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 Errata
 Title Page
 Transmittal letter
 Contents
 Illustrations
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Geography
 Geologic formations and their water-bearing...
 Ground water
 Summary and conclusions
 Record of selected wells
 Meaured geologic sections
 Well logs
 Map
 References


FGS FEOL



Geology and ground-water resources of Highlands County Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 15 )
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001199/00001
 Material Information
Title: Geology and ground-water resources of Highlands County Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 15 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Report of investigations 15 )
Physical Description: vi, 115 p. : illus. maps. (part fold.) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bishop, Ernest W
Florida Geological Survey
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1956
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Water-supply -- Florida -- Highlands County   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 114-115
General Note: "Prepared by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey."
General Note: Errata sheet pasted inside front cover.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000958531
oclc - 01723652
notis - AES1341
lccn - a 56009879
System ID: UF00001199:00001

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Table of Contents
    Errata
        Unnumbered ( 2 )
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Transmittal letter
        Page iii
    Contents
        Page iv
        Page v
    Illustrations
        Page vi
    Abstract
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Geography
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Geologic formations and their water-bearing properties
        Page 13
        Page 14
        14a
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 12
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Ground water
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 33
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 57
    Record of selected wells
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Meaured geologic sections
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Well logs
        Page 80
        Page 79
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Map
        Page 113
        Page 113
    References
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Copyright
            Copyright
Full Text





ti RRATA

Florida Geological Survey
Report of Investigations No. 15
Geology and Ground-Water Resources of
Highlands County, Florida


Page 8 (9th line frombottom of page)occurring hot accurring,

Page 12 (16th line from bottom of page) p. 233 not p. 223.

Page 16 (17th line) unconformably not uncomfortably.

Page 21 (10th line from bottom of page) Discorinopsis not Dig-
corpinopsis.

Page 25 (5th line) 1,300 not 13,000.

Page 25 (16th line) unconformity not uncomformity.

Page 26 (23rd line) fig. 4 not fig. 4c.

Page 27 (13th line from bottom of page) p. 137-138 not p. 137-
318.

Page 28 (17th line) p. 77-79). not p. 138, 139).

Page 38 (18th line) 7.4 feet not 10. 17 feet.

Page 53 There are two wellsnumbered 358. Thefirstone should
be 357.

Page 62 Under remarks, the references to figures 7a and 7b
should be to figure 7.

Page 75 Under use, well 422, D not F.

Page 79 (18th line) formation not formations.

Page 101 Surface altitude at well 428 should be 80*10 not 80+10.

Page 113 (6th line from bottom of page) Moodys Branch (?) not
Ocala.

Page 115 (14th line from bottom of page) Delete (in press).







STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Ernest Mitts, Director


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Herman Gunter, Director




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 15




GEOLOGY AND GROUND-WATER RESOURCES
OF
HIGHLANDS COUNTY, FLORIDA


ERNEST W. BISHOP
U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
MIAMI, FLORIDA




Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


TALLAHASSEE
FLORIDA
1956




F46g


FLORIDA STATE BOARD

OF

CONSERVATION


LEROY COLLINS
Governor


H. A. (;RAY
Secretary of State


NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture


J. EI)\ IN LARSON
Treasurer


THOMAS D. BAILEY
Superintendent Public Instruction


RAY E. GREEN N
Comptroller


RICHARD ERVIN
Attorney General


ERNEST MITTS
Supervisor of Conservation


AGRIc
CULTURAL
LIBRARY







LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


9to da


gifoqa cra SuwVy


August 6,


1956


Mr. Ernest Mitts, Director
Florida State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Mr. Mitts:

I am transmitting a report entitled "GEOLOGY AND GROUND-
WATER RESOURCES OF HIGHLANDS COUNTY, FLORIDA",
prepared by Ernest W. Bishop, Geologist, formerly with the United States
Geological Survey, but now employed by the Florida Geological Survey.
This study presents the basic data necessary for the intelligent develop-
ment of the water resources of Highlands County and also contributes
considerably to our knowledge of the geology of the State.

This study, undertaken by the United States and Florida Geological
Surveys, is being published as Report of Investigations No. 15.


Respectfully,

Herman Gunter, Director








CONTENTS

Page
Abstract ....................................................................................................................... 1
Introduction .................................................................................................................. 2
Purpose and scope of the Investigation................................... ............... 2
Location and extent of the area.............................................. ................ 2
Previous investigations ................. ........................................... ................. 3
Acknowledgm ents .......................................................................................... 4
Geography .............................................................................................................. 4
Topography and drainage ..................................................... ................... 4
W western Flatlands ...................................... .............. ........................... 6
Highlands Ridge ...................................... ........ ........................................ 6
Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin ............................................. ............. 6
Eastern Flatlands .......................................................... ..................... 7
Population and develop ent .................................................. .................... 7
Transportation ............................................................................................... 8
Clim ate ........................................................................................................... 8
M mineral resources ............................................................................................ 10
Indian occupation .......................................................................................... 10
Geologic form nations and their water-bearing properties ........................................ 12
Sum mary of stratigraphy ......................................................... ................... 12
Pre-Tertiary rocks ................................................................................. ........ 13
Tertiary system ............................................................................................ 15
Paleocene series .............................................................................................. 15
Cedar Keys limestone ...................................................... .................. 15
Eocene series .................................................................................................. 16
Oldsm ar lim estone ............................................ .............................. .... 16
Lake City lim estone ......................................................... ................... 16
Avon Park lim estone ......................................................... ................... 18
M oodys Branch form ation* ...................................................................... 20
Ocala lim estone* ........... ...................................................................... 22
*The nomenclature and classification of this report accord with those of the U. S. Geological
Survey except for the Moodys Branch formation, which has not been accepted for official
use in Florida by the U. S. Geological Survey, and the Ocala limestone, which is here restricted
by the separation of the Moodys Branch.
O ligocene series ............................................................................................ 23
Suwannee limestone ......................................................... ................... 23
M iocene series ................................................................................................. 24
Hawthorn form ation ......................................................... ................... 24
Tam iam i form ation ...................................... .............. .......................... 28
Q uaternary system .............................................................................................. 29
Pleistocene series ............................................................ ...................... 29
Introduction ............................................................ ...................... 29
Pleistocene deposits ..................................................... ................... 31
Recent series ......................................... ................. .............................. 32
Introduction ..................................... ................ ............................. 32
Dune sand ......................................... ............. ............................ 32
Peat deposits ................................................................................... 32
Alluvium ...................................................................................... 33









Page
Ground water ........................................................................................................ 33
Nonartesian water ........................................................................................ 33
Source .................................................................................................... 33
Occurrence .......................................................................................... 33
The water table and movement of nonartesian ground water................ 35
Shape and slope .......................................................................... 36
Relation to topography ................................................................. 37
Fluctuations of the water table ....-................................................. 37
Recharge ................................................................................................ 38
Recharge from local rainfall ....................................... .......... 38
Recharge from lakes and streams .................................................. 38
Recharge from irrigation .................................................................. 40
Subsurface inflow ................................................... .. .... 40
Discharge ................................................................................................ 40
Discharge by evapotranspiration ............................................... 40
Discharge into lakes and streams ................................... ........... 40
Subsurface outflow ............................................................................ 41
Discharge from wells ........................................................................ 41
Artesian water ........................................................................................... .... 41
Source ...................................................................................................... 41
Occurrence ................................................................................................... 41
The piezometric surface and movement of artesian water ................... 42
Shape and slope .......................................................................... 43
Relation to topography .......................................... .............. 44
Fluctuations of the piezometric surface ......................................... 44
Rainfall ................................................................................ 45
Changes in atmospheric pressure ........................................ 45
Pumpage and flow ................................................................ 45
Recharge ................................................................................................ 46
Discharge ................................................................................................... 48
Natural discharge ............................................................................ 48
Shallow artesian system ............................................................ 48
Floridan aquifer .............................................. ...................... 48
Discharge from wells ............................................................... 50
Shallow artesian wells ........................................................ 50
Wells in the Floridan aquifer ................................ ..... ........ 50
Utilization ....................................................................................................... 50
Domestic supplies ............................................... .......... ..... ......... 50
Irrigation supplies .......................................................... ..................... 50
Stock-water supplies ...................................................... ................ 51
Public supplies ...................................................................................... 51
Quality of water .............................................. ...... 52
Chemical constituents in relation to use .................................................. 52
Chemical character in relation to stratigraphy ..................................... 57
The Floridan aquifer ............................................................ ...... 57
Aquifers in the upper part of, the Hawthorn
and in younger formations .................................................. 57
Summary and conclusions ........................................................ ........................ 57







Page
M measured geologic sections .................................................................................... 77
W ell logs ........................................................................................................................ 79
R references ........................................1............................................................................ 14


ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure Page
1. Map of Florida showing area of investigation ......................................... 3
2. Map of Highlands County showing physiographic regions............................ 5
3. Monthly distribution of rainfall at Avon Park for 53-year period
of record through 1950 ........................................................... .................... 9
4. Geologic cross sections ...................................................................................... 14a
5. Diagram showing several types of rock interstices and the relation
of rock texture to porosity .................................. .......................................... 34
6. Diagram showing divisions of subsurface water .......................................... 36
7. Hydrographs of seven observation wells and the cumulative departure
from normal rainfall at Avon Park........................................................... 39
8. Diagram showing generalized artesian conditions ........................................ 42
9. Map showing the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in Florida.... 43
10. Map showing the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in
H highlands C county .............................................................................................. 44
11. Idealized geologic section between stations 401 and 426 ........................ .. 78
12. Map of Highlands County showing location of geologic cross sections
and selected wells ........................................................................................ 12a


TABLES
Table Page
1. Average monthly rainfall at Avon Park for 53-year period of record
through 1950 ............................................................................................... 9
2. Geologic formations of the Tertiary and Quaternary systems in High-
lands County ................................................................................................ 14
3. Yield, drawdown, and specific capacity of well 403 at 1,215 and
1,301 feet below land surface .................................................................... 18
4. Water-level measurements made during drilling of well 358........................ 47
5. Water-level measurements made during drilling of well 400........................ 47
6. Water-level measurements made during drilling of well 183 ...................... 48
7. Water-level measurements made during drilling of well 408 ................... 49
8. Water-level measurements made during drilling of well GL 22................. 49
9. Chemical analyses of ground water in Highlands County ......................... 53
10. Chemical analyses of water from the two major ground-water sources
in H highlands County ...................1............................................................... 58
11. Records of selected wells in Highlands County........................................... 62







GEOLOGY AND GROUND-WATER RESOURCES
OF HIGHLANDS COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
Ernest W. Bishop
U. S. Geological Survey
Miami, Florida
ABSTRACT
The area of Highlands County consists of rolling hills and flat
marine-terrace plains. The climate is subtropical and the average an-
nual rainfall is 52.22 inches. Citrus culture, winter-vegetable farming,
and livestock raising are the principal occupations. Irrigation of citrus
groves from lakes, streams, and wells is practiced extensively.
The rocks exposed in Highlands County are of Tertiary and
Quaternary age.'The county is almost completely mantled by marine
deposits of Pleistocene age. The Hawthorn formation of early and
middle Miocene age is the oldest outcropping formation and is exposed
in clay pits on some of the highest hills. The county is underlain by
9,000 to 13,000 feet of sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Early
Cretaceous to Recent.
Ground water is obtained from two major sources: (1) the Flor-
idan aquifer, which consists of the Eocene and younger formations
underlying the confining clays of the Hawthorn formation, and (2)
the aquifers in the upper part of the Hawthorn and in overlying
formations.
The Floridan aquifer, which is under artesian pressure, is recharged
by rain that falls on the topographic high that is centered in northern
Polk County and extends into western Highlands County. In High-
lands County almost all large supplies of water (over 500 gpm) from
the Floridan aquifer are obtained from the very permeable Lake City
limestone of Eocene age. In the western part of the county water from
the Floridan aquifer has a low mineral content, whereas in the south-
eastern part there are indications of contamination by trapped sea '
water. The Floridan aquifer furnishes water to many irrigation wells.
Also, the towns of Sebring and Avon Park draw upon this aquifer for
their municipal supplies.
The aquifers in the upper part of the Hawthorn and in younger
formations are recharged principally by local rainfall, and they furnish
water to most domestic and stock wells and to the town of DeSoto City.
Large supplies of water are available in the coarse plastic deposits in
the upper part of the Hawth6rn formation in the western part of the






2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

county. Part of the water in the Hawthorn and the Tamiami forma-
tions in that part of the county is under artesian pressure in the low
areas. Water from the upper part of the Hawthorn and in younger
formations has a great range in chemical composition, though it is
uniformly more mineralized in the southeastern part of the county.
A discussion of the principal chemical constituents of ground water
in relation to use and geologic occurrence of the water is based on
analyses of 36 samples of ground water. The water analyzed ranges
from excellent to satisfactory for most purposes.
The hydrologic and geologic data for this report were obtained
in the field during the years 1950 and 1951. Records for 439 wells
were obtained and some of these data were used to prepare a piezo-
metric map. Geologic cross sections were prepared from a study of the
surface and subsurface stratigraphy. The field data are included in
this report.

INTRODUCTION
PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THE INVESTIGATION
The investigation upon which this report is based was begun in
March 1950 as part of a program of ground-water studies in Florida
by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida
Geological Survey. Several similar areal investigations have been com-
pleted since this program was begun in 1930 and several are now being
made in other parts of the State.
The principal purpose of the investigation has been to provide
basic information necessary to the useful development of irrigation,
industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic ground-water supplies.
The investigation was made under the general supervision of A. N.
Sayre, Chief, Ground Water Branch, U. S. Geological Survey, and Dr.
Herman Gunter, Director, Florida Geological Survey; immediate super-
vision was given by Nevin D. Hoy, District Geologist, U. S. Geological
Survey, Miami. Julia Gardner and F. S. MacNeil of the U. S. Survey
identified some of the fossil material collected during this investigation.
Robert L. Taylor also of the Federal Survey, at Sebring, Fla., gave
valuable assistance in many surface-water phases of the investigation.
LOCATION AND EXTENT OF THE AREA
Highlands County includes an area of about 1,090 square miles in
the south-central part of the Florida Peninsula. Prior to 1921 the
area considered in this report was part of DeSoto County which, in






2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

county. Part of the water in the Hawthorn and the Tamiami forma-
tions in that part of the county is under artesian pressure in the low
areas. Water from the upper part of the Hawthorn and in younger
formations has a great range in chemical composition, though it is
uniformly more mineralized in the southeastern part of the county.
A discussion of the principal chemical constituents of ground water
in relation to use and geologic occurrence of the water is based on
analyses of 36 samples of ground water. The water analyzed ranges
from excellent to satisfactory for most purposes.
The hydrologic and geologic data for this report were obtained
in the field during the years 1950 and 1951. Records for 439 wells
were obtained and some of these data were used to prepare a piezo-
metric map. Geologic cross sections were prepared from a study of the
surface and subsurface stratigraphy. The field data are included in
this report.

INTRODUCTION
PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THE INVESTIGATION
The investigation upon which this report is based was begun in
March 1950 as part of a program of ground-water studies in Florida
by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida
Geological Survey. Several similar areal investigations have been com-
pleted since this program was begun in 1930 and several are now being
made in other parts of the State.
The principal purpose of the investigation has been to provide
basic information necessary to the useful development of irrigation,
industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic ground-water supplies.
The investigation was made under the general supervision of A. N.
Sayre, Chief, Ground Water Branch, U. S. Geological Survey, and Dr.
Herman Gunter, Director, Florida Geological Survey; immediate super-
vision was given by Nevin D. Hoy, District Geologist, U. S. Geological
Survey, Miami. Julia Gardner and F. S. MacNeil of the U. S. Survey
identified some of the fossil material collected during this investigation.
Robert L. Taylor also of the Federal Survey, at Sebring, Fla., gave
valuable assistance in many surface-water phases of the investigation.
LOCATION AND EXTENT OF THE AREA
Highlands County includes an area of about 1,090 square miles in
the south-central part of the Florida Peninsula. Prior to 1921 the
area considered in this report was part of DeSoto County which, in









REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


turn, was created from Manatee County in 1887. Its location with

respect to adjoining counties is shown in Figure 1.


PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS


A detailed study of the geology and ground-water resources of

Highlands County has not been undertaken previously. However, other

studies have been made that have a bearing on the county, and the

most important of these are listed below. Specific references are made

at appropriate places in the text to publications that are listed at the

end of this report.


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FIGURE 1.- Map of Florida showing area of investigation.



An early report by Matson and Sanford (1913, p. 294-296) con-

tains information on Highlands County (then part of DeSoto County).

A report on the chemical character of Florida's water, by Collins

and Howard (1928, p. 216-217), contains analyses of water from


2A-






ts


T


I 1 _


i






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Sebring and Avon Park. A report on the geology of Florida by Cooke
and Mossom (1929, p. 150, 181, 191) contains references to the
geology of the county. An important paper on artesian water in penin-
sular Florida, by Stringfield, was published in 1936. The phosphate
reserves of the county are discussed in a report by Mansfield (1942,
p. 35, 69, pl. 5). Davis (1943, p. 40-58, fig. 1) described and mapped
10 physiographic regions of southern Florida, 4 of which extend into
Highlands County. He also described (1946, p. 129-132) the peat
deposits of the Lake Istokpoga area. Parker and Cooke (1944, pl. 3)
mapped the Pleistocene marine terraces of southern Florida. Cooke's
"Geology of Florida" (1945, p. 208, 233, 290, and pl. 1) mentions
formations in Highlands County. Gunter (1948, fig. 1, p. 40-41)
gives information on oil-exploratory wells in the county. A report on
Pleistocene shorelines by MacNeil (1949, p. 98, 101, pl. 19), contains
references to the county.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Appreciation is extended to the many residents of the county who
readily gave information regarding their wells. Special acknowledgment
is given to the owners and drillers of the following well-drilling com-
panies in Florida, whose cooperation facilitated the preparation of this
report: C. M. Beels & Son, Arcadia; C. P. Cannon & Sons, Palmetto;
Layne-Atlantic, Orlando; Curtis Dansby, Auburndale; E. W. "George"
Dansby, Wauchula; Libby and Freeman, Orlando; E. W. Kelsey
(deceased), Lake Placid; May Brothers Co., Tampa; Meredith Bros.,
Orlando; M. M. Martin, Okeechobee; and Kenneth Turley, Lake
Placid. Gratitude is expressed to John W. Griffin, State Archaeologist,
for his interest and aid in preparing the section on Indian occupation.
Dr. Herman Gunter, Director of the Florida Geological Survey, and
Dr. Robert O. Vernon, Assistant Director, were especially helpful in
furnishing many valuable data regarding the geology of the area.

