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 Front Cover
 Florida State Board of Conserv...
 Transmittal letter
 Abstract
 Table of contents
 General introduction
 Geography
 Physiography
 Part I. Lake Istokpoga area, Highlands...
 Part II. Lake Placid area, Highlands...


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STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Ernest Mitts, Director


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert 0. Vernon, Director






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19





HYDROLOGIC FEATURES
OF THE
LAKE ISTOKPOGA AND LAKE PLACID AREAS
HIGHLANDS COUNTY, FLORIDA


Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT
and the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
1959


A,,ii,


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FLORIDA STATE BOARD

OF

CONSERVATION


LeROY COLLINS
Governor


R. A. GRAY
Secretary of State



J. EDWIN LARSON
Treasurer



THOMAS D. BAILEY
Superintendent Public Instruction


RICHARD ERVIN
Attorney General



RAY E. GREEN
Comptroller



NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture


ERNEST MITTS
Director of Conservation






LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


5lorida Qeoloqical Survey

Callakassee

May 27, 1959
MR. ERNEST MITTS, Director
FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


DEAR MR. MITTS:

The Florida Geological Survey is publishing as Florida Geologi-
cal Survey Report of Investigations No. 19, a report entitled,
"Hydrologic Features of the Lake Istokpoga and Lake Placid Areas,
Highlands County, Florida." This report was prepared by F. A.
Kahout and F. W. Meyer, in cooperation with the U. S. Geological
Survey and the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District.

The report presents the hydrologic features of a fairly compre-
hensive area in Highlands County, partially to evaluate the effect
on the ground water in the Highlands Ridge by the construction of
a canal to drain the Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin. The study in
the Lake Placid area is concerned primarily with lakes of the area
and contributes considerable data to an understanding of the
relations of climatology, hydrology and geology as factors in
controlling levels of lakes. The data here presented will be useful
in planning for further development of these areas.

Respectfully yours,
ROBERT 0. VERNON, Director





















































Completed manuscript received
November 15, 1958
Published by the Florida Geological Survey
E. 0. Painter Printing Company
DeLand, Florida
May 27, 1959



iv







ABSTRACT


The hydrologic features in a 165 square mile area surrounding
Lake Istokpoga, Florida, were studied during the fall of 1952, to
evaluate the effect of a proposed drainage canal south of Lake
Istokpoga on ground-water conditions in the Highlands Ridge and
Lake Istokpoga areas. An investigation of the influence of the
ground-water reservoir in the Lake Placid area on the water level
of the lake was started in the fall of 1955.
The Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin is a poorly drained area of
low topographic relief extending southeastward from Lake Istok-
poga; its western boundary is marked by a scarp that rises to a
sandy upland region of relatively great relief, referred to as the
Highlands Ridge.
In the first investigation, described in Part I, lithologic and hy-
drologic data were obtained from lines of wells and test holes. A
nonartesian aquifer and several shallow artesian aquifers occur
within the area of this investigation. Unconfined ground water
moves toward Lake Istokpoga, except at the southern end of the
lake where the ground water moves, under a low gradient, in a
southeasterly direction. The movement of water in the shallow
artesian aquifers is eastward from the scarp, but because of leakage
through the overlying confining beds, artesian pressure decreases
rapidly with increasing distance from the scarp.
The findings of the investigation indicate that the amount of
ground-water pickup in a canal extending southward from Lake
Istokpoga would not be excessive; also, because of evapotranspira-
tion losses, less ground water and surface water will be picked up
by a canal located at some distance from the scarp than by a canal
at the base of the scarp. If the proposed canal is routed through
locations where the expected altitudes of its water surface coincide
with the altitudes of the water table, the canal will not intercept
and drain the shallow ground water. If no excess ground-water
drainage occurs because of the canal, the water table in the ridge
section will not be affected and upward leakage from the shallow
artesian aquifers will not increase. Penetration of the artesian
gravel aquifer which approaches the ground surface south of State
Highway 70, would pose the greatest threat to the water levels of
the lakes in the ridge section. If the gravel aquifer were pene-
trated, the large drawdowns produced by the discharge could
conceivably extend upgradient beneath the ridge and affect the
water levels of the lakes.






In Part II, water-table contour maps and graphs of the fluctua-
tions of water level in Lake Placid and well 14 show that the lakes
of the ridge section are visible expressions of the water table. A
method of predicting the water level of Lake Placid after an
extended period without rainfall makes use of curves based on
ground-water recession rates. However, comparison of hydrographs
of an artesian well and Lake Placid indicates that the lake level
responds to pumping from the Floridan aquifer. The hydrographs
show an increasing utilization of water from the artesian system,
and this change in the hydrologic regimen may change the future
recession rate of Lake Placid.
In rising stages, the relation between water levels in well 14 and
Lake Placid is not consistent because of hydrologic conditions
existing on the west and south sides of the lake, where there is
little room for additional ground-water storage because the water
table is close to the land surface. The ground-water storage
capacity has a direct relation to flooding in the Lake Placid basin,
because as soon as the water table rises to the land surface all
further recharge to the aquifer is rejected, and direct runoff to
Lake Placid occurs.
Consideration is given to the quantity of water that percolates
downwardd from Lake Placid to the Floridan aquifer. A summation,
obtained by balancing the estimated quantities of inflow and out-
flow, the evaporation, and the change in stage of Lake Placid,
indicates that the downward leakage from the lake during the
first half of 1956 amounted to about two to three inches per month.



















TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Letter of transmittal -.----------- -----..............----------------------- iii
Abstract .............---------------........ .......--------------------....... ... v
General introduction -.---------------------------------------. 1
Location and extent of area -.--------..-.-- ........--------------- 1
Previous investigations -------------.-------. -------------.. ....... 1
Personnel and acknowledgments -..---..... -- ------------------ 2
Well-numbering system ------.....--------..--------4.........
Geography -........------------------ -----------------.... ... ..... .... .........----------------------.. 4
Climate -------------------------------.... ........ ......... .....------------ 4
Land use ---.... -----...-------------------------------------.. ...... ......... ..... 5
Physiography ..----.......-.........--.---.........---------- ---......... ---....... .. ....... ..-------------.. 6
Topography ..............----.......... ..-------------------------------------------- 6
Drainage ...--------... --....... --.. -...-.--.-... .------------------.................. 6
Part I Lake Istokpoga area, Highlands County, Florida .---- ----- 9
Part II Lake Placid area, Highlands County, Florida ..----------------... 35
References --..... ------------------------- -------------------................ ......... 66


ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page
1 Map of Highlands County, Florida, showing areas covered
by this report -------------------------------------------- 2
2 Map of Highlands County showing physiographic regions ...--------- 3











HYDROLOGIC FEATURES OF THE LAKE ISTOKPOGA AND
LAKE PLACID AREAS, HIGHLANDS COUNTY, FLORIDA

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

The hydrologic information presented in this report relates
primarily to the nonartesian and shallow artesian aquifers in
Highlands County, Florida, and is the result of two separate
investigations. The report is therefore divided into two parts:
Part I covers the area surrounding Lake Istokpoga, and Part II
covers an adjoining area, in the Highlands Ridge section, lying
immediately west of the scarp separating the ridge section from
the Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin. The two areas overlap slightly
along their common side, and certain phases of the two investiga-
tions also overlap.
The investigations have different objectives, were made at
different times, and are therefore considered separate entities.
Information that pertains to both is presented in the general
introduction, and specific information concerning each
investigation is presented separately in Parts I and II.

LOCATION AND EXTENT OF AREA
The area described in this report is in Highlands County, in the
central part of Florida (figs. 1, 2). The Lake Istokpoga region
contains approximately 165 square miles, and the Lake Placid
region contains approximately 65 square miles-a total of 230
square miles.

PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS
The general geology of the area has been described by Parker
and Cooke (1944), Cooke (1945), Parker, Ferguson, Love and
others (1955), and many others. A report by Stringfield (1936)
describes the occurrence of artesian water in the principal artesian
aquifer (Floridan aquifer) in peninsular Florida.
A study by Bishop (1956) describes the geology and ground-
water resources of Highlands County, and a study by the
Engineering Department of the Central and Southern Florida Flood
Control District gives much information on the control of floods in
the area investigated. These publications have been used freely in
the preparation of this report.






2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


A 20B E s C I 31 E 0 i R S2 I n 33 E I











Si













S4








SCALE IN MILES

Figure 1. Map of Highlands County, Florida, showing areas covered by this
report.
PERSONNEL AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors are indebted to many persons who contributed
information and assistance in the field. Messrs. T. J. Durrance and
J. C. Durrance provided background information on ranches in the
Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin during the first field investigation,
described in Part I of this report. Mr. L. E. Tisdale, grove
manager for Consolidated Naval Stores Company, helped in the
reclamation of grove wells for observation purposes during the

investigation described in Part II.
p ^s^^ K'z z^ i --^- --N











L \ .V -li ---------------














investigation described in Part II.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 19


- 0 2 4 6 10
Figure 2. Map of Highlands County showing physiographic regions.
The field work upon which Part I of the report is based was
accomplished with the able assistance of E. W. Bishop, formerly
with the U. S. Geological Survey and now with the Florida Geo-
logical Survey, and C. B. Sherwood, Jr., of the U. S. Geological
Survey; H. J. Voegtle of the U. S. Geological Survey aided in the
field work for Part II of the report. Thanks are extended also to
A. 0. Patterson and Richard C. Heath, U. S. Geological Survey, and
to Robert L. Taylor, of the Central and Southern Florida Flood
Control District, for supplying water-level and discharge data on
the lakes and streams of the area.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


WELL-NUMBERING SYSTEM

The wells in this report are numbered consecutively to conform
with the numbering system used in the past for Highlands County.
The number thus assigned is the office number. Because the wells
in the first area are arranged in lines, a field number also has been
assigned to each well. The field number consists of a letter cor-
responding to the designation of the line and the position of the
well in the line; thus, well N-2 is the second well in line N. Both
field and office numbers are given in the table of well records (table
4), but in Part I only the field number is referred to.
In the second area of investigation, staff gages installed in
ponds or lakes were used as observation points and these are in-
dicated in Part II by a number prefixed by the letters "OP" (table
5). Uncased holes that were drilled to determine lithology are in-
dicated by the letter "T".
The locations of wells and staff gages are shown in the well-
location maps for the separate parts of the report.


GEOGRAPHY

CLIMATE

The climate of Highlands County is subtropical and is
characterized by warm summers and moderately cool winters. The
rainfall is seasonal, approximately 75 percent of it occurring during
the months from May through October.
The U. S. Weather Bureau has collected climatological data at
Avon Park, about 25 miles northwest of the area of this report,
since 1892, and at the city of Lake Placid since about 1937. Because
of the intermittent nature of the record at Lake Placid, that at Avon
Park was selected to indicate the average climate of the area.
The mean annual temperature at Avon Park is 73.10F, the mean
January temperature is 63.20F, and the mean August temperature
is 82.0F. The average annual rainfall for 58 years of complete
record (1893-1896, 1902-1955) is 52.22 inches. In 1953, the wettest
year on record, the total rainfall was 80.08 inches; in 1955, the
driest year on record, the total rainfall was 34.86 inches.
A comparison of the annual rainfall at Avon Park with that at
Lake Placid, for the years of complete record at both stations, is
shown in the following table.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19


Rainfall at Rainfall at
Lake Placid Avon Park Difference
Year (inches) (inches) (inches)

1938 37.53 37.12 0.41
1939 71.12 62.51 8.61
1943 56.73 51.01 5.72
1944 36.68 47.68 11.00
1945 50.65 54.66 4.01
1946 34.57 50.70 16.13
1947 72.83 74.29 1.46
1952 49.32 55.89 6.57
1953 74.71 80.08 5.37
1954 52.77 54.55 1.78
1955 39.10 34.86 4.24


The relatively large differences in rainfall between stations only
25 miles apart indicate the erratic distribution of rainfall in the
area.


LAND USE

Within the area of this report, the land is used principally for
agriculture. Citrus fruit, the major export crop, is grown near the
lakes of the ridge section, and the lake water is used for irrigation
during the dry winter season, when the fruit ripens. A large part
of the Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin south of Lake Istokpoga is
used for raising cattle. Cattle are raised also in those parts of the
ridge section which have not been converted to grove land. New
land is being cleared for both types of agriculture, but there is a
trend to increase the grove acreages at the expense of grazing
acreage. Nursery plants such as caladiums and Easter lilies are
grown in the dark peat soils (referred to as muck) along the
scarp between the ridge section and the Lake Istokpoga flat. These
plants are exported to northern floral shops, and the proceeds are
a relatively small but important part of the income of the area.
The value of property along the shorelines of the numerous
lakes of the ridge section has increased greatly in recent years,
because of the rapidly expanding tourist trade. Maintenance of
the water levels of the lakes at desirable altitudes is a primary
concern of property owners surrounding the lakes. This report
considers the water levels of the lakes in relation to the ground-
water regimen of the area.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


PHYSIOGRAPHY

TOPOGRAPHY

Highlands County has been subdivided by Davis (1943, p. 45-51,
fig. 1) into four physiographic regions as follows: (1) the Western
Flatlands, (2) the Highlands Ridge, (3) the Istokpoga-Indian
Prairie Basin, and (4) the Eastern Flatlands. The geographic
locations of the four physiographic regions are shown in figure 2
(reproduced after Bishop, 1956, fig. 2). The area investigated for
this report includes the Highlands Ridge section and the Istokpoga-
Indian Prairie Basin; therefore, the topography of only these
regions will be described.
The Highlands Ridge section is an undulating upland area
having an outline similar to that of the Florida Peninsula as a
whole. The underlying materials consist predominantly of sand.
The collapse of caverns formed in the limestone underlying the
ridge at depth causes the formation of circular lakes or sinks, and
in places a typical karst topography has been formed. The sedi-
ments forming the surface of the ridge have been reworked by wind
and wave action and quiescent sand dunes and sand bars are well
preserved. The altitude of the ridge section in the area ranges
from 40 to 160 feet, making the total relief about 120 feet.
The Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin is a flat, poorly drained,
swampy area extending southeastward from Lake Istokpoga. The
underlying materials consist of peat, sand, or sandy clay, according
to the locality. In the part of the basin investigated for this re-
port, the altitude of the land surface ranges from 30 to 40 feet
above mean sea level.

DRAINAGE

With the exception of Lake Grassy, the large lakes of the ridge
are connected by small streams or drainage canals (fig. 1). Lakes
Annie, Placid, June in Winter, and Frances are referred to as the
upper chain of lakes, and they drain northward through a tribu-
tary of Josephine Creek. Lakes Grassy, Huntley, Clay, and
Apthorpe are referred to as the lower chain of lakes, and also they
drain northward to Josephine Creek. At present, Lake Grassy
has no surface outlet to Lake Huntley, but tentative plans propose
that it will be included in the drainage system of the lower chain
of lakes by the construction of a culvert between it and Lake
Huntley. Lake Grassy overflows eastward from its northeastern





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 19


edge, across a shallow divide in the ridge section, during periods
of extremely high water levels. The water moves through the
troughs between sand dunes, more or less as sheet flow, and then
discharges into the Lake Istokpoga basin over the scrap separating
the ridge and basin.
The runoff of all the lakes in the ridge section except Lake
Grassy is drained eastward through Josephine Creek or southeast-
ward through Arbuckle Creek to Lake Istokpoga. Under
normal conditions, this runoff passes through the Istokpoga Canal
to the Kissimmee River and thence southeastward to Lake
Okeechobee. Under heavy recharge conditions accompanying the
passage of a hurricane, the combined runoff is too great to be
handled by the present drainage system; then Lake Istokpoga swells
out of its banks and floods large areas to the southeast.





























Part I

LAKE ISTOKPOGA AREA, HIGHLANDS COUNTY, FLORIDA

By

F. A. Kohou -














TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Introduction ............. ................................ .. ............. ..... ...------------------------------- 13
Purpose and scope of investigation -------...............-------------------...... 13
Method of investigation ............-- --.......-----........------------------ 14
Lithology and ground-water movement along well lines ---------------.... 15
Ground water related to Lake Istokpoga ---------------------- 15
Line 0 -....-----------........-.....-...........-........---------------------------------- 15
Lithology .------------------------------------------ 15
Ground water ..------- ........ .....--------------- --------------- 17
Line P-O ....--................-----------...---....------------------ 20
Ground water ---- ---------------------- ------------ 20
Line N -...-....-....-.........--------.--------.......... ---.-..---..------------.. 20
Lithology --- ------------------ ------------------ 20
Ground water -- ------------------------------------ 23
Line M ......------.... ---........ ....------------ ----- -------- ----------- 23
Lithology ------.... -----.. ....-- ----------3------------------- 23
Ground water ------------- -------- -------------- 23
Hydrology --.............-.....-- ..---.......---------.....---------------........--------------.. 25
Shallow nonartesian aquifer ------------------------------- 26
Leakage from artesian aquifers ...-----.------.. ------------------.... 29
Conclusions ---------------------------------------------- 31



ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page
3 Map of the Lake Istokpoga area showing locations of wells ----- 16
4 Cross sections showing slope of the water table along well
lines in relation to the water surface of Lake Istokpoga --------- 17
5 Hydrographs showing average monthly water levels in wells
10 and 11 and Lake Istokpoga .--...............----------....-------------------- 18
6 Cross section showing lithologic and hydrologic characteris-
tics from west to east, along line 0 ...................--------------..............---------- 19
7 Cross section showing lithologic and hydrologic characteris-
tics from north to south, along line P-0 -----......---------------- 21
8 Cross section showing lithologic and hydrologic charac-
teristics from west to east, along line N ..-------. .....-------------- 22
9 Cross section showing lithologic and hydrologic characteris-
tics from west to east, along line M .-..---.......----....................---------.------... .........24









Part I


HYDROLOGIC FEATURES OF THE LAKE ISTOKPOGA AREA,
HIGHLANDS COUNTY, FLORIDA

INTRODUCTION

The Lake Istokpoga area of Florida is in the Istokpoga-Indian
Prairie Basin section of Highlands County. The western boundary
generally parallels and lies immediately west of the scarp that
separates the Highlands Ridge section from the Lake Istokpoga
basin.
The Lake Istokpoga area is approximately 18 miles long and
ranges in width from about 10 miles at the northern extremity,
slightly north of the north shore of Lake Istokpoga, to about 7
miles at the southern extremity, just south of State Highway 70.

PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION

The Lake Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin is a poorly drained
area of low topographic relief. Lake Istokpoga rises out of its
banks, during periods of heavy rainfall, and floods vast areas of
land to the south. Prior to the construction of the Indian Prairie
and Harney Pond canals, surface water moved southward toward
Lakd Okeechobee by sheet flow. Since installation of the canals,
the flow tends to be confined to definite channels. A part of the
excess water is drained into the Kissimmee River through the
Istokpoga Canal, and this increases flooding in the Kissimmee
River valley below the canal outlet.
To help alleviate the flooding of both the Indian Prairie Basin
and the Kissimmee River valley, the U. S. Corps of Engineers pro-
posed that a levee be constructed around the southeast side of Lake
Istokpoga. The floodwaters from the Arbuckle-Josephine Creek
drainage system then would be diverted southward from the
Istokpoga Canal Kissimmee River system directly to Lake
Okeechobee, via canals. One proposed canal would be an extension
of the Harney Pond Canal (fig. 1).
Because of suspected geologic conditions, it was anticipated
that improper construction of a canal in the area south of Lake
Istokpoga might adversely affect ground-water conditions as well
as the operation of the canal. It was decided that an investigation
should be made by the U. S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District, to gain
an understanding of the problems that might be encountered. The
ultimate objective of the investigation was to determine what effect
canals would have on ground-water conditions in the Lake Istokpoga
and Highlands Ridge areas. Among the questions to be answered
were the following:
1. What is the relation of the water table to the water surface
of Lake Istokpoga? Would the ground water tend to flow through
the canal into (rather than out of) Lake Istokpoga because of a
water-table gradient toward the lake?
2. Would the amount of ground-water pickup in the canal be
large enough to negate the usefulness of such a canal in discharging
ponlded surface water?
3:. What effect would ground-water drainage in the Lake
lstokpoga area have on the water table of Highlands Ridge and
the water levels of the lakes in the ridge section?
4. What would be the approximate increase in the upward
leakage from the several shallow artesian aquifers, and what effect
would the leakage have on the water levels of the lakes in the
ridge section ?
Most of the basic data were gathered during a 3-week period
in the latter part of September 1952. The investigation was made
under the general supervision of A. N. Sayre, Chief of the Ground
Water Branch of the U. S. Geological Survey, and under the
immediate supervision of N. D. Hoy, District Geologist for southern
Florida at the time of the investigation.

METHOD OF INVESTIGATION
Around the northern two-thirds of Lake Istokpoga the
investigation was limited to establishing the altitudes of existing
wells and measuring water levels, in order to determine the water-
table gradient in relation to the water surface of the lake. The
area around the southern part of the lake, southward to State
Highway 70, was studied in greater detail.
Lithologic and hydrologic data were obtained from east-west
lines of wells and test holes perpendicular to the scarp of Highlands
Ridge. The wells and test holes were installed by the jetting
technique. The wells were constructed of %,-inch pipe and finished
with an attached brass strainer. Each well was pumped with a
pitcher pump after installation, to make sure that the well was open






'REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19


so that accurate measurements of water level could be obtained.
Permeability of samples of the sand aquifers was determined by
the permeameter method in the laboratory. Altitudes of all wells
were determined by spirit level and were referred to mean sea level
or to the water surface of Lake Istokpoga.
The lines of wells, starting at the northwest corner of Lake
Istokpoga, are designated as follows: C, A, 0 (along State Highway
621), P-0 (on the south side of the lake), N (along east-west Parker
Island Road), M (along State Highway 70), and Q and Z (on the
east side of the lake) (fig. 3).

LITHOLOGY AND GROUND-WATER MOVEMENT
ALONG WELL LINES

GROUND WATER RELATED TO LAKE ISTOKPOGA

Figure 4 shows the slope of the water table along lines C, A,
P-0, and Z in relation to the water surface of Lake Istokpoga. The
water-table gradient is toward the lake on all lines except the north-
south line P-0, at the south end of the lake. Thus, ground-
water movement is toward the lake except at the extreme southern
end where a small quantity of water moves in a southeasterly
direction. Analysis of cross sections for line 0 (fig. 6) and line
P-0 (fig. 7) shows that the greatest component of slope and
ground-water movement is in an easterly direction from the
southern end of the lake, and that very little water moves
southward.
Hydrographs showing the average monthly water levels in
shallow water-table wells 10 and 11 and Lake Istokpoga are
presented in figure 5. The close correlation of the hydrographs, the
water-table gradients of figure 4, and the subsurface geology
indicate that Lake Istokpoga is a surface expression of ground
water-where the water table intersects a natural land-surface
depression. The lake is within the pattern of regional southeastward
movement of ground water from the ridge section.

LINE O

LITHOLOGY
The lithology of the rocks along 0 line, along State Highway
621, is shown in generalized form in figure 6. Bed 1, a thick section
of sand penetrated by well 0-1, thins and interfingers with peat







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


R30E R 31 E


LAKE /STOKPOGA


AND 8A


EXPLANATION
-.oL-o-o3-
LINE OF WELLS
*
WELL, EQUIPPED
WITH RECORDER


Figure 3. Map of the Lake Istokpoga area showing locations of wells.

eastward from the scarp. Bed 2, a confining bed composed of blue-
gray sandy clay or marl, averages three feet in thickness and
underlies the sand and peat. Bed 3, an aquifer, consists of fine to


16


R 29 E






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19


DISTANCE, IN FEET FROM LAKE ISTOKPOGA


Figure 4. Cross sections showing slope of the water table along well lines in
relation to the water surface of Lake Istokpoga.

coarse sand. Bed 4, a confining bed, is mainly very fine blue-gray
sandy clay interbedded with shell layers. Bed 5, the aquifer of well
0-7, is relatively permeable, but its constituents are unknown.

GROUND WATER

The water levels in wells are referred to mean sea level and
the short dashed line in figure 6 indicates the position of the water
table in the observation wells. The gradient of the water table
along the scarp is steeper than it is in the Istokpoga flat. This is
due mostly to the fact that the land surface is much higher west
of the scarp, and the water table conforms generally to the
configuration of the land surface.
Ground-water movement is from west to east, downgradient.
The ground-water divide is obviously a considerable distance west


17








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


g '


90



89



88



87



86



85


49




'48


45 1_1V-_
45

40
LAKE I$TOKPOGA

39 -A



38


37-


36 .LJ.LLLLLiL L LL J.In S ..lLLL L....
1949 1950 1951
Figure 5. Hydrographs showing average monthly water levels in wells 10 and
11 and Lake Istokpoga. 4,
















0


o
S SN ASU R FACE -E M . .
S 0 LANDWURFAC 0 AFTER TA LE 00 0
S-- -----






a
S..,SAND

A4U21FER (3)




CONFINING BED (4)
0
1--

AOUIFER (5)



Figure 6. Cross section showing lithologic and hydrologic characteristics from
west to east, along line 0.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


of well 0-1, beneath Highlands Ridge. Bed 2 probably pinches out
a short distance west of the scarp. Ground-water flow is thus split
by bed 2. Part of the ground water flows above bed 2, through the
sand (bed 1) and the peat, and part flows beneath it through bed
3. Bed 5, like bed 3, also has a hydraulic connection with the re-
charge area on the ridge.
Water levels in the peat (see well 0-6A) are slightly lower than
in bed 3. This is probably caused by ditches surrounding diked
fields, which drain the peat but have little effect on water levels
below the confining bed. The differences in water level are not great,
however, and all the section between land surface and bed 4 may
be considered to belong to the nonartesian aquifer.
The relatively impermeable bed 4 holds the water of bed 5
under confinement, so that ground water that has entered bed 5
under the ridge is under pressure and has a tendency to leak up-
ward through bed 4. Well 0-7, which penetrates bed 5, flows at the
land surface. Its water level rises to the pressure (piezometric)
surface shown in figure 6.

LINE P-0
GROUND WATER

A north-south cross section from the southern end of Lake
latokpoga through wells P-1, 2, 3, 4 (all at the same location) to
wells 0-6 and 0-6A is shown in figure 7. The lithology is similar
to that along line 0.
Attention is called to the divergence of water levels at various
depths. The low water level in the peat is probably caused by
shallow drains, which have little effect below bed 2. The water level
of well P-3 in bed 4 is only slightly higher than that of well P-2 in
bed 3. The small difference in head causing upward movement of
water from bed 4 to bed 3 indicates that the upward leakage from
the artesian aquifer penetrated by well P-4 is not large.

LINE N

LITHOLOGY

The peat in the section of line N (fig. 8) occurs as a wedge
against the scarp and thins rapidly eastward to become a thin
mantle of organic detritus and soil. Bed 1 consists of clayey sand
and is underlain by a blue sandy clay or marl (bed 2) which pinches
out against the scarp. Bed 3, an aquifer, is composed of medium


20







DISTANCE, IN FEET FROM LAKE ISTOKPOGA


.50


I0
00


PEAT


(2)


AQU/FER


CONFINING


BED (4)


-p(

0
0
gui
Dd




z


0



z

p
o


Figure 7. Cross section showing lithologic and hydrologic characteristics from north to south, along line P-O.


BOTTOM OF WELL
IS -72 FEET















DISTANCE, IN FEET


3t


w






-+80



-.+60












,,o,
-+20

.40

I..-O


AOUIFER


CONFINING


AQUIFER


CONFINING


BED


BED


AQU/FER


Figure 8. Cross section showing lithologic and hydrologic characteristics from west to east, along line N.


,' '~kE' I
? 2 CD<~'---
r% -cT^^f
r .... rC $U AC* OF -"
' ,,'PEAT- Iz-
-T_. ----------- --- i


0





0
0=


>-


r

,4


I- ------- --


CT)


C3)


-1






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19
I


23


to coarse sand and extends westward beneath the scarp. Bed 4 is
an impermeable blue-gray sandy clay which grades laterally into
a very fine white sand, mixed with kaolin and mica flakes, beneath
the scarp. The coarse sand of bed 5 is moderately permeable, and
wells N-3A and N-6B, which penetrate it, flow at the surface. Bed
6 consists of blue-gray sandy clay. Bed 7 is a highly permeable
white quartz gravel containing pebbles up to half an inch in
diameter. It is penetrated by flowing wells N-4A and N-6A.

GROUND WATER
Shallow ground water underlying the area traversed by line N
moves eastward from the scarp in accordance with the water-table
gradient. This movement occurs both above and below bed 2. No
significant difference was noted in the water levels of beds 1 and
3; therefore, all the material down to bed 4 is considered to belong
to the nonartesian aquifer.
The piezometric surfaces in wells drilled through the confining
layers into beds 5 and 7 show the height to which water rises in
wells that penetrate these beds (fig. 8). The coarse sand of bed
5 is much less permeable than the gravel of bed 7. Although the
difference in head between the two aquifers is only three feet, the
wells in bed 7 flow an estimated 100 gpm as compared with 20 and
3 gpm for wells N-3A and N-6B, respectively.

LINE M
LITHOLOGY
The peat of line M (fig. 9) forms a wedge which thins rapidly
eastward from a maximum thickness of about 17 feet adjacent to
the scarp. Bed 1 is a confining lens of blue sandy clay. Bed 4
consists of medium to coarse quartz sand. Bed 3, which interfingers
with bed 4, is a lens of very coarse sand and white quartz pebbles.
Bed 2 has the same coarse grains as beds 3 and 4 but contains
considerable clay or marl, which markedly decreases its perme-
ability. Bed 5 consists of blue-gray sandy clay to pure clay and
interbedded shells and phosphate pebbles. Bed 6 is composed of
white quartz gravel and coarse sand which becomes clayey eastward
from the scarp.

GROUND WATER
Although locally confined, all the material from the land surface
down to the top of bed 5 constitutes the nonartesian aquifer. The















C'STANCE. IN FEET

t o 8 8










0-i i o
0 0 -3

y. CON\FII IG 8 --

,|.. n, 3 -




















Figure 9. Cross section showing lithologic and hydrologic characteristics from west to east, along line M.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19


shallow water table intersects the land surface at the scarp, where
ground water appears as springs. The piezometric surface of bed
6 has a relatively steep gradient, which declines about 30 feet
within a distance of 9,000 feet. The steep gradient is probably
caused by upward leakage near the scarp.

HYDROLOGY

According to Darcy's law, the discharge through a cross-
sectional area of water-bearing material can be computed by the
following formula:
Q = PIA
where: Q = the quantity of discharge, in gallons per day
P = the permeability of the material
I = the hydraulic gradient
A = the cross-sectional area through which the water passes.
In using Darcy's law to determine the approximate magnitude
of flow through a particular cross section, the area (A) is equal to
the thickness of water-bearing material multiplied by the length
of section (one mile for convenience) measured perpendicular to
the direction of ground-water movement. The hydraulic gradient
(I) is taken directly from the cross section and is equal to the
water-table gradient in feet per foot. The permeability of the
materials penetrated during installation of the observation wells
was determined in the laboratory by the permeameter method and
is shown in tabular form below:

Well Depth (feet) Permeability (P)
No. From To (gpd per sq. foot)
0-1 0 5.5 915
0-2 0 14 725
0-3 11.5 14 1,080
0-3 21 22 660
N-1 4 4.5 785
N-3 10 12 850
N-3 30 42 1270
N-3 54 55 580
N-7 11.5 16 660
M-1 3 5.5 850
M-3 19 21 520
M-3 23 25 310
M-9 6 8 280
'Laboratory determination much too high because kaolin, present in layers
in the bed, was washed out of the sample during jetting.


