8- 7-6 ... In. .. Composite sample wells 117,118,119.
118 SW 1 26 39 42 Andrew Lester 70 ... OE .. .... ....... ... In. ..
119 SW 'W 26 39 42 Andrew ester 82 6 ... OE .. .... ....... ... In. .
120 SE SE 12 40 42 Gene Tunney 20 2 ... SP 27 .... 8-14-6 ... D,Ir .. Battery wells.
121 IW SE 2 40 42 U. S. Arm 89 12 ... SC 27 .... 8-1-6 ... P .. Composite sample wells 121, 126;
31 5-22-47 gravel packed.

122 SW NE 2 40 42 U. S. Arm 81 12 ... SC ... ... ....... .. P .. Travel packed.
123 SE SE 2 40 42 U. S. Army 90 12 ... SC ... .... ....... ... P Gravel packed.
1 NE lIE 11 40 42 U..S. Army 90 12 ... SC ... .... .............. P .. Gravel packed.
125 SE SW 12 40 42 U. S. Arm 90 12 ... SC ... .... ........ .. .. ravel packed; water level recording
gage installed 7-27-49.

126 NE 1~ 13 40 42 U. S. Ary 100 12 ... SC 32 .... 4-15-42 ... P .. Gravel packed.
127 HE FY 19 40 A3 Mr. Holchser 30 1i ... SP 30 .... 8-14-46 ... DIr .. Cp.
128 iW SW .4 38 41 City of Stuart "852 6 795 OE ,500 .... 11-24-53 ... F .. Flowing vbll.
1,800 1-26-55
2,400 +40.5 4-14-55

129 NE SW 25 39 41 Albert Welch 42 4 ... OE 142 .... 8-146 ... Ir. 75 Composite sample'vells 129, 130.
130 1W Id 25 39 41 Albert Welch 40 4 .. E ... *....* ...... .. Ir. ..
131 SE SW 25 39 41 Albert Welch 43 4 .. ... ........... ... Ir. 75
132 W 1W 16 38 41 J. I. Craig 42 14 .. SP 8 .... 8-15-46 ... ..
133 SW INE 8 38 41 C. Albacht 85 2 .. OE 13 .... 8-15-6 ... ..
134 tW SW 4 38 41 Stuart Ice Co. 75 4 .. OE ... .... ....... ... In. ..













TABLE 8. (Continued)


L.l>cil lun


SE 7 40 42

K 23 39 33


39 138


SNW 10 38 41



NE SE 14 40 37

NE PE 1 40 37


Ownur


Tndiantoun Development Co.

Port Payaca Development Co.

Port Hayaa Development Co.

Port Maysca Devolopnont Co.

Port Maysc Development Co.

U. S. Coolocical "urvey


R. M. Parrie

Joe Greenloes

W. J. Mathecon




John Harrimn

Joe Adams



H. C. Williamson



U. S. Geological Survey



Robert Arrieta

Robert Arrieta


J**r
^ -

C. ^ h
a A


31

*10

'22

r19

*30

*31


35

*Is

'958




72

1,485


'1,155 5


a

5. .&
Q 0. 0
at -d
ui Q .


60 O~

425 OF



432 O0


.54
Ow
'4.4-
U ~ .
-.


.i.

50
26


940
950
1,000



685
620
665

580
575
620


15
17

92


r o
a 0
,'
-46 *
-Ct
^1

'4
.4 A d
i3.


... I








0.61




5.36

+27.5


+25.5

2.48

+12.5
+ 9.0
+10.0

+15.5
+18.2
+16.8

7.00



3.92...

3.92


a
-43l


3-23-/49






4-23-49

9-22-50


2- 4-53

3-27-57

5-23-51
5-24-51
3-27-52
/.-25-57

2-16-53

2- 5-53
1-25-57
.-17-57

12- 2-51
2-19-53
3- 6-57

6-20-52
9-29-52
1-26-55

2-10-53

2-30-53


Ruma rk a


Ilattery In veIl..


Battery In vells,








Vnter level recorlin gEsEe Installed
9-29-50.

Slotted casing.



Flouin vell t L.





Flouin veill.



Flouivn veil; L.



Gravel peaked; water level record-
ing ageo Installed 8-2-52


1 1 I I


I


I


__;I (-----t ~7-.


' ^^


'


.


i I I .J I I _I I, I 1 I I .I I





TABLE 8. (Continued)
I I 1 I 1


Location


SF SE1 2 39 41


Owner


R. M. Harries



State of Florida

Robert Arrieta

Robert Arrieta

Robert -Arrieta

Robert Arrieta

Robert Arrieta

Robert Arrieta

L. W. Pcott


Joe Adams

L. Maxcy

C, H. Tucker

Pesnemcr Properties

Resesmer Propertion

Bfaaemor Proporties

P. L. 1enson

VAnor H.olano

F. E. C. Railroad

H. C. Uilliamson


v4 U
UI
0

0.4 0


"1,315 6


a *

100

1,8HC


Casing

4..
^. U
U0 44

--ln t) *
Q--a i


740 OE


O. ,E
*0 OE *


J lur wlrolrl~l


aI -I
uo

0 o .D
>U
> id
S2ISS


USI


0 u
I'J
UW

Ue


>8
sU U
U-


32

90

119
lao










55
99

77

140

67


37
805

605


12

21

110
67


143

12q
1150
/.50


350 Ir. 75


Remarks


4" I I I 1- 1


+29.8
+29.8
4 28.8

*o..o


8-12-51
4-17-5.
4-23-51

2-10-5:

2-10-5.

2-10-5;

2-10-5:

2-11-53

2-11-53

2-11-53















2-17-53





2-19-53
3- 6-53
3- 6-57


Cp.; flowing well.



Cp.












Original depth 150 ftl water report-
ed salty.





Cp.












Flowing uoll.


+20.9
+19.9


I I.I I I I 1 .I I I .I -


...


... I I.


....










TAsLE 8, (Continued)


L414,II tIIfl


I .AIw il ll _~l Iln I1( ____ ____ ____ ___


19 33 135


SW NE 30 138 13


NE I31 38 138


7 39


SW I NE 134 138 137


169


170

171


172


173

174


175

176

177

178

179

180

181

182

183


H. C, William on


H. C, Williamson

H. C, Williamson


Joe Adams


H. C. Williamson

Eber, Dabbin, Harmon &
Case

IH. C. Williamson

J. A. Clements

0. C. Smith

H. B. Barrett

Unknown

Henry Ilaselleaf

Fox Brown

Martin Brown

Unknown


j I
o- fcj
.a]b
.4 .


1,080 5


1,080 5

1,080 5


1,278 6


1,080 5

1,080 5


28

11


cauilns

Cir7 e
14 r.


.*. II3
& .3


500 Or,


500 OE

500 OE


425 OE


500 OE

500 OE


12 OE

12 OE


a


343
-


. ,, .


A~j
A 11




-4
4.4__
*1.t7


+14.9

+12.9

+16.3
+ 13.3

+16.6

+14.6

+10.0
+11.0

+20.3
+18.8

+22.5
+20.6

*.. *


-i ,J
Sad

b.
I c -


I


400 Ir.


Remark


wI .


4n0Ionl vWi4.


Flowing well.

Flowinc well.


Cp.I flowing well.


Flowing woll.

Flowing well.


SE I SW 23


UN I SE


SW SW
sw 1 1


I


415
442

518
570
600
740

252
260
252

420
445

865
890

181

217

95

30


6

11
22

11


342


2-19-53
3- 6-57
4-17-57

2-19-53
3- 6-57

2-19-53
3- 6-57
4-17-57

2-13-53
1-25-57
4-17-57

2-19-53
3- 6-57

2-19-53
1-23-57

2-19-53

2-19-53
2-19-53

2-19-53


2-24-53

2-24-53
5-31-56

2-24-53

2-24-53
5-31-56


I I


I I I I I ( I _I I I I I I I I -


-




TABLE 8. (Continued)

LocatLon Casing 0

I As 4
to WE U -.. 04 ol eU a
,___ -* 4 On 9a v Remarks
q wner k % ^ u 00 u U "U 0

-. j d a .4 m a u Mu 'I .4 Ou oi-4
) V U U 0 W 1


SW SW 13 38 37

SE SW 16 38 38
NE NE 1 38 38


SE 8 W 24 39 38

SB VE 36 39 38

NE MW 36 39 38


Mr. Jones

Ruben Carlton
Ruben Carlton

Ruben Carlton
Joe Adams
Joe Adams

Joe Adams

Joe Adams

Joe Adams

0. E. Jordan
Unknown
J. A. Slay
J. A. Slay
J. A. Slay
J. A. Slay
W. E. Priest
W. E. Priest
Mr. Williams


.. 1t

65 1

*843 5


1,000


1,000 8

'1,050 5

1,000 5


... SP

373 OE





400 OE

400 OE

400 OE

400 OE


13
54
37
1,130
1,150
52
67

545
720
575
680
295
295
570
575
74
46
23
38
22

33
75
27
21


+25.2
+24.2
*ee e


+13.5


+11.0


2-24-53
5-31-56
2-24-53
2-24-53
4-30-57
2-24-53
3- 2-53
3- 2-53
4-16-57
3- 2-53
4-16-57
3- 2-53
4-16-57
3- 3-53
4-16-57
3- 3-53
3- 3-53
3- 3-53
3- 3-53
3- 3-53
3- 3-53
3- 4-53
3- 4-53
3- 4-53


10 Ir.


125 1 Ir. 83


751 Ir.


Ca.; flowing well.





Flowing well; pumped 400 gpm.

Flowing well; pumped 375 epm.

Flowing well.

Flowing well, pumped 220 gpm.


- - I h L L L L 4. 4. ~


0


0




N



-I
0
z

z
0











I-L
0


.









TABLE 8. (Continued)



0.- .-- -- C 2 -.4 .t..


4 .. 8 E r.. -a *r

,62 ', ME 1 40 38 W. F. olar 2 I 18 C .... -53 10 D 76
203 -' d 4? 0 39 J. r. Ou, .. IE 1 .... 4 -53 ... D .7

20 d SE 40 39 Huddle 1) E 6 .. 3- -53 ,. D
205 IS IS f LO 38 Tom Taylor 23c 1 22 CE 25 .... 3- 5-53 20 D 7.
206 V d 4 40 39 O wnr .. V If. .. O 2. .... 3- 5-53 ... D R
207 S SE 4 40 39 W. Z,. alety 120 1 .
I208 Vi SE 4 0 9 J. C. acG&. 65U B 35 ... 3- 5-53 .. 1

209 NU 10 .40 if 20 .... 5g5 ..s "

210 9 40 39 P. L. H ensn 1) .. 4 .... 3- 5-3 ... ..

211 SE My 3 40 39 J. C.ann .. 55 .... 3- 6-53 __
212 !.E 21 40 39 J. W. Crahoad 62 2 62 OE 10 .... 3- 6-53 ...10 D 76
213 S i S 36 0 39 9 EN. Bowling 611 I .. CE 207 .... 3- 6-53 ... D ..

214 SW SWE S 6 39 39 H. 0. Bouling 85 8 CE 2 .... 3- -53 ... D .. Cp.
205 i '. 31 3940 r To Tayl 1* .. .. C 8 .... 3- -53 ... ..
216 S SW I28 39 0 T0aor CattleC .. 1 .. E 7 .... 3- 553 ...D ..
217 SE S 4 40 Taylor Cattl. Co. *27 2 .. E 162 2.97 3- 9-53 .0 S 76


218 S SE 28 39 40 Talor Cattle Co. 65 2 .. CE 1735 ... 3- 9-53 ... D ..
S 3 .02 3-27-57
219 E SE 28 39 40 Ta3lor CattleC.o 0 21 .. .. 11 .... 3- -53 ... D ..
2201 S NE 7S 39 J L. Bailey 2 1.. .. 5 2.60 3-9-53 ... S .

2213 NE 'd 26 39 40 P. L. Biley 80 .. CE 570 .... 3- 9-53 ... D .. CP
222 SE SW 23 39 43 P. L. Baileg 0 1y .. OE 39 .... 3- -53 ... D ..




TABLE 8. (Continued)

LocaLtun Casing a 5hl
-.--'--, .
0 D1 Z I G
v i n 4 nr Is S 4. Remarks
22 26 9 0 .. le 22 1 ... OE ... .... ........ ... ..
a a ZO O ; ..a mu .4 ES ega a3- 'S a
a .a 'a WU an
u a s uA a or, 5 la a. 1a ,1
3 .. W I S, I. 1 n 5 a aI mu us H __________
223 SB SW 23 39 40 P. L. ailesy 20 2 ... CE 13 ... 3-10-. .. S
227 SE SW 19 39 41 M. G. Phipps 25 if ... OE 52 .... 3-10-53 10 S 76
225 E NE 26 39 40 P. L. Bailey 22 I ... OE ... .... ........ ... ..
226 SW NE 23 39 40 k. 0. Phipps 25 2 ... E 13 .... 3-10-53 10 S 78
227 SE S 123 39 L0 HM.. Phipps 25 2 ... OE 3 .... 3-10-53 10 S 76
228 SV 24 39 40 K O. .ihpps 2 ... OE 112 .... 3-11-53 ... D ..
229 I E SE 24 39 40 AM.o. hlpps 25 2 ... OE 13 .... 3-11-53 10 76
230 SE W 19 39 41 L. G. Phipps 30 2 ... OE 78 .... 3-11-53 ... D .
231 N SE 13 39 40 Allen'o Ranch 35 ... .. 27 .... 3-11-53 ... D ..
232 NE SE 13 39 40 Allen'o Ranch 25 2 ... OE 22 .... 3-11-53 10 S 76
233 SE S 186 39 41 Jack Sutton 2. 15 .. .. 18 .... 3-11-53 ... D 76
234 SE SW 18 39 41 Leo Wroto i ... .. 17 .... 3-11-53 ... 0 .
235 S SE 7 39 41 L. D. Lauton 49 2 .. .. 19 ..... 3-11-53 ...
236 SW SE 7 39 41 BarnSy Wlliamsn .. ... 22 .... 3-19-53 D 76 P
237 NE SE 7 39 IL Lteotr Reddish 51 2 ... 0E5 29 .... 3-19-53 ... 76









243 SE S, 5 39 41 F. W. loa y 105 2 103 OE 48 .... 3-19-53 40 D 76
C__
238 SW SW 8 39 .1 j,. C. Reddioh 38 1 f 36 SC 14 .... 3-19-53 ...
239 SE SE 6 39 41 Joo Savtell 32 1i ... .. U *.... 3-19-53 ...
240 hSE SW 6 39 41 H. C. Ryaol 52 2 ... OCE 28 .... 3-19-53 ...
241 SE SW 5 39 hi 0. Van do water 54 3 ..... 30 .... .3-19-3 ... ,
242 h iJr SW 6 .39 1 Unknoun .. 4 ..... 18 .... 3-19-53 ... "
2/3 $ SES 5 :)9 1 .. Loy 10o52 103 CE 1. .... 3-19 53 0 P 6 I.
_ -










TABLE 8. (Continued)
...--- ....... ... ..I4 H" T


39 41


Owner r


J. C. Cresa


Unknown

Unknown

H. N, Oanes

J, B. Fauvage

E. J. Rhoadea

Robert Peck

Yates Slmone

L. E. Hurley

Unknown

Allapattah Cattle Co.


SI NE 123 38 38 Allapattah Cattle Co.


245

246

247

248

249

250

251

252

253

254



255


256

257

258

259

260

261

262


1 LC
IY
Y
Y
YIrl
D U
i~lb'
rl ur
gB~


960 16


32

35

60

42

30

38

38

840


800 6


Catlllg


... IOE


8a~


a.3


NE 17


I

- a

U .1~


siE.



uclc

a 0
a -


--~-


300 18,1r 77


Remarks


Flowing well.





Battery 3 wells.


Battery 2 wells.








Flowing well.


I


Lo l tlon


1,450
1,500

38


28

27

28

28

13

U

9

1,240

1,270

1,030
1,090
1,090

104

32

38

25

46



13


Allapattah Cattle Co.

E. 0. Skegg

W. Brewater

Unknown '

W. C. Merrill

Unknown

Venoe Nelson


A I W* 4 ~ l -i "V I I-I .


I


3-23-53
4-24-57

3-23-53


3-23-53

3-23-53

3-23-53

3-23-53

3-23-53

3-24-53

3-24-53

3-24-53
4-30-57
5- 2-57

3-24-53
12-16-55
4-30-57

3-24-53

3-24-53

3-25-53

3-25-53

3-25-53



3-25-53


84 Flowing well.


I I r _1 I I I ~I I I .1 --


*i


,8


***


.I.




TABLE 8. (Continued)

I.ucnLLon Casing u el a
S-. 1 3v "
w uvc ^ uI :, La u
Owneu 0 5 a o a
e M B 4 On g 3
4 W
a -- .W a
E n g ,, s s a-


SNEI


SE 20

SW 24 '

SW 24I

SW 24

SW 19

SW 18




SE 12

P1 12

W : 1

NE 35

SE 27

NW 22


NE 21


39 42


e NE SE 16 39 42

egW NE 16 39 42I


E SE SW 9 39 42


Vence Nelson

R. J. Suint

H. J. Wilkinson

City of Jupiter

C. M. Carmeroto

Charles Genard

R. A. Porter

Unknown

Unknown

Unknown

Unknown

H. E. Parsons

Howard Inches

N. Algoesini

DeLoach

C. D. Funk


Duight Funk


J. R. Leonhardt


... 2


... OE
-*IC


3-25-53

3-26-53

3-26-53


3-26-53

3-26-53

3-31-53


3-31-53


3-31-53

3-31-53

3-31-53

4- 1-53
8-16-56

4- 1-53
8-16-56

4- 1-5.
8-16-5



4- 1-53
8-16-53


... D


.., D


... D


Battery 4 wells.

Battery 5 walls.


03
0




















I.
P-






















'-A


- -- -- .-L


.I


* **


I I

II I

I


* .


I*














II V
18 Pa

K d


291 IsgI 1~ 22 39 I 42


e IE W s15 39 142


ra:
EE


Ird


NEE

SE


Md


SE




SEr


g S?


Owr r


Florida EvarnelLatic ALsoe,


L~tnoun



E. H. Taylor


0, 4. Tilton


'.. G. hipps
H. C. Phipps
UC. P~ilpps


'nknovn


L. A. AP cfnzie


Paul Thoas


Roooe Flora


L7Mnovan


Paul 'oschnik


Aaron Jiller


TABLE B. (Continued)

CaaLAI [^ I a/
-- ---

I-
U- I S -j.^
*^ Id ;- yj 5 ar
-' -
.06 j: j J i ap i< b5
i o
c. b; b )e b a


3212 ...


l I ...


4.
- y

a n


b f
C'"

0Urr
tvu
t -o
go &0


4- 1-53
8-11-56

4- 1-53
8-15-56


4- 1-53


4- 1-5
8-16-15








4-U-5









'-U-5
4-1-53


4-U-53


4-14-53


4-U-53



1-21-5
8-16.-


LLA1


S Rnu~rks
-I
s
!:


232



233


284


285


236


287


238


289


290


291


292


293


.-I ,. .1 ..J. .4 .-J




TABLE 8. (Continued)


LocaLlun Casing 10 o
6a 1 -a -2


-9 36 47. Re ark
US a W BSH -' Ar. "
1A a -- u a U W a clk o O


29: W Sf E 3 32 38 42 1nkn Id 1. ... 4 9 1 .... 4-41-53 10 D 76

235 h aWE I 26 38 41 C. C. a.adle 98 2 90 OE 43 .. .. -2- .
36 1-20-55
296 hw Sd I 27 38 4L1 C. eorae 86 9 1 ... OE 28 .... 4.-17-53 ... D '
29 1-21-55
297 hu.4 I 27 3841 Iaym" n Darling 57 1 ... OE 28 .... 4 -17-53 I
298 hSZ WI 34 3 Psaul Thoras 0 1W j ... CE 25 .... 4-17-53 ... D .
299 NE 4 3 39 41 York ritha1 67 13 ... CE 31 .... 4 -1'-53 ... D
300 hS SE 33 38 41 HJiRe BlIssard 15 ... SP 18 .... 4-17-53 .. D
301 h I iS 3/. 38 41 R. C. Ward 35 3 85 .... 4-17-53 ... D 73
32 1-21-55
302 h SW 1 27 33 41 D. John~ton 32 1* ... SC 29 .... 4-17-53 ... D ..



25 1-21-55
305 SE lNr 10 39 4.0 J. B. Voodha 524 2 ... SP ... 2.61 3-28-57 ... N .
306 SW E 11 39 41 I H. Harri s 1,170 6 638 0 3,180 30.0 4-17-53 150 Ir. 7 Flowing well.
3,20 30.0 4-23-5
307 SE SB 2 39 .1 R. Halrlss 165 ... SP 50 .... 4.-17-53 15 D 7
308 h IN 25 33 41 D. C.. Harry 3 1* ... P 35 .... .-210-52 ... D .
37 6-2V-5!
309 h OrdW Er 25 33 41 uartha hittla 36 31 ... SP 27 .... 4-2C-5, ... D
310 h b SE 2BE 33 41 Leroy Frlaoby .. .. 1 216 .... 4-20-53 ... V
21 1-20-5


0








1-1





CO



9I9
p









N-C










TABLE 8, (Continued)

Ll.m.Lan .4 4 u I'
Wea to Cai V
I- i0 a
g a r c -&.
'





313 SE ZS 1 8 .42 C, H. Vallisas 38 2 ... [ E 194 .... 4-20-53 ... D ..
236 1-2-55
305 6-27-56
3A S 24 3 41 P. Mispel Jr. 30 ..... 39 -20-53 ,. D .
13 1-20-55
8& 24 6-27-56





315 h SE SE 24 3 1 Charles Pope 3 I ... SP 12 .... 4-2C-53 ... D .

316 h S' 91 19 38 42 D. eenke 28 If ... SP 21 .... 4-20-53 ... ..
312 h SE SW 24 38 41 J. F. a o Co. 2.. .. .SP ... .... ....... ... D
318 E SE 30 8 42 Corge i. nlniL 83 12 ... SP 19 .... 4-20-53 ... D
319 B' SEFE 25 38 41 Coorre Rahainm ... If ... 48.. .... 4-20-53 ... D 7!
23 1-20-55
305 6-27-56












320 hMS Se 25 38 41 P.adle Mhlrsh 20 1 ... SP 39 .... 4-20-53 ... D
145 -1-20-55
24 6-27-56











3215 h SE 1E 25 38 41 RC. h. Sundersn 32 1-k ... SP 21 .... 4-21-53 ... D
32216 h Sd NE 21 38 41 F. Gaueehan 43 28 ... SP 21 .... 4-21-53 ... D
321 h IS E 25 38 41 J.J. OKConnr 4 4 ... .. 26 .... 4-21-53 ... 0
32A h Si SE 2 38 42 A. Irvin 40 1+ ... SP 22 .... 4-21-53 ... D
325 b I IE 24 38 41 Charler Siller 25 21 ... SP 139 ....4-21-53 ... D
145 1-20-55
22 E 25 38 41 43 S 21 .... 4-2130-53 ... 0
326 h 1 IIE 24 38 41 Hubert Stiller 26 1f ... SP 32 .... 4-21-53 ... D ..
192 1-20-55
123 6-30-55


1.0









I


0(




TABLE 8. (Continued)


Lc.t ,tin Can v 2ng "-
_. .sS -u V
1, 1-i i m' k U 0 b
I N A a 4'
S 00 4 :1 c. a a



-27 h S SW 1 m8 /1 Fddio Csapo e0 2 ... SP 88 5.... -21-53 ... I ..
S178 6-0-55




3-8 h S 1" -' 1 J.E. Friday 30 2 -. 8 .... a-21-a3 ... DIr*.. Btte 2 ells.
S__,______ 1 -20-55
327 h SE SW 138 (L Eddie csa 80 2 ... SP 83 .... 4-21-53 ... I>
209 1-20-55
178 6-30-55
328 h SI SE 13 33 1 J. E. Friday 30 2 ... SP 48S .... 4-21-53 ... D,Ir .. Batt@7 2 u.ell.


329 h 1W' S% 13 33 41 H. L. Gerould 80 1 ... .. 36 .... 4-21-53 ... D
330 h SE SE 14 38 41 Axol elson 97 2 ... 0E 32 ..... -21-53 ... D 1 ..
31 1-20-55
331 h SW SE 14 38 41 0. Mancil 26 li ... SP 73 .... 4-21-53 .... D
71 1-20-55
77 6-355
332 h SE !E 23 38 41 C. M. Johnson .30 ..... 29 .... 4-21-53 ... D
38 1-20-55
34 6-30-55
333 h SBE I' 23 38 41 B. R. Nord *45 1} ... SP 20 .... 4-21-53 ... D
3.2 4- 6-55
334 h SE SW 14 38 41 R. K. Povell 90 1 ... 0C 20 .... 8-17-53 ... D
26 1-20-55
335 SE FV 1 38 41 A. J. L. V ritz 36 1 ... SP 900 .... 6- 7-53 ... Jr..
336 I s W 10 40 38 P.. L. Chastain 28 1f ... SP 21 .... 2-17-53 ... D
337 h Id IKE 26 3S 4.1 E. J. Florentine 88 1I ... 0O 46 .... 7-27-53 ... D
53 1-20-55
338 h SW 1A 23 38 41 Chrlo Keck 100 1 ..... 75 .... 5-1-53 ... D ..
72 1-20-55
79 6-33-55
339 h SE S 15 3S 41 P. ,. Hicknan 65 1 .. .. 3 .... 5- 1-53 ... D


I


01

zS





W-









TABLE 8. (Continued)

Wcal ion C.1 u 5d
I I. U

1 h E 3 1 C 8 2 28 .... A- 1- D .
I I M ^ *B S-&
t2 1. 3t 20 -3
-O 0

4. 0
340 h V SE 15 38 41 P. HickUma 722 10...0 4 ..... 5- 1-53 ... D
46 1-20-55
S3U h SE IN 15 38 4U 0. H. Cook 83 2 ... 102 28 .... 5- 1-53 ... D
25 1-20-55
342 IE I 15 38 41 V. S. VWalh 90 2 ... O 45 .... 5- 1-53 ... D ..
| 47 1-20-55
343 V SW 10 38 41 P. J. radl 18 1 ... ... .... ..... .. ..
344 IM SE 9 38 41 R. L. Wall 18 if ... SP 30 .... Ir.
345 W 9 38 41 R. L. Val 40 li ... OE 23 .... 7-27-53 ... D
25 1-20-55
346 SE WN 9 38 41 H. W. Tresler 63 2 ... OE 20 .... 7-27-53 ... D
21 1-20-55
347 hlS N 14 38 41 T. 0. Schreckl gost 87 1 ... 22 .... 7-27-53 ... D ..
23 1-20-55
348 h SE IV 14 38 41 Ralph rigg ... ... .. 43 .... 7-27-53 s.. D ..
349 h NE V 14 38 41 Rodger Allisoo 82 14 ... CE 25 .... 7-27-53 ... D
23 1-20-55
350 h WlE 4 U 38 41 Port Sewall Development Co. 1,000 8 ... C 1,250 .... 7-27-53 50 N 76 Floying vell.
1,260 5- 3-57
351 hSW NE U 38 41 T. B. Parish 56 1 ... CE 26 .... 7-23-53 ... D
352 h N E E 14 38 41 S. .eKrassoff 63 2 ... OE 36 .... 7-23-53 ... D
46 6-30-55
353 h S HE 14 38 41 S. NeKrassoff 80 2 ... OE 545 .... 7-28-53 ... D
670 1-20-55
580 6-30-55
680 8-16-55
354 h SE IN 13 38 41 W. F. Lauson 38 2 ... SP 70 .... 7-28-53 ... D
62 6-30-55




TABLES 8. (Continued)


Location Casing n- *g
a_ -[--- ad S S &
oS~G 64 AJ b i

g~~~~4 .49 I tn 5 t35SS6?|g-I'r

o -' g4 s1 a -4g 0 41g ad a ^ I,6~ 4 0 g1
.9 d U *U 99 O41 4.4
4 14 a__ 5 II

g 4 jt __________________5__a m m a iv. uc o- m _u ii_ t- ____ ________
4 a 3 0 : YIIuh
L, o'O
0:1 0 U


Unknown

H. B. Savage

L. Van Ness

Martin County Golf Club

C, T. Kaemble

E. vilokoo


C. A. Lintell

Charles Boxuell




H. Thelosen


Drou King

Earl B. Dugan

W. E. Oliver

George Brooks

Oeorge Sollitt

George Sollitt


... OE

64 0E


37
36

35

27
36
25

25

35
615
1,370
1,980
2,050

60
82
103

139

95
86

31

43

285
291


... SP


... ID


7-28-53

3-28-57

3-28-57

8- 3-53
1-20-55

8- 4-53

8- 4-53
1-20-55
6-30-55

8- 4-53

8- 4-53
1-21-55
6-30-55
9- 8-55
8-16-55

8- 4-53
1-21-55
6-30-55

8- 4-53

8- 4-53
6-30-55

8- 4-53

8- 4-53

8- 4-53
1-21-55


11 38

11 38


11 38

2 38


~


Composite sample wells 368, 369.


..O


...


...









TABLE 8. (Continued)


--I-t


'A LA



i A


I'E I .E


1. .W


I338l U


38j 4


h s SE 29 381 a
h SE Se 29 38 41


Owner


)70


371


372

373


U1
r

- -


Ca *irks


If a

Uj= J Sk
" Q- d u l


... 2


91 2


21 3#

68 2


i


H, r. Reynolds


R. 0. Ross


C. Allen

C. Allen

J, L. Colcnan



Frank Blackstone

Putert Cleeents

ox

Percy Fuce

CeorEe Baekus

V. Brennsn


C. A. Lees

Fred Hironleus


J. B. Beach

Paul Baltinger

L. P. Johnson

Charles Creen


91 E.




.....


tIo V
r 3 I

10.
,, .: B i
. w, ,i


1-21-55

.... 8- 5-53
1-21-55




8- 5-53
1-21-55





.... 8- 1-53

... 8- 5-53
.... 8-1 -53
8-11-53

.... 8- 5-53

.... -21- 5-5



.... 8- 5-53
.... 8- i,-53
1-21-55

.... 8- 5-53

8- 6-53
1-21-55

.... 8- 6-53

.... 8- 6-53

.... 8- 6-53

.... 8- 6-53
1-21-55
J~l. A- 7-55


... ; S


1* ...


Remarks


T-L~-- -------~-T


-- "


C'- "


...