GEOGRAPHY
TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE
Highlands County lies in the Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic
ground-water province (Meinzer, 1923a, pls. XXVIII, XXXI) and
is subdivided into four physiographic regions (after Davis, 1943,
p. 45-51, fig. 1): (1) the Western Flatlands, (2) the Highlands Ridge,
(3) the Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin, and (4) the Eastern Flatlands
(see fig. 2). The Western Flatlands are a part of Cooke's (1939,






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


FIGURE 2. Map of Highlands County showing physiographic regions.

p. 15-16) Coastal Lowlands unit and Vernon's (1951, p. 16) Terraced
Coastal Lowland. The Highlands Ridge province is the southern end
of the central Highlands of Cooke (1939, p. 21-23) and Vernon's
(1951, p. 16) Delta Plains Highlands in peninsular Florida.
The Western Flatlands, the Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin, and
the Eastern Flatlands are similar in that they are relatively flat and
poorly drained, whereas the Highlands Ridge is an area of rolling hills
separated from the other regions by steep escarpments. The Highlands





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Ridge, being surrounded by low areas, has the appearance of an island
or a peninsula.
WESTERN FLATLANDS
The Western Flatlands region includes the area of flat marine-
terrace plains in the extreme southern and southwestern parts of the
county. It slopes gently from an elevation of about 90 feet in the north-
ern part to about 40 feet in the southern part. The area is a flat,
monotonous, almost treeless plain containing many shallow depressions,
which are filled with water during the rainy season. It contains two
streams: Little Charley Bowlegs Creek in the northern part, and
Fisheating Creek in the southern part. These streams, while having
fairly well defined channels, have not cut back into the terraced plains
far enough to drain the numerous ponds and marshes.

HIGHLANDS RIDGE
The Highlands Ridge region includes the narrow, elongated area
of rolling uplands that extends from the northwestern part of the
county south-southeastward almost to the Glades-Highlands County line.
This region ranges in elevation from about 40 feet to more than 200
feet and contains numerous hills and lakes. The hills are of two types:
those formed by differential erosion of the Miocene land surface and
now mantled by sands of Pleistocene age; and in the eastern part of
the area, coastal bars formed during the Pleistocene.
Most of the lakes in the Highlands Ridge region are fairly deep
and either are circular or have outlines that resemble two or more
intersecting circles. It is believed that these lakes were created as
a result of local subsidence due to collapse of subterranean limestone
caverns. A few small ponds exist during periods of heavy rainfall in
some of the swales between the coastal bars.
The Highlands Ridge area north of Sebring is drained by trib-
utaries of Arbuckle Creek, and that south of Sebring by Josephine
Creek and its tributaries. Many of the lakes in this area are in closed
depressions and have no surface outlets.

ISTOKPOGA-INDIAN PRAIRIE BASIN
The Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin covers the flat, very poorly
drained area of swamps and marshes in the southeastern part of the
county between the Highlands Ridge on the west and the Eastern
Flatlands. Elevations of the land-surface area range from about 25
to 40 feet. Lake Istokpoga, which is at the head of the basin, occupies





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


an area of about 44 square miles and has a maximum depth of about
10 feet. The natural drainage of the lake is south through the Indian
Prairie Basin, but the construction of dikes and canals has now diverted
a large portion of the drainage through the Istokpoga Canal into the
Kissimmee River. The Indian Prairie and Harney Pond canals have
been dug to drain the area south of the lake. Prior to the construction
of canals the surface water was not confined to any definite channel
but moved by sheet flow south toward Lake Okeechobee.
EASTERN FLATLANDS
The Eastern Flatlands region comprises the flat areas in the eastern
and north-central parts of the county and is bounded on the northwest
by the Highlands Ridge and on the southwest by the Istokpoga-Indian
Prairie Basin. It extends into adjoining counties on the north, east and
south. This area, 'in general, is better drained than either the Western
Flatlands or the Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin, although locally it
contains ponds and marshes. The streams draining the region are the
Kissimmee River and Arbuckle Creek. Land-surface elevations in this
area range from about 30 to 100 feet, although a long, narrow north-
south ridge between Arbuckle Creek and the Kissimmee River has a
maximum elevation of 146 feet.
POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT
According to the 1950 census, Highlands County has a population
of 13,636, which represents an increase of about 46 percent since 1940.
Sebring, the county seat and largest town, has a population of 5,006
and Avon Park 4,612. The towns of Lake Placid and DeSoto City
have populations of 417 and 220, respectively.
Agriculture is the dominant economic activity in Highlands County,
chief agricultural products being citrus fruits, cattle, and winter vege-
tables. According to V. T. Oxer, County Agricultural Agent, there
are more than 20,000 acres of bearing citrus trees and between 65,000
and 75,000 head of cattle on about 500,000 acres of pastureland. In
addition to the citrus fruits the county produces mangoes, avocados,
pineapples, bananas, and other tropical and semitropical fruits. The
leading winter truck crops are tomatoes, green beans, green peas, and
cabbage. Strawberries, blackberries, grapes, corn, Irish potatoes, sweet
potatoes, sugar cane, and forage crops also are grown.
The only other economic activity of great importance is the tourist
industry, which is estimated to increase the population of the towns
in Highlands County as much as 15 percent during the winter months.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The Highlands Ridge region contains most of the population of
the county and is the center of the tourist industry. Citrus and tropical
fruits are the chief agricultural products of this region.
The Eastern Flatlands region is sparsely populated but contains
a population second to that of the Highlands Ridge. Almost the entire
region is devoted to cattle raising.
The Western Flatlands region is very sparsely populated and the
agricultural effort is devoted entirely to the raising of cattle.
The Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin also is very sparsely populated.
The area of deep peat just south of the lake is devoted to truck crops
and lily bulbs, with cattle being raised in much of the basin.

TRANSPORTATION
Highlands County is served by two railroad lines: the Seaboard
Air Line Railroad, passing through Avon Park, Sebring, Lorida, and
Fort Bassinger, and the Atlantic Coast Line, passing through Avon
Park, Sebring, DcSoto City, Lake Placid, and Venus.
State and national highways cross the county from north to south
and east to west. U. S. Highway 27, passing through Avon Park,
Sebring, and Lake Placid is one of the principal north-south routes
in the central part of the State, connects Miami with cities to the
north, and affords relief from the congested coastal routes. State
Highway 70 is the principal east-west route and connects Highlands
County with cities on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. The county also
has many roads of minor importance ranging from well-paved roads
to sandy trails cut through the palmettos.

CLIMATE
T'he climate of Highlands County is subtropical, with seasonal rain-
fall and abundant sunshine. The mean temperature at Avon Park is
73.1F. The maximum and minimum mean monthly temperatures are
82.0 and 63.2F., accurring in August and January, respectively.
Rainfall has been recorded by the United States Weather Bureau
at stations near Avon Park almost continuously since 1892. The normal
annual rainfall at Avon Park is 52.22 inches, of which 75 percent falls
in the months of May through October. Deviations from the mean,
however, are frequent and extreme, (see fig. 3). The recorded annual
rainfall at Avon Park ranged from a minimum of 35.88 inches in
1927 to a maximum of 75.20 inches in 1930. The distribution of the
normal rainfall by months at Avon Park is given in table 1.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


20

18


2 ,MAXIMUM
S14








12






JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY |JUNE JULY I AUG. SEPT OCT NOV. DEC.

FIGURE 3. Monthly distribution of rainfall at Avon Park for 53-year
period of record through 1950.

Table 1. -AVERAGE MONTHLY RAINFALL AT AVON PARK FOR 53-
YEAR PERIOD OF RECORD THROUGH 1950
Rainfall Rainfall
Month (inches) Month (inches)
January 2.22 July 8.18
February 2.43 August 7.83
March 2.17 September 6.67
April 2.37 October 4.04
May 4.52 November 1.56
June 8.13 December 2.10

During the summer months, rain usually occurs in Highlands
County in squalls that cover a small area with an intense downpour;
therefore, rainfall records are valid only in the immediate vicinity of
a given gage. An extreme example of this is shown by the amount of
rainfall measured at two stations, one at Avon Park and the other
at Venus, in the year 1946. The amount of rainfall at the Avon Park
station was 50.70 inches, while that at Venus, about 35 miles to the
south, was only 29.65 inches.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


MINERAL RESOURCES
Although a large part of Highlands County is underlain by deposits
of pebble phosphorite in the Hawthorn formation, most of these deposits
are probably too deep and poor to be mined economically.
The Hawthorn formation contains sandy clay which is used as
road-surfacing material and has been mined from small pits in the
vicinity of Avon Park and DeSoto City, south of Highlands Hammock,
and at Childs. Large amounts of the material are still available from
beneath a thin overburden in the Avon Park area, but it is not now
being mined because the land is more valuable for citrus culture.
The minerals ilmenite, zircon, and rutile are commonly present in
the terrace sands of the Highlands Ridge region. The writer has noted
concentrations of these minerals in the beach sands of many lakes
in the ridge section. It is possible that economic deposits of these
minerals may be present in Highlands County, especially along Pleisto-
cene strand lines, but their discovery will undoubtedly entail extensive
prospecting.
INDIAN OCCUPATION
During the field work for this report, artifacts and faunal remains
were collected from the surface of an aboriginal midden deposit in
Highlands County and sent to John W. Griffin, State Archaeologist,
for determination. Concerning this collection and summarizing the
archaeology of the county, Mr. Griffin (in a personal communication
to the writer May 28, 1951) states:
"Very little is known of the archaeology of this county, and al-
though there are doubtless many sites, only nine, including the present
one, are listed in the files of the Department of Sociology and An-
thropology of the University of Florida, and the Archaeological Survey
of the Florida Park Service. The only excavations made under modern
controlled methods are those of the Florida Park Service at the Good-
now Mound and Skipper site on Lake Josephine.'
"So far as cultural sequence is concerned the area is largely a
blank. Prehistoric and historic burial sites can be separated on the
basis of the presence or absence of European trade materials, but the
dominance of a single undecorated pottery type over a long period
of time hinders further subdivision. More intensive work will doubtless
reveal sites containing trade pottery from other portions of Florida
which can be placed in a time sequence.
SGriffin, John W., and Smith, Hale G., The Goodnow Mound, Highlands County,
Fla.: Contributions to the Archaeology of Florida, no. 1, Tallahassee, 1948.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


"The site discovered by the U. S. Geological Survey, which we
may call the Hen Scratch Midden, is in the northwest corner NEV4
SE/4 sec. 35, T. 36 S., R. 28 E. The site, consisting of gray, car-
bonaceous sand containing pottery and midden refuse, is from one
to three feet thick, lying under much, if not all, of a ten-acre hammock
in the midst of a drained marsh or prairie.
"The following mammal bones were present in the deposit: portions
of deer jaws (Odocoileus virginianus), the upper cheek teeth of a
rabbit (Sylvilagus), the lower jaw of a round-tailed muskrat (Neofiber
alleni), and the lower jaw of a raccoon (Procyon lotor)." Dr. Sherman
notes that the larger deer teeth are about the size of O. v. virginianus,
while one of the jaws is smaller than usual for this subspecies. Amphibian
and reptile remains included a vertebra of a salamander (Siren), 2
vertebrae of unidentified snakes, and a number of unidentified turtle
bones.3
"Mollusca included only fresh water and land forms, except for
two marine species which had been worked into artifacts as described
below. Pomacea paludosa is readily identified, but lacking adequate
comparative collections the most common fresh water species at the
site, one univalve and the other bivalve, have not been identified.
The land snail Euglandina rosea, common in many Florida sites, was
represented in the collection.
"The only non-ceramic artifacts consist of fragments of two marine
shells. One of these, a Busycon perversum, is a portion of a shell pick,
with the beak ground down, but the whorl is too broken to permit
identification of the type of hating. The other specimen is a portion
of a Fasciolaria gigantes with some evidence of smoothing at the margin
of the orifice, but it is too fragmentary to permit identification of
artifact type.
"Ceramics consist of 96 potsherds, 93 of which are Belle Glade
Plain.4 One sherd is a probable Belle Glade Plain piece which once had
an added rim strip. There are also 2 rather nondescript gritty plain
sherds. Twenty of the Belle Glade sherds are rim sherds, and 16 of
these have a flat inward cambered lip so characteristic of the type.
Of the remaining rim sherds, 3 have rounded lips and one has a flat
lip slightly rounded. Five of the Belle Glade Plain sherds possess so-
called 'lacing' or 'patch' holes.
2 Identifications by Dr. H. B. Sherman, Department of Biology, University of Florida,
Gainesville.
3 Examined by Dr. Coleman Goin, Department of Biology, University of Florida.
4 Belle Glade Plain is defined by Gordon R. Willey, in 'Excavations in Southeast
Florida,': Yale University Publications in Anthropology, no. 42, p. 25-26, New Haven,
1949.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


"It is, unfortunately, impossible to date this site within close limits.
The pottery type Belle Glade Plain is characteristic of the Okeechobee-
Kissimmee area over a considerable period of time, usually estimated
to extend from about the first into the seventeenth century. The present
evidence does not permit us to narrow this range further.
"The small collection gives us indications of both the hunting and
the collecting of a shell-fish as sources for food. Most of the bones and
shells found in the deposit are probably food refuse, although some
may have become naturally included. The two marine shell artifacts
indicate trade with the sea coast."

GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS AND THEIR
WATER-BEARING PROPERTIES
SUMMARY OF STRATIGRAPHY
The rocks exposed in Highlands County are of Miocene, Pleistocene,
and Recent ages. The oldest outcropping formation is the Hawthorn
of early and middle Miocene age, which is exposed in clay pits on
the Highlands Ridge. The Tamiami formation of late Miocene age
wedges out against the eastern flank of the Highlands Ridge and is
completely covered by Pleistocene deposits. The formations of Pleisto-
cene age mantle the entire county and are overlain locally by Recent
deposits of dune sand, peat, and alluvium.
The writer did not find or recognize any deposits of Pliocene age
in Highlands County. The Citronelle formation, as identified by Cooke
(1945, p. 223) in Highlands County, tentatively is included in the
Hawthorn formation. The Caloosahatchee marl was extended from
its outcrop area in Glades County by Cooke (1945, pl. 1) on the
premise that it merged with the Citronelle formation of Highlands
County, supposedly a near-shore or beach deposit of the same sea
in which the shell marl of the Caloosahatchee accumulated. Cooke
did not list any exposures of the Caloosahatchee in Highlands County
nor did the author find any exposures or any suggestion of the formation
in well cuttings. It is possible that deposits of the Caloosahatchee marl
underlie parts of the Western Flatlands, the Istokpoga-Indian Prairie
Basin, and the Eastern Flatlands.
Cooke (1945, p. 208) extended the Bone Valley formation into
the northeastern part of the county on the basis of the occurrence of
the pebble phosphorite reported by Mansfield (1942, p. 6-7, pl. 5).
The writer has examined cuttings from several wells scattered through-
out the part of the county mapped as Bone Valley by Cooke, and







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


has found phosphorite pebbles in some, but he has failed to find any
material that could definitely be referred to the Bone Valley. The
phosphorite pebbles were in sediments lithologically similar to those
that have been referred to the Hawthorn formation in other parts of
the peninsula.
Information derived from the logs of water wells and deep oil-test
wells shows that the area is underlain by 9,000 to 13,000 feet of
relatively flat lying sedimentary rocks overlying rocks of volcanic
origin. The pre-Miocene sedimentary deposits in the county record
shallow-water, offshore marine environments, with the shoreline far
to the north. Clastic materials were deposited for the first time during
Miocene time. At the close of the middle Miocene a finger of a large
delta extended south across the western part of the county. The ad-
vances of the sea during late Miocene and Pleistocene times deposited
near-shore material and modified the middle Miocene land surface.
The withdrawal of the Pleistocene seas ended large-scale deposition
in the county.
The nature of the geologic formations and the character of the
contained ground-water supplies in Highlands County are described
briefly in the generalized section (table 2) and in more detail in the
following pages of this report.

PRE-TERTIARY ROCKS
Evidence as to the age and lithology of the older rocks underlying
Highlands County is afforded by a deep oil-test well, the Carlton no. 1,
drilled by Humble Oil & Refining Co., about 5 miles northwest of
Venus in the center of the SW'4NW4 sec. 34, T. 38 S., R. 29 E.,
to a depth of 12,985 feet. According to Applin (1951), this well
entered pre-Mesozoic rocks at 12,618 feet and penetrated 367 feet of
basalt, rhyolite porphyry, and related volcanic rocks which he tentatively
classified as early Paleozoic or possibly pre-Cambrian.
The surface of the Pre-Mesozoic rocks range from about 9,000 feet
below sea level at Avon Park to about 13,000 feet below sea level
at Venus (Applin, 1951, fig. 2), and is overlain unconformably by
rocks of Cretaceous age.
Cretaceous rocks were penetrated in the Carlton well between the
depths of 5,096 and 12,618 feet. The upper 2,500 feet of these rocks,
which consists primarily of limestone and some dolomite, has been
referred to the Gulf series. The remainder of the section, which consists
of limestone, anhydrite, and some dolomite overlying basal sand, has
been referred to the Comanche series. The presence of anhydrite in the










Table 2.-GOOI OMTOSO H ETAYAD URENR YTM NHGLNSCUT


Series


Recent
Pleistocene


Miocene




Oligocene


Eocene


Formation


Thickness
(feet)


0-20


Physical character


Dune sand, peat, and alluvium.