25






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


SHALLOW NONARTESIAN AQUIFER

As ground water moves eastward from the recharge area on
Highlands Ridge, the gradient of the water table is increased at the
scarp. A part of the total quantity of shallow ground water flowing
eastward from Highlands Ridge is lost to surface springs and the
remainder moves below the scrap, as ground water, to the Istokpoga
flat. The slope of the water table down the scarp cannot be used
in determining the quantity of ground-water discharge because it
is affected by surface discharge along the scarp as well as by the
movement of ground water. The relatively flat gradient below the
scarp can be used to approximate the magnitude of ground-water
flow through the shallow nonartesian aquifer. Data from well N-7
are used in the computation. The total thickness of beds 1 and 3
is 15 feet. Bed 2 contributes very little water and is disregarded
in the computation. The permeability of bed-3 samples, taken from
well N-7, is 660. This permeability is doubled for the computation,
to allow for the possibility that the sample is not representative
and that the average is higher. The gradient of two feet per
thousand feet is taken directly from the cross section in figure 8.
Q PIA
2
Q 1,320 x 1000 x 15 x 5,280
Q 210,000 gpd per mile or 0.32 cfs
The computed flow is representative of the general magnitude
of ground-water movement below the scarp on all well lines.
A drainage ditch three to four feet deep extends approximately
1.7 miles southward from State Highway 70 along the lower part of
the scarp. Since September 1952, four eastward outlet ditches from
the main drain have been measured periodically by the U. S.
Geological Survey. The total flow from the four outlets probably
represents the flow from springs farther up the scarp plus the
ground-water pickup in the drainage ditch. The total flow, in cubic
feet per second, on various dates in 1952 was a follows:
Sept. 11 4.1
Oct. 10 4.4
Oct. 24 5.5
Dividing by 1.7 miles, the length of the intercepting drain, the
flow ranges from 2.4 to 3.3 cfs per mile.
By comparing the computed ground-water flow below the scarp
(0.32 cfs) with the measured amount of pickup in the drain


26






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19


(3.3 cfs) it becomes obvious that most of the flow above the scarp
escapes by discharge from springs.
When the water is discharged from the springs, near the base
of the scarp, it evaporates rapidly. The abundant vegetation in
the marshlands along the base of the scarp transpires a large
amount of ground water into the atmosphere. The peat along the
base of the scarp acts as a spongelike confining bed, and, by holding
the ground water near the surface, it contributes greatly to the
large amount of evapotranspiration near the scarp. Because of
these great losses by evapotranspiration, the amount of water
available for interception by a canal diminishes with distance from
the scarp.
If a drainage canal were constructed at the base of the scarp,
most of the water formerly lost by evapotranspiration would be
transferred immediately to the drain. Reports from local residents
indicate that this actually happens. Shallow drains being dug in
the peat are reported to show a very sudden increase of flow when
they pass below the bottom of the peat.
The amount of ground water that a drainage canal will pick up
depends on the water level that is maintained in the canal. Suppose,
for example, that in the area south of Lake Istokpoga the water
level in a canal constructed parallel to the scarp (normal to the
direction of ground-water movement) is maintained at the level
of the water table. Ground water entering from the upgradient
side moves across the width of the canal and leaves through the
downgradient side; thus, the net pickup of ground water is zero,
although ground water is in transit across the canal.
If the water level in the canal is lower than the water table, a
gradient exists from both sides toward the canal and ground water
will drain into the canal. Drawdowns will extend progressively
farther away from the canal until natural discharge is salvaged or
recharge is increased in quantities large enough to balance the
drainage from the canal. Ground-water loss through seeps and
springs along the scarp is a form of discharge from the nonartesian
aquifer. If a drain were constructed near the base of the scarp,
no lowering of the water table in the ridge section would occur
unless the amount of ground water discharged by the drain were
greater than the discharge that could be salvaged from the spring
flow and evapotranspiration along the scarp. Thus, the scarp would
act as a sort of barrier or buffer that would tend to reduce the draw-
down that would extend upgradient into the ridge area.


27






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


With the data available in 1956, it was not feasible to predict
the amount of ground-water pickup to be expected in a drainage
ditch located along the scarp. However, the effect on ground-
water levels high in the ridge section would probably be negligible,
provided the water level in the drain were maintained within
reasonable proximity of the present water table. A canal
constructed a mile or more from the scarp would intercept less
ground water than a canal near the scarp and would have no effect
on water levels in the ridge section.
Analysis of well line P-0 (fig. 7) shows that the water table
has a slight gradient to the south. The P-0 section is almost
parallel to the ground-water contour lines, and the apparent
gradient is a component of the regional southeastward water-table
gradient. The following table shows the altitude of the water
table at wells in the eastern part of each well line on October 3,
1952.

Altitude of water table
Well No. (feet above msl)
Lake Istokpoga 37.75
P-2 37.47
0-( 37.32
N-7 38.77
M-9 32.81
M-6( 41.82
It is assumed here that, in order to drain water from Lake
Istokpoga, a canal having water-surface gradient of one foot in six
miles will be required. The distance from Lake Istokpoga to State
Highway 70 is six miles; hence, the water surface of the canal must
drop one foot in this distance, to a level of 36.75 feet. By use of
the preceding table it can be determined tentatively that a canal
starting from Lake Istokpoga should pass slightly west of P-2 and
0-6, east of well N-7, and, at State Highway 70, between wells M-9
and M-6 but closer to well M-6. The figures in the table are
presented to show that the canal can be located and designed so
that it will drain surface water but will have no effect upon ground-
water levels. There will be no effect on ground-water levels if the
water level in the canal is maintained at the level of the water
table. If, however, the drain were constructed so that the northern
part passed through well 0-3 (water-table altitude of 43.45 feet),
ground water would flow into the drain from both sides and a
general lowering of the water table would occur on both sides of
the ditch. If the southern part of the drain were constructed


28






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 19


through the locality of well M-9 (water-table altitude 32.81 feet),
the water in the canal (water-surface altitude 36.75 feet) would
leak to the water table under a head of almost four feet. The re-
charge thus provided to the nonartesian aquifer would produce a
general rise in ground-water levels in the vicinity of well M-9.

LEAKAGE FROM ARTESIAN AQUIFERS
The piezometric surface of an aquifer is the surface to which
water will rise in tightly cased wells that are open to the aquifer.
The piezometric surfaces of several shallow artesian aquifers are
indicated in figures 6, 7, 8, and 9, which show that the hydraulic
gradient is from west to east, from Highlands Ridge to the Lake
Istokpoga flat.
The hydraulic gradient along the several well lines is modified
by the amount of upward leakage from the aquifer through the
confining bed and by changes in the horizontal permeability of the
aquifer. For example, the relatively steep gradient along line M
may be due to a high rate of discharge by upward leakage, or it
may be due to only a moderate or low rate of discharge in an area
where the permeability of the aquifer is low and the steep gradient
is necessary to'maintain flow through the aquifer.
Upward leakage from an artesian aquifer along any of the
cross sections can be calculated by use of Darcy's law if the
vertical permeability of the confining bed is known. The head
difference between the artesian aquifer and the nonartesian aquifer
is dissipated through the thickness of the confining bed; thus, the
ratio of head difference to the thickness of the confining bed is
the hydraulic gradient (the value "I" in the Darcy formula). The
area (A) through which the leakage occurs can be of any size.
Because the permeability of the confining bed is not known, the
magnitude of upward leakage cannot be determined. The magnitude
of upward leakage in 1956 is not important, however, because this
leakage is already occurring and will not be changed if the position
of the water table is not changed. The important questions, there-
fore, are: (1) What effect will drainage have on the magnitude of
upward leakage? (2) Will the change in leakage affect the levels
of lakes in the Highlands Ridge section ? The following assumptions
are made for computing the change in upward leakage from bed 5
caused by a drainage canal passing near well N-6B:
1. After construction of the canal, the water level in the drainage
canal is maintained at a lower level than the present water table,
and drainage is occurring.


29






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


2. At a distance of 1,000 feet up and down the gradient from
the canal the drawdown in the nonartesian aquifer is zero.
3. The water table is lowered an average of two feet throughout
the area affected by drainage.
4. The permeability of the confining bed is one gpd (gallon per
day) per square foot.
5. The head differential between well N-6B and the water table,
16 feet, is average for the area considered.
6. The average thickness of the confining bed is 18 feet.
7. The area is one mile long by 2,000 feet wide. Leakage under
these conditions is computed as follows:
Q = PIA
16
Q = 1 x -8 x 5,280 x 2,000
Q = 9,400,000 gpd

After construction of the drain, the water table is lowered an ave-
rage of two feet and leakage increases by 2/18, the increase in
gradient.
Q PIA
18
Q -1 x -8 -x 5,280 x 2,000
Q = 10,600,000gpd

The net increase of leakage from the artesian aquifer is the
difference between the computed leakages, namely, 1,200,000 gpd,
or 1.8 cfs. This computation is based on many assumptions and
is presented only as a basis for a qualitative discussion of the
principles.
An increase of leakage from an artesian aquifer will cause a
drawdown of the piezometric surface that will extend both up-
gradient and downgradient from the drainage canal until a new
equilibrium is established. Because drawdown decreases with
distance from the discharge point, it is doubtful that any effect
of increased leakage (in the magnitude suggested by the compu-
tation) would be felt in the artesian aquifer several miles up-
gradient beneath Highlands Ridge. Even if a drawdown did occur
beneath the ridge, so that the rate of vertical percolation from the
nonartesian aquifer to the shallow artesian aquifer in the ridge


30






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 19


were increased, the lakes probably would not be affected.
Permeable sand underlies the ridge. During periods of heavy rain-
fall, practically all the water is immediately absorbed as recharge,
but some is rejected and becomes surface runoff when the
nonartesian aquifer is completely filled. This rejected recharge is
available to replace water lost by downward percolation. The levels
of the lakes, therefore, could not be affected permanently by
increased percolation to the artesian aquifer beneath the ridge
unless the percolation were sufficiently large to exceed the amount
of rejected recharge.

CONCLUSIONS

The conclusions of the investigation are here presented in the
form of answers to the questions stated on page 14 in the
introduction.

1. The water table slopes toward Lake Istokpoga in each of the
test areas except at the southeast corner of the lake. In the areas
south of the lake, a proposed canal extending northward from the
Harney Pond Canal would generally parallel ground-water contour
lines. If the canal were located immediately adjacent to the scarp,
it would intercept ground water at an altitude greater than that of
the present water level of Lake Istokpoga. Water in a canal at
this position, therefore, would tend to flow toward Lake Istokpoga.
However, the low permeability of the materials underlying the
Istokpoga flat indicate that the canal would have the strongest
influence upon the water levels of that region. Drainage would
occur and ground-water levels would decline, and the water table
would adjust to a new pattern consistent with the gradient of the
canal; but the amount of ground water drained would not be large.
Therefore, it is doubtful that the ground-water pickup would be
large enough to permanently maintain flow in the canal toward Lake
Istokpoga. It is readily seen, however, that lowering the water
level of the lake in preparation for hurricane rains would be more
difficult if the canal were located close to the scarp, where it would
salvage water from evapotranspiration and spring flow.

2. The present flow of ground water through the materials
underlying the Istokpoga flat is very small. If the water level in
the canal and the water table are held at roughly the same level,
the amount of ground-water pickup will be negligible and will not
affect the capacity of the canal to discharge ponded surface water.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The data presented previously, however, show that more pickup
will occur close to the scarp.
3. The extent to which the water table of the ridge section
will be affected by construction of a canal in the Lake Istokpoga
area depends entirely on how much ground water discharges into
the canal. If the water level in the canal is maintained at the level
of the water table (by draining water from Lake Istokpoga), no
ground water will be discharged directly into the canal. This
condition probably will not be fully realized. If the canal is properly
designed, however, the amount of ground-water drainage will be
small and salvage of the rejected recharge that takes place through
springs along the scarp and of water now evaporated and transpired
will act as a buffer to reduce lowering of the water table in the
ridge section. As drawdown varies inversely with distance from
a drainage canal, it would be advantageous to construct the canal
as far from the scarp as it can be placed and still fulfill its primary
purpose.
4. Calculations show that the increase in upward leakage from
a shallow artesian aquifer, caused by the proposed drainage canal,
would probably have no effect on the water levels of the lakes in
the ridge section. It is again emphasized that, if the water table
remains unchanged by drainage, no change will occur in the up-
ward leakage from the artesian aquifer.
The greatest danger to the water levels of the ridge section
would result from the penetration of one of the artesian aquifers
by the drainage canal. In the area of this investigation, the least
distance between land surface and a known artesian aquifer is 40
to 45 feet (along lines N and M). A canal 20 feet deep would
cut the vertical distance between the bottom of the drain and the
top of the artesian aquifer to 20 or 25 feet. This decrease in
distance would have no effect on the leakage because the con-
fining bed would not be cut. If part of the confining bed were
penetrated, its effective thickness would be reduced and leakage
would increase.
Along line N (figs. 3, 8) the depth to an artesian aquifer com-
posed of white quartz gravel is approximately 90 feet. Along line
M (figs. 3, 9) a white quartz gravel occurs at a depth of 40 feet.
It is not known whether these two occurrences represent a single
stratum, but if they do the stratum dips northward. A projection
of the plane of the upper surface of such a stratum would bring
it near the surface south of line M. Thus it is possible that a canal


32






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19


20 feet deep south of line M would cut through the confining bed
and into the aquifer itself. No data are available for the area south
of line M.
A review of the cross sections shows that the difference in head
between the artesian and nonartesian aquifers decreases rapidly
with distance from the scarp. Obviously then, the ground-water
pickup that would result from cutting into the artesian aquifer
would be far greater near the scarp than at a distance from the
scarp.
To construct a canal immediately adjacent to the scarp would
be dangerous at best. To construct a canal too far from the scarp
would probably result in leakage of water from the canal to the
water table, thus recharging the water-table aquifer and causing
a general rise of ground-water levels. The best solution, to avoid
interchange between the canal and the ground water, would be to
construct the canal where its water surface would coincide with
the water table. As the water table is within a few feet of the
land surface in the area studied, a general rule of thumb would be
to use the land-surface altitude as a rough indication of the altitude
of the water table. Inspection would reveal those areas where the
water table is at the land surface.


33









































































































it;






















Part II

LAKE PLACID AREA, HIGHLANDS COUNTY, FLORIDA

By
F. A. Kohout
and
F. W. Meyer









































































































4:






TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Introduction ....-..................................-- -- ----------------------------------- ........... ....................... 39
Purpose and scope of investigation .....--------------....................................---..........----...-----. 39
Method of investigation ......................................................................................------ 40
Geology .-...-----...--------------............................ ..... ......................------------- -...--------........... 40
General features ..-----....-........-....-....-......---------.......... .............----......... 4----------- 40
Gemorphology and structure ....................................-- ....... .. .... 41
Ground water ......---------------.........................-.............--..------------------------------------------------...... 43
Nonartesian aquifer .........------------------........................-.................--------------------...... 43
Recharge and discharge-- .-..--......................----.-----.............----------.--.... 43
M movement ............. -- .......... ..............................................---..-- ..--------- ....... 44
Relation of lake levels to ground water ---............------------------......--.......... ........ 45
Prediction of water level in Lake Placid ........... ....................-...... 45
Conservation of water in Lake Placid ....----------..........................------.----. 51
Factors affecting the rise of water level in Lake Placid ................ 52
H ydrology ...........................-- ................. ....................................................-.............. 55
Downward leakage from Lake Placid to the Floridan aquifer .-..----.--..... 61
Conclusions ...........................................-------------------------............................................................... 65
ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure Page
10 Map of the Lake Placid area showing locations of wells.
Between pages 38 and 39
11 Cross section showing lithofacies of Highlands Ridge section
along State Highway 70 ..........................------.......---.----... Between pages 40 and 41
12 Cross section' showing lithology of the nonartesian aquifer
along an east-west line across Lake Placid .------. .......................-------------..... 42
13 Map of the Lake Placid area showing altitude of the water
table on March 13, 1956 ...........................---............. ----------Between pages 42 and 43
14 Map of the Lake Placid area showing altitude of the water
table on July 10, 1956 .............................----......----........ -----Between pages 44 and 45
15 Hydrographs of Lake Placid, Lake June in Winter, well 14,
and well 51, in Polk County ...............................-- Between pages 44 and 45
16 Hydrographs of Lake Placid, Lake June in Winter, well 440,
and well 14 compared with rainfall at the Lake Placid wea-
ther station, 1955-56 ....................-- -- -------- --------------------------------------------------- 46
17 Graph showing the recession of water level in well 14 ....---..-------- 47
18 Graph showing the comparative recession of water levels in
Lake Placid and well 14 ................................----------------------- --------- 49
19 Hydrographs of Lake Placid, Lake June in Winter, and well
14 compared with rainfall at the Lake Placid weather station, 1953 54
20 Map of the Lake Placid area showing approximate depth to
the water table below land surface ....-..-........-.....------. Between pages 54 and 55
Table
1 Permeability of sediments penetrated by observation wells ..-......--.--.... 56
2 Downward leakage from Lake Placid to the Floridan aquifer ----....... 62
3 Water-level measurements in observation wells -....---...--- ....-------- 68
4 Record of wells ------------............................--------------................... Between pages 72 and 73
5 Record of surface-water observation points -----........... .....------------........ 73
































PLAID ~ LAKE


















tilt



LA KE LCDQER 3


1" 16



44







45%P5
4 V 455
464
'II "A- ,~o~p~ 0 _________________________43


SCALE IA MILES


.4 A KVNI


r .


L


43Es---o 434 5S
EXPLANATION
o *
SHALLOW WELL SURFACE-WATER
0 STAFF GAGE
SHALLOW WELL WITH SURFACE-WATER
RECORDING GAGE RECORDING GAGE


O.P
OBSERVATION POINT


TEST WELL


Figure 10. Map of the Lake Placid area showing locations of wells,


son~~


~T- ---~ -- -- --"--~y' -C


-










Part II


HYDROLOGIC FEATURES OF THE LAKE PLACID AREA,
HIGHLANDS COUNTY, FLORIDA

INTRODUCTION

The Lake Placid area of Florida is in the Highlands Ridge
section of Highlands County. The eastern boundary generally
parallels the scarp that separates the ridge section from the Lake
Istokpoga area and constitutes the western boundary of that area.
The length of Lake Placid area is approximately nine miles, and
the width ranges from about six miles at the northern extremity,
slightly north of the town of Lake Placid, to about eight miles at
the southern extremity, just south of State Highway 70.

PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION

In recent years, residents of the area have given much attention
to the water levels of the many lakes of the ridge section. During
periods of heavy rainfall, the areas around the lakes are flooded
and lakeshore homes and crops are damaged. During periods of
deficient rainfall, the lake levels are so lowered that boating
facilities are left high and dry; at the same time, the demand for
irrigation water for citrus groves and other crops is at its greatest
and the pumping of water from the lakes contributes to the decline
of lake levels.
At the request of the Central and Southern Florida Flood Con-
trol District, the U. S. Geological Survey started an investigation,
in October 1955, to determine the influence of the ground-water
reservoir on the water levels of the lakes. One phase of the
investigation was to establish the relationship of the water table
to lake levels and, if possible, to devise some method by which this
relationship could be used to predict the water level of a given
lake after an extended period without rainfall. Lake Placid was
selected as the lake of primary interest, but it was decided that
an investigation of adjacent areas was necessary in order to
ascertain correctly the hydrologic characteristics effecting Lake
Placid.
A tentative plan is under consideration for the construction of
a closed drain through the narrow strip of land separating Lake
Huntley and Lake Grassy. Also, the canals or drainageways





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


connecting Lake Apthorpe, Lake Clay, and Lake Huntley are to
be improved and control structures are to be built, so that the
water levels of the entire lower chain of lakes. can be controlled.
As Lake Huntley and Lake Grassy fall within the scope of this
report, computations based on assumed conditions will be presented
to clarify the effect produced upon the ground-water reservoir and
lake levels by undue lowering of water levels in the lower chain of
lakes.
During this study, special consideration was given to the
occurrence of ground water in the nonartesian aquifer, the direction
of ground-water movement, and the relation of ground-water levels
to the water levels of the lakes.
The investigation was made under the general supervision of
A. N. Sayre, Chief of the Ground-Water Branch of the U. S.
Geological Survey, and under the immediate supervision of M. I.
Rorabaugh, District Engineer for Florida.

METHOD OF INVESTIGATION
All wells in the area were inventoried to obtain pertinent
information. In areas of sparse information, supplementary
lithologic and hydrologic data were obtained from wells and test
holes installed by jetting. The wells were constructed of 8/4-inch,
pipe with a brass strainer at the bottom. Each well was pumped
with a pitcher pump, after installation, to assure that the well was
open to the aquifer and thus was showing the true water level.
Permeability of sand aquifers was determined by the permeameter
method in the laboratory. The altitudes of water levels in 73 wells
and of observation points (see well locations, fig. 10) were
determined by spirit level, and a map showing the configuration of
the water table was prepared from this information.

GEOLOGY
GENERAL FEATURES
The sedimentary rocks exposed in the Lake Placid area range
in age from Miocene to Recent. Outcrops of rocks of Miocene age
are seen in clay pits and the deep road cuts of the ridge section
(Bishop, 1956). Pleistocene sand, forming the major part of the
surficial sediments, mantles the Miocene deposits as a veneer less
than 30 feet thick. Deposits of Recent age are exposed in places;
they consist of peat and organic soil formed after the last lowering
of sea level, at the end of the Pleistocene epoch.


40

































UNOWI1 AAND O LU CLAY
'GRAY LIMC$YOIIC


"ARTllAlN IRAVYI


GRAVEL


/


/


SCALE IN MILES
S e -0o v


Figure 11. Cross section showing lithofacies of Highlands Ridge section, along
State Highway 70.


oo10


N


/


*Sol-


-*0o*


-10So


-- -------- ---- ------- -- ----- ---









































































































































/





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 19


The core of the Highlands Ridge consists of a thick deposit of
deltaic sand, gravel, and clay which thins and interfingers with
marine clay to the east and west. (See lithologic cross section,
fig. 11.) The dark green clay that forms a basinlike floor for the
main sand body is of Miocene age and is underlain at a depth of
about 500 feet below, sea level by a thick section of limestone of
Oligocene and Eocene age. In topographically low areas, along the
flanks of the ridge, this green clay (interbedded with permeable
material forming local, shallow artesian aquifers) confines the water
in the underlying limestone under artesian pressure. The limestone
extends from 500 feet to more than 1,100 feet below sea level in
the Lake Placid area and forms the major part of the Floridan
aquifer (Parker and others, 1955, p. 189).
The areas surrounding the lakes are underlain at shallow depth
by thin beds of red to black indurated sand (hardpan) and peat
(fig. 12). Because these beds have a low permeability, they restrict
the downward movement of water and may contribute to local
flooding.

GEOMORPHOLOGY AND STRUCTURE

The ridge section contains many lakes of various sizes and
depths. Many of the lakes are circular in outline; this shape, plus
their relatively great depth, indicates that they are sinkhole lakes
formed by solution and collapse of the underlying limestone. Marine
terraces, formed by changes in sea level during the Pleistocene
interglacial stages, flank the ridge. Shoreline features such as
dunes, wave-cut benches, scarps, and sandbars are prominent. Sea
level was estimated by Cooke (1939, p. 34) to have fluctuated be-
tween 270 feet above present sea level and about 300 feet below.
Parker and Cooke (1944, pl. 3) recognized five terraces in High-
lands County; four of these, the Wicomico (100 feet in altitude),
Penholoway (70 feet), Talbot (42 feet), and Pamlico (25 feet),
are included in or border the area of this investigation. The terraces
can be traced on topographic maps, and in some areas they slope
and appear to merge, indicating subsidence caused by solution in
the underlying limestone or, possibly, faulting. In the Lake Placid
area, the upper surfaces of the terraces are highly distorted as a
result of a combination of solution subsidence, tilting and faulting,
and shifting of sand by wind action. These surface irregularities
are illustrated in figure 11, which shows also the lithologic
characteristics of the subsurface sediments along State Highway


41
























Ae 5 q : s o

LAKE PLACID LA96 6RASSY













Of LAui
SCALE IN MLES



Figure 12. Cross section showing lithology of the nonartesian aquifer along an east-west line across Lake Placid.










[ ~ XPLANAYrioP
coNroum UI$N wOW Viw
LWTUD OF "OrEft ,ASLE. 1%
OPEC? ADM WEAN SEA LEVEL


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Figure 13. Map of the Lake Placid area showing altitude of the water table
on March 13, 1956.
Illll I I iilA P,"CID I








SCAE I NIES ON
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Fiur 1. apofte ak Pacd ra hoin atiud f hewaertal









REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19


GROUND WATER

The aquifers in the immediate vicinity of the area described in
this part of the report may be divided into three general groups:
(1) the principal artesian (Floridan) aquifer, (2) the shallow ar-
tesian aquifers, and (3) the unconfined or nonartesian aquifer. Of
these, only the nonartesian aquifer is considered in detail.
The principal artesian (Floridan) aquifer occurs throughout
the Florida Peninsula and has been described by Stringfield (1936)
and by Parker (Parker and others, 1955, p. 189). It consists of
porous limestone and in the area of this report is approximately
600 feet below the land surface. Beds of sand, marl, and clay, which
have a relatively low permeability, overlie the Floridan aquifer.
In the Lake Placid area the nonartesian aquifer has a higher head
than the Floridan aquifer, and water from the nonartesian aquifer
percolates vertically downward to provide recharge for the Floridan
aquifer. It is thought that most of the recharge supplied to the
Floridan aquifer percolates through the bottoms of the lakes of the
ridge section, where the confining beds have been breached by the
collapse of caverns in the underlying limestone. Evidence pre-
sented in a following section indicates that drawdown caused by
pumping from the Floridan aquifer produces a small but recog-
nizable effect upon the water levels of the lakes.
The shallow artesian aquifers are localized strata occurring
downslope from the scarp surrounding the Highlands Ridge region.
The aquifers are not of great areal extent, and because of upward
leakage through the overlying confining beds they frequently lose
their artesian head within a few miles of the scarp. The hydrologic
characteristics of several shallow artesian aquifers in an adjacent
area have been considered in Part I of this report.

NONARTESIAN AQUIFER
RECHARGE AND DISCHARGE

Rainfall, which averages about 53 inches per year, is the
principal source of recharge to the nonartesian aquifer. Because of
high land and a high water table to the south and west, recharge
to the Lake Placid area is provided by ground-water underflow from
those directions. Surface runoff, resulting from rejected recharge
in the areas to the south and west, also provides recharge to the
Lake Placid area during periods of extremely heavy rainfall.
Ground water is discharged from the nonartesian aquifer by
underflow into lakes and adjacent, lower deposits to the west, north,


43






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


and east; by evaporation from places where the water table is
shallow; by transpiration from vegetation; and by springs where
the water table intersects the land surface. Drainage canals or
natural streams connecting the upper and lower chains of lakes
provide an exit for the discharge of ground water in two ways: (1)
ground water flows directly into the canals and thence downstream
as runoff, and (2) the canals lower the water levels of the various
lakes by discharging excess water, thus producing a lakeward
ground-water gradient which induces the discharge of ground
water into the lakes.
Pumping from wells and lakes accounts for a considerable
quantity of ground-water discharge. Most of the residents of the
area depend upon ground water for their domestic and stock
supplies. The town of Lake Placid pumps about 70,000 gallons per
day (gpd) from Lake Sirena into its municipal water-supply
system. As Lake Sirena has no surface inlet or outlet, this
pumping causes discharge from the ground-water reservoir. Large
quantities of water are pumped from the lakes of the area to
irrigate citrus groves and other crops. This pumping causes a
significant discharge of ground water. A part of the irrigation
water pumped from the lakes returns to the ground-water reservoir
by seepage from the irrigated fields, but the major part is lost by
evapotranspiration. The lowering of ground-water levels around
Buck Lake by the withdrawal of approximately 1,200 gpm of water
from the lake is of sufficient magnitude to be shown on the water-
table contour maps (figs. 13, 14).

MOVEMENT

Unconfined ground water moves along the path of least
resistance from a position of higher water-table altitude to a
position of lower altitude. The direction of movement coincides
with the maximum slope of the water table. Water-table contour
maps for March 13 and July 10, 1956, are shown in figures 13 and
14. In not all places is there adequate control, but the essential
characteristics of shape and slope of the water table are well
defined. Ground water moves into the area from the west and
south and discharges principally northward and eastward.
Although the surface of a lake might seem to be a horizontal
plane, small hydraulic gradients exist in the lakes and permit the
passage of ground water across them. For example, ground water
enters Lake Placid on its south and southwest sides, moves across
the lake, and finally leaves it on its northwest, north, and northeast
8/,:


44








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on July 10, 1956.




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POLK COUNTY


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well 51, in Polk County.


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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 19


sides. Thus, the water surfaces of the lakes are surface expressions
of ground water where the water table intersects natural
depressions in the land surface. During this investigation, no
excessive differences were noted between the altitudes of water
levels in the lakes and those in the surrounding wells. Thus, in
controlling the level of a given lake consideration must be given to
the way in which ground water will affect the effort at control; the
situation is more complex than if the lake were (strictly speaking)
ponded surface water. For example, in the dry season, ground
water moves from Lake Placid to Lake Grassy-as indicated by the
water-table gradient. If the water level of Lake Grassy were
lowered excessively, the hydraulic gradient between the lakes
would be increased, more water would flow underground between
Lake Placid and Lake Grassy, and the water level of Lake Placid
would probably be lowered.

RELATION OF LAKE LEVELS TO GROUND WATER

PREDICTION OF WATER LEVEL IN LAKE PLACID

One of the primary purposes of this part of the report is to
evaluate the fluctuations of the water surface of Lake Placid with
reference to ground-water storage and, if possible, to develop a
correlation that will serve as an index for controlling the water
levels of the lakes by means of a system of drainage canals and
control structures. The general plan of the flood-control works is
thoroughly covered in a report prepared by the Central and
Southern Florida Flood Control District (1953).
Hydrographs of water levels in Lake Placid, Lake June in
Winter, well 14, and artesian well 51, in Polk County, are plotted
in figure 15. The water level in well 14, approximately two miles
southeast of Lake Placid, has been recorded continuously since
September 1948. Because of its length, the record from this well is
used in developing the water-level relation between Lake Placid and
the water table. However, it is believed that the water level of well
440, one mile southwest of Lake June in Winter, will in the future
provide a better correlation than that of well 14. In figure 16 the
water levels of the two lakes, well 440, and well 14 are compared
with the rainfall at the Lake Placid weather station; obviously,
well 440 responds more quickly to rainfall at the Lake Placid
station than does well 14. The water-level record for well 440
(beginning in February 1956) is not yet long enough, however, for
the preparation of ground-water recession curves.