TABLE 8. (Continued)
-_--_-_- -- -__--- --V-------r----- ---- V


a

I
0
-4
u
a
U,
.44


Local oan


hW SE


INE 17 38 4

SW SV 9 38 41


Owner


Quindly


C. L. Pruce

George Slith

Joe Yosley


E. ,. Sellers

R. J. Triay


Clifford Luce

Clifford Luce

A. H. Girard

Stanley Smith

Frank Patzok

Harold Burkey

Harold Burkcy

-Cressie Baker


Julius Csongedi

Steve Hollo

Lilian Harr

F, S. Glass

D. E. Andrews


h

aX
oa

C.0
B '


... 1


... I S


Il
1.


S a

U 0
a 4 .


a.-

''a 2
*g -4
U

I"I
*1~.
E f


14
V:a
b v


U0
a I

ad a
.4--
Co~
mu


Remarks


I .. D 76





8- 6-53
1-21-55

8- 6-53



8- 6-53
1-21-55

8-11-53

8-11-53
1-21-55

8-11-53

8-11-53

8-13-53

8-11-53

8-13-53

8-13-53

8-11-53

8-11-53
1-21-55

8-11-53

8-11-53

8-11-53

8-11-53

8-11-53
1-21-55


Battery 2 uells.



Battery 2 wells.





Battery 4 wells.


- "


4





CA









O








1*


1 I I I I 1 I I I I I I ~I .I I r .I.


**


****


...


*** I *


.***










TABLE 8. (Continued)
- -------------- -- 1 r r I .I I--


Laciit a


W I 17 138 41


38 41


38 41

39 41


E. A. 'ood


H. Sudboft

Charles Krm

Charles Er

H. J. Robiason

J. H. Totb

Oscar rag

Z. V. LVdlui


Bsrney Oetema

Buck Plodarrsi

J. Lover

Ernmet Hbigee

Jim Murray

Lipp
0. B. Cadwell


L. I. Slmon,


Adam Fesley

V. H. Hove


- 'j
al
.


79 2


50l 11


Casing

&,
0
Ii
*A


101 cc

*0 S


*** **










102 CE

. 1.. e
*ol **


98 2 981 C


Ill
k
a-.

U 0
* -

I-
- t


At


4 tid

U 0
W b


Remarks


PS
Itg

4 a
6-

11"1


8-11-53
1-21-55
6-29-55

8.13-53





&22-56
6-13-53


8-13-53



8-13-53
6-22-56

8-13-53

8-13-53
8-17-53

8-17-53

8-17-53

8-17-53

8-17-53
6-22-56

8-17-53
6-22-56

6-17-53
6-22-56

8-17-53


W
420


421


422

423


... D


... D


r _1 i I -r 3 1 C I C I - - ~ --1 L 1


... ID




TABLE 8. (Continued)


LoratIon C. .-


7 C I
Sn w ii 4a IJ 1 a 3 a1

I I w
I l i v I C._ l 5 _
- i _- .- -, i '9 w s


2 W
425

4126

427



429

430-

431

432

43)



35

436

437

433

39



U.1
441



LL44
U3
; t.U


"vdar'! r'ubhy


6s '2

SC 13


I
55 3

5C 13

96 2


... I
52 2

... 1i4

45 it


Charles LCfllton

John Lclhton

Frank D etoCarc

J. 3. Fpper

R. G. Hupfol

Don Ward

w. F. A. Pobertscn

H. M. Bedell

R. A. 'Vllla=

iapp

G. E. Erclder

J. '. Johnson

F. L. Tracy

J. W. blland

Dave Baker

Willia= J. lathe-on

Far'l ranlels

Paul Kyors

Villa n 1 aetheson

Y112ian J. Xotheson


I...










... s..
*** *, 7
6c CE

i












2796
... ..

... ..







... ..






73 CE

6C CE

275 OF


... SP


1,350


27


+36.0
+35.0
* *












1
b
i'

:I


18-18-53

;8-17-53
"-17-53

18-17-53





8-17-5-3
8-17-53




8-12-53



8i3-53

8-12-53

3-2C-53




8-2C-53

S-20C-53


8-20-53


. .. .


...

...



... D
30 Ir.

350 :r.

***r.



...




...
.... D

... 1

*** Dt


.., .


... So




... D


WO ITr.
3CO"


t


lr u~qg


135

25




25

73

60




zo


2 .4 Is '


J -


1


w








0
tO


'4
0



Pu
C2








I,-


tO







-
cc
z
P







CO




I-'


****


frio.











TABLE 8. (Continued)




rl . .


i- s,4 +. a r
.,, fl L -
i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ W v a11 a _iil-l~llLal-l___


S45

446

447

U48

S4.9

450

451

452

453


I A -..L.-..-.1...-L.... I L-L L-


V. A. Nelson

Odell Core

J. W. Bill

J. H. Asendola

Stewe lasko

Unknown

H. H. L"Houreux

Unknown

S. C. Gala

Rose Leighton

C. Favaea

Jack Crier

Vida Y. Evans

A. R. Love

A. D. Kindbere

H. A. Lincoln

Tom Lord

A. J. Barrett


35 1*
28 li

110 Ifj


271 I*


...I ..

... SP



... SP


115 1* ...I oF

37 1+ ... SP


871 I


8-20-53

8-20-53

8-20-53

8-20-53
8-20-53

8-20-53

8-20-53
8-20-53

8-17-56

8-20-53
8-20-53
8-17-56

8-25-53
8-17-56

8-25-53

8-25-53
8-17-56

8-25-53
8-17-56

8-25-53
8-17-56

8-25-53
8-17-56

8-17-56


... ID


... D

... D

... D


... D
I

,I


...I **




__TABLE-S (Continued) _


Location Casa a@0 1
ojau Ora r
Sa a a a
a .4 aa eao .4M a N hi
L 9 Owner U a 0 Re ma- e a y I89rks
a 5 w d .9 a- an -''Q o U UB '0. a iu- 3uo
s u lu 5 S *1 u 3 3 S u si
Su u a a a .- aa a a' a
VU aJ u -a .a."
U) A U C6a C6 0 C
'a .aoa a a ~d a 1.1145 aBi
u'Vau tu 1 W i @ a-
31 606 aj, -9- U 5..l 4 1 9'A 05 _________________ 0 99 o^ Qhau 9.90 2. 094 ai I


NE NW 27 38 40


SW IW 27 38 40


S.d 23


381 40


26 38


26 38


SWI| W


H. S. Savage


Unknown


J. A. Csekey

W. 0. Johns


C. A. Poore


C. A. Moro

D. B. Irons

M. K. do Medici


John Henninger

John oLnningor

Anna Chisholm

R. L. Kinneham


A. 0. Kannor

J. 8. Frasier

J. B. Frazier

D. F. Hudson

C. R. Ashley


... I1 ... SP


... D


... SP


60 li


... D




... S


... D


8-25-53
8-17-56

8-25-53
8-17-56

8-25-53
8-17-56

8-25-53
8-17-56

8-25-53
8-17-56

8-25-53
8-17-56

9- 9-53

1-11-55
9- 9-53

1-11-55
9- 9-53



1-11-55
9-9-53


9- 9-53
1-11-55


9- 9-53

9- 9-53



9-14-53


I I I


**..











TABLE 8. (Continued)


~LAX-J IIM




. I F .
La 3


u .1.. ~ ... L I I --------s--


38 41


Ounir


1. 0. Tbalm

D. H. Gleaso

Fred Stafford

Unknou

Turner & Thmpson

Arthur Deboa

Zack Hbs1y

H. M. Godfre

Carrol Diusooabe

T. T. Ougterson


R. G. Spicer

J. D. Vhite

R. D. Hauk

Evans Crary

E. J. Gren

5. PsoIoo

A. S. Laube

Ray Risavy



S. G. Burt


o 0
a.D-


***

100

63



60

***

30

22

16

18


18



631



62

60



18



68


Casqnl



a.
Ba '.'
a r
AO


... SP
ee

o I e


... I ..


cm
*i -i
I"=
*8 1


j'i


**** *



****

****

9.39




* **,

****

****

**** *
***f
ee


e


a.
m4e

a
* .
iue
S.- -
zalr


9--53

9-U-53

9-1U-53

9-14-53

9-15-53

9-15-53

9-15-53

9-15-53

9-15-53

9-15-53
1-11-55

9-15-53

9-15-53

9-15-53

9-15-53

9-15-53

9-15-53

9-18-53

9-18-53
1-11-55
6-30-55

9-18-53


... Zr.


Remrks


Battery 2 ells.





Battery 3 vels.


k
Ikl~l i' I~_~_L~z-~2~-l~-~r=-r--=-~-L------~


* **







i



1


i 9

I5C

501

502

503

504

505

506

507

508

5C9

510


511

512

513

14 I


... 11+


... Ic


C. A. Carried

S. V. Laurence

H. D. Stone

8. J. Fox

B. J. Box

B. J. Fox

J. M. Speiner

Robert Fenton

S. E. askousky

Martin County Hospital

Episcopal Church

it. Schumann

I. T. Reabert

0. C. S=ith

Presbtterian Church

H. J. Bessey


... I r.


.... 9-1853

9-1 53
1-27-55

.... 9-28-53
1-27-55

.... 9-23-53

S9-28-53
1-211-55

.... 9-28-53


9-23-53






t 1-27-55
9-28-53
1-11-55

.... 9-28-53

.... .......

9-23-53

1-27-55
.... 9-28-53
1-27-55

9-23-53
1-27-55

.... 9-28-53
1-11-55

.... 9-23-53

.... 9-2S-53
1-27-55

.... 9-28-53
4-20-55,


Battery I wells.

Batter 2 uells


'5
g















P















j3q


* I ..


-V -- II-------


TABLE 8. (Continued)

LcaLion Casins 9,0 a


-. .LP =O
j O'- OB > B. g











TABLE 8. (Continued)


3.q


SE Il I 133


Ome r


Sa~
be 4 'b4

OA
B '1


~1


20


57


63


35

60

40


45

20


49


rc.".'u





CI k


R. C. Johns


Cathollo Church

S. J. Gilson


William Kine


Eucene Cabre

H. W. Partlou


H. V. Partloa

E. F. Lyons


Albert Copao

H. G. Littmn


Ernie Tyner


Z. T. mosely

E. J. Bragsalla

E. J. Brosealla

Allen Keaton


be
0s.




i"
,-,I
3'Sg


106
157
117

113
125

235
12

46
160
112

750
220

64
79

42

49
39

53
36

64
44

91
85
124

86

29


3. .
A. 3
3.
3.-v


o
.4.-


eoee






.4.93

** **


Is,.




8 P8
41g32
* 4 U4


10. 6-53
9- 7-55
10. 7-55
10- 6-53
9- 7-55
10- 6-53
4-20-55

10- 6-53
1-10-55
5-20-56

10- 6-53
1-11-55

10- 6-53
9- 7-55
10. 6-53

10- 6-53
9- 7-55
10- 6-53
9- 7-55
20- 6-53
9- 7-55
10- 6-53
1-10-55
9- 7-55

10- 7-53

10- 7-53


1.64 10- 7-53 ...

.... 10- 7-53 ...


1~-..-,.--- I--


I I._ I


Iemarks


... I2 1 ,..


-~--


-- -'


| I ,--


eeeg


klLI I


1 60 2 ... ...


76 If ... ...
-6 |I" I", I-.


I I F I I I I I I I





TABLE 8. (Continued)

Locati n Casing v
SCas *LnS .. I
O-er- 9 ., Remarks
Is -- D .. E
a a 3 O 1K er 2 3S s ... a.** S4 5 .SS ..
o.e S a .) 8U -. a a- B-E I
u u 1 .. 0SP r + -
.0 A I 1 1


53 3 38 41 A. T. Coeptn 22 l 3 .. 10- -53 ... ..
532 SE 3 3 411 J. F. .enry ... 1f ... .... 10- -53 ... Dr ..




532 A. T O-19-o
533 CT S2 3 n ar u.... .............. SO Zr. ^

537 SVT Sl 3 38 4.1 ear Cever 16 I* ... 3 ....10 53 ... D ..


535 !S S5 3 3 411 A. P. eer 17 1 ... 8 2 8 .. 10.90 10-12-53 ... r ..
536 Md S' 3 33 11 A.y. Ho:elsoa 1) l 1 0-12- ... fr. ..





541 -'d o 10 34 .1 P. G. Cockran *. 2 4. .. .... IC-12-53 150 r. ..
532 S SW 3 38 1'. A .ron Cleveo 20 ... 3 12-53 ... .. Pattr2
533 W SW 3 33 l. C. .rak ong 6 2 6 C s 24 .... 012-5 ... ..
539 W S 3 3 L1 D. Ritthron 20 25 .... 10-12-53 ... D ..
51A WS SW 3 33 41 A. E. Jones 65 1 6 1 .... 112-53 ... r.
511 I! CAT 10 33 11 P. 0. Cockran ... 2 2 .... 1C-12-53j 150 Ir. ..
5.2 3 3S 1. 3. A. XcCoy 10 1+ ... .. 201 .... 1C-12-53 ... 0
513. SV IE 3 38 411 ?ranit Sutton 15 2 21 .... 10-12-53 D ... B
5U SW Sw 3 3 1. D. S. Richarson 20 1 .. 25 .... 1-12-5 ... 0 ..
515 SW SW 3 33 11 A. E. Jones 161^ ... .. 10 .... 1-"3 ... I j
32 1-19-5

5146 SW S-I 3 33 41 Amun Epcpeena 46 14 13 .... 2-12-5 ... .

547 __ 3S 1J.__-- W. Pera 60 2 I 0-1









TABLE 8. (Continued)


A e





548 7r S' 3 33 41 '. C. Dias ... 1) SP 9 .... 10-1}-53 ... D 77
59 F. SE A 33 ,l Jick ilrtaan 19 2 ... SP O .... 10-13-53 ... 0 ..
I O n r5 0 .0 q






551 PE 55 33 1.1 R. S, Hll *2 ... E ... .30 1C-13-53 ... T
552 SE A 3 1 Joeo reenlces 18 2 ... FP 56 .... 10-13-53 r. ..
543 IIF SE 3 38 41 R. Diohor ... 2 ... .... 10-1-53 ... ..





55. 1E S, 4 3 41 R. J. Randolph *22 1; .... .. ... 4.71 10-13-53 ... ..
5549 E. SE 4 33 41 JRalphck Hartman Jr 19 2 ... P 6 .... 10-13-53 *** r. ..





123 1-1-55
557 !" SE 4 38 41 P. S. Hrlln, r. 171 ... S 3 .... 0-13-53 ... ..
551 ?E SE 14 33 41 R. S. 11111 02 11 ... Oz '. 1.30 10-13-53 T
552 h1 SEE 4 38 41 Jo. 'r. enlot 608 2 ... .. 12 .... 10-13-53 ... Ir.




559 E. SE 4 38 41 R.rb oun ... 2 .... 10-13-53 ... Jr.
555 NE IE 4 38 41 .alph Har. Kr Jr. 13 2 .....SP 26 .... 10-13-53 ... Dr.





S... 23 .... 10-1-5 .
557 Ni ;E 4 38 41 A. W. O. Ptlman 17 1.. ... 392 .... 10-13-53 ... Dr.
553 ? :E 9 38 41 W. L. ullivan 60 21 .... 10-2-53 ... IIr.
559 64 SEE 9 38 41 I. .rb You ttn ... ... .. 2 .... 10-14-53 ... D r.
21 1-12-5
565 1E KE 9 38 1.1 H. r. harper 5 2 55 ... 23 .... 10-24-53 60 .. Battery 2 ll
561 5: I:1 9 38 41 T. X. Filly 60 1- 22 .... 10-14-53 ... PI
5Q N!", V 9 33 41 A. 0. FItLman ... 11 ... .. 22 .... 10-13-53 ... D
563 SE NE 9 383 41 W. L. Sullivan 60 14 ... e 21 .... 10-14-5 ... Ir.
35 1-19-55
564 SE IE 9 38 41 R.F. onbotto ... it 2, .... 10-1.-5 6-.0-5 D
565 TE 1V E 9 38 41 H. 0. aripor 55 2 55 Of 25 .... 10-14-5 60 Yr9 .. Battery 2 vells.
51 1- -5
20 6-30-5




TABLE 8. (Continued)


Location


Owner


38 1/1

38 l1


-4. aI

o a

a4w
ad'


CasLng


all

A
u
0
s?
. *=
Bau u*


u
4S,

V.3
I0
as~i
g a

U 0


a0 f

- 4


5"
a.
-4.4
'.4(
1401


IT T I r I


Dave Giesbright

Unknown

J. D. Baker

Unknown
E. H. Hall

Elmer McGee

Elmer McGeo
Fred Thompson
0. S. Kanarek

L. D. Burchard

George Zarnits
R. V. Johnson


H. Whalen

A. H. Guilmart
'. F. May

J. N. Law, Jr.
C. Albracht

J. 0. Powoll


26

40
29
17

51
18

19

23
67

37
45

15

15

17
19
28

19
22

16

14

2,400
2,400

U


- 1.- w-* I =L | I- I


10-14-53
rsi

ou.















10-20-53
a a









10-20-53

10-20-53




10-2-53

10-20-53

10-20-53

1-20-53
10-21-53

10-21-53

10-21-53

10-21-53





10-21-53
1-10-55

10-21-53
10-21-53

10-21-53

10-21-53

1-10-55

10-21-53


... ID


Flowing well.


... I OE


. A


Reearks


I I I


I I i I I I i i i --- -


I

















)-A
N
I

!z
P











I-'
Ig


I* .










TABLE 8. (Continued)


58
585


586
537





599
590


.591


592

593

59/.

595'
596
597


C

o .,
.4 -: '.
i,
a^


Calsng

7:


20 1j. ...
20 I .....


22 .1 ... SP


G. P. Barber
P. 8. Caster


C. Outaeruth
Ivan Taylor
E. F. Rulln



Stanley Smith
K. S. Stitnoll


R. II. Schvare


Unknown

C.fmnch

J. R. Poweroy

0. Schlosier
D. V. Ward
A. H. Chappolka


22 1 ... I..


... 1 2


... SP I


'a.!a


'S --t


44 U
0 u
;"i^
4 II -.
.i "DO
Y^2~
1 w


Remurks


i40 2


SI SE
SW SE


Kw 3:E


SW IS


5 38 41
5 39 1


38 41


38 41

38 41

38 L1


0Is.
UC
3a

"4.2
a444


10-21-53
10-21-53
1-10-55
6-29-55
10-22-53
10-22-53

10-22-53
1-10-55
4-20-55
6-29-55


10-22-53
1-10-55
6-29-55
10-22-53
1-27-55
4-20-55
10-22-53
6-29-55
10-2p-53
/-20-55
10-22-53
6-29-5
10-22-5
11- 6-53
11- 9-51
6-29-5


... ID


.. IIr. I..


... Yr.

... Ir.


-~--


T '~ 8. (Cntnud


-





















































































































'VI





TABLE 8. (Continued)

LucatL6n Casing 0 gi, = "3
-I a | g C
v! UgI a- ,a -- g VI aM,
S ,a O Owner g 3- S Remarks
C6u WU A U W U d

___ _l______M i -i ill uiiwiiCia1______


Si ISE


KE SE
NE SE


5. 38 1/.


5 38 141
1 38 /.0


5 38 41
5 38 41

5 38 41
5 38 41


NE SE 5 38 41
W S 4 38 41


SE SI I 1.


F. Schuarz

J. P. Skiff
V. Santarsiero

V. Santarsiero
Wn. J. Matheson

Unknown
U. S. Coological Survey
C. M. Font

Harry Harper


Lena Huff
D. L. Williams

D. L. Williama
Peter Gooley

D. W. Anderson
Robert Carner

Bernice Holmee


52 2


... SP
418 OE



3 OE
be ftf *f


... I 1 II ... I ..


... I~
58 2


... SP
* I *


83 2 ... OE
46 I1q ... OE


1,170
1,120




1,650
1,530
48
97
131
38
100
80


56
59
24
99
34
63


+28.5
+26.5
1.49
2.3


11- 9-53
6-29-55
11- 9-53
11- 9-53
1-27-55


11-16-53
4-25-57
11-20-53
11-20-53
11-23-53
1-10-55
11-23-53
1-10-55
5-11-55
11-23-53
11-23-53
6-29-55
11-23-53
11-23-53
6-29-55
11-23-53
11-23-53
/.-20-55
11-23-53


... ID


Composite sample uella 600, 601.



Flowing well.



Gravel packed.


I-
.O









!z!


C)
to1


. I I I I I - -I - -


fI


* *










TABLE 8, (Continued)

r ..- Casing a ..



1,20 1, -10-5


61 E 22 3 oulas Arnold 65 2 65 .. .. L.
616 27 37 4 E. P. Jenkins 78 2 68 .... 5.31 12 2-53



4 .7- 5-56
617 h IN 17 14 38 41 C. G toBichoff O80 2 0 OE 3:6 6.76 12- 7-53 9o D L. .
35 6-30-55
618 h M_ IM 13 3S 41 Jack Kuh__n 5 2 _5 _E 13,00 7 .57 12- 853 __... _
619 IN Sd 4 38 41 City of Stuard t 85 2 ... OE .2 9.90 1-23-54 ... T
550 4-15-55
700 6-29-55
6 7 37 78 2 68 E .... 5 9- -5 ... D
390 57-5-56
617 N E. U 38 41 City o. Stuart *56 2 80 OE 36 6.7645 12-20-53 90 .. L.




42 5-11-55
359 8-6-55
77 12-15-53
621 E S'd 4 38 .1 City of Stuart 56 4 ... OE 42 .... 1-20-54 ...10 ..
30 5-26-56
622 E S 4 38 41 City of Stuart 55 2 ... OE .. 8.4 1-20-5 ... T depend to 115 t n 1956.
20 4-20-55



16 5-n1-55
29 12-15-55
115 1i 9-19-56
621 SE SW 4 38 41 City of Stuart 5 4 .... 0 40 .... 1-20-54 120 .. L.



21 5-1 -55
35 5-26-55
624 SE SI 4 38 41 i Fox S uart ... 5P 2 ..E .24 1-20-54 ... I ..
2 .0 4-20-55
16 5-11-55






11.45 2- 4-55
390 52.-5




TABLE 8. (Continued)

Locat on cnsaLi s a, ang





625 S' 3 38 1 Ralph Hartaan, Jr. 19 2 ... SP 26 .... 1-18-55 ... D
62 S 3 38 J. S. on 71 2 ... 16 ... ... -1 D
S 9 th 0 2 ... O .... 15 ... DUI ..
r2 4 9 3 .4 .1 U a



628 16 38 l Sta y Sth 59 ... O 29 .... 1-18-55 ... Dr ..



629 SW S 9 38 41 a I. Surkoy 103 ... O 15 .. 1-18-55 r. ..
625 ST W s 1 38 41 RPau r Hotmne 196 2 ... P 26 .... 1-18-55 ... Ir.
626 SW N 9 38 41 artn County .aae 71 2 ... 5 16 .... -18 -5 .. D

632 SW SW 9 38 1 St A ley Schra 40 2 ... 05 1 ... 1-19-55 ... r. ..






633 W S' 10 38 41 Lininger *.. *... 32 **.. 1-20-55 ... D ..
628 SW SE 15 38 1 Pt V.y Si than 59 3 ... CE 29 .... 1-20-55 ... D ..
629 SW E 38 41 H.. J r Fox 78 2 ... OE 15 ... 1-11-55 ... ,Ir ..
636 EN 10 38 41 J. M Davienel 6 2 ... .. 17 .... 1-11-55 ... Ir. .
6371 Sw E 9 38 3 1 R r. HartinCout Sr 15 ... 6 P ... 1-1-5 ... r. .
32 6-30-55
632 S W 3 38 1. EuSono S abre 38 2 ... S 16 .... 1-19-55 ... Ir.
633 SW SW 10 38 41 ninger ... ... .. 32 .... 1-20-55 ... DD








295 10- 7-55
63 h308 E 15 38 -2-5 .




639 SE E 4 38 41 Ct o Start 72 78 CE 15 7.... 1-21-55 ... F ..
636 SE NW 4 38 41 J. H. Davis ... 2 ... .. 17 .... 1-11-55 ... Ir. z




637 0 SE E 9 38 1 City of Stuartm S 15 1 ... OE 18 ..33 1-26-55 ... F r.
6 W SE 5 38 /1 R. Po o 0 2 ... 8 7--5 ..
32 6-3D-5

638 SW M 4 38 41 Eugene Cabre 38 2 ... SP 230 .... 4-20-55 ... Zr.
352 8-16-55
295 10- 7-55
308 5-25-

609 SE SE 4 38 41 CityorStuart *72 4 71 CE 15 7.16 1-26-5 ... F
640 SE NE 9 38 41 City or Stuart '70 4 ... 05 18 4.33 1-26-55 ... F
641 SW SE 5 38 41 J. R. Pomeroy '30 2 ... SP ... 8.93 7-6-55 ...5 N










TABLE 8, (Continued)


'i / '" '

6 b ad W 1 8' 1 1 .
W tu ..
.a I I I U .I t I 4 U I
1 1 e d1. IU .i. i

642 SE I 5 38 41 It. tuei Hotel *47 2 ... 0 .., 11.5 1-28-55 ... I
56 4-20-55
76 6-29-55
65 8-.6-55
643 bi K1W 13 38 41 ack K.uho 26 2 ... SP 75 .... 1-20-55 ... r .. 0
644 S W 4 38 41 Andrw aTrr 25 1I ... SP ... 12.41 2-3-55 ... ..
645 W l 4 38 41 easeoa *45 1 ... .. ... 7.55 2- 3-55 ... ..
60 4-20-55
646 1I 51/ 4 38 41 red uo *Ra16 1 ... SP ... 7.36 2- 3-55 ... ..
647 NI E 4 38 41 AJeupL anlion 113 2 ... E ... 6.48 2- 4-55 ... ..
93 4-15-55
40 6-29-55
34 9-7-55
648 BE rs 4 38 41 C.. Pdu oder, Jr. *19 1+ ... s .... l.34 2-4-55 ... N ..
649 NE SW 4 38 41 hrtin County Saool '. 1 ... ... .... 7.73 2- 4-55 ...
650 IE 4 41 Dick Klnkade *23 I ... SP .... 7.28 7-5-55... ... ..
651 V ME 4 38 41 Judge Contle *26 1t ... SP ... 7.72 2- 4-55 ... I ..
652 IrN I 10 38 41 Donald Velton 84 3 ... CE 18 .... 2- 4-55 ... Ir.
653 5 SW 10 38 4.1 CGeit d louae 78 6 ... CE 2/ .... 2- 4-55 ... Ir .
654 I SI 4 38 41 P.E. Rue 63 1I ... OE 197 .... 2- 3-55 ... Ir. .
312 4-20-55
302 11-2-55
655 NE IN 9 38 41 Francis vouell 63 2 ... 0E 15 .... 2- 4-55 ... D .. C.'
656 W iE 9 38 41 City or Stuart 1U5 2 12.4 O ... 7.04 2-U-55 ... 0 ..
657 W 1E 9 38 41 City of Stuart 125 1 n15 OE 21 .... 5-26-55 105 .. Ca.
39 12-15-55




TABLE8. (Continued)


Locations Casing n -

u i U a ra Remarks'
SSOwner a g ga B ;




658 1 it ME 9 '38 41 City of Stuart. 125 4 115 OF .. 4.34 3- 9-55 ... 0 .. after level recording l ae install-
ed 10-4-55; removed 3-12-58.


658A IN 7E 9 38 41 U. Pf. eological Suvey 13 1* 13 SP 34 ..... 5-24-55 ... 0
659 Iai 1- 9 38 41 City of Stuart 125 2 .115 OE ... 5.10 3- 9-55 ... 0
660 SE !:E 5 38 41 Casaboom *5 2 ... OE ... 12.10 2-16-55 ... I ..
108 4-20-55
83 6-29-55 0

661 HE SE 5 38 41 8. D. T Keck *12 -1 .. SP ... 10.46 2-16-55 ... II .
662 SV SWA 4 38 41 Gray *16 1 .. SP .. 3.50 2-17-55 ... ..
663 1E S' 4 38 41 I. W. Wcishuhn '28 1 ... SP ... 8.05 2-17-55 ... N ..
664 SW S 4 38 41 Bruce & Harries Pestaurant 017 1- ... SP ... 9. 2-17-55 ... ..
665 SW SA 4 38 41 Bruce & Harries Restaurant *19 1, ... SP ... 10.05 2-17-55 ... I ..1
666 SE 1E 5 38 41 Authur rehono *61 2 ... 05 ... 11.59 2-17-55 ... 1 ..
66 4-19-55

667 ldA 1"d 10 38 41 D. L. Vclton '27 2 ... SP ... 6.06 2-18-55 ... It ..
668 SE ItE 9 38 41 R. D. Smith '22 14 ... SP ... 3.79 2-23-55 ... I 1
669 SW SE 4 38 41 Curry '18 1+ ... SP ... 3.73 2-23-55 ... It .. U0
670 SE 13 9 38 4L Jack 'Martin *63 1* ... OE ... 5.31 2-23-55 ... D
671 r SSE 5 38 41 Harry Dyor 22 2 ... SP ... 9.62 2-28-55 ... It
672 IN SE 5 38 41 Rhiley Christoforson *49 1t ... SP ... 9.43 2-24-5 ... II
673 SE HE 8 38 41 Herman RP. tz,.Jr. 105 2 ... OE ... 5.91 2-24-54 ... N
674 Ir SW 9 38 41 Cliff Luce 103 2 ... OE ... 3.9 2-24-55 ... N
47 4-20-5

----------U---U--- -- g
.- Or









TABLE 8. (Continued)

co
... ... ..tn C i..n.. ,.-...... r





6 i 1 r. 1 .. SP ... o.1 2't5i "'" 1- "
v I
6 175 M P 5 )9 1 '. Alux 1'Iarron 02 I S ., 6.80 2-235-55 ...



677 1 d 9 3 41 Ralph Yrarr *2 1 .. P .. 10.72 2-25-55 ...
673 hWU 1V 9 3 41 Ralph Kra r 25 ... SP ... 10.74 2-25-55 ... 1:
679 14 9 38 41 K. ,. 'riCht'61 2 ... "E ... 6.44 2-25-55 ... "o ..
6.0 SE S1 4 38 41 Burton Coslen 60 1 ... ... .53 2-25-55 ... ..
67l M1r SE 5 39 41 Pete renard *58 2 ... So ... J.39 4- 1-55 ... I ..