Water supply
Not used as a source of water.


Undifferen- 1-100 Gray-orange to white medium to coarse Furnishes domestic and stock supplies
tiated quartz sand in high areas of the county; locally throughout the county.
deposits fine to medium clayey, calcareous
quartz sand in the low areas.
Tamiami 0-100 Dark-blue to white clayey, sandy shell A source of domestic and stock supplies
formation marl; quartz sand and sandy clay. in the eastern part of the county.
Hawthorn 300-650 Dark-green to white montmorillonitic The deltaic part of the formation is a
formation clay; white to cream dense sandy phos- very important source of large supplies
phatic limestone; fine to pebble-size of water locally in the Ridge section.
quartz sand and phosphonite; white to The marine part of the formation furn-
red kaolinitic sand. ishes small to medium supplies of water
from thin beds of limestone and sand.
Suwannee 0-80 Cream-colored soft chalky, slightly crys- Not an important source of large sup-
limestone talline, porous limestone, plies of water; permeable.
Ocala 150-250 Light-gray to cream-colored soft, chalky Not an important source of large sup-
limestone foraminiferal limestone. plies of water except in the southeastern
part of the county; permeable.
Moodys Branch 50-150 Cream to tan-gray granular to chalky Not an important source of large sup-
formation foraminiferal limestone, plies of water; permeable.
Avon Park 200-350 Light-gray to light-brown soft to hard Not an important source of large sup-
limestone granular to chalky, slightly porous lime- plies of water; permeable.
stone, with secondary calcite and some
dolomitic limestone.
Lake City 400t Brown hard crystalline dolomite and A very important source of large sup-
limestone cream-colored permeable limestone and plies of water throughout the county;
dolomitic limestone. highly permeable.
Oldsmar 670t Fragmental limestone, partly to com- Little is known about the water supply


0

)I
0
0


r-

0
0
1-4

0
C.


limestone pletely dolomitized. of this formation.
Paleocene Cedar Keys 1,670- White to cream fragmental limestone No wells in the county are known to ob-
limestone and some gypsum. tain water from this formation.


THE TERTIARY AND QUARTERNARY


SYSTEMS IN HIGHWLANDS COUNTY


Table 2. -GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS OF


--


v .
41 r r


r ~












di

gj
2j
5"


= hi


PLEISTOCENE I
DEPOSITS----


------p
----
N


200

100

0

100

200

300

400

*500

600

-700

800

900

1,000

1,100

1,200

1,300


PLEISTOCENEDEPOSITS Land Surface


TAMIAMI FORMATION




HAWTHORN FORMATION


--.rS SUWANNEE LIMESTONE



OCALA LIMESTONE


MOOODYS BRANCH FORMATION


AVON PARK LIMESTONE



LAKE CTY STONE
LAKE CITY LIMESTONE


SCALE IN MILES
0 10


INDEX MAP


200









too
-4










0









J 100
- i


FIGURE 4. -Geologic cross sections.


C
C ^t


HAWTHORN FORMATION
marinee deposits) -7
.-'7e


ssr
LAKE \
CHILDS

CHILDS 42P
FLA. 70 O _D'


358
o0


--







I-----


436 434



INDEX MAP

0 1 3 4 MILES


HAWTHORN FORMATION
marinee deposits)


SCALE IN MILES
1 0 I 2 a


*1000

1100


4
--
4.


435, 432L ,425
-1 9.-.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


Comanche series indicates restricted areas of supersaline seas and
evaporite conditions, and according to the principles discussed by
Ver Wiebe (1950, p. 145-146), it suggests the possibility that great
reefs which are potential oil reservoirs may have been formed in this
part of the United States during Cretaceous time.
TERTIARY SYSTEM
Paleocene Series
CEDAR KEYS LIMESTONE
Name. The name Cedar Keys limestone, taken from the town
of Cedar Keys, Levy County, was proposed by Cole (1944, p. 27-28)
for limestones known only "in wells in peninsular and northern Florida
from the first appearance of the Borelis fauna to the top of the Upper
Cretaceous."
Lithology. Vernon (1951, p. 85) states: "The Paleocene of penin-
sular Florida is white, cream and gray, pasty to fragmental limestones,
which have rare lenses of oolitic limestone. The porosity of the rock
is impregnated by gypsum, giving it a speckled appearance."
Distribution and stratigraphic relations.--Cooke (1945, p. 33)
states: "The Cedar Keys limestone probably underlies all of Florida
except the northwestern part, where the equivalent formation is the
Porters Creek clay." Concerning the stratigraphic relations of the Cedar
Keys, Vernon (p. 85) states: "It lies below a definite Salt Mountain
fauna of lower Eocene, Wilcox age, and conformably upon transitional
Upper Cretaceous beds. It thus occupies the interval represented else-
where by the beds of Midway age."
Thickness. The thickness of the Cedar Keys limestone in High-
lands County is not known, but Applin and Applin (1944, p. 1704,
1707) report a total thickness of 1,670 feet in Pioneer Oil Co.'s no. 1
Hecksher-Yarnell well in sec. 28, T. 30 S., R. 25 E., Polk County.
Paleogeography. According to Cooke (1945, p. 33-34): "The
Cedar Keys limestone was deposited in the open ocean. The shoreline
extended across Alabama and Georgia, circling northwestward up the
Mississippi Embayment, in and near which the Porters Creek clay was
deposited contemporaneously."
Paleontology. -Applin and Jordan (1945, p. 131) consider the
following Foraminifera diagnostic of the formation:
Borelis floridanus Cole
Borelis gunteri Cole
Cribrospira? bushnellensis Applin and Jordan
Planispirina? kissengenensis Applin and Jordan
Valvulammina nassauensis Applin and Jordan






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Water Supply. No water wells are known to obtain their supplies
from this formation in Highlands County.
Eocene Series
OLDSMAR LIMESTONE
Name. The name Oldsmar limestone is applied by Applin and
Applin (1944, p. 1702) to limestone of Wilcox age penetrated between
depths of 2,165 and 3,090 feet in R. V. Hill's "Oldsmar well" (sec. 18,
T. 38 S., R. 17 E.) in Hillsborough County.
Lithology. -- Concerning the Oldsmar limestone, Vernon (1951, p.
87) states: "It is composed essentially of fragmental marine limestones,
partially to completely dolomitized and containing irregular and rare
lenses of chert, impregnations of gypsum and thin shale beds."
Distribution and stratigraphic relations. According to Cooke
(1945, p. 40), the Oldsmar limestone underlies the peninsula, the
northeastern part of Florida, and the southeastern part of Georgia,
probably rests unconformably on formations of the Midway group,
and is overlain uncomformably by formations of the Claiborne group.
Thickness. The thickness of the Oldsmar limestone in Highlands
County is not known. Applin and Applin (1944, p. 1702) report a
total thickness of 670 feet in the no. 1 Hecksher-Yarnell well in Polk
County.
Paleogeography. The Oldsmar limestone was deposited in an open
sea. According to Cooke (1945, p. 41), the boundary between the area
of elastic and nonclastic deposition shifted back and forth several times
across northwestern Florida and southern Alabama.
Paleontology. -- The fauna of the Oldsmar consists for the most part
of Foraminifera, of which the following are considered by Applin and
Jordan (1945, p. 131) to be diagnostic of the formation:
Clavulina floridana Cole
Coskinolina elongata Cole
Helicostegina gyralis Barker and Grimsdale
Lituonella elegans Cole
Lockhartia cushmani Applin and Jordan
Miscellanea nassauensis Applin and Jordan
M. nassauensis var. reticulosus Applin and Jordan
Pseudophragmina (Proporocyclina) cedarkeysensis Cole
Water supply. Little is known about the water supply of this
formation in Highlands County.
LAKE CITY LIMESTONE
Name.- The name Lake City limestone is applied by Applin and
Applin (1944, p. 1697) to limestone of Claiborne age penetrated be-







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


tween depths of 492 and 1,010 feet in a city well at Lake City,
Columbia County.
Lithology. The Lake City limestone, in Highlands County, con-
sists of layers of hard, brown, porous, crystalline dolomite and hard, tan
to cream, porous limestone and dolomitic limestone.
Distribution and stratigraphic relations. The Lake City limestone
underlies the entire Florida Peninsula and probably rests unconformably
on the Oldsmar limestone. It is possible that some of the beds referred
to the Lake City in this report belong to the Oldsmar, but because
of the lack of diagnostic fossils they cannot be placed in that forma-
tion with certainty. In Highlands County the Lake City limestone
is conformably overlain by the Avon Park limestone, which also is
of Claiborne age. In Highlands County the Lake City limestone ap-
parently has an east-west strike and dips south an average of about
5 feet per mile, the top of the formation ranging from about 900 feet
below sea level in the northern part of the county to about 1,100 feet
below sea level in the southern part.
Thickness. According to Cooke (1945, p. 46), the Lake City
limestone ranges in thickness from 400 to 500 feet in the northern part
of Florida, and from 200 to 250 feet in the southern part of the penin-
sula.
Paleogeography. Cuttings from the Lake City limestone in High-
lands County indicate that it was an offshore deposit which received
very little plastic sediment. Applin and Applin (1944, p. 1696) have
recognized a plastic faces in northwestern Florida that is probably
equivalent to the Lake City limestone. According to Cooke (1945, p.
46), the shoreline, during the time that the Lake City was being
deposited, extended across the southern part of Alabama and northeast
across central Georgia, the northwestern part of Florida being nearest
the land.
Paleontology. Foraminifera make up the large percentage of
fauna in the Lake City limestone. Applin and Jordan (1945, p. 131)
consider the following to be diagnostic of the formation:
Amphistegina lopeztrigoi D. K. Palmer
Amphistegina nassauensis Applin and Jordan
Archaias columbiensis Applin and Jordan
Asterigerina cedarkeysensis Cole
Dictyoconus americanus (Cushman)
Discocyclina (Asterocyclina) monticellensis Cole and Ponton
Discorbis inornatus Cole
Eodictyoconus cubensis (Cushman and Bermudez)
Epistomaria semimarginata (d'Orbigny)
Eponides gunteri Cole
Fabularia gunteri Applin and Jordan







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Fabularia vaughani Cole and Ponton
(unteria floridana Cushman and Ponton
Lepidocyclina (Polylepidina) antillea Cushman
Lepidocyclina (Pliolepidina) cedarkeysensis Cole
Linderina floridensis Cole
Lockhartia cushmani Applin and Jordan
Operculinoides jennyi Barker
Water supply.-- The Lake City limestone, because of its high
permeability, is a highly productive aquifer in Highlands County and
is utilized to a large extent wherever large quantities (500 to 1,500
gallons per minute) of ground water are needed for municipal and
irrigation supplies.
The permeability of the formation compared with the overlying
formations in the Floridan aquifer is indicated by pumping tests made
by Briley & Wild, consulting engineers of Daytona Beach, during the
drilling of well 403 (see table 3). This table shows that 85 feet of
additional penetration into the Lake City limestone, after 915 feet of
the Floridan aquifer had been penetrated, increased the yield at a
drawdown of 25 feet from 463 to 636 gallons per minute.
Water from the Lake City limestone ranges from soft to hard, the
hardness increasing toward the southern end of the county. Locally
there is an excessive amount of iron, more than 0.3 part per million,
some of which may be from the well casings, but in general the water
is satisfactory (see table 9).

Table 3. YIELD, DRAWDOWN, AND SPECIFIC CAPACITY OF WELL 403
AT 1,216 AND 1,301 FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE
Depth Yield Drawdown Specific
(ft.) (gpm) (ft.)' capacity' Remarks
1,216 145 7 20.7 915 feet of open hole in the Floridan
,216 205 10 20.5 aquifer; 90 feet of the Lake City lime-
1,216 243 12 20.2 stone penetrated.
1,216 463 25 18.5
1,216 633 36 17.6
1,301 175 4 43.7 1,000 feet of open hole in the Floridan
,301 200 5 40.0 aquifer; 175 feet of the Lake City
1,301 292 8 36.5 limestone penetrated.
1,301 408 13 31.4
1,301 508 17 29.9
1,301 609 23 26.5
1,301 636 25 25.4
1,301 818 35 23.4
SPumping time not recorded.
SThe specific capacity of a well is the yield in gallons per minute per foot of
drawdown.
AVON PARK LIMESTONE

Name. The name Avon Park limestone is applied by Applin and
Applin (1944, p. 1680) to limestone of Claiborne age pentrated be-







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


"It is, unfortunately, impossible to date this site within close limits.
The pottery type Belle Glade Plain is characteristic of the Okeechobee-
Kissimmee area over a considerable period of time, usually estimated
to extend from about the first into the seventeenth century. The present
evidence does not permit us to narrow this range further.
"The small collection gives us indications of both the hunting and
the collecting of a shell-fish as sources for food. Most of the bones and
shells found in the deposit are probably food refuse, although some
may have become naturally included. The two marine shell artifacts
indicate trade with the sea coast."

GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS AND THEIR
WATER-BEARING PROPERTIES
SUMMARY OF STRATIGRAPHY
The rocks exposed in Highlands County are of Miocene, Pleistocene,
and Recent ages. The oldest outcropping formation is the Hawthorn
of early and middle Miocene age, which is exposed in clay pits on
the Highlands Ridge. The Tamiami formation of late Miocene age
wedges out against the eastern flank of the Highlands Ridge and is
completely covered by Pleistocene deposits. The formations of Pleisto-
cene age mantle the entire county and are overlain locally by Recent
deposits of dune sand, peat, and alluvium.
The writer did not find or recognize any deposits of Pliocene age
in Highlands County. The Citronelle formation, as identified by Cooke
(1945, p. 223) in Highlands County, tentatively is included in the
Hawthorn formation. The Caloosahatchee marl was extended from
its outcrop area in Glades County by Cooke (1945, pl. 1) on the
premise that it merged with the Citronelle formation of Highlands
County, supposedly a near-shore or beach deposit of the same sea
in which the shell marl of the Caloosahatchee accumulated. Cooke
did not list any exposures of the Caloosahatchee in Highlands County
nor did the author find any exposures or any suggestion of the formation
in well cuttings. It is possible that deposits of the Caloosahatchee marl
underlie parts of the Western Flatlands, the Istokpoga-Indian Prairie
Basin, and the Eastern Flatlands.
Cooke (1945, p. 208) extended the Bone Valley formation into
the northeastern part of the county on the basis of the occurrence of
the pebble phosphorite reported by Mansfield (1942, p. 6-7, pl. 5).
The writer has examined cuttings from several wells scattered through-
out the part of the county mapped as Bone Valley by Cooke, and







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


tween depths of 600 and 930 feet in a well drilled at the Avon Park
Bombing Range (sec. 31, T. 32 S., R. 30 E.) in Polk County.
Lithology. The Avon Park limestone, in Highlands County, con-
sists of layers of light-gray to light-brown, soft to hard, slightly porous,
granular to chalky limestone with considerable secondary calcite and
some dolomitic limestone.
Distribution and stratigraphic relations. The Avon Park lime-
stone underlies most of the Florida Peninsula and rests conformably
on the Lake City limestone. In Highlands County the Avon Park lime-
stone is unconformably overlain by the basal member of the Moodys
Branch formation of Jackson age.
Thickness and structure. The Avon Park limestone, in High-
lands County, ranges in thickness from. about 200 to 350 feet, the top
of the formation ranging from about 500 feet below sea level in the
northern part of the county to about 900 feet below sea level in the
southern part. The Avon Park strikes east-west and dips south an
average of about 10 feet per mile.
Paleogeography. The Avon Park limestone was deposited in the
open sea and received very little plastic sediment. According to Cooke
(1945, p. 51, 52) the entire Florida plateau was probably submerged,
but the position of the shoreline is unknown.
Paleontology. -The most distinctive fossil in the Avon Park in
this area is the small echinoid Peronella dalli (Twitchell), which is very
common in the upper part of the formation. Cuttings from this zone
in some of the wells consist almost entirely of calcitic fragments or
whole specimens of this species. The foraminiferal fauna of the Avon
Park is also very abundant and distinctive. Applin and Jordan (1945,
p. 130, 131) list the following Foraminifera as diagnostic:
Coskinolina floridana Cole
Cribrobulimina cushmani Applin and Jordan
Cyclammina waters Applin and Jordan
Dictyoconus cookei (Moberg)
Discorinopsis gunteri Cole
Flintina avonparkensis Applin and Jordan
Lituonella floridana Cole
Rotalia avonparkensis Applin and Jordan
Spirolina coryensis Cole
Textularia coryensis Cole
Valvulammina minute Applin and Jordan
Valvulina avonparkensis Applin and Jordan
Valvulina intermedia Applin and Jordan
Valvulina martii Cushman and Bermudez
Water supply.-The Avon Park limestone is not an important
source of large water supplies in Highlands County, but it is utilized






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


locally in the area around the town of Avon Park. In other parts of
the county it contributes some water to wells that penetrate the under-
lying Lake City limestone.
MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION*
Name. The Moodys Branch formation was named for exposures
of Jackson age along Moodys Branch of the Pearl River in the city of
Jackson, Miss. The name Moodys Branch was first used in connection
with deposits of Jackson age in Mississippi by Otto Meyer (1885,
p. 435). E. N. Lowe (1915, p. 80) described Moodys Branch green
marls as a formation of the Jackson group and thought the bed overlay
the Yazoo clay marl. Cooke (1918, p. 186-198) describes the Moodys
calcareous marl member as the basal member of the Jackson formation
and that it rests conformably on the Yegua formation of Claiborne
age and is overlain by the Yazoo clay member of the Jackson formation.
The Mississippi Geological Survey now divides the Jackson formation
into the Yazoo clay at the top and the Moodys marl at the base. In
southern Alabama the Jackson group is composed of two formations:
the Ocala limestone at the top and the Moodys Branch formation at
the base.
For many years the beds representing the base of the Jackson group
in Florida have been referred to the Ocala limestone. R. O. Vernon
(1951, p. 115) correlated these beds with the basal Jackson in southern
Alabama, which have been traced from Mississippi, and has proposed
the name Moodys Branch formation to include two members, the
Inglis member at the base and the Williston member at the top, for
beds in the lower part of the Jackson group in Florida.
Puri (1953, p. 130) has raised the rank of the two members to
formations and no longer uses the name Moodys Branch in Florida.
Lithology. The Moodys Branch formation in Highlands County
consists of cream to tan-gray, slightly hard to soft, granular to chalky,
foraminiferal limestones which locally contain some crystalline calcite.
In some areas of the county the hardness of the formation increases
toward the base. The limestones in the upper part of the formation
are so similar to the overlying Ocala limestone that the contact between
the two formations is not clearly defined. In this report no attempt
After the manuscript for this report was completed Puri (1953, p. 130) and Purl
in Vernon and Puri (1956, p. 35-38) proposed the following classification of the upper
Eocene in Florida.
Crystal River formation
Ocala Group Williston formation
Inglis formation
This classification is presently in use by various workers in the field and is officially
accepted by the Florida Geological Survey.