45





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


i 1A i L





K l.. l .ou. 01 dI K Id-I.. he.. L.-









In general, the recession of the water table follows a logarithmic
curve. This recession is interrupted, of course, by periods of
recharge, but by plotting the decline of the water table against
time-for numerous recessions-an average recession curve is
constructed. The composite recession curve for well 14 (fig. 17) was
prepared in this manner. A curve of this type allows us to predict,
within reasonable limits, the water level of the well at some date
in the future. For example, if, after a period of heavy recharge,
the water level in well 14 stands at 127.7 feet above mean sea level,
the water level one year later, in the absence of rainfall, would be
approximately 117.7 feet above mean sea level.
The basic problem that confronts us is to be able to predict the
water level of Lake Placid after a given period without rainfall.
It is apparent that after a period of recharge the water levels at


46












128





126





124





122












118





JIl





114






o 100 200300 0 000
12 --------- ------------------------------ --------- ------------------- ---


TIME, IN DAYS AFTER START OF RECESSION


Figure 17. Graph showing recession of the water level in well 14.


-J





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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


two points on the water table cannot be correlated immediately.
Uneven distribution of rainfall, nonuniform rates of infiltration to
the water table, depth to the water table below the land surface,
and many other factors cause the ground-water reservoir to be
in a condition of nonequilibrium. After recharge stops, the water
table begins to decline at every point, and the rate of decline at
each point is directed toward the establishment of a condition of
equilibrium. After this equilibrium is established, the water levels
continue to decline at consistent rates. A pattern can be developed,
by statistical analysis, that allows the prediction of water level
at one place in terms of the known rate of decline at another place.
It should be appreciated, however, that a significant change in the
hydraulic regimen, such as the construction of a drainage canal or
an increased rate of percolation to an underlying artesian aquifer
would produce a change in the correlation curve.
The relation of the water-level recession curves for Lake Placid
and well 14, for several long-term recessions, is shown in figure 18.
It is noted that several curved plots of data approach the average
curve tangentially. These curved lines represent the nonequilibrium
condition and are caused either by unequal distribution of rainfall
or by hydrologic conditions (described later) on the west side of
the lake. For example, in the recession from October 1948 to June,
1949 the water level of Lake Placid was considerably higher, in
comparison to the water level of well 14 than would be expected
from the average curve, but then it declined at a relatively great
rate until the equilibrium condition was established. Further decline
followed the average curve.
Prediction of the water level of Lake Placid after an extended
period without rainfall is made possible by using figures 17 and
18, conjunctively. To use the graphs it is necessary to know the
altitudes of the water levels of both Lake Placid and well 14. To
illustrate the use of the graphs, we will assume that shortly after
the end of a recharge period, on November 1, the water levels of
Lake Placid and well 14 are 95.5 and 126.0 feet above mean sea
level. It is anticipated that the dry season will be a long one and
that there will be no rainfall until August 1 of the following year.
The expected time without recharge is 273 days, and, for the
purpose of operating a control structure in the canal between Lake
Placid and Lake June in Winter, we need a prediction of the
approximate water level of Lake Placid in the latter part of July.
Referring to figure 17, we see that if the head in well 14 is
126.0 feet above sea level at the start of the recession, 273 days


48















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44
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EXPLANATION
R
RECESSION FROM OCTOBER 1955 TO JUNE 1956
RECESSION FROM OCTOBER 1953 TO APRIL 1954
RECESSION FROM NOVEMBER 1950 TO JUNE 1951
RECESSION FROM DECEdBER 1949 TO AUGUST 1950
0
RECESSION FROM OCTOBER 1948 TO JUNE 1949
APPROXIMATE AVERAGE WATER-LEVEL- RECESSION
CURVE FOR LAKE PLACID AND WELL 14.


124 125


' 0o.P


119 120 121 122 123
WATER LEVEL IN WELL 14, IN FEET ABOVE M S L


Figure 18. Graph showing the comparative recession of water levels in Lake Placid and well 14.


wXi



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ra






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


later (approximately at the 300-day line on the recession graph) it
will be about 118.7 feet above. In figure 18, when the head in well
14 is 118.7 feet above mean sea level, the water level of Lake Placid
is approximately 92 feet above.
The prediction is based upon the assumption that no recharge
occurs at either locality during the recession. Localized rainfall
in areas of the Lake Placid basin remote from the area of well 14
causes a short-duration departure that plots above the average
recession curve. The lines formed by circles and dots in figure 18
illustrate two examples of this.
It is believed that the entire decline of the water level of Lake
Placid can be predicted with reasonable accuracy. Starting at the
intersection of the 95.5 and 126.0 lines, representing the heads in
Lake Placid and well 14 shortly after the end of the recharge
period, the recession would probably form an intermediate curve
between those shown for the 1948-49 and the 1953-54 recessions
(fig. 18). By relating the heads for Lake Placid and well 14 along
the assumed intermediate recession curve to the time required for
the equivalent declines of water level in well 14 (fig. 17), the
approximate hydrograph for Lake Placid can be estimated.
It is emphasized, however, that a change in the hydrologic
regimen will tend to invalidate the recession graphs. It appears
that such a change may be responsible for the deviation of the
1955-56 recession from previous recessions (fig. 18). In figure 15,
the hydrograph of artesian well 51 is plotted for comparison with
the hydrographs of the lakes and well 14. Well 51 is the nearest
artesian well to the Lake Placid area for which long-term records
of water level are available. It is 490 feet deep and taps the
Floridan aquifer at the town of Frostproof, in Polk County, 35
miles north of Lake Placid. The hydrograph for well 51 shows that
the water level in the Floridan aquifer is lowered by pumping dur-
ing the winter and spring months of each year. This period cor-
responds with the dry season, when there is extensive irrigation.
Careful comparison of the points of maximum drawdown in well
51 with the hydrographs for Lake Placid and Lake June in Winter
indicates that the water levels of the lakes may respond to pumping
from the artesian aquifer. Especially noteworthy are the
corresponding drawdowns in May of 1953 and 1954 and May and
June of 1955. This correlation cannot be stated without qualifica-
tion, however, because direct pumping from the lakes might produce
a decline of lake levels at the same time that maximum drawdown
occurs in the Floridan aquifer, Also, when there is rainfall,


50






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19


the lake level will rise because of recharge and the water level
in the artesian aquifer will rise because of the cessation of pumping.
No work has been done to separate the various factors that might
account for the correlation of drawdown in Lake Placid, Lake June
in Winter, and Mirror Lake (hydrograph not shown) with that
in the Floridan aquifer. However, the writers think that the
correlation might not be fortuitous because of the manner in which
the recession curve (fig. 18) for 1955-56 deviates from the recession
curves for previous years. Water-level fluctuations in well 51
indicate that pumping from the Floridan aquifer increases each
year. The extensive drawdown of water level in the Floridan
aquifer in 1955 and 1956 is thought to have increased downward
leakage from the lakes and caused the deviation of the recession
curve in these years (fig. 18). If pumping from the Floridan
aquifer is increasing in the manner indicated by the hydrographs,
a new recession pattern may be developing, and average recessions
of previous years may be of little value in predicting the dry-
weather water levels of Lake Placid.

CONSERVATION OF WATER IN LAKE PLACID

In 1956 no control structure existed in the canal between Lake
Placid and Lake June in Winter, but during low stages a sandbar
at the edge of Lake Placid blocks the flow of surface water from
the lake. During high stages, water flowing over the sandbar erodes
it, and the deepened channel lowers the lake below the stage at
(or above) which flood damage occurs. If this happens at the
close of a rainy season, water normally conserved for the coming
dry season is wasted. The relation between the water levels of Lake
Placid and well 14 indicates that, after all surface discharge from
the lake ceases, the water level of Lake Placid continues to decline
because of ground-water discharge. However, if surface-water
discharge through the canal could be stopped as soon as the lake
declined to the "damage level," further loss of water from the lake
by surface flow would be slowed down and the lake could be
maintained at a relatively high level during the subsequent
recession. Thus, the slope of the average recession curve in figure
18 probably would not change, but the position of the curve might
be shifted slightly upward by converting the loss of water from
the surface-water to the ground-water phase as soon as the lake
level is low enough that flood damage becomes negligible.
The flow through the culvert connecting Lake Placid and Mirror
Lake is almost continuously four to six cfs (Central and Southern







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Florida Flood Control District, 1953, p. 3-4), except at very low
lake stages. The water-table contour maps (figs. 13, 14) show that
not all discharge from Lake Placid would be stopped by discon-
tinuing the flow through the culvert, as ground-water flow would
continue through the narrow strip of land separating the lakes. A
reduction in discharge would occur, however, because of the
conversion from surface flow to ground-water percolation, and the
level of Lake Placid would decline more slowly during the dry season
than it would if the culvert continued to discharge water from that
lake.
Mirror Lake has no surface outlet; hence, the present flow from
Lake Placid reduces the head difference between the lakes and, in
effect, by tending to raise the level of Mirror Lake, increases the
ground-water gradient and discharge northwest of Mirror Lake.
Closing the Placid-Mirror outlet would probably cause a
readjustment of ground-water contours to form a more uniform
gradient. The head differential between the lakes would be
increased, Lake Placid would rise, and the underground outflow
from that lake would increase. This might tend to offset the effect
on Mirror Lake and the water table immediately to the northwest
of the lake; thus control of the culvert may cause no substantial
lowering of the water level of Mirror Lake. The water level of
Lake Placid, however, could be maintained at a higher level,
during dry periods, than is possible without control of the Placid-
Mirror outlet.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE RISE OF WATER LEVEL IN LAKE PLACID

Lack of uniformity in the rise of water levels in lakes of the
ridge section is noted in the flood-control report prepared by the
Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District (1953, p. 5).
Comparison of the magnitudes of flood-producing storms with their
effects on the lake levels indicates that antecedent rainfall is
almost as important in causing a flood as is the storm itself. In
the case of Lake Placid, antecedent rainfall in the area to the west
and south of the lake is believed to have the greatest influence on
the rise in lake level.
The correlation between the water levels of well 14 and Lake
Placid on a rising stage is poor. Rainfall of 10 inches at the Lake
Placid station on June 6, 1953, produced rise in water level of about
two feet in well 14 and a rise of about 1.4 feet in Lake Placid (fig.
19). Subsequent rains caused Lake Placid to rise to flood proportions
toward the end of June, whereas the water level of well 14 remained


52







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 19


considerably below its later peak. A moderate rain on August 27
produced a much greater rise in the well than in the lake. The
above inconsistencies are considered to be evidence of unequal
distribution of rainfall.
With equal recharge, the rise of water level in a well always
should be considerably greater than the rise in a surface-water
body. Because the volume of voids in an aquifer is only a fraction
-for example, 20 percent-of the total volume of the aquifer, equal
recharge would cause the ground-water level to rise more-in this
example, five times as much-than the surface-water level. Factors
such as evapotranspiration and absorption of water by clay particles
as the water percolates through unsaturated sediments reduce the
water that eventually reaches the water table to an amount less
than the rainfall. Regardless of the cause, the fact remains that
well 14 cannot be used as an index for predicting an imminent flood
in the Lake Placid basin.
Well 440, on the high terrace west of Lake June in Winter, will
in the future give a better correlation with Lake Placid than does
well 14. It may be that climatic factors affect both Lake Placid and
well 440 to the same degree, but the correlation can probably be
attributed to the fact that well 440 reflects hydrologic conditions
in the highland areas west and south of the lake which are of
singular importance in producing flood conditions.
Figure 20 is a map giving the depth to water in the Lake
Placid area. The depth to water is generalized and approximate
because of the relatively high topographic relief in the area. The
map was prepared by superimposing water-table contours over
land-surface contours. The difference in altitude between the
contours gives the depth to the water table below land surface or,
in other words, the thickness of unsaturated material. The amount
of recharge that can be accepted by the ground-water reservoir
depends on the thickness of unsaturated material, because as soon
as the water table rises to the surface of the ground, no further
water will be stored. Any additional rainfall is rejected, and the
water flows downhill over the surface.
Inspection of the depth-to-water map shows that the water
table in large areas of the upland terrace west of Lake Placid is
shallower than five feet. The potential ground-water storage
capacity in this area is small, because the map represents conditions
existing in May 1956, at the height of the dry season. This small
ground-water storage capacity is believed to account for the non-
uniformity in the rise of water level in Lake Placid. Much of the


53








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1983


LANE PLACID
'1







LAKE JUNE IN VINT111

13






10 0

LAKEPLA[2i0
to-


Figure 19. Hydrographs of Lake Placid, Lake June in Winter, and well 14
compared with rainfall at the Lake Placid weather station, 1953.

rainfall from a single heavy storm, occurring under dry conditions
shown, would be absorbed, and little would be rejected. However, a
number of small rains preceding a heavy storm would cause a
decrease in gound-water storage capacity, and when the heavy
storm struck most of the rainfall would be rejected as recharge.
This rejected recharge would then move downhill, as channelized or
sheet flow, to produce maximum stages in Lake Placid.
Conditions in the area south and east of Lake Grassy are
similar to those in the area west and south of Lake Placid. However,
the pattern of surface runoff in the sand-dune terrane south and


54











I
I


I











xr


0


a
I-



CI







-j




iii
j r:
It



ii
















ii
3'
























1*

.9-
C*.


Slart I
SIHCH *


b
x



%n
$


SCALC I' .MILES
. A=-,,-=- ,,:=-r-r .


exPL&MATrONM
asseamarV a*Cr *e engf **tJ
aM 38aVS 11U9w 1 11591 h.


AlflB
me~m bows 1.8C1, ICII

e-e




a


Map of the Lake Placid area showing approximate depth to the
water table below land surface.


/


LAKE



L A e


PLACID.


rry

II
I
'1
II
1
1)
h
II
I
1.
ILIr(


IT IF


i
rr~L~L~m*r ~rcr.~ r*ir


Figure 20.
























































I







f.i






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 19


east of Lake Grassy is not as clearly defined as in the area near
Lake Placid. Ponds are formed in the depressions between sand
dunes when the water table rises to the land surface. Most of
these ponds remain unconnected until, during wet years, the water
rises high enough to form a continuous sheet of water across the
divides between depressions. Excess water then flows out of the
dune area into the Lake Grassy basin. Under extreme flood con-
ditions, the water, blocked by a ridge at the north end of Lake
Grassy, flows eastward across a low divide and down to the Lake
Istokpoga flat.
Obviously, the key to predicting an imminent flood in the Lake
Placid and Lake Grassy basins lies in the ground-water storage
characteristics of the areas discussed. When a sufficiently long
water-level record is available for well 440, criteria can probably
be established for predicting flood conditions in both Lake June in
Winter and Lake Placid. However, judging from the depth-to-water
map, a well equipped with a recording gage, located south or south-
east of Lake Placid along State Highway 70, would provide the best
indication of the potential ground-water storage capacity, and thus
would better forewarn of potential flooding of Lake Placid. A
recorder well located in the area of shallow water table south of
Lake Grassy would provide good information on ground-water
storage capacity there. The water table at well 14 ranges from 10
to 20 feet in depth; thus, well 14 does not quickly reflect conditions
that contribute to rejected recharge and help to flood Lake Grassy.

HYDROLOGY

The lakes of the ridge section cannot be considered simply as
isolated ponds of surface water. Their bottoms consist mostly of
sand, and the water of the lakes has direct hydraulic connection
with the water in the ground-water reservoir. Obviously,
controlling the lake level by a drainage canal will also effect a
control on the ground-water reservoir. Conversely, the ground-
water reservoir influences the manner in which the level of a lake
is controlled.
The purpose of the following discussion is to provide quantita-
tive estimates of the movement of ground water in various parts
of the area, so that the canals and control structures in the system
of lakes may be designed with an insight into the ground-water
problems involved.
The materials penetrated during the installation of the
observation.wells consist predominantly of sand. In some areas the


55






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


sand is slightly consolidated by iron compounds or organic material
to form hardpan. Except for wells 442 and 443, all wells screened
in materials above and below a hardpan indicated that the hardpan
did not act effectively as a confining layer. Therefore, it is believed
that the nonartesian aquifer includes all the sand from land surface
to a depth of approximately 100 feet below mean sea level in the
ridge section (fig. 11). The bottoms of the upper chain of lakes
have an average altitude of approximately 35 feet above mean sea
level (Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District, 1953,
table 1, p. 2). Actually, this depth is not the base for ground-water
flow, but it is believed that most of the horizontal ground-water flow
affecting the water levels of the lakes passes through the water-
bearing section extending from the water table to the bottoms of
the lakes. Because of this assumption, the discharges indicated by
the following computations are minimum values.
The permeability of the materials penetrated during installation
of the observation wells was determined by the permeameter
method, in the laboratory (table 1). Ths average permeability of
all samples, excluding those from well 440 which contained driller's
mud, is about 700 gpd per square foot. Because the intention here
is to provide only a general idea of the magnitude of ground-water
flow under the existing gradients in different parts of the area,
this average permeability is used in all computations. Comparison
of the permeability at each locality (table 1) with the average
permeability for the entire area is left to the discretion of the
reader.

TABLE 1. Permeability of Sediments Penetrated by Observation Wells

Well Depth (feet) Permeability
No. From To (P)

T-1 1 17 790
17 22 1,000
T-2 1 2 640
4 5 700
8 9 540
16 16.5 610
T-3 0 2 590
5 6 560
11 13 650
T-4 1 1.5 800
3 3.5 940
5 6 900
T-5 1 1.5 600


56






57


REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 19

TABLE 1. (Continued)


Well Depth (feet) Permeability
No. From To (P)


T-6
440

442

443
444
448


449


450

456


462


471
472

474




475
479


481

489

491

492
493


4
3
0
12
2
7
16
7
0
5
18
10
15
17
12
15
0
3
15
10
13
18.5
12
1
15
0
5
7
15
16.5
3
2
5
10
2
15
10
11
3
4.6
1
2.5


4.5
4
12
21
7
14
21
13
5
17
20
12
16
17.5
13
16
1
5
18
12
15
19
13


6
5
20
5
7
12
16
19
4
3
6
17
3
16
12
17
3.5
5
2
3


t Permeability greatly
2Organic hardpan.


reduced by bentonitic drilling mud in sample.


540
490
1120
131
1,300
420
520
700
830
610
520
750
700
570
710
500
690
570
750
910
750
840
580
650
560
710
820
860
670
810
1,000
2190
840
760
820
550
840
600
510
530
740
870






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The water-table gradients west and south of Lake Placid are
steep, and, as it is of interest to determine the amount of ground
water flowing into Lake Placid from these directions, we will
compute the flow through a section of the aquifer one mile long,
measured along the 100-foot water-table contour west of Lake
Placid. The thickness of the flow section is the distance from the
water table (+-100 feet, msl) to the bottom of the lakes (-+35 feet,
msl), or 65 feet. The average distance between the 110- and the
100-foot contour lines is approximately 1,000 feet; therefore, the
gradient in feet per foot is 10/1,000. Substituting in the Darcy
formula:
Q PIA
Q 700 x 10 1,000 x 65 x 5,280
Q 2,400,000 gpd per mile or 3.7 cfs per mile
If the quantity of ground water flowing into Lake Placid
through a strip of the aquifer one mile in length, 3.7 cfs, is
multiplied by four (the number of miles over which there are steep
gradients around the west and south sides of Lake Placid), the
total ground-water flow into Lake Placid is found to be 15 cfs. Of
this amount, a small quantity flows through the culvert to Mirror
Lake, but part of this water returns to the aquifer on the down-
gradient side of Mirror Lake. The ground-water flow leaving the
comblined( lakes can be calculated as follows: The average gradient
for a mile length of the aquifer along the 85-foot contour in the
vicinity of Lost Lake is 5 2,500. The thickness of the flow section
is the difference between the water table (-+-85 feet, msl), and the
lake bottoms (1-35 feet, msl), or 50 feet. Substituting in the Darcy
formula:
Q PIA
Q :- 700 x 5 2,500 x 50 x 5,280
Q 370,000 gpd per mile or 0.57 cfs per mile
When 0.57 cfs is multiplied by five, the number of miles around
the northwest, north, and east sides of Lake Placid where discharge
is taking place, a total discharge of only 2.8 cfs results.
Obviously, when 15 cfs of water flows into a lake and 2.8 cfs
flows out, a large quantity of water either is being stored in the
lake or is being lost from the lake. The suggestion that water is
being stored in the lake is not valid, of course, because the stage
of the lake is not continuously rising. The discrepancy between
ground-water inflow to and outflow from Lake Placid must be
attributed to losses from evapotranspiration, pumping of lake






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19


water for crops, and downward seepage of water to the Floridan
aquifer.
A similar situation exists at Lake Grassy. The length of the
flow section between the two noses in the 95-foot contour line, east
and west of the south side of.Lake Grassy, is approximately 7,000
feet. The gradient is approximately 5/1,500, and the thickness of
the flow section is about 60 feet. Substituting in the Darcy formula:
Q = PIA
Q = 700 x 5/1,500 x 60 x 7,000
Q = 980,000 gpd or 1.5 cfs
Thus, the ground-water inflow to Lake Grassy amounts to about
1.5 cfs.
The water-table contours at the north end of Lake Grassy
indicate that most of the discharge from the lake moves to Lake
Huntley through a flow section approximately 1,500 feet wide. The
thickness of the flow section is approximately 55 feet. The water-
level difference between the lakes is 7.3 feet and this amount of
head is lost in the 1,200-foot distance separating the lakes. Using
the Darcy formula:
Q = PIA
Q = 700 x 7.3/1,200 x 55 x 1,500
Q = 350,000 gpd or 0.54 cfs
Comparison of the calculated inflow to and outflow from Lake
Grassy indicates that approximately one cfs more water flows into
the lake than flows out of it. The loss of this water is not difficult
to explain. Irrigation water pumped from Buck Lake during the
dry season amounts to about 1,200 gpm, and water pumped from
the arm of Lake Grassy on the west side of U. S. Highway 27
amounts to about 3,500 gpm. The total withdrawal from the
pumping stations is approximately 10.4 cfs, an amount much
greater than the rate of ground-water inflow to the area. Under
these conditions, there is a decline of water level in Lake Grassy and
a loss in ground-water storage within the area. Of course, some of
the water returns to the ground-water reservoir by seepage from
the irrigated groves.
The above computations indicate that there is some need for
the conservation of water. Obviously, very little can be done to
reduce the loss of water during the dry season because evapo-
transpiration, natural ground-water discharge, and irrigation of
crops cannot be completely stopped. However, by proper control
of the outlets from the various lakes, much of the water now


59






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


unnecessarily wasted-after flood damage ceases at the end of the
rainy season-can be conserved for use during the following dry
season. Water conservation, in the form of closing surface-water
outlets from the lakes, should begin as soon as danger from
flooding can be reasonably assumed to be past.
Under the present, natural conditions, the sandy materials
separating Lake Grassy and Lake Huntley have sufficiently low
permeability to hold the water level of Lake Grassy approximately
seven feet above that of Lake Huntley. The proposed construction
of a culvert from Lake Grassy to Lake Huntley necessitates the
removal of the sand overburden, installation of the culvert, and
backfilling of the excavated hole. A certain amount of danger
exists in the operation because the natural orientation of materials
below the present water table would be disturbed, and the
permeability of this section might be increased. If this should
occur, the ground-water discharge through the disturbed part of
the aquifer would be increased, and it might be impossible to
maintain the present head differential between the lakes.
Let us consider the change in hydrologic conditions in the strip
of land separating Lake Grassy and Lake Placid as a result of an
inadvertent lowering of water level in Lake Grassy. The water-table
contour maps (figs. 13, 14) show that a hydraulic gradient exists
between the two lakes. This is a somewhat oversimplified picture,
because the eastward bulge of the 90-foot contour suggests that a
small ground-water mound may be present in the area north of
the center line of Lake Grassy and south of the junction of State
Highway 17 and U. S. Highway 27. This mound is probably
reduced to negligible proportions during the dry season, and ground
water moves from Lake Placid to Lake Grassy.
The above discussion shows that, although a hydraulic gradient
may exist between the two lakes during the dry season, the gradient
is quite small; therefore, the discharge of water from Lake Placid to
Lake Grassy is negligible under these conditions. The assumption
is made that after construction of the culvert between Lake Grassy
and Lake Huntley the discharge from the former will be increased
and the relative head difference between the lakes will decrease
by three feet. This will produce a 3-foot increase in the head
difference between Lake Placid and Lake Grassy, and an increased
amount of ground water will flow through the strip of land
separating the lakes. The flow section between the lakes has a
north-south width of about two miles and a thickness of about 55
feet. The average distance between the lakes is 4,000 feet and the


60






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19


new head differential is dissipated over that distance. The increased
discharge between the lakes may be calculated as follows:
Q = PIA
Q 700 x 3/4,000 x 55 x 2(5,280)
Q = 300,000 gpd or 0.47 cfs
Under the assumed circumstances, an additional 0.47 cfs of
water will be discharged from Lake Placid to Lake Grassy. This
additional discharge will be much greater, of course, than the
negligible discharge under present conditions; but considering the
steep water-table gradients and large discharge entering Lake
Placid from the west and south, the chance that the additional
discharge will affect the water level of Lake Placid seems remote.

DOWNWARD LEAKAGE FROM LAKE PLACID TO
THE FLORIDAN AQUIFER

Previously, comparison of the hydrograph of artesian well 51
with the hydrographs of Lake Placid and Lake June in Winter
(fig. 15) indicated that the hydraulic connection through the sand-
filled sinkholes was sufficiently good to show a correlation between
lake level and drawdown in the artesian aquifer. Of course, other
factors such as rainfall, evaporation, ground-water inflow and out-
flow, and surface-water inflow and outflow affect the altitude of the
lake surface at any given time. Although the basic data were
incomplete, it was believed that some indication of the magnitude
of downward leakage could be obtained by balancing the various
known quantities of inflow to and outflow from the lake against
the observed change in storage in the lake. If the equation were
consistently unbalanced by a certain amount, this amount might
represent the downward leakage to the underlying artesian aquifer.
An inflow-outflow equation was set up for Lake Placid which would
allow insertion of the various known (or estimated) quantities of
inflow and outflow, as follows:
Downward leakage = Rainfall evaporation -- (ground-water
inflow ground-water outflow) + (sur-
face-water inflow surface-water out-
flow) (change in storage)
The equation was formulated so that the algebraic sums of the
quantities at the right side of the equation were positive, if the
leakage was downward, and negative, if the leakage was upward.
Rain falls directly on the lake and produces an increase in







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


storage; rainfall, therefore, is always a positive value (table 2).
Evaporation subtracts water from the lake and is therefore always
negative. A pan coefficient of 0.7 is applied to correct the pan

TABLE 2. Downward Leakage from Lake Placid to the Floridan Aquifer
(All values in inches. E, estimated)

Net Net
ground- surface- Change in Down-
Rain- Evapo- water water lake ward
Year Month fall ration inflow outflow stage leakage
(+) (-) (+) (-)

1955 Jan. 3.10 2.39 2.58 3.0 -0.60 +0.89
Feb. 1.67 2.51 2.58 2.4 -2.04 +1.38
Mar. .78 3.71E 2.52 1.8 -3.60 +1.39
Apr. .97 4.34E 2.50 1.2 -3.60 +1.53
May 4.50 6.14 2.49 1.0 .60 + .45
June 9.20 5.08 2.51 1.1 +4.20 +1.33
July 4.85 4.55E 2.53 1.4 +1.20 + .23
Aug. 6.76 3.92E 2.55 1.8 .60 +4.19
Sept. 3.18 4.42E 2.54 1.4 -1.50 +1.40
Oct. 1.48 3.71E 2.59 1.2 -4.10 +3.26
Nov .24 2.42E 2.56 1.0 -3.60 +2.98
Dec. 2.37 1.80E 2.52 .9 + .40 +1.79
1956 Jan. 1.37 2.09 2.49 .7 -2.20 +3.27
Feb. 1.40 2.86 2.44 .7 -1.80 +2.08
Mar. 2.39 4.28 2.44 .5 -4.30 +4.35
Apr. 1.34 4.33 2.42 .3 -3.50 +2.63
May 1.03 5.18 2.41 .2 -4.30 +2.36
June 9.19 4.30 2.41 .1 +2.60 +4.60
July 5.69 4.75 2.36 .2 + .80 +2.30


evaporation to lake evaporation (Linsley, Kohler, and Paulhus,
1949, p. 163). The climatological data were obtained from records
of the U. S. Weather Bureau for the Lake Placid station. The
evaporation data are complete except for several months in 1955.
The missing data were estimated by use of a rating curve
established for the Lake Placid and Moore Haven weather stations.
The flow of ground water changes with changes in the gradient
of the water table. In order to estimate the different quantities
of ground-water inflow and outflow, the average monthly water
levels of Lake Placid were compared with those of well 14 (for
inflow) and Lake June in Winter (for outflow). The percentage
difference in gradient between well 14 and Lake Placid, as
compared to the gradient of March 1956 (used as the base gradient


62







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 19


for the discharge computations), allowed adjustment of the
ground-water inflow for the months for which water-table contour
maps were not available. Similarly, the percentage difference in
gradient, as indicated by comparison of the average monthly water
levels of Lake Placid and Lake June in Winter (fig. 15), permitted
the adjustment of ground-water discharge from Lake Placid. The
adjusted differences between inflow and outflow were then calculated
to determine the rise (in inches) of Lake Placid caused by ground-
water flow for all months (table 2).
On the basis of stage and discharge graphs for Lake Placid for
the years 1948 through 1951 (Central and Southern Florida Flood
Control District, 1953, pl. 5-7), a surface-water-outflow rating curve
was constructed for Lake Placid. The average monthly water levels
of Lake Placid were then used to estimate the discharge from Lake
Placid; the outflow of surface water, of course, lowered the lake
level and was therefore a negative value in the equation.
Unfortunately, no data were available for surface inflow to Lake
Placid, and the net effect of surface-water flow upon the level of
the lake could not be determined. However, at stages of Lake
Placid below about 93 feet above mean sea level, there was very
little surface inflow, and at stages below 92 feet, practically none.
The accuracy in determining the downward leakage, therefore, was
greatest at the lowest stages of the water table, when the unknown
surface inflow was negligible.
The change in stage of Lake Placid for each month was
determined directly from the hydrograph (first and last days of
month, fig. 15), and converted to inches of rise (+) or fall (-).
The plus or minus values were subtracted algebraically from the
total change in stage attributable to the other agencies in the
inflow-outflow equation. Thus, if all influences upon the lake level
in a given month were known perfectly and if there were no down-
ward leakage, the elements at the right side of the equation would
balance out to zero. However, a positive summation would indicate
downward leakage to the Floridan aquifer and a negative sum-
mation would indicate upward leakage (obviously impossible
because the piezometric surface is about 30 feet below lake level).
The final summations are shown in the downward-leakage line
of table 2. Surface-water inflow could not be included in the
equation because no data were available. At low stages of the water
table, surface-water discharge from Lake Annie (fig. 13) does not
reach Lake Placid as channelized flow; rather, it disappears by
infiltration into the aquifer and by evapotranspiration. The authors


63







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


noted very little other surface-water inflow during late 1955 and
1956. Thus, the error produced by the omission of surface-water
inflow in the downward-leakage figures is believed to be negligible.
Because the evaporation data for the last part of 1955 are esti-
mated, consideration of the possible sources of error will be given
to only the 1956 computations. Comparison of the rises in stage of
Lake Placid with the recorded rainfall at the Lake Placid weather
station (fig. 16) shows good correlation and indicates that the rain-
fall data are representative of the entire lake. The evaporation
data, using a 0.7 pan coefficient, should be nearly correct. Surface-
water outflow was very small in 1956 and surface-water inflow can
be considered negligible. The change-in-stage measurements are
quite accurate, as they are taken from the automatic recording
gage on Lake Placid; therefore, all these elements of the equation
should be essentially correct.
It appears that the major sources of error in the downward-
leakage figure are in the calculation of horizontal ground-water
movement and pumpage from the lake. Pumping from the lake is
not continuous, of course, and the error from this unaccounted-for
loss of water can be minimized by averaging the downward leakage
over a period of months. If the permeability as determined from
the permeameter method is in error by 100 percent, compared with
the field permeability, the following table gives the range of
validity of the final leakage figure for the months January to July
1956:

Average downward Average ground-water
leakage (inches inflow (inches over
over lake surface) lake surface)

As determined 3.1 2.4
Permeability doubled 5.5 4.8
Permeability halved 1.9 1.2


According to the table, the average monthly downward leakage
beneath Lake Placid in January-July 1956 may have ranged from
1.9 to 5.5 inches; the true value, of course, might be either higher
or lower than this range, but it seems rather doubtful that it is.
Because direct pumpage from the lake is not taken into
consideration, however, the average leakage figure is high;
therefore, it is estimated that downward leakage from the lake is
less than three but probably not less than two inches per month.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 19


This is equivalent to a rate of recharge to the Floridan aquifer of
6,400,000 gpd (10 cfs) to 9,500,000 gpd (15 cfs).