214 4-P-55
632 IE IE 8 33 41 Oordon Hmpron *23 1i ... SP ... 8.20 2-25-55 ... l ..
s)3 !' :E 10 38 41 Authur Dohono 17? it ... SP ... 5.35 3- 2-55 ... 1. .
62 I'd SW 3 39 41 MaPherson 14 .if ... SP ... 7.99 3-2-55 ... I
695 !V S? 3 38 41 MoPherson *18 21 ... SP ... 7.87 3- 2-55 ... N ..
636 SE I:E 5 33 41 Jerr DoE's *21 2 ... SP? ... 7.0L 2-15-55 ... I ..
687 1~. SE 5 33 4A Shoppard Publie Park *60 2 ... ... 7.08 2-16-55 ... I ..

775 4-19-55
810 8-16-55
688 PU iE 3 38 41 L'nno'n '47 2 .... ... 6.95 3-10-95 ... ..
689 SdW FE 3 38 11 C. Allen *66 2 ... cE ... 6.89 3-11-55 ... I
690 A: NE 3 38 /.1 C. Allen ... ... .. ... ... ...... *I r.
691 SW S 9 33 41 H. r. Berkcy 90 4 ... OE ... 6.26 3-11-55 ... ..
692 S ~SI 9 38 41 .. T. erkey *23 2 ... SP ... S3.9 3-11-55 ... ..
693 Sd t:E 9 3? 1T1 J. P. Vcetor *44 I J ... tO ... 4,90 3-11-55 ...
Li-I j i




TABLE (Continued)

Lorl olun Casing 3a
5 43a u .K
sa or -S
Sc Owner 2 Rumarks
S i .9 38 11 2 41.38 -11-5 .. .a
; .. Se 01. a3 "" S
Ul g i a Zs .

694 1hW SE .9 38 41 Goessling *51 2 ... OE ... 4.38 3-11-55 ... ..
695 VW SE 9 38 41 Coesslin *A9 4 ... OE ... 5.04 3-11-55 ... ..
696 W SE 2 38 41 Edward Roeuelt *27 if ... SP ... 7.81 3-30-55 ... N
697 h IE W 15 38 431 martin Comty Golf Club '17 1 ... SP ... 3.65 3-30-55 ... I ..
693 h IE IN 14 38 41 ia!rtin Conty Golf Club *20 f ... SP ... 1.52 3-30-55 ... .. N
699 h E cW 14 38 41 R. H. Vilastom '20 1- ... SP ... 3.95 3-31-55 ... 11
700 h IN SE 14 38 41 V. E. Hoiard, !r. '25 If ... SP ... 3.59 3-31-55 ..
701 SW UE 11 38 41 E. E. Fowler *21 1* ... SP ... 5.57 3-31-55 ... 11 .
702 NE 1M 15 38 11 Eon Plumer 19 1if ... ... S .. 6.05 4- 4-55 ...II
703 h NW SE 15 38 41 Florida Power & Licht Co. *61 4 ... OE ... 4.77 4- 4-55 ... 11 *
704 h NE W 26 38 41 Coorre Brouning *20 li ... S ... 2.17 4-6-55 ... N ..
705 h SE ME 26 38 41 G. B. Osborn, Sr. *15 1i ... SP ... 4.53 4- 6-55 ... N ..
706 hSE SW 24 38 41 Eamory Detoach *17 I ... SP ... 4.87 4-4-55 ... I ..
707 h SE SW 24 38 4 G. B. Osborn, Jr. '19 2 ..... ... 7.50 4- 6-55 ... ..
708 W ;A' 13 39 Joe Gay '27 1i ... SP ... 6.88 3-26-57 ... S ..
709 h., E M I 25 38 41 Whinney Stevens *30 If ... .. ... 5.81 4- 6-55 ... N ..
71C h W dW 25 38 41 Kipchom '32 if ... SP ... 3.85 4-6-55 ... 11
711 1?E IE 17 38 41 H. Johns '15 If ... SP ... 6.12 4-7-55 ... N
712 h iE SE 29 38 41 John Grimm '67 2 ... OE ... 2.64 4- 7-55 ... N e.
713 h i' EE 27 38 41 Inknown */.1 2 ... OE ... 1.75 4- 7-55 ... 1
714 h SV SE 27 38 41 A. C. Morse "31 21 .. .. ** 2.59 4-7-55 ... N .. I









TABLE 8. (Continued)
r---
LWAIl Ion Caing
--- --- -- 5
Owe I.I m. 4 U, IL".

0-0 1
14 v 9 A IL a f
0 .9 4 4 0o

0. 6.
4 1 We SrkI
< ? "'- ^Si -. c w .-^ U S S .90
2U! 3 s a a .94 .8 ss4 I.. 2. 4. j s <' 9.
MA O S.O Ol 3.4 0
hII .IS u- 4 .
A*&U & s s8 4.
49~~~~~~ ~ ~ -. i ________iA'- 4
:i & 44 __ _ "" Pt A.~ d' -


27 38 41 v. L. Hrritt
2 38 41 H. E. Staffon
12 38 41 Jack hiticar

5 38 41 Han Dyer
4 38 41 T. '. Rembert

4 38 41 Ernie Tyner


4 38 41 H. P. Hudson

4 38 41 City of ."tuat



9 38 41 City of Stuart

9 38 41 City of Stuart

4 38 41 R. B. acCullough

4 38 41 Williaam K g

4 38 41 Villam King
5 38 41 W. Voodman


33 *I ... ..
*18 2 ... SP
*21 2 ... S?

24 2 ... SP
53 If ... CE

*04 2 ... OE


84 2 ... OE

*112 3 ... CE



125 4 115 a0

125 4 115 OE

30 21 ... SP

57 2 ... OE


... SP


* I... ..


20 2


4.31 4- 7-55


4- 8-55
4- 8-55
8-16-55
6-29-55
4-20-55
6-29-55
4-22-55
5-23-55
5-25-56
4-23-55
6-30-55
4-20-55
5-26-55
6-29-55
1- 2-55

5-26-55
2-16-55
5-26-55
2-16-55
5-11-55
9- 7-55
5-11-55
9- 7-55
5-11-55
5-11-55


8.97

15.64




....


... I5


Battery 3 vells.



Cloride content of water at 104 ft
9,180 pp; well pulled to 84 ft.








H)mlipal wvll Ko. 2.

imnleIpal well o. 3.




TABLE (Continued)

Location Casing 0, S"a
a S C. I5 d




729 S W /1 38 1 A. B. Smlth .32 2 ... SP 37 .... 11-55 ... .. ..
39 la 2-55
a A 41.2 1 An U a WeIaras





730 SE IN 4 38 41 F. L. Hall 86 2 ... OE A5 .... 5-11-55 ... Ir. ..
731 ME F 1 38 41 martin Cownty High School 35 2 ... SP 49 .... 5-11-55 ... Ir. .. Battery 3 wells.
732 h SE S' 12 38 41 Dutton 20 4 ... SC 81 .... 5-11-55 ... Ir...
733 S'd NE 4 38 41 St. Mary's Episcopal Church 105 3 ... OE 18 .... 5-24-55 ... Ir.
15 10- 7-55

734 h HE Sf 13 38 41 Danforth 84 3 ... OE 176 .... 6-30-55 ... D
940 8-16-55
930 9- 8-55
1,430 10- 7-55
615 n1- 2-55

735 'h IE S'1 13 38 41 etcalr 69 4 ... OE 35 .... 6-30-55 125 D
94 9- 8-55
185 10- 7-55
307 11- 2-55
635 5-25-56
736 SE 44 38 41 C. A. Christensen 115 2 ... OE 24 .... 6-30-55 .. Ir.
737 1o INE 8 38 41 A. J. Rojt 46 2 ... OE 34 .... 6-30-55 ... D
738 h 1' KE 25 38 41 J. J. O'Connor 25 2 ... SP 27 .... 6-30-55 ... D
739 rd IE 32 37 41 Unknrun ... 6 ... OE 2,190 .... 5-10-57 20 I( 77
740 SE SE 13 39 40 Allen's Ranch '990 6 474 0E 1,380 .... 2-16-55 650 Ir. 80 Cp.; flawine veil.
1,180 +28.7 4-18-57
1,040 .... 1-12-58
741 11W SW 13 39 40 Allen's Ranch '890 6 460 C 1,820 .... 12-16-55 235 8,... Floving well.
1,820 +27.5 4-18-57

742 SE SW 13 39 40 Allen's Ranch *1,003 6 460 OE 1,53 .... 2-16-55 225 S,I... Flowing ell
1,..41 +29.0 4-18-57









TABLE 8. (Continued)

Lw4g. Caiaon o 00




7 ca ... .. o .... 32-15-S 0



74 E 2 38 3 7 H. C. llU lmm *1050 5 3" C2 350 .... -16-5! ... S, r.8 Cp.I floVig ell.
S+13.8 5-r 29-




745 IM SE 19 38 39 AL3pattah Cattle Co. 0695 6 360 OZ 2,3l21 ... U-16-4! 190 3 85 Cp. I flowbe well
1,310 +23.5 5 1- I

740 I W l 1 38 39 AualaCauloa a.. Ie .10 ... f 2E ,28 .... 12- 25 ...D 6 wel
71. E I 2 36 3l 37 l C. vii o. 1,0S0 5 396 8? 350 .... 12-165 ... 5,1.81 Cp.( ovl vll.
35 0 5 1-56
+13.8 5-29-
715 NE BE 19 38 39 A1acpttah CettI1 Co. *695 6 340 Ot 1,320 .... al 6.5 190 5 85 Cp.. flovwBawUll
1,320 +23.5 5-1-
716 BE SE 18 38 39 hL11atthaCb ttl'. *530 6 ... OB 1,2 .... 12-16.55 335 SIr 86 11hoidzvzll.
+2;0 5-3-56
1,250 +22.5 5- 1-57
747 S1 SE 9 38 38 ani Carltoa 825 6 ... CE 1,020 .... 12-16-55 A4M S,Ir 1 Flowing wull.
975 +27.0 4-30-57
748 E r I U 38 40 VUllU Mtherso n *77 6 397 08 ... +31.2 2-28-56 300 Zr. 78 marler wU.
1,070 3. 2-56
1,050 +32.7 4-23-57
749 W rV 7 1 0 39 Jma uOv Jr. 125 1f ... OE 35 .... 3-2-56 ... D
750 IB W 7 40 39 Jam Oura, Jr. 130 2 ... CE 23 .... 3-2-56 ... Ir. .. Cp.
751 S StW 6 4o 39 Jam ovmen, Jr. 35 1 ... SP 19 .... 3 2-56 ... 3
752 S1 NE U4 38 40 VilUa Mthbsna *-775 6 ... CE 1,020*29.6 5-23-56 300 Ir. 78 Flowlng Ull.
1,130 +31.6 4-23-57
753 bhS SV 12 38 41 Adrew Berke 68 2 ... CBE 02 .... 5-25-56 ... T
754 hE IM 12 38 41 C. O. 0Ra&a ... 2 ....... 259 .... 5-25-56 ... D
755 b WI S 12 38 41 Jack Whitlear 65 li ... B 26 .... 5-25-56 ... D .. Cp.
756 bW SW 22 38 41 Cbihrl R.mad 238 4 ... SP 39.... 5-25-56 ... D
757 h ZM SW 13 38 41 nfrorth 45 2 ... SP 46 .... 5-25-56 ... D .. Bttery 3 wvels.
758 M 1SW 4 38 39 Rettels *835 6 650 CE 1, 3 +22.8 4-26.57 360 Ir. 87 Flong venl.

1 l




TABLE 8. (Continued)


Localtin Casing 2g 2
A IY -II.E
2 I 2 I |22 2. e'n a 2 2.
a. a > 13 -it 2
3 0 0 -. Owne ra Rem
a a a 06 U 12 1 a '
cn 4 sB a -
z
U0 UU 0
- 5 U, I. |3 A C_________ B C aaau a Q -_ _____________________________________
II Ir I


>


759 vI SE 5 38 39 iettnci *353 & 650 CE 1,3CC .23.0 5- 2-57 LCC :r. 5 71oir. well.

760 S SE 5 38 39 Settels *7777 6 373 CE 1,310 21.CO 5- 2-57 ZCC Ir. ?36 F1Cvcg well.

761 ME 20 33 38 Far Br-n *17 1 ... S? 45 7.92 5-31-56 10 ..

762 S Td IL 38 37 C. Allon 30 1 ... Sp 22 ..... 5-31-56 ... S

763 V E IC 38 37 Ch7ster rnderbill 30 1 ... SP 65 ..... 5-31-56 ... S ..

76L. S SW L 33 37 Chester Uadcrhll 15 1- .. ... ..s 5-31-56... ..

765 V SFI 11 38 37 Jones *13 ... SP ... 5.0 6- 8-56 ... C

766 h I 12 3 38 /. Jack *htic r 6 2 ... O I3 ..... 6-21-56 ... ..

767 t. I M. 13 38 41 Jack Miticar 74 2 ... CE 695 6-11-56 ... ..

*768 h W; M: 13 38 41 C. 3. Siaaon 73 4 70 COE 6S ..... 6-11-56 ... LD,Ir ..

769 NS: 32 37 41 Dr. Hewcon AS 2 ... C 63 .. 6-11-56 ... 0D .

77C St .i 32 37 11 D. A. DC uld 57 2 55 OE U/ ..... 6-11-56 ... C ..

771 S/ i:' 32 37 41 Charles Luba.r. 110 2 1r5 OE 34 ..... 6-11-56 ... 0D ..

772 rd !i 32 371 41 C. B. Anresater 115 2 110 CS 19 ..... 6-21-56 ... 0 ..

773 "? IE 31 37 41 Yaor mith C 2 ... E..... 6-11-56 ... ..

I77, U M 31 37 41 V. A. nith 2.I 2 ... ..... 6- .

775 I E 31 37 L1 'aren 6C -! ... OE 2 .....6-11- ...

776 I 1 31 3 7 41 eobinson U11 2 IC' CF. 21 ..... 6-21-5 ... p.

777 SV 'E 31 37 .1 T. f. e. : 67 2 ... E 13 ..... 6-11-56 ...

778 NE 31 37 .1 Farl Herrein 110 2 105 CE 29 ..... 6-11-56 .. D

779 IT E 31 37 41 Carey 2 113 CS ..... 6-1-5 ... ..
-- I-'




















780
781
782
783
784
785

786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799


I...4 Jl.~n


IllI


C-'
A:


J. O. Blain
Poss
R. R. Wseon
Deke DeQuine
Childs
Childs

L. F. Doaerlc
V. H. Alley
C. E. Henrikseo
R. H. De~ey
C. S. Nichols
B. H. SiIons
R. Dwey
B. J. Carlboer
E. L. Eery
E. L. Ewey
J. S. Cleary
S, W. Sales
V11ni. rMapp
illiam Knapp


TABLE 8. (Contini










5 2 2 OE 31

S2 ... OE 25
110 2 105 OE 68
.15 2 ... SP '75
21 4 ... SP 96
I?
7 r
o 4 I -4 A's






16 4 SC 41
15 2 ... SP 1
55 2 .. OE 17

i0 I ... SP O 4

S22 If ... SP 52



15 2 0... SP 0
20 2 ... SP 145







20 it ... SP 186
21 2 ... SP 21





15 2 ... SP 75



1.. 2 ... SP 312
22 1* ... S SP









15 2 ... SP 67

2 i ... SP 320
35 2 ... SP 6

21 ...SP 203


ued)









.... 6-1-56

.... 6-11-56
.... 6-11-56
.. 6.11-56

5.1 6-21-56
6.0 6-U-56
0-18-56
.... ,.1-56-
.... 6-1--56
.... 6-18-56
.... 6-18-56
... 6-18-56
... 6-18-56
.... 6-l-56
.... 6- 56
..t" -S-3

















.... 6-11-56
.... 6-19-56
.... 6-19-56
.... 6-11-56
6-18-56
.... 61-8-6











.... 6-18-56
... 6-19-56
.... 6-19-56
.... 6-19-56


.... 6-19-56


.... 6-19-56




2. 6-19-56


Setter 4 uwells,











Battery 3 veils.
Battery 2 valls.
Battery 3 vells.
Battery 2 volls.


I

H Bcnarks
U

1.
I'
_|_____


-.


-- I I I


I *4




TABLE 8. (Continued)


Location Csing
SI u u Eu


I3 1-2 V S
Sa65 S. -
.0 W a a. g- :1. C6 a


I9
'. 4.. IZ. 0'0 -


SI




asW


1 CGeno Dyer

I1 Geno iyer.

41 Gene Dyer

.1 L.. A. Fnovls

41 L.A. Knwls

41 H. 0. Hill

1 H; G. Hill

1 J. J. Jounevorth

L1 J. J. J*unevorth

41 F. Langford
41 C. B. Arbogast

4l W. A. Palaer

41 F. H. Andrevs

41 A. J. L. Morita

l4 Thomas Dunlap

41 R. H. Reddish

41 E. H. Killheffer

41 E. H. Killheffer

41 C. Y. Banfill

40 P. L. Bailey


*471 2


... I SP


50 .... I 6-19-56


30 2
27 2

*27 2

28 2

*27 2

*1,090 6

20 2

'21 2

?21 1J

21 2

28 1

30 2

32 14

24 2

28 2

*28 14

26 li

26 2
26 2


4I



875

470













1581


.... 6-19-56

19.i5 6-19-56

.... 6-19-56

20.2 6-19-56

+26.6 6-19-56
5- 9-57

... 6-19-56

... 6-19-56

7. L 6-19-56


.... 6-20-56


.... -20-56




.... 6-20-56
.... 6-20-56






.... 6-20-56

*3. 36-26-56

3*56 3-26-57


Battery 2 vells.

Battery 2 veils.


Battery 2 wells.


Floving vell.

Battery 2 veils.

Battery 2 vells.


Battery 6 veils.

Battery 4 veUls.

Battery 2 veils.


Battery 4 veils.




Battery 4 veils.


Battery 4 veils.


... D




ID,I
... D,

...D

... D
... D,Ir

... D

... II

... D,Ir


... D

D.. 1


I I I. L


__ __ m


I i I I I I I I I I I I


.I


... I ..









TABLE 8. (Continued)

i ~ ~ IJ L. ltdi Cailny B' i;- ^ S
We Wo C singe:

SL n. Remarks

__ A 4 g a 0s 4
PA
i( i gs s
Y) Ji U*S 5lr j ff^ S S ^-8 a
;;r. ^ i H 3_________ aw fi ?'ke 3 l y_ ^___________


820

821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840


h SE
h KE







BE
hNE
bNE
hE
SW





hSE
h SE


h NE
h SE
hiB


hs

SV
SW
SE
NE
SE


11.74


6-20-56
6-20-56
6-20-56
6-21-56
6-22-56
6-22-56
6-27-56
6-27-56
6-27-56
6.27-56
6-27-56
6-27-56
6-27-56
6-28-56
7- 5-56
7- 5-56
7- 5-56
7- 5-56
7- 5-56
7- 6-56


Battery 3 vells.
Battery 2 wells.














Battery 2 wells.





Cp.


Salerno Fire department
., H. Kiplinger
C. 8. Arbogast
George Shepard
F. H. Kouch
Ruel Deeo
Henry Creva
Jack Bloom
Lawrence Bitter
E. L. Blasingaae

Rugg
C. HH. Villnama
Ed. Lawrence
John Erickson
David Loue
Edward Nelson
Frank Novacasa
Fred Arnold
Radio Station USTU
A. R. Miller
Yerg & Andorson


. 0
18
21
98
100
27
25
27
35
38
35
22
27
84
69
18

45
81
12


p


0
0
0





w


....





-




TABLE (Continued)

Lc.it LIl Ca lnin o
-- i-r ,,.* -, 1 -,o O, ?.a s. a4 U :
5i U M a 8 *
-. g aI Rm rk
C. W on 4 *4 M 0z ,1o- v a Z I


41 I"
II -I I


Stanley Smith

U. C. Shepard

J. K. Patoron

W. W. Bailey

It. St. Joseph Voviato

Bill Jernigan

Mt. St. Joseph floviato

E. J. Price

E. J. Price

E. J. Price

E. J. Price

H. Dicta, Jr.

E. R. Watson

A. Duym

Henry Ostron

W. B. Tilton

W. Y. Okanoto

C. T. Pontior

Argy Mhrgarigas

Marian Senoke

Harold Salslor


'1,057 L

15 2

20

20 1
20 2

103 4
20 2

27 1j

87 3

20 1-1

20 2

18 12j
18 I2'
27 1I

55 2

37 3

103 3

-68 2

25 1I
16 1i

20 1


2,900

3,250

6,320

30

36

52

39
38

*


9- 4-57

7- 6-56

7-14-46

7- 6-56

7- 6-56

3-28-57

7- 6-56

7-16-56




7-20-56

7-20-56
7-20-56

7-20-56

7-20-56

7-20-56

7-20-56

7-20-56

7-27-56

7-27-56

7-27-56


1ZO


SCp.; flowing well; L.






Battery i vells.




Battery 2 wells.


















Battery 2 wells.


SEI NWI 15


371 41


0


0













F12






z(


. 1 I I-- I I


* *


* J


*.I


.* .










TABLES. (Continued)


3. i C


':2 2% r Il ?a f^ s -5 3
-. *sn a I2
..- -- I
II! -I~i


l.U&.hO ** h.:1 d
__ __ a __ __ __ __ __
~a., -. a,. -- .--


BNE
3Z







iBE

gNV

gWi
gSE
Wt
gv :






xv
SE
SE








Sv


MN


J. I. B. oii
P. V. Labrot
Albert Cole
Genral raWklli
Z. n. Vo tai

1. K. Frasier
D. lJohnson
Betty Bordwia

Florida Turoplke authority
Bobert Veiaenurgr-
CC. C. Webb
Earl Temple
A J. ite
RBpert JakoUm

J F. Hdock
V. L. iltan

0. S. Roboerto
H. HEnddy
. H. ke

Georg Staple


26
27

700
61

57
57
600

1,190
570

19

.3
16

30
17

27

30
35
18

33
3'
31








7-22-56
7-27.56

S8-56-
8- 856
8- 8-56
8- 8-56

8 8-56
8- .56
8- 8-56

8-U-57
8-10-56
8-10-56

8-10-56
8-10-56
8-10-56

8-10-56

8-10-56
&811-56

-11-56

8-11-56

8-11-56


D ..

n,r, ..

Zr. .
Ir. ..

Ir. ..

rr. ..
Ir. ..
Ir. ..
Ir. ..
0 ..
D

D

D
D ..


Ir. 81
D


Dn

D ..

D,Ii...


...


i


I I


I


httry 6 wells.


















Cp.
Battery 2 vells.

Battery 2 vells.
Battery 2 welll.


Battery 2 wells.

Battery 15 wlls.




TABLE 8. (Continued)


Laucai tIun Casing V a 'a
_______ a e : a'0
.rf u u u eia V u .3 1
ua u a- i. a a w a
g a a Oaae auu 9
s -a -. A a UU
u u *J n :oa f (* a > 8^
S Eum '-' laB a o 3 a
U n A k iU -- a
a o a a o~ s --i i -i c'u .j. n o siS
3W __ H i ___ __ 0- -x 0 & U J_53 ___
_________ ________ A PAm1.*
__ __ __ __ uc 3- u I


SE

SW


gW


g SW



hsy
hSW



hbW
g SW





hNE

h rS

hSW

hSE
h NE




h EM
h SE


SE


Herb Cass

'John tangberg

Gulfstrem sIuPery

Gulfstrean Nur ser

Gulfstream Nursery

Gulfttrea surgery

GPufatrten Nursery

Bruee Laighton

Bruce Laighton

Bruce LAigbton


Bruce Leighton

Bruce LeIghton

Bruce Leighton

Bruce Leighton

Bruce Leighton

Bruce Leighton

Bruce Leighton

Bruce Leighton

Joe Adazs


l.41

1.36

1.6

0.9E

1.2;


+9.0
+11.5


b8--56

8-11-56

8-16-56

8-16-56

8-16-56

8-16-56




3-10-58



0-25-56
3-10-58




9-25-56


9-25-56

9-25-56


10-23-56

10-24-56

9-21-5
1-25-7
&-17-5";


Battery 9 vwils.


Battery 7 vills.


Cp.
Gravel packed.




Gravel packed.




Cp.; flint well.


>-e
M.







1*


CO


75

75

75

33

133

75

35

155

1,110


I I -L


I I 5 I 1


-------- --- -I


...

..


..ft










TABLE 8, (Continued)

Locatton CeLnal Vs s
--[ -| m -. T 7- ~g .83 |3

Owner
Inn
Urn IA U __ a j S _________________

do 4.0 upA ___.P___ __ U. l _____________


SE W 26 37 41


36 39 38
23 39 338


hB SE 23 39 38

SE NE 23 39 38

HE W1 26 39 38


Evenrude

C. B. Arbogast
C. B. Arbogast
Bruce Leighton
Bruce Leighton

Pruce Leighton
Eber, Bbbhin, Harman & Case
Ebhr, Dbbi, Harman & Case

Seaboard Railroad

Joe Adams

Joe Adams

Joe Adams

Joe Adas


H. C. illiamson

H. C. Williamon
H. C. Williason
Smally Brothers


25 I


80

.126
*126

33
30
35

1,095
'1,096


1,100 6

1,100 6

1,120 8


*1,028
1,060
1,080

950


... ISP


... 0E



... 08


293
43

4,500
43


700
770
740
670
480
412
510
520

520
525

300
265
510

530
725

1,110


9-19-56
1018-56
9-19-56

11-14-56

11-4U-

...V..@


a....I a......


....e
+22.0



+ 16.5
+ 9.6
+10.6
+8.0
+9.0



+10.0
+11.0

+19.5

+15.5
+12.0

+27.0


oio.....
1-23-51
10-21-54
1-23-57
5-21-57
1-24-57
4-17-57
1-24-57
4-17-57




4-17-57


3-6-57
3- 6-57
3-6-57

3- 7-57


... ID


... In.
130 Ir.

120 Ir.


75 Ir. 84

160 Ir. 81


Swivlne pool.









Flawing well.
Flowing vell.

Flowing ve1l.

Flouing well.

Flowing Vell.

Flaaing well.

Flwaing well.

Flowing well.
Flowing woell.
Flowing well.

Flowing well.


D. F. Childs




TABLE 8. (Continued)

Lo at ion CassLn .3





90 SE. 30 9 8 J. E. Stewat *1,033 5 L8 05 490 28,0 3- 7-57 225 Ir, .. Floving well.
9 6 0 9 aboard Ralroad 800 6w ... O 90 .. 3- 7-57 100 g 81 or 3 ng ell.



+17.0 A -21-57
C, 9t -.

0o a oa .jos a a uo IT
0 A 00 C. A 0 c0 .0. 0 B. K. -C
1 5
.n _____________________g
920 W SEd 30 39 38 J. Stewart *1,033 5 448 OE 0 + 28.0 3-7-57 225 r... Flowing well.
921 !M )C 30 39 31 J. K. Steward 1,032 5 55 OZ 495 26.0 3-7-57 250 Ir. 1 Floving well.
922 RW SS 6 4O 39 Scaboard Railroad 800 6 ... 0C 930 .... 3- 7-57 1C00 F 1 Fwing well.
+17.0 5-21-57

923 1' SW 25 39 38 Joo Adams l1CC 8 ... OE 860 +10.3 4-16-57 3CO S3,1 .8 Fowine uwell.
924 SW SW 18 39 41 R. 0. Deecch 32 1* ... SP ... 1.9 3-26-57 ... i ..
925 !E SE 18 39 1 R.. 0. Boeachi *6 3 ... SP 40 2.0 3-26-57 ... S 75
926 SW NE 12 38 40 William 'atherson 950 6 ... 0C 1,230 + 34.3 1-23-57 1CO Ir. 77 Flouinz voll.
927 iE !W 1 38 38 P.ubin Carlton '792 6 ... OE 1,050 +23.8 5- 1-57 35C Ir. 82 Florwng well.
928 TE SE 6 40 39 U. S. Geolorzcal Survey *11 6 10 OE ... 1.C( 5-17-57 ... 0 .. waterr level recordinF Eace install-
ed 5-17-57; Erav.l pact d.

929 St SE 40 39 Laurance Clark 92 1 ... OE ... .... ....... ... .. Cp.
930 VW SE 2 39 37 T. F. Clmeonto 90 2 .. .. ... .. ....... ... D ..D Cp.; slotted casin..
931 SE UE 8 38 /.0 Willlam Mothorcon 9CC 6 ... OE 1,050 +26.1 4-25-57 60 5,1 .80 FIo.ing well.
932 HIE Sd 8 38 0 Villiam atherson 950 6 290 OE 1,10 + 26.0 4-25-57 350 Si .80 FIcuine well.
933 :~W I 21 38 40 U. F. Geological Survey *15 6 1 CE ... 1.8 6-12-57 ... 0 .. Vater level recording. rae install-
cd 7-25-57; erveol packcJ. 0C

934 IS lIE 1 .0 39 Kichael Phipps '1. 2 ... SP 42 .... 8-13-57 ... S
935 1 E lE 1 A 39 Kichael Phipps 86 2 84 OEC 810 .... 3-13-57 ... S
936 SE SE 36 39 39 Michael Ptippo 108 2 106 OE 615 .... 8-13-57 ... S
937 SE SW 24 35 33 Norman Hall 196 4 156 CE 23 7.92 3-12-53 60 S
938 SE S 2 3 38 Iormanl Hall 18 3 126 OE 30 8.15 3-12-5S 70 S .
939 SF ( 35 Frank Corka 9: 1 9 CE 1C ... 3-25-58 ... D .. Co.
939 91 A 11














































































































































-




Geology and ground-water resources of Martin County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 23 )
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS DOWNLOADS PDF VIEWER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001207/00001
 Material Information
Title: Geology and ground-water resources of Martin County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 23 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Report of investigations 23 )
Physical Description: vii, 149 p. : maps (part fold.) diagrs., tables, ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Lichtler, William F
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1960
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Groundwater -- Florida -- Martin County   ( lcsh )
Water-supply -- Florida -- Martin County   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "Prepared by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey and the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District."
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Florida State Board of Conservation
        Page ii
    Transmittal letter
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Abstract
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Introduction
        Page 4
        Page 3
        4a
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Geography
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 6
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Geology
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 14
    Ground water
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 36
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        Page 46
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        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
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        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        64a
        Page 65
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        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Summary/Conclusions and References
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Well logs
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 84
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    Record of wells
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
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        Page 103
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        Page 149
        Copyright
            Copyright
Full Text



STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Ernest Mitts, Director


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert 0. Vernon, Director






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23




GEOLOGY AND GROUND-WATER RESOURCES
OF MARTIN COUNTY, FLORIDA


By
WILLIAM F. LICHTLER
U. S. Geological Survey



Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
and the
CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT


TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
1960








AGRI-
CULTU6t4

FLORIDA STATE BOAR^"RY

OF

CONSERVATION




LeROY COLLINS
Governor


R. A. GRAY
Secretary of State



RAY E. GREEN
Comptroller


RICHARD ERVIN
Attorney General



J. EDWIN LARSON
Treasurer


THOMAS D. BAILEY LEE THOMPSON
Superintendent of Public Instruction Commissioner of Agriculture (Acting)



ERNEST MITTS
Director of Conservation







LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


jiorida Qeoloqtrcal Survey

Callafassee

May 16, 1960

MR. ERNEST MITTS, Director
FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


DEAR MR. MITTS:


The Florida Geological Survey will publish as Report of Investi-
gations No. 23 a report on the "Geology and Ground-Water
Resources of Martin County, Florida." This report was prepared
as a cooperative study between the U. S. Geological Survey, the
Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District and the
Florida Geological Survey. Mr. William F. Lichtler wrote the
report and included an inventory of wells, which was made by Mr.
E. W. Bishop in 1953.
Both non-artesian shallow formations and artesian deep
formations yield water to wells in Martin County. The shell and
sand deposits of the Anastasia formation are probably the chief
aquifer of the shallow ground water. Eocene limestones, that are
very permeable and which compose the Floridan aquifer, are sepa-
rated from the shallow aquifers by sediments of low permeability.
The data contained in this report is necessary for the continued
development of water resources in the area.