20







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


has been made to differentiate between the two members of the forma-
tion.
Distribution and stratigraphic relations. The Moodys Branch for-
mation is known to underlie a large portion of the central and north-
western parts of the Florida Peninsula. It rests unconformably on rocks
of Claiborne age and is conformably overlain by the Ocala limestone.
Thickness and structure. The Moodys Branch formation in High-
lands County apparently ranges in thickness from about 50 to 150 feet,
the top of the formation ranging from about 500 feet below sea level
in the northern part of the county to about 750 feet below sea level in
the southern part. The formation strikes east-west and dips south an
average of about 4 feet per mile.
Paleogeography. -The Moodys Branch formation was deposited
in a shallow sea, !the shoreline probably extending across southern
Mississippi and Alabama, and northeast across central Georgia. At
its type locality, according to Cooke (1918, p. 186-198), the formation
grades from a bed of quartz sand, glauconite, and shells at the base to
indurated marl or impure limestone at the top, indicating that the
shoreline moved slowly north during the time the formation was being
deposited.
Paleontology. -The most conspicuous elements of the Moodys
Branch formation in this area are the Foraminifera. Concerning the
Foraminifera of the Inglis member, Vernon (1951, p. 118) states:
"Miliolids are very abundant, but are usually so poorly preserved that
specific identification can rarely be made. Only one large Foraminifera,
Camerina vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt) is present and it is
limited to the upper few feet. Amphistegina pinarensis cosdeni Applin
and Jordan, Nonion advenum (Cushman), Rotalia cushmani Applin
and Jordan, Camegueyia perplexa Cole and Bermudez, Fabiania
cubensis (Cushman and Bermudez), Spiroloculina seminolensis Applin
and Jordan, Elphidium sp. 'A'. Peneroplid Sp. 'X' and Discorpinopsis
gunteri Cole characterize the bed."
Concerning the Foraminifera of the Williston member, Vernon
(1951, p. 142) states: "Miliolids are the most abundant fauna in the
Williston member outranking the camerinids in numbers of individuals
but being less by volume. The miliolids are largely undescribed and
are generally so poorly preserved that specific identification is prevented.
The most common species and greatest number of specimens in
the bed is Camerina vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt) with minor
percentages of C. guayabalensis Barker, C. sp. cf. C. moodybranchensis





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Gravell and Hanna, Operculinoides floridensis (Heilprin), 0. vaughani
(Cushman) var. (noded septae). Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman and
Ileterostegina ocalana Cushman are rare throughout the bed and more
coinmon at the top than at the base."
Water supply. --The Moodys Branch formation probably is not
capable of producing large supplies of water for irrigation and muni-
cipal needs in Highlands County, but it does contribute some water
to wells that penetrate underlying formations.
(CALA LIMESTONE
Name. -The Ocala limestone was named for exposures in the
vicinity of Ocala, Marion County, by Dall and Harris (1892, p. 103,
157, 311), who assigned them to the Eocene or Oligocene. Later
studies by Cooke (1926, p. 251-297) proved the limestone to be of
Jackson (late Eocene) age, and Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 47-48)
defined the Ocala to include "all rocks of Eocene age exposed in
Florida."
Vernon (1951, p. 156-159) restricted the term Ocala to include
only the late Jackson and assigned the basal beds to the Moodys
Branch formation of early Jackson age.
Puri (1953, p. 130) has redefined Vernon's Ocala (restricted) and
tnamted it the Crystal River formation. He has included the Crystal
River, WVilliston, and Inglis formations in the Ocala group.
Lithology. The Ocala limestone in Highlands County is a light-
gray to cream, soft, chalky, coquina limestone composed almost entirely
of tests of large Foraminifera.
Distribution and stratigraphic relations. -- The Ocala limestone un-
delrlies most of Florida and extends westward across Alabama to the
'Iombigbee River, and northward to Twiggs and Wilkinson Counties
in Georgia (Cooke, 1945, p. 55-57). In Highlands County the Ocala
rests conformably on the Moodys Branch formation. In the western
part of the county it is overlain unconformably by the Suwannee lime-
stone of Oligocene age; in the eastern part of the county, however, it
is unconformably overlain by the Hawthorn formation of Miocene
age.
Thickness and structure. The Ocala limestone in Highlands
County apparently ranges in thickness from about 150 to 250 feet, the
top of the formation occurring about 250 feet below sea level in the
northern part of the county and about 650 feet below sea level in the
southern part. The formation strikes roughly east-west and dips south
an average of about 10 feet per mile.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


Paleogeography. The Ocala limestone was deposited in an open,
fairly shallow sea, the shoreline, according to Cooke (1945, p. 57),
extending across Alabama from Choctaw County to Houston County
and northeast across Georgia past Macon to Augusta. Equivalent near-
shore deposits are the Yazoo clay in Mississippi and western Alabama
and the Barnwell formation composed chiefly of sand, in Georgia.
Paleontology. The most conspicuous fossils found in the Ocala
limestone in Highlands County are the numerous specimens of Lepido-
cyclina ocalana Cushman and varieties. Applin and Jordan (1945, p.
130) list 15 species of Foraminifera as diagnostic of the Ocala limestone,
but as the Ocala of their paper comprises both the Ocala limestone
(restricted) and the Williston member of the Moodys Branch forma-
tion, the list includes species that are now known to be characteristic of
the Moodys Branch as well as the Ocala.
Water supply. Data furnished by well drillers, as well as those
obtained during actual drilling, indicate that the ground-water yield
from the Ocala limestone is not as large as the yield from deeper Eocene
formations. The smaller yield from the Ocala may be due to the presence
of localized less permeable zones within the limestone, for in some
parts of southeastern Highlands County the Ocala limestone is capable
of producing fairly large volumes of water. Information on the depths
of wells penetrating the Floridan aquifer suggests that in the ridge area
sufficient water for large-scale irrigation is not available in either the
Ocala or the Avon Park limestone, and that wells must penetrate the
Lake City for the required quantities.
Oligocene Series
SUWANNEE LIMESTONE
Name. The name Suwannee limestone was proposed by Cooke
and Mansfield (1936, p. 71) for the yellowish limestone typically
exposed along the Suwannee River in Hamilton and Suwannee Coun-
ties.
Lithology. The Suwannee limestone in Highlands County con-
sists predominantly of cream-colored, slightly porous, soft, chalky to
slightly crystalline limestone.
Distribution and stratigraphic relations. Well cuttings indicate that
the Suwannee limestone is not continuous in the subsurface of penin-
sular Florida. In Highlands County it is present only in the western
part of the county, where it rests uncomformably on the Ocala lime-
stone and is unconformably overlain by the Hawthorn formation.
Thickness and structure. The maximum thickness of the Suwan-






24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

nee limestone in Highlands County is only about 80 feet, the top of the
formation ranging from about 200 feet below sea level in the northern
part of the county to about 550 feet below sea level in the southern
part. The Suwannee strikes east-west and dips south an average of
about 6 feet per mile.
Paleogeography. The Suwannee limestone was deposited in a
fairly shallow open ocean, the shoreline, according to Cooke (1945,
p. 89), extending across Alabama from Washington County to Henry
County across Georgia to Burke County. The Flint River formation,
containing much plastic material, is thought to be the near-shore equiva-
lent of the Suwannee limestone in northwestern Florida, southeastern
Alabama, and southern Georgia, and the Chickasawhay limestone, also
containing plastic material, is probably the equivalent in southwestern
Alabama and southeastern Mississippi (Cooke, 1945, p. 88-89).
Paleontology. The Suwannee limestone contains echinoids, mol-
lusks, and forams. The echinoid Cassidulus gouldii (Bouve) is the most
conspicuous and widespread fossil in the outcrop areas. In Highlands
County, where the Suwannee limestone is known only from well cuttings,
the most conspicuous fossils are Foraminifera of which Rotalia mexicana
is the most common. Applin and Jordan (1945, p. 129, 130) consider
the following Foraminifera to be diagnostic of the formation:
Asterigerina subacuta floridensis Applin and Jordan
Coskinolina floridana Cole
Dictyoconus cookei (Moberg)
Elphidiurn leonensis Applin and Jordan
Elphidium afl. E. poeyanum (d'Orbigny)
fleterostegina texana Gravell and M. A. Hanna
Miogypsina (Miogypsina) gunteri Cole
Nonion advenum (Cushman)
Nonionella leonensis Applin and Jordan
Operculinoides vicksburgensis Vaughn and Cole
Quinqueloculina leonensis Applin and Jordan
Rotalia byramensis Cushman
Rotalia mexicana Nuttall
Rotalia mexicana mecatepecensis Nuttall
Valvulammina? sp.
Water supply. The Suwannee limestone is not an important aqui-
fer in Highlands County, although locally it is used for small domestic
supplies.

Miocene Series
HAWTHORN FORMATION
Name. The Hawthorn formation was named for exposures of
early and middle Miocene age in the vicinity of Hawthorn in Alachua
County, Fla., by Dall and Harris (1892, p. 107). The Hawthorn for-







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


mation of this report includes all marine, littoral and deltaic beds of
early and middle Miocene age in Highlands County.
Cooke (1945, p. 109) recognized the three divisions-- early,
middle, and upper--of the Miocene in peninsular Florida. Vernon
(1951, p. 179) studied sediments from more than 13,000 wells drilled
in 35 counties extending from Jefferson County to Hillsborough County.
In this area he definitely identified material of Tampa (early Miocene)
age only in Hernando, Hillsborough, Pasco, Pinellas, and Polk Counties,
and he identified it questionably in southern Citrus, Jefferson, Indian
River, southern Lake, and Osceola Counties. In the outcrop area in
the vicinity of Tampa Bay, the Tampa limestone5 is a cream to white
sandy limestone containing specimens of Archaias and Sorites. Vernon
(1951, p. 181) indicates a definite time break between the end of
Tampa and the beginning of Hawthorn deposition and thus restricts
Tampa deposition to early Miocene, and the Hawthorn formation to
middle Miocene. However, the extent of the uncomformity is not
known, and Cooke (1945, p. 115, 145) indicates uncertainty concerning
the time break. Regardless of the presence of an unconformity, there
is no evidence that it is a division marker between early and middle
Miocene.
In his examination of well cuttings in Highlands County, the
author found material that might be equivalent to the sandy limestone
of the Tampa in only the northern part of the county. These limestones
were included in the Hawthorn. In western Highlands County typical
marine sediments of the Hawthorn were found to overlie the Suwannee
limestone unconformably, and in the eastern part of the county a
similar relationship was noted with the Ocala limestone.
It may be that Highlands County was a high, exposed area from
post-Oligocene to middle Miocene time, and that no material of Tampa
age was deposited in the area. It is possible also that the lower Miocene
Tampa sea covered the county with thin deposits of limestone which
were subsequently removed during the pre-middle Miocene erosion
interval. If the transgressing sea during Tampa time was shallow and
of limited extent, the Tampa limestone might occur only locally, possibly
in depression on the pre-Miocene erosion surface. A third possibility
seems apparent, whereby Highlands County remained submerged by
shallow seas during both early and middle Miocene times and deposition
was continuous throughout that time interval. If the greater per-
centage of the materials brought down and deposited in eastern High-

6 Tampa limestone, as officially used by the U. S. Geological Survey, is referred to
as the Tampa formation by the Florida Geological Survey.






26 IFLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

lands County and southeastern Florida during early Miocene time were
plastics, then sand, silt, and clay would predominate rather than car-
bonates, as in western Florida. Therefore, marine clastics in the lower part
of the Hawthorn formation at some places in southern Florida may be
equivalent to limestone of Tampa age in other areas. Cooke (1945,
p. 145) appears to favor the probability that the Hawthorn sea was
an expanded Tampa sea.
In extending the Citronelle formation into northwestern Highlands
County, Cooke (1945, p. 233) stated: "The high ridge that extends
northward from Sebring is capped with coarse red sand that probably
represents the Citronelle formation, though some of it may be Pleisto-
cene." The deposit of coarse red sand referred to by Cooke extends as
far south as Childs. The writer has concluded from his examination
of well cuttings that this deposit grades downward and laterally through
coarse, micaceous, quartz sand, locally containing quartzite pebbles and
white kaolinite, into typical marine Hawthorn, and that the deposit
must, therefore, be a part of the Hawthorn formation. These red, clayey
sands have thus been included in the Hawthorn formation of this
report.
That the deposits which overlie the typical marine Hawthorn are
Themselves Hawthorn in age is confirmed by the fact that the Tamiami
formation of late Miocene age wedges out against their flanks. (See
cross section C-C', fig. 4c). A further indication that they are of
S Hawthorn age is that they contain quartz pebbles like those found in
typical marine Hawthorn deposits in other parts of the peninsula.
The stratification of these deposits and the presence of quartz
pebbles in them suggest that they were deposited by streams rather than
by ocean currents. Deltaic stratification can be seen in the sandpits just
north of Davenport in Polk County, sec. 27, T. 26 S., R. 27 E., where
sand-mining operations have exposed large, well-developed forest beds.
The evidence found by the writer suggests to him that a large river
existed in peninsular Florida during Hawthorn time and that the
thick section of coarse elastic material in Highlands and Polk Counties
is in reality an extension of the deltaic facies of the Hawthorn forma-
tion. A middle Miocene delta plain was proposed by Vernon (1951,
p. 184) for the panhandle and peninsular sections of Florida. The
deposits in Highlands County may be an extension of this delta plain
built by a river flowing southward between structural irregularities
developed along the Ocala uplift during the Miocene epoch.
The presence of pebbles in the marine Hawthorn suggests that the
immediate source of its plastic material, possibly a beach or an estuary,






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 15


was much nearer than has heretofore been supposed. James B. Cath-
cart of the U. S. Geological Survey (personal communication, 1952),
in his work on the phosphorite deposits of southern Florida, has ob-
served quartz pebbles in the Hawthorn formation underlying the Bone
Valley formation and believes that the volume of such material is too
great to be accounted for by rafting or other minor forms of transporta-
tion.
Lithology.--The marine deposits of the Hawthorn formation in
the county are composed primarily of beds of dark-green to white,
phosphatic clay and lenticular bodies of white to cream, dense, sandy,
phosphatic limestone, phosphorite pebbles, and quartz sand.
The deltaic deposits consist of quartz ranging from fine sand to
pebble gravel and some phosphorite, mica, and kaolinite.
Distribution and stratigraphic relations. The marine deposits
of the Hawthorn underlie all the county and rest unconformably on
the Suwannee or Ocala limestone. In the eastern and possibly the south-
western parts of the county the formation is overlain unconformably(?)
by the Tamiami formation. In the ridge section the marine deposits
are overlain conformably by the deltaic beds.
The deltaic beds, which are unconformably overlain by Pleistocene
deposits, apparently grade horizontally into typically marine deposits, the
marine nonclastics being represented at the same stratigraphic level as
coarse sands and clays in the deltaic beds. As the marine deposits
contain some of the coarse material found in the deltaic beds, there
must be some interfingering of the deposits laterally.
Thickness. In Highlands County the Hawthorn formation ranges
in thickness from about 300 feet in the low areas in the northern part
of the county to about 650 feet in the Lake Placid area.
Paleogeography. Cooke (1945, p. 137-318) states: "During Alum
Bluff time the sea extended across the southern tip of South Carolina,
across southern Georgia almost to the Fall Line, across all of Florida,
southern Alabama, and westward to Texas. East of the Apalachicola
River it deposited the Hawthorn formation; west of it successively the
Chipola and the Shoal River formations in Florida and the Hattiesburg
clay in Mississippi and Louisiana."
Vernon (1951, p. 181-184) does not agree that the Hawthorn
sea covered all of Florida and states: "During the time that early
and middle Miocene seas were encroaching upon the State, the land
mass created by the Ocala uplift probably stood as a broad plain or a
series of undulating hills forming a large insular area or a narrow