CONCLUSIONS
Ground water in the thick deposits of sand underlying the Lake
Placid area is unconfined and is therefore under nonartesian
conditions. The water surfaces of the lakes are visible expressions
of the water table where it intersects the land surface.
Fluctuations of water level in Lake Placid and well 14 correlate
reasonably well during a recession of the water table, and statistical
analysis of the average rates of decline at the two locations permits
approximate prediction of the water level of Lake Placid after an
extended period without rainfall. However, the hydrograph of well
51, in Polk County, seems to be responding to the effects of a
progressive increase of pumping from the Floridan aquifer.
Because lowering of head in the artesian system increases the loss
of water from Lake Placid by increasing the gradient of downward
leakage, it is possible that average recessions before 1956 will be of
little value in predicting the dry-weather water levels of Lake
Placid in the future.
In a rising stage, the relation between water levels in Lake
Placid and well 14 cannot be used to forewarn of imminent flooding
to the Lake Placid basin. A map showing the approximate depth
to the water table below the land surface indicates that the potential
ground-water storage capacity in large areas west and south of
Lake Placid is small. As soon as the water table in these areas
rises to the surface of the ground, all further recharge to the
aquifer is rejected, and the excess water moves rapidly downhill to
flood the Lake Placid basin. It is believed that imminent flood
danger to Lake Placid can best be ascertained by means of a
recording gage on a well located along State Highway 70 south or
southeast of the lake. In this manner, current data reflecting the
available ground-water storage capacity of the aquifer can be used
as supplemental criteria for operation of a control structure in the
canal between Lake Placid and Lake June in Winter.
Conservation of water is an important reason for maintaining
the water levels of the lakes at desirable altitudes. After all
surface-water discharge from a lake is stopped, the water level of
the lake continues to decline because of ground-water discharge,
evapotranspiration, and pumping. Conservation of water, by
converting surface flow to much slower ground-water flow as soon
as possible after flood danger passes, will help to maintain the water


65






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


level of the lake at relatively high altitudes during the ensuing
dry season.
Calculations based upon assumed sets of circumstances give
some idea of the relative magnitudes of ground-water discharge in
various parts of the area. These calculations indicate that ground-
water movement is a factor to be considered in designing the
drainage system for the lakes. The rates of ground-water discharge
are believed not to be of sufficient magnitude, however, to hinder
seriously the successful control of lake levels.
Using an inflow-outflow equation for Lake Placid, measured or
estimated values for rainfall, evaporation, net shallow ground-water
inflow, and net surface-water outflow were balanced against the
change in stage of Lake Placid. The result indicates that downward
leakage to the Floridan aquifer from Lake Placid averaged two to
three inches per month during the first half of 1956.


66







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 19


REFERENCES

Anonymous
1953 Flood control and water supply studies for Lake Placid, Lake
June in Winter, Lake Frances, all in Highlands County, Florida:
Central and Southern' Florida Flood Control District, West Palm
Beach, Florida.
Bishop, E. W.
1956 Geology and ground-water resources of Highlands County,
Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 15.
Cooke, C. Wythe (see also Parker, 1944)
1939 Scenery of Florida interpreted by a geologist: Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 17.
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29.
Davis, John H., Jr.
1943 The natural features of southern Florida, especially the vegeta-
tion and the Everglades: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 25.
Ferguson, G. E. (see Parker, 1955)
Kohler, Max A. (see Linsley)
Linsley, Ray K., Jr.
1949 (and Kohler, Max A., and Paulhus, Joseph L. H.) Applied
hydrology: New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Love, S. K. (see Parker, 1955)
MacNeil, F. Stearns
1949 Pleistocene shorelines in Florida and Georgia: U.S. Geol. Survey
Prof. Paper 221-F.
Parker, G. G.
1944 (and Cooke, C. Wythe) Lake Cenozoic geology of southern
Florida, with a discussion of the ground water: Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 27.
1955 (and Ferguson, G. E., Love, S. K., and others) Water resources
of southeastern Florida, with special reference to the geology and
ground water of the Miami area: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply
Paper 1255.
Paulhus, Joseph L. H. (see Linsley)
Stringfield, V. T.
1936 Artesian water in the Florida Peninsula: U.S. Geol. Survey
Water-Supply Paper 773-C.


67







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

TABLE 3. Water-Level Measurements in Observation Wells


Water level
below measuring
point, in feet'


Well


Date


Water level
below measuring
point, in feett


14 11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56


273


274

275

276


283

302






309






313





324






331


9-22-52
1-19-56
9-18-52

9-23-52

9.23-52
1-19-56
9-29-52

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

10-22-52


68


Well


Date


424







429

430

432

440


19.85
20.21
20.84
21.56
22.66
23.00

+12.6
+14.1

+-17.0

+412.8

+16.6
+15.5
+ 4.8
11.0
11.02
11.38
11.88
13.43
13.34

25.09
25.17
25.21
25.53
26.47
26.23

14.98
15.24
15.40
15.75
16.62

12.61
12.66
12.88
13.14
14.11
12.76

-+12.5


443





444





445


441




442


9-26-52
10- 3-52
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

8-22-52

8-22-52

8-22-52

2- 8-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
1-13-56

12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

1.2-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56


4.75
4.78
3.73
4.32
4.25
4.54
4.07

5.78

6.52

4.60

9.00
7.92
9.33
8.50

4.56
4.78
4.51
4.60

7.27
7.19
6.96
8.15
6.81

5.75
5.73
5.57
6.59
5.65

6.35
6.49
6.66
7.13
5.87

7.21
7.35
7.64
7.86


______I _I__~


__


__


__ __







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 19


Table 3. (Continued)


Water level
below measuring
point, in feet,


Well


Date


Water level
below measuring
point, in feet


446






447





448





449


5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56


450 12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56


451




452


12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56


Well


Date


8.56
6.83

5.51
5.66
5.99
6.28
7.17
5.29

3.58
3.67
3.87
4.95
3.29

4.97
5.72
6.34
7.13
5.58

3.57
3.87
4.09
4.31
3.20

5.16
5.37
5.62
6.22
5.22

3.94
4.34
5.19
5.81

9.01
8.96
9.23
9.29
10.22
9.24


453






454






455






456




457

458

459






460






461


11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56

12-15-55

10-10-55

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55


9.18
9.52
9.81
10.04
10.84
10.80
5.81
5.67
5.90
5.89
6.61
5.43

14.16
14.24
14.44
14.70
15.68
14.33
3.57
4.12
4.64
3.1

18.56

24.52

7.41
7.51
7.75
7.96
8.97
8.75

21.29
21.56
21.84
22.07
22.92
22.71

8.54
8.37


__ __ ~ 1__1___


_I___


_


69







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 3. (Continued)


Water level
below measuring
point, in feet'


1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56


Well


8.33
8,35
9.10
8.76

3.82
3.93
4.30
5.29
4.83

30.05
30.15
30.36
30.55
31.31

16.48
16.40
16.54
16.74
17.60
17.19

3.81
3.74
3.64
4.02
4.71
4.24

5.79
5.71
5.56
5.95
6.59
6.06

4.33
4.30
4.09
4.43
5.02
4.60


Date


468






469






470






471





472





473





474





475


Water level
below measuring
point, in feetx


11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
.5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
1-25-56
3-13-56


Well


Date


5.09
4.92
4.76
4.84
5.62
5.30
2.78
2.75
2.38
2.95
3.51
2.89
4.96
4.84
4.69
4.99
5.57
5.12
12.45
12.53
12.79
13.80
13.57
3.15
3.20
3.67
5.00
4.93
4.74
4.80
5.28
6.63
6.55
2.30
2.70
2.99
4.43
4.31
4.60
4.25


462





463





464






465






466






467


12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56


II______ L


70







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19

Table 3. (Continued)


Water level
below measuring
point, in feetl


5.95
5.90

65.06
65.28
65.73
66.09
66.65
67.06

43.51
43.70
44.38
22.19
22.38
23.67
23.01
24.04


Well


484


485



486






487


476






477



478





479




480




481





482




483


11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56

12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56

12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
>1


488





489





490






491


Date


5-29-56
7-10-56


Water level
below measuring
point, in feet,


12-15-55
1-25-56

3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
11-25-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
11-25-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
11-25-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

11-25-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

1-25-56
3-13-56


71


Date


18.42
18.64

19.37
20.44
20.80

4.76
5.00
5.74
18.88
19.40
19.93
20.41
21.47
21.13
20.93
21.40
21.73
22.46
23.52
23.18

4.88
5.54
5.93
7.04
6.97

7.08
7.49
7.13
7.99
7.63

7.34
7.35
7.42
7.51
9.42
9.12

7.98
8.10


2.94
3.09
3.37
4.53


5.58
5.66
5.76
6.04

16.45
17.22
16.93
17.45
17.99

47.18
47.33
42.91
47.44

3.07
3.35
3.62
5.31
3.25


__l__ll~_m____ _____________ ___~____~___F_~_~ ~__


C _I~ ~


I_


I






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 3. (Continued)


Water level
below measuring
point, in feet'


492




493




494





495





496





497


498

499


500

501

502


Well


1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
10- 3-52
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

9-26-52
10- 3-52
1-25-56
3-13-56
7-10-56

9-26-52
10- 3-52
1-25-56
3-13-56
7-10-56
9-26-52
10- 3-52

10- 3-52
9-26-52
10- 3-52
9-25-52

9-26-52
10- 3-62
9-26-52
10- 3-52


Date


2.58
2.82
3.99
4.28
4.58
4.94
6.51
6.64

7.99
8.24
8.04
8.60
8.27

5.47
5.39
5.48
5.54
5.54

4.48
.448
4.73
4.72
4.68

5.72
4.82

4.50

4.13
3.43

+7.5

5.62
5.37
3.10
3.20


Water level
below measuring
point, in feet.


503


505
506

508


509


510


512


514


515


518


519


520

521

522

523

524

526

527


'Feet above measuring point when prefaced


by plus sign.


Well


9-26-52
10- 3-52

10- 3-52
10- 2-52

9-26-52
10- 3-52

9-26-52
10- 3-52

9-26-52
10- 3-52

9-26-52
10- 3-52

9-26-52
10- 3-52

9-26-52
10- 3-52

9-26-52
10- 3-52

9-26-52
10- 3-52

10- 3-52

10- 3-52

8-21-52

8-21-52

8-21-52

10- 3-52

10- 3-52


Date


2.72
2.74.

4.50

0.50
1.28
1.70

6.72
6.45

5.80
5.79

4.09
4.08

5.08
5.27

11.88
10.53

5.45
5.05

3.17
2.86

3.67

5.10

1.23

6.28

1.17

3.64

5.58


J .


__


__


_ _____


72



























































































































I


I









REDUCTIU






4y u w U: s, r14-d; UI 4t ; -UlAD,, r ),I i l. ; J, jeted. 'I
N. *tt P; P. Yiplbr. Ty'p ur, q r: E. l .t'~ T, n* u* }l dtw.;
Itet. azUrulita oinjt dW..iiJtriw;o4;u t14. aws id r; P o* L*ae u4


T a'e 4. 4.4uV44w 4 WoUM


>ms 44' emiit: Ui, bl-C *irU; uL Q1 IYVI f4t ijun. hpw 4 Vf %#UUIR": C. 'sitiUL44gaI; C'y, cY.4444; J, jot:
tH. bad; N;, 44u4. UrL u4 wellu: u 4 aumwlci; 1, kjri*atiw; 0(, uriv*twU-U; paublik supp y; S, taL; T,
pwunt; 14, laund auail-c; N-, ail; e, f to. uf cui<. Altiug 4; e> utunasd.


Well Fied
No. No.


14
278
274
275
276
2883
802
8304
809
818
324
831
358
424
425
429
430
482
433


N.3A
N-.A
N-OB
N-6A
0-7





M-4

M-2
M-10
Z-2
Z-1
Z-3


fyp WfW
WtI wwell
well (ft.)


Owner


U.S.G.S.
J. J. Hendry
J. U. Mitchel
F. J. Wse
Hendry
Melvin Brothers Cu.
Unknown
J. A. Cook
R. Fitzgerald
C. L. Sowell
Edna Carltun
W. W. Womble
Sebring Packing Co.
U.S.G.S.
-do-
Unknown
--do-
-do--
U.S.G.S.


-do-

-do-


M-7 Durrance
M-8 U.S.G.S.

M-9 -do-


509 N-1 -do-
810 N-8 -do-

511 N-4 -do-
512 N-6 -do-
618 N-6 -do-
614 N-7 -do-


0-1 -do-
0-4 -do-


0-5
0-6
0-6A
0-8
0-8A
A-1
A-2
A-8
A-4
C-1
C-2
T-1

T-2
T-8
T-4
T-5
T-6


--do-
-do-
-do-
-do-
-do-
-do-
-do-
-do-
-do-
-do-
-do-
-do-

-do-
-do--
-do--
-do-
-do-


434 ... -do-
435 ...... -do-
436 ... -do-
437 ... -do
438 -do-
440 ... -do-
441 .. Tobler
442 -- U.S.G.S.
448 -- -do-
444 -- -do-
445 -- -do-
446 .. -do-
447 .- -do-
448 -do-
449 .. -do-
450 .... -do-
451 ..... -do-
452 -do-
453 ._ J. Reichardt
454 -_ U.S.G.S.
455 Edna Carlton
456 _-- U.S.G.S.
457 -- Jesse Durrance
458 Chambers
459 __ H. Roberts
460 .... J, C. Durrance
461 __ J. A. Reninger
462 U.S.G.S.
468 .... H. H. Brown
404 .. V. P. Davis
465 .... S. Hawthorn
466 __ E. Albritton
467 ... L. Henderson
468 ..... B. J. Harris
469 --- E. Albritton
470 .... R. A. Fitzgerald
471 U.S.G.S.
472 -do-
478 .... -do-
474 .... -do-
475 ... -do-
476 ... Consolidated Naval
Stores
477 G. Kelsey
478 .... Consolidated Naval
Stores
479 ...... U.S.G.S.
480 ...... N. H. Edgemon
481 ..... U.S.G.S.
482 ...... Consolidated Naval
Stores
488 .. U.S.G.S.
484 Unknown
486 .. J J. Roosevelt
486 .... E. L. Taylor
487 ...... -do-
488 .... U.S.G.S.
489 ...... -do-
490 ...... Palm Corp.
491 ...... U.S.G.S.
492 ..... -do-
498 .... -do-
494 N-2 Negro Labor House
495 0-2 U.S.G.S.
496 0-3 -do-

497 P-1 -do-
498 P-2 -do-
499 P-8 -do-
500 P-4 Unknown
501 Q-1 U.S.G.S.
502 M-1 -do-

508 M-8 -do-


SWASW'A see. 86, T. 86 S., R. 30 IE.
NW'ANWY4 sec. 0, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
NWNW%: sec. 6, T. 87 S., R. 31 E.
NE4SW% see. 28, T. 86 S., R. 80 E.
NESEI sec. 28, T. 86 S., R. 80 E.
NEI SE see. 28, T. 36 S., R. 80 E.
SEIANE, sec. 28, T. 86 S., R, 80 E.
NW%4NW' sec. 20, T. 85 S., R. 30 E.
NEIANEA sec. 29, T. 86 S., R. 80 E.
SE DSE% sec. 2, T. 87 S., R. 29 E.

NW SWA sec., 9, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
NESWWA sec. 9, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.
NWkNW% see. 10, T. 87 8,, 80 IE.
NWkNWI see. 10, T. 87 S., R, 80 E.
NW4ANW% sec. 10, T. 87 .,, R. 80 E.


WNE NW' W ~o. 4, T. 34S., t. 3u E.
SW4NW seerc. 23, T. 87 S., i. 30 E.
SW NE NW see. 23, T. 37 S. t. 30 E.
SW4NE i ec. 23, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
SWE W NE soe. 1, T. 37 S., R. 30 E,
NE i NW ac. 7, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
N"E Ii N W 'A sec. 7, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
NE~NE l sec. 7, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
SWUSE 4 sec. 8, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
NENE% sec. 12, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
SWuNW&A see. 25, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
NWNE% sec. 2, T. 38 S., R. 30 E.
Center see. 17, T. 38 S., R. 30 E.
SEViSW% sec. 35, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
SW SiSW% sec. 31, T. 37 S.,R. 31 E.
NW% NE% sec. 29, T. 35 S., R. 31 E.
NE%NW% sec. 29, T. 35 S.,R. 31 E.
NENE% sec. 29, T. 85 S., R. 81 E.
SEI SWV sec. 36, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
NE4NE 4 see. 2, T. 38 S., R. 30 E.
SESW% sec. 35, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
NW'NEk sec. 3, T. 88 S., R. 30 E.
NWNWS sec. 2, T. 38 S., R. 29 E.

NENE% see. 5, T. 38 S., R. 29 E.
SW4SW% sec. 10, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
SWWNW' see. 11, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
NW%NE% sec. 11, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
NWNEA sec. 11, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
NENE' sec. 14, T. 87 S., R. 29 E.
NE %NEV aec. 23, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
NWANE% see. 28, T. 87 S., R. 29 E.
SW4SW% sec. 2, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
NE iSE% sec. 26, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
NE>/NE1k see. 35, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
SE3 SEy sec. 35, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
SE SE 1 sec. 85, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
SE%SW% sec. 1, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
NE VNEV1 sec. 12, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
SWNW4 sec. 12, T. 87 S., R. 29 E.
SW1NW4 sec. 25, T. 87 S., R. 29 E.
SW'ASE'4 sec. 36, T. 87 S., R. 29 E.
NWSW% sec. 6, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
NW4SW4 sec. 6, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
NWSW% sec. 6, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
SE 'NE/4 see. 18, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
SEASE% sec. 5, T. 37 S., R. 80 E.
NE NED sec. 8, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
SENE4 sec. 7, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
NW'SW' sec. 8, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.
NWkSWY4 sec. 8, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
NE 4SW/ see. 8, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
NE%'SW% see. 8, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
NW/,SE% sec. 8, T. 37 S., R. 80 E.
SWYSE4 see. 8, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
SW% SE4 see. 8, T. 37 S., R. 80 E.
SESE% sec. 8, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.
SE:4SE% sec. 8, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
SESEA sec. 8, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
SESW% sec. 9, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.
NE% NEV see. 16, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.

SW SW% sec. 17, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
SEASWI see. 17, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.

NENW% sec. 20, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
SEASE% sec. 20, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
SW4SW% see. 21, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
NW%NE% sec. 29, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.

NENW% sec. 29, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
NW4%SW% sec. 32, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
SWSWK4 see. 82, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
NWSEI 4 see. 88, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
SWNW4 sec. 28, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.
SWV4NW% sec. 28, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
SWNEI% see. 28, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.
SWyNW% see. 28, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
SEVNW4 sec. 21, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.
SE4'SW1/ see. 22, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
SWSE% sec. 22, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
SWSW% see. 27, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
SWNW% sec. 23, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
SEI4SW%, sec. 84, T. 86 S., R. 30 E.
SE 'SW% sec. 84, T. 86 S., R. 80 S.

NWSWA sec. 80, T. 36 S., R. 80 E.
NWSW% sec. 86, T. 86 S., R. 30 E.
NWSW4' sec. 86, T. 86 S., R. 80 E.
NW1SW% see. 86, T. 86 S., R. 80 E.
NWNEY4 see. 80, T. 86 S., R. 31 E.
NENW'A see. 2, T. 88 S., R. 80 E.

NENW% see. 2, T. 38 S., R. 80 E.

SE SE% sec. 85, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.

SE4SWA sec. 86, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.

NWNEID sec. 1, T. 38 S., R. 80 E.
NW1/NEN1 sec. 1, T. 88 S., R. 80 E.

SWSW% see. 81, T. 87 S., R. 31 E.

NW 4SWI, see. 28, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.
SW4%NW% sec. 28, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.

SW4NW46 see. 28, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.
SEiNWV sec. 28, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
SW1iNEV sec. 28, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.

NW4%SW'A see. 24, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.

NWV4NWV4 sec. 3, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
NWNINEW see. 3, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.

NWSINW'/ sec. 2, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.
SEID4SEV sec. 85, T. 86 S., R. 30 E.


Dr
)Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dn
Dr
Dn
Dn
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dn

Dn
Dr

Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dn
J
J
J
Dn,J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J

Dn
J
Dn
Dn
Dn
Dn
Dn
J
Dn
Dn
Dn
Dn
Dn
Dn
Dn

J
J
3
J
B


Disiterzw T),rv
tot WtIl oari
(ill.) calmlif


35
65
92.0
49.5

83.7
18.3
78.4
31.2
17.0
95.8
50.0
1,550
21
125.0
37.8
48.7
10.7
130

00
220
140
100
60
220
6.3
14.0
20.5
12.6
11.2
23.8
12.7
20.6
21.0
21.4
22.5
13.7
12.4
23.9
77.1
10.2
27.4
81.2
41.1
70.0
9.0
21.4
88.8
40
10.6
11.5
9.5
88.4
6.7
14.9
21.3
20.7
6.4
21.4
8.8


Type Type Uw
pump puwer well


F 1
F I
F D1
F D
F U,S
P H 0
N N P
N N O
P H D
C E D
N F D

N N 0
T


2
ti

2






1%

2
4
2





1'A



1%
1%
14
3
IA*

3
8
3
3
3
8

'A
6
1%
%


1%
1%



IV






%
1%


1%
2
2
1%4
%
1%
1%4
1%
1%
1%
2
1%
1%

46


T
T
S
T,O
T,O
T,O
T,O
T,O
T,O
0
D
O
O
O
O
0
0
0
O
O
O
O
O
O
D
O
D
D
O
D
D
0
D
D
D
D
I
I
I
I
0
0
0
0
0


mtekaurilla IPull

above
u' bcluw A
(--) lland
Descrip- surface
thin (ft.)


Tem
Tea
Tea
Tcu
Tea
Tea
Tea
up
Tea
Tea
Bp
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Bp
Tea
LS

LS
LS
LS
LS
LS
Tea
Bp
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Bp
Tea
Tea
Bp
Tea
Tea
Bp
Tea
Bp
Bp
Bp
Bp
Bp
Bs
Bp
Bp
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea


3.3
3.0
1.0
2.2
1.4
2.2
3.5
1.6
2.2
2.2
.5
1.0
.0
3.0

1.5
8.0
.8
0.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
2.8
1.9
8.0
.9
2.3
2.3
2.6
1.1
1.0
.6
.7
7.7
3.8
2.7
1.6
2.0
2.4
2.1
2.0
1.9
.0
4.1
.2
8.9
2.8
2.0
1.6
8.1
1.6
1.8
2.3
.2
1.1
2.7
.0
8.0


.ilLudc
abuve
MSL)


Rtesnarks


139.31 Equipped with recording gage
52.20 Flows 20 gpm
50.73 Flows 100 gpmi
40.20 Flows 3 gpin
44.95 Flows 100 gpmn
41.19 Flows 1 Ipm
100.93
138:01
111.52
101.61


104.93
50e
182e
60.70
84e



40e

50e
90e
11Se
140e
91.5
121.98
78.87
83.26
80.98
98.86
99.77
99.46
185e
108.96
110.42
137.46
188.19
90.76
94.45
87.06
106,46
114.28
102.71
108.48
92.50
118.48
91.80
89.84
118.80
105.28
90.98
91.54
88.47
87.49
88.86
90.88
99.85
91.52
98.22
92.70
92.58


Flows 5 gpm


Well destroyed



Test hole for lithologic
information.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Equipped with recording gage


Dn 71.1 2 GI N N 0 Tea .3 157.80
Dr 80.0 8 GI J E D Tea 0.5 185.21


27.0
23.7
10.5
27.2

54.1
4.7
24.3
28.0
29.4
23.4
15
21.0
14.6
5.0
3.6
8.5
8.0
21.9
6.8

8.0
17.9
30.9
111.6
on 9


2 GI
% GI
1% GI
1% GI


Bp
Tea
Bp
Tea

Tea
Tea
Bp
Tea
Tea
Bp
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Bp
Tea
Tea


4 None
a% GI
% GI
2 GI
ad flT


118.08
94.82
97.60
110.28

148.10
110.64
185.66
121.61
117.77
120.10
105.19
102.68
98.77
105.68
85.85
112.10
69.47
68.71
47.98

42.49
41.97
41.20
40.50
48.21


Initially Jetted to 28 ft. for litho.
logic information; well
finished at 6.8 ft.



Flows 20 gpm


S 8.4 % GI N N 0 Tea 1.7 78.08 Initially jetted to 20 ft. for
lithologic information; well
finished at 8.4 ft.
J 26.5 GI N N 0 Tea 2.5 58.38 Initially jetted to 80 ft. for
lithologic information; well
finished at 26.5 ft.
J 21.0 % None N N 0 LS .0 47e Test hole for lithologic
information.
J 6.8 GI N N 0 Tea 8.5 46.82 Initially jetted to 28 ft. for
lithologic information; well
finished at 6.8 ft.


Dr 42.1 1% GI P H S
J 21.0 % None N 0

J 15.9 % GI N N 0


B 5,0 % GI
J 12.0 % GI


40.91
89e

34.51


N N 0 Tea 4.0 71.78
N N 0 Tea 8.0 59.47


J 23.0 % GI N N 0 Tea
J 28.2 % GI N N 0 Tea
J 23.0 % None N N 0 LS

J 12.9 % GI N N 0 Tea


-2.0
S.0
.0

4.3


46.94
49.07
44.07

44.04


B 8.7 % GI N N 0 Tea 8.5 86.70
J 21.0 % None N N 0 LS 0.0 44e


21.0
22.2

19.8
0.1
15.6
11.1
8.0
8.0
4.8
18.9
22.0

7.5
0.0
5.0
4.0
8.0


None
GI
None
GI
GI
GI
GI
GI
GI
GI
GI
None

None
None
None
None
None


LS
Tea
LS
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
LS

LS
LS
LS
LS
LS


43e
42.87
89.05
39.26
40.88
85.88
77.81
66.80
58.58
60.96
45.66

95e
128e
105e
105e
105e


Test hole for lithologic
information.
Initially jetted to 27 ft. for
lithologic information; well
finished at 15.9 ft.

Initially jetted to 57 ft. for
lithologic information; well
finished at 12.0 ft.
Located in drainage ditch.

Test hole for lithologic
information
Initially jetted to 26 ft. for
lithologic information; well
finished at 12.9 ft.

Test hole for lithologic
information.
Do.











Test hole for lithologic
information.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.


851
816
517
518
819
820
521
522
528
524
682
526
527
528

529
880
S81
882
588


GI
GI P
GI N
None ....

None
None
None
None
None








TABLE 5. Record of Surface-Water Observation Points


Datum
of gage,
Num- in feet
ber Owner Location above MSL Remarks

OP-1 U.S.G.S. NEV/ SE1/ sec. 2, T. 37 S., R. 80 E. 65.38 Lake June in Winter, Surface Water Branch staff gage
OP-2 -do- NE /NE/4 sec. 13, T. 37 S., R. 29 E. 79.66 Lake Placid, Surface Water Branch staff gage and con-
tinous recorder
OP-3 -do- SW1/SE1/ sec. 17, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. 68.90 Lake Grassy, Surface Water Branch staff gage
OP-4 -do- SWINW1 sec. 5, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. -68.92 Lake Huntley, Surface Water Branch staff gage
OP-5 -do- NE1NEE sec. 31, T. 36 S., R. 30 E. 68.94 Lake Clay, Surface Water Branch staff gage
OP-6 -do- SW/SWY4 sec. 31, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. 100.19 Lake Annie, Surface Water Branch staff gage
OP-7 -do- NW1/SW1 sec. 6, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. 74.63 Lake Sirena, Surface Water Branch staff gage
OP-8 -do- NE/4SW1 sec. 6, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. 78.96 Lake Pearl, Surface Water Branch staff gage
OP-9 -do- SE/4NW1/ sec. 7, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. 84.41 Mirror Lake, Surface Water Branch staff gage and con-
tinuous recorder
OP-10 -do- NW1/SE1 sec. 6, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. 78.76 Lake McCoy, Surface Water Branch staff gage
OP-11 -do- NE% SE V sec. 12, T. 37 S., R. 29 E. 85.32 Lost Lake, temporary staff gage
OP-12 -do- NE /NEI/ sec. 29, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. 88.56 Buck Lake, temporary staff gage
OP-13 -do- SE 1/SE 1 sec. 20, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. 91.48 Excavation, temporary staff gage
OP-14 -do- NE1NE/4 sec. 3, T. 38 S., R. 30 E. 112.95 Do.
OP-15 -do- SW1SW/4 sec. 9, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. 89.67 Lake Grassy, temporary staff gage
OP-16 -do- SW/4SW/4 sec. 13, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. 90.35 Catfish Bay Canal, temporary staff gage




Hydrologic features of the Lake Istokpoga and Lake Placid areas, Highlands County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigatio...
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 Material Information
Title: Hydrologic features of the Lake Istokpoga and Lake Placid areas, Highlands County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 19 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Report of investigations 19 )
Physical Description: vii, 73 p. : maps (part fold.) tables (1 fold.) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kohout, Francis Anthony, 1924-
Meyer, Frederick W
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1959
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Groundwater -- Florida -- Highlands County   ( lcsh )
Water-supply -- Florida -- Highlands County   ( lcsh )
Groundwater -- Florida -- Istokpoga, Lake region   ( lcsh )
Water-supply -- Florida -- Istokpoga, Lake region   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by F. A. Kohout and F. W. Meyer
General Note: "Prepared by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District and the Florida Geological Survey."
General Note: "References": p. 67.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000958532
oclc - 01726033
notis - AES1342
lccn - a 59009958
System ID: UF00001203:00001

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Florida State Board of Conservation
        Page ii
    Transmittal letter
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Abstract
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
    General introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Geography
        Page 4 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 5
    Physiography
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Part I. Lake Istokpoga area, Highlands County, Florida
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Part II. Lake Placid area, Highlands County, Florida
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        44a
        44b
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 56
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Copyright
            Copyright
Full Text
f\\() ('-)0LcI) /) I'


STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Ernest Mitts, Director


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert 0. Vernon, Director






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19





HYDROLOGIC FEATURES
OF THE
LAKE ISTOKPOGA AND LAKE PLACID AREAS
HIGHLANDS COUNTY, FLORIDA


Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT
and the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
1959


A,,ii,


-i-





,7", 7 J
7 -(/ ( /


FLORIDA STATE BOARD

OF

CONSERVATION


LeROY COLLINS
Governor


R. A. GRAY
Secretary of State



J. EDWIN LARSON
Treasurer



THOMAS D. BAILEY
Superintendent Public Instruction


RICHARD ERVIN
Attorney General



RAY E. GREEN
Comptroller



NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture


ERNEST MITTS
Director of Conservation






LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


5lorida Qeoloqical Survey

Callakassee

May 27, 1959
MR. ERNEST MITTS, Director
FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


DEAR MR. MITTS:

The Florida Geological Survey is publishing as Florida Geologi-
cal Survey Report of Investigations No. 19, a report entitled,
"Hydrologic Features of the Lake Istokpoga and Lake Placid Areas,
Highlands County, Florida." This report was prepared by F. A.
Kahout and F. W. Meyer, in cooperation with the U. S. Geological
Survey and the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District.