Respectfully yours,
ROBERT 0. VERNON, Director
























































Completed manuscript received
February 4, 1960
Published by the Florida Geological Survey
E. 0. Painter Printing Company
DeLand, Florida
March 16, 1960

iv












CONTENTS


Abstract --------------.----.---.---------- --..- 1
Introduction -..-----.---.----------..------------------------- 3
Location and extent of area-------------- ---------- 3
Purpose and scope of investigation---- ----------------- 4
Previous investigations--------------------------- 6
Acknowledgments -- ------.. ...______-__.------------- 6
Geography 6-----------------
Topography and drainage ------- --- ------- 6
Atlantic Coastal Ridge 8-----------. -------------- ----- 8
Eastern Flatlands and Orlando Ridge---------------- 9
Everglades ------------------ ------11
Terraces ..------.-- --.---------- -_-_-_--- __-__:------- 11
Climate ------------------------- ------ 12
Population and development ------------------------ 13
Geology --- .--------- --------------------------14
Geologic formations and their water-bearing properties ----------- 14
Eocene series --------------- --- ----14
Avon Park limestone -------- ------------------14
Ocala group ---------------- 15
Oligocene series -------------------------- ----------16
Suwannee limestone ------ --- 16
Miocene series --------------------------..18
Tampa formation -------------- 18
Hawthorn formation -----------------------18
Tamiami formation ------- --------------19
Post Miocene deposits ------------ ---- --------------- 19
Caloosahatchee marl ---------------------19
Fort Thompson formation -------- -----------19
Anastasia formation -------------------- 20
Pamlico sand ---------------------------- ------ 20
Ground water -..-------------------------------------------------21
Shallow aquifer ----- ---------------------- -----21
Aquifer properties --............------------------------22
Atlantic Coastal Ridge --------------------- 22
Eastern Flatlands, Orlando Ridge, and Everglades -------------23
Shape and slope of water table ------------------------------ 24
Water-level fluctuations ------------------27
Recharge ------------------------------------ 34
Discharge --------------.---------------- 34
Artesian aquifer ---- ----.--------------------- ----- 35
Aquifer properties ---- ----- ----------- ----------------- 35
Piezometric surface -----------------------39
Water-level fluctuations ------------- --------- -- 41
Recharge ....------....---------------------- 43

v







Discharge --_------ -.. ..- ---- ---- 44
Quantitative studies 4.---.---.---.---. ------------------- 46
Pumping tests 4-----------------------46
Intrepretation of pumping-test data ----------------------- 50
Quality of water -------- --------------------- 51
Hardness --------------------55
Dissolved solids ----------------------55
Specific conductance ----- ------------------------------- 56
Hydrogen-ion concentration .. ------------------------------ 57
Iron and manganese ------- ---------------- 57
Calcium and magnesium -- -------------------------------- 58
Sodium and potassium ----------------------------58
Bicarbonate -------- ---------- --------------------58
Sulfate ---------------------------------- 59
Chloride ------------------------------------------ 59
Fluoride -------------- -----------------------60
Silica --------------------------------------------------- 60
Nitrate ----------------------------------------------60
Hydrogen sulfide ------------------------------- 60
Color ------------------------------------------------ 61
Temperature --------- ---------------------- ---------...- 61
Salt-water contamination -----------------------------------... 63
Recent contamination ---------------------------------------63
Stuart area --------------------------- -----------.... 65
Contamination from surface-water bodies -------------70
Contamination from artesian aquifer --------------- 71
Jensen Beach and Rocky Point ------.----------- 73
Sewall Point ----------------------------------------..... 74
Hutchinson Island -------- ----------------------------............... 75
Jupiter Island --------------------------------------.. 75
Pleistocene contamination --.-------.--- ------------------- 76
Shallow aquifer ---------- ----- ----------........... ---........... 76
Artesian aquifer ---- ------ ----- 77
Use ---------------------------------- ------------------ 77
Public supplies -------- --------------------------------------------........................ 79
Irrigation and stock supplies -----------------------------................... 79
Other uses -------------------------------------------79
Summary and conclusions ---------------------------------------.................... 81
References --------------------------------------.................. 81
Well logs ------ ----------.----------------- --...................... 84
Record of wells ---------------------------------- ----------........................ 96

ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure Page
1 Location of Martin County --- ------------------------...-------....................... 3
2 Location of wells .------------..---------..-----between p. 4 and 5
3 Northeastern part of Martin County showing the location of wells 4
4 City of Stuart showing the location of wells. --------....--- ----------.... 5
5 Physiographic subdivisions of Martin County ------------------........... 6
6 Approximate altitude of the top of the Ocala group in
Martin County ...------------------------------ -----------........... 17







7 Water table in the Stuart area, July 6, 1955 -------------------- 25
8 Water table in the Stuart area, October 5, 1955 ----- 26
9 Water table within the Stuart city limits, April 1, 1955 ----------28
10 Water table within the Stuart city limits, May 3, 1955 ------------ 29
11 Hydrographs of wells 125, 140 and 147 and rainfall at Stuart 30
12 Hydrographs of wells 928 and 933 and rainfall at St. Lucie
Canal Lock ---.. ------.- ----------------------------------------------.... 31
13 Hydrograph of well 658 and rainfall at Stuart --------------.................. 32
14 Data obtained from wells 745 and 748 --------.............----------------- 36
15 Data obtained from well 150 ------- --------------------------------..... 37
16 Piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer, 1957, in
peninsular Florida -------------............-----------------..... ---------.............. 40
17 Piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer, April 1957, in
Martin County -------............ ---- ---------------------- 42
18 Location of wells used in pumping tests --- ------------------------.......... 47
19 Drawdowns observed in wells 658 and 658A during pumping
test in new city well field, May 27, 1955 ------ ------........... 48
20 Relation between specific conductance and dissolved solids
in water samples from Martin County ---------........ ....---------------- 56
21 Temperature of water in artesian wells in Martin County ...---------...... 62
22 Relation between salt water and fresh water according to the
Ghyben-Herzberg theory -----------...----------------------------------- 64
23 Chloride content of water in representative wells in the
shallow aquifer of Martin County -------......... between p. 64 and 65
24 Chloride content of water from shallow wells in Stuart area .....-.... 66
25 Discharge of fresh water into a salt-water body ----.........------..-------..... 73
26 Chloride content of water in artesian wells in Martin County ---..... 78

Table
1 Average monthly temperature and rainfall in Martin County -------... 13
2 Artesian pressures in feet above land surface at selected
wells in Martin County, 1946-57 -------------------- -- ..............-----------... --------- 43
3 Results of pumping tests in Martin County, 1955-57 ..-. .... .... 49
4 Analyses of water from wells in the artesian aquifer
in Martin County ----------- -----------------------------------------.. 52
5 Analyses of water from wells in the shallow aquifer
in Martin County ------------------------------ --.................--------... ------......... 53
6 Chloride concentrations in water samples from selected wells --.- 67
7 Pumpage from Stuart well field, in millions of gallons per month -. 80
8 Record of wells in Martin County ----------------------------... ........ 96












GEOLOGY AND GROUND-WATER RESOURCES
OF MARTIN COUNTY, FLORIDA

By
WILLIAM F. LICHTLER
U. S. Geological Survey


ABSTRACT

Martin County, in the southeastern part of peninsular Florida,
comprises an area of about 560 square miles. It is in the Atlantic
Coastal Plain physiographic province and includes parts of the
Atlantic Coastal Ridge, the Eastern Flatlands, and the Everglades.
Land-surface altitudes range from mean sea level to 86 feet above.
The slope of the land surface is gentle except in the sandhill
regions in the eastern part of the county.
The average annual rainfall in Martin County ranges from
about 56 inches at Stuart to about 48 inches at Port Mayaca. The
average annual temperature at Stuart is 75.20F.
Formations penetrated by wells in Martin County include
the Avon Park limestone and the Ocala group,1 of Eocene age; the
Suwannee limestone, of Oligocene age; the Hawthorn formation
and possibly the Tampa and Tamiami formations, of Miocene age;
the Caloosahatchee marl, of Pliocene age; and the Anastasia
formation and the Pamlico sand, of Pleistocene age.
There are two major aquifers in Martin County: (1) the
shallow (nonartesian) aquifer, 15 to 150 feet below the land sur-
face, and (2) the Floridan (artesian) aquifer, 600 to 1,500 feet
below the land surface. The Anastasia formation is probably the
principal source of ground water in the shallow aquifer. Permeable
parts of the Avon Park limestone and the Ocala group compose
the principal producing zones of the Floridan aquifer. The two
aquifers are separated by a thick section of sand and clay of
low permeability.

'The stratigraphic nomenclature used in this report conforms generally to
the usage of the Florida Geological Survey. It conforms also to the nomen-
clature of the U. S. Geological Survey, except that Ocala group is used in this
report instead of Ocala limestone, and Tampa formation is used instead of
Tampa limestone.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


At most places along the Atlantic Coastal Ridge open-end wells
60 to 130 deep can be constructed in thin rock layers or shell beds
of the shallow aquifer. Some wells are screened at depths ranging
from 15 to 60 feet. In the eastern part of the Eastern Flatlands,
the geologic and hydrologic conditions are similar to those of the
Atlantic Coastal Ridge. The rock layers wedge out in the central
part of the county, and it is difficult to obtain large quantities of
potable water at most places in the western part of the county.
In the Indiantown area, a shell bed at a depth of 95 feet is the
principal source of large ground-water supplies.
Most of the recharge to the shallow aquifer is supplied by rain-
fall within Martin County. Water from the shallow aquifer is
discharged by outflow into streams, canals, and other surface-water
bodies, by evapotranspiration, and by pumping. The principal
recharge to the artesian aquifer in central and southern Florida is
from rainfall in the topographically high areas centered in Polk
and Pasco counties. Water is discharged from the Floridan aquifer
in Martin County mostly through flowing wells.
Yields from wells in the Floridan aquifer range from about 10
to 750 gpm (gallons per minute). Yields from wells in the shallow
aquifer range from a few gallons per minute to more than 500
gpm. The coefficients of transmissibility and storage of the
shallow aquifer differ at different locations and depths, thus
indicating that the composition of the aquifer is not uniform.
Transmissibility coefficients obtained from test data range from
16,000 to 83,000 gpd (gallons per day) per foot, and storage
coefficients range from 0.0001 to 0.0065.
Chemical analyses of 56 water samples from Martin County
indicate that the water from the shallow aquifer, although hard,
is generally of good quality. The water from the artesian aquifer
is highly mineralized. Temperatures of water range from 700 to
82z F in the shallow aquifer and range from 750 to 910F in the
artesian aquifer.
Recent salt-water encroachment in the shallow aquifer has
occurred on Hutchinson Island, Jupiter Island, and Sewall Point
and in some coastal areas on the mainland. In some areas of
western Martin County the lower part of the shallow aquifer con-
tains salt water that entered the aquifer when the present land
surface was under the sea, during the Pleistocene epoch. Sea water
that entered the Floridan aquifer during that time is responsible
also for much of the high mineral content of the artesian water.
Most of the water used for public, domestic, and industrial
supplies and much of the irrigation and stock water is obtained






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


from the shallow aquifer. The water from the artesian aquifer is
used for irrigation, stock watering, and swimming pools.

INTRODUCTION
LOCATION AND EXTENT OF AREA
Martin County is an area of about 560 square miles in the
southeastern part of peninsular Florida. It is bounded by the
Atlantic Ocean on the east, Lake Okeechobee and Okeechobee
County on the west, St. Lucie County on the north, and Palm Beach
County on the south. It includes all or parts of Townships 37-40
South and Ranges 37-43 East, and it lies between 26057'24" and
2715'46" north latitude and 8004'49" and 80040'40" west longitude
(fig. 1). Martin County was established in 1925 from the northern
part of Palm Beach County and a small part of St. Lucie County.


Figure 1. Location of Martin County.






FLORitDA- GjEOLOGICAL SURVEY1-


PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION

The extensive and expanding use of ground water for domestic,
municipal, industrial, and. irrigation supplies has resulted in the
need for a thorough understanding of the geology -and ground-
water hydrology of Martin County.
A preliminary inventory of wells was made during 1953 by
E. W. Bishop, formerly of the U. S. Geological Survey. Further
hydrologic and geologic data were collected by William F. Lichter
during 1956-57, and the major part of the fieldwork was completed
by June 1957. The investigation included a determination of the
occurrence, movement, quantity, and quality of the water in the


\

Figure 3. Northeastern part of Martin County showing the location of wells. z'






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


from the shallow aquifer. The water from the artesian aquifer is
used for irrigation, stock watering, and swimming pools.

INTRODUCTION
LOCATION AND EXTENT OF AREA
Martin County is an area of about 560 square miles in the
southeastern part of peninsular Florida. It is bounded by the
Atlantic Ocean on the east, Lake Okeechobee and Okeechobee
County on the west, St. Lucie County on the north, and Palm Beach
County on the south. It includes all or parts of Townships 37-40
South and Ranges 37-43 East, and it lies between 26057'24" and
2715'46" north latitude and 8004'49" and 80040'40" west longitude
(fig. 1). Martin County was established in 1925 from the northern
part of Palm Beach County and a small part of St. Lucie County.


Figure 1. Location of Martin County.












EXPLANATION
0
Nonflowing well

Flowing well
A
Recording gage


R36E R39E
0'186 0


747


760


.927


746


S 4 1 5 743
0744 7610"..0,62
09;8 06
- -^. *,69 HI .-
199
.s0 9 70
O70 ,


*91T7


o0160


2545
--"4* _ _


0146


916


175
N0Ams


S28
2860J


R38E R39E

SCALE IN MILES
1 0 2 4


'40-E R41E


Figure 2. Location of wells.


7659


SEE FIG 3


0931
e93n o43


0174
O *"O


466-0


* 921

*0

*920


0







0
Trl
CT


307 ISO
0306


R






I


o02 '


- i


0-


2






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


nonartesian and artesian aquifers, and a study of the subsurface
geology of the area. Part of the field investigation included an
inventory of 939 representative wells in the county (figs. 2-4).
The investigation was under the general supervision of A. N.
Sayre, then Chief of the Ground Water Branch, U. S. Geological
Survey, Washington, D. C., M. I. Rorabaough, District Engineer,
Tallahassee, Florida, Dr. Herman Gunter, then State Geologist
and Director of the Florida Geological Survey, and under the
direct supervision of Howard Klein, Geologist in charge of the
Miami office. The Florida Geological Survey and the Central and
Southern Florida Flood Control District cooperated with the
Federal Survey in this study, which is part of a continuing pro-
gram designed to appraise the ground-water resources of the
State of Florida.


Figure 4. City of Stuart showing the location of wells.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS

A detailed study of the water resources of an area of about 25
square miles, in and adjacent to the city of Stuart, is contained in
a report by Lichtler (1957) entitled, "Ground-Water Resources
of the Stuart Area, Martin County, Florida."
Brief references to the geology or ground-water hydrology of
Martin County were made by Matson and Sanford (1913, p. 176,
381-384), Mansfield (1939, p. 29-34), Parker and Cooke (1944, p.
41), Cooke (1945, p. 223, 269), and Parker, Ferguson, and Love
(1955, p. 174-175, 814-815). Stringfield (1936, p. 170, 183, 193) in
his discussion of artesian water in the Florida peninsula, refers
to selected deep, flowing wells in Martin County.
References to water levels in Martin County were made in
U. S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers 1166 (1950, p. 80-
81), 1192 (1951, p. 65), 1222 (1952, p. 77), 1266 (1953, p. 80),
1322 (1954, p. 84), and 1405 (1955, p. 87). Data on the quality
of water in Martin County are contained in reports by Collins and
Howard (1928, p. 193-195, 220-221), Black and Brown (1951, p.
13), and Black, Brown, and Pearce (1953, p. 2, 5).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Appreciation is expressed to the many residents of Martin
County who furnished information about their wells, and to various
public officials of the county. Special acknowledgment is given to
the following well drillers of the area: Douglass Arnold, Stuart;
William Athey, Fort Pierce; George Dansby, Wauchula; and
McCullers and Raulerson, Vero Beach, who furnished logs of wells
and permitted sampling and observation during drilling operations.
Special appreciation is extended to Captain Bruce Leighton for his
cooperation in allowing his wells; pumps, and other facilities to
be used for pumping tests.

GEOGRAPHY
TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE
Martin County lies within the Atlantic Coastal Plain physio-
graphic province of Meinzer (1923, pl. 28). The county is
subdivided into three physiographic regions: (1) Atlantic Coastal
Ridge, (2) Eastern Flatlands, and (3) Everglades (Davis 1943,
p. 8). Each is a region in which a certain similarity of topography
or relief prevails or a certain soil type or vegetation cover is






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23 7












C A
00
OR






0





0
o #






z ,z
o
2
Ii


Lj.A'f





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


common. Figure 5 is a map of Martin County showing the outline
of these physiographic subdivisions.
Land-surface altitudes in Martin County range from mean sea
level, in areas adjacent to the shoreline or tidal streams, to about
85 feet above mean sea level on the tops of a few sandhills along
the coastal ridge. The sandhill areas in Jonathan Dickinson State
Park, in the southeastern part of the county, and the Jensen
Beach area north of Stuart are characterized by relatively great
relief. The remainder of the county is virtually flat, and surface
altitudes range from about 15 to 45 feet above mean sea level.
The St. Lucie River, the Loxahatchee River, and Lake
Okeechobee form the major drainage basins within the county.
The St. Lucie Canal is designed primarily to convey flood waters
from Lake Okeechobee to the south fork of the St. Lucie River.
After entering the St. Lucie River the water flows northward,
eastward, and southward through the coastal ridge to the Indian
River and then discharges into the Atlantic Ocean. Flow in the
St. Lucie Canal is controlled by a lock and dam structure 11/2
miles upstream from the confluence of the canal and the south
fork of the St. Lucie River. The north and south forks of the St.
Lucie River drain a major part of eastern Martin County, and
their drainageways form part of the boundary between the Atlantic
Coastal Ridge and the Eastern Flatlands. The Loxahatchee River
drains a smaller area in the southeastern part of the county and
forms part of the boundary between the coastal ridge and the
flatlands. The several small streams that drain the western part
of Martin County flow westward to Lake Okeechobee. The
Allapattah Flats east of the Orlando Ridge (fig. 5) is a wide,
poorly defined drainageway which remains marshy during most
of the year. In general, drainage is to the southeast through
canals.

ATLANTIC COASTAL RIDGE

The Atlantic Coastal Ridge in Martin County parallels the
present coastline and varies in width from about three miles in the
southeast corner of the county to about six miles in the central
coastal area, and to about four miles in the northern area (fig.
5). The backbone of the coastal ridge is generally less than a mile
wide and includes: (1) the sandhills of Jonathan Dickinson State
Park, where altitudes are as high as 86 feet above mean sea level;
(2) a lower ridge, which parallels the Intracoastal Waterway to
Rocky Point with altitudes of about 25 to 35 feet above mean sea





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


level; (3) Sewall Point which rises to 37 feet above mean sea level;
and (4) the sandhills of Jensen Beach, which rise to 80 feet above
mean sea level. The St. Lucie River breaches the coastal ridge
between Rocky Point and Sewall Point. The high sandhills of
the coastal ridge are sand dunes built upon old beach ridges
(Parker and others, 1955, p. 145). These dunes are quiescent and
support growths of bunch grass, pines, and palmettos. They were
formed during the Pleistocene epoch and are in nearly parallel.
rows inland from the present shore.
From the top of the ridge the land slopes eastward to Hobe
Sound, the Intracoastal Waterway, and the Indian River. West-
ward from the top of the ridge the land slopes to what F. Stearns
MacNeil (1950, p. 19), called "the Pamlico Intracoastal
Waterway." In Martin County this ancient waterway is now
occupied by the drainage basins of the north and south forks of
the St. Lucie River and the north and northwest forks of the
Loxahatchee River.
Hutchinson Island and Jupiter Island were probably formed
as offshore bars during a high stand of the sea. They are now
separated from the mainland by the shallow waters of the Indian
River, Hobe Sound, and the Intracoastal Waterway. These bodies
of water are usually less than six feet deep, but they are as much
as nine feet deep in places. The land surface on Hutchinson
Island ranges from mean sea level to 19 feet above, and is
generally less than 10 feet. The land surface on Jupiter Island
ranges from mean sea level to about 30 feet above, and is generally
less than 20 feet.
The coastal ridge is blanketed by relatively permeable fine to
medium sand. Drainage of the ridge is chiefly underground
through the surface sands. Shallow depressions in the sandy
ridge are occupied by intermittent ponds which flood during rainy
seasons and dry up during dry seasons. These ponds are elongate
in the direction of the axis of the ridge.
Because of the good subsurface drainage and the relatively
high altitudes, the coastal ridge is flooded less frequently than
inland areas, and the population and industry of the county have
concentrated in the coastal areas.

EASTERN FLATLANDS AND ORLANDO RIDGE

The Eastern Flatlands occupy all the area from the Atlantic
Coastal Ridge westward to the Everglades and Lake Okeechobee.
This is a monotonously flat region with the exception of the





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS

A detailed study of the water resources of an area of about 25
square miles, in and adjacent to the city of Stuart, is contained in
a report by Lichtler (1957) entitled, "Ground-Water Resources
of the Stuart Area, Martin County, Florida."
Brief references to the geology or ground-water hydrology of
Martin County were made by Matson and Sanford (1913, p. 176,
381-384), Mansfield (1939, p. 29-34), Parker and Cooke (1944, p.
41), Cooke (1945, p. 223, 269), and Parker, Ferguson, and Love
(1955, p. 174-175, 814-815). Stringfield (1936, p. 170, 183, 193) in
his discussion of artesian water in the Florida peninsula, refers
to selected deep, flowing wells in Martin County.
References to water levels in Martin County were made in
U. S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers 1166 (1950, p. 80-
81), 1192 (1951, p. 65), 1222 (1952, p. 77), 1266 (1953, p. 80),
1322 (1954, p. 84), and 1405 (1955, p. 87). Data on the quality
of water in Martin County are contained in reports by Collins and
Howard (1928, p. 193-195, 220-221), Black and Brown (1951, p.
13), and Black, Brown, and Pearce (1953, p. 2, 5).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Appreciation is expressed to the many residents of Martin
County who furnished information about their wells, and to various
public officials of the county. Special acknowledgment is given to
the following well drillers of the area: Douglass Arnold, Stuart;
William Athey, Fort Pierce; George Dansby, Wauchula; and
McCullers and Raulerson, Vero Beach, who furnished logs of wells
and permitted sampling and observation during drilling operations.
Special appreciation is extended to Captain Bruce Leighton for his
cooperation in allowing his wells; pumps, and other facilities to
be used for pumping tests.

GEOGRAPHY
TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE
Martin County lies within the Atlantic Coastal Plain physio-
graphic province of Meinzer (1923, pl. 28). The county is
subdivided into three physiographic regions: (1) Atlantic Coastal
Ridge, (2) Eastern Flatlands, and (3) Everglades (Davis 1943,
p. 8). Each is a region in which a certain similarity of topography
or relief prevails or a certain soil type or vegetation cover is





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


elongated ridge that MacNeil (1950, p. 103) calls the Orlando
Ridge (fig. 5), and the narrow elongate ridge referred to on
U. S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle maps as Green
Ridge. The altitude of the Orlando Ridge in Martin County ranges
from about 30 to 50 feet above mean sea level, the highest altitude
being near the southern part of the ridge. The altitude of Green
Ridge is lower than that of Orlando Ridge, ranging from 30 to
35 feet above mean sea level. The altitude of the land surface
in the remainder of the Eastern Flatlands generally ranges from
slightly less than 20 feet above mean sea level to 30 feet above
mean sea level.
In the area north of the St. Lucie Canal, the Eastern Flatlands
rise gradually from the valley of the St. Lucie River to Green
Ridge. West of Green Ridge the land surface is extremely flat,
having an average altitude of 28 feet above mean sea level and a
very slight slope to the south. West of the Orlando Ridge the
Eastern Flatlands slope gently to the Everglades and the shore
of Lake Okeechobee.
Immediately east of the Orlando Ridge is the poorly defined
drainageway or slough which is called Allapattah Flats on U. S.
Geological Survey topographic quadrangle maps, and Allapattah
Marsh by Davis (1943, p. 43). The land-surface altitude along
the Allapattah Flats is about 26 or 27 feet above mean sea level.
Drainage from the Flats is ill defined, but is usually toward the
southeast. Occasionally, during high-water stages some water may
flow northward. The divide between the northward and southward
flow probably shifts according to the relative surface-water stages
north and south of the Flat.
South of the St. Lucie Canal the surface of the Eastern Flat-
lands rises gently toward the west from the valleys of the south
fork of the St. Lucie River and the northwest fork of the
Loxahatchee River to a broad crest south of the Orlando Ridge
and then gradually slopes downward in a southwest direction to
the edge of the Everglades. The altitude of the crest is about 25
feet above mean sea level.
Drainage throughout the Eastern Flatlands is chiefly under-
ground, through the fine surface sands. Both surface and
subsurface drainage is very sluggish, owing to the flatness of the
land, and ponds are formed throughout most of the region during
the rainy season. Surface drainage in the area east of Green
Ridge is effected by the tributaries of the St. Lucie River. West of
Green Ridge the drainage is ill defined, but in general, it is
southward to the St. Lucie Canal or eastward through breaks in





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


Green Ridge. Drainage west of the Orlando Ridge is to streams
flowing westward and southwestward to the Everglades and Lake
Okeechobee. Because of the flatness of the land, drainage canals
are frequently required in farming and ranching operations.


EVERGLADES

The Everglades, in general, is a flat region covered by organic
soils formed by the growth and decay of saw grass. The narrow
strip of the Everglades (fig. 5) in the southwestern part of the
county, bordering Lake Okeechobee, is almost indistinguishable
from the Eastern Flatlands. The boundary between the Everglades
and the Flatlands is poorly defined, as the organic soils of the
Everglades and the quartz sands of the Flatlands are intermixed.
The Everglades area is maintained in a condition suitable for
extensive agriculture by means of water control measures
employing dikes, drainage canals, and a levee at the shore of Lake
Okeechobee.
The maximum width of the Everglades area in Martin County
is about 11/ miles. The altitude of the land surface ranges from
about 15 feet above mean sea level at the shore of Lake Okeechobee
to about 20 or 22 feet where the Everglades merges with the
Eastern Flatlands.


TERRACES

During warm interglacial stages of the Pleistocene epoch the
sea level was higher than at present, and parts of Florida were
covered by the ocean. Whenever the sea level remained relatively
stationary for a long period, wave and current action formed a
virtually flat surface on the ocean floor. During glacial stages
the sea retreated to lower levels, and the flat surfaces emerged as
marine terraces having a slight seaward dip. The landward margin
of such a terrace is the abandoned shoreline, which in some places
is marked by a scarp.
Cooke (1945, p. 245-248, 273-311) postulated the existence
of seven terraces which correlate with different levels of the sea
during Pleistocene time. The Pamlico terrace, at 9 to 25 feet
above mean sea level, the Talbot terrace, at 25 to 42 feet, and the
Penholoway terrace, at 42 to 70 feet are within the range of land-
surface altitudes in Martin County; however, the writer could






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


find no evidence of a shoreline scarp at the 25-foot, 42-foot, or
70-foot altitude.
F. S. MacNeil (1950, p. 99) states: "The Pamlico shoreline also
is well preserved. The toe of the scarp along certain intracoastal
shores is close to 40 feet, but the highwater mark was probably
a little lower than the toe. The 30-foot contour was selected to
show the coastal features of the Pamlico coast and is probably
correct within 7 or 8 feet for the Pamlico sea level. An altitude
higher than 30 feet is more likely than a lower altitude."
There is a pronounced scarp in Martin County at about 30 to
35 feet above mean sea level that fits the above description by
MacNeil. It appears that the Orlando Ridge was a narrow penin-
sula or series of islands and shoals during Pamlico time, when the
sea level was 30 to 35 feet higher than it is at present, and Green
Ridge was an offshore bar with its crest at about sea level.
The Atlantic Coastal Ridge probably is of pre-Pamlico origin
and was dissected and otherwise modified by the advance of the
Pamlico sea. The high sandhills in the vicinity of Jensen Beach
and Jonathan Dickinson State Park are believed to be remnants of
an extensive area of sandhills that once covered the Atlantic
Coastal Ridge in Martin County. A study of the topographic
maps of the area shows that the north and south boundaries of
the dune areas are sharply defined and have spitlike structures
projecting westward (fig. 5). These features, plus the relatively
high altitude of the sandhills, seem to indicate the possibility of
a pre-Pamlico origin of the sandhills. The relative softness of
the water from the dune areas (p. 55) lends support to this theory.
It may be that water is softer in the sandhill areas because those
areas were exposed to the leaching action of infiltrating rainfall
for a longer period of time than most of the rest of Martin
County.