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


peninsula that extended south from Georgia along the western part
of peninsular Florida."
A study of the subsurface geology indicates that a large part of
Highlands County was probably above the sea at the beginning of
Hawthorn time. As the sea rose and covered the county, shifting currents
deposited a great thickness of phosphatic clay containing lenses of
limestone, sand, and phosphorite of small areal extent. Before the
close of Hawthorn time a finger of a large delta had moved across the
county to about the Glades-Highlands County line. The remnant of
this delta is the core of the present Highlands Ridge.
Paleontology. -- Mollusks, echinoids, shark teeth, coral, and a few
foraminifers are found in the Hawthorn formation in Highlands County,
but none appear to be diagnostic of the formation.
Geologic exposures. -The Hawthorn is the oldest formation ex-
posed in the county and can be seen in the many claypits on the ridge
from Avon Park south to Lake Annie (see measured sections 407-410,
p. 138, 139).
Water supply. -- The deltaic beds of the Hawthorn formation are an
important source of water supply and are tapped by an increasing num-
ber of screened wells developed at depths generally less than 200 feet. A
12-inch well near Avon Park, 180 feet deep and containing 120 feet of
slotted casing, yields 1,800 gallons per minute from this aquifer.
Most of the marine beds are of low permeability, but the limestone
units of the marine beds of the formation furnish small to moderate
supplies of water locally.
TAMIAMI FORMATION
Name. -The name Tamiami limestone was first used by Mans-
field (1939, p. 8) for the beds exposed in the shallow ditches along
the Tamiami Trail in the Big Cypress Swamp. Cooke and Mossom
(1929!, p. 156) regarded the beds as a different faces of the Caloosa-
hatchee marl of Pliocene age and did not offer a different formational
name. Because of the sandy nature of the rock, Parker and Cooke
(1944, p. 62) called it the Tamiami formation. Parker (1951, p. 822-
823) assigned the deposits to the upper Miocene and included in the
rTamniami formation the Buckingham limestone of Mansfield (1939)
and the upper part of the Hawthorn formation of Parker and Cooke
(1944). As thus defined, the Tamiami formation includes all deposits
of late Miocene age in southern Florida.
Lithology. The Tamiami formation in Highlands County is com-







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


posed of beds of dark-blue to white, clayey, sandy, shell marl, quartz
sand, phosphorite, and sandy clay.
Distribution and stratigraphic relations. The Tamiami formation
probably underlies all of Florida south and east of the Highlands Ridge.
In Highlands County it has been found in the low area east of the
ridge, but it possibly underlies also the low areas in the southwestern
part of the county. The Tamiami rests unconformably(?) on the
Hawthorn formation and is overlain unconformably by Pleistocene de-
posits.
Thickness. The Tamiami formation ranges in thickness from a
featheredge on the east side of the Highlands Ridge to a probable
maximum of about 100 feet near the Kissimmee River in the extreme
southeastern part of the county.
Paleogeography. During late Miocene time the Highlands Ridge
was a peninsula that formed the southernmost dry land in Florida.
Paleontology. The Tamiami formation is abundantly fossiliferous
in Highlands County and contains the remains of mollusks, echinoids,
barnacles, and foraminifers.
Water supply.- The Tamiami formation is used as a source of
domestic and stock-water supplies in the eastern part of the county,
though locally it contains moderately mineralized water.
QUATERNARY SYSTEM
Pleistocene Series
INTRODUCTION
The Pleistocene epoch in the United States has been divided into
glacial stages (periods of maximum accumulation of ice) and inter-
glacial stages (periods of minimum accumulation of ice). These glacial
and interglacial stages are listed from the oldest to the youngest as
follows:
Pleistocene series
Nebraskan glacial
Aftonian interglacial
Kansan glacial
Yarmouth interglacial
Illinoian glacial
Sangamon interglacial
Wisconsin glacial
Recent series


29






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The glacial advances lowered the sea level by storing large volumes
of the earth's water as ice. During the interglacial stages the water
was returned to the sea, thereby causing a rise in its level. The greatest
rise of the sea during the Pleistocene is estimated by Cooke (1939,
p. 34) to have been to about 270 feet above present sea level, and the
greatest lowering is thought to have been to about 300 feet below
present sea level.
The fluctuations of sea level in Florida produced great changes
in the pre-Pleistocene land surface. In Highlands County the most
important changes were brought about by coastal erosion and deposi-
tion, resulting in marine terraces and coastal bars. A part of, or possibly
all, the solution that created the circular lakes and depressions probably
occurred during low stages of the Pleistocene seas.
Parker and Cooke (1944, pl. 3) show five Pleistocene marine
terraces in Highlands County, the Pamlico, Talbot, Penholoway,
Wicomico, and Sunderland, with shorelines at 25, 52, 70, 100, and
170 feet, respectively, above present sea level. MacNeil (1949, pl. 19)
mapped three Pleistocene shorelines in Highlands County, the Pamlico
at 30 feet, the Wicomico at 100 feet, and the Okefenokee at 150 feet.
The maps of the above-mentioned investigators were made from aerial
photographs without vertical control in Highlands County.
During the course of the present investigation detailed topographic
maps on a 5-foot contour interval, prepared for the Corps of Engineers,
U. S. Army, were obtained for a part of the ridge section. These maps
show that some of the Pleistocene terraces have been tilted and possibly
faulted.
The pattern of tilting is confusing but, in general, the affected area
lies east of a line that touches points about a mile west of Lake Childs
and Lake Jackson and west of a parallel line that crosses the western side
of Lake Istokpoga. The tilted area extends from about 6 miles south
of Lake Annie into southern Polk County. The only part of this area
that presents a clear picture of the tilting is the southeastern part of the
ridge section in T. 38 S., R. 30 E. Here the 150-foot contour crosses a
well-developed marine scarp, about 35 feet high, in a distance of less
than 3 miles. The tilting is to the north in this area.
Throughout the tilted area of Highlands County there are what
seem to be zones of faulting, which further complicate the picture.
The chain of lakes lying between Lake Jackson and Lake Annie are
in a graben-shaped depression (see cross section C-C', fig. 4), which is
lowest in the Josephine Creek area, where circular lakes of the type


30}







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


mentioned by MacNeil (1949, p. 101) are present below the 100-foot
contour. Topographic features that have the appearance of fault
scarps have been noted near Avon Park and Lake Placid. The feature
near Avon Park secss. 7 and 8, T. 33 S., R. 29 E.) is a very straight
south-facing scarp on the edge of a filled-in lake or sheltered bay. This
feature is hard to explain on the basis of wave erosion or longshore
currents because of its sheltered position. The feature near Lake Placid
secss. 8 and 9, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.) is a north-facing scarp that seems
to have no relation to the nearby marine scarps.
Aerial photographs of the area between Arbuckle Creek and the
Highlands Ridge show the drainage pattern to be somewhat rectangular
and suggest that the streams may be fault controlled.
Because of the difficulty of correlating the terraces, all deposits of
Pleistocene age in Highlands County are herein grouped together.
PLEISTOCENE DEPOSITS
Lithology. The Pleistocene deposits in the Highlands Ridge area
consist of gray-orange to white, medium to coarse, quartz sand, with
locally interbedded brown clayey zones near the basal contact with the
Hawthorn formation. Fine to medium, clayey, calcareous, quartz sand
is predominant in the lower areas of the county.
Distribution and stratigraphic relations. The Pleistocene deposits
crop out over most of the county, lying unconformably on the Haw-
thorn formation in the western part of the county, and on the Tamiami
formation east of the ridge. In the ridge section, good exposures can be
seen in many of the road and railroad cuts (see measured sections).
Thickness. Pleistocene deposits in Highlands County range in
thickness from about a foot in the low area west of the ridge to about
100 feet in the coastal bars on the east side of the ridge.
Paleogeography. Several advances and retreats of the shoreline
over Highlands County occurred during the Pleistocene epoch. During
the Aftonian interglacial stage the area was either completely covered
by the sea or completely covered except for a few islands in the ridge
section. During the Kansan glacial stage the county was dry land. This
cycle was repeated during the following glacial and interglacial stages,
a smaller portion of the county being submerged by each succeeding
advance of the sea.
During the interglacial stages of the early Pleistocene the Highlands
Ridge apparently separated an area of relatively deep open water to the
east from an area of shallow water immediately to the west. Because of
this, the eastern part of the ridge was subjected to the action of long-





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


shore currents and large waves, resulting in the formation of numerous
coastal bars. The western side of the ridge escaped violent wave action
and a fairly smooth marine plain developed, with very little material
being deposited in the area to the west of the plain.
'he lakes of Highlands County are post-middle Miocene in age,
probably early Pleistocene, and were formed at a time when the sea
level stood below its present level. A lowering of the water table probably
accompanied the drop in sea level and resulted in an increase in the
rate of circulation of water in the limestone below the clay of the
Hawthorn formation. Solution caverns which developed in the limestone
later collapsed to form many of the lakes of the area.
Paleontology. -The marine fossils of the Pleistocene deposits of the
county consist almost entirely of Foraminifera which are found in the
lower part of the deposits in the low areas east of the ridge; of these, the
following have been identified:
Elphidium gunteri Cole
Nonion pompilioides (Fichtel and Moll)
Rotalia beccarii (Linne) var. tepida Cushman
Rotalia beccarii (Linn6) var. ornata? Cushman
The remains of terrestrial vertebrates have been reported in several
of the swamps and lakes in the county.
Water supply. --The Pleistocene deposits furnish small to moderate
supplies of water to stock and domestic wells in places throughout the
county.
Recent Series
I INTRODUCTION
The Recent deposits in Highlands County consist of dune sand, peat,
and alluvium. It is likely that some of these deposits were beginning to
form during the Pleistocene epoch, but as there are insufficient data
available to subdivide them as to age, and as they are still being formed,
they are all tentatively placed in the Recent series.
DUNE SAND
Dune sand occurs near many of the larger lakes in the county and
also forms thin coverings over the Pleistocene coastal bars in the southern
part of the ridge. The sand is composed predominantly of white, medium
to coarse, quartz sand, but includes a small amount of organic material.
As the dune sand lies above the water table no water is obtained from it.
PEA'r DEPOSITS
Many marshes and swamps in the county contain peat deposits of
varying thickness and purity. The largest deposit is in the area south of


132






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


Lake Istokpoga and, according to Davis (1946, p. 129), underlies an
area of approximately 35,000 acres, most of the deposit being between
3 and 8 feet thick. No wells obtain water from these peat deposits in the
county.
ALLUVIUM
Well-developed flood plains are present in the valleys of the Kissim-
mee River and Arbuckle Creek, and along the lower portion of Fish-
eating Creek. The flood-plain deposits are made up almost entirely of
fine to medium sand and organic material mixed in varying degree and
ranging from small deposits of sandy peat to bars of pure sand. The
deposits reach a probable maximum thickness of about 20 feet in the
Kissimmee River valley. No wells are known to obtain water from
alluvial deposits in Highlands County.

GROUND WATER
Ground water is the water occurring in the pores or openings of the
earth's crust within the zone of saturation. The zone of saturation is
defined as that in which the rocks are saturated with water under hydro-
static pressure. It is the zone of saturation that supplies water to wells
and springs.
In this report ground water will be discussed under two different
headings based on occurrence: (1) nonartesian water, the water that is
unconfined in the earth's crust; and (2) artesian water, the water that
is confined under pressure between relatively impermeable beds.
NONARTESIAN WATER
Source
In Highlands County the nonartesian ground water is derived almost
entirely from rain falling within the county. Part of the water that falls
as rain evaporates, part of it is absorbed by plants and transpired into
the atmosphere, and part of it is carried away by surface runoff. The
remaining part which escapes evaporation, transpiration, and surface
runoff moves downward through the underlying strata until it reaches
the zone of saturation and becomes part of the body of ground water.
Unconfined ground water moves at varying rates through the aquifer,
under the influence of gravity.
Occurrence
The following discussion of the principles governing the occurrence
of ground water has been adapted from Meinzer (1923a).
Ground water occurs in Highlands County in the numerous open


33






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


spaces in rock material below the water table. These open spaces range
in size from minute pores of microscopic dimensions to openings several
inches in width. It is from these openings that wells obtain their water.
The amount of water that can be stored in a water-bearing rock is
determinedd by the porosity of the rock. Porosity is expressed as the
percentage of the total volume of rock that is occupied by openings.
When all the openings in a rock are filled with water, the rock is
saturated. The porosity of the water-bearing material underlying High-
lands County is controlled by (1) the degree of assortment of the con-
stituent particles; (2) the shape and arrangement of the particles; (3)
the degree of cementation and compaction; and (4) the degree to which
percolating water has removed soluble mineral matter. Fracturing is not
an important contributor to the porosity of the rocks in the county.
Well-sorted sedimentary rocks generally have a high porosity, whereas
poorly sorted deposits have a much lower porosity because the fine
material fills the open spaces in the coarse material. Several common
types of open spaces, or interstices, and the relation of texture to porosity
are shown in figure 5. The specific yield is a measure of the capacity
of a saturated rock to yield water from storage. It may be defined as
the ratio of (1) the volume of water which, after being saturated, it
will yield by gravity to (2) its own volume.






A C E






8 0 F
A, Well-sorted sedimentary deposit having a high porosity; B, poorly sorted
sedimentary deposit having low porosity; C, well-sorted sedimentary deposit
consisting of pebbles that are themselves porous so that the deposit as a whole
has a very high porosity; D, well-sorted sedimentary deposit whose porosity
has been diminished by the deposition of mineral matter in the interstices;
E, rock rendered porous by solution; F, rock rendered porous by fracturing.
(From 0. E. Neinxer.)
F'I(;URE 5.-- Diagram showing several types of rock interstices and the
relation of rock texture to porosity.
The amount of water that rock material can hold is determined by







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


its porosity, but the rate at which it will yield water to wells is deter-
mined by its permeability. The permeability of a rock is its capacity for
transmitting water under a hydraulic gradient, and it is measured by
the rate at which it will transmit water through a given cross section
under a given loss of head per unit of distance. Beds of dense clay may
have higher porosity than beds of coarse sand, but because of the small
size of their pores they may transmit no appreciable amount of water
and may be considered to be relatively impermeable.
The porosity and permeability of limestone vary greatly. The thick
section of limestone composing the Floridan aquifer is porous and per-
meable, although it varies both laterally and vertically. The porosity
of the limestone beneath the land surface in Highlands County is the
result of percolating waters dissolving the limestone as they descended to
the water table when the region stood much higher above sea level than
it does now. This condition occurred several times during the Pleistocene,
when there were eustatic changes in sea level, and probably in early
periods of the late Cenozoic, when the region was uplifted in relation to
sea level. The leaching during those periods in the Pleistocene and early
Tertiary produced a porous and cavernous limestone which is now
saturated with water. The logs and information gained from well drillers
do not indicate extensive cavernous zones beneath this area, however.
The measurements listed in the logs for wells 183, 358, 400, 401, 403,
408, Glades 22, and Okeechobee 23 indicate a differing degree of per-
meability of the limestone laterally and vertically.
The Water Table and Movement
of Nonartesian Ground Water
The water table is defined as the upper surface of the zone of satur-
ation except where that surface is formed by an impermeable body.
When water enters the earth at the surface of the ground, part of it
moves down through the zone of aeration to the zone of saturation, or
the body of unconfined ground water, but part of it is retained in the
zone of aeration by capillary action. The amount of water that is re-
tained by capillarity is determined by the size of the openings in the
zone of aeration. At the bottom of the zone of aeration is a belt, called
the capillary fringe, in which moisture is held up by capillarity above the
water table. In fine-grained material this belt may be several feet thick.
Water in the zone of aeration, whether in transit or in the capillary
fringe, is not available to wells but may be utilized by plants. Wells
must penetrate the zone of saturation before water' enters them. The
relation of the zone of saturation to the zone of aeration is shown in
figure 6.


35






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Belt of
soil water




Intermediate
belt






Capillary
fringe


-.. AND SURFACE


SOIL WATER


INTERMEDIATE VADOSE WATER







FRINGE WATER


WATER TABLE


GROUND WATER


w



O
UJ




4
0
0





z
0


















039

z
O
0
2
OM



Os


t'IGURE 6.- -Diagram showing division of subsurface
(From Meinzer, 1923b, fig. 2)


water


SHAPE AND SLOPE OF WATER TABLE

The water table is a sloping surface having many local irregularities
due to differences in permeability ofthe water-bearing material and to


cr.
w



lw
a W


()
zo



U)


INTERNAL WATER


t--
W




t-
I-
U)
w
-
z


z
0

I
3
I-
u.