The report presents the hydrologic features of a fairly compre-
hensive area in Highlands County, partially to evaluate the effect
on the ground water in the Highlands Ridge by the construction of
a canal to drain the Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin. The study in
the Lake Placid area is concerned primarily with lakes of the area
and contributes considerable data to an understanding of the
relations of climatology, hydrology and geology as factors in
controlling levels of lakes. The data here presented will be useful
in planning for further development of these areas.

Respectfully yours,
ROBERT 0. VERNON, Director





















































Completed manuscript received
November 15, 1958
Published by the Florida Geological Survey
E. 0. Painter Printing Company
DeLand, Florida
May 27, 1959



iv







ABSTRACT


The hydrologic features in a 165 square mile area surrounding
Lake Istokpoga, Florida, were studied during the fall of 1952, to
evaluate the effect of a proposed drainage canal south of Lake
Istokpoga on ground-water conditions in the Highlands Ridge and
Lake Istokpoga areas. An investigation of the influence of the
ground-water reservoir in the Lake Placid area on the water level
of the lake was started in the fall of 1955.
The Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin is a poorly drained area of
low topographic relief extending southeastward from Lake Istok-
poga; its western boundary is marked by a scarp that rises to a
sandy upland region of relatively great relief, referred to as the
Highlands Ridge.
In the first investigation, described in Part I, lithologic and hy-
drologic data were obtained from lines of wells and test holes. A
nonartesian aquifer and several shallow artesian aquifers occur
within the area of this investigation. Unconfined ground water
moves toward Lake Istokpoga, except at the southern end of the
lake where the ground water moves, under a low gradient, in a
southeasterly direction. The movement of water in the shallow
artesian aquifers is eastward from the scarp, but because of leakage
through the overlying confining beds, artesian pressure decreases
rapidly with increasing distance from the scarp.
The findings of the investigation indicate that the amount of
ground-water pickup in a canal extending southward from Lake
Istokpoga would not be excessive; also, because of evapotranspira-
tion losses, less ground water and surface water will be picked up
by a canal located at some distance from the scarp than by a canal
at the base of the scarp. If the proposed canal is routed through
locations where the expected altitudes of its water surface coincide
with the altitudes of the water table, the canal will not intercept
and drain the shallow ground water. If no excess ground-water
drainage occurs because of the canal, the water table in the ridge
section will not be affected and upward leakage from the shallow
artesian aquifers will not increase. Penetration of the artesian
gravel aquifer which approaches the ground surface south of State
Highway 70, would pose the greatest threat to the water levels of
the lakes in the ridge section. If the gravel aquifer were pene-
trated, the large drawdowns produced by the discharge could
conceivably extend upgradient beneath the ridge and affect the
water levels of the lakes.






In Part II, water-table contour maps and graphs of the fluctua-
tions of water level in Lake Placid and well 14 show that the lakes
of the ridge section are visible expressions of the water table. A
method of predicting the water level of Lake Placid after an
extended period without rainfall makes use of curves based on
ground-water recession rates. However, comparison of hydrographs
of an artesian well and Lake Placid indicates that the lake level
responds to pumping from the Floridan aquifer. The hydrographs
show an increasing utilization of water from the artesian system,
and this change in the hydrologic regimen may change the future
recession rate of Lake Placid.
In rising stages, the relation between water levels in well 14 and
Lake Placid is not consistent because of hydrologic conditions
existing on the west and south sides of the lake, where there is
little room for additional ground-water storage because the water
table is close to the land surface. The ground-water storage
capacity has a direct relation to flooding in the Lake Placid basin,
because as soon as the water table rises to the land surface all
further recharge to the aquifer is rejected, and direct runoff to
Lake Placid occurs.
Consideration is given to the quantity of water that percolates
downwardd from Lake Placid to the Floridan aquifer. A summation,
obtained by balancing the estimated quantities of inflow and out-
flow, the evaporation, and the change in stage of Lake Placid,
indicates that the downward leakage from the lake during the
first half of 1956 amounted to about two to three inches per month.



















TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Letter of transmittal -.----------- -----..............----------------------- iii
Abstract .............---------------........ .......--------------------....... ... v
General introduction -.---------------------------------------. 1
Location and extent of area -.--------..-.-- ........--------------- 1
Previous investigations -------------.-------. -------------.. ....... 1
Personnel and acknowledgments -..---..... -- ------------------ 2
Well-numbering system ------.....--------..--------4.........
Geography -........------------------ -----------------.... ... ..... .... .........----------------------.. 4
Climate -------------------------------.... ........ ......... .....------------ 4
Land use ---.... -----...-------------------------------------.. ...... ......... ..... 5
Physiography ..----.......-.........--.---.........---------- ---......... ---....... .. ....... ..-------------.. 6
Topography ..............----.......... ..-------------------------------------------- 6
Drainage ...--------... --....... --.. -...-.--.-... .------------------.................. 6
Part I Lake Istokpoga area, Highlands County, Florida .---- ----- 9
Part II Lake Placid area, Highlands County, Florida ..----------------... 35
References --..... ------------------------- -------------------................ ......... 66


ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page
1 Map of Highlands County, Florida, showing areas covered
by this report -------------------------------------------- 2
2 Map of Highlands County showing physiographic regions ...--------- 3











HYDROLOGIC FEATURES OF THE LAKE ISTOKPOGA AND
LAKE PLACID AREAS, HIGHLANDS COUNTY, FLORIDA

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

The hydrologic information presented in this report relates
primarily to the nonartesian and shallow artesian aquifers in
Highlands County, Florida, and is the result of two separate
investigations. The report is therefore divided into two parts:
Part I covers the area surrounding Lake Istokpoga, and Part II
covers an adjoining area, in the Highlands Ridge section, lying
immediately west of the scarp separating the ridge section from
the Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin. The two areas overlap slightly
along their common side, and certain phases of the two investiga-
tions also overlap.
The investigations have different objectives, were made at
different times, and are therefore considered separate entities.
Information that pertains to both is presented in the general
introduction, and specific information concerning each
investigation is presented separately in Parts I and II.

LOCATION AND EXTENT OF AREA
The area described in this report is in Highlands County, in the
central part of Florida (figs. 1, 2). The Lake Istokpoga region
contains approximately 165 square miles, and the Lake Placid
region contains approximately 65 square miles-a total of 230
square miles.

PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS
The general geology of the area has been described by Parker
and Cooke (1944), Cooke (1945), Parker, Ferguson, Love and
others (1955), and many others. A report by Stringfield (1936)
describes the occurrence of artesian water in the principal artesian
aquifer (Floridan aquifer) in peninsular Florida.
A study by Bishop (1956) describes the geology and ground-
water resources of Highlands County, and a study by the
Engineering Department of the Central and Southern Florida Flood
Control District gives much information on the control of floods in
the area investigated. These publications have been used freely in
the preparation of this report.






2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


A 20B E s C I 31 E 0 i R S2 I n 33 E I











Si













S4








SCALE IN MILES

Figure 1. Map of Highlands County, Florida, showing areas covered by this
report.
PERSONNEL AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors are indebted to many persons who contributed
information and assistance in the field. Messrs. T. J. Durrance and
J. C. Durrance provided background information on ranches in the
Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin during the first field investigation,
described in Part I of this report. Mr. L. E. Tisdale, grove
manager for Consolidated Naval Stores Company, helped in the
reclamation of grove wells for observation purposes during the

investigation described in Part II.
p ^s^^ K'z z^ i --^- --N











L \ .V -li ---------------














investigation described in Part II.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 19


- 0 2 4 6 10
Figure 2. Map of Highlands County showing physiographic regions.
The field work upon which Part I of the report is based was
accomplished with the able assistance of E. W. Bishop, formerly
with the U. S. Geological Survey and now with the Florida Geo-
logical Survey, and C. B. Sherwood, Jr., of the U. S. Geological
Survey; H. J. Voegtle of the U. S. Geological Survey aided in the
field work for Part II of the report. Thanks are extended also to
A. 0. Patterson and Richard C. Heath, U. S. Geological Survey, and
to Robert L. Taylor, of the Central and Southern Florida Flood
Control District, for supplying water-level and discharge data on
the lakes and streams of the area.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


WELL-NUMBERING SYSTEM

The wells in this report are numbered consecutively to conform
with the numbering system used in the past for Highlands County.
The number thus assigned is the office number. Because the wells
in the first area are arranged in lines, a field number also has been
assigned to each well. The field number consists of a letter cor-
responding to the designation of the line and the position of the
well in the line; thus, well N-2 is the second well in line N. Both
field and office numbers are given in the table of well records (table
4), but in Part I only the field number is referred to.
In the second area of investigation, staff gages installed in
ponds or lakes were used as observation points and these are in-
dicated in Part II by a number prefixed by the letters "OP" (table
5). Uncased holes that were drilled to determine lithology are in-
dicated by the letter "T".
The locations of wells and staff gages are shown in the well-
location maps for the separate parts of the report.


GEOGRAPHY

CLIMATE

The climate of Highlands County is subtropical and is
characterized by warm summers and moderately cool winters. The
rainfall is seasonal, approximately 75 percent of it occurring during
the months from May through October.
The U. S. Weather Bureau has collected climatological data at
Avon Park, about 25 miles northwest of the area of this report,
since 1892, and at the city of Lake Placid since about 1937. Because
of the intermittent nature of the record at Lake Placid, that at Avon
Park was selected to indicate the average climate of the area.
The mean annual temperature at Avon Park is 73.10F, the mean
January temperature is 63.20F, and the mean August temperature
is 82.0F. The average annual rainfall for 58 years of complete
record (1893-1896, 1902-1955) is 52.22 inches. In 1953, the wettest
year on record, the total rainfall was 80.08 inches; in 1955, the
driest year on record, the total rainfall was 34.86 inches.
A comparison of the annual rainfall at Avon Park with that at
Lake Placid, for the years of complete record at both stations, is
shown in the following table.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19


Rainfall at Rainfall at
Lake Placid Avon Park Difference
Year (inches) (inches) (inches)

1938 37.53 37.12 0.41
1939 71.12 62.51 8.61
1943 56.73 51.01 5.72
1944 36.68 47.68 11.00
1945 50.65 54.66 4.01
1946 34.57 50.70 16.13
1947 72.83 74.29 1.46
1952 49.32 55.89 6.57
1953 74.71 80.08 5.37
1954 52.77 54.55 1.78
1955 39.10 34.86 4.24


The relatively large differences in rainfall between stations only
25 miles apart indicate the erratic distribution of rainfall in the
area.


LAND USE

Within the area of this report, the land is used principally for
agriculture. Citrus fruit, the major export crop, is grown near the
lakes of the ridge section, and the lake water is used for irrigation
during the dry winter season, when the fruit ripens. A large part
of the Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin south of Lake Istokpoga is
used for raising cattle. Cattle are raised also in those parts of the
ridge section which have not been converted to grove land. New
land is being cleared for both types of agriculture, but there is a
trend to increase the grove acreages at the expense of grazing
acreage. Nursery plants such as caladiums and Easter lilies are
grown in the dark peat soils (referred to as muck) along the
scarp between the ridge section and the Lake Istokpoga flat. These
plants are exported to northern floral shops, and the proceeds are
a relatively small but important part of the income of the area.
The value of property along the shorelines of the numerous
lakes of the ridge section has increased greatly in recent years,
because of the rapidly expanding tourist trade. Maintenance of
the water levels of the lakes at desirable altitudes is a primary
concern of property owners surrounding the lakes. This report
considers the water levels of the lakes in relation to the ground-
water regimen of the area.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


PHYSIOGRAPHY

TOPOGRAPHY

Highlands County has been subdivided by Davis (1943, p. 45-51,
fig. 1) into four physiographic regions as follows: (1) the Western
Flatlands, (2) the Highlands Ridge, (3) the Istokpoga-Indian
Prairie Basin, and (4) the Eastern Flatlands. The geographic
locations of the four physiographic regions are shown in figure 2
(reproduced after Bishop, 1956, fig. 2). The area investigated for
this report includes the Highlands Ridge section and the Istokpoga-
Indian Prairie Basin; therefore, the topography of only these
regions will be described.
The Highlands Ridge section is an undulating upland area
having an outline similar to that of the Florida Peninsula as a
whole. The underlying materials consist predominantly of sand.
The collapse of caverns formed in the limestone underlying the
ridge at depth causes the formation of circular lakes or sinks, and
in places a typical karst topography has been formed. The sedi-
ments forming the surface of the ridge have been reworked by wind
and wave action and quiescent sand dunes and sand bars are well
preserved. The altitude of the ridge section in the area ranges
from 40 to 160 feet, making the total relief about 120 feet.
The Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin is a flat, poorly drained,
swampy area extending southeastward from Lake Istokpoga. The
underlying materials consist of peat, sand, or sandy clay, according
to the locality. In the part of the basin investigated for this re-
port, the altitude of the land surface ranges from 30 to 40 feet
above mean sea level.

DRAINAGE

With the exception of Lake Grassy, the large lakes of the ridge
are connected by small streams or drainage canals (fig. 1). Lakes
Annie, Placid, June in Winter, and Frances are referred to as the
upper chain of lakes, and they drain northward through a tribu-
tary of Josephine Creek. Lakes Grassy, Huntley, Clay, and
Apthorpe are referred to as the lower chain of lakes, and also they
drain northward to Josephine Creek. At present, Lake Grassy
has no surface outlet to Lake Huntley, but tentative plans propose
that it will be included in the drainage system of the lower chain
of lakes by the construction of a culvert between it and Lake
Huntley. Lake Grassy overflows eastward from its northeastern





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 19


edge, across a shallow divide in the ridge section, during periods
of extremely high water levels. The water moves through the
troughs between sand dunes, more or less as sheet flow, and then
discharges into the Lake Istokpoga basin over the scrap separating
the ridge and basin.
The runoff of all the lakes in the ridge section except Lake
Grassy is drained eastward through Josephine Creek or southeast-
ward through Arbuckle Creek to Lake Istokpoga. Under
normal conditions, this runoff passes through the Istokpoga Canal
to the Kissimmee River and thence southeastward to Lake
Okeechobee. Under heavy recharge conditions accompanying the
passage of a hurricane, the combined runoff is too great to be
handled by the present drainage system; then Lake Istokpoga swells
out of its banks and floods large areas to the southeast.





























Part I

LAKE ISTOKPOGA AREA, HIGHLANDS COUNTY, FLORIDA

By

F. A. Kohou -














TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Introduction ............. ................................ .. ............. ..... ...------------------------------- 13
Purpose and scope of investigation ... -------............-------------------...... 13
Method of investigation ............-- --.......-----........------------------ 14
Lithology and ground-water movement along well lines ---------------.... 15
Ground water related to Lake Istokpoga ----------------------15
LineO ...------------..........-.....-...........-........---------------------------------- 15
Lithology .------------------------------------------15
Ground water ........-------........ .....----------------------- 17
Line P-O ....--................-----------...---.... ------------------ 20
Ground water ---- ---------------------- ------------ 20
Line N -...-....-....-.........--------.--------.......... ---.-..---..------------.. 20
Lithology --- ------------------ -------------------20
Ground water -- ------------------------------------ 23
LineM ......------.... ---........ ....----- -------------------- -----------23
Lithology ------.... -----......------------3-------------------23
Ground water ------------- -------- -------------- 23
Hydrology --.............-.....-- ..---.......---------....---------------.........--------------.... 25
Shallow nonartesian aquifer -------------------------------26
Leakage from artesian aquifers ...-----.------.. ------------------.... 29
Conclusions ----------------------------------------------31



ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page
3 Map of the Lake Istokpoga area showing locations of wells ----- 16
4 Cross sections showing slope of the water table along well
lines in relation to the water surface of Lake Istokpoga ---------17
5 Hydrographs showing average monthly water levels in wells
10 and 11 and Lake Istokpoga .--..............----------.........------------------ 18
6 Cross section showing lithologic and hydrologic characteris-
tics from west to east, along line 0 ...................--------------..............----------19
7 Cross section showing lithologic and hydrologic characteris-
tics from north to south, along line P-0 -----... ...---------------- 21
8 Cross section showing lithologic and hydrologic charac-
teristics from west to east, along line N ..-------. .....--------------.22
9 Cross section showing lithologic and hydrologic characteris-
tics from west to east, along line M .-..---.......----....................---------.------.............24









Part I


HYDROLOGIC FEATURES OF THE LAKE ISTOKPOGA AREA,
HIGHLANDS COUNTY, FLORIDA

INTRODUCTION

The Lake Istokpoga area of Florida is in the Istokpoga-Indian
Prairie Basin section of Highlands County. The western boundary
generally parallels and lies immediately west of the scarp that
separates the Highlands Ridge section from the Lake Istokpoga
basin.
The Lake Istokpoga area is approximately 18 miles long and
ranges in width from about 10 miles at the northern extremity,
slightly north of the north shore of Lake Istokpoga, to about 7
miles at the southern extremity, just south of State Highway 70.

PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION

The Lake Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin is a poorly drained
area of low topographic relief. Lake Istokpoga rises out of its
banks, during periods of heavy rainfall, and floods vast areas of
land to the south. Prior to the construction of the Indian Prairie
and Harney Pond canals, surface water moved southward toward
Lakd Okeechobee by sheet flow. Since installation of the canals,
the flow tends to be confined to definite channels. A part of the
excess water is drained into the Kissimmee River through the
Istokpoga Canal, and this increases flooding in the Kissimmee
River valley below the canal outlet.
To help alleviate the flooding of both the Indian Prairie Basin
and the Kissimmee River valley, the U. S. Corps of Engineers pro-
posed that a levee be constructed around the southeast side of Lake
Istokpoga. The floodwaters from the Arbuckle-Josephine Creek
drainage system then would be diverted southward from the
Istokpoga Canal Kissimmee River system directly to Lake
Okeechobee, via canals. One proposed canal would be an extension
of the Harney Pond Canal (fig. 1).
Because of suspected geologic conditions, it was anticipated
that improper construction of a canal in the area south of Lake
Istokpoga might adversely affect ground-water conditions as well
as the operation of the canal. It was decided that an investigation
should be made by the U. S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District, to gain
an understanding of the problems that might be encountered. The
ultimate objective of the investigation was to determine what effect
canals would have on ground-water conditions in the Lake Istokpoga
and Highlands Ridge areas. Among the questions to be answered
were the following:
1. What is the relation of the water table to the water surface
of Lake Istokpoga? Would the ground water tend to flow through
the canal into (rather than out of) Lake Istokpoga because of a
water-table gradient toward the lake?
2. Would the amount of ground-water pickup in the canal be
large enough to negate the usefulness of such a canal in discharging
ponlded surface water?
3:. What effect would ground-water drainage in the Lake
lstokpoga area have on the water table of Highlands Ridge and
the water levels of the lakes in the ridge section?
4. What would be the approximate increase in the upward
leakage from the several shallow artesian aquifers, and what effect
would the leakage have on the water levels of the lakes in the
ridge section ?
Most of the basic data were gathered during a 3-week period
in the latter part of September 1952. The investigation was made
under the general supervision of A. N. Sayre, Chief of the Ground
Water Branch of the U. S. Geological Survey, and under the
immediate supervision of N. D. Hoy, District Geologist for southern
Florida at the time of the investigation.

METHOD OF INVESTIGATION
Around the northern two-thirds of Lake Istokpoga the
investigation was limited to establishing the altitudes of existing
wells and measuring water levels, in order to determine the water-
table gradient in relation to the water surface of the lake. The
area around the southern part of the lake, southward to State
Highway 70, was studied in greater detail.
Lithologic and hydrologic data were obtained from east-west
lines of wells and test holes perpendicular to the scarp of Highlands
Ridge. The wells and test holes were installed by the jetting
technique. The wells were constructed of %,-inch pipe and finished
with an attached brass strainer. Each well was pumped with a
pitcher pump after installation, to make sure that the well was open






'REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19


so that accurate measurements of water level could be obtained.
Permeability of samples of the sand aquifers was determined by
the permeameter method in the laboratory. Altitudes of all wells
were determined by spirit level and were referred to mean sea level
or to the water surface of Lake Istokpoga.
The lines of wells, starting at the northwest corner of Lake
Istokpoga, are designated as follows: C, A, 0 (along State Highway
621), P-0 (on the south side of the lake), N (along east-west Parker
Island Road), M (along State Highway 70), and Q and Z (on the
east side of the lake) (fig. 3).

LITHOLOGY AND GROUND-WATER MOVEMENT
ALONG WELL LINES

GROUND WATER RELATED TO LAKE ISTOKPOGA

Figure 4 shows the slope of the water table along lines C, A,
P-0, and Z in relation to the water surface of Lake Istokpoga. The
water-table gradient is toward the lake on all lines except the north-
south line P-0, at the south end of the lake. Thus, ground-
water movement is toward the lake except at the extreme southern
end where a small quantity of water moves in a southeasterly
direction. Analysis of cross sections for line 0 (fig. 6) and line
P-0 (fig. 7) shows that the greatest component of slope and
ground-water movement is in an easterly direction from the
southern end of the lake, and that very little water moves
southward.
Hydrographs showing the average monthly water levels in
shallow water-table wells 10 and 11 and Lake Istokpoga are
presented in figure 5. The close correlation of the hydrographs, the
water-table gradients of figure 4, and the subsurface geology
indicate that Lake Istokpoga is a surface expression of ground
water-where the water table intersects a natural land-surface
depression. The lake is within the pattern of regional southeastward
movement of ground water from the ridge section.

LINE O

LITHOLOGY
The lithology of the rocks along 0 line, along State Highway
621, is shown in generalized form in figure 6. Bed 1, a thick section
of sand penetrated by well 0-1, thins and interfingers with peat







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


R30E R 31 E


LAKE /STOKPOGA


AND 8A


EXPLANATION
-.oL-o-o3-
LINE OF WELLS
*
WELL, EQUIPPED
WITH RECORDER


Figure 3. Map of the Lake Istokpoga area showing locations of wells.

eastward from the scarp. Bed 2, a confining bed composed of blue-
gray sandy clay or marl, averages three feet in thickness and
underlies the sand and peat. Bed 3, an aquifer, consists of fine to


16


R 29 E






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19


DISTANCE, IN FEET FROM LAKE ISTOKPOGA


Figure 4. Cross sections showing slope of the water table along well lines in
relation to the water surface of Lake Istokpoga.

coarse sand. Bed 4, a confining bed, is mainly very fine blue-gray
sandy clay interbedded with shell layers. Bed 5, the aquifer of well
0-7, is relatively permeable, but its constituents are unknown.

GROUND WATER

The water levels in wells are referred to mean sea level and
the short dashed line in figure 6 indicates the position of the water
table in the observation wells. The gradient of the water table
along the scarp is steeper than it is in the Istokpoga flat. This is
due mostly to the fact that the land surface is much higher west
of the scarp, and the water table conforms generally to the
configuration of the land surface.
Ground-water movement is from west to east, downgradient.
The ground-water divide is obviously a considerable distance west


17








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


g '


90



89



88



87



86



85


49




'48


45 1_1V-_
45

40
LAKE I$TOKPOGA

39 -A



38


37-


36 .LJ.LLLLLiL L LL J.In S ..lLLL L....
1949 1950 1951
Figure 5. Hydrographs showing average monthly water levels in wells 10 and
11 and Lake Istokpoga. 4,
















0


o
S SN ASU R FACE -E M . .
S 0 LANDWURFAC 0 AFTER TA LE 00 0
S-- -----






a
S..,SAND

A4U21FER (3)




CONFINING BED (4)
0
1--

AOUIFER (5)



Figure 6. Cross section showing lithologic and hydrologic characteristics from
west to east, along line 0.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


of well 0-1, beneath Highlands Ridge. Bed 2 probably pinches out
a short distance west of the scarp. Ground-water flow is thus split
by bed 2. Part of the ground water flows above bed 2, through the
sand (bed 1) and the peat, and part flows beneath it through bed
3. Bed 5, like bed 3, also has a hydraulic connection with the re-
charge area on the ridge.
Water levels in the peat (see well 0-6A) are slightly lower than
in bed 3. This is probably caused by ditches surrounding diked
fields, which drain the peat but have little effect on water levels
below the confining bed. The differences in water level are not great,
however, and all the section between land surface and bed 4 may
be considered to belong to the nonartesian aquifer.
The relatively impermeable bed 4 holds the water of bed 5
under confinement, so that ground water that has entered bed 5
under the ridge is under pressure and has a tendency to leak up-
ward through bed 4. Well 0-7, which penetrates bed 5, flows at the
land surface. Its water level rises to the pressure (piezometric)
surface shown in figure 6.

LINE P-0
GROUND WATER

A north-south cross section from the southern end of Lake
latokpoga through wells P-1, 2, 3, 4 (all at the same location) to
wells 0-6 and 0-6A is shown in figure 7. The lithology is similar
to that along line 0.
Attention is called to the divergence of water levels at various
depths. The low water level in the peat is probably caused by
shallow drains, which have little effect below bed 2. The water level
of well P-3 in bed 4 is only slightly higher than that of well P-2 in
bed 3. The small difference in head causing upward movement of
water from bed 4 to bed 3 indicates that the upward leakage from
the artesian aquifer penetrated by well P-4 is not large.

LINE N

LITHOLOGY

The peat in the section of line N (fig. 8) occurs as a wedge
against the scarp and thins rapidly eastward to become a thin
mantle of organic detritus and soil. Bed 1 consists of clayey sand
and is underlain by a blue sandy clay or marl (bed 2) which pinches
out against the scarp. Bed 3, an aquifer, is composed of medium


20









DISTANCE, IN FEET FROM LAKE ISTOKPOGA
-I- i I


0


ZOMTR SURFA
- --PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE


-N i
a.0. LAND SURFACE
.-W.... TEAR rABLE OF (3)
--'--- -- r-------- '--,------- -------------------- ---------------'

PEAT (I)


CONFINING BED (2)


AQU/F R (3)


CONFINING


0 I
00


BED (4)


BOTTOM OF WELL
IS -7 FEET

Figure 7. Cross section showing lithologic and hydrologic characteristics from north to south, along line P-O.


+40


LAKE ISrOKPOGA


-J


5.-
I4J


114

I.-
III
114
I'


144

5.-
5...


*+10



*0



-10



,.-20


0









I.





*0

z-
Po


4















DISTANCE, IN FEET


3t


w






-+80



-.+60












,,o,
-+20

.40

I..-O


AOUIFER


CONFINING


AQUIFER


CONFINING


BED


BED


AQU/FER


Figure 8. Cross section showing lithologic and hydrologic characteristics from west to east, along line N.


,' '~kE' I
? 2 CD<~'---
r% -cT^^f
r .... rC $U AC* OF -"
' ,,'PEAT- Iz-
-T_. ----------- --- i


0





0
0=


>-


r

,4


I- ------- --


CT)


C3)


-1






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19
I


23


to coarse sand and extends westward beneath the scarp. Bed 4 is
an impermeable blue-gray sandy clay which grades laterally into
a very fine white sand, mixed with kaolin and mica flakes, beneath
the scarp. The coarse sand of bed 5 is moderately permeable, and
wells N-3A and N-6B, which penetrate it, flow at the surface. Bed
6 consists of blue-gray sandy clay. Bed 7 is a highly permeable
white quartz gravel containing pebbles up to half an inch in
diameter. It is penetrated by flowing wells N-4A and N-6A.

GROUND WATER
Shallow ground water underlying the area traversed by line N
moves eastward from the scarp in accordance with the water-table
gradient. This movement occurs both above and below bed 2. No
significant difference was noted in the water levels of beds 1 and
3; therefore, all the material down to bed 4 is considered to belong
to the nonartesian aquifer.
The piezometric surfaces in wells drilled through the confining
layers into beds 5 and 7 show the height to which water rises in
wells that penetrate these beds (fig. 8). The coarse sand of bed
5 is much less permeable than the gravel of bed 7. Although the
difference in head between the two aquifers is only three feet, the
wells in bed 7 flow an estimated 100 gpm as compared with 20 and
3 gpm for wells N-3A and N-6B, respectively.

LINE M
LITHOLOGY
The peat of line M (fig. 9) forms a wedge which thins rapidly
eastward from a maximum thickness of about 17 feet adjacent to
the scarp. Bed 1 is a confining lens of blue sandy clay. Bed 4
consists of medium to coarse quartz sand. Bed 3, which interfingers
with bed 4, is a lens of very coarse sand and white quartz pebbles.
Bed 2 has the same coarse grains as beds 3 and 4 but contains
considerable clay or marl, which markedly decreases its perme-
ability. Bed 5 consists of blue-gray sandy clay to pure clay and
interbedded shells and phosphate pebbles. Bed 6 is composed of
white quartz gravel and coarse sand which becomes clayey eastward
from the scarp.

GROUND WATER
Although locally confined, all the material from the land surface
down to the top of bed 5 constitutes the nonartesian aquifer. The















C'STANCE. IN FEET

t o 8 8










0-i i o
0 0 -3

y. CON\FII IG 8 --

,|.. n, 3 -




















Figure 9. Cross section showing lithologic and hydrologic characteristics from west to east, along line M.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19


shallow water table intersects the land surface at the scarp, where
ground water appears as springs. The piezometric surface of bed
6 has a relatively steep gradient, which declines about 30 feet
within a distance of 9,000 feet. The steep gradient is probably
caused by upward leakage near the scarp.