CLIMATE

The climate of Martin County is subtropical, having an average
annual temperature of 75.20 F. Rainfall is seasonal as 64 percent
occurs during the rainy season from June through October. The
average annual rainfall at Stuart is 56.15 inches (table 1).
During the summer and early fall the rain usually falls in
heavy showers that cover a small area. Short-term rainfall
records, therefore, are valid only in the immediate vicinity of a
particular station.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


TABLE 1.-Average Monthly Temperature and Rainfall in Martin County


Rainfall at
Temperature Rainfall at St. Lucie Rainfall at
at Stuart' Stuart2 Canal Lock. Port Mayaca3
Month (oF) (inches) (inches) (inches)

January 66.5 1.92 2.11 1.35
February 67.9 2.41 2.13 1.58
March 70.6 2.81 3.03 2.78
April 74.3 3.25 4.00 3.33
May 77.6 4.61 4.91 3.37
June 81.3 6.47 7.65 6.84
July 82.3 6.41 7.41 6.76
August 82.8 5.47 7.36 7.01
September 81.6 9.08 8.76 7.49
October 77.7 8.44 7.14 4.85
November 71.9 2.23 2.85 1.93
December 68.1 2.18 2.07 1.38
Yearly average 75.2 56.15 59.42 48.67

'U.S. Weather Bureau discontinuous record 1933-57.
2U.S. Weather Bureau discontinuous record 1935-57.
3U.S. Corps of Engineers record 1925-57.


POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT

There are three incorporated towns in Martin County: Stuart,
the county seat, is the largest; Jupiter Island is next in size; and
Sewall Point, which was incorporated in 1957, is the smallest. In
addition, there are several unincorporated communities including
Jensen Beach, Rio, Salerno, Palm City, Hobe Sound, and Indian-
town. In the 1950 census, Stuart had a population of 2,892 and
Martin County had a total population of 7,665, most of which
was concentrated along the Atlantic coast. During the winter
tourist season the population of the county approximately doubles.
The tourist industry and agriculture are both very important
to the economy of Martin County. The most important crops are
citrus and other fruits and winter vegetables, including beans,
tomatoes, cabbage, peppers, squash, eggplant, watermelons, lettuce,
and cucumbers. Potatoes, corn, sugarcane, timber, forage crops,
beef and dairy cattle, hogs, and poultry also are important.
Commercial fishing is important in Martin County, as is sport
fishing, which is one of the leading attractions for the tourist
industry.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The principal mineral resources of the county are sand, shell,
marl, and peat.

GEOLOGY

Because the source, occurrence, movement, quantity, quality,
and availability of ground water are directly related to the geology
of the region, a study of the geology of the county was an
essential part of this investigation.

GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS AND THEIR WATER-
BEARING PROPERTIES

The igneous and metamorphic rocks that form the basement
complex in peninsular Florida are covered in Martin County by
approximately 13,000 feet of sedimentary rocks, most of which
are of marine origin. In Martin County, the predominant rock
types at depths below 700 feet are limestone and dolomite, but
sediments above that depth are chiefly sand, silt, and clay. The
deepest water wells in the county penetrate about 1,500 feet of
sediments, which include the Avon Park limestone and limestones
of the Ocala group, of Eocene age; the Suwannee limestone, of
Oligocene age; the Hawthorn formation and possibly the Tampa
and Tamiami formations, of Miocene age; the Caloosahatchee marl,
of Pliocene age; and the Anastasia formation and the Pamlico
sand, of Pleistocene age.
The Avon Park limestone is the oldest formation in Martin
County for which geologic data are available, although there have
been reports of wells penetrating the older Lake City limestone,
of middle Eocene age. Most artesian wells in Martin County end
in the Avon Park limestone, and most wells in the shallow aquifer
probably end in the Anastasia formation.

EOCENE SERIES
Formations of the Eocene series known to have been penetrated
by deep wells in Martin County include the Avon Park limestone
and the Ocala group.
Avon Park limestone. The Avon Park limestone in Martin
County shows lithologic changes both vertically and laterally.
Generally it is a cream to tan, hard to medium soft, rather pure,
chalky to finely crystalline limestone. It is differentiated from
overlying and underlying formations primarily by its fossil content.
The most important index fossils are foraminifers, including







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


Coskinolina floridana, Lituonella, Rotalia avonparkensis, Flintina
avonparkensis, Valvulina avonparkensis, Spirolina coryensis,
Dictyoconus cookei, Dictyoconus gunteri, and Textularia coryensis.
The small echinoid Peronella dalli, which is an excellent index fossil
of the Avon Park limestone in some areas of Florida, was noted in
cuttings from a few deep wells in Martin County.
The thickness of the Avon Park limestone in Martin County
is not known, because no wells are known to penetrate it com-
pletely. On the basis of well studies in nearby counties, however,
it is estimated to be at least 400 feet thick.
Current-meter tests made in Martin County (see description
of artesian aquifer, p. 35) show that highly permeable zones of
the Avon Park limestone are separated by less permeable zones.
Where the salt content of its water is not excessive the Avon
Park limestone is a good source of water for irrigation.

Ocala group. The Ocala limestone, of late Eocene age (Cooke,
1945, p. 53; Applin and Jordan, 1945, p. 130), was subdivided by
Vernon (1951, p. 113-115), in descending order, into Ocala
limestone (restricted) and Moodys Branch formation with
Williston (top) and Inglis (bottom) members. Puri (1953, p. 130)
raised the Williston and Inglis members to formational rank and
dropped the name Moodys Branch. He also proposed the name
Crystal River to replace Vernon's Ocala (restricted) and raised
the name Ocala to group status to include all three formations.
Where the Ocala group is exposed, in northern Florida, the
Crystal River, Williston, and Inglis formations can be distinguished
by their lithology and fossil content. In Martin County only a
few well cuttings are available for study; therefore, the Ocala
group is not subdivided in this report.
The limestones of the Ocala group are generally granular,
white to cream or slightly pink, soft to medium hard, and contain
much crystalline calcite in some areas. In places the Ocala is a
foraminiferal coquina composed almost entirely of tests of
Lepidocyclina, Operculinoides and Nummulites. The Inglis forma-
tion, or lower part of the Ocala group, is usually characterized by
an abundance of miliolid Foraminifera.
Diagnostic Foraminifera of the Ocala group include
Lepidocyclina ocalana, Operculinoides moodybranchensis,
Heterostegina ocalana, Rotalia cushmani, Cibicides mississippiensis
ocalanus, and others. Further information about the fossils,
stratigraphy, and zonation of the Ocala group is contained in a
report by Puri (1957).






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The Ocala group is generally less than 100 feet thick in Martin
County, and it is only 20 feet thick at well 146. Figure 6, a contour
map of the top of the limestones of the Ocala group, shows a
general domelike structure in the north-central part of the county.
The top of the Ocala, however, is an erosional surface, and the
underlying formations do not have exactly the same configuration.
Nevertheless, evidence from well logs suggests that the major
features represented in figure 6 are present in the underlying
Avon Park limestone. The principal purpose of the map is to show
the approximate depth below sea level at which the first substantial
flow of water can be expected from wells penetrating the Floridan
aquifer.
Figure 6 shows a major subsurface fault having a displacement
of 300 to 400 feet and a strike that is approximately parallel to and
about five miles inland from the present coast. Available data are
insufficient to permit determination of the exact strike, dip, and
extent of the fault. There may be several faults or a wide fault
zone rather than one single fault. If it is a single fault it is
apparently hinged, as the dip of the top of the Ocala group west
of the fault is southeast at a moderate angle but the dip east of
the fault is apparently south-southwest at a much steeper angle.
The limestone of the Ocala group is generally porous and
permeable and is an important part of the Floridan aquifer.

OLIGOCENE SERIES

Suwannee limestone. The Suwannee limestone is the only
known formation of Oligocene age in Martin County. It lies
unconformably on the eroded limestones of the Ocala group and
is overlain unconformably by the Tampa formation, or by the
Hawthorn formation where the Tampa is not present.
The Suwannee limestone is a cream colored, slightly porous,
soft, granular mass of limy particles, many of which seem to be
of organic origin. It contains very few distinguishable fossils.
The thickness of the Suwannee limestone ranges from about
20 to 60 feet on the western (upthrown) side of the fault, and
from 100 to 170 feet on the eastern (downthrown) side. These
differences in thickness indicate that movement along the fault
probably started during late-Oligocene or post-Oligocene time and
continued during post-Oligocene time when the Suwannee limestone
was exposed to erosion. The downthrown block was protected from
erosion; therefore, the thickness of the Suwannee limestone on the
east side of the fault is greater than it is on the west side.









Top number Is number of well W o a Ln U
Bottom number Is altitude of Well for which electric logs and
top of Ocola group, In feet, well cuttings are available
referred to mean se0 level Contour Interval 20 feet






980

,al ,1020


om ,o












"'. m-- "-un---- i-aer ----- a,-- r "







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Additional slippage along the fault plane probably occurred during
Miocene time. The faulting is probably associated with the
crustal movements which formed the Ocala uplift, as discussed
by Vernon (1951, p. 54-62).
The Suwannee limestone is part of the Floridan aquifer, and
it yields moderate amounts of water to artesian wells. Its per-
meability is generally lower than that of the underlying formations,
and the chloride content of the water is usually higher.

MIOCENE SERIES

The Miocene series in Martin County includes the Hawthorn
formation of early and middle Miocene age and possibly the
Tampa formation of early Miocene age and the Tamiami formation
of late Miocene age.
Tampa formation. The Tampa formation is a fairly hard, dense,
white to yellowish, very sandy limestone in the type area, near
Tampa. Its presence in Martin County has not been definitely
established, but about 10 to 15 feet of limestone just below the
Hawthorn formation at well 841, about 2 miles south of Stuart (fig.
3, and well logs), is similar to the Tampa formation of the type
area and is here tentatively correlated with the Tampa. This
limestone forms the uppermost part of the Floridan aquifer in
Martin County. It has moderate permeability and yields some
water to artesian wells, but the chloride content of the water is
generally higher than it is in water from the main producing
zones of the Ocala group and the Avon Park limestone.
Hawthorn formation. The Hawthorn formation in northern
Florida consists largely of gray phosphatic sand and lenses of green
or gray fuller's earth (Cooke, 1945, p. 144). In Martin County the
Hawthorn formation is composed of beds of dark green to white
phosphatic clay containing silt and quartz sand. Thin layers of
sandy phosphatic limestone and chert occur within the Hawthorn,
especially in the lower part of the formation. Lenses and thin
layers of phosphatic sand and shell are prevalent at some locations.
The Hawthorn formation underlies all of Martin County and
probably rests conformably on the Tampa formation (where the
Tampa is present) (Cooke, 1945, p. 138) or unconformably on the
Suwannee or older limestones. Its contact with the overlying
Tamiami formation is probably conformable.
The formation is 350 to 550 feet thick in Martin County. Its
overall permeability is very low, and it serves as the confining bed







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 23


for the Floridan aquifer. It does not yield significant amounts
of water to wells in Martin County.
Tamiami formation. Parker (1951, p. 823) defined the Tamiami
formation as including all deposits of late Miocene age in southern
Florida. In areas where there is no distinct lithologic break
between the middle and upper Miocene sediments, the Tamiami
formation can be separated from the Hawthorn formation only by
a thorough examination of the fossils. There appears to be no
distinct lithologic change between the middle and upper Miocene
deposits in Martin County and its thickness and water-bearing
characteristics have not been established.

POST-MIOCENE DEPOSITS

The post-Miocene deposits in southern Florida include the
Caloosahatchee marl of Pliocene age and the Anastasia formation,
the Fort Thompson formation, and the Pamlico sand of Pleistocene
age.
Caloosahatchee marl. The Caloosahatchee marl is composed
largely of sand and shells. Cooke (1945, p. 223) states: "The St.
Lucie Canal cuts through the Pleistocene Anastasia formation into
the Caloosahatchee marl from the entrance at Port Mayaca on
Lake Okeechobee at a point about 3 miles below the Seaboard Rail-
road bridge at Indiantown. Throughout this distance Pliocene shell
marl, some of it hard rock, has been thrown up by the dredge.
There are no exposures of the Caloosahatchee marl along this
canal, for the Anastasia extends below water level."
The thickness of the Caloosahatchee marl in Martin County is
unknown, but well 910, 15 miles northwest of Indiantown, pene-
trated a shell marl from 100 to 150 feet below the land surface;
unfortunately, no samples were obtained from depths shallower
than 100 feet.
Julia Gardner (1952, personal communication) reported that
samples from the 188 to 209-foot interval in well 143, in the
eastern part of Martin County, may be of Pliocene age.
Fort Thompson formation. The Fort Thompson formation as
defined by Sellards (1919, p. 71-73) consists, in its type area, of
alternating beds of fresh-water and brackish-water deposits as
well as marine shell marl and limestone of Pleistocene age. A rock
sample collected by a driller at a depth of 60 feet below the land
surface, in a well north of Stuart, contains what appear to be







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


fresh-water gastropods; however, the rock samples collected at
an equivalent depth from test well 905, north of Stuart, contained
no fresh-water gastropods. In the absence of positive identification
of substantial fresh-water deposits of the Fort Thompson formation
in Martin County, all Pleistocene deposits below the Pamlico sand
are herein tentatively assigned to the contemporaneous Anastasia
formation.

Anastasia formation. The Anastasia formation differs in
composition from place to place, ranging from almost pure coquina
to almost pure sand. In Martin County, however, it consists mostly
of sand, shell beds, and thin discontinuous layers of sandy lime-
stone or sandstone. The Anastasia formation and the Pamlico
sand are the only formations exposed in Martin County, and the
Anastasia formation probably underlies the surficial Pamlico in
all parts of the county where it is not exposed. The consolidated-
coquina phase of the Anastasia formation crops out at Rocky Point,
Jupiter Island, Hutchinson Island, and Sewall Point (fig. 5). There
is evidence that the coquina is of two different ages, as it contains
rounded boulders of an older coquina. The beds of coquina are
probably not more than 10 to 20 feet thick, and only a few shallow
wells are developed in them.
The Anastasia formation furnishes most of the fresh-water
supplies east of the Indiantown area. It is probably more than 100
feet thick in the eastern part of the county, but it presumably
thins to the west and pinches out or merges with the Fort
Thompson formation west of Martin County.
The Anastasia lies unconformably on the Caloosahatchee marl
or older formations and is overlain unconformably by the Pamlico
sand. It is the principal source of fresh ground water in Martin
County. The thin beds of permeable shell, limestone, or sandstone
that occur at many places between 50 and 125 feet below the
land surface usually yields large quantities of potable water to
open-end wells. Moderate supplies of water can be obtained at most
places from sandpoint wells at shallow depths.

Pamlico sand. The Pamlico sand unconformably overlies the
Anastasia formation in Martin County, except in the high area of
the Orlando Ridge and in the sandhills (fig. 5) where the land was
not covered by the sea during Pamlico time. The Pamlico sand is
only a few feet thick over most of the county, and it is probably
just a thin veneer. west of the coastal ridge. It is not a source of
appreciable amounts of ground water in Martin County.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The principal mineral resources of the county are sand, shell,
marl, and peat.

GEOLOGY

Because the source, occurrence, movement, quantity, quality,
and availability of ground water are directly related to the geology
of the region, a study of the geology of the county was an
essential part of this investigation.

GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS AND THEIR WATER-
BEARING PROPERTIES

The igneous and metamorphic rocks that form the basement
complex in peninsular Florida are covered in Martin County by
approximately 13,000 feet of sedimentary rocks, most of which
are of marine origin. In Martin County, the predominant rock
types at depths below 700 feet are limestone and dolomite, but
sediments above that depth are chiefly sand, silt, and clay. The
deepest water wells in the county penetrate about 1,500 feet of
sediments, which include the Avon Park limestone and limestones
of the Ocala group, of Eocene age; the Suwannee limestone, of
Oligocene age; the Hawthorn formation and possibly the Tampa
and Tamiami formations, of Miocene age; the Caloosahatchee marl,
of Pliocene age; and the Anastasia formation and the Pamlico
sand, of Pleistocene age.
The Avon Park limestone is the oldest formation in Martin
County for which geologic data are available, although there have
been reports of wells penetrating the older Lake City limestone,
of middle Eocene age. Most artesian wells in Martin County end
in the Avon Park limestone, and most wells in the shallow aquifer
probably end in the Anastasia formation.

EOCENE SERIES
Formations of the Eocene series known to have been penetrated
by deep wells in Martin County include the Avon Park limestone
and the Ocala group.
Avon Park limestone. The Avon Park limestone in Martin
County shows lithologic changes both vertically and laterally.
Generally it is a cream to tan, hard to medium soft, rather pure,
chalky to finely crystalline limestone. It is differentiated from
overlying and underlying formations primarily by its fossil content.
The most important index fossils are foraminifers, including







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


GROUND WATER

Ground water is the subsurface water in the zone of saturation,
the zone in which all the voids of the soil or rocks are completely
filled with water under greater than atmospheric pressure.
An aquifer is a water-bearing formation, group of formations,
or part of a formation in the zone of saturation that is permeable
enough to transmit usable quantities of water.
Ground water may occur under either nonartesian or artesian
conditions. Where it only partly fills an aquifer and its upper
surface is free to rise and fall, it is said to be under nonartesian
conditions, and the surface is called the water table. Where the
water is confined in a permeable bed that is overlain by a less
permeable bed, its surface is not free to rise and fall, and water
thus confined under pressure is said to be under artesian conditions.
The height to which water will rise in tightly cased wells that
penetrate an artesian aquifer defines the pressure or piezometric
surface of the aquifer.
The zone of saturation, or ground-water zone, is the reservoir
from which all wells and springs obtain their water. It is
replenished by infiltration of precipitation, though not all
precipitation reaches it. Some is returned to the atmosphere by
evaporation and transpiration; some enters streams, lakes, oceans,
or other bodies of surface water. The remainder is added to the
ground-water reservoir. Ground water moves laterally under the
influence of gravity to points of discharge such as springs, wells,
streams, or the ocean.

SHALLOW AQUIFER

The shallow aquifer is the principal source of fresh-water
supplies in Martin County. It includes the Pamlico sand, the
Anastasia formation and possibly part of the Tamiami formation.
The aquifer extends from the water table to about 150 feet below
the land surface. It is. a nonartesian aquifer composed principally
of sand, but containing relatively thin beds or lenses of limestone,
sandstone, or shell, which are generally more permeable than the
sand. Most large-capacity wells are developed, in the limestone,
sandstone or shell. Some fairly large supplies of water and many
small water supplies are obtained from the sand by the use of
sandpoints and well screens.
The lithology of the aquifer changes laterally as well as verti-
cally, so that the permeable beds are not always found at the same






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


depth; in fact, in some areas they are missing entirely. The
permeable limestone, sandstone, and shell strata are more prevalent
in the eastern part of the county than in the western part.

AQUIFER PROPERTIES

Atlantic Coastal Ridge. The Atlantic Coastal Ridge parallels
the coastline and ranges from 3 to 6 miles in width. The
crest of the coastal ridge is about a mile wide and includes the
Jensen Beach sandhills, Sewall Point, Rocky Point, and the
Jonathan Dickinson State Park sandhills (fig. 5).
In some places, such as Rocky Point and Sewall Point, coquina
crops out, but at most places there does not appear to be any well
defined rock core beneath the crest of the coastal ridge. In general,
consolidated rock is first encountered at depths ranging from 40 to
60 feet below the land surface, and additional beds of consolidated
rock are encountered to depths of about 150 feet. They are
generally calcareous sandstones or sandy limestones in thin layers
or lenses interbedded with sand and shells. In some places they
are composed of masses of nodules, many of which are formed by
the replacement of fossils. Very rarely can more than 5 to 10
feet of open hole be maintained below the well casing. The bottom
of the shallow aquifer is about 150 feet below the land surface.
The predominant materials between 150 and 750 feet are fine sand
and clay, which will not yield appreciable quantities of water to
wells.
Coarse sandstone was reported between depths of 40 and 60
feet in well 121, in Jonathan Dickinson State Park. (See fig. 2 for
location.) Similar sandstones were reported between depths of 40
and 70 feet and depths of 95 and 117 feet in the Hobe Sound
municipal well field. Well 617, south of Stuart, was drilled to 87
feet and penetrated only loose sand, except for a few rounded
pieces of sandstone between 60 and 63 feet below the land surface.
Well 820, at Salerno, was drilled to a depth of 166 feet and
penetrated a single thin layer of sandstone at a depth of 105 feet.
The remaining material was sand and fine shell fragments. Well
656, in the Stuart municipal well field, penetrated beds of lime-
stone between depths of 52 and 88 feet and between depths of
103 and 136 feet. Well 615, near Jensen Beach, penetrated loose
sand to a depth of 65 feet. A driller's log of well 80, at the Stuart
airfield, reported that the well was uncased in a shell bed between
depths of 72 and 80 feet. Well 841, four miles south of Stuart,
penetrated limestone between depths of 82 and 87 feet and 126






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


and 140 feet. Well 905, north of Stuart, penetrated layers of
limestone and sandstone between depths of 60 and 65 feet and
100 and 135 feet.
The foregoing data illustrate the nonuniformity of the shallow
aquifer beneath the coastal ridge and the lack of continuity of the
highly permeable zones. Exploratory drilling is desirable in any
attempt to develop a ground-water supply in unexplored areas of
the coastal ridge.
Open-end wells sometimes can be constructed in shell beds
which contain loose sand and nodular sandstone. Wells are
developed by pumping, or by blowing with compressed air, to
remove the loose sand and finer material from the section below
the casing, which thus forms a natural gravel pack around the
end of the casing. The gravel pack tends to prevent further en-
trance of sand during normal use of the well.
In most areas of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge the sandy
components of the shallow aquifer will yield potable water in
quantities sufficient for domestic use. Most wells in the sand are
15 to 30 feet deep and are finished with 3- to 5-foot well points.

Eastern Flatlands, Orlando Ridge, and Everglades. The Eastern
Flatlands extends throughout the major part of Martin County
west of the coastal ridge (fig. 5). The thickness and character
of the shallow aquifer in this area is about the same as it is on
the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, but in general it does not contain as
much consolidated rock.
A study of geologic samples taken during the drilling of well
GS 23, 10 miles southeast of Indiantown, shows that there is no
appreciable thickness of consolidated rock to a depth of 90 feet
below the land surface. Well 1, drilled to a depth of 161 feet, on the
Orlando Ridge at the Indiantown water plant, did not penetrate
any consolidated rock. In the Indiantown area, small-diameter
open-end wells can be constructed immediately below the hardpan,
in permeable sand from 25 to 35 feet below the land surface. Open-
end wells can be developed in shell beds from 95 to 110 feet below
the land surface to yield moderate amounts of potable water.
North of Indiantown, on the Orlando Ridge, wells 937 and 938
penetrated dense sandy limestone from 126 to 196 feet below the
land surface. At this interval the open hole beneath the casing
will remain open even when blasted with a moderate charge of
dynamite, in attempting to improve permeability. Well 937, 4
inches in diameter, is uncased between depths of 156 and 210 feet.
Well 938, 3 inches in diameter, is uncased between depths of






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


126 and 180 feet. These two wells yielded 60 gpm (gallons per
minute) and 70 gpm, respectively.
Consolidated material occurs locally at shallow depth in the
Eastern Flatlands. One such location is south of the St. Lucie lock
and dam (fig. 2), where many small-diameter open-end wells are
constructed between 22 and 25 feet below the land surface. Con-
solidated material was also encountered in the vicinity of Port
Mayaca, between 11 and 21 feet below the land surface.
Shell beds occur in many parts of the county but they are dis-
continuous and differ in thickness, character, and depth. They
are more prevalent in the eastern part of the Flatlands than in
the western part and are usually between 60 and 120 feet below
the land surface.
As in the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, nodular sandstone is often
associated with the beds of shell. Open-end wells capable of yielding
relatively large quantities of water are often constructed in these
beds by removing the fine material from an area around the bottom
of the well and leaving the shells and rock fragments as a coarse
gravel pack. Well 871, an 8-inch well at the Stuart maintenance
station of the Sunshine State Parkway, yielded an estimated 500
gpm from a bed developed in this manner.
Most of the sand of the Eastern Flatlands area is of low to
medium permeability, but sandpoint wells will yield enough water
for most domestic needs. Where sufficient water cannot be obtained
from a single well, two or more wells are sometimes connected to
produce the required quantity. Most sandpoint wells are 15 to
45 feet deep and 11/4 to 2 inches in diameter.
The subsurface lithology in the Everglades is a continuation of
the type of materials underlying the adjoining Eastern Flatlands
area.


SHAPE AND SLOPE OF WATER TABLE

The water table is an undulating surface conforming in a
general way to the topography of the land. It is higher beneath
hills and ridges than it is beneath low areas and its slope is usually
not as steep as the slope of the land surface. Generally, the depth
to water is greater beneath the ridges than it is in the Flatlands.
For example, the water level in well 837 on the Orlando Ridge is
about eight feet below land surface or about 40 feet above mean
sea level, and the water level in the Allapattah Flats, 1.5 miles
west of the well, is above land surface or about 26 feet above mean






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 23


Figure 7. Water table in the Stuart area, July 6, 1955.


sea level. Most of Martin County west of the coastal ridge is
relatively flat and the water table is close to the land surface.
The water levels in observation wells in the Stuart area were
measured at various times to determine the altitude and shape
of the water table in the area and to determine changes in ground-
water storage in the aquifer.
The water table is highest in the south-central part of the
Stuart area, and slopes east, north, and west toward points of
ground-water discharge in the Manatee Pocket, the St. Lucie






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 8. Water table in the Stuart area, October 5, 1955.


River, and the South Fork of the St. Lucie River (figs. 7, 8).
Ground water flows approximately at right angles to the contour
lines; therefore, it is apparent from figures 7 and 8 that practically
all the recharge to the nonartesian aquifer in the Stuart area is
derived from local rainfall. Much of the rainfall is quickly absorbed
by the permeable surface sands and infiltrates to the water table.
Evidence of this lies in the fact that the water level in well 656
(Stuart well field), 144 feet deep, rose 1.11 feet within 12 hours
after a rainfall of 1.09 inches was recorded at Stuart. Surface






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


runoff generally is small, except after an exceptionally heavy rain-
fall.
Figures 9 and 10 show how pumping in the city well fields
affects the water table. Figure 9 shows the water table on April
1, 1955, when the supply wells at the old city well fields, at the
water plant and the ball park, were being pumped. Figure 10
shows the water table on May 3, 1955, when wells in the old well
fields were shut down and wells in the new city well field, south
of 10th Street and west of Palm Beach Road, were being pumped.

WATER-LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS

Six automatic water-level recording gages were installed on
wells in Martin County. Five of the six gages, installed at different
locations in the county, record data on the natural rise and fall of
the water table during the year. The sixth gage, in the Stuart
well field, records the natural fluctuations and the effects of
pumping on the water levels (figs. 11-13). In addition, tape
measurements of water level were made in many wells (table 8).
Well 125, in the sand-hills area of Jonathan Dickinson State
Park, is 90 feet deep, and the water level in this well responds
very slowly to rainfall, compared to the water levels in the other
wells, because of the relatively greater depth to water. The water
table in well 125 is 11 to 18 feet below the land surface, and down-
ward infiltration of rainfall through the thick sand section is so
retarded that the water is appreciably delayed in reaching the
water table. Consequently, rainfall is added to the ground-water
zone over relatively long periods.
The record from the gage on well 140 shows that the water level
in this well responds more rapidly to rainfall than the water level
in well 125. Well 140, 30 feet deep, is 13 miles southeast of Indian-
town at the edge of a slough area in the Eastern Flatlands, and
its water level usually is less than four feet below the land surface.
During heavy rains the water rises as much as 2.5 feet within a
few hours, because the rain has to infiltrate only a few feet to
the water table. When the water table reaches the land surface,
additional recharge is rejected and the excess water runs off as
surface-water flow. The decline -of the water table in the area of
well 140 is gradual, owing to the slight slope of the water table. A
large part of the water is discharged from the area by
evapotranspiration, especially when the water table is within a
foot of the surface. At such times, a distinct diurnal fluctuation
of as much as 0.2 foot occurs.


















LUCIE


OLD WELL FIELDS
WATER PLANT BALL PARK
FIELD FIELD


EXPLANATION I
LINE SHOWING APPROXIMATE ALTITUDE I
OF WATER TABLE,IN FEET ABOVE MEAN
SEA LEVEL.NOTE CHANGE IN CONTOUR
INTERVAL AT 2.0 FEET.
MUNICIPAL WELL,.
IMO o low looo


Figure 9. Water table within the Stuart city limits, April 1, 1955.


RIVER












ST. LUCIE RIVER


OLD WELL FIELDS X ,
PLANT BALL PARK
ELD FIELD




10








a. TT






EXPLANATION
/ LINE SHOWINO APPROXIMATE ALTITUDE
OF WATER TABLEIN FEET ABOVE MEAN
SEA LEVEL. NOTE CHANGE IN CONTOUR
INTERVAL AT 2.0 FEET.
MUNICIPAL WELL
e000 172000


Figure 10. Water table within the Stuart city limits, May 3, 1955.
















]it. ^,l l f ,L' '^ ,-i, ^ ,^,; .,,, 1 ,i ---. I j7 T" TT
E awn as


i


I I 1 i 1 1 i i I I I



I,'t u IL J I Ii .1


0
0
C3


rf


J IEI I I f I I 111i'l UE r 1Eil. I r LI.E E E e l u u u ud 1 nr ui .hI I I 1, I 1. 1 I
Figure 11. Hydrographs of wells 125, 140 and 147 and rainfall at Stuart.























,g I I I I_ ,_ ,|




Figure 12. Hydrographs of wells 928 and 933 and rainfall at St. Lucie
Canal Lock.










IS55 Isis I"? Is$&
_ _l_ ___ _.____ ... -
R I r WIA ALLf JST PT USA



. II


,- -------- -----!,- .- .I
'Fi-ure 1L.."ydrgrap---- well-._i-and rlinfall1at11tua,,.