0
w
z
o
N


I


I


~~~1


---i


I


r -


I





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


discharge or recharge of the ground-water reservoir. The frictional resis-
tance to the movement of the water in coarse-grained material is less
than in fine-grained material and therefore the slope of the water table
decreases as the grain size increases.
Ground water moves in the direction of maximum slope, which
is at right angles to contours drawn on the water table.
RELATION TO TOPOGRAPHY
In the low, flat areas of the county the water table is less than 10
feet below the land surface and has about the same relief as the land
surface. Contours drawn on the water table in Highlands County
would be roughly parallel to the topographic contours.
In the Highlands Ridge section the water table follows the con-
figuration of the land surface in a general way but has far less relief.
Its maximum depth below the land surface is about 60 feet.
FLUCTUATIONS OF THE WATER TABLE
The water table is a fluctuating surface that rises when the rate
of recharge exceeds the rate of discharge and declines when the recharge
is less than the discharge.
The factors that tend to lower the water table in Highlands County
are: (1) evaporation and transpiration; (2) seepage into streams
and lakes; (3) draft from wells; and (4) subsurface movement of
water out of the county.
The factors that tend to raise the water table in the county are:
(1) precipitation within the county that passes through the surficial
material and descends to the water table; (2) seepage from the Kissim-
mee River and some of the creeks and lakes, at times when the water
level in these bodies of water is higher than the adjoining water table;
(3) seepage of water from irrigated lands; and (4) subsurface move-
ment of water into the county.
In September 1948, seven test-observation wells (nos. 9 through
15) were drilled in Highlands County. Equipped with automatic
water-stage recorders, they furnish continuous records of the fluctuations
of the water table. Descriptions of the wells and the water-level measure-
ments for 1948-49 are given in the 1949 annual water-level report of
the U. S. Geological Survey (Clark and Schroeder, 1952, p. 64-67).
Subsequent water-level measurements will be published in ensuing
annual reports. Descriptions of the wells are included also in table 11.
Of the 7 wells, 2 (nos. 10 and 14) are on the Highlands Ridge,
.1 (no. 15) is in the Western Flatlands, and the remainder are in the
Eastern Flatlands. The hydrographs of these wells, representing the






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


averages of the daily high and low readings, and the cumulative de-
parture from normal rainfall at Avon Park are shown in figure 7.
Some correlation is apparent between the cumulative departures
from normal rainfall and the hydrographs of wells 10 and 14. The
hydrographs of the other wells have very little correlation with the
rainfall plot, partly because of local variations in the distribution of
rainfall, but probably more because of the small storage capacity of
the water-bearing materials. In many parts of the low areas of the
county, especially the Istokpoga-Indian Prairie Basin, the water table
stands near the land surface even during the dry season. At the be-
ginning of the rainy season the small amount of storage space above
the water table is rapidly filled, so that the water table rises to the
land surface before the rainy season is over. Additional rainfall does not
then cause a rise in the water table, but instead contributes to surface
runoff. This condition is reflected in the observation wells by a rise of
water levels to a maximum height before the bulk of the rain falls.
Water-level fluctuations recorded in these wells during the years
1949 through 1951 ranged from 4.63 feet in well 15 to 10.17 feet
in well 14 (see fig. 7).
Recharge
RECHARGE FROM LOCAL RAINFALL
Nearly all the recharge to the unconfined aquifers in the county
is derived from local rainfall, which averages about 52 inches annually.
Because the surficial material is very permeable, no appreciable surface
runoff occurs except in places where the water table is near, or coin-
cides with, the land surface. Tests made by the Soil Conservation
Service in Highlands County indicate that rainfall would have to be
more than 80 inches an hour to cause surface runoff from some of
the sandy soils on the Highlands Ridge.
RECHARGE FROM LAKES AND STREAMS
The recharge from lakes and streams probably accounts for only
a small amount of the total recharge, but it occurs locally at times
when the surface of the lakes and streams are higher than the water
table, because of irregular distribution of rainfall and topographic
peculiarities. The most notable example of this type of recharge is
in the Indian Prairie Basin, where the land surface slopes away from
the southern end of Lake Istokpoga. Some recharge occurs when the
level of the lake stands higher than the water table immediately to the
south. At times the lake level is higher even than the land surface
to the south, but surface-water flow is prevented by a system of dikes.


38








PdafFVt Pr om mi s 1cN mP IN fRts


-a :
0








0


ffrreO*, r* ?ftt Cr itrlo ro a$


ftrl f s om s rtr fferoers rOe M,







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


RECHARGE FROM IRRIGATION
Some of the water applied for irrigation descends to the water
table.
SUBSURFACE INFLOW
A small amount of unconfined ground water moves into the ground-
water reservoir of northeastern Highlands County from aquifers in
southern Polk County, where the slope of the water table is to the
southeast. Inflow probably occurs also in the southwestern part of
Highlands County, in the Fisheating Creek area. Some inflow occurs
also from shallow artesian aquifers.
Discharge
DISCHARGE BY EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
In Highlands County a large amount of unconfined ground water
is lost by evapotranspiration, especially in those areas where the water
table is at or near the surface. Charts from all the observation wells,
except wells 10 and 14, show distinct, steplike declines of the water
table, most pronounced during the afternoons of days that are relatively
hot and dry. These declines amount to as much as 0.05 of a foot per
day in some localities.
In the high areas, where the water table is below the reach of
most plant roots, the plants obtain their water from the zone of soil
moisture, thereby reducing the recharge to the shallow ground-water
reservoir.
DISCHARGE INTO LAKES AND STREAMS
Streams and lakes whose surfaces stand lower than the water table
in adjacent areas receive water from the zone of saturation. Examples
of this type of ground-water discharge may be noted in Highlands
County by observing the water levels in small lakes that are subjected
to intense pumping for a short period of time. If water is pumped out
of a lake faster than it is replenished from ground water the lake level
will drop, but when pumping has ceased the lake level will rise nearly
to its original level. The amount and rate of drawdown caused by
pumping from the lake and the rate of recovery after pumping stops
depend in part upon the rate and duration of pumping and in part
upon the permeability of the water-bearing materials. Heavier pumping
throughout longer periods causes large drawdowns and more rapid re-
covery after pumping ceases. Also, with lower permeability the draw-
down will be larger and initial rate of recovery more rapid. In High-
lands County, ground water is almost constantly feeding into streams


40







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


and lakes, because the surfaces of most of these open bodies of water
are normally lower than the water table as a result of evaporation and
flow out of the area.
SUBSURFACE OUTFLOW
In addition to discharge into lakes and streams, which removes
ground water from the area, there is some seepage into ground-water
reservoirs outside the county. Ground water is moving out of the
county into adjacent counties along the southern and northwestern
boundaries, as evidenced by the slope of the water table.
DISCHARGE FROM WELLS
Natural discharge, discussed above, seems to account for most of
the discharge of unconfined ground water from the county; the rest
is through wells.
Most domestic and stock wells in Highlands County draw water
from the unconsolidated aquifer containing nonartesian ground water.
The most common type of well in the unconsolidated materials is the
driven well, which consists of a 1 4 to 1/2 inch metal pipe equipped
with a screened drive point. These wells are driven into the aquifer and
are usually pumped with a pitcher pump. Another type used in un-
consolidated deposits is the screened well, which is similar in principle
but is usually larger in diameter, and its screen is placed at the bottom
of a drilled hole instead of being driven. Gravel is commonly placed
around the screen to increase the effective diameter of the well and
thus reduce the drawdown, and to reduce the velocity of the incoming
water sufficiently to prevent fine material from moving into the well.
ARTESIAN WATER
Artesian water is ground water that rises above the level at which
it is encountered in wells (Meinzer and Wenzel, 1942, p. 451). Artesian
conditions exist where water in permeable water-bearing beds is con-
fined between relatively impermeable beds. (See fig. 8.)
Source
The piezometric map of the State (fig. 9) indicates that the artesian
water in Highlands County is derived from rainfall on the topo-
graphically high area extending southward from northern Polk County.
Occurrence
Artesian water in Highlands County occurs at depths ranging from
less than 10 feet to more than 1,500 feet. There are two distinct artesian
systems in the area: (1) the Floridan aquifer, which consists of the






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FIGURE 8. Diagram showing generalized artesian conditions.

group of water-bearing limestones that are overlain by the confining
clays of the Hawthorn formation, and (2) the shallow artesian system
which consists of the unconsolidated aquifers in the upper part of
the Hawthorn and in the Tamiami formation.
The name Floridan aquifer was proposed by Parker (1951) for
the principal artesian aquifer of the State, which is composed largely
of limestones of Tertiary age underlying the thick clay section of the
Hawthorn formation. The Floridan aquifer underlies all the State,
except possibly the extreme western part, and extends into southern
Georgia, southwestern South Carolina, and southeastern Alabama.
The shallow artesian aquifers are present only locally under the
low areas adjacent to the Highlands Ridge.

The Piezometric Surface and
Movement of Artesian Water
The piezometric surface, or pressure-head-indicating surface, is an
imaginary surface to which the water from a given artesian aquifer


42







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


FIGURE 9. Map showing piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer
in Florida.

will rise in tightly cased wells that penetrate the aquifer. It is generally
represented by a piezometric contour map. Such a map has been pre-
pared for Highlands County showing approximately the height to
which water will rise in wells terminating in beds below the clays of the
Hawthorn formation (fig. 10).
Movement of water in an artesian aquifer is from areas of high
artesian pressure head toward areas of lower head at right angles to
the contour lines representing the piezometric surface.
SHAPE AND SLOPE
The piezometric surface slopes from areas of recharge to areas of
discharge and shows irregularities due to unequal discharge and recharge
and unequal frictional resistance to the flow of water offered by ma-
terials comprising the aquifer.


43






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1~F


EXPLANATION
Contour lines represent approx-
I imately the height, in feel, to
which water will rise above meon
-. sea level in tightly cased wells
that penetrate the Floridon aqui-
fer, 1951.


SCALE IN MILES


0 2 4 6 8 10
"I(;URFI 10. Map showing the piezometric surface of the Floridan
aquifer in Highlands County.

RELATION TO TOPOGRAPHY
Topography is the controlling factor in determining whether or not
a tightly cased artesian well will flow at land surface. An artesian well
will flow if the piezometric surface is higher than the land surface;
it will not flow if the piezometric surface is below the land surface.
FI FLUCTUATIONS OF THE PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE
Measurements of artesian water levels show that the piezometric


44


1060






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


surface is not a stationary surface, but that it fluctuates almost con-
stantly. In Highlands County fluctuation in artesian wells is caused
by rainfall, by changes in atmospheric pressure, and discharge from
wells.
Rainfall.--The effects of rainfall are most noticeable in some
aquifers of the shallow artesian system. Many owners of shallow artesian
wells report a rise in head accompanied by an increase in flow after
heavy rains. The effects of rainfall on the artesian pressure in the
Floridan aquifer were not evaluated in Highlands County because of
the scarcity of measureable wells. Most wells in the Floridan aquifer
are irrigation wells that are not used during periods of rainfall. It is
quite possible, therefore, that some of the increase in head during these
periods is due to cessation of pumping rather than to rainfall.
Changes in atmospheric pressure. No studies were made in High-
lands County of the relation between changes in atmospheric pressure
and fluctuations of the piezometric surface, but as such a relationship
is quite common in artesian systems (Stringfield, 1936, p. 139) it is
assumed to exist in the area of this report. Concerning this phenomenon,
Meinzer (1932, p. 141-142) states: "If a well ends in an artesian
formation and this formation or the overlying confining beds have
sufficient strength to resist deformation by slight changes in pressure
at the surface, the well will act as a barometer. The fluctuations of its
water level will have virtually the same range of fluctuations as would
be shown by a water barometer, or 13.5 times the range in a mercury
barometer. However, for obvious reasons, the movements of the water
level in the well will always be in the opposite direction from those in
an ordinary mercury barometer. .
"If a well ends in an artesian formation that has volume elasticity,
such as incoherent sand, and is confined beneath beds of soft shale that
is impermeable but yields to even slight pressure, its water level will
have smaller fluctuations resulting from atmospheric changes than
that of a water barometer. .. ."
Pumpage and flow. Locally, large fluctuations of the piezometric
surface are caused by variations in draft from artesian wells. This is
most noticeable in the northeastern part of the county where most of
the deep irrigation wells are located. Many of the well owners report
sporadic fluctuations during the irrigation season and a loss of head
when neighboring wells are being used.


45






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Recharge
Recharge of an artesian aquifer takes place in the high areas of
the system where the confining bed is absent or is penetrated by openings
such as sinkholes. In such areas the water moves down from the uncon-
fined water body, the zone of aeration, or surface water bodies until
it enters the artesian aquifer. It then moves beneath the confining bed
toward the points of discharge, under the influence of gravity. In areas
where the confining bed is present and the water table stands higher
than the piezometric surface, the difference between the head of the
water in the artesian aquifer and that of the nonartesian aquifer may
cause water to move through the confining bed, thereby recharging the
artesian aquifer. The rate of this recharge depends upon the relative
permeability and thickness of the confining bed and the difference in
head between the artesian and free water.
In Highlands County the fact that the piezometric highs of both
the deep and the shallow artesian systems coincide with the topographic
high suggests that some recharge takes place along the Highlands Ridge.
Well logs indicate that the confining bed of the Floridan aquifer, in
the area north of Sebring, is thin and fairly permeable, being composed
predominantly of sandy material and minor amounts of clay. South
of Sebring it is much thicker but probably has sand-filled openings
beneath some of the lakes. Data obtained during the drilling of wells
358 and 400, south of Lake Childs, indicate that some recharge is
occurring even near the southern end of the ridge. The upper 300 feet
of material penetrated by well 358 is chiefly quartz sands of medium
permeability. Underlying the sands to a depth of 680 feet is a section
of interbedded or interfingered clays, sands, and limestones. Some of the
water-bearing beds of the underlying Floridan aquifer are separated
by beds of relatively low permeability in the Ocala, Moodys Branch,
and Avon Park formations which impede the downward movement
of water, causing the head to be much higher in the upper parts of
the aquifer.
Tables 4 and 5 are measurements of water levels made during the
drilling of wells 358 and 400, respectively. The water-level measure-
ments show a net decline in head of 50 to 60 feet between the shallow
water-bearing beds in the Hawthorn formation or Suwannee limestone
and the deeper beds in the Avon Park or Lake City limestones. Head
differentials of this magnitude indicate that appreciable recharge moves
to deep, more permeable parts of the aquifer from the shallower ma-
terial.


46








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


Table 4. WATER-LEVEL MEASUREMENTS MADE DURING DRILLING OF
WELL 358. WELL CASED TO 517 FEET.


Depth of hole
(feet)
690
710
735
1,000
1,138
1,259
1,323
1,371
1,474
1,526
1,550


Formation Water level, feet
penetrated below land surface
Suwannee 66.2
do. 62.0
do. 70.5
Moodys Branch(?) 99.5
Avon Park 98.0
Lake City(?) 126.0
do. 125.5
do. 124.2
do. 126.5
do. 127.9
do. 126.8


Table 5. WATER-LEVEL


Date
1951
May 21
May 24
May 31
June 4
June 6
June 8
June 12
June 14
June 19
June 22
July 6
July 13
July 27
Aug. 3
Aug. 17
Aug. 24
Aug. 31
Sept. 7
Sept. 13
Sept. 21
Sept. 27
Oct. 4
Oct. 15


Depth of
hole (feet)
548
670
740
805
940
960
1,080
1,095
1,095
1,095
1,095
1,095
1,095
1,095
1,095
1,130
1,205
1,260
1,300
1,350
1,380
1,400
1,439


MEASUREMENTS MADE DURING
WELL 400
Well
cased Formation
to penetrated


540
660
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700


Hawthorn
Suwannee
do.
Ocala
Moodys Branch(?)
do.
Avon Park
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
Lake City(?)
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.


DRILLING OF


Water level,
feet below
land surface
66.5
103.0
113.0
114.0
124.0
122.0
119.5
117.0
116.5
115.5
117.0
116.0
116.0
117.0
116.0
118.0
118.0
117.0
117.0
116.5
117.0
117.0
115.0


Figure 10 indicates the piezometric surface in the vicinity of wells
358 and 400 is at an elevation of about 60 feet. Land surface elevations
in the area range from 150 feet to 200 feet and average about 175 feet.
The topography is chiefly rolling sandy hills and shallow valleys which
form very effective catchment areas where little or no runoff occurs.
Although data are not available, the elevation of the water table beneath
this portion of the ridge probably ranges from 100 to 125 feet, or higher.
This assumption seems to be borne out by the occurrence of springs


Date
1950
July 13
July 20
July 26
Aug. 2
Aug. 16
Aug. 25
Aug. 30
Sept. 8
Sept. 21
Sept. 29
Oct. 2






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


along the western scarp of the ridge and a piezometric elevation of 70
to 80 feet in shallow artesian wells, just off the scarp, east of Lake Annie.
The source of water for the springs and shallow artesian wells is the
shallow water-bearing sands beneath the ridge. Although, the major
portion of the unconfined water movement is horizontal, a part moves
downward by gravity through the impeding beds to the Floridan aquifer