HYDROLOGY

According to Darcy's law, the discharge through a cross-
sectional area of water-bearing material can be computed by the
following formula:
Q = PIA
where: Q = the quantity of discharge, in gallons per day
P = the permeability of the material
I = the hydraulic gradient
A = the cross-sectional area through which the water passes.
In using Darcy's law to determine the approximate magnitude
of flow through a particular cross section, the area (A) is equal to
the thickness of water-bearing material multiplied by the length
of section (one mile for convenience) measured perpendicular to
the direction of ground-water movement. The hydraulic gradient
(I) is taken directly from the cross section and is equal to the
water-table gradient in feet per foot. The permeability of the
materials penetrated during installation of the observation wells
was determined in the laboratory by the permeameter method and
is shown in tabular form below:

Well Depth (feet) Permeability (P)
No. From To (gpd per sq. foot)
0-1 0 5.5 915
0-2 0 14 725
0-3 11.5 14 1,080
0-3 21 22 660
N-1 4 4.5 785
N-3 10 12 850
N-3 30 42 1270
N-3 54 55 580
N-7 11.5 16 660
M-1 3 5.5 850
M-3 19 21 520
M-3 23 25 310
M-9 6 8 280
'Laboratory determination much too high because kaolin, present in layers
in the bed, was washed out of the sample during jetting.


25






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


SHALLOW NONARTESIAN AQUIFER

As ground water moves eastward from the recharge area on
Highlands Ridge, the gradient of the water table is increased at the
scarp. A part of the total quantity of shallow ground water flowing
eastward from Highlands Ridge is lost to surface springs and the
remainder moves below the scrap, as ground water, to the Istokpoga
flat. The slope of the water table down the scarp cannot be used
in determining the quantity of ground-water discharge because it
is affected by surface discharge along the scarp as well as by the
movement of ground water. The relatively flat gradient below the
scarp can be used to approximate the magnitude of ground-water
flow through the shallow nonartesian aquifer. Data from well N-7
are used in the computation. The total thickness of beds 1 and 3
is 15 feet. Bed 2 contributes very little water and is disregarded
in the computation. The permeability of bed-3 samples, taken from
well N-7, is 660. This permeability is doubled for the computation,
to allow for the possibility that the sample is not representative
and that the average is higher. The gradient of two feet per
thousand feet is taken directly from the cross section in figure 8.
Q PIA
2
Q 1,320 x 1000 x 15 x 5,280
Q 210,000 gpd per mile or 0.32 cfs
The computed flow is representative of the general magnitude
of ground-water movement below the scarp on all well lines.
A drainage ditch three to four feet deep extends approximately
1.7 miles southward from State Highway 70 along the lower part of
the scarp. Since September 1952, four eastward outlet ditches from
the main drain have been measured periodically by the U. S.
Geological Survey. The total flow from the four outlets probably
represents the flow from springs farther up the scarp plus the
ground-water pickup in the drainage ditch. The total flow, in cubic
feet per second, on various dates in 1952 was a follows:
Sept. 11 4.1
Oct. 10 4.4
Oct. 24 5.5
Dividing by 1.7 miles, the length of the intercepting drain, the
flow ranges from 2.4 to 3.3 cfs per mile.
By comparing the computed ground-water flow below the scarp
(0.32 cfs) with the measured amount of pickup in the drain


26






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19


(3.3 cfs) it becomes obvious that most of the flow above the scarp
escapes by discharge from springs.
When the water is discharged from the springs, near the base
of the scarp, it evaporates rapidly. The abundant vegetation in
the marshlands along the base of the scarp transpires a large
amount of ground water into the atmosphere. The peat along the
base of the scarp acts as a spongelike confining bed, and, by holding
the ground water near the surface, it contributes greatly to the
large amount of evapotranspiration near the scarp. Because of
these great losses by evapotranspiration, the amount of water
available for interception by a canal diminishes with distance from
the scarp.
If a drainage canal were constructed at the base of the scarp,
most of the water formerly lost by evapotranspiration would be
transferred immediately to the drain. Reports from local residents
indicate that this actually happens. Shallow drains being dug in
the peat are reported to show a very sudden increase of flow when
they pass below the bottom of the peat.
The amount of ground water that a drainage canal will pick up
depends on the water level that is maintained in the canal. Suppose,
for example, that in the area south of Lake Istokpoga the water
level in a canal constructed parallel to the scarp (normal to the
direction of ground-water movement) is maintained at the level
of the water table. Ground water entering from the upgradient
side moves across the width of the canal and leaves through the
downgradient side; thus, the net pickup of ground water is zero,
although ground water is in transit across the canal.
If the water level in the canal is lower than the water table, a
gradient exists from both sides toward the canal and ground water
will drain into the canal. Drawdowns will extend progressively
farther away from the canal until natural discharge is salvaged or
recharge is increased in quantities large enough to balance the
drainage from the canal. Ground-water loss through seeps and
springs along the scarp is a form of discharge from the nonartesian
aquifer. If a drain were constructed near the base of the scarp,
no lowering of the water table in the ridge section would occur
unless the amount of ground water discharged by the drain were
greater than the discharge that could be salvaged from the spring
flow and evapotranspiration along the scarp. Thus, the scarp would
act as a sort of barrier or buffer that would tend to reduce the draw-
down that would extend upgradient into the ridge area.


27






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


With the data available in 1956, it was not feasible to predict
the amount of ground-water pickup to be expected in a drainage
ditch located along the scarp. However, the effect on ground-
water levels high in the ridge section would probably be negligible,
provided the water level in the drain were maintained within
reasonable proximity of the present water table. A canal
constructed a mile or more from the scarp would intercept less
ground water than a canal near the scarp and would have no effect
on water levels in the ridge section.
Analysis of well line P-0 (fig. 7) shows that the water table
has a slight gradient to the south. The P-0 section is almost
parallel to the ground-water contour lines, and the apparent
gradient is a component of the regional southeastward water-table
gradient. The following table shows the altitude of the water
table at wells in the eastern part of each well line on October 3,
1952.

Altitude of water table
Well No. (feet above msl)
Lake Istokpoga 37.75
P-2 37.47
0-( 37.32
N-7 38.77
M-9 32.81
M-6( 41.82
It is assumed here that, in order to drain water from Lake
Istokpoga, a canal having water-surface gradient of one foot in six
miles will be required. The distance from Lake Istokpoga to State
Highway 70 is six miles; hence, the water surface of the canal must
drop one foot in this distance, to a level of 36.75 feet. By use of
the preceding table it can be determined tentatively that a canal
starting from Lake Istokpoga should pass slightly west of P-2 and
0-6, east of well N-7, and, at State Highway 70, between wells M-9
and M-6 but closer to well M-6. The figures in the table are
presented to show that the canal can be located and designed so
that it will drain surface water but will have no effect upon ground-
water levels. There will be no effect on ground-water levels if the
water level in the canal is maintained at the level of the water
table. If, however, the drain were constructed so that the northern
part passed through well 0-3 (water-table altitude of 43.45 feet),
ground water would flow into the drain from both sides and a
general lowering of the water table would occur on both sides of
the ditch. If the southern part of the drain were constructed


28






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 19


through the locality of well M-9 (water-table altitude 32.81 feet),
the water in the canal (water-surface altitude 36.75 feet) would
leak to the water table under a head of almost four feet. The re-
charge thus provided to the nonartesian aquifer would produce a
general rise in ground-water levels in the vicinity of well M-9.

LEAKAGE FROM ARTESIAN AQUIFERS
The piezometric surface of an aquifer is the surface to which
water will rise in tightly cased wells that are open to the aquifer.
The piezometric surfaces of several shallow artesian aquifers are
indicated in figures 6, 7, 8, and 9, which show that the hydraulic
gradient is from west to east, from Highlands Ridge to the Lake
Istokpoga flat.
The hydraulic gradient along the several well lines is modified
by the amount of upward leakage from the aquifer through the
confining bed and by changes in the horizontal permeability of the
aquifer. For example, the relatively steep gradient along line M
may be due to a high rate of discharge by upward leakage, or it
may be due to only a moderate or low rate of discharge in an area
where the permeability of the aquifer is low and the steep gradient
is necessary to'maintain flow through the aquifer.
Upward leakage from an artesian aquifer along any of the
cross sections can be calculated by use of Darcy's law if the
vertical permeability of the confining bed is known. The head
difference between the artesian aquifer and the nonartesian aquifer
is dissipated through the thickness of the confining bed; thus, the
ratio of head difference to the thickness of the confining bed is
the hydraulic gradient (the value "I" in the Darcy formula). The
area (A) through which the leakage occurs can be of any size.
Because the permeability of the confining bed is not known, the
magnitude of upward leakage cannot be determined. The magnitude
of upward leakage in 1956 is not important, however, because this
leakage is already occurring and will not be changed if the position
of the water table is not changed. The important questions, there-
fore, are: (1) What effect will drainage have on the magnitude of
upward leakage? (2) Will the change in leakage affect the levels
of lakes in the Highlands Ridge section ? The following assumptions
are made for computing the change in upward leakage from bed 5
caused by a drainage canal passing near well N-6B:
1. After construction of the canal, the water level in the drainage
canal is maintained at a lower level than the present water table,
and drainage is occurring.


29






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


2. At a distance of 1,000 feet up and down the gradient from
the canal the drawdown in the nonartesian aquifer is zero.
3. The water table is lowered an average of two feet throughout
the area affected by drainage.
4. The permeability of the confining bed is one gpd (gallon per
day) per square foot.
5. The head differential between well N-6B and the water table,
16 feet, is average for the area considered.
6. The average thickness of the confining bed is 18 feet.
7. The area is one mile long by 2,000 feet wide. Leakage under
these conditions is computed as follows:
Q = PIA
16
Q = 1 x -8 x 5,280 x 2,000
Q = 9,400,000 gpd

After construction of the drain, the water table is lowered an ave-
rage of two feet and leakage increases by 2/18, the increase in
gradient.
Q PIA
18
Q -1 x -8 -x 5,280 x 2,000
Q = 10,600,000gpd

The net increase of leakage from the artesian aquifer is the
difference between the computed leakages, namely, 1,200,000 gpd,
or 1.8 cfs. This computation is based on many assumptions and
is presented only as a basis for a qualitative discussion of the
principles.
An increase of leakage from an artesian aquifer will cause a
drawdown of the piezometric surface that will extend both up-
gradient and downgradient from the drainage canal until a new
equilibrium is established. Because drawdown decreases with
distance from the discharge point, it is doubtful that any effect
of increased leakage (in the magnitude suggested by the compu-
tation) would be felt in the artesian aquifer several miles up-
gradient beneath Highlands Ridge. Even if a drawdown did occur
beneath the ridge, so that the rate of vertical percolation from the
nonartesian aquifer to the shallow artesian aquifer in the ridge


30






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 19


were increased, the lakes probably would not be affected.
Permeable sand underlies the ridge. During periods of heavy rain-
fall, practically all the water is immediately absorbed as recharge,
but some is rejected and becomes surface runoff when the
nonartesian aquifer is completely filled. This rejected recharge is
available to replace water lost by downward percolation. The levels
of the lakes, therefore, could not be affected permanently by
increased percolation to the artesian aquifer beneath the ridge
unless the percolation were sufficiently large to exceed the amount
of rejected recharge.

CONCLUSIONS

The conclusions of the investigation are here presented in the
form of answers to the questions stated on page 14 in the
introduction.

1. The water table slopes toward Lake Istokpoga in each of the
test areas except at the southeast corner of the lake. In the areas
south of the lake, a proposed canal extending northward from the
Harney Pond Canal would generally parallel ground-water contour
lines. If the canal were located immediately adjacent to the scarp,
it would intercept ground water at an altitude greater than that of
the present water level of Lake Istokpoga. Water in a canal at
this position, therefore, would tend to flow toward Lake Istokpoga.
However, the low permeability of the materials underlying the
Istokpoga flat indicate that the canal would have the strongest
influence upon the water levels of that region. Drainage would
occur and ground-water levels would decline, and the water table
would adjust to a new pattern consistent with the gradient of the
canal; but the amount of ground water drained would not be large.
Therefore, it is doubtful that the ground-water pickup would be
large enough to permanently maintain flow in the canal toward Lake
Istokpoga. It is readily seen, however, that lowering the water
level of the lake in preparation for hurricane rains would be more
difficult if the canal were located close to the scarp, where it would
salvage water from evapotranspiration and spring flow.

2. The present flow of ground water through the materials
underlying the Istokpoga flat is very small. If the water level in
the canal and the water table are held at roughly the same level,
the amount of ground-water pickup will be negligible and will not
affect the capacity of the canal to discharge ponded surface water.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The data presented previously, however, show that more pickup
will occur close to the scarp.
3. The extent to which the water table of the ridge section
will be affected by construction of a canal in the Lake Istokpoga
area depends entirely on how much ground water discharges into
the canal. If the water level in the canal is maintained at the level
of the water table (by draining water from Lake Istokpoga), no
ground water will be discharged directly into the canal. This
condition probably will not be fully realized. If the canal is properly
designed, however, the amount of ground-water drainage will be
small and salvage of the rejected recharge that takes place through
springs along the scarp and of water now evaporated and transpired
will act as a buffer to reduce lowering of the water table in the
ridge section. As drawdown varies inversely with distance from
a drainage canal, it would be advantageous to construct the canal
as far from the scarp as it can be placed and still fulfill its primary
purpose.
4. Calculations show that the increase in upward leakage from
a shallow artesian aquifer, caused by the proposed drainage canal,
would probably have no effect on the water levels of the lakes in
the ridge section. It is again emphasized that, if the water table
remains unchanged by drainage, no change will occur in the up-
ward leakage from the artesian aquifer.
The greatest danger to the water levels of the ridge section
would result from the penetration of one of the artesian aquifers
by the drainage canal. In the area of this investigation, the least
distance between land surface and a known artesian aquifer is 40
to 45 feet (along lines N and M). A canal 20 feet deep would
cut the vertical distance between the bottom of the drain and the
top of the artesian aquifer to 20 or 25 feet. This decrease in
distance would have no effect on the leakage because the con-
fining bed would not be cut. If part of the confining bed were
penetrated, its effective thickness would be reduced and leakage
would increase.
Along line N (figs. 3, 8) the depth to an artesian aquifer com-
posed of white quartz gravel is approximately 90 feet. Along line
M (figs. 3, 9) a white quartz gravel occurs at a depth of 40 feet.
It is not known whether these two occurrences represent a single
stratum, but if they do the stratum dips northward. A projection
of the plane of the upper surface of such a stratum would bring
it near the surface south of line M. Thus it is possible that a canal


32






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19


20 feet deep south of line M would cut through the confining bed
and into the aquifer itself. No data are available for the area south
of line M.
A review of the cross sections shows that the difference in head
between the artesian and nonartesian aquifers decreases rapidly
with distance from the scarp. Obviously then, the ground-water
pickup that would result from cutting into the artesian aquifer
would be far greater near the scarp than at a distance from the
scarp.
To construct a canal immediately adjacent to the scarp would
be dangerous at best. To construct a canal too far from the scarp
would probably result in leakage of water from the canal to the
water table, thus recharging the water-table aquifer and causing
a general rise of ground-water levels. The best solution, to avoid
interchange between the canal and the ground water, would be to
construct the canal where its water surface would coincide with
the water table. As the water table is within a few feet of the
land surface in the area studied, a general rule of thumb would be
to use the land-surface altitude as a rough indication of the altitude
of the water table. Inspection would reveal those areas where the
water table is at the land surface.


33









































































































it;






















Part II

LAKE PLACID AREA, HIGHLANDS COUNTY, FLORIDA

By
F. A. Kohout
and
F. W. Meyer









































































































4:






TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Introduction ....-..................................-- -- ----------------------------------- ........... ....................... 39
Purpose and scope of investigation .....--------------....................................---..........----...-----. 39
Method of investigation ......................................................................................------ 40
Geology .-...-----...--------------............................ ..... ......................------------- -...--------........... 40
General features ..-----....-........-....-....-......---------.......... .............----......... 4----------- 40
Gemorphology and structure ....................................-- ....... .. .... 41
Ground water ......---------------.........................-.............--..------------------------------------------------...... 43
Nonartesian aquifer .........------------------........................-.................--------------------...... 43
Recharge and discharge-- .-..--......................----.-----.............----------.--.... 43
M movement ............. -- .......... ..............................................---..-- ..--------- ....... 44
Relation of lake levels to ground water ---............------------------......--.......... ........ 45
Prediction of water level in Lake Placid ........... ....................-...... 45
Conservation of water in Lake Placid ....----------..........................------.----. 51
Factors affecting the rise of water level in Lake Placid ................ 52
H ydrology ...........................-- ................. ....................................................-.............. 55
Downward leakage from Lake Placid to the Floridan aquifer .-..----.--..... 61
Conclusions ...........................................-------------------------............................................................... 65
ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure Page
10 Map of the Lake Placid area showing locations of wells.
Between pages 38 and 39
11 Cross section showing lithofacies of Highlands Ridge section
along State Highway 70 ..........................------.......---.----... Between pages 40 and 41
12 Cross section' showing lithology of the nonartesian aquifer
along an east-west line across Lake Placid .------. .......................-------------..... 42
13 Map of the Lake Placid area showing altitude of the water
table on March 13, 1956 ...........................---............. ----------Between pages 42 and 43
14 Map of the Lake Placid area showing altitude of the water
table on July 10, 1956 .............................----......----........ -----Between pages 44 and 45
15 Hydrographs of Lake Placid, Lake June in Winter, well 14,
and well 51, in Polk County ...............................-- Between pages 44 and 45
16 Hydrographs of Lake Placid, Lake June in Winter, well 440,
and well 14 compared with rainfall at the Lake Placid wea-
ther station, 1955-56 ....................-- -- -------- --------------------------------------------------- 46
17 Graph showing the recession of water level in well 14 ....---..-------- 47
18 Graph showing the comparative recession of water levels in
Lake Placid and well 14 ................................----------------------- --------- 49
19 Hydrographs of Lake Placid, Lake June in Winter, and well
14 compared with rainfall at the Lake Placid weather station, 1953 54
20 Map of the Lake Placid area showing approximate depth to
the water table below land surface ....-..-........-.....------. Between pages 54 and 55
Table
1 Permeability of sediments penetrated by observation wells ..-......--.--.... 56
2 Downward leakage from Lake Placid to the Floridan aquifer ----....... 62
3 Water-level measurements in observation wells -....---...--- ....-------- 68
4 Record of wells ------------............................--------------................... Between pages 72 and 73
5 Record of surface-water observation points -----........... .....------------........ 73














SE'


I-
*c.


-vs
-A
I"


/
I


LAKE PLACID


SCALE Iv MILES
, -o- --'g -" 3


\



- 3 2,





I,



r.o. ..z.
4i


EXPLANATION
0
SHALLOW WELL
0
SHALLOW WELL WITH
RECORDING GAGE

O.P
OBSERVATION POINT


Figure 10. Map of the Lake Placid area showing locations of wells,


SURFACE-WATER
STAFF GAGE
SURFACE-WATER
RECORDING GAGE


TEST WELL







Part II


HYDROLOGIC FEATURES OF THE LAKE PLACID AREA,
HIGHLANDS COUNTY, FLORIDA

INTRODUCTION

The Lake Placid area of Florida is in the Highlands Ridge
section of Highlands County. The eastern boundary generally
parallels the scarp that separates the ridge section from the Lake
Istokpoga area and constitutes the western boundary of that area.
The length of Lake Placid area is approximately nine miles, and
the width ranges from about six miles at the northern extremity,
slightly north of the town of Lake Placid, to about eight miles at
the southern extremity, just south of State Highway 70.

PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION

In recent years, residents of the area have given much attention
to the water levels of the many lakes of the ridge section. During
periods of heavy rainfall, the areas around the lakes are flooded
and lakeshore homes and crops are damaged. During periods of
deficient rainfall, the lake levels are so lowered that boating
facilities are left high and dry; at the same time, the demand for
irrigation water for citrus groves and other crops is at its greatest
and the pumping of water from the lakes contributes to the decline
of lake levels.
At the request of the Central and Southern Florida Flood Con-
trol District, the U. S. Geological Survey started an investigation,
in October 1955, to determine the influence of the ground-water
reservoir on the water levels of the lakes. One phase of the
investigation was to establish the relationship of the water table
to lake levels and, if possible, to devise some method by which this
relationship could be used to predict the water level of a given
lake after an extended period without rainfall. Lake Placid was
selected as the lake of primary interest, but it was decided that
an investigation of adjacent areas was necessary in order to
ascertain correctly the hydrologic characteristics effecting Lake
Placid.
A tentative plan is under consideration for the construction of
a closed drain through the narrow strip of land separating Lake
Huntley and Lake Grassy. Also, the canals or drainageways





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


connecting Lake Apthorpe, Lake Clay, and Lake Huntley are to
be improved and control structures are to be built, so that the
water levels of the entire lower chain of lakes. can be controlled.
As Lake Huntley and Lake Grassy fall within the scope of this
report, computations based on assumed conditions will be presented
to clarify the effect produced upon the ground-water reservoir and
lake levels by undue lowering of water levels in the lower chain of
lakes.
During this study, special consideration was given to the
occurrence of ground water in the nonartesian aquifer, the direction
of ground-water movement, and the relation of ground-water levels
to the water levels of the lakes.
The investigation was made under the general supervision of
A. N. Sayre, Chief of the Ground-Water Branch of the U. S.
Geological Survey, and under the immediate supervision of M. I.
Rorabaugh, District Engineer for Florida.

METHOD OF INVESTIGATION
All wells in the area were inventoried to obtain pertinent
information. In areas of sparse information, supplementary
lithologic and hydrologic data were obtained from wells and test
holes installed by jetting. The wells were constructed of 8/4-inch,
pipe with a brass strainer at the bottom. Each well was pumped
with a pitcher pump, after installation, to assure that the well was
open to the aquifer and thus was showing the true water level.
Permeability of sand aquifers was determined by the permeameter
method in the laboratory. The altitudes of water levels in 73 wells
and of observation points (see well locations, fig. 10) were
determined by spirit level, and a map showing the configuration of
the water table was prepared from this information.

GEOLOGY
GENERAL FEATURES
The sedimentary rocks exposed in the Lake Placid area range
in age from Miocene to Recent. Outcrops of rocks of Miocene age
are seen in clay pits and the deep road cuts of the ridge section
(Bishop, 1956). Pleistocene sand, forming the major part of the
surficial sediments, mantles the Miocene deposits as a veneer less
than 30 feet thick. Deposits of Recent age are exposed in places;
they consist of peat and organic soil formed after the last lowering
of sea level, at the end of the Pleistocene epoch.


40








w


/


/


/


00


SCALE IN MILES
;~~ ~ ve-r***"


Cross section showing lithofacies of Highlands Ridge section, along
State Highway 70.


Isol-


100lo


Ns


I AND fu CLAY
LIMMhOR&


GRAMIL

ORAYIL


-*00*


Figure 11.





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 19


The core of the Highlands Ridge consists of a thick deposit of
deltaic sand, gravel, and clay which thins and interfingers with
marine clay to the east and west. (See lithologic cross section,
fig. 11.) The dark green clay that forms a basinlike floor for the
main sand body is of Miocene age and is underlain at a depth of
about 500 feet below, sea level by a thick section of limestone of
Oligocene and Eocene age. In topographically low areas, along the
flanks of the ridge, this green clay (interbedded with permeable
material forming local, shallow artesian aquifers) confines the water
in the underlying limestone under artesian pressure. The limestone
extends from 500 feet to more than 1,100 feet below sea level in
the Lake Placid area and forms the major part of the Floridan
aquifer (Parker and others, 1955, p. 189).
The areas surrounding the lakes are underlain at shallow depth
by thin beds of red to black indurated sand (hardpan) and peat
(fig. 12). Because these beds have a low permeability, they restrict
the downward movement of water and may contribute to local
flooding.

GEOMORPHOLOGY AND STRUCTURE

The ridge section contains many lakes of various sizes and
depths. Many of the lakes are circular in outline; this shape, plus
their relatively great depth, indicates that they are sinkhole lakes
formed by solution and collapse of the underlying limestone. Marine
terraces, formed by changes in sea level during the Pleistocene
interglacial stages, flank the ridge. Shoreline features such as
dunes, wave-cut benches, scarps, and sandbars are prominent. Sea
level was estimated by Cooke (1939, p. 34) to have fluctuated be-
tween 270 feet above present sea level and about 300 feet below.
Parker and Cooke (1944, pl. 3) recognized five terraces in High-
lands County; four of these, the Wicomico (100 feet in altitude),
Penholoway (70 feet), Talbot (42 feet), and Pamlico (25 feet),
are included in or border the area of this investigation. The terraces
can be traced on topographic maps, and in some areas they slope
and appear to merge, indicating subsidence caused by solution in
the underlying limestone or, possibly, faulting. In the Lake Placid
area, the upper surfaces of the terraces are highly distorted as a
result of a combination of solution subsidence, tilting and faulting,
and shifting of sand by wind action. These surface irregularities
are illustrated in figure 11, which shows also the lithologic
characteristics of the subsurface sediments along State Highway


41
























Ae 5 q : s o

LAKE PLACID LA96 6RASSY













Of LAui
SCALE IN MLES



Figure 12. Cross section showing lithology of the nonartesian aquifer along an east-west line across Lake Placid.









EXPLANATION
CONTOU LIUNm sOWINS
ALITUDK OF WiMfN TABLE. tI
9CT ADMY MEAN SEA LEVEL


PLACIO


Map of the Lake Placid area showing altitude of the water table
on March 13, 1956.


-


N-


.5
.5


LA94C
- I


Figure 13.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19


GROUND WATER

The aquifers in the immediate vicinity of the area described in
this part of the report may be divided into three general groups:
(1) the principal artesian (Floridan) aquifer, (2) the shallow ar-
tesian aquifers, and (3) the unconfined or nonartesian aquifer. Of
these, only the nonartesian aquifer is considered in detail.
The principal artesian (Floridan) aquifer occurs throughout
the Florida Peninsula and has been described by Stringfield (1936)
and by Parker (Parker and others, 1955, p. 189). It consists of
porous limestone and in the area of this report is approximately
600 feet below the land surface. Beds of sand, marl, and clay, which
have a relatively low permeability, overlie the Floridan aquifer.
In the Lake Placid area the nonartesian aquifer has a higher head
than the Floridan aquifer, and water from the nonartesian aquifer
percolates vertically downward to provide recharge for the Floridan
aquifer. It is thought that most of the recharge supplied to the
Floridan aquifer percolates through the bottoms of the lakes of the
ridge section, where the confining beds have been breached by the
collapse of caverns in the underlying limestone. Evidence pre-
sented in a following section indicates that drawdown caused by
pumping from the Floridan aquifer produces a small but recog-
nizable effect upon the water levels of the lakes.
The shallow artesian aquifers are localized strata occurring
downslope from the scarp surrounding the Highlands Ridge region.
The aquifers are not of great areal extent, and because of upward
leakage through the overlying confining beds they frequently lose
their artesian head within a few miles of the scarp. The hydrologic
characteristics of several shallow artesian aquifers in an adjacent
area have been considered in Part I of this report.

NONARTESIAN AQUIFER
RECHARGE AND DISCHARGE

Rainfall, which averages about 53 inches per year, is the
principal source of recharge to the nonartesian aquifer. Because of
high land and a high water table to the south and west, recharge
to the Lake Placid area is provided by ground-water underflow from
those directions. Surface runoff, resulting from rejected recharge
in the areas to the south and west, also provides recharge to the
Lake Placid area during periods of extremely heavy rainfall.
Ground water is discharged from the nonartesian aquifer by
underflow into lakes and adjacent, lower deposits to the west, north,


43






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


and east; by evaporation from places where the water table is
shallow; by transpiration from vegetation; and by springs where
the water table intersects the land surface. Drainage canals or
natural streams connecting the upper and lower chains of lakes
provide an exit for the discharge of ground water in two ways: (1)
ground water flows directly into the canals and thence downstream
as runoff, and (2) the canals lower the water levels of the various
lakes by discharging excess water, thus producing a lakeward
ground-water gradient which induces the discharge of ground
water into the lakes.
Pumping from wells and lakes accounts for a considerable
quantity of ground-water discharge. Most of the residents of the
area depend upon ground water for their domestic and stock
supplies. The town of Lake Placid pumps about 70,000 gallons per
day (gpd) from Lake Sirena into its municipal water-supply
system. As Lake Sirena has no surface inlet or outlet, this
pumping causes discharge from the ground-water reservoir. Large
quantities of water are pumped from the lakes of the area to
irrigate citrus groves and other crops. This pumping causes a
significant discharge of ground water. A part of the irrigation
water pumped from the lakes returns to the ground-water reservoir
by seepage from the irrigated fields, but the major part is lost by
evapotranspiration. The lowering of ground-water levels around
Buck Lake by the withdrawal of approximately 1,200 gpm of water
from the lake is of sufficient magnitude to be shown on the water-
table contour maps (figs. 13, 14).

MOVEMENT

Unconfined ground water moves along the path of least
resistance from a position of higher water-table altitude to a
position of lower altitude. The direction of movement coincides
with the maximum slope of the water table. Water-table contour
maps for March 13 and July 10, 1956, are shown in figures 13 and
14. In not all places is there adequate control, but the essential
characteristics of shape and slope of the water table are well
defined. Ground water moves into the area from the west and
south and discharges principally northward and eastward.
Although the surface of a lake might seem to be a horizontal
plane, small hydraulic gradients exist in the lakes and permit the
passage of ground water across them. For example, ground water
enters Lake Placid on its south and southwest sides, moves across
the lake, and finally leaves it on its northwest, north, and northeast
8/,:


44







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PLAuIO


Figure 14.


Map of the Lake Placid area showing altitude of the water table
on July 10, 1956.


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LAKE JUNE IN WINTER
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Figure 15. Hydrographs of Lake Placid, Lake June in Winter, well 14, and
well 51, in Polk County.


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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 19


sides. Thus, the water surfaces of the lakes are surface expressions
of ground water where the water table intersects natural
depressions in the land surface. During this investigation, no
excessive differences were noted between the altitudes of water
levels in the lakes and those in the surrounding wells. Thus, in
controlling the level of a given lake consideration must be given to
the way in which ground water will affect the effort at control; the
situation is more complex than if the lake were (strictly speaking)
ponded surface water. For example, in the dry season, ground
water moves from Lake Placid to Lake Grassy-as indicated by the
water-table gradient. If the water level of Lake Grassy were
lowered excessively, the hydraulic gradient between the lakes
would be increased, more water would flow underground between
Lake Placid and Lake Grassy, and the water level of Lake Placid
would probably be lowered.