1 II I II LA.
Figur 1g.s o-y-s Om- a- o-el6-anndi rainfall a" S a...

AL 1_ 0 i it



Figure 13. Hydrograph of well 658 and rainfall at Stuart.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 23


Well 147, in the city of Stuart, is 74 feet deep, and its water
level ranges from about 1 foot to 10 feet below the land surface.
The material from the surface to a depth of 10 feet consists of
fine to medium quartz sand. The hydrograph of this well (fig. 11)
shows that the water table responds to rainfall more rapidly when
it is near the surface. The record shows also a daily fluctuation of
about 0.2 foot caused by pumping in the Stuart municipal well
field, which is about one-quarter mile east of the well.
The gage on well 9388, six miles west of Stuart, was installed
in June 1957. The water level in this well is within three feet of
the land surface most of the year, and it is often above the top
of the ground during the rainy season (fig. 12). The well is 14
feet deep and about 50 feet from a drainage ditch. The material
from the land surface to the bottom of the well is mostly fine,
clean, quartz sand. The water level rises sharply (as much as
1.75 feet in an hour) because the rainfall can easily reach the water
table through the permeable surface sand. The water level in the
well usually drops rapidly from its peak because of the drainage
effect of the nearby ditch. However, during prolonged periods of
heavy rain the drainage ditch is filled and cannot accept ground-
water inflow; under these conditions the water table remains high
for a relatively long period.
Well 928, at Indiantown, is 11 feet deep and penetrates only
fine quartz sand, except for a layer of hardpan between four and
live feet below the land surface. The water level in the well
fluctuates from slightly above land surface to about three feet
below (fig. 12). It does not rise as fast as in well 933, probably
because the surface sand is not as permeable and the vertical
movement is impeded by the hardpan.
The gage on well 658, in the Stuart well field, records water-
level fluctuations caused by pumping in addition to the natural
fluctuations (fig. 13). Well 658 is 100 feet from a municipal
supply well and about 300 feet from the center of the cone of
influence caused by pumping the three municipal supply wells.
The purpose of the installation is to record the progressive trend
of water levels in the well field and to ascertain when they have
reached equilibrium. A persistent decline eventually would expose
the well field to salt-water encroachment from the St. Lucie River.
Figure 13 shows the daily high and low water levels in well 658
for the period of record. The lowest point reached was 1.82 feet
below mean sea level in February 1957, and the highest was 10
feet above mean sea level in October 1957 and January 1958. A
study of the hydrograph reveals that the average water level does







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


not indicate a progressive decline at the existing pumping rate.
The water levels in late 1957 and early 1958 were higher than
they were shortly after the well field was put in operation, in
1955.
Comparison of the hydrograph of well 658 (fig. 13) with the
daily rainfall at Stuart and the hydrograph of well 147 (fig. 11),
on the edge of the well field, shows that water levels in the well
field respond to changes in rainfall and reflect, in general, the
natural fluctuations of water levels in the area. If hydrologic
conditions remain essentially as they were during the period shown
in figure 13, the well field should not be endangered by salt-water
encroachment.

RECHARGE

The shallow aquifer in Martin County receives most of its
recharge from rainfall in and immediately adjacent to the county.
The average rainfall is about 60 inches a year, of which 65 percent
occurs from June through October. Most of the county is covered
by sand that is sufficiently permeable to absorb practically all the
rainfall. In general, surface-water runoff is small except in the
slough areas where the water table is at or above the land surface.
The hydrographs in figures 11, 12, and 13 indicate a general
increase in ground-water storage due to abundant rainfall during
June through October, and discharge of ground water from storage
during November through April or May. A small amount of water
may seep from the St. Lucie Canal during low ground-water
stages; however, except near the St. Lucie locks, the water level in
the canal is generally lower than the water table and ground
water is discharged into the canal. A small amount of recharge to
the shallow aquifer comes from the downward seepage of artesian
water that was used for irrigation.

DISCHARGE

Ground water is discharged by flow into streams, springs, or
lakes, by direct flow into the ocean, by evapotranspiration, and by
pumping from wells. Many small streams and sloughs in Martin
County discharge ground water to the Atlantic Ocean and Lake
Okeechobee. In the central part of the county, where the water
table is at or near the surface during most of the year, evapo-
transpiration is a very important means of discharge. In addition
to natural means of discharge, much ground water is carried away







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


by canals and ditches. The amount discharged by wells during
1957 was very small compared to the total amount discharged
from the shallow aquifer. This is discussed more fully in the
section on use.

ARTESIAN AQUIFER

The artesian aquifer in Martin County is part of the Floridan
aquifer, which underlies all of Florida and southern Georgia. The
Floridan aquifer as defined by Parker (1955, p. 189) includes
"parts or all of the middle Eocene (Avon Park and Lake City
limestones), upper Eocene (Ocala limestone), Oligocene (Suwannee
limestone), and Miocene (Tampa limestone, and permeable parts
of the Hawthorn formation that are in hydrologic contact with the
rest of the aquifer) ."

AQUIFER PROPERTIES

Wells penetrating the Floridan aquifer will flow in all parts
of Martin County, except at the tops of the high sandhills in the
eastern part of the county where the land surface is more than
50 feet above mean sea level. The top of the Floridan aquifer
in Martin County is usually between 600 and 800 feet below the
land surface. The thickness of the aquifer is unknown, as no wells
have completely penetrated it. The deepest known wells extend
1,300 to 1,500 feet below mean sea level.
Wells drilled into the Floridan aquifer in the area west (up-
thrown side) of the fault (fig. 6) usually begin to show an
appreciable flow from about 660 to 800 feet below mean sea level.
East (downthrown side) or the fault, wells must be drilled 800 to
1,000 feet below mean sea level before they will flow.
Figure 6 is a contour map drawn on the top of the limestone
of the Ocala group. West of the fault this limestone usually
provides the first significant flow of water, as the overlying Tampa
and Suwannee beds are either very thin or missing. East of the
fault the Suwannee limestone is relatively thick and will yield
small quantities of water.
Most of the artesian wells in the county include limestone of
the Ocala group in the producing part of the open hole, and end
in the underlying Avon Park limestone. No wells are known to
penetrate the Lake City limestone. A well north of Indiantown
was reported to have been drilled to a depth of 1,800 feet and may
have penetrated the Lake City limestone. The water at that depth







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


was reported to be too salty for irrigational use, and the well was
sealed off at 1,100 feet, before its initial depth could be verified.
Most wells are cased only into the Hawthorn formation to a.
depth below which the driller feels the hole will stay open.
This depth differs throughout the county ranging from 275 feet
below the land surface, in well 448 near Palm City, to 795 feet,
in well 128 in Stuart. The amount of casing in a well is generally
related to the depth to the top cf the Ocala group (fig. 6), but
lithologic variations within the Hawthorn formation and the
personal factor of the driller's judgment account for some of the
differences in the length of casing in different wells.
Current-meter traverses were made in wells 748 (2 miles
west of Palm City), 745 (12 miles west of Palm City), and 150
(3 miles south of Salerno) (figs. 14, 15) to determine the zones
that were contributing water to the wells. A current-meter traverse
in a well furnishes measurements of the velocity of the water at
different depths. If the open hole that penetrates the aquifer is
reasonably uniform in diameter, an increase in velocity in a
particular interval indicates that water is entering the well bore
within that interval. It is reasonable to assume, from the evidence
gathered from lithologic and electric well logs and from
observations made during the drilling of artesian wells, that the
limestone of the Floridan aquifer in Martin County is fairly


Figure 14. Data obtained from wells 745 and 748.









REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23 37


AOE P OdTPIAL LITHOLOY RE y RELATIVE VELOCITY
.... RAEV,/MIN, Orv L CUiRRENT TtR
MSL--- ---- ---- - ---- -
SEstimated flow 140 g prr

100 ----- --- -

cagIng

200 ____ -



300 L



o400- _o --



.500. .- o,



^ 600 ^ _- ----- -
GO



700-
...... ..Bottom


Boo-81" d "


Figure 15. Data obtained from well 150.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


homogeneous. The open hole is probably slightly smaller in the
dense, less permeable zones than it is in the more permeable zones.
This probably accounts for the small reversals in the velocity
graphs of wells 748 and 150 (figs. 14, 16). By current-meter
traverses it is possible to determine the main producing zones with-
in the aquifer. If many strategically spaced wells were available
for study in an area, the zones could probably be correlated.
Unfortunately, there were only a few wells in Martin County of
sufficient diameter to accommodate the current-meter tube.
A current-meter traverse of well 748, 2 miles west of Palm
City (estimated flow 300 gpm), shows that about 30 percent of
the flow enters the well between depths of 660 and 675 feet, about
25 percent between 700 and 720 feet, about 25 percent between
740 and 760 feet, and the remaining 20 percent from intervening
sections and below 760 feet to the bottom of the well which is 773
feet below the land surface (fig. 14). Thus, it can be seen that
about 80 percent of the water comes from 55 feet of the total 110
feet of open hole.
Well 745, 10 miles west of well 748, is 696 feet deep and has
an estimated flow of 190 gpm. Nearly 100 percent of the water is
entering the well between depths of 685 and 696 feet (fig. 14).
Well 150 (estimated flow 300 gpm) is located east of the fault
(tig. 6). This traverse shows a different pattern of flow distribution
because the producing zone is thicker than the producing zone
west of the fault and the permeability is more uniform. Water is
contributed to the well at a rather uniform rate throughout the
part of the aquifer penetrated by the well; 18 percent of the water
enters the well between depths of 960 and 970 feet, 18 percent
enters between 1,235 and 1,245 feet, and the rest enters more or
less uniformly from the intervening sections and between 1,245
feet and the bottom of the hole at 1,315 feet (fig. 15).
Well 841 (estimated flow 140 gpm) is south of Stuart and east
of the fault line. The flow pattern in this well was noted during
drilling operations and is similar to that in well 150; 20 percent
of the water enters the well between depths of 820 and 830 feet,
20 percent enters between 866 and 888 feet, and the remaining 60
percent enters rather uniformly from the rest of the producing zone
to the bottom of the well at 1,057 feet.
Well 910 (estimated flow 225 gpm) first began to flow at a
depth of 850 feet. This well was drilled with a cable-tool machine,
and only a part of the rock cuttings was cleared from the well
during each bailing. The heavy drilling mud thus formed during
drilling may have retarded the flow of water. The well might have







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


flowed at a shallower depth if all the rock cuttings had been
removed from the well during drilling operations.

PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE

The piezometric surface is an imaginary surface representing
the pressure head of the water confined in an artesian aquifer. It
is the height to which water will rise in tightly cased wells that
penetrate the artesian aquifer. In areas where the water level will
rise above the land surface, the pressure head is usually measured
with a pressure gage at the well outlet. The first survey of the
piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer was presented by
Stringfield (1936) from data obtained in 1934. Figure 16 shows
the piezometric surface of peninsular Florida, as defined by String-
field, but revised to include the most recent data available in
December 1957.
The artesian pressure head in Martin County ranges from 48
to 58 feet above mean sea level. The piezometric surface slopes in
an east-southeasterly direction in Martin County; however, local
cones of depression caused by relatively large withdrawals distort
the regional pattern (fig. 17). The depressions in the vicinity
of Palm City and Indiantown are caused by heavy use of water
within these areas, and the depression in the northwest corner of
the county is caused by heavy use in the southeastern part of
neighboring Okeechobee County. Pressure measurements made in
wells 150 and 306, in T. 39 S., R. 41 E., show a sharp drop in the
piezometric surface compared to measurements made in nearby
wells; however, wells 150 and 306 yield water having a relatively
high salt content and, consequently, a higher specific gravity
than that in other wells in the county. The column of water in
wells 150 and 306 exerts a greater pressure against the aquifer
than an equal column of fresh water. The pressure readings
obtained at the top of these wells, therefore, do not represent the
true pressure within the aquifer in terms of fresh water.
When corrections are made in accordance with the Ghyben-
Herzberg principle (p. 64), to correlate the pressures observed
in wells 150 and 306 with the pressures in areas where the water
has less salt, the adjusted pressure head is about 48 feet. This
pressure is consistent with the regional slope of the piezometric
surface (fig. 16).
The piezometric surface is higher than the water table in all
parts of Martin County. It is also above the land surface, except
on the tops of some of the sandhills in the eastern part of the








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Ely


Figure 16. Piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer, 1957, in peninsular
Florida.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 23


county. The land surface rises to 49 feet above mean sea level
north of Indiantown, and there the piezometric surface is only
slightly higher; consequently, most of the wells are equipped with
pumps.
There is no apparent change in artesian pressure with depth
in the aquifer, at least within the range of depths observed in
Martin County.

WATER-LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS

The piezometric surface fluctuates in response to recharge by
rainfall, discharge from wells, earthquakes, passing trains, and
variations in barometric pressure (Parker and Stringfield, 1950,
p. 441-460). The changes due to earthquakes, passing trains, and
barometric pressure are of short duration, but changes due to
recharge by rainfall and discharge from wells usually occur over
a relatively long period. The fluctuations due to recharge by rain-
fall decrease in magnitude with increased distance from the
recharge area. The principal recharge area for the artesian
aquifer in southern Florida is centered in Polk and Pasco counties,
approximately 100 miles from Martin County. At this distance,
fluctuations of the piezometric surface due to seasonal rainfall in
the recharge area are probably small.
No continuous, long-term records of the artesian pressure in
Martin County are available, but changes in the amount of rainfall
in the recharge area over a period of years would probably be
reflected in the piezometric surface in Martin County. There is
no evidence that rainfall within the county itself has any direct
effect on the piezometric surface. Artesian water levels usually
rise during the rainy season, probably because most wells are shut
off during wet weather, not because the artesian aquifer is
receiving local recharge.
Discharge from wells causes the greatest changes in the
piezometric surface. A pressure gage was installed on well 748,
2 miles west of Palm City (fig. 2), and left for several weeks
to record the natural fluctuations of the piezometric surface. Then,
well 752, which had been closed during this period, was allowed
to discharge at the rate of about 300 gpm for 24 hours. The
pressure in the observation well, which is about 1,000 feet from
the discharging well and about the same depth, showed a decline of
about 0.5 foot at the end of the test. Continuous discharge of
water from a number of wells over a period of years causes a
wide cone of depression to form, as shown in figure 17.













EXPLANATION
Line showing opproiunole altitude
of the pelIometric urOface in feel
above mean sea level in 1957

Well in which water level was measured
Contour Intervol I foot
C7V 3-T- -T


Figure 17. Piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer, April 1957, in Martin







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


The available data on long-term trends of water levels in the
artesian aquifer in Martin County are shown in table 2. The
artesian pressure measurements, of the four wells that have the
longest periods of record, show apparent declines of the piezometric
surface ranging from 1.7 to 6.7 feet between 1946 and 1957. Some
of the declines may be due to local water use at the time of
measurement or to leakage through breaks in the casing below the
ground level; however, declines are shown in all wells for which
long-term records are available. They can probably be attributed
to one or both of the following factors: (1) increased use of
artesian water in the recharge area or the area between Martin
County and the recharge area, either of which would reduce the
flow of artesian water into Martin County; and (2) increased use
of artesian water in Martin County.

TABLE 2. Artesian Pressures, in Feet Above Land Surface, at Selected Wells
in Martin County, 1946-57


Well 33 Well 86 Well 143 Well 146
Water Water Water Water
Date level Date level Date level Date level

7- 2-46 12.7 7-23-46 45.0 5-24-51 27.5 9-10-51 18.5
3- 2-53 11.0 3-27-52 43.2 3-27-52 27.7 3-26-52 17.7
1-25-57 6.0 7- 6-56 40.0 4-25-57 25.5 2-19-53 18.2
5- 7-57 42.5 3- 6-57 16.8


RECHARGE

The Floridan aquifer is recharged where the permeable rocks
that constitute the aquifer are at or near the surface or where the
water table is higher than the piezometric surface and the confining
bed is thin or relatively permeable.
The principal recharge area for central and southern Florida
is in and around Polk County, where the piezometric surface is
highest (fig. 16). In much of Polk County, limestone of the
Floridan aquifer is overlain by semiconfining beds of the Haw-
thorn formation, which are not impermeable and may permit
downward leakage. The semiconfining beds may have been
penetrated by sinkholes which now are occupied by lakes. Possibly
these sinkholes are filled with somewhat permeable sand which, in
some places, permits downward movement of water.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


DISCHARGE

The water level in the Floridan aquifer in Polk County and
vicinity is at a higher altitude than it is in the surrounding areas.
The water in the aquifer moves downgradient, perpendicular to
the contour lines shown in figure 16, to points of discharge. The
principal points of discharge are springs and wells, and where
upward leakage occurs through the confining bed.
There are no known natural springs in Martin County, but
there probably are submarine springs where the Floridan aquifer
crops out on the ocean floor. If the slope of the top of the Floridan
aquifer east of Martin County is approximately the same as it
is in Martin County, the Floridan aquifer should crop out on the
floor of the ocean about 25 miles offshore. Also if the slope of the
piezometric surface and the salinity of the water are uniform,
the pressure head near the outcrop area would be about 36 feet
above mean sea level, or about eight feet higher than is necessary
to balance the pressure of the sea water at 1,100 feet below mean
sea level. The artesian water could, therefore, discharge into
the ocean; however, the outcrop area is probably covered by
somewhat impermeable sediments of relatively recent origin, which
could restrict such discharge.
The total discharge from wells in Martin County was relatively
small in 1957. The yields of the 80 artesian wells ranged from
less than 10 gpm, in wells obstructed by an accumulation of clay
in the open-hole part of the well, to 750 gpm, in free-flowing wells.
The average yield is probably about 200 gpm; thus, the total dis-
charge, if all wells were opened would be about 25 mgd (million
gallons per day). The discharge probably averages less than 10
mgd, as most wells are used only a few months of each year and
others are not used at all. A few wells in the high area north of
Indiantown are equipped with pumps to increase their yields,
because the artesian pressure and the natural flow are low.
Discharge by upward leakage through the confining beds of
the Hawthorn formation is probably small in Martin County.
The confining bed is composed of more than 500 feet of fine sand,
silt, and "tough" green clay of extremely low permeability. The
low permeability was illustrated in the following test made during
the drilling of well 841, south of Stuart. Drilling operations were
temporarily suspended, owing to mechanical failure. The casing
was set at 230 feet and there was 400 feet of open hole in the
Hawthorn formation. The well was being jetted with clear water,
and when the jetting rods were removed the water level was







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


about 10 feet below the top of the casing. The water level
remained static until the next day, when the casing was filled to
the top with water and allowed to remain for 24 hours. During
this 24-hour period the water level declined only about 2 feet,
showing that the Hawthorn formation could absorb only a few
gallons of water through 400 feet of open hole in 24 hours.
Further evidence that very little leakage was taking place
through the confining bed was noted during the drilling of test
well 656, in the Stuart well field. This well was drilled 150 feet
below land surface, to the top of the Hawthorn formation. The
chloride content of water samples taken during the drilling of the
well remained constant at about 18 ppm (parts per million) as
the well approached the top of the confining bed, even though the
underlying artesian water had a chloride content of more than
1,000 ppm.

QUANTITATIVE STUDIES

The ability of an aquifer to transmit water is expressed as the
coefficient of transmissibility. In customary units, it is the quantity
of water, in gallons per day, that will move through a vertical
section of the aquifer one foot wide and extending the full
saturated height of the aquifer, under a unit hydraulic gradient
(Theis, 1938, p. 892), at the prevailing temperature of the water.
The coefficient of storage is a measure of the capacity of the
aquifer to store water and is defined as the volume of water
released from or taken into storage per unit surface area of the
aquifer per unit change in the component of head normal to that
surface. The "leakage coefficient" indicates the ability of the beds
above and below the aquifer to transmit water to the main
producing zone. It may be defined as the quantity of water that
crosses a unit area of the interface between the main aquifer and
its semiconfining bed, if the difference between the head in the
main aquifer and in the bed supplying the leakage is unity. These
coefficients are generally determined by means of pumping tests
on wells.
The withdrawal of water from an aquifer causes a decline of
water level (drawdown) in the vicinity of the point of withdrawal.
As a result of this drawdown, the water table or piezometric
surface assumes the approximate shape of an inverted cone having
its apex at the center of withdrawal. The size and shape of this
cone of depression depend on the transmissibility and storage
coefficients of the aquifer and the rate of pumping.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


PUMPING TESTS

Six pumping tests were made of the shallow aquifer in Martin
County, four of these within the city limits of Stuart.
The first test was made in the new city well field on March 9,
1955, well 657 (municipal supply well 1) being pumped at the rate
of 135 gpm for 11 hours. Water-level measurements were made
during the test in wells 656, 658, and 659, respectively 11, 100,
and 300 feet from the pumped well. Wells 658 and 659, are. cased
to 115 feet and have 10 feet of open hole in the underlying lime-
stone. Well 656 is cased to 144 feet and has one foot of open hole.
The water from well 657 was discharged into a ditch about 75
feet away, but because the ditch was choked with vegetation and
has only a slight gradient, water remained in the vicinity and
recharged the aquifer during the test.
The second test was made on March 23, 1955, also in the new
city well field. Well 724 (municipal well 3) was pumped at a rate
of 140 gpm for five hours, and water levels were observed in wells
659, 658, and 657, respectively 300, 500, and 600 feet from the
pumped well. The wells are all cased to 115 feet, and have 10 feet
of open hole in the underlying limestone. The water was discharged
into a ditch 200 feet from the pumped well and remained in the
area and recharged the aquifer, but this recharge did not affect
the water levels as quickly as that in test no. 1.
The third test was made on the following day, March 24, at
the same location as tests 1 and 2 (fig. 18). Well 723 (municipal
well 2) was pumped at a rate of 112 gpm for 5 hours, and water
levels were observed in wells 658 and 724, respectively 500 and
780 feet from the pumped well. All wells are cased to 115 feet,
and have 10 feet of open hole in the underlying limestone. The
water was discharged into a depression near the wells and
remained in the area, probably recharging the aquifer.
The fourth test was made on May 27, 1955 in the new well
field, which had been in operation prior to the test. Observation
well 658A, 13 feet deep, was installed 100 feet from well 657
(municipal well 1) and immediately adjacent to observation well
658. Prior to the test the well field was shut down overnight to
allow recovery of the water levels in the area. On the next morning
the measured water level in both the deep and the shallow
observation wells (658 and 658A) was 6.38 feet above mean sea
level. Well 657 was pumped at a rate of 103 gpm for nine hours
and at the end of this period the drawdowns in wells 658 and
658A were 3.58 and 0.34 feet, respectively (fig. 19). The water







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


Figure 18. Location of wells used in pumping tests.
level in well 658 began to decline almost immediately after
pumping started, and had fallen three feet after 21 minutes. Near
the end of the test the water level in well 658 had nearly stabilized,
whereas that in well 658A was still falling, but at a decreasing
rate. The water was discharged into the city mains and so did not
return to the aquifer.
Two pumping tests were made on the farm of Captain Bruce
Leighton, about 10 miles west of Palm City, during the periods







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


TIME. ..I MINUTES AFTER PUMPING STARTED
so 10 50 ISO 3 250 SOC 350 400 450 Soo 550



--WELL 65A----














s WELL 658



Figure 19. Drawdown observed in wells 658 and 658A during pumping test
in the new city well field, May 27, 1955.

October 25-26, 1956, and July 10-12, 1957, using the irrigation
wells on the farm. In the first test, well 891 was pumped for two
hours at 500 gpm and 25 hours at 725 gpm. The water was
discharged into a nearby irrigation ditch and remained in the
area. During this test, tape measurements of the water level
were made in observation well 892, located 190 feet from the
pumped well (fig. 18). Automatic recording gages were installed
on observation wells 894, 898, 900, 896, and 897, which were
1,300, 2,600, 2,700, 3,400, and 3,430 feet, respectively, from the
pumping well. Significant drawdowns were observed in wells 892
and 894, but if any drawdowns occurred in wells 898, 900, 896,
and 897, they were very slight and were masked by the natural
decline of the water table and by the effects of barometric
fluctuations.
The second test was made in the same area of the Leighton
farm (fig. 18). Well 894 was pumped for 48 hours at the rate of
340 gpm. Automatic recording gages were installed on observation
wells 899, 900, 898, and 896, which were 1,400, 1,400, 1,700, and





TABLE 3. Results of Pumping Tests in Martin County, 1955-57

Depth of well
(feet)


0


Cd J
g4
w 'H
52 U,.-


R^

'H '


STUART WELL FIELD


657
657
657
724
724
724
723
723
657


891
891
894
894


656
658
659
659
658
657
658
724
658


892
894
899
900


125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125


144
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125


11
100
300
800
500
600
550
780
100


135
135
135
140
140
140
112
112
103


LEIGHTON FARM


40
75
35
135


190
1,300
1,400
1,400


725
725
340
340


1Hantush, 1956, p. 706.
"Gallons per day per square foot per foot of vertical head.


w


.H w


w


'H
N
C~2
'H
N
4J~
w~


g ;Z 0
400 0
A'r


3- 9-55
3- 9-55
8- 9-55
3-23-55
3-23-55
3-28-55
3-24-55
8-24-55
5-27-55


10-25-56
10-25-56
7-10-57
7-10-57


18,000
23,000
27,000
17,000
23,000
24,000
26,000
22,000
16,000


30,000
83,000
35,000
55,000


0.0025
.00015
.00035
.00035
.00051
.00056
.00038
.00064
.00010


.00023
.0065
.0021
.0012


0.237
.095
.048
.048
.075
.098
.085
.174
.016


.027
.126
.072
.040


5.75
3.39
1.29
1.76
.67
.41
.63
.10
3.58


9.86
.38
.25
.44







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


2,100 feet, respectively, from the pumped well. Significant draw-
downs were observed in wells 899 and 900 (table 3).

INTREPRETATION OF PUMPING TEST DATA

Theis (1935, p. 519-524), using basic heat-transfer formulas,
developed a method to analyze the movement of water through an
aquifer which is (1) homogeneous and isotropic, (2) of infinite
areal extent, (3) of uniform thickness, (4) bounded above and
below by impermeable beds, (5) receiving no recharge, (6) fully
penetrated by the discharging well, and (7) losing water only
through the discharging well. If an aquifer meets all these
conditions, the Theis nonequilibrium method, as described by
Wenzel (1942, p. 87-90), will give a true transmissibility value
for the aquifer, regardless of the distance of the observation well
from the pumped well or the rate of pumping.
When the data from the tests in Martin County were analyzed
by the Theis method, the computed values of the coefficient of
transmissibility ranged from 18,000 to 170,000 gpd per foot for
the same area, indicating that the aquifer does not meet all the
above conditions. From well logs and cuttings and the performance
of individual wells, the main producing zone which is at a depth of
103 to 140 feet in the new Stuart well field, appears to be reasonably
homogeneous, isotropic, and uniform in thickness. For a test of
short duration the aquifer is, in effect, of infinite areal extent,
but it is not bounded above and below by an impermeable bed, as
is shown by the fact that the water level in shallow well 658A
(fig. 4) began to decline 8 minutes after pumping in well 657 began
(fig. 19). The water was discharged on the ground in the vicinity
of the pumped wells in tests 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6; consequently, the
aquifer was receiving recharge. In addition, the pumped wells
did not fully penetrate the aquifer.
After corrections were made for the effects of partial penetra-
tion and for the natural fluctuations of the water table, the
corrected data were plotted on logarithmic graph paper as s versus
t
r- or drawdown (s) versus time (t) since pumping began divided
by the square of the distance (r) between the pumped well and the
observation well. The resulting curves were compared with a
family of leaky-aquifer type curves developed by H. H. Cooper, Jr.
of the U.S. Geological Survey. This family of curves is based upon
the equation for nonsteady flow in an infinite leaky aquifer
developed by Hantush and Jacob (1955, p. 95-100) and described







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


by Hantush (1956, p. 702-714). The equations assume a permeable
aquifer overlain by semipermeable beds through which water, under
a constant head, can infiltrate to recharge the aquifer. The
transmissibilities obtained by the leaky-aquifer method apply
to the permeable aquifer and a second factor-called the leakage
coefficient-applies to the semipermeable beds overlying the main
producing zone. The coefficients of transmissibility, storage, and
leakage for the six tests made in Martin County are shown in
table 3.
The wells used in the pumping tests in the new Stuart well
field were nearly uniform in depth. The observation wells were
spaced at different distances from the pumped well (fig. 18), so
the observed drawdowns gave a good picture of the cone of
depression due to pumping. When the data for each test were
analyzed, the calculated values for the coefficients of transmissibility
(table 3) all fell within the narrow range of 16,000 to 27,000
gpd per foot, and it is reasonable to assume a value of about
20,000 gpd per foot for the area. The wells used in the pumping
tests on the Leighton farm were irrigation wells, and they were
not ideally situated for observing drawdowns. Most of the
observation wells were spaced too far from the pumped wells, and
all but one were developed at depths different from those of the
pumped wells. As a result, the tests in the Leighton farm area
show a much wider range of values for the coefficient of
transmissibility than do the tests made in the Stuart well field.

QUALITY OF WATER

The water that falls on the earth's surface as rain or snow is
relatively free of dissolved mineral matter except for very small
quantities of atmospheric gases and dust. As it runs off or
infiltrates into the ground, the water dissolves some of the material
with which it comes in contact. Some minerals are dissolved much
more easily than others; thus, the degree of mineralization of
ground water depends generally upon the composition of the
material through which the water passes.
Chemical analysis of 52 samples of water from Martin County
(23 from the artesian aquifer and 29 from the shallow aquifer)
has been made by the U. S. Geological Survey. The results of
these analyses are listed in tables 4 and 5. In addition,
determinations were made of the chloride content of the water
from 767 wells; and these are shown in table 8. Determinations
of 140 samples from 26 selected wells are listed also in table 6.





T'Au 4. Analyjus of Water from WOlls in the Artesian Aquifer in Martin County,
(Analyses by U. 8, Geological Survey, Ch(Imical constituent" are expressed in parts per million.)


19





..i





17
17..


0.04
.43
.15
.04
.04
.11
.08
.14
.02
.03
.28
.06
.06



.11
.0


144
70
61
82
98
114
108
99
92
89
82
92
84



131
148


118
72
47
52
69
104
87
122
83
82
78
83
72



94
79


905
453
200
250 6.4
337
746
596
984
506
501
725
537
473
...... .

545 14
541 4.0
...... ......

...... .......