where water levels are lower.
Discharge
Artesian water is discharged in the area both naturally and from
wells.

NATURAL DISCHARGE
Shallow artesian system. This system loses its artesian pressure
within a few miles of the recharge area because of leaky confining beds.
The water seeps into and joins the unconfined water body.
Floridan aquifer. Very few data are available on the natural dis-
charge of water from the Floridan aquifer in Highlands County. It is
assumed that there is some leakage upward in the low areas where the
piezometric surface is higher than the water table. The amount is prob-
ably small because of the great thickness and impermeability of the
confining bed. Drillers have reported that the clays of the Hawthorn
formation are thin or absent beneath many of the circular depressions,
probably filled-in sinks, that occur throughout southern Florida. If this
is true, then some natural discharge probably occurs through these
openings on low ground, just as recharge through them occurs on high
ground.
Water level rises were observed during the drilling of wells 183 and
408 in the Sebring-Avon Park area, and well 22, south of the ridge in
Glades County. The changes in water levels with depth in these wells
are shown in tables 6, 7, and 8, respectively.

Table 6. WATER-LEVEL MEASUREMENTS MADE DURING DRILLING OF
WELL 183. WELL CASED TO 304 FEET.
Date Depth of hole Formation Water level, feet
1950 (feet) penetrated below land surface
May 31 300 Hawthorn 20.80
June 8 850 Avon Park 17.00
June 12 915 do. 16.00
June 15 945 do. 15.20
June 21 1,066 do. 16.20
June 23 1,102 Lake City 16.20
June 29 1,192 do. 16.00







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


49


Table 7. -WATER-LEVEL MEASUREMENTS MADE DURING DRILLING OF
WELL 408. WELL CASED TO 463.5 FEET.
Date Depth of hole Formation Water level, feet
1951 (feet) penetrated below land surface
May 5 525 Ocala 67.30
June 1 980 Avon Park 56.50
June 4 1,035 do. 54.20
June 6 1,160 Lake City 61.00
June 7 1,183 do. 60.20
June 8 1,185 do. 60.00
June 12 1,205 do. 57.60
June 14 1,268 do. 61.40
June 19 1,305 do. 56.30
June 22 1,390 do. 55.00
June 25 1,400 do. 55.00
July 7 1,400 do. 54.50

Table 8. WATER-LEVEL MEASUREMENTS MADE DURING DRILLING OF
WELL GL 22.
Date Depth of hole Formation Water level, feet
1951 (feet) penetrated above land surface
Feb. 27 515 Hawthorn 6.0
Feb. 28 573 do. 6.0
Mar. 1 610 do. 30.0
Mar. 1 632 Ocala 32.0
Mar. 1 760 Moodys Branch(?) 31.0
Mar. 6 1,190 Lake City(?) 30.0
Mar. 6 1,215 do. 31.0

The observed rises in water levels, with a deepening of the wells, in-
dicate the probability of ground-water discharge by upward flow from
the deeper zones of high permeability in the aquifer to shallower zones,
and seepage through the fairly permeable confining bed, as a result of
head differentials. The process of discharge from deeper material under
high head is in effect the reverse of that of recharge from shallow ma-
terials which occurs in the southern part of the ridge.
The piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in the Sebring-Avon
Park area ranges in elevation from 90 to 95 feet. The land surface ele-
vation near well 183 is about 105 feet, however, the well is located on the
eastern edge of the ridge and surface elevations to the east average about
85 feet. Water-table measurements are not available but topography
indicates that the drainage of the ridge area is eastward and the ele-
vation of the water table in the vicinity of well 183 is generally lower
than the regional piezometric surface of the artesian aquifers; thus,
leakage is upward from the Floridan aquifer.
A similar situation exists in the vicinity of well 408, although the
land surface elevation is considerably higher (150 feet) than at well
183. The drainage of shallow ground water from beneath the ridge is






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


generally north or northeast into the Carter Creek system and the water
table in the area north of Sebring is lowered sufficiently to permit up-
ward seepage of artesian water through the impeding beds.
The magnitude of head differential of the water surface in the Flori-
dan aquifer and the water-table aquifers in areas south of the ridge
presupposes the occurrence of appreciable upward leakage through the
confining bed. The average water-table elevation near well 22 in Glades
County is below 25 feet, whereas the piezometric surface of the Floridan
aquifer is in the order of 55 feet. Thus, appreciable losses by upward
leakage from the artesian aquifer must occur throughout the areas of
low elevation.
DISCHARGE FROM WELLS
Shallow artesian wells. Wells terminating in the shallow artesian
aquifer flow as much as 50 gallons per minute. They are cased to the
bottom, allowing entrance of the water only at the open end of the
casing. Many of the holes extended below the casing when they were
drilled but they have since filled in with unconsolidated sediments. The
caving has diminished the flow in some wells, but not in all.
Wells in the Floridan aquifer. Wells terminating in the Floridan
aquifer are generally 10 to 14 inches in diameter and yield 500 to 1,500
gallons per minute by pumping. They are cased through the overlying
unconsolidated material and are left open in the limestones of the Flori-
d(an aquifer to allow water to enter from all the water-bearing beds. It
is estimated that the withdrawal from wells developed in this aquifer, for
public supplies and irrigational use, amounted to 1 billion gallons of
water in 1951.
UTILIZATION
Domestic Supplies
Most of the domestic supplies in the rural areas and small towns
that have no public supplies are obtained from wells. A large number of
these are shallow sand-point wells equipped with hand pumps. These
shallow wells are quite satisfactory in some areas of the county but are
unsatisfactory in others, owing to the rather high content of iron and
organic impurities in water obtained at shallow depths. (See Quality of
Water section, p. 98.) The present trend in drilling domestic wells in the
ridge section is to tap aquifers of the Hawthorn formation, which gen-
erally furnish more satisfactory water than the formations of Pleistocene
age. A few domestic supplies are obtained from lakes.
Irrigation Supplies
Farmers in central Florida have practiced irrigation more extensively


50






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


during the last few years because they have found that it enables them to
realize a better return from their investment. Where sufficient water is
not available from lakes and streams, irrigation wells are drilled. These
range from shallow wells, 2 inches in diameter, used to irrigate truck
crops, to deep wells, 14 inches in diameter, capable of producing 1,500
gallons per minute and used to irrigate large citrus groves. There is also
a growing interest in the use of well water for irrigating pastureland.
The average yearly use of water from wells for irrigation in High-
lands County is estimated to be about 650 million gallons. The average
yearly use of surface water (derived from lakes which themselves are
fed by ground water) for irrigation is estimated to be about 3 billion
gallons.
Stock-Water Supplies
Practically all stock in Highlands County is raised in the low flat
areas. Even though there are many marshes and small ponds in these
areas, a large number of wells are used to obtain water. Ranchers in-
creasingly tend to furnish well water for their animals rather than let
them drink from the marshes and ponds, many of which are infested
with parasites. Most wells used are sand-point wells equipped with wind-
mills, and draw their supplies from the shallow ground-water body.
In the areas near the Highlands Ridge, flowing wells that tap the shallow
artesian aquifers yield some of the stock supplies.
Public Supplies
Four towns in Highlands County have public water systems: Avon
Park, Sebring, DeSoto City, and Lake Placid. All except Lake Placid,
which uses the water of Lake Sirena, obtain their supplies from wells.
(For more complete information concerning public-supply wells in
Highlands County see tables 9 and 11.)
AVON PARK
The water supply for Avon Park is obtained from three wells (391,
392, and 403) that draw from the Floridan aquifer. Well 391 is 1,040
feet deep and is cased to 350 feet with 10-inch pipe. Well 392 is 1,153
feet deep and is cased to 260 feet with 15-inch casing. Well 403 is 1,301
feet deep and is cased to 301 feet with 10-inch pipe. The three wells to-
gether can produce about 1,800 gallons per minute with the present
pumps. The estimated total pumpage for the year 1950 was about
375,000,000 gallons.
SEBRING
The town of Sebring obtains its water supply from three wells






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


(22, 23, and 24) in the Floridan aquifer, which according to D. H.
Durrance, Water Superintendent, can produce a combined total of
4,000 gallons per minute with the present pumps. Well 22 is 1,278 feet
deep and is cased to an unknown depth with 8-inch pipe. Wells 23 and
24 are both 1,400 feet deep and are cased to unknown depths with
8- and 10-inch pipes, respectively. The total pumpage for the year 1950
was 385,670,000 gallons.
DESOTO CITY
The water supply for the town of DeSoto City is obtained from a
screened well (394) drawing from the Hawthorn formation. The well
is 88 feet deep, is cased to 68 feet with 4-inch pipe, and is finished with
a 20-foot screen. The estimated yearly pumpage for 1950 was about
15,000,000 gallons.
LAKE PLACID
The water supply for the town of Lake Placid is obtained from Lake
Sirena, a small lake just south of the town. The total annual pumpage
in 1950 was 24,820,000 gallons.
QUALITY OF WATER
The chemical character of ground water in Highlands County is
shown by analyses, made by the U. S. Geological Survey, of water col-
lected from 36 wells distributed as uniformly as practicable within the
area and among the water-bearing formations (table 9). The analyses
show only the dissolved mineral content and do not indicate the sanitary
condition of the water.
Chemical Constituents in Relation to Use
IRON (Fe)
Iron is dissolved from many rock materials and the quantity in
ground water may differ greatly from place to place even within the
same aquifer. If the iron content is much more than 0.1 part per million,
the excess may separate out as a reddish sediment, which stains bath-
room fixtures, cooking utensils, and fabrics. An excess of iron may also
cause an offensive taste and odor, and cause clogging as well, by pro-
moting bacterial growth in the water mains (Ryan, 1937, p. 199).
Excess iron may be removed from most water by simple aeration and
settling or filtration. In some water, especially that which is soft or
has a low pH, aeration must be supplemented by chemical treat-
ment with lime or soda ash.
Of the 36 samples of water collected from wells in Highlands County,









Table 9. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF GROUND WATER IN HIGHLANDS COUNTY
(CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS IN PARTS PER MILLION)



Ter- Total Sodium
Well Depth Principal geologic pera- hard- Iron Cal- Magne- and po- Bicar- Sul- Chlo- Fluo- Ni-
No. (feet) source ture pH Color ness as (Fe) cium sium tassium bonate fate ride ride trate
(oF) CaCOs (Ca) (Mg) (Na+K) (HCO3) (S04) (Cl) (F) (NOa)


1 640 Ocala............... 77 7.8 0 340 0.00 61 46 43 111 180 110 0.5 0.1 '
16 1,410 Lake City........... 79 7.7 0 118 .00 82 9.6 6.1 90 44 9 .0 .5 0
20 624 Moodys Branch...... 76 7.7 0 55 .00 17 3.8 4.5 68 0 7 .0 .2
24 1,400 Lake City........... 81 7.9 0 66 .00 18 4.9 3.8 74 4.0 6 .0 .1
26 85 Hawthorn........... 77 6.2 0 8 .01 .7 6.8 ........ 6 2.0 11 .0 .2 O
28 750 Avon Park.......... 77 7.9 0 66 .00 24 1.5 14 110 0 5 .0 .2
87 554 Ocala.............. 76 8.0 0 72 .00 20 5.1 4.8 89 0 5 .0 .1
38 1,440 Lake City........... 77 7.7 0 72 .00 18 6.6 4.8 86 0 10 .1 .1 -
40 15 Hawthorn.......... 74 8.0 0 64 .00 18 4.4 6.5 85 0 5 .1 .1 Z
64 1,150 Lake City........... 81 8.0 0 70 .00 17 6.6 3.3 85 0 5 .0 .0 .-
87 979 Avon Park.......... 76 8.0 0 56 .00 18 3.0 5.0 71 0 7 .0 .1
112 508 Ocala (?)............ 7.9 0 82 .01 21 7.2 7.6 108 0 7 .0 .1
126 1,150 Lake City........... 77 7.5 2 50 .~ 18 1.1 7.4 65 .5 9 .0 .1
128 90 Hawthorn............ 73 6.4 2 2 .00 ................ 7.8 9 1 6 .0 .6
131 125 Hawthorn........... 73 7.2 18 181 1.9 67 3.2 8.7 232 1 9 .1 .2 >
141 230 Hawthorn........... 76 7.5 6 175 .04 55 9.0 13 234 1 6 .0 .5
149 24 Hawthorn ........... 74 5.2 1 7 .01 2.3 .4 13 6 9 10 .0 8.0 0
161 670 Ocala............... 75 7.6 2 73 .00 16 8.1 5.7 88 4 6 .3 .1 2
179 80 Pleistocene........... 73 5.1 4 5 .08 1.5 .4 9.4 6 .8 14 .1 .1 m
182 240 Hawthorn........... 74 7.6 7 183 .00 34 12 13 134 28 15 .8 .1
211 1,450 Lake City ........... 81 7.6 7 141 .88 37 12 10 167 10 12 .1 .2
214 86 Hawthorn........... 77 6.1 3 2 .06 .8 .1 8.2 9 1.5 6 .0 8.6 O
285 25 Hawthorn........... 74 4.7 80 14 .50 2.4 2.0 4.9 2 89 57 .0 .5
269 137 Hawthorn........... 78 6.8 18 30 1.1 8.8 2.0 9.9 42 7 8 .5 .4
273 65 Tamiami ........... 74 6.2 7 22 1.1 7.9 .6 4.0 28 1 6 .4 .5
830 49 Hawthorn........... 76 5.9 7 9 .00 1.9 1.0 4.4 12 .8 5 .1 .5
334 88 Tamiami............ 73 7.3 104 446 1.2 91 53 219 530 20 830 .2 .9
337 45 Pleistocene.......... 74 7.3 60 255 .72 89 7.8 12 310 0 20 .2 .9
344 252 Hawthorn........... 74 7.7 25 217 .06 78 5.7 29 266 0 44 .3 .5
351 35 Pleistocene.......... 74 5.4 5 18 .00 3.6 1.0 13 6 1.0 16 .0 18
858 30 Hawthorn........... 78 6.3 30 43 3.2 9.9 4.5 6.3 64 3 6 .4 .7
358 1,550 Lake City........... 82 7.4 7 185 .00 40 21 5.3 123 73 14 .3 .3
876 20 Hawthorn........... 75 5.7 7 14 .62 8.5 1.3 7.7 20 1 9 .2 .2
891 1,040 Avon Park.......... 77 7.7 7 106 .62 26 11 1.4 128 .8 6 .2 .2
893 80 Hawthorn............ 74 5.8 12 27 1.1 7.5 2.0 20 29 4.5 .6 .5 ........
894 88 Hawthorn........... 78 5.2 7 2 .00 .4 .2 4.3 3 .2 4 .0 3.4
1 1 ---------- IC.






54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

24 contained less than 0.1 ppm of iron, 6 contained between 0.1 and
1.0 ppm, 5 contained between 1.0 and 3.0 ppm, and 1 contained
3.2 ppm.
CALCIUM (Ca)
In southern Florida calcium is dissolved from rock materials con-
taining calcium carbonate (limestone, dolomite, marl, and shells) by
water containing carbon dioxide. Calcium is the main cause of hardness
of the water in Highlands County. The calcium content of the 36
samples collected ranged from 0.4 to 91 ppm.
fAGNEISIUM (Mg)
In southern Florida magnesium is dissolved from sedimentary rock
material that contains magnesium carbonate. Magnesium is present
also in sea water, and the relative abundance of the element in some
wells in southeastern Highlands County may be due in part to contamin-
ation by trapped sea water. Next to calcium, magnesium is the principal
cause of the hardness of water in this area. The magnesium content of
the 36 samples collected ranged from 0.1 to 53 ppm.
SoDIUM (Na) AND POTASSIUM (K)
Sodium and potassium are dissolved from most rock materials and
are normally present in small amounts in the water of this area. Small to
moderate amounts of these constituents have little or no effect on the
suitability of water used for most purposes. However, if the sodium con-
tent is much higher than 100 ppm it may cause foaming in steam
boilers. Of the 36 samples, all but 1 contained less than 50 ppm
of sodium and potassium. The water from well 334 contained 219 ppm,
probably as a result of contamination by trapped sea water.
BICARBONATE (HCO:,)
Bicarbonate is derived from the solution of carbonate rocks by water
containing carbon dioxide. Bicarbonate, as such, has little effect on the
use of water. The bicarbonate content of the samples ranged from 2 to
530 ppm.
SULFATE (SO,)
Sulfate in this area is dissolved from sedimentary rocks containing
sodium and calcium sulfate, which may be salts from trapped sea water.
Sulfate itself has little effect on the general use of water, but if it is
present in sufficient quantity in hard water it may contribute to boiler
scale. Sodium and magnesium sulfate, if present in sufficient quantity,
give a bitter taste to water and produce a laxative effect. Of the 36






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


Lake Istokpoga and, according to Davis (1946, p. 129), underlies an
area of approximately 35,000 acres, most of the deposit being between
3 and 8 feet thick. No wells obtain water from these peat deposits in the
county.
ALLUVIUM
Well-developed flood plains are present in the valleys of the Kissim-
mee River and Arbuckle Creek, and along the lower portion of Fish-
eating Creek. The flood-plain deposits are made up almost entirely of
fine to medium sand and organic material mixed in varying degree and
ranging from small deposits of sandy peat to bars of pure sand. The
deposits reach a probable maximum thickness of about 20 feet in the
Kissimmee River valley. No wells are known to obtain water from
alluvial deposits in Highlands County.

GROUND WATER
Ground water is the water occurring in the pores or openings of the
earth's crust within the zone of saturation. The zone of saturation is
defined as that in which the rocks are saturated with water under hydro-
static pressure. It is the zone of saturation that supplies water to wells
and springs.
In this report ground water will be discussed under two different
headings based on occurrence: (1) nonartesian water, the water that is
unconfined in the earth's crust; and (2) artesian water, the water that
is confined under pressure between relatively impermeable beds.
NONARTESIAN WATER
Source
In Highlands County the nonartesian ground water is derived almost
entirely from rain falling within the county. Part of the water that falls
as rain evaporates, part of it is absorbed by plants and transpired into
the atmosphere, and part of it is carried away by surface runoff. The
remaining part which escapes evaporation, transpiration, and surface
runoff moves downward through the underlying strata until it reaches
the zone of saturation and becomes part of the body of ground water.
Unconfined ground water moves at varying rates through the aquifer,
under the influence of gravity.
Occurrence
The following discussion of the principles governing the occurrence
of ground water has been adapted from Meinzer (1923a).
Ground water occurs in Highlands County in the numerous open


33







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


samples collected, 10 contained no measurable quantity of sulfate, 20
contained 10 ppm or less, 5 contained between 10 and 100 ppm, and
1 contained 180 ppm.
CHLORIDE (C1)
In this area chloride is dissolved in small quantities from most sedi-
mentary rocks and in larger quantities from sea salts or trapped sea
water. Chloride has little effect on the suitability of water for most uses,
unless there is enough to affect the taste. However, large quantities of
chloride may affect the suitability of water for industrial use, as it in-
creases the corrosiveness when combined with large quantities of calcium
and magnesium. Of the samples analyzed, 25 contained 10 ppm or
less of chloride, 7 contained more than 10 but no more than 20 ppm,
2 contained more than 21 but no more than 60 ppm. One contained
110 ppm and 1 contained 330 ppm.
FLUORIDE (F)
Fluoride is dissolved in small quantities from some of the sedimentary
rocks. It is known to affect the suitability of water only in its relation to
dental growth in children; water containing more than 1.5 ppm of
fluoride is likely to produce mottled enamel (Dean, 1936, p. 1269-1272).
However, small quantities of fluoride, not sufficient to cause mottled
enamel, are likely to be beneficial by inhibiting tooth decay (Dean,
Arnold, and Elvove, 1942, p. 1155-1179). Of the 36 samples analyzed
17 contained no fluoride, and 19 contained 0.1 to 0.8 ppm.
NITRATE (NOs)
Nitrate is generally formed from the oxidation of ammonium com-
pounds, which, in turn, are derived from decaying organic matter
(Ryan, 1937, p. 42). Small quantities of nitrate have no effect on
water for ordinary uses, but large quantities may indicate pollution.
Of the 36 samples analyzed, 32 contained less than 1.0 ppm of nitrate
and 4 contained more than 1.0 but no more than 18.0 ppm.
TOTAL HARDNESS AS CaCO,
The hardness of water, which is the property that generally receives