RELATION OF LAKE LEVELS TO GROUND WATER

PREDICTION OF WATER LEVEL IN LAKE PLACID

One of the primary purposes of this part of the report is to
evaluate the fluctuations of the water surface of Lake Placid with
reference to ground-water storage and, if possible, to develop a
correlation that will serve as an index for controlling the water
levels of the lakes by means of a system of drainage canals and
control structures. The general plan of the flood-control works is
thoroughly covered in a report prepared by the Central and
Southern Florida Flood Control District (1953).
Hydrographs of water levels in Lake Placid, Lake June in
Winter, well 14, and artesian well 51, in Polk County, are plotted
in figure 15. The water level in well 14, approximately two miles
southeast of Lake Placid, has been recorded continuously since
September 1948. Because of its length, the record from this well is
used in developing the water-level relation between Lake Placid and
the water table. However, it is believed that the water level of well
440, one mile southwest of Lake June in Winter, will in the future
provide a better correlation than that of well 14. In figure 16 the
water levels of the two lakes, well 440, and well 14 are compared
with the rainfall at the Lake Placid weather station; obviously,
well 440 responds more quickly to rainfall at the Lake Placid
station than does well 14. The water-level record for well 440
(beginning in February 1956) is not yet long enough, however, for
the preparation of ground-water recession curves.


45





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


?u VOLho 1 kePlid LJe W












well 1,i compared with rainfall at the Lake Placid weather station, 1955-56.

In general, the recession of the water table follows a logarithmic
curve. This recession is interrupted, of course, by periods of
recharge, but by plotting the decline of the water table against
time-for numerous recessions-an average recession curve is

constructed. The composite recession curve for well 14 (fig. 17) was
prepared in this manner. A curve of this type allows us to predict,
within reasonable limits, the water level of the well at some date
in the future. For example, if, after a period of heavy recharge,
the water level in well 14 stands at 127.7 feet above mean sea level,
the water level one year later, in thLake absence of rainfall, would be
approximately 117.7 feet above Lakean sea level.19 6.
The basic problem that confronts us is to be able to predict the
water level of Lake Placid after a given period without rainfall.
It isthe fupparent that after a period of recharge the water levels at
It is apparent that after a period of recharge the water levels at


46











128 I





126








122











1218















114 ,





0 10 20030 4 0 0 00c,7
12 --------- ------------------------------ --------- ------------------- ---


TIME, IN DAYS AFTER START OF RECESSION


Figure 17. Graph showing recession of the water level in well 14.


-J




CD




za



cc
41

3:


CWv


%W -







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


two points on the water table cannot be correlated immediately.
Uneven distribution of rainfall, nonuniform rates of infiltration to
the water table, depth to the water table below the land surface,
and many other factors cause the ground-water reservoir to be
in a condition of nonequilibrium. After recharge stops, the water
table begins to decline at every point, and the rate of decline at
each point is directed toward the establishment of a condition of
equilibrium. After this equilibrium is established, the water levels
continue to decline at consistent rates. A pattern can be developed,
by statistical analysis, that allows the prediction of water level
at one place in terms of the known rate of decline at another place.
It should be appreciated, however, that a significant change in the
hydraulic regimen, such as the construction of a drainage canal or
an increased rate of percolation to an underlying artesian aquifer
would produce a change in the correlation curve.
The relation of the water-level recession curves for Lake Placid
and well 14, for several long-term recessions, is shown in figure 18.
It is noted that several curved plots of data approach the average
curve tangentially. These curved lines represent the nonequilibrium
condition and are caused either by unequal distribution of rainfall
or by hydrologic conditions (described later) on the west side of
the lake. For example, in the recession from October 1948 to June,
1949 the water level of Lake Placid was considerably higher, in
comparison to the water level of well 14 than would be expected
from the average curve, but then it declined at a relatively great
rate until the equilibrium condition was established. Further decline
followed the average curve.
Prediction of the water level of Lake Placid after an extended
period without rainfall is made possible by using figures 17 and
18, conjunctively. To use the graphs it is necessary to know the
altitudes of the water levels of both Lake Placid and well 14. To
illustrate the use of the graphs, we will assume that shortly after
the end of a recharge period, on November 1, the water levels of
Lake Placid and well 14 are 95.5 and 126.0 feet above mean sea
level. It is anticipated that the dry season will be a long one and
that there will be no rainfall until August 1 of the following year.
The expected time without recharge is 273 days, and, for the
purpose of operating a control structure in the canal between Lake
Placid and Lake June in Winter, we need a prediction of the
approximate water level of Lake Placid in the latter part of July.
Referring to figure 17, we see that if the head in well 14 is
126.0 feet above sea level at the start of the recession, 273 days


48













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EXPLANATION
RECESSION FROM OCTOBER 1955 TO JUNE 1956
RECESSION FROM OCTOBER 1955 TO JUNE 1956
RECESSION FROM OCTOBER 1953 TO APRIL 1954
RECESSION FROM NOVEMBER 1950 TO JUNE 1951
RECESSION FROM DECEdBER 1949 TO AUGUST 1950
0
RECESSION FROM OCTOBER 1948 TO JUNE 1949
APPROXIMATE AVERAGE WATER-LEVEL- RECESSION
CURVE FOR LAKE PLACID AND WELL 14.


124 I 2


' *0o~.~~


S


119 120 121 122 123
WATER LEVEL IN WELL 14, IN FEET ABOVE M S L


Figure 18. Graph showing the comparative recession of water levels in Lake Placid and well 14.


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il*






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


later (approximately at the 300-day line on the recession graph) it
will be about 118.7 feet above. In figure 18, when the head in well
14 is 118.7 feet above mean sea level, the water level of Lake Placid
is approximately 92 feet above.
The prediction is based upon the assumption that no recharge
occurs at either locality during the recession. Localized rainfall
in areas of the Lake Placid basin remote from the area of well 14
causes a short-duration departure that plots above the average
recession curve. The lines formed by circles and dots in figure 18
illustrate two examples of this.
It is believed that the entire decline of the water level of Lake
Placid can be predicted with reasonable accuracy. Starting at the
intersection of the 95.5 and 126.0 lines, representing the heads in
Lake Placid and well 14 shortly after the end of the recharge
period, the recession would probably form an intermediate curve
between those shown for the 1948-49 and the 1953-54 recessions
(fig. 18). By relating the heads for Lake Placid and well 14 along
the assumed intermediate recession curve to the time required for
the equivalent declines of water level in well 14 (fig. 17), the
approximate hydrograph for Lake Placid can be estimated.
It is emphasized, however, that a change in the hydrologic
regimen will tend to invalidate the recession graphs. It appears
that such a change may be responsible for the deviation of the
1955-56 recession from previous recessions (fig. 18). In figure 15,
the hydrograph of artesian well 51 is plotted for comparison with
the hydrographs of the lakes and well 14. Well 51 is the nearest
artesian well to the Lake Placid area for which long-term records
of water level are available. It is 490 feet deep and taps the
Floridan aquifer at the town of Frostproof, in Polk County, 35
miles north of Lake Placid. The hydrograph for well 51 shows that
the water level in the Floridan aquifer is lowered by pumping dur-
ing the winter and spring months of each year. This period cor-
responds with the dry season, when there is extensive irrigation.
Careful comparison of the points of maximum drawdown in well
51 with the hydrographs for Lake Placid and Lake June in Winter
indicates that the water levels of the lakes may respond to pumping
from the artesian aquifer. Especially noteworthy are the
corresponding drawdowns in May of 1953 and 1954 and May and
June of 1955. This correlation cannot be stated without qualifica-
tion, however, because direct pumping from the lakes might produce
a decline of lake levels at the same time that maximum drawdown
occurs in the Floridan aquifer, Also, when there is rainfall,


50






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19


the lake level will rise because of recharge and the water level
in the artesian aquifer will rise because of the cessation of pumping.
No work has been done to separate the various factors that might
account for the correlation of drawdown in Lake Placid, Lake June
in Winter, and Mirror Lake (hydrograph not shown) with that
in the Floridan aquifer. However, the writers think that the
correlation might not be fortuitous because of the manner in which
the recession curve (fig. 18) for 1955-56 deviates from the recession
curves for previous years. Water-level fluctuations in well 51
indicate that pumping from the Floridan aquifer increases each
year. The extensive drawdown of water level in the Floridan
aquifer in 1955 and 1956 is thought to have increased downward
leakage from the lakes and caused the deviation of the recession
curve in these years (fig. 18). If pumping from the Floridan
aquifer is increasing in the manner indicated by the hydrographs,
a new recession pattern may be developing, and average recessions
of previous years may be of little value in predicting the dry-
weather water levels of Lake Placid.

CONSERVATION OF WATER IN LAKE PLACID

In 1956 no control structure existed in the canal between Lake
Placid and Lake June in Winter, but during low stages a sandbar
at the edge of Lake Placid blocks the flow of surface water from
the lake. During high stages, water flowing over the sandbar erodes
it, and the deepened channel lowers the lake below the stage at
(or above) which flood damage occurs. If this happens at the
close of a rainy season, water normally conserved for the coming
dry season is wasted. The relation between the water levels of Lake
Placid and well 14 indicates that, after all surface discharge from
the lake ceases, the water level of Lake Placid continues to decline
because of ground-water discharge. However, if surface-water
discharge through the canal could be stopped as soon as the lake
declined to the "damage level," further loss of water from the lake
by surface flow would be slowed down and the lake could be
maintained at a relatively high level during the subsequent
recession. Thus, the slope of the average recession curve in figure
18 probably would not change, but the position of the curve might
be shifted slightly upward by converting the loss of water from
the surface-water to the ground-water phase as soon as the lake
level is low enough that flood damage becomes negligible.
The flow through the culvert connecting Lake Placid and Mirror
Lake is almost continuously four to six cfs (Central and Southern







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Florida Flood Control District, 1953, p. 3-4), except at very low
lake stages. The water-table contour maps (figs. 13, 14) show that
not all discharge from Lake Placid would be stopped by discon-
tinuing the flow through the culvert, as ground-water flow would
continue through the narrow strip of land separating the lakes. A
reduction in discharge would occur, however, because of the
conversion from surface flow to ground-water percolation, and the
level of Lake Placid would decline more slowly during the dry season
than it would if the culvert continued to discharge water from that
lake.
Mirror Lake has no surface outlet; hence, the present flow from
Lake Placid reduces the head difference between the lakes and, in
effect, by tending to raise the level of Mirror Lake, increases the
ground-water gradient and discharge northwest of Mirror Lake.
Closing the Placid-Mirror outlet would probably cause a
readjustment of ground-water contours to form a more uniform
gradient. The head differential between the lakes would be
increased, Lake Placid would rise, and the underground outflow
from that lake would increase. This might tend to offset the effect
on Mirror Lake and the water table immediately to the northwest
of the lake; thus control of the culvert may cause no substantial
lowering of the water level of Mirror Lake. The water level of
Lake Placid, however, could be maintained at a higher level,
during dry periods, than is possible without control of the Placid-
Mirror outlet.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE RISE OF WATER LEVEL IN LAKE PLACID

Lack of uniformity in the rise of water levels in lakes of the
ridge section is noted in the flood-control report prepared by the
Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District (1953, p. 5).
Comparison of the magnitudes of flood-producing storms with their
effects on the lake levels indicates that antecedent rainfall is
almost as important in causing a flood as is the storm itself. In
the case of Lake Placid, antecedent rainfall in the area to the west
and south of the lake is believed to have the greatest influence on
the rise in lake level.
The correlation between the water levels of well 14 and Lake
Placid on a rising stage is poor. Rainfall of 10 inches at the Lake
Placid station on June 6, 1953, produced rise in water level of about
two feet in well 14 and a rise of about 1.4 feet in Lake Placid (fig.
19). Subsequent rains caused Lake Placid to rise to flood proportions
toward the end of June, whereas the water level of well 14 remained


52







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 19


considerably below its later peak. A moderate rain on August 27
produced a much greater rise in the well than in the lake. The
above inconsistencies are considered to be evidence of unequal
distribution of rainfall.
With equal recharge, the rise of water level in a well always
should be considerably greater than the rise in a surface-water
body. Because the volume of voids in an aquifer is only a fraction
-for example, 20 percent-of the total volume of the aquifer, equal
recharge would cause the ground-water level to rise more-in this
example, five times as much-than the surface-water level. Factors
such as evapotranspiration and absorption of water by clay particles
as the water percolates through unsaturated sediments reduce the
water that eventually reaches the water table to an amount less
than the rainfall. Regardless of the cause, the fact remains that
well 14 cannot be used as an index for predicting an imminent flood
in the Lake Placid basin.
Well 440, on the high terrace west of Lake June in Winter, will
in the future give a better correlation with Lake Placid than does
well 14. It may be that climatic factors affect both Lake Placid and
well 440 to the same degree, but the correlation can probably be
attributed to the fact that well 440 reflects hydrologic conditions
in the highland areas west and south of the lake which are of
singular importance in producing flood conditions.
Figure 20 is a map giving the depth to water in the Lake
Placid area. The depth to water is generalized and approximate
because of the relatively high topographic relief in the area. The
map was prepared by superimposing water-table contours over
land-surface contours. The difference in altitude between the
contours gives the depth to the water table below land surface or,
in other words, the thickness of unsaturated material. The amount
of recharge that can be accepted by the ground-water reservoir
depends on the thickness of unsaturated material, because as soon
as the water table rises to the surface of the ground, no further
water will be stored. Any additional rainfall is rejected, and the
water flows downhill over the surface.
Inspection of the depth-to-water map shows that the water
table in large areas of the upland terrace west of Lake Placid is
shallower than five feet. The potential ground-water storage
capacity in this area is small, because the map represents conditions
existing in May 1956, at the height of the dry season. This small
ground-water storage capacity is believed to account for the non-
uniformity in the rise of water level in Lake Placid. Much of the


53








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1983


''1







13








10 0 ___ I-


LAKE PLA[ 'E,1E rz
to-


Figure 19. Hydrographs of Lake Placid, Lake June in Winter, and well 14
compared with rainfall at the Lake Placid weather station, 1953.

rainfall from a single heavy storm, occurring under dry conditions
shown, would be absorbed, and little would be rejected. However, a
number of small rains preceding a heavy storm would cause a
decrease in gound-water storage capacity, and when the heavy
storm struck most of the rainfall would be rejected as recharge.
This rejected recharge would then move downhill, as channelized or
sheet flow, to produce maximum stages in Lake Placid.
Conditions in the area south and east of Lake Grassy are
similar to those in the area west and south of Lake Placid. However,
the pattern of surface runoff in the sand-dune terrane south and


54

















I


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a
4



a
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abse kla ssmo em ta gt
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Figure 20. Map of the Lake Placid area showing approximate depth to the
water table below land surface.


;-`?,






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 19


east of Lake Grassy is not as clearly defined as in the area near
Lake Placid. Ponds are formed in the depressions between sand
dunes when the water table rises to the land surface. Most of
these ponds remain unconnected until, during wet years, the water
rises high enough to form a continuous sheet of water across the
divides between depressions. Excess water then flows out of the
dune area into the Lake Grassy basin. Under extreme flood con-
ditions, the water, blocked by a ridge at the north end of Lake
Grassy, flows eastward across a low divide and down to the Lake
Istokpoga flat.
Obviously, the key to predicting an imminent flood in the Lake
Placid and Lake Grassy basins lies in the ground-water storage
characteristics of the areas discussed. When a sufficiently long
water-level record is available for well 440, criteria can probably
be established for predicting flood conditions in both Lake June in
Winter and Lake Placid. However, judging from the depth-to-water
map, a well equipped with a recording gage, located south or south-
east of Lake Placid along State Highway 70, would provide the best
indication of the potential ground-water storage capacity, and thus
would better forewarn of potential flooding of Lake Placid. A
recorder well located in the area of shallow water table south of
Lake Grassy would provide good information on ground-water
storage capacity there. The water table at well 14 ranges from 10
to 20 feet in depth; thus, well 14 does not quickly reflect conditions
that contribute to rejected recharge and help to flood Lake Grassy.

HYDROLOGY

The lakes of the ridge section cannot be considered simply as
isolated ponds of surface water. Their bottoms consist mostly of
sand, and the water of the lakes has direct hydraulic connection
with the water in the ground-water reservoir. Obviously,
controlling the lake level by a drainage canal will also effect a
control on the ground-water reservoir. Conversely, the ground-
water reservoir influences the manner in which the level of a lake
is controlled.
The purpose of the following discussion is to provide quantita-
tive estimates of the movement of ground water in various parts
of the area, so that the canals and control structures in the system
of lakes may be designed with an insight into the ground-water
problems involved.
The materials penetrated during the installation of the
observation wells consist predominantly of sand. In some areas the


55






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


sand is slightly consolidated by iron compounds or organic material
to form hardpan. Except for wells 442 and 448, all wells screened
in materials above and below a hardpan indicated that the hardpan
did not act effectively as a confining layer. Therefore, it is believed
that the nonartesian aquifer includes all the sand from land surface
to a depth of approximately 100 feet below mean sea level in the
ridge section (fig. 11). The bottoms of the upper chain of lakes
have an average altitude of approximately 35 feet above mean sea
level (Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District, 1953,
table 1, p. 2). Actually, this depth is not the base for ground-water
flow, but it is believed that most of the horizontal ground-water flow
affecting the water levels of the lakes passes through the water-
bearing section extending from the water table to the bottoms of
the lakes. Because of this assumption, the discharges indicated by
the following computations are minimum values.
The permeability of the materials penetrated during installation
of the observation wells was determined by the permeameter
method, in the laboratory (table 1). The average permeability of
all samples, excluding those from well 440 which contained driller's
mud, is about 700 gpd per square foot. Because the intention here
is to provide only a general idea of the magnitude of ground-water
flow under the existing gradients in different parts of the area,
this average permeability is used in all computations. Comparison
of the permeability at each locality (table 1) with the average
permeability for the entire area is left to the discretion of the
reader.

TABLE 1. Permeability of Sediments Penetrated by Observation Wells

Well Depth (feet) Permeability
No. From To (P)

T-1 1 17 790
17 22 1,000
T-2 1 2 640
4 5 700
8 9 540
16 16.5 610
T-3 0 2 590
5 6 560
11 13 650
T-4 1 1.5 800
3 3.5 940
5 6 900
T-5 1 1.5 600


56






57


REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 19

TABLE 1. (Continued)


Well Depth (feet) Permeability
No. From To (P)


T-6
440

442

443
444
448


449


450

456


462


471
472

474




475
479


481

489

491

492
493


4
3
0
12
2
7
16
7
0
5
18
10
15
17
12
15
0
3
15
10
13
18.5
12
1
15
0
5
7
15
16.5
3
2
5
10
2
15
10
11
3
4.6
1
2.5


4.5
4
12
21
7
14
21
13
5
17
20
12
16
17.5
13
16
1
5
18
12
15
19
13
5
20
5
7
12
16
19
4
3
6
17
3
16
12
17
3.5
5
2
3


' Permeability greatly
2Organic hardpan.


reduced by bentonitic drilling mud in sample.


540
490
1120
131
1,300
420
520
700
830
610
520
750
700
570
710
500
690
570
750
910
750
840
580
650
560
710
820
860
670
810
1,000
2190
840
760
820
550
840
600
510
530
740
870


___






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The water-table gradients west and south of Lake Placid are
steep, and, as it is of interest to determine the amount of ground
water flowing into Lake Placid from these directions, we will
compute the flow through a section of the aquifer one mile long,
measured along the 100-foot water-table contour west of Lake
Placid. The thickness of the flow section is the distance from the
water table (+100 feet, msl) to the bottom of the lakes (--35 feet,
msl), or 65 feet. The average distance between the 110- and the
100-foot contour lines is approximately 1,000 feet; therefore, the
gradient in feet per foot is 10/1,000. Substituting in the Darcy
formula:
Q PIA
Q 700 x 10 1,000 x 65 x 5,280
Q 2,400,000 gpd per mile or 3.7 cfs per mile
If the quantity of ground water flowing into Lake Placid
through a strip of the aquifer one mile in length, 3.7 cfs, is
multiplied by four (the number of miles over which there are steep
gradients around the west and south sides of Lake Placid), the
total ground-water flow into Lake Placid is found to be 15 cfs. Of
this amount, a small quantity flows through the culvert to Mirror
Lake, but part of this water returns to the aquifer on the down-
gradient side of Mirror Lake. The ground-water flow leaving the
combined lakes can be calculated as follows: The average gradient
for a mile length of the aquifer along the 85-foot contour in the
vicinity of Lost Lake is 5 2,500. The thickness of the flow section
is the difference between the water table (-+-85 feet, msl), and the
lake bottoms ( -35 feet, msl), or 50 feet. Substituting in the Darcy
formula:
Q PIA
Q :- 700 x 5 2,500 x 50 x 5,280
Q 370,000 gpd per mile or 0.57 cfs per mile
When 0.57 cfs is multiplied by five, the number of miles around
the northwest, north, and east sides of Lake Placid where discharge
is taking place, a total discharge of only 2.8 cfs results.
Obviously, when 15 cfs of water flows into a lake and 2.8 cfs
flows out, a large quantity of water either is being stored in the
lake or is being lost from the lake. The suggestion that water is
being stored in the lake is not valid, of course, because the stage
of the lake is not continuously rising. The discrepancy between
ground-water inflow to and outflow from Lake Placid must be
attributed to losses from evapotranspiration, pumping of lake






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19


water for crops, and downward seepage of water to the Floridan
aquifer.
A similar situation exists at Lake Grassy. The length of the
flow section between the two noses in the 95-foot contour line, east
and west of the south side of.Lake Grassy, is approximately 7,000
feet. The gradient is approximately 5/1,500, and the thickness of
the flow section is about 60 feet. Substituting in the Darcy formula:
Q = PIA
Q = 700 x 5/1,500 x 60 x 7,000
Q = 980,000 gpd or 1.5 cfs
Thus, the ground-water inflow to Lake Grassy amounts to about
1.5 cfs.
The water-table contours at the north end of Lake Grassy
indicate that most of the discharge from the lake moves to Lake
Huntley through a flow section approximately 1,500 feet wide. The
thickness of the flow section is approximately 55 feet. The water-
level difference between the lakes is 7.3 feet and this amount of
head is lost in the 1,200-foot distance separating the lakes. Using
the Darcy formula:
Q = PIA
Q = 700 x 7.3/1,200 x 55 x 1,500
Q = 350,000 gpd or 0.54 cfs
Comparison of the calculated inflow to and outflow from Lake
Grassy indicates that approximately one cfs more water flows into
the lake than flows out of it. The loss of this water is not difficult
to explain. Irrigation water pumped from Buck Lake during the
dry season amounts to about 1,200 gpm, and water pumped from
the arm of Lake Grassy on the west side of U. S. Highway 27
amounts to about 3,500 gpm. The total withdrawal from the
pumping stations is approximately 10.4 cfs, an amount much
greater than the rate of ground-water inflow to the area. Under
these conditions, there is a decline of water level in Lake Grassy and
a loss in ground-water storage within the area. Of course, some of
the water returns to the ground-water reservoir by seepage from
the irrigated groves.
The above computations indicate that there is some need for
the conservation of water. Obviously, very little can be done to
reduce the loss of water during the dry season because evapo-
transpiration, natural ground-water discharge, and irrigation of
crops cannot be completely stopped. However, by proper control
of the outlets from the various lakes, much of the water now


59






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


unnecessarily wasted-after flood damage ceases at the end of the
rainy season-can be conserved for use during the following dry
season. Water conservation, in the form of closing surface-water
outlets from the lakes, should begin as soon as danger from
flooding can be reasonably assumed to be past.
Under the present, natural conditions, the sandy materials
separating Lake Grassy and Lake Huntley have sufficiently low
permeability to hold the water level of Lake Grassy approximately
seven feet above that of Lake Huntley. The proposed construction
of a culvert from Lake Grassy to Lake Huntley necessitates the
removal of the sand overburden, installation of the culvert, and
backfilling of the excavated hole. A certain amount of danger
exists in the operation because the natural orientation of materials
below the present water table would be disturbed, and the
permeability of this section might be increased. If this should
occur, the ground-water discharge through the disturbed part of
the aquifer would be increased, and it might be impossible to
maintain the present head differential between the lakes.
Let us consider the change in hydrologic conditions in the strip
of land separating Lake Grassy and Lake Placid as a result of an
inadvertent lowering of water level in Lake Grassy. The water-table
contour maps (figs. 13, 14) show that a hydraulic gradient exists
between the two lakes. This is a somewhat oversimplified picture,
because the eastward bulge of the 90-foot contour suggests that a
small ground-water mound may be present in the area north of
the center line of Lake Grassy and south of the junction of State
Highway 17 and U. S. Highway 27. This mound is probably
reduced to negligible proportions during the dry season, and ground
water moves from Lake Placid to Lake Grassy.
The above discussion shows that, although a hydraulic gradient
may exist between the two lakes during the dry season, the gradient
is quite small; therefore, the discharge of water from Lake Placid to
Lake Grassy is negligible under these conditions. The assumption
is made that after construction of the culvert between Lake Grassy
and Lake Huntley the discharge from the former will be increased
and the relative head difference between the lakes will decrease
by three feet. This will produce a 3-foot increase in the head
difference between Lake Placid and Lake Grassy, and an increased
amount of ground water will flow through the strip of land
separating the lakes. The flow section between the lakes has a
north-south width of about two miles and a thickness of about 55
feet. The average distance between the lakes is 4,000 feet and the


60






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19


new head differential is dissipated over that distance. The increased
discharge between the lakes may be calculated as follows:
Q = PIA
Q 700 x 3/4,000 x 55 x 2(5,280)
Q = 300,000 gpd or 0.47 cfs
Under the assumed circumstances, an additional 0.47 cfs of
water will be discharged from Lake Placid to Lake Grassy. This
additional discharge will be much greater, of course, than the
negligible discharge under present conditions; but considering the
steep water-table gradients and large discharge entering Lake
Placid from the west and south, the chance that the additional
discharge will affect the water level of Lake Placid seems remote.

DOWNWARD LEAKAGE FROM LAKE PLACID TO
THE FLORIDAN AQUIFER

Previously, comparison of the hydrograph of artesian well 51
with the hydrographs of Lake Placid and Lake June in Winter
(fig. 15) indicated that the hydraulic connection through the sand-
filled sinkholes was sufficiently good to show a correlation between
lake level and drawdown in the artesian aquifer. Of course, other
factors such as rainfall, evaporation, ground-water inflow and out-
flow, and surface-water inflow and outflow affect the altitude of the
lake surface at any given time. Although the basic data were
incomplete, it was believed that some indication of the magnitude
of downward leakage could be obtained by balancing the various
known quantities of inflow to and outflow from the lake against
the observed change in storage in the lake. If the equation were
consistently unbalanced by a certain amount, this amount might
represent the downward leakage to the underlying artesian aquifer.
An inflow-outflow equation was set up for Lake Placid which would
allow insertion of the various known (or estimated) quantities of
inflow and outflow, as follows:
Downward leakage = Rainfall evaporation -- (ground-water
inflow ground-water outflow) + (sur-
face-water inflow surface-water out-
flow) (change in storage)

The equation was formulated so that the algebraic sums of the
quantities at the right side of the equation were positive, if the
leakage was downward, and negative, if the leakage was upward.
Rain falls directly on the lake and produces an increase in







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


storage; rainfall, therefore, is always a positive value (table 2).
Evaporation subtracts water from the lake and is therefore always
negative. A pan coefficient of 0.7 is applied to correct the pan

TABLE 2. Downward Leakage from Lake Placid to the Floridan Aquifer
(All values in inches. E, estimated)

Net Net
ground- surface- Change in Down-
Rain- Evapo- water water lake ward
Year Month fall ration inflow outflow stage leakage
(+) (-) (+) (-)

1955 Jan. 3.10 2.39 2.58 3.0 -0.60 +0.89
Feb. 1.67 2.51 2.58 2.4 -2.04 +1.38
Mar. .78 3.71E 2.52 1.8 -3.60 +1.39
Apr. .97 4.34E 2.50 1.2 -3.60 +1.53
May 4.50 6.14 2.49 1.0 .60 + .45
June 9.20 5.08 2.51 1.1 +4.20 +1.33
July 4.85 4.55E 2.53 1.4 +1.20 + .23
Aug. 6.76 3.92E 2.55 1.8 .60 +4.19
Sept. 3.18 4.42E 2.54 1.4 -1.50 +1.40
Oct. 1.48 3.71E 2.59 1.2 -4.10 +3.26
Nov .24 2.42E 2.56 1.0 -3.60 +2.98
Dec. 2.37 1.80E 2.52 .9 + .40 +1.79
1956 Jan. 1.37 2.09 2.49 .7 -2.20 +3.27
Feb. 1.40 2.86 2.44 .7 -1.80 +2.08
Mar. 2.39 4.28 2.44 .5 -4.30 +4.35
Apr. 1.34 4.33 2.42 .3 -3.50 +2.63
May 1.03 5.18 2.41 .2 -4.30 +2.36
June 9.19 4.30 2.41 .1 +2.60 +4.60
July 5.69 4.75 2.36 .2 + .80 +2.30


evaporation to lake evaporation (Linsley, Kohler, and Paulhus,
1949, p. 163). The climatological data were obtained from records
of the U. S. Weather Bureau for the Lake Placid station. The
evaporation data are complete except for several months in 1955.
The missing data were estimated by use of a rating curve
established for the Lake Placid and Moore Haven weather stations.
The flow of ground water changes with changes in the gradient
of the water table. In order to estimate the different quantities
of ground-water inflow and outflow, the average monthly water
levels of Lake Placid were compared with those of well 14 (for
inflow) and Lake June in Winter (for outflow). The percentage
difference in gradient between well 14 and Lake Placid, as
compared to the gradient of March 1956 (used as the base gradient


62






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 19


for the discharge computations), allowed adjustment of the
ground-water inflow for the months for which water-table contour
maps were not available. Similarly, the percentage difference in
gradient, as indicated by comparison of the average monthly water
levels of Lake Placid and Lake June in Winter (fig. 15), permitted
the adjustment of ground-water discharge from Lake Placid. The
adjusted differences between inflow and outflow were then calculated
to determine the rise (in inches) of Lake Placid caused by ground-
water flow for all months (table 2).
On the basis of stage and discharge graphs for Lake Placid for
the years 1948 through 1951 (Central and Southern Florida Flood
Control District, 1953, pl. 5-7), a surface-water-outflow rating curve
was constructed for Lake Placid. The average monthly water levels
of Lake Placid were then used to estimate the discharge from Lake
Placid; the outflow of surface water, of course, lowered the lake
level and was therefore a negative value in the equation.
Unfortunately, no data were available for surface inflow to Lake
Placid, and the net effect of surface-water flow upon the level of
the lake could not be determined. However, at stages of Lake
Placid below about 93 feet above mean sea level, there was very
little surface inflow, and at stages below 92 feet, practically none.
The accuracy in determining the downward leakage, therefore, was
greatest at the lowest stages of the water table, when the unknown
surface inflow was negligible.
The change in stage of Lake Placid for each month was
determined directly from the hydrograph (first and last days of
month, fig. 15), and converted to inches of rise (+) or fall (-).
The plus or minus values were subtracted algebraically from the
total change in stage attributable to the other agencies in the
inflow-outflow equation. Thus, if all influences upon the lake level
in a given month were known perfectly and if there were no down-
ward leakage, the elements at the right side of the equation would
balance out to zero. However, a positive summation would indicate
downward leakage to the Floridan aquifer and a negative sum-
mation would indicate upward leakage (obviously impossible
because the piezometric surface is about 30 feet below lake level).
The final summations are shown in the downward-leakage line
of table 2. Surface-water inflow could not be included in the
equation because no data were available. At low stages of the water
table, surface-water discharge from Lake Annie (fig. 13) does not
reach Lake Placid as channelized flow; rather, it disappears by
infiltration into the aquifer and by evapotranspiration. The authors


63






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


noted very little other surface-water inflow during late 1955 and
1956. Thus, the error produced by the omission of surface-water
inflow in the downward-leakage figures is believed to be negligible.
Because the evaporation data for the last part of 1955 are esti-
mated, consideration of the possible sources of error will be given
to only the 1956 computations. Comparison of the rises in stage of
Lake Placid with the recorded rainfall at the Lake Placid weather
station (fig. 16) shows good correlation and indicates that the rain-
fall data are representative of the entire lake. The evaporation
data, using a 0.7 pan coefficient, should be nearly correct. Surface-
water outflow was very small in 1956 and surface-water inflow can
be considered negligible. The change-in-stage measurements are
quite accurate, as they are taken from the automatic recording
gage on Lake Placid; therefore, all these elements of the equation
should be essentially correct.
It appears that the major sources of error in the downward-
leakage figure are in the calculation of horizontal ground-water
movement and pumpage from the lake. Pumping from the lake is
not continuous, of course, and the error from this unaccounted-for
loss of water can be minimized by averaging the downward leakage
over a period of months. If the permeability as determined from
the permeameter method is in error by 100 percent, compared with
the field permeability, the following table gives the range of
validity of the final leakage figure for the months January to July
1956:

Average downward Average ground-water
leakage (inches inflow (inches over
over lake surface) lake surface)

As determined 3.1 2.4
Permeability doubled 5.5 4.8
Permeability halved 1.9 1.2


According to the table, the average monthly downward leakage
beneath Lake Placid in January-July 1956 may have ranged from
1.9 to 5.5 inches; the true value, of course, might be either higher
or lower than this range, but it seems rather doubtful that it is.
Because direct pumpage from the lake is not taken into
consideration, however, the average leakage figure is high;
therefore, it is estimated that downward leakage from the lake is
less than three but probably not less than two inches per month.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 19


This is equivalent to a rate of recharge to the Floridan aquifer of
6,400,000 gpd (10 cfs) to 9,500,000 gpd (15 cfs).