180
74
176
169
186
188
182
156
192
192
228
190
200



164
162


336
309
188
182
216
276
292
223
235
232
226
247
232



215
148


1,640
760
310
450
625
1,340
1,040
1,790
900
885
890
1,190
940
800
810
950
4,050
252
1,150
1,140
1,180
350
1,310
2,900
258


I-


1z
0


0.7
.9
.8
.8
.7
.8
.8
1.6
.1
.1

.1
.1



.8
1.0


S......
0.8
.3











.0
.9


3,230
1,740
894
1,126"
1,440
2,670
2,210
3,300
1,900
1,880
2,070"
2,410
1,990
1,760
1,950"
2,2801"
7,400"
674"
2,250
2,910"
3,050"
878"
2,860"
6,080"
778"


844
471
345
418
528
712
627
749
571
559
550
525
570
506
540
610
1,310
220
714
696
740
320
780
1,100
300


5,710
3,130
1,600
2,020
2,610
4,770
3,950
5,990
3,450
3,410
3,440
4,370
3,570
3,190
3,150
3,580
11,300
1,190
4,040
3,950
4,760
1,450
4,470
9,380
1,310


0l


7- 3-56
6-27-46
6-28-46
3-25-58
6-28-46
7-17-46
7- 7-46
7-18-46
7-19-46
7-23-46
7-15-57
7-23-46
7-23-40
7-24-46
7-15-57
7-16-57
7-15-57
7-17-57
6-22-57n
3-11-58
7-16-57
7-17-57
7-17-57
7-16-57
7-18-F7


27
29
30
31
43
47
64
65
86
87
88
95
106
110
150
172
186
740
744
745
841
901


7.0
6.5
7.1
7.3
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.3
7.2
8.1
7.1
7.2



7.4
7.3


"Other determinations: Aluminum .0, Manganese .00, Lithium 2.0, Phosphate .00, Beta-gamma activity (Micromicrocuries
per liter) 200, Radium (Micromicrocuries per liter) 11, Uranium (Micrigrams per liter) 1.2.
bResidue on evaporation at 1800 C-other values for dissolved solids are sum of determined constituents.


- "


--


?


1;





TABLE 5. Analyses of Water from Wells in the Shallow Aquifer in Martin County
(Analyses by U. S. Geological Survey. Chemical constituents are expressed in parts per million.)
Cd






S12) ..... ... ... ....


13) 3-24.48n .01 '9 2.1 9.7 1. '5.1 1i 0.1 .6 '132 1 233 "I 7.1
17 10- -41 79 59 5.0 1.2 189 8.0 5 ...... .1 172 168 27 160



19 6-27-46 96 86 18 126 278 1 235 .4 1.0 605 289 1,150 58 7.3
GS 23 8-12-43 .... 03 128 26 182 418 139 2161 ...... ......6 920 426 1,560 12 7.2
1 10- 3-45- .0- 64 7.4 16 231 17 13 1 .2 231 190 428 105 7.4
8 9-12-41 .1 82 5.7 3.2 269 9.7 5 ...... .0 238 23105 449 501 7.4
9 9-12-41 .... .4 148 19 6.7 489 39 1024 8.2 472 447 802 140 7.1
12) .... ..... .. ... .. .. ... .
13) 3-24-48 .... 04 102 4.6 35 224 12 0 5.1 16 1 .6 132 1 23370 6 7.
14) ... .. ..... .... ..... ...... ........
15 10- 3-41 .... .91 124 10 51 396 24 79489 351 887 50 .....
17 10- 3-416-57 .... .79 59 5.0 1.2 189 8.0 5 ..... .1 172 168 327 160 ...
19 6-27-46 .... .96 86 18 126 278 1 235 .4 1.0 605 289 1,150 53 7.3
22 7-16- .......08 128 30 124 548 34 161 ....-----.. .. 1,------ 747 443 1,380 60 7.0
214) 7-16-4657 ..... ..... 92 ... ... 443b 4
66 7-19-46 .... .04 77 3.2 7.8 244 1 15 .0 .1 224 205 411 1 7.4
81 7-23-46 .... .06 80 3.8 11 248 1 24 .0 1.0 243 215 461 18 7.1
98) 3-24-48" .... .04 102 4.6 35 224 12 108 .1 .8- 73 273 701 7 7.0
99) .... ...... ......
127 7-15-57 .. -. --*. --- -- ---- 30 96....' .64 180 .... .....
151 7-16-57 .. ...... .. ..... ...... 32 6691" 470 916 ....
161 7-16-57 .... .. ... -... ....- ---- 605 .... ...... 1,5401> 440 2,570 --- ......
214 7-16-57 .--.--- -------- --- ---- -- 92 443b 266 746
221 7-17-57 _________ 570 1,450b 390 2,520 .
"Composite sample.
bResidue on evaporation at 180 0C-other values for dissolved solids are sum of determined constituents.


0
0

I

0
0
z


0
CpJ











TAsBL 5. (Continued)




.25
goc


z
I 5I


0
I-


I


Y2 2

>A 40

As.
11U 1


v I
1o k 1
=J.xu .~


P. ----
455 7-17-57 ... .. 35 .. 234' 186 398 -
655 3-25-58 12 .02 70 .9 7.8 .7 220 .5 16 .1 .4 218b 178 386 8 7.6
657 6-14-57 14 .73 86 2.3 9.8 .4 272 .0 15 .1 .0 262 224 459 2 7.4
750 7-18-57 23 340b 270 561 -
755 7-15-57 26 229', 176 384
776 7-15-57 21 289b 238 486
835 7-18-57 27 2241 188 382
894 7-17-57 -- 478b 314 742
929 7-18-57 526b 312 862
930 7-17-57 483b 322 802 --
936 8-18-57 24 .28 134 35 459 492 128 626 .4 66 1,660 554 2,850 30 7.6
939 3-25-58 19 .03 109 3.4 7.4 1.4 362 1.8 16 .3 .1 334'' 266 588 21 7.4


6


0
0
0
1'4






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


The water from the shallow aquifer generally has a much lower
mineral content than the artesian water and is more potable.

HARDNESS

The hardness of water is commonly recognized as the soap-
consuming property of water. It is the CaCO., equivalent of
calcium, magnesium, and other cations having similar soap-
consuming properties. The following table shows the hardness
scale that is generally used by the U. S. Geological Survey in the
classification of water.

Degree of
Hardness as CaCOn, (ppm) hardness

0 to 60 .-. .... Soft
61 to 120 .-.-.......--- Moderately hard
121 to 200 ..- ..-.... .. Hard
More than 200 ..... -.... Very hard

None of the samples collected in Martin County can qualify as
soft. Three samples are in the slightly hard range, five samples
are in the hard range, and the rest, including all from the artesian
aquifer, are in the very hard range. One of the three samples in
the slightly hard range was collected from a shallow well developed
in the sandhills in the vicinity of Jensen Beach and the other
samples came from shallow wells developed in the sandhills near
Jonathan Dickinson State Park.
Outside these two areas most of the water in Martin County
is either hard or very hard, but it may be commonly softened for
household use. The greatest hardness noted in the shallow aquifer
was 554 ppm in water from well 986, near Indiantown, and the
lowest was 64 ppm from well 127, south of Jonathan Dickinson
State Park. The greatest hardness in the artesian water was
1,310 ppm in well 150 on the Harris ranch six miles south of
Stuart, and the lowest was 220 ppm in well 172 on the Adams
ranch four miles northwest of Indiantown.

DISSOLVED SOLIDS

The amount of dissolved solids in water is approximately equal
to the amount of mineral matter that remains after a quantity of
water is evaporated. The maximum amount recommended by







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


the U. S. Public Health Service for drinking water is 500 ppm,
although as much as 1,000 ppm is permissible if water of better
quality is not available. Water having a dissolved-solids concentra-
tion greater than 1,000 ppm probably would have a noticeable taste
and also would be unsuitable for many industrial uses. Most of
the water from the shallow aquifer in Martin County has a
dissolved-solids concentration of less than 500 ppm (table 5).
All samples of water from the artesian aquifer contained dissolved
solids in excess of 500 ppm, and only four had less than 1,000
ppm; thus, the artesian water in most instances is not suitable for
public or domestic supplies.

SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE

Specific conductance is a measure of water's ability to transmit
an electric current. Distilled water and water of low mineral
concentration is resistant to the conduction of electricity, whereas
highly mineralized water conducts an electric current with relative
ease.
The values for specific conductance can be used to estimate
values for dissolved solids in the water samples from Martin
County by multiplying by a factor of 0.6. The accuracy of the


SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE IMICROMHOS)


i I I I i
SHALLOW AQUIFER
aDmoved soils. residue on
000 -, vago'ation of 18O*C

do'ele, ed const,?uenl$
t .. ___ .


A -----


W0 304-_--





i t 1 1 i


FLORIDAN AQUIFER
oDissolved solids, residue on
Evopotolhon at 180*C
Dissolved solids, sum of
dclermined con'ihluenis



S- -

(CC- -- -n^ - --



'"I0Xz .'z


FP0,20 nAPoH InoWINI Tnl 1ELA"'ON iSTWEEN SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE AND DISSOLVED SOLIDS IN WATER SAMPLE fROM
MARTIN COUNTY
Figure 20. Relation between specific conductance and dissolved solids in water
samples from Martin County.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


approximation is indicated by figure 20, which is a graph of
specific conductance versus dissolved solids of samples for which
both have been determined.


HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION (pH)

The hydrogen-ion concentration, expressed as pH, indicates
whether the water is acid or alkaline. Values for pH higher than
7.0 indicate increasing alkalinity, and values lower than 7.0
indicate increasing acidity. A pH of 7.0 indicates a neutral
solution.
Most of the water in the shallow aquifer is nearly neutral and
only slightly alkaline. All water samples from the artesian aquifer
except one were neutral or alkaline. This sample may have been
contaminated or altered before analysis.


IRON (Fe) AND MANGANESE (Mn)

Iron differs from most other chemical constituents normally
found in ground water, in that concentrations of only a few tenths
of a part per million may cause the water to have a disagreeable
taste and cause staining of fixtures, laundry, the outside of
buildings, and even grass and shrubbery if it is used in a sprinkler
type irrigation system. The iron remains in solution as a ferrous
bicarbonate, Fe(HCO:i).., and the water is clear until it is exposed
to the atmosphere, whereupon the iron is oxidized to the ferric
state and precipitates as the hydroxide Fe(OH)., or oxide Fe2O:,.
The U. S. Public Health Service recommends that the
concentration of iron or iron and manganese together be under
0.3 ppm. Water having greater concentrations is not injurious to
health, but will generally be unsatisfactory because of staining.
The iron content of water from the shallow aquifer in Martin
County ranges from 0.00 to 0.96 ppm. The occurrence of water
having a high concentration of iron is unpredictable and may differ
with depth as well as location. A well that produced iron-free
water when it was first drilled may, with time and pumping,
intercept water of high iron content from nearby areas.
Iron can be removed from water by aeration and filtration.
Aeration exposes the water to the oxygen in the air and most of
the iron is precipitated. The water is then passed through a filter,
usually sand or charcoal, where the precipitate is removed.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


CALCIUM (Ca) AND MAGNESIUM (Mg)
Dissolved calcium and magnesium are responsible for most of
the hardness of water. These elements are dissolved from lime-
stone (predominantly calcium carbonate) and dolomite
(predominantly calcium and magnesium carbonate), and from
shell material incorporated in sand deposits.
Water in Martin County is most readily available in layers of
carbonate rock and shell, which accounts for the generally high
calcium-magnesium content of the water.
The calcium concentration (59 to 148 ppm) in the shallow
aquifer is generally much higher than the magnesium concentra-
tion (2 to 30 ppm), indicating that most of the carbonate material
in Martin County is limestone rather than dolomite.
The artesian aquifer is composed principally of limestone and
contains only minor amounts of dolomite; however, the magnesium
content of the water is about as high as the calcium content. This
is because the artesian aquifer in Martin County has not been
completely flushed of the sea water which entered it during the
Pleistocene epoch when the ocean stood above its present level.
The magnesium content of ocean water is much higher than the.
calcium content; thus the high concentration of magnesium in the
artesian water probably is the result of contamination by sea
water rather than solution of dolomitic rock.
SODIUM (Na) AND POTASSIUM (K)
Small amounts of sodium and potassium are found in almost
all natural water, and moderate amounts do not affect its potability.
Large concentrations of these elements, however, make the water
unsuitable for most purposes. The sodium concentration is usually
much higher than the potassium concentration, and in tables of
analyses one value is often given for both elements (tables 4, 5).
High concentrations of sodium are usually associated with
contamination by salt water, since most of the sodium is associated
with chloride in the form of salt solutions. Calculated values for
sodium range from 1.2 to 459 ppm in samples from the shallow
aquifer and from 200 to 984 ppm in samples from the artesian
aquifer.
BICARBONATE (HCOQ)
The total alkilinity of a water sample is the sum of its
hydroxide (OH), carbonate (CO:,) and bicarbonate (HCOa,) ions,
expressed in terms of equivalent quantities of CaCO.,. Bicarbonate






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 23


results from the solvent action of water containing carbon dioxide
on carbonate rocks (CaCO3+HO2+CO---Ca(HCO3) 2.
In the samples from the shallow aquifer in Martin County the
bicarbonate content ranged from 120 to 548 ppm. The bicarbonate
content of the artesian water (74 to 228 ppm) is generally lower
than that of the shallow water.

SULFATE (SO4)

The sulfate ion is of little significance in domestic water
supplies, except where the concentration is so large (more than
about 500 ppm) as to have a laxative effect. U. S. Public Health
Service recommends that the concentration be no higher than 250
ppm in public water supplies. Industrial operators using steam
boilers may consider high concentrations of sulfate objectionable
if the water is high in calcium and magnesium, because of the
character of the boiler scale produced.
Most of the water in the shallow aquifer in Martin County
contains little sulfate. The range in the samples analyzed was
from 0 to 39 ppm, except for a sample from well GS 23 (90 ft),
which was 139 ppm, and one from well 936, which was 128 ppm.
These samples may have been contaminated by trapped Pleistocene
sea water, as the chloride contents were 238 and 626 ppm.
Generally, a high sulfate concentration is associated with a high
chloride content, although this is not always the case. The sulfate
content of water in the artesian aquifer ranges from 188 to 336
ppm. The sulfates of calcium and magnesium cause noncarbonate
hardness, which is more difficult to remove than carbonate
hardness.

CHLORIDE (Cl)

The chloride content of water is generally a good indication of
the extent of contamination by salt water. The U.S. Public
Health Service has. set a limit of 250 ppm of chloride for public
supplies, except where no other water is available. Water with a
chloride content of 500 ppm begins to taste salty to most people,
and water with a chloride content much in excess of 750 ppm
will cause damage to plants, shrubs, and even grass, if it is used
for a long period of time; occasional wettings with water of high
chloride content probably would not be harmful to most grasses. A
high chloride content makes water more corrosive. Chloride will
be discussed more thoroughly under "Salt-Water Contamination."






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FLUORIDE (F)

Studies in some areas of the United States have shown that
children who drink water that contains about one ppm of fluoride
have fewer dental cavities than those who drink water with much
less than one ppm (Black and Brown, 1951, p. 15). However, the
presence of fluoride in concentrations of more than 1.5 ppm tends
to mottle the enamel of the permanent teeth of young children
who drink the water for a prolonged period of time. Only a few
of the water samples from the shallow aquifer have been analyzed
for fluoride content. In these samples it ranged from 0.0 to 0.4
ppm. The fluoride content of the artesian water ranges from 0.1
to 1.6 ppm.

SILICA (SiO,)

A small amount of silica is present in almost all ground-water
samples, but it is of relative unimportance, except in water in
boilers, where it contributes to the formation of scale. Silica in
two samples of water from the shallow aquifer was 14 ppm and
24 ppm (wells 657 and 936) and in one sample from the artesian
aquifer was 17 ppm (well 186).

NITRATE (NO,)

The presence of nitrate in excess of 50 ppm may be a
contributing factor in the development of cyanosis, or methemoglo-
binemia, in infants (Black and Brown, 1951, p. 12). Most of the
samples of water from the shallow aquifer contained less than
two ppm of nitrate; however, two samples (from wells 9 and 936)
contained 8.2 ppm and 6.6 ppm, respectively. The nitrate
concentrations in water from the artesian aquifer were less than
one ppm. The analyses indicate that nitrate is relatively
unimportant in the water of Martin County.

HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H.,S)

Hydrogen sulfide is a gas which is held in solution in some
ground water. Upon exposure to air some of the gas escapes and
gives "sulfur water" its characteristic odor. Hydrogen sulfide is
found in all water from the artesian aquifer in Martin County and
in a few samples from isolated areas of the shallow aquifer.
However, quantitative figures as to the amounts present are not







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 23


available. Most of the gas can be easily removed from water by
aeration.

COLOR

Color in water generally is due to the presence of organic
material dissolved from organic matter with which the water comes
in contact. Color is sometimes due to precipitated iron, the water
usually being clear when it comes from the well but becoming
colored upon exposure to the air. Organic color is present in the
sample as collected and is usually accompanied by a moldy odor,
which is a clue to its origin.
Color in water from the shallow aquifer in Martin County
referred to units on the platinum cobalt scale ranges from 1 to 160
and is usually higher in the western part of the county than it is
in the eastern part. The color in the water from the artesian
aquifer ranges from one to five.

TEMPERATURE

Collins (1925, p. 97-104) reported that "The temperature of
ground water available for industrial supplies is generally from
2 to 30 F above the mean annual air temperature if the water is
between 30 and 60 feet below the surface of the ground. An
approximate average for the increase in temperature with depth
is about 1F for each 64 feet."
The mean annual temperature in Martin County is 75.2F
(table 1), and the water temperature of the shallow aquifer would
be expected to average about 77.50F. The actual average
temperature of 120 water samples taken from the shallow aquifer
was 75.50F. The readings ranged from a low of 70oF to a high
of 820F in wells ranging in depth from 10 feet to 110 feet. The
temperature of the water in the shallow aquifer varies with the
seasons, the greater variance being in the water close to the
surface. Water temperatures from individual wells are listed in
table 8.
The temperature of the water from the artesian aquifer ranges
from 750 to 910F (fig. 21). If the above statement by Collins were
valid for Martin County, the temperatures should range from
870F in the north-central part of the county, where the aquifer
is nearest the ground surface (fig. 6) to 940F in the southeastern
part of the county, where the aquifer is deepest. Instead, the coolest
water (750 F) is found in the eastern part of the county, and the




















* *k. .- i-


Figure 21. Temperature of water in artesian wells in Martin County.


IN


V. y
WV
I,'


m
1:0
7-.


-WI air







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


warmest water (910F) is found in the north-central part. The
temperature of the artesian water in Martin County does not seem
to be controlled by the depth of the well. Wells 186 and 747, in
the north-central part of the county, are about the same depth and
only three miles apart, yet the water in well 186 is 910F while
that in well 747 is only 810F. The low temperature of the artesian
water in the eastern part of the county may be due to the cooling
effect of the ocean water, but that does not explain the temperature
differences in other parts of the county. The radioactivity of the
water (well 186, table 5) may be a factor; however, further
investigation including additional analyses of radioactivity of water
from different parts of Martin County will be needed to determine
the cause of the temperature differences.

SALT-WATER CONTAMINATION

Salt-water contamination of the water in an aquifer is usually
the result of encroachment of ocean water. In Martin County
there are two major types of salt-water contamination: (1) recent
contamination, where the salt water is in dynamic equilibrium
with the fresh water, and the salt front fluctuates in accordance
with changes in fresh-water head in the aquifer, and (2)
contamination during the Pleistocene epoch, wherein ocean water
entered the aquifer when the sea level was higher than it is at
present and most of Florida was covered by the ocean. A third
type of contamination may be due to connate sea water that was
trapped in the sediments at the time of deposition; this type
probably is not very important in Martin County.

RECENT CONTAMINATION

Recent encroachment of salt water is restricted to a relatively
narrow strip of land bordering the ocean and other bodies of salt
water. The relationship between fresh water and sea water was
first investigated by William Badon-Ghyben in 1887 and
apparently independently by Alexander Herzberg about 1900
(Brown, 1925, p. 16). These investigators found that in an area
such as a small island or narrow peninsula the fresh water floats
upon the salt water. This occurs because the density of fresh
water is lower than that of sea water. The amount of fresh water
below mean sea level is a function of the height of the fresh water
above mean sea level, and the density of the sea water (fig. 22).






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 22. Relation between salt water and fresh water according to the
Ghyben-Herzborg theory.

If
h=depth of fresh water below mean sea level;
t=height of fresh water above mean sea level;
g=specific gravity of sea water,
1.0-specific gravity of fresh water
then
t
g-1
The formula is illustrated in figure 22 which compares the
occurrence of fresh water and sea water in a small island or
narrow peninsula, with a large imaginary U-tube having one leg
beneath the land and one leg in the sea. In such a U-tube the
column of water which has a height of h+-t will balance the
column of sea water with a height h. The ratio of the heights of
the columns of fresh and sea water is equal to the ratio of their
specific gravities. That is h- = which reduces to the above
formula.
The specific gravity of sea water is about 1.025. When this
value is substituted in the above equation, then h=40t. This
indicates that the depth of fresh water below mean sea level is
40 times the height of the water table above mean sea level, or,
stated simply, for each foot that the water table stands above mean






EXPLANATION
141 Chloride content
-5 (parts per million) R4!1 E
Well,Upper number 0ar -4 4
is number of well; 0-30s s6
lower number is 1 ,
depth of well (0 o o,__l 3
31-I00 5, 6_5_ 8
101-250 TS
S -7-O6-
251-1000

More than 1000 W 77a 3
R"37E R38E .R39E R40E St u r

SCAL ISTUAR IL


A


























,A '- |i '% __-' _,,__ ____
23 7













2 C d i6 o Ma










F55r 23- C5 "t 43E






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


sea level, the fresh water will extend an additional 40 feet below
sea level.
Further research by Hubbert (1940, p. 924), Glover (1959),
and Henry (1959) has shown that under natural conditions this
ratio is somewhat modified by the movement of the water,
especially where the slope of the water table is steep. Variations
in the composition of the water-bearing material and the salinity
of the salt water can also produce modifications of the 1 to 40
ratio (Kohout and Hoy, 1953, and Cooper, 1959). The modifications
are usually relatively minor and the Ghyben-Herzberg ratio is
useful in estimating the minimum depth to salt water in areas
adjacent to sea water.
The contact between fresh and salt water is gradational
through a zone of diffusion in which the water gradually increases
in salinity with depth. The zone of diffusion is formed by the
mixing action caused by the fluctuation of the water table, the
rise and fall of the tides, and the molecular diffusion of the salt
water. The thickness of the zone of diffusion is variable. Parker
(1945, p. 539) reports a thickness of about 60 feet in the Miami
area and in Martin County it is probably about the same.
The concentration of chloride in the ground water is generally
a reliable index to the degree of salt-water contamination, because
more than 90 percent of the dissolved solids in ocean water are
chloride salts. One or more chloride determinations have been
made of water samples from 771 wells in Martin County.
Locations of representative wells and the chloride content of their
water are shown in figures 23, 24, and 26. Results of
determinations of chloride content are shown in table 8.

Stuart Area

Salt water may enter the shallow aquifer in the Stuart area
from either of two sources: (1) by lateral encroachment from
bodies of sea water, including the St. Lucie River, the Manatee
Pocket, and tidal creeks and canals, and (2) by upward movement
of salt water from the artesian aquifer.
The most concentrated withdrawals of ground water in the
county are made in and near the city of Stuart, and some salt-
water encroachment has occurred in isolated areas during periods
of dry weather. Water samples were collected from several
hundred wells in the Stuart area for determinations of chloride
content (fig. 24). Those wells yielding water having an
appreciable chloride content were sampled periodically to detect






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Fisture 24. Chloride content of water from shallow well in Stuart area.,

any variations (table 6). In most cases the fluctuations are caused
by variations in the amount of rainfall in the area or in the
amount of pumping. Usually it is a combination of the two,
because more ground water is needed for irrigation during dry
periods, as in 1955, and less during wet periods, as in 1947-48.
In a few cases, notably in wells 647 and 722, the chloride
content of the water dropped during a dry period, owing to the
cessation of pumping in the old city well field and the plugging of
a leaky artesian well, well 128 (fig. 4). Wells 619 and 654 showed







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


TABLE 0. Chloride Concentrations in Water Samples from Selected Wells


Depth of well
Well (feet below
No. land surface) Date of collection


Chloride
content
(ppm)


Sept. 20, 1940
Oct. 7, 1940
Dec. 10, 1946
Feb. 0, 1947
Mar. 18, 1947
Apr. 24, 1947
May 12, 1947
June 25, 1947
Mar. 10, 1948
June 10, 1948
Sept. 15, 1948
Dec. 10, 1948
Feb. 11, 1949
July 1, 1949
Apr. 27, 1962
Jan. 28, 1955
May 11, 1955
June 29, 1955
Aug. 13, 1946
Sept. 20, 1940
Nov. 7, 1946
Dee. 19, 1946
Feb. 6, 1947
Mar. 18, 1947
June 25, 1947
Mar. 10, 1948
June 10, 1948
Sept. 15, 1948
Dee. 10, 1948
Feb. 11, 1949
Apr. 7, 1950
Jan. 18, 1951
Aug. 21, 1951
Mar. 27, 1952
July 28, 196058
Jan. 20, 1055
June 80, 1955
Aug. 10, 1955
Aug. 4, 1968
Jan. 21, 1955
June 80, 1955
Aug. 10, 1955
Sept. 8, 1955


110
181
188
124
158
118
104
111
104
89
94
74
110
118
185
161
166
148
84
27
41
07
68
40
49
87
61
87
27
068
188
102
109
107
545
670
580
080
85
615
1,870
2,020
1,980







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 6. (Continued)

Depth of well Chloride
Well (feet below content
No. land surface) Date of collection (ppm)

515 60 Oct. 6, 1953 106
Jan. 11, 1955 131
Apr. 20, 1955 123
June 29, 1955 121
Sept. 5, 1955 157
Oct. 5, 1955 117
518 57 Oct. 6, 1953 46
Jan. 10, 1955 160
Jan. 27, 1955 103
Apr. 20, 1955 87
May. 11, 1955 80
June 29, 1955 96
Aug. 16, 1955 132
Sept. 7, 1955 136
520 35 Oct. 6, 1953 64
Jan. 10, 1955 66
Apr. 20, 1955 75
June 29, 1955 83
Sept. 7, 1955 79
523 45 Oct. 6, 1953 53
Jan. 10, 1955 36
Apr. 20, 1955 33
June 10, 1955 32
Sept. 7, 1955 36
525 49 Oct. 6, 1953 91
Jan. 10, 1955 85
Apr. 20, 1955 95
Sept. 7, 1955 124
588 50 Oct. 22, 1953 265
Jan. 10, 1955 328
Apr. 20, 1955 258
June 29, 1955 400
590 20 Oct. 22, 1953 45
Jan. 10, 1955 67
Apr. 20, 1955 67
June 29, 1955 70
597 15 Nov. 9, 19538 40
Jan. 10, 1955 86
Apr. 20, 1955 39
June 29, 1955 29







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


Table 6. (Continued)

Depth of well Chloride
Well (feet below content
No. land surface) Date of collection (ppm)

608 58 Nov. 23, 1953 100
Jan. 10, 1955 88
Apr. 20, 1955 87
June 29, 1955 80
619 57 Apr. 15, 1955 550
June 29, 1955 700
Aug. 16, 1955 650
Sept. 7, 1955 645
Oct. 7, 1955 650
620 56 May 11, 1955 42
June 29, 1955 43
Aug. 16, 1955 49
Sept. 7, 1955 47
622 56 Apr. 20, 1955 20
May 11, 1955 16
June 29, 1955 18
Aug. 16, 1955 15
Sept. 7, 1955 43

637 15 Jan. 11, 1955 245
Apr. 29, 1955 48
June 30, 1955 32

638 38 Apr. 20, 1955 230
June 29, 1955 272
Aug. 16, 1955 352
642 45 Apr. 20, 1955 56
June 29, 1955 76
Aug. 16, 1955 65

647 113 Apr. 15, 1955 98
June 29, 1955 40
Sept. 7, 1955 34

654 63 Feb. 3, 1955 197
Apr. 20, 1955 312
June 29, 1955 348
Sept. 7, 1955 348
Oct. 5, 1955 280

687 60 Apr. 19, 1955 775
June 29, 1955 780
Aug. 16, 1955 810








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 6. (Continued)


Depth of well
(feet below
land surface)

104
84





112



84



69


Chloride
content
Date of collection (ppm)

Apr. 22, 1955 9,180
Apr. 23, 1955 19
May 11, 1955 14
May 23, 1955 15
June 29, 1955 30
Aug. 16, 1955 15
Sept. 7, 1955 15
Apr. 20, 1955 78
May 26, 1955 61
June 29, 1955 37
Sept. 7, 1955 27


June 30, 1955
Aug. 16, 1955
Sept. 8, 1955
Oct. 7, 1955
June 30, 1955
Sept. 8, 1955
Oct. 7, 1955
Nov. 2, 1955


176
940
930
1,430
34
94
185
307


an increase and then a decrease in the chloride content of the
water in 1955 (table 6). The decrease was probably caused by
the flushing of the salty artesian water from the aquifer.
Contamination from Surface-Water Bodies. Encroachment
from the St. Lucie River and the Manatee Pocket is not extensive
at present. It has occurred only in areas near the coast, and no
encroachment has been found more than half a mile from the river.
The fresh-water head is high close to the shoreline, and in many
places fresh water can be obtained from wells within 100 feet of
salt-water bodies. It is reported that fresh water has been obtained
from wells driven in the river bottom, but the writer has not
confirmed this.
Heavy pumping in the areas adjacent to the St. Lucie River
may cause sufficient lowering of the water table to allow salt
water to invade the fresh-water zone. Water of high chloride
content was detected in well 720, about 1,500 feet from the St.
Lucie River, about midway between the river and the water-plant


Well
No.