CONCLUSIONS
Ground water in the thick deposits of sand underlying the Lake
Placid area is unconfined and is therefore under nonartesian
conditions. The water surfaces of the lakes are visible expressions
of the water table where it intersects the land surface.
Fluctuations of water level in Lake Placid and well 14 correlate
reasonably well during a recession of the water table, and statistical
analysis of the average rates of decline at the two locations permits
approximate prediction of the water level of Lake Placid after an
extended period without rainfall. However, the hydrograph of well
51, in Polk County, seems to be responding to the effects of a
progressive increase of pumping from the Floridan aquifer.
Because lowering of head in the artesian system increases the loss
of water from Lake Placid by increasing the gradient of downward
leakage, it is possible that average recessions before 1956 will be of
little value in predicting the dry-weather water levels of Lake
Placid in the future.
In a rising stage, the relation between water levels in Lake
Placid and well 14 cannot be used to forewarn of imminent flooding
to the Lake Placid basin. A map showing the approximate depth
to the water table below the land surface indicates that the potential
ground-water storage capacity in large areas west and south of
Lake Placid is small. As soon as the water table in these areas
rises to the surface of the ground, all further recharge to the
aquifer is rejected, and the excess water moves rapidly downhill to
flood the Lake Placid basin. It is believed that imminent flood
danger to Lake Placid can best be ascertained by means of a
recording gage on a well located along State Highway 70 south or
southeast of the lake. In this manner, current data reflecting the
available ground-water storage capacity of the aquifer can be used
as supplemental criteria for operation of a control structure in the
canal between Lake Placid and Lake June in Winter.
Conservation of water is an important reason for maintaining
the water levels of the lakes at desirable altitudes. After all
surface-water discharge from a lake is stopped, the water level of
the lake continues to decline because of ground-water discharge,
evapotranspiration, and pumping. Conservation of water, by
converting surface flow to much slower ground-water flow as soon
as possible after flood danger passes, will help to maintain the water


65






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


level of the lake at relatively high altitudes during the ensuing
dry season.
Calculations based upon assumed sets of circumstances give
some idea of the relative magnitudes of ground-water discharge in
various parts of the area. These calculations indicate that ground-
water movement is a factor to be considered in designing the
drainage system for the lakes. The rates of ground-water discharge
are believed not to be of sufficient magnitude, however, to hinder
seriously the successful control of lake levels.
Using an inflow-outflow equation for Lake Placid, measured or
estimated values for rainfall, evaporation, net shallow ground-water
inflow, and net surface-water outflow were balanced against the
change in stage of Lake Placid. The result indicates that downward
leakage to the Floridan aquifer from Lake Placid averaged two to
three inches per month during the first half of 1956.


66







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 19


REFERENCES

Anonymous
1953 Flood control and water supply studies for Lake Placid, Lake
June in Winter, Lake Frances, all in Highlands County, Florida:
Central and Southern' Florida Flood Control District, West Palm
Beach, Florida.
Bishop, E. W.
1956 Geology and ground-water resources of Highlands County,
Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 15.
Cooke, C. Wythe (see also Parker, 1944)
1939 Scenery of Florida interpreted by a geologist: Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 17.
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29.
Davis, John H., Jr.
1943 The natural features of southern Florida, especially the vegeta-
tion and the Everglades: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 25.
Ferguson, G. E. (see Parker, 1955)
Kohler, Max A. (see Linsley)
Linsley, Ray K., Jr.
1949 (and Kohler, Max A., and Paulhus, Joseph L. H.) Applied
hydrology: New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Love, S. K. (see Parker, 1955)
MacNeil, F. Stearns
1949 Pleistocene shorelines in Florida and Georgia: U.S. Geol. Survey
Prof. Paper 221-F.
Parker, G. G.
1944 (and Cooke, C. Wythe) Lake Cenozoic geology of southern
Florida, with a discussion of the ground water: Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 27.
1955 (and Ferguson, G. E., Love, S. K., and others) Water resources
of southeastern Florida, with special reference to the geology and
ground water of the Miami area: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply
Paper 1255.
Paulhus, Joseph L. H. (see Linsley)
Stringfield, V. T.
1936 Artesian water in the Florida Peninsula: U.S. Geol. Survey
Water-Supply Paper 773-C.


67







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

TABLE 3. Water-Level Measurements in Observation Wells


Water level
below measuring
point, in feet'


Well


Date


Water level
below measuring
point, in feett


14 11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-566
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56


273


274
275

276


283

302






309






313





324






331


9-22-52
1-19-56
9-18-52

9-23-52

9.23-52
1-19-56
9-29-52

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

10-22-52


68


Well


Date


424







429

430

432

440


19.85
20.21
20.84
21.56
22.66
23.00
+12.6
+14.1

+417.0

+412.8

+16.6
+415.5
+ 4.8

11.0
11.02
11.38
11.88
13.43
13.34

25.09
25.17
25.21
25.53
26.47
26.23

14.98
15.24
15.40
15.75
16.62

12.61
12.66
12.88
13.14
14.11
12.76

+4-12.5


443





444





445


441




442


9-26-52
10- 3-52
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

8-22-52

8-22-52

8-22-52

2- 8-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
1-13-56

12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

1.2-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56


4.75
4.78
3.73
4.32
4.25
4.54
4.07

5.78

6.52

4.60

9.00
7.92
9.33
8.50

4.56
4.78
4.51
4.60

7.27
7.19
6.96
8.15
6.81

5.75
5.73
5.57
6.59
5.65

6.35
6.49
6.66
7.13
5.87

7.21
7.35
7.64
7.86


______I _I__~


__


__


__ __







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No, 19


Table 3. (Continued)


Water level
below measuring
point, in feet,


Well


Date


Water level
below measuring
point, in feet'


446






447





448





449


5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56


450 12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56


451




452


12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56


8.56
6.83

5.51
5.66
5.99
6.28
7.17
5.29

3.58
3.67
3.87
4.95
3.29

4.97
5.72
6.34
7.13
5.58

3.57
3.87
4.09
4.31
3.20

5.16
5.37
5.62
6.22
5.22

3.94
4.34
5.19
5.81

9.01
8.96
9.23
9.29
10.22
9.24


453






454






455






456




457

458


11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56

12-15-55

10-10-55


459 11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56


460






461


11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55


69


Date


9.18
9.52
9.81
10.04
10.84
10.80
5.81
5.67
5.90
5.89
6.61
5.43
14.16
14.24
14.44
14.70
15.68
14.33
3.57
4.12
4.64
3.1

18.56

24.52

7.41
7.51
7.75
7.96
8.97
8.75

21.29
21.56
21.84
22.07
22.92
22.71

8.54
8.37


_ __ __ __ __ __ __ ___ Y1~_


_ __I__


--A-







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 3. (Continued)


Water level
below measuring
point, in feet'


1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56


Well


8.33
8,35
9.10
8.76

3.82
3.93
4.30
5.29
4.83

30.05
30.15
30.36
30.55
31.31

16.48
16.40
16.54
16.74
17.60
17.19

3.81
3.74
3.64
4.02
4.71
4.24

5.79
5.71
5.56
5.95
6.59
6.06

4.33
4.30
4.09
4.43
5.02
4.60


Date


468






469






470






471





472





473





474





475


Water level
below measuring
point, in feetx


11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
.5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
1-25-56
3-13-56


Well


Date


5.09
4.92
4.76
4.84
5.62
5.30
2.78
2.75
2.38
2.95
3.51
2.89
4.96
4.84
4.69
4.99
5.57
5.12
12.45
12.53
12.79
13.80
13.57
3.15
3.20
3.67
5.00
4.93
4.74
4.80
5.28
6.63
6.55
2.30
2.70
2.99
4.43
4.31
4.60
4.25


462





463





464






465






466






467


12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56


II______ L


70







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 19

Table 3. (Continued)


Water level
below measuring
point, in feetl


5.95
5.90

65.06
65.28
65.73
66.09
66.65
67.06
43.51
43.70
44.38
22.19
22.38
23.67
23.01
24.04


Well


484


485



486






487


476






477



478





479




480




481





482




483


11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56

12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

11-22-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56

12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
>1


488





489





490






491


Date


5-29-56
7-10-56


Water level
below measuring
point, in feet,


12-15-55
1-25-56

3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
11-25-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
11-25-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
11-25-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

11-25-55
12-15-55
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

1-25-56
3-13-56


71


Date


18.42
18.64

19.37
20.44
20.80
4.76
5.00
5.74
18.88
19.40
19.93
20.41
21.47
21.13
20.93
21.40
21.73
22.46
23.52
23.18

4.88
5.54
5.93
7.04
6.97

7.08
7.49
7.13
7.99
7.63

7.34
7.35
7.42
7.51
9.42
9.12

7.98
8.10


2.94
3.09
3.37
4.53


5.58
5.66
5.76
6.04

16.45
17.22
16.93
17.45
17.99

47.18
47.33
42.91
47.44

3.07
3.35
3.62
5.31
3.25


__l__ll~_m____ _____________ ___~____~___F_~_~ ~__


C _I~ ~


I_


I






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 3. (Continued)


Water level
below measuring
point, in feet,


492




493




494





495





496





497


498

499


500

501

502


Well


1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56
10- 3-52
1-25-56
3-13-56
5-29-56
7-10-56

9-26-52
10- 3-52
1-25-56
3-13-56
7-10-56

9-26-52
10- 3-52
1-25-56
3-13-56
7-10-56
9-26-52
10- 3-52

10- 3-52
9-26-52
10- 3-52
9-25-52

9-26-52
10- 3-62
9-26-52
10- 3-52


Date


2.58
2.82
3.99
4.28
4.58
4.94
6.51
6.64

7.99
8.24
8.04
8.60
8.27

5.47
5.39
5.48
5.54
5.54

4.48
4.448
4.73
4.72
4.68
5.72
4.82

4.50
4.13
3.43
+7.5

5.62
5.37
3.10
3.20


Water level
below measuring
point, in feet'.


503


505
506
508


509


510


512


514


515


518


519


520

521

522

523

524

526

527


'Feet above measuring point when prefaced


by plus sign.


Well


9-26-52
10- 3-52

10- 3-52
10- 2-52
9-26-52
10- 3-52

9-26-52
10- 3-52

9-26-52
10- 3-52
9-26-52
10- 3-52

9-26-52
10- 3-52

9-26-52
10- 3-52

9-26-52
10- 3-52

9-26-52
10- 3-52

10- 3-52

10- 3-52

8-21-52

8-21-52

8-21-52

10- 3-52

10- 3-52


Date


2.72
2.74,

4.50

0.50
1.28
1.70

6.72
6.45

5.80
5.79

4.09
4.08

5.08
5.27

11.88
10.53

5.45
5.05

3.17
2.86

3.67

5.10

1.23

6.28

1.17

3.64

5.58


J .


__


__


_ _____


72






4M ar wIt 4 l ,:l r ,; V 1 4 ; -.iJ .i 'i^lh t; 4, jeted. '
N P. *t; p siwlbr. Type' ur,,t- r: i. wla .t'r na u.l dtuw.
test. eazarUliw t poi lW de..siijiw*o:4; up. aws id P r*I' isbce 4


T a'eH4. 4.4uV44w 4 WoUM


l>ss 44' emiiif: 1, bl-. "irU; u*t Q1I*Vf4 tijuu. hpw 4 'rYPV %# R"+: C. i"iUL4gaI; C'y, c1.44404 J, j.pt:
H. baud; i, 44u45. s~L" u4 well : 6t 4uawli; 1, k-rkcia*it; 0, ubs(v*tj1-U; 1t p'ablik rupp y; S, t4k; T.
apwunt. land at.4 uala. NS, sail; ftc. topw uf cmui,. AUU"4s; e> usnas.


Well Fied
No, No.


14
278
274
275
276
2883
802
8304
809
8183
324
831
858
424
425
429
430
482
433


N.3A
N-.A
N-SB
N-6A
0-7





M-4

M-2
M-10
Z-2
Z-1
Z-3


fyp fW
I tweflll
weril (ft.)


Owner


U.S.G.S.
J. J. Hendry
J. U. Mitchel
F. J. Wise
Hendry
Melvin Brothers Co.
Unknown
J. A. Cook
R. Fitzgerald
C. L. Sowell
Edna Carltun
W. W. Womble
Sebring Packing Co.
U.S.G.S.
-do-
Unknown
--do-
-do--
U.S.G.S.


-do-
-do-


M-7 Durrance
M-8 U.S.G.S.

M-9 -do-


509 N-1 -do--
810 N-8 -do-

511 N-4 -do-
512 N-6 -do-
818 N-6 -do-
614 N-7 -do-


0-1 -do-
0-4 -do-


0-5
0-6
0-6A
0-8
O-8A
A-1
A-2
A-8
A-4
C-1
C-2
T-1

T-2
T-8
T-4
T-5
T-6


--do-
-do-
-do--
-do-
-do-
-do-
-do--
-do--
-do-
-do--
-do-
-do-

-do-
-do--
-do--
-do-
-do-


434 .... -do-
435 ...... -do-
436 ... -do-
437 ... -do-
438 -- -do-
440 .... -do-
441 .. Tobler
442 -- U.S.G.S.
448 -- -do-
444 -- -do-
445 -- -do-
446 .. -do-
447 ._- -do-
448 -do-
449 .. -do-
450 .... -do-
451 ...... -do-
452 _- -do-
453 ._ J. Reichardt
454 -_ U.S.G.S.
455 ._ Edna Carlton
456 --- U.S.G.S.
457 -- Jesse Durrance
458 .-- Chambers
459 -__ H. Roberts
460 ..... J, C. Durrance
461 __ J. A. Reninger
462 .__ U.S.G.S.
468 .... H. H. Brown
404 ... V. P. Davis
465 .... S. Hawthorn
466 __ E. Albritton
467 .... L. Henderson
468 ..... B. J. Harris
469 --- E. Albritton
470 ..... R. A. Fitzgerald
471 -- U.S.G.S.
472 -do-
478 .... -do--
474 .... -do--
475 ... -do-
476 .... Consolidated Naval
Stores
477 .. G. Kelsey
478 ... Consolidated Naval
Stores
479 ...... U.S.G.S.
480 ...... N. H. Edgemon
481 ..... U.S.G.S.
482 ...... Consolidated Naval
Stores
488 .. U.S.G.S.
484 Unknown
485 .. J. J. Roosevelt
486 .... E. L. Taylor
487 ...... -do-
488 .... U.S.G.S.
489 ...... -do-
490 ...... Palm Corp.
491 ...... U.S.G.S.
492 ...... -do-
492 -do-
498 ..... -do-
494 N-2 Negro Labor House
495 0-2 U.S.G.S.
496 0-3 -do-

497 P-1 -do-
498 P-2 -do-
499 P-8 -do-
500 P-4 Unknown
501 Q-1 U.S.G.S.
502 M-1 -do-

508 M-8 -do-


SWASW'A see. 86, T. 86 S., R. 30 E.
NW'ANW4Y sec. 6, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
NWNW% sec. 6, T. 87 S., R. 31 E.
NE4SW% see. 28, T. 86 S., R. 80 E.
NESEI sec. 28, T. 86 S., R. 30 E.
NE BSEA see. 28, T. 36 S., R. 80 E.
SEIANE, sec. 28, T. 36 S., I. 80 IE.
NW%4NW4 sec. 29, T. 85 S., R. 30 E.
NEIANEA sec. 29, T. 86 S., R. 80 E.
SE 'SE% sec. 2, T. 87 S., R. 29 E.

NWI SW% sec. 9, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
NESWA sec. 9, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.
NW'NW% see. 10, T. 87 S,, R. 80 E.
NW4NWI see. 10, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
NW4ANW% sec. 10, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.


NE WNW W 4, T. 34 S., It. 3 W E.
SW4NWt see. a23, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.
SW NENW, see. 23, T. 37 S. it. 30 E.
SW4NE ave. 23, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
SWE NE ase. 18, T. 37 S., R. 30 E,
NE NW; a\c. 7, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
E I N W A6sec. 7, T. 37 s., R. 30 E.
NE ~NE sec. 7, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
SWUSE 4 eec. 8, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
NENE% sec. 12, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
SW'NW &Asee. 25, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
NW%NE% sec. 2, T. 38 S., R. 80 E.
Center see. 17, T. 38 S., R. 30 E.
SEVSW% sec. 35, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
SWiSW% sec. 31, T. 37 S.,R. 31 E.
NWYNE% sec. 29, T. 35 S., R. 31 E.
NE%NW% sec. 29, T. 35 S., R. 31 E.
NE%4NE% sec. 29, T. 85 S., R. 81 E.
SE% SWV sec. 36, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
NE4NE/4 see. 2, T. 38 S., R. 30 E.
SESW% sec. 385, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
NW'NE' sec. 3, T. 38 S., R. 30 E.
NWNW S sec. 2, T. 388 S., R. 29 E.
NENE% see. 5, T. 38 S., R. 29 E.
SW4SW% sec. 10, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
SWUsNW' see. 11, T. 37 S.,BR. 29 E.
NW%NE% see. 11, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
NWNEA% sec. 11, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
NENE4 'sec. 14, T. 87 S., R. 29 E.
NENEV, aec. 23, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
NW4NE% see. 28, T. 87 S., R. 29 E.
SW4SW% sec. 2, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
NE iSE% see. 26, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
NE>/NE14 see. 35, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
SEIASEy' sec. 35, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
SE 'ASE see. 85, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
SE%SW% sec. 1, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
NE VDNEV1 see. 12, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
SWNW4 sec. 12, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
SW1NW: sec. 25, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
SW'ASE4 aece. 36, T. 87 S., R. 29 E.
NWSW% sec. 6, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
NW4SW4 sec. 6, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.
NWSW% sec. 6, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
SE 'NNE/4 see. 18, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
SEASE% sec. 5, T. 37 S., R. 80 E.
NE NE:% see. 8, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
SENE4 see. 7, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
NW'SW' sec. 8, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.
NWASWY4 sec. 8, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
NE 4SW/ see. 8, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
NE%'SW% see. 8, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
NWSE% see. 8, T. 37 S., R. 80 E.
SW4SE4 see. 8, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
SW% SE4 see. 8, T. 37 S., R. 80 E.
SESE% see. 8, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.
SE:4SE% sec. 8, T. 387 S., R. 80 E.
SE% SE% sec. 8, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.
SESW% see. 9, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.
NE%/NEV see. 16, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.

SWSW% see. 17, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.
SEASWI see. 17, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.

NENW% see. 20, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
SEASE% sec. 20, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
SW4SW% see. 21, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.
NW%NE% see. 29, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.

NENWV see. 29, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
NWSW% see. 32, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
SWSWK<4 see. 82, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
NWSE'A see. 88, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
SWNW4 see. 28, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.
SWV4NW% see. 28, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
SWNEI% see. 28, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.
SW1yNW% see. 28, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
SEVNW4 sec. 21, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.
SE% SW1/ see. 22, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
SWSE% see. 22, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
SWSW% see. 27, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.
SWANW% sec. 23, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
SEI/SW%, sec. 84, T. 86 S., R. 30 E.
SE 'SW% sec. 84, T. 386 S., R. 80 S.

NWSWA see. 80, T. 36 S., R. 80 E.
NW4%SW% see. 86, T. 86 S., R. 30 E.
NWSW4' see. 86, T. 86 S., R. 80 E.
NW1SW% see. 86, T. 86 S., R. 80 E.
NWNEY4 see. 80, T. 86 S., R. 31 E.
NENW'A see. 2, T. 88 S., R. 80 E.

NENW% see. 2, T. 38 S., R. 80 E.

SE SE% sec. 83, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.

SE4SW% sec. 86, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.

NWNEID sec. 1, T. 88 S., R. 80 E.
NW1NEN see. 1, T. 88 S., R. 80 E.

SWSW% see. 81, T. 87 S., R. 31 E.

NW4SWI see. 28, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.
SWNW% sec. 28, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.

SW4NW4 see. 28, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.

NW4SW% see. 28, T. 87 S., R. 30 E.
NW NSWy* see. 24, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.

NWNWV4 see. 3, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
NWNINED se. 83, T. 87 S., R. 80 E.
NW4ANW'/ sec. 2, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
SEi4SEV4 sec. 85, T. 86 S., R. 30 E.


Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dn
Dr
Dn
Dn
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dn

Dn
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dr
Dn
J
J
J
Dn,J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
Dn
J
Dn
Dn
Dn
Dn
Dn
J
Dn
Dn
Dn
Dn
Dn
Dn
Dn
Dn
J
J
J

B


Diasite T),r
(ill.) casming


35
65
92.0
49.5

83.7
18.3
78.4
31.2
17.0
95.8
50.0
1,550
21
125.0
37.8
48.7
10.7
130

00
220
140
100
60
220
6.3
14.0
20.5
12.5
11.2
23.8
12.7
20.6
21.0
21.4
22.5
13.7
12.4
23.9
77.1
19.2
27.4
81.2
41.1
70.0
9.0
21.4
88.3
40
10.6
11.5
9.5
38.4
6.7
14.9
21.3
20.7
6.4
21.4
8.8


Type Type Uw
pump puwer well


F 1
F I
F D
F D
F U,S
P H 0
N N P
N N 0
P H D
C E D
N F D

N N 0
T


2
2

2

2



2
2

6
4
1%
1%
14
3
3
3
3
3
83

6
1%4
%
%
%
1%
1%
%4
%A
%A
IV





1%

1%
14

2
2
1%
%
1%
1K
14
1%
1%
2
1%
1%


T
T
S
T,O
T,0
T,O
T,O
T,O
T,O
0
D
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
D
0
D
D
0
D
D
0
D
D
D
D
I
I
I
I
0
0
0
0
0


mtekauriluag Pit

above
a' beliw A
(--) land
DLescrip- surface
"thn (ft.)


Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
up
Tea
Tea
Bp
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Bp
Tea
LS

LS
LS
LS
LS
LS
Tea
Bp
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Bp
Tea
Tea
Bp
Tea
Tea
Bp
Tea
Bp
Bp
Bp
Bp
Bp
Bs
Bp
Bp
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea


3.3
3.0
1.0
2.2
1.4
2.2
3.5
1.6
2.2
2.2
.5
1.0
.0
3.0

1.5
3.0
.8
0.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
2.8
1.9
8.0
.9
2.3
2.3
2.6
1.1
1.0
.5
.7
7.7
3.8
2.7
1.6
2.0
2.4
2.1
2.0
1.9
.0
4.1
.2
8.9
2.8
2.0
1.6
8.1
1.6
1.8
2.3
.2
1.1
2.7
.0
8.0


.ilLudc
abuve
MSL)


Rtesnarks


139.31 Equipped with recording gage
52.20 Flows 20 ipm
50.73 Flows 100 gpmi
40.20 Flows 3 gpin
44.95 Flows 100 gpm
41.19 Flows I gpm
100.93
138.01
111.52
101.61


104.93
50e
182e
60.70
34e



40e

50e
90e
118e
140e
91.5
121.98
78.87
83.26
80.98
98.86
99.77
99.46
183e
103.96
110.42
137.46
138.19
90.76
94.45
87.06
106.46
114.28
102.71
108.48
92.50
118.48
91.80
89.84
118.80
105.28
90.98
91.54
88.47
87.49
88.86
90.88
99.85
91.52
98.22
92.70
92.58


Flows 5 gpm


Well destroyed



Test hole for lithologic
information.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Equipped with recording gage


Dn 71.1 2 GI N N 0 Tea .3 157.80
Dr 80.0 3 GI J E D Tea 0.5 185.21


27.0
23.7
10.5
27.2

54.1
4.7
24.3
28.0
29.4
23.4
15
21.0
14.6
5.0
3.6
8.5
8.0
21.9
6.8

8.0
17.9
30.9
111.6
oni 9


2 GI
% GI
1% GI
1% GI


Bp
Tea
Bp
Tea

Tea
Tea
Bp
Tea
Tea
Bp
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Bp
Tea
Tea


4 None
% GI
% GI
2 GI
ad flT


118.08
94.82
97.60
110.28

148.10
110.64
185.66
121.61
117.77
120.10
105.19
102.68
98.77
105.68
85.85
112.10
69.47
68.71
47.98

42.49
41.97
41.20
40.60
48.21


Initially Jetted to 28 ft. for litho-.
logic information; well
finished at 6.8 ft.



Flows 20 gpm


j 8.4 GI N N 0 Tea 1.7 78.08 Initially Jetted to 20 ft. for
lithologic information; well
finished at 8.4 ft.
J 26.5 GI N N 0 Tea 2.5 58.38 Initially jetted to 80 ft. for
lithologic information; well
finished at 26.5 ft.
J 21.0 % None N N 0 LS .0 47e Test hole for lithologic
information.
J 6.8 % GI N N 0 Tea 8.5 46.82 Initially jetted to 28 ft. for
lithologie information; well
finished at 6.8 ft.


Dr 42.1 1% GI P H S
J 21.0 % None N 0

J 15.9 % GI N N 0


B 5.0 % GI
J 12.0 % GI


40.91
89e
84.51


N N 0 Tea 4.0 71.78
N N 0 Tea 8.0 59.47


J 23.0 % GI N N 0 Tea
J 28.2 % GI N N 0 Tea
J 23.0 % None N N 0 LS

J 12.9 % GI N N 0 Tea


-2.0
3.0
.0
4.3


46.94
49.07
44.07

44.04


B 8.7 % GI N N 0 Tea 8.5 86.70
J 21.0 % None N N 0 LS 0.0 44e


21.0
22.2

19.8
0.1
15.6
11.1
8.0
8.0
4.8
18.9
22.0

7.5
0.0
5.0
4.0
8.0


None
GI
None
GI
GI
GI
GI
GI
GI
GI
GI
None

None
None
None
None
None


LS
Tea
LS
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
Tea
LS

LS
LS
LS
LS
LS


43e
42.87
89.05
39.26
40.88
85.88
77.81
86.80
58.58
60.96
45.66

95e
128e
105e
105e
105e


Test hole for lithologic
information.
Initially jetted to 27 ft. for
lithologic information; well
finished at 15.9 ft.

Initially jetted to 57 ft. for
lithologic information; well
finished at 12.0 ft.
Located in drainage ditch.

Test hole for lithologic
information
Initially jetted to 26 ft. for
lithologic information; well
finished at 12.9 ft.

Test hole for lithologic
information.
Do.










Test hole for lithologic
information.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.


851
816
517
818
519
520
521
522
528
524
6256
526
527
528
529
580
S81
882
588


GI
GI P
GI N
None ....

None
None
None
None
None





TABLE 5. Record of Surface-Water Observation Points


Datum
of gage,
Num- in feet
ber Owner Location above MSL Remarks

OP-1 U.S.G.S. NEV/ SE1/ sec. 2, T. 37 S., R. 80 E. 65.38 Lake June in Winter, Surface Water Branch staff gage
OP-2 -do- NE/ NE1/4 sec. 13, T. 37 S., R. 29 E. 79.66 Lake Placid, Surface Water Branch staff gage and con-
tinous recorder
OP-3 -do- SW1/4SE1/4 sec. 17, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. 68.90 Lake Grassy, Surface Water Branch staff gage
OP-4 -do- SWINW1 sec. 5, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. -68.92 Lake Huntley, Surface Water Branch staff gage
OP-5 -do- NE1 NE sec. 31, T. 36 S., R. 30 E. 68.94 Lake Clay, Surface Water Branch staff gage
OP-6 -do- SW/SWY4 sec. 31, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. 100.19 Lake Annie, Surface Water Branch staff gage
OP-7 -do- NW1/4SW1/ sec. 6, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. 74.63 Lake Sirena, Surface Water Branch staff gage
OP-8 -do- NE/4SW1 sec. 6, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. 78.96 Lake Pearl, Surface Water Branch staff gage
OP-9 -do- SE1/4NW1/ sec. 7, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. 84.41 Mirror Lake, Surface Water Branch staff gage and con-
tinuous recorder
OP-10 -do- NW1/4SE1 sec. 6, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. 78.76 Lake McCoy, Surface Water Branch staff gage
OP-11 -do- NE%1SE 4 sec. 12, T. 37 S., R. 29 E. 85.32 Lost Lake, temporary staff gage
OP-12 -do- NE1/NE/4 sec. 29, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. 88.56 Buck Lake, temporary staff gage
OP-13 -do- SE1/SE sec. 20, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. 91.48 Excavation, temporary staff gage
OP-14 -do- NE1/NE1/4 sec. 3, T. 38 S., R. 30 E. 112.95 Do.
OP-15 -do- SW1/4SW sec. 9, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. 89.67 Lake Grassy, temporary staff gage
OP-16 -do- SW/LSW1 sec. 13, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. 90.35 Catfish Bay Canal, temporary staff gage










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