720O







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


well field. When the well was drilled, water containing 9,180 ppm
of chloride was encountered at a depth of 104 feet. The well
casing was immediately pulled back 20 feet, to a depth of 84 feet,
where the chloride content of the water was only 19 ppm. A
layer of fine sand between 84 and 104 feet apparently acts as a
confining bed, because no appreciable increase in the chloride
content occurred after several months of intermittent pumping to
irrigate a lawn. It is believed that the salinity of the water in
well 720 is the result of direct encroachment from the St. Lucie
River, caused by heavy pumping at the water-plant and ball-park
well fields. However, when well 622, in the city ball-park well
field, was deepened from 56 feet to 115 feet the chloride content
of the water decreased slightly, from 36 to 20 ppm, indicating
that encroachment had not reached the vicinity of the well field
at the ball park. The water in well 722, 600 feet east of the city
water plant and 600 feet from the St. Lucie River, contained 78
ppm of chloride at a depth of 112 feet, indicating that encroach-
ment of water of high chloride content had not reached the vicinity
of the well field at the water plant. The salt-water front is probably
now stationary or is being pushed back toward the river because
of the increase of fresh-water head due to the cessation of pumping
of the city water-plant and ball-park fields. The position of the
salt-water front cannot be determined accurately because of the
lack of deep observation wells.
Some salt-water encroachment is occurring along the eastern
side of the Stuart area immediately adjacent to the St. Lucie River
and the Manatee Pocket. A relatively high, discontinuous ridge
parallels the eastern shoreline and is flanked on the west by low,
swampy land. The lowland'is drained by streams and ditches that
flow parallel to the ridge until they reach gaps where they cross
the ridge and discharge into the St. Lucie River and Manatee
Pocket. They reduce the fresh-water head under the ridge by in-
tercepting recharge from inland areas and depleting ground-water
storage beneath the ridge. Streams are also subject to
contamination during low ground-water stages and high tides.
Even moderate pumping in such an area results in movement of
salt water into the aquifer. The chloride content of the water in
well 362 in this area (fig. 3) increased from 35 ppm in 1953 to
more than 2,000 ppm in 1955 (table 6). This locality is especially
vulnerable to contamination because of its proximinity to a
drainage canal.
Contamination from Artesian Aquifer. The beds of relatively
impermeable clay and fine sand of the Hawthorn formation act as






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


an effective barrier to the vertical migration of salt water from
the artesian aquifer, except where the beds have been punctured
by wells. In the Stuart area, the artesian water contains between
800 and 4,500 ppm of chloride and is under a pressure head of
about 40 feet above the land surface. If this water were allowed
to flow freely at the surface it could contaminate the fresh water in
the shallow aquifer. The artesian water is highly corrosive, and,
after a period of years, it may corrode the casings of the wells and
create perforations through which the salty water can escape into
the fresh-water aquifer even though the top of the well is tightly
capped. An electric log, made by the Florida Geological Survey,
of well 128, an artesian well within 300 feet of the Stuart water-
plant well field, indicated many breaks in the casing at various
intervals below the land surface. Salt water escaping through
holes in the casing of this well is believed to be the source of
chloride contamination in the old well field. The contamination
could not be direct encroachment from the river because wells of
the same depth as the municipal wells and situated a few hundred
feet from the river bank, directly between the well field and the
river, yielded water whose chloride content was lower than that
in the municipal wells.
Evidence to support this conclusion was noted after the water-
plant and ball-park well fields were shut down. The water in
certain wells in the area increased markedly in chloride content
and when the data were plotted on a map, the wells in which an
increase had occurred formed a fan-shaped pattern extending down-
gradient from the artesian well, the axis of the pattern closely
paralleling the direction of the ground-water flow. The water in
well 619, nearest the artesian well, had the greatest increase in
chloride content, whereas that in wells farther away showed a
smaller increase. Water in wells outside the area did not change
appreciably. The observed changes in chloride concentration
probably were caused by leakage of salty water from the artesian
well. Prior to the shutting down of the water-plant well field,
most of the salty artesian water was being drawn into the supply
wells, where it was diluted by fresh water from within the area
affected by pumping.
Well 128 was filled with cement on April 25, 1955, the day that
pumping ceased in the water-plant well field, and the salty water
in the aquifer after that time was artesian water which had not
been flushed away. This residual artesian water moved down-
gradient and was diluted by fresh water. As the salty water was







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


dispersed, the water from wells downgradient from the artesian
well became fresher.

Jensen Beach and Rocky Point

Little or no salt-water encroachment has occurred in the Jensen
Beach area from the St. Lucie County line southward to Sewall
Point (fig. 5). Most wells in this area are sandpoint wells, 15
to 20 feet deep, and some are only a few feet from the Indian
River. The high fresh-water heads that are maintained in the
sandhills of the area keep the salt water from moving into the
shallow aquifer. Much of the ground water discharges into the
Indian and the St. Lucie rivers, through a zone extending from
slightly above the shoreline to points some distance from the river
banks (fig. 25). The upward seepage of fresh water along the
river bottoms makes it possible to obtain fresh ground water
immediately adjacent to the salt-water bodies. In some instances
shallow wells drilled a short distance out in the rivers may yield


Figure 25. Discharge of fresh water into a salt-water body.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


fresh water. These wells would probably pass out of the fresh
water into salt water if they were drilled deeper,
A similar situation exists in the area west of the Intracoastal
Waterway from Rocky Point southward to the Palm Beach County
line (fig. 5). The fresh-water head is high enough along the
coastal ridge to depress the salt front beyond the river banks in
most areas.

Sewall Point

Sewall Point is a narrow peninsula almost surrounded by salt
water. The source of the natural fresh water on the point is the
rain that falls on and immediately north of the peninsula. The
rainfall is rapidly absorbed by the permeable surface sand and
much of it reaches the water table. However, as Sewall Point is
very narrow, ground water has to travel only 500 to 1,000 feet
to points of discharge.
The average height of the water table in the Sewall Point area
is probably less than a foot above mean sea level, and from 15 to
30 feet below land surface. In accordance with the Ghyben-
Herzberg ratio, this indicates a maximum of about 40 feet of
fiesh water beneath most of the peninsula. In the northern part,
where the water table probably is slightly higher than in the rest
of the peninsula, a sample of water with a chloride content of 14,500
ppm was obtained at 70 feet below mean sea level in well 903 (fig.3).
Salt water was also reported at about 75 feet in a well drilled
near well 809. Most wells extend only a few feet below mean sea
level, so there is a considerable amount of fresh water beneath the
bottom of the well. However, under conditions of sustained, heavy
pumping the water table will decline below sea level and the salt
water will rise and move laterally and vertically toward the well.
(See "Quantitative Studies," p. 45.) Eventually, the water from
the zone of diffusion may enter the well and temporarily destroy
the usefulness of the well. This usually happens during prolonged
periods of deficient rainfall when the aquifer received little or
no recharge and the demand for water is great. With the cessation
of pumping or the occurrence of heavy rainfall, the salt water will
gradually move outward and downward in the aquifer.
A long period of deficient rainfall occurred during 1955-56.
Analyses of water samples collected in June 1956 from many
wells on Sewall Point show that salt water had encroached into
the aquifer. Well 816, which is actually four closely spaced wells
connected in manifold, was heavily pumped for lawn irrigation:







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 28


and had the highest chloride content (1,000 ppm) on Sewall
Point. In addition, well 816 is quite close to wells 98 and 814, which
were being pumped. The combined pumpage of the wells in the
small area lowered the water table sufficiently to allow the salt
water to move in.

Hutchinson Island

The hydrologic conditions on Hutchinson Island are some-
what similar to those on Sewall Point except that the land is
narrower and the land-surface altitudes are much lower.
Consequently, the average altitude of the water table is lower than
it is on Sewall Point, probably only a few inches above mean sea
level.
Wells in many places on the island are still in fresh water a
foot or so below the water table; however, even moderate pumping
reduces ground-water levels below sea level and allows salty water
to enter the well. Small supplies of water for domestic purposes
might be developed in the most favorable locations on the island,
but even these would be subject to contamination during prolonged
drought periods.

Jupiter Island

The fresh-water lens on Jupiter Island is thicker than that on
Hutchinson Island, but not as thick as it is on Sewall Point. The
island ranges from 1,000 to 1,500 feet in width and from 0 to 30
feet in land-surface altitude,-greater than Hutchinson Island,
but narrower and lower than Sewall point. Differences in the
geologic and hydrologic conditions of the three insular areas
probably account for some of the differences in the relative
thickness of the fresh-water lenses.
Seven wells were inventoried and sampled during the investi-
gation of Jupiter Island in August 1956. Water samples from
four wells had chloride concentrations ranging between 570 and
1,190 ppm and samples from three wells had chloride concentrations
ranging between 57 and 61 ppm. The three wells containing the
smaller concentrations were near the golf course and were
probably receiving recharge from the large quantities of fresh
water used to irrigate the fairways and greens. Most of the water
used on Jupiter Island is piped across Hobe Sound and the
Intracoastal Waterway from wells on the mainland.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


PLEISTOCENE CONTAMINATION

When Martin County and the rest of south Florida emerged
from the ocean after the last major advance of the sea, all the
land was saturated with salt water. Rain falling on the land and
moving through the ground has gradually carried most of the salt
water back to the ocean. The rate at which the salt water is
carried away depends upon the rate at which the water can move
through the ground. This in turn depends on the slope of the
water table or piezometric surface and the permeability of the
material.

Shallow Aquifer. Most of the Pleistocene sea water has been
flushed from the shallow aquifer in Martin County. The residual
Pleistocene sea water that has not been flushed out is mostly in
the lower part of the aquifer, especially in the western part of the
county. The shallow aquifer in the area of the Atlantic Coastal
Ridge has been almost flushed of sea water, probably because of
the generally steep slope of the water table and the high
permeability of the material. West of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge
and at considerable distances from present salt-water bodies, are
many areas where salty water occurs in the lower part of the
aquifer. One such area is east of Indiantown at the site of the
Westbury Farm horse-training track. Analyses of water samples
from wells 934, 935, and 936 (fig. 4) show that the chloride content
of the water in general increases with depth in the aquifer. The
chloride concentrations were as follows: at 22 feet, 82 ppm; at
44 feet. 42 ppm; at 63 feet, 86 ppm; at 86 feet, 810 ppm; and at
108 feet. 615 ppm.
The permeability of the material at 86 feet is quite high, but
that between 60 and 80 feet is very low. Possibly, the rainwater
cannot move rapidly through the relatively impermeable material
between 60 and 80 feet to clear the 86-foot stratum of its salt
contact. The area is very flat and is near the poorly defined divide
between water draining toward Lake Okeechobee and water
draining toward the Loxahatchee River and the Atlantic Ocean.
This tends to create a water table with very little slope and
consequently there is little ground-water flow.
Another example of apparent residual Pleistocene sea water
is shown by data from well 161. This well (117 feet deep) is near
the shore of Lake Okeechobee and yields water with a chloride
content of 650 ppm (fig. 23). The water from a nearby well (of
unknown depth) has a chloride content of 805 ppm. The geologic







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 23


and hydrologic conditions of this area probably are similar to those
near the Westbury Farm racetrack.

Artesian Aquifer. The piezometric surface of the Floridan
aquifer in Martin County is about 50 feet above mean sea level at
the present time. In accordance with the Ghyben-Herzberg ratio
this pressure head should be sufficient to insure at least 2,000 feet
of fresh water below sea level. Artesian wells in Martin County
range in depth from 700 to 1,485 feet; therefore, it appears that
the high chloride content of the water (fig. 26) is due to con-
tamination during the Pleistocene epoch rather than recent
encroachment of sea water.
Analyses of water samples taken at 5-foot intervals during the
drilling of wells 841 and 910 showed that the chloride content of
the water decreased with increasing depth in the aquifer. In well
841, south of Stuart, the chloride content decreased from 4,050
ppm at 845 feet to 2,900 ppm at 1,057 feet. In well 910, north-
west of Indiantown, the chloride content decreased from 935 ppm
at 850 feet to 770 ppm at 1,096 feet. The water will probably be
saltier again at greater depths. Very salty water was reported
at a depth of 1,800 feet in a well at the Adams ranch north of
Indiantown, but the well was sealed off at 1,100 feet before a
sample could be taken.
It appears that there are relatively fresh and salty zones
within the artesian aquifer. The fresh zones probably correlate
with the permeable strata, and the salty zones with the relatively
impermeable strata. Unfortunately, data are not sufficient to
define accurately the zones of fresh water. It might prove
profitable during drilling to analyze the water at different depths
in the aquifer, so that the salty zones can be recognized and sealed
off, and, thus, develop only the fresher zones in the well.
The artesian aquifer in Martin County in 1957 contained a
certain amount of salt water. The quality of the water should
improve as the salty water is discharged and replaced by fresh
water from the recharge area. However, considering the great
thickness and areal extent of the aquifer and the amount of salty
water in storage in the aquifer, a considerable amount of time
will have to elapse before any improvement is noticed.

USE

All public and most domestic supplies of water in Martin
County are obtained from ground-water sources. In addition,





Figure 26. Chloride content of water in artesian wells in Martin County.


I-

z


LL"C ,







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 28


ground water is used extensively for irrigation, stock watering,
industry, and air conditioning.
PUBLIC SUPPLIES

Three towns in Martin County have public water supplies:
Stuart, Hobe Sound, and Indiantown. In 1957 Stuart obtained its
supply from three wells (657, 723, and 724) developed in the
shallow aquifer, and the pumpage in 1957 totaled 103 million
gallons (table 7). Hobe Sound obtained its water from six wells
located in the sandhills near Jonathan Dickinson State Park.
Water from the town of Hobe Sound is pumped across the
Intracoastal Waterway to the town of Jupiter Island because no
large dependable supplies are available on Jupiter Island. The total
pumpage in 1957 for Hobe Sound is not available. Indiantown
obtained its water supply from 10 shallow wells and pumpage in
1957 was about 3.5 million gallons.
IRRIGATION AND STOCK SUPPLIES
Irrigation and stock watering probably account for the largest
withdrawals of ground water in Martin County.
Water from the shallow aquifer is used for irrigation by the
flower growers in the Stuart area, by farmers growing vegetables,
citrus fruits, watermelons, potatoes, etc., and Py ranchers for
pastureland, stock watering, and feed crops.
Approximately 80 artesian wells have been drilled in Martin
County for various types of irrigation and other uses. Many of
the wells were originally drilled for irrigating such crops as
tomatoes and watermelons. The land is often farmed for only one
or two years, after which it is seeded for pasture. The wells are
then used to irrigate the pasture and water the stock. The total
use of artesian water for irrigation may be as much as 10 mgd
during the dry season; however, during the rainy season most
wells are turned off.
The shallow aquifer is the main source of water for the many
small wells used to irrigate lawns and shrubbery. The greatest
concentration of these wells is in and around the city of Stuart. A
small amount of water from the artesian aquifer is used for lawn
irrigation.
OTHER USES
Small quantities of ground water are used in other activities,
such as industrial and cooling processes, and for swimming pools.













TABLE 7. Pumpage from Stuart Well Field, in Millions of Gallons Per Month

Year Jan Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total

1941 2.63 2.77 3.23 2.89 2.70 2.82 2.48 2.68 2.57 2.69 2.91 2.62 32.98
1942 3.26 8.54 3.29 3.26 3.67 3.24 3.40 3.30 3.06 3.47 3.48 3.53 40.51 o
1943 3.53 3.42 3.57 3.62 3.80 3.57 3.49 3.61 3.44 3.63 3.74 3.94 43.35 g
1944 3.93 4.04 4.41 4.36 4.38 4.29 3.88 3.50 3.40 3.23 3.28 3.63 46.31
1945 3.86 3.60 4.25 3.89 3.71 3.34 3.02 3.28 3.12 3.11 3.18 3.64 42.00 0
1946 3.91 3.85 4.00 4.30 3.40 2.94 3.05 3.21 3.16 3.80 3.55 3.86 43.04
1947 4.14 3.74 3.98 3.61 3.77 3.11 3.48 3.50 3.10 3.27 3.29 3.50 42.47 o
1948 3.61 4.36 5.00 4.56 4.14 3.74 3.53 3.41 3.25 3.79 4.04 4.22 47.65 2
1949 4.32 4.17 4.77 4.27 3.94 3.13 3.34 2.83 3.96 3.58 3.74 4.01 46.05
1950 4.00 4.84 5.18 4.56 4.79 4.12 4.15 4.28 5.00 4.90 4.81 5.78 56.43
1951 6.08 5.71 6.73 5.30 6.73 5.18 4.27 5.43 4.19 3.68 4.55 5.01 62.86
1952 6.11 5.39 4.76 4.98 5.20 5.39 5.54 5.75 5.59 5.90 5.59 5.56 65.74
1953 6.34 5.85 6.35 6.18 6.47 5.37 5.93 5.34 5.44 5.03 5.23 5.90 69.42 t
1954 6.42 6.65 6.75 6.48 6.40 6.26 5.89 6.70 5.82 6.34 6.75 7.57 78.02
1955 8.32 7.23 8.21 7.54 8.15 7.91 6.85 7.11 6.67 7.55 7.95 7.57 91.07
1956 8.19 8.08 8.23 7.23 7.38 7.26 7.33 7.37 6.78 7.10 7.62 9.32 91.89
1957 9.24 9.19 9.57 8.05 8.30 8.08 7.96 7.77 7.95 8.32 9.33 9.08 102.83







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The principal source of fresh water in Martin County is a
shallow nonartesian aquifer which extends from the land surface
to a depth of about 150 feet. This aquifer is composed of sand,
thin limestone layers, and shell beds. It is nonuniform in its water-
bearing properties but generally is more permeable in the eastern
part of the county than in the western part. The aquifer in the
western part of Martin County has only been partially explored and
it may contain large quantities of water. In general, only a small
part of the potential yield of the shallow aquifer was being used
in 1957.
Salt-water encroachment into the shallow aquifer has not been
extensive but it is a problem in areas bordering bodies of salt
water, such as Sewall Point and Hutchinson and Jupiter Islands.
Leaky artesian wells also have caused salt-water contamination
in a few areas. Diluted sea water that entered during the
Pleistocene epoch remains trapped in some parts of the shallow
aquifer in western Martin County.
The artesian aquifer is composed of limestones of Eocene age
that range from 600 to 800 feet below the surface. Large
quantities of water are available from this aquifer but the water
is usually highly mineralized. The degree of mineralization differs
in different areas of the county and in different zones within the
aquifer. The dissolved solids range from 674 to 7,400 ppm and
the chloride concentrations range from 252 to 4,050 ppm. The
fresh-water zones within the aquifer probably correspond to the
more permeable layers and lie between saltier less permeable zones.
Few wells tap the artesian aquifer in Martin County and much
water of fair to poor quality could be developed.

REFERENCES
Applin, Esther R.
1945 (and Jordan, Louise) Diagnostic Foraminifera from subsurface
formations in Florida: Jour. Paleontology, v. 19, no. 2, p. 129-
148, pls. 18-21.
Black, A. P.
1951 (and Brown, Eugene) Chemical character of Florida's waters
-1951: Florida State Board Cons., Div. Water Survey and
Research, Paper 6.
1953 (and Brown, Eugene, and Pearce, J, M.) Salt-water intrusion in
Florida-1958: Florida State Board Cons., Div. Water Survey
and Research, Paper 9.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Brown, Eugene (see Black, A. P.)
Brown, John S.
1925 A study of coastal ground water, with special reference to
Connecticut: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 537.
Collins, W. D.
1925 Temperatures of water available for industrial use in the United
States: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 520-F.
1928 (and Howard, C. S.) Chemical character of waters of Florida:
U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 596-G.
Cooke, C. W. (see also Parker, G. G.)
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29.
Cooper, H. H., Jr.
1959 A hypothesis concerning the dynamic balance of fresh and salt
water in a coastal aquifer: Jour. Geophys. Research, v. 64, no.
4, 461-467.
Davis, John H., Jr.
1943 The natural features of southern Florida, especially the vegeta-
tion and the Everglades: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 25.
Ferguson, G. E. (see Parker, G. G.)
Glover, R. E.
1959 The pattern of fresh-water flow in a coastal aquifer: Jour.
Geophys. Research, v. 64, no. 4, p. 457-459.
Hantush, M. C.
1955 (and Jacob, C. E.) Nonsteady radial flow in an infinite leaky
aquifer: Am. Geophys. Union, v. 36, no. 1, p. 95-100.
1956 Analysis of data from pumping tests in leaky aquifers: Am.
Geophys. Union Trans. v. 37, no. 6, p. 702-714.
Henry, R. H.
1959 Salt intrusion into fresh-water aquifers: Jour. Geophys. Research,
v. 64, no. 11, p. 1911-1919.
Howard, C. S. (see Collins, W. D.)
Hoy, N. D. (see Kohout, F. A.)

Hubbert, M. K.
1940 The theory of ground-water motion: Jour. Geology, v. 48, no.
8, pt. 1, p. 785-944.

Jacob, C. E. (see Hantush, M. C.)

Jordan, Louise (see Applin, Esther R.)

Kohout, F. A.
1953 (and Hoy, N. D.) Research on salt-water encroachment in the
Miami area, Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey open-file rept (dupl.).








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23


Lichtler, W. F.
1957 Ground-water resources of the Stuart area, Martin County,
Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 12.
Love, S. K. (see Parker, G. G.)
MacNeil, F. S.
1950 Pleistocene shorelines in Florida and Georgia: U. S. Geol. Survey
Prof. Paper 221-F, p. 95-107.
Mansfield, W. C.
1939 Notes on the upper Tertiary and Pleistocene mollusks of
peninsular Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 18.
Matson, G. C.
1913 (and Sanford, Samuel) Geology and groundwaters of Florida:
U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 319.
Meinzer, 0. E.
1923 The occurrence of ground water in the United States, with a
discussion of principles: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper
489.
Parker, G. G.
1944 (and Cooke, C. W.) Late Cenozoic geology of southern Florida,
with a discussion of the ground water: Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 27.
1945 Salt-water encroachment in southern Florida: Am. Water Works
Assoc. Jour., v. 37, no. 6, p. 526-542.
1950 (and Stringfield, V. T.) Effects of earthquakes, trains, tides,
winds, and atmospheric pressure changes on water in the
geologic formations of southern Florida: Econ. Geology, v. 45,
no. 5, p. 441-460.
1951 Geologic and hydrologic factors in the perennial yield of the
Biscayne aquifer: Am. Water Works Assoc. Jour., v. 43, no. 10.
1955 (and Ferguson, G. E., Love, S. K., and others) Water resources
of southeastern Florida, with special reference to the geology and
ground water of the Miami area: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-
Supply Paper 1255.
Pearce, J. M. (see Black, A. P.)


Puri, H. S.
1953


Zonation of the Ocala group in peninsular Florida (abstract):
Jour. Sed. Petrology, v. 23, no. 2.


1957 Stratigraphy and zonation of the Ocala group: Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 38.

Sanford, Samuel (see Matson, G. C.)
Sellards, E. H.
1919 Geologic sections across the Everglades of Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey 12th Ann. Rept., p. 67-76.







84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Stringfield, V. T. (see also Parker, G. G.)
1936 Artesian water in the Florida peninsula: U. S. Geol. Survey
Water-Supply Paper 773-C.
Theis, C. V.
1935 The relation between the lowering of the piezometric surface
and the rate and duration of discharge of a well using ground-
water storage: Am. Geophys. Union Trans., pt. 2, p. 519-524.
1938 The significance and nature of the cone of depression in ground-
water bodies: Econ. Geology, v. 33, no. 8.
U. S. Geological Survey, Water levels and artesian pressures in observation
wells in the United States, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, Pt.
2. Southeastern States: Water-Supply Papers 1166, 1192, 1222,
1266, 1322, and 1405.
Vernon, R. 0.
1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 33.
Wenzel, L. K.
1942 Methods for determining permeability of water-bearing materials,
with special reference to discharging-well methods, with a section
on direct laboratory methods and bibliography on permeability
and laminar flow, by V. C. Fishel: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-
Supply Paper 887.

WELL LOGS

Well 143
(NW14SW14 sec. 9, T. 38 S., R. 40 E.)
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
No sample --- -- ------- ------------------------ ----- 0- 30
Anastasia formation:
Sand, brown, quartz, coarse to very coarse, average coarse,
rounded to subrounded, frosted, with a few grains of
smoky quartz; a few mollusk fragments -------- 30- 42
Shell fragments and quartz sand; the sand ranges from fine
to grit, rounded to subangular, frosted to clear, and
contains small clusters of quartz grains cemented to-
gether with crystalline calcite; well-worn light to dark
shell fragments containing numerous fragments of
Donar sp., some of which show traces of original color. --- 42- 63
As above, plus some gray-brown micaceous, sandy clay
containing foraminiferas, Elphidium sp., Nonion sp., and
others -- ------. ------------ -- -------- 63-105
As above, plus some white to gray-brown very sandy, hard
limestone .--- .------..-------------. ---. ------.......-- ----. 105-147


4







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 23 85

Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
No sample ------------------------- 147-186
Sand, light green, quartz, medium to very coarse, rounded,
clear to frosted; mollusk fragments, coral, echinoid spines --- 186-188
Caloosahatohee (?) marl:
Limestone, gray-brown, hard to soft clayey, very sandy
calcitic, and some light green quartz sand and shells --------- 188-209
Tamiami formation:
As above plus foraminifers, Amphistegbia lessonii ------------- 209-230
Sand, gray, quartz, medium to coarse, rounded, clear; a few
grains are smoky; some clay and many fragments of
pelecypods, gastropods, and coral --------- ------ -- 230-252
Shell fragments and sand as above, plus some very dark
olive-drab montmorillonite clay -------------- ------ 252-273
No sample .-------..----------------------------- 273-294
Hawthorn formation:
Clay, very dark olive-drab, micaceous, nonplastic; very fine
sand and white mollusk fragments -- ------------- 294-3836
No sample -- ---- ---------- -- -- 336-339
As at 294-336 feet, plus some nonplastic cream colored clay;
mollusk fragments; foraminifers, Robulus americanus,
Uvigerina sp., and others --- ----- --- ---- ---- 339-420
As above, plus Cibicides concentrious -- ----------- ---------- 420-441
As above, plus some cream, hard to soft, dense, sandy,
phosphatic limestone; coral ------ ------ 441-462
Limestone, cream, hard to soft, dense, sandy, phosphatic,
plus some gray to black translucent chert, tan non-
plastic clay, and a small amount of olive-drab clay;
mollusk fragments, coral, and foraminifers ----- 462-483
Clay, tan to olive-drab, nonplastic, plus some material as
above; mollusk fragments, coral, shark's teeth, barnacle
plates; foraminifers, Robulus americanus and others -- ------- 483-525
As above, plus Robulus americanus var. spinosus and
many others --. -------=---------- 525-546
No sample ---- ------ ------- ------- ---- 546-567
Limestone, clay, quartz sand and chert; the limestone is hard
to soft, finely crystalline to chalky or sandy, calcitic; the
sand is tan to white, coarse, rounded, clear, some grains
containing dark micaceous inclusions; dark colored chert;
light green clay; mollusk fragments and coral; fora-
minifers, Robulus americanus and others ------------------ 567-588

Suwannee (?) limestone:
Limestone, cream, soft to hard, coarsely granular, porous;
some light to dark phosphorite grains and much material







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Depth, in feet
Material below land surface

as above; mollusk fragments, echinoid spines, coral fora-
minifers. Dentalina sp. (common), Lepidocyclina sp.
(rare) ..---....-----...-----------.....-- ..--. .----------------............ -..-.......... 588-668

Ocala group:
Coquina, composed of large foraminifers: Lepidocyclina,
ocalana, var., Operculinoides sp. and others; much gran-
ular limestone as above and some cream, medium hard,
porous, miliolid limestone; mollusk fragments, small
gastropods, and echinoid spines ........--.......-.........-.......-....-- ....-.... 668-688
Limestone, cream, soft, coarsely granular, porous; fora-
minifers as above ......-----------..........-------...........-.....-......-...-..-.......-------.............---.--...... 688-722
No sample .---.............--............ --------.. .....-.... ...........-.. .........- ----.... ......-....-........... 722-728
As at 688-722 feet .--.---...-----------------........................................................... 728-732

Avoi Park limestone:
Limestone, cream to white, chalky to granular, soft, por-
ous; foraminifers Coskinolina floridana, Dictyoconus
eookci, Textularia, coryensis, Lituonella floridana and
others .-............--------------.......--------------...........................--..--------..............................-----..... 732-748
As above, plus light tan soft porous calcitic miliolid lime-
stone, and some white to brown hard, dense, cryptocrys-
talline limestone; fauna as above ........ ....-...................... 748-768
Miliolid limestone, tan, soft, porous, slightly calcitic; some
white, hard, dense cryptocrystalline limestone; Avon
Park fauna .........--------------..----................--------------.............................................--..... 768-788
Limestone, white to tan, soft to hard, chalky to granular,
porous; Avon Park fauna ...---.......................--...........--......-------....-.....---...-.. 788-848
As above, plus some tan, hard, granular, porous, very cal-
citic limestone; Peronella dalli .-----------..............-..---.............-...--------.................. 848-888
Limestone, white to tan, soft to hard, chalky to granular,
porous; Avon Park fauna, plus numerous specimens of
Dictyoconus? gunteri .---------------....---------.. .............--....................... 888-948
Limestone, tan, soft to hard, porous, coarsely granular,
crystalline, with limestone as in 788-848 feet; Dictyoconus
gunteri abundant --------------......--..... --......-.-------.........------.............. 948-958

Well 146
(SEY4NWY4 sec. 36, T. 39 S., R. 38 E.)

No sample .............-...------------ ------............. ........... --....... 0-168

Upper Miocene:
Shell marl, gray-brown, clay, silt, sand (sand, fine to very
coarse, average medium, rounded to angular, clear),
phosphorite; some cream medium hard, sandy limestone;
pelecypod fragments, small gastropods, barnacle plates,







84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Stringfield, V. T. (see also Parker, G. G.)
1936 Artesian water in the Florida peninsula: U. S. Geol. Survey
Water-Supply Paper 773-C.
Theis, C. V.
1935 The relation between the lowering of the piezometric surface
and the rate and duration of discharge of a well using ground-
water storage: Am. Geophys. Union Trans., pt. 2, p. 519-524.
1938 The significance and nature of the cone of depression in ground-
water bodies: Econ. Geology, v. 33, no. 8.
U. S. Geological Survey, Water levels and artesian pressures in observation
wells in the United States, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, Pt.
2. Southeastern States: Water-Supply Papers 1166, 1192, 1222,
1266, 1322, and 1405.
Vernon, R. 0.
1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 33.
Wenzel, L. K.
1942 Methods for determining permeability of water-bearing materials,
with special reference to discharging-well methods, with a section
on direct laboratory methods and bibliography on permeability
and laminar flow, by V. C. Fishel: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-
Supply Paper 887.

WELL LOGS

Well 143
(NW14SW14 sec. 9, T. 38 S., R. 40 E.)
Depth, in feet
Material below land surface
No sample --- -- ------- ------------------------ ----- 0- 30
Anastasia formation:
Sand, brown, quartz, coarse to very coarse, average coarse,
rounded to subrounded, frosted, with a few grains of
smoky quartz; a few mollusk fragments -------- 30- 42
Shell fragments and quartz sand; the sand ranges from fine
to grit, rounded to subangular, frosted to clear, and
contains small clusters of quartz grains cemented to-
gether with crystalline calcite; well-worn light to dark
shell fragments containing numerous fragments of
Donar sp., some of which show traces of original color. --- 42- 63
As above, plus some gray-brown micaceous, sandy clay
containing foraminiferas, Elphidium sp., Nonion sp., and
others -- ------. ------------ -- -------- 63-105
As above, plus some white to gray-brown very sandy, hard
limestone .--- .------..-------------. ---. ------.......-- ----. 105-147


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