the most attention, is commonly recognized by the increased amount
of soap needed to produce a lather, and by the sticky, insoluble pre-
cipitate that it forms with soap. Calcium and magnesium cause most
of the hardness. These constituents are also the active agents in the
formation of most of the scale in vessels in which water is heated or
evaporated.


55






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Water having a hardness of no more than 50 ppm is generally
rated as soft, and its treatment under ordinary circumstances is not
inec(ssary. Hardness of 50 to 150 ppm does not seriously interfere with
the use of water for most purposes, but it does increase the consumption
)of soap. It is usually profitable for laundries, or other industries that use
large quantities of soap, to soften such water. Water in the upper
part of this range of hardness will cause considerable scale in steam
boilers. Hardness of more than 150 ppm is very noticeable, and if the
hardness is much over 200 ppm it is common practice to soften the
water for household use or to obtain softer water from some other
source.
''he samples of water collected range in hardness from 2 to 446
ppm. Of these samples of water 15 had a hardness of 50 ppm or less,
14 had a hardness of more than 50 but no more than 150 ppm,
3: a hardness of more than 150 but no more than 200 ppm, 3 a hardness
between 30() and 400() pp, and 1 a hardness of 446 ppm.
( OI)O)
'he materials that color ground water in this area are derived
from organic matter and are in themselves harmless. Color is measured
in terms of an arbitrary color standard. Color of less than 10, according
to this standard, is not objectionable to those who have not been ac-
customied to colorless water. Color generally may be removed from
water by coagulation and filtration.
Of the 36 samples analyzed for this report, 12 were colorless, 16 had
colorr of less than 10, and 8 had color ranging from 12 to 104.
IM
'lhe term pH is used to express acidity or alkalinity. Water that
is neither acid nor alkaline is said to be neutral and has a pH value
of 7. Water having an alkaline reaction has a pH higher than 7,
whereas water having an acid reaction has a pH less than 7. The
presence of alkaline salts causes a high pH in water, and the presence
of dissolved carbon dioxide gas in the form of carbonic acid is the
most c)I()onL cause of a low pH. For all practical purposes the pH
of a water depends on the ratio of the alkaline salts to the dissolved car-
b)n dioxide. The suitability of a water is affected by its pH in that
the lower the pH the greater the corrosiveness to metals, although not all
water having the same pH is equally corrosive.
Of the 36 samples analyzed for this report 22 gave an alkaline
reaction and 14 gave an acid reaction, the pH for all the samples
ranging from 4.7 to 8.0.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


TEMPERATURE
The temperature of the water from wells in the county ranges from
about 70 to as high as 80F. The lower temperatures are found in the
relatively shallow wells, and the higher ones in deeper wells. The
temperatures in the shallow wells vary slightly with the seasons, but
those in the deeper wells remain fairly constant throughout the year.
HYDROGEN SULFIDE (HS)
Hydrogen sulfide gas, probably formed by the reduction of sulfate
in the rocks, occurs in many wells in Highlands County. The hydrogen
sulfide contents are not listed in table 4, however, as any gas that was
in the samples when they were collected had been dissipated by the
time they reached the laboratory. Hydrogen sulfide has the odor of
rotten eggs and is found in small quantities in much of the water of
this area. It usually disappears quickly when water is aerated or allowed
to stand in an open vessel.
Chemical character in relation to stratigraphy
The ground water in Highlands County is derived from two major
sources: (1) the Floridan aquifer, and (2) the aquifers in the upper
part of the Hawthorn and in younger formations. Locally, in the
southeastern part of the county, water from both sources has a relatively
high mineral content, probably as a result of contamination by sea
water trapped during high stages of the Pleistocene sea. A summary of
the quality of water from the two major sources is given in table 10.
THE FLORIDAN AQUIFER
In the ridge section of the county, water from the Floridan aquifer
has a low mineral content and does not differ greatly in quality from
one to the other of the formations composing the aquifer. In the
southeastern part of the county water from the aquifer has a much
higher mineral content.
AQUIFERS IN THE UPPER PART OF THE HAWTHORN AND IN YOUNGER
FORMATIONS
Water from the Hawthorn and younger formations in all the
county, except the southeastern part, ranges widely in chemical com-
position. That in the southeastern part of the county, east of the
shallow artesian system, has a uniformly high mineral content.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Ground water occurs in at least three distinct aquifers of unequal
importance--the water-table, or unconfined aquifer, local shallow
artesian aquifers, and the Floridan artesian aquifer.


57









Table 10 -- CHEMICAL ANALYSES, IN PARTS PER MILLION, OF WATER
FROM THE TWO MAJOR GROUND-WATER SOURCES IN HIGHLANDS COUNTY


FLORIDAN AQUIFER


AQUIFERS IN THE HAWTHORN AND
YOUNGER FORMATIONS


Iron (Fe)
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium and potassium
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO.)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO3)
Hardness as CaCO,
Specific conductance at 25 C (micromhos)
Color
pH
Temperature, F


Ridge section of
Highlands County
(Samples from
14 wells)
0 to 0.62
16 to 40
1.1 to 21
1.4 to 14
65 to 167
0 to 73
5 to 14
0 to .3
0 to .5
50 to 185
130 to 400
0 to 7
7.4 to 8.0
74 to 82


Southeastern
part of county
(Samples from
well no. 1)
0
61
46
43
111
180
110
.5
.1
340
928
0
7.8
77.5


All of county
except southeastern
part (Samples from
18 wells)
0 to 3.2
.4 to 67
.1 to 12
4.0 to 20
2.0 to 234
0 to 39
.6 to 57
0 to .8
.1 to 18
2 to 181
26.7 to 380
0 to 30
4.7 to 7.6
73 to 78+


Southeastern part of county
east of area of shallow
artesian flow (Samples
from 3 wells)
0.06 to 1.2
78 to 91
5.7 to 53
15 to 219
266 to 530
0 to 20
20 to 332
.2 to .3
.5 to .9
217 to 446
540 to 1780
25 to 104
7.3 to 7.7
73 to 74.5+


m
0
0
r-,
O

3

r
e"m
C;
?3
Wr
<






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


The water-table aquifer in the Highlands Ridge area is composed
of Pleistocene sand deposits and the deltaic portion of the Hawthorn,
made up of white to red, kaolinitic, quartz sand containing pebbles of
quartz and, in places, of phosphorite. In the rest of the area the aquifer
is composed of post-Miocene sands, the Tamiami formation, and,
locally, the upper part of the Hawthorn formation. The beds of coarse
sand and gravel in the Hawthorn in the ridge and the area west of
it are an important source of water and are being utilized by an increas-
ing number of screened and gravel-packed wells developed at depths of
120 to 200 feet. In the remainder of the county the water-table aquifer
is a source of water for stock and domestic supplies.
Recharge to the unconfined ground-water body is derived principally
from local rainfall, which averages about 52 inches a year. Because of
the permeability of the surficial material throughout the county, the
rainfall percolates rapidly down into the water-table aquifer, surface
runoff occurring only where the aquifer is so full that it rejects the
recharge. A few lakes and streams also are a source of recharge, at
least at times, to the unconfined ground-water body. Some recharge
is derived also from seepage from the shallow artesian aquifers, and
from downward seepage of irrigation water.
Discharge of unconfined ground water occurs through evapotrans-
piration, streams, lakes, canals, and wells. Evapotranspiration accounts
for a large percentage of the total ground-water discharge in areas
where the water table is near the land surface. Studies have not been
made of the evapotranspiration losses in the area, but they are estimated
to exceed half the average annual rainfall. Ground water also is con-
stantly being discharged into the streams and canals of the area, which
during periods of low flow are maintained almost entirely from ground-
water storage. Wells account for only a small amount of the total dis-
charge. However, the amount of ground water discharged into lakes
when they are being pumped for citrus irrigation is large, probably
amounting to about 3 billion gallons in 1951.
Shallow artesian aquifers of minor importance, composed of coarse
sand, gravel, or shell beds, occur locally in the Tamiami formation and
the upper part of the Hawthorn in the area east of the ridge. They
are found mainly on the flanks of the Highlands Ridge; the recharge
area on the ridge and the upper reaches of its flanks have sufficient
relief to provide an artesian head in the aquifers. The shallowest
aquifers can be tapped by wells 10 to 15 feet deep, but because of
very leaky confining beds their areal extent is small. In the Kissimmee


59






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Valley area within the county an artesian aquifer occurs locally at
depths of 125 to 150 feet below the land surface.
Recharge to the shallow artesian aquifers is by rainfall on and along
the flanks of the ridge. Although a small amount of water from the
aquifers is utilized for stock and domestic needs, most of it is discharged
through leaky confining beds upward into the water-table aquifer.
The Floridan, or principal artesian, aquifer underlies the entire
county and is the most important aquifer in the area. In the north-
western and southwestern parts of the county the top of the aquifer
is respectively about 150 and 500 feet below mean sea level. The
marine clay marls of the Hawthorn, which underlie the water-bearing
gravel and sands of the deltaic part of that formation, compose the
confining beds of the Floridan aquifer. Limestones in the lower part
of the Hawthorn and the limestones of the Suwannee, Ocala,
Moodys Branch, Avon Park, and Lake City formations constitute
the part of the aquifer utilized in Highlands County. This upper 1,000
feet of the aquifer represents about one-third of the total thickness of
the Tertiary limestone section, of which an undetermined thickness
constitutes the Floridan aquifer. The Lake City limestone is the most
important water-producing formation in the aquifer and is the principal
source of many large water supplies for municipal use and irrigation.
A 16-inch well drilled to a depth of 1,300 feet was reported to yield
2,000 gpm with a drawdown of 26 feet. The limestones of the lower
part of the Hawthorn and of the Suwannee, Ocala, Moodys Branch,
and Avon Park are not as permeable as the Lake City. These limestones
are not in themselves important sources of water supplies, but as com-
ponents of the Floridan aquifer they contribute water to wells that
penetrate the lower formations; also, of course, water must pass through
these limestones to reach the Lake City limestone. In the northwestern
part of the county, the lower part of the Hawthorn is sufficiently
permeable to be a potential source of medium to large supplies of
water.
The piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer ranges from about
95 feet above mean sea level at Avon Park to 55 feet at Brighton. It
slopes in a general southeasterly direction, the piezometric high corres-
ponding roughly to the topographic high.
Although the entire ridge section of Highlands County is in the
recharge area for the Floridan aquifer, most of the recharge to the
aquifer occurs north of Sebring. Cuttings from wells in the area north
of Sebring indicate that the beds overlying the limestones of the Floridan
aquifer are thin and fairly permeable. The recharge area extends north-


60







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 61

ward into Polk County, where the principal recharge to the aquifer
occurs.
Discharge from the Floridan aquifer in Highlands County is by
wells and the upward percolation in low areas through sand-filled
sinks or collapse basins. About 1/2 billion gallons of water for public
and irrigation supplies is estimated to have been pumped in 1951 from
the Floridan aquifer.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


TEMPERATURE
The temperature of the water from wells in the county ranges from
about 70 to as high as 80F. The lower temperatures are found in the
relatively shallow wells, and the higher ones in deeper wells. The
temperatures in the shallow wells vary slightly with the seasons, but
those in the deeper wells remain fairly constant throughout the year.
HYDROGEN SULFIDE (HS)
Hydrogen sulfide gas, probably formed by the reduction of sulfate
in the rocks, occurs in many wells in Highlands County. The hydrogen
sulfide contents are not listed in table 4, however, as any gas that was
in the samples when they were collected had been dissipated by the
time they reached the laboratory. Hydrogen sulfide has the odor of
rotten eggs and is found in small quantities in much of the water of
this area. It usually disappears quickly when water is aerated or allowed
to stand in an open vessel.
Chemical character in relation to stratigraphy
The ground water in Highlands County is derived from two major
sources: (1) the Floridan aquifer, and (2) the aquifers in the upper
part of the Hawthorn and in younger formations. Locally, in the
southeastern part of the county, water from both sources has a relatively
high mineral content, probably as a result of contamination by sea
water trapped during high stages of the Pleistocene sea. A summary of
the quality of water from the two major sources is given in table 10.
THE FLORIDAN AQUIFER
In the ridge section of the county, water from the Floridan aquifer
has a low mineral content and does not differ greatly in quality from
one to the other of the formations composing the aquifer. In the
southeastern part of the county water from the aquifer has a much
higher mineral content.
AQUIFERS IN THE UPPER PART OF THE HAWTHORN AND IN YOUNGER
FORMATIONS
Water from the Hawthorn and younger formations in all the
county, except the southeastern part, ranges widely in chemical com-
position. That in the southeastern part of the county, east of the
shallow artesian system, has a uniformly high mineral content.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Ground water occurs in at least three distinct aquifers of unequal
importance--the water-table, or unconfined aquifer, local shallow
artesian aquifers, and the Floridan artesian aquifer.


57









Table 11. RECORD OF SELECTED WELLS IN HIGHLANDS COUNTY


(1 D. domestic; I. irrigation: 0. observation; P. public supply: S. stock: T. test
k' Water level. in feet. above (-) or below (-) land surface)


Owner


Depth Diam-
(ft.) eter
(in.)


Casing
depth
(ft.)


Probable
geologic
source


Use


Remarks


1 'About 17 miles west of Okeechobee on the south side Lykes Bros........
of State Highway 70, SWSE4 sec. 26, T. 37 S.,
R. 32 E.
5 10 feet west of the aerator of the Hendricks Army Air U. S. Air Force ...
Field water-treatment plant, about 6.3 miles south-i


east of Sebring, SE 3SE % see. 7, T. 35 S., R. 30E.
12 miles east of State Highway 64 on the south side of J. S. Geological
the road to Fort Kissimmee, NE JNW & sec. 7, T. Survey
33 S., R. 31. E.
0.9 mile west of State Highway 17 on the south side of do.............
State Highway 623, about 4 miles southeast of
Sebring, NE ,SE sec. 2, T. 35 S., R. 29 E.


3.1. miles northwest of the Istokpoga Canal on the
south side of State Highway 66, NW ,SW Y sec. 14,
T. 35 S., R. 31 E.
3.7 mile west of the Kissimmee River on the north side C
of State Highway 100, NEYSWY sec. 7, T. 36 S.,
R. 33 E.
0.5 mile west of the Kissimmee River on the north side
of State Highway 70, NE NEX see. 26, T. 37 S.,
R. 33 E.
3.1 mile south of State Highway 70, on the east side of
State Highway 25, NE 3NW Y sec. 4, T. 38 S.,
R. 30 E.
0.1 mile north of the Highlands-Glades County line on
the east side of State Highway 25, SW 3SE 3 sec. 32,
T. 39 S., R. 30 E.
0.4 mile east of State Highway 25, and then 0.4 mile S.
north on east side of clay road, NW 3SW34 sec. 3,
T. 35 S., R. 29 E.
4.3 mile east of Atlantic Coast Line Railroad station at J.
Avon Park on east side of State Highway 64, SE 3Y
SE X sec. 17, T. 33 S., R. 29 E.


do..... .....


. S. Geological
Survey

do..............


do..............


do..............


Kahn...........


C. Ragsdale.....


640 8-6 ........ Ocala...........


176


26


45


16


21


20


35


23


1,410


125+


8


6


6


6


6


6


6


. Hawthorn .. ....


22 Pleistocene ...

t


9


10


11


12


13


14


15


16



18


Hawthorn (?)....


Pleistocene......


Pleistocene ....


Pleistocene....


Hawthorn (?)....


Hawthorn (?)....


. Lake City. ......


Hawthorn .......


D Water level +22 ft,2 Oct.
10, 1952. Well 1 in W.S.
P. 773-C. See table 9.
D Gravel-packed well. See log.
F.G.S. well W595.

O See fig. 7a; log.


O See fig. 7a.


0


O


0


0


0


I


D, S


See fig. 7a.


See fig. 7b; log.


See fig. 7b.


See fig. 7b.


See fig. 7b.


See table 9.


Well
No.


Location


125


0
0
0
0
0



C."
M1


--


I


T






Table 11. Continued


Well Location Owner Depth Diam- Casing Probable Use' Remarks
No. (ft.) eter depth geologic
(in.) (ft.) source


20



21



22

23

24

26


28


31



32



86



87


2.8 miles east of Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Station
at Avon Park on State Highway 64, then 0.6 mile
east of clay road and 0.4 mile south on east side of
private road, SE 3SEV see. 19, T. 33 S., R. 29 E.
2.5 miles east of Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Station
at Avon Park on State Highway 64, then 0.1 mile
south on west side of road, NWySWY sec. 19, T.
35 S., R. 29 E.
West side of Park Street at intersection of Pine Street,
Sebring, NE 3NW sec. 29, T. 84 S., R. 29 E.
Northeast corer of Cypress Street and Franklin Street,
Sebring, SW 3SW 4 sec. 20, T. 84 S., R. 29 E.
South of intersection of Eucalyptus Street and Avocado
Street, Sebring, SE ~SW3 sec. 20, T. 34 S., R. 29 E.
0.8 mile south of Polk County line on State Highway
25, then 0.2 mile southwest of private road, SW%
NW3 sec. 4, T. 88 S., R. 28 E.
1.1 miles south of Polk County line on State Highway
25, then 0.4 mile southwest of clay road, SW 3SE X
see. 4, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.
2.6 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park.
on State Highway 25, then 1.0 mile northeast on clay
road to east side of road on edge of lake, NW 3NW Y
sec. 4, T. 83 S., R. 28 E.
2.0 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park
on State Highway 25, then 0.6 mile southwest on
west side of clay road around Lake Byrd, NW 3SE Y
sec. 9, T. 38 S., R. 28 E.
1.5 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park
on State Highway 25, then 1.0 mile west and 0.8 mile
south on clay road, and then 0.2 mile west of road,
NE XSE Y sec. 17, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.
1.0 mile north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park on
State Highway 25, then 0.6 mile west on north side
of clay road, SE 3NWY sec. 16, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.


Rex Beach Estate..



W. F. Ward.......



Town of Sebring...

do..............

do..............

M. Staggers.......


S. Wittenstein.....


Episcopal Church..



C. H. Shepard.....



Avon Park Citrus
Co.


do..............


624



56



1,278

1,400

1,400

35


750


25+



35



1,167



554


8



2



8

12-8

12-10

2


2


60



2



12


. Moodys Branch..



. Hawthorn.......



Lake City ......

do......... .

do.......... .

Hawthorn ......


Avon Park.....


Pleistocene (?)..



Hawthorn (?)....



Lake City.......



Ocala ...........


See table 9.


D,S,I



D



P

P

P

D


D


D



D



I



D


Water level, -77.67, Oct.
15,1952. Yield 1,400 gpm.


See table 9.


Sand-point well.



F.G.S. well W894. See log.




See table 9.

See table 9.


See table 9.


Concrete curbing.


0

0




02
W





It
0





01
0






14,




0


- -- -- ---


I I I I









Table 11. Continued


Location


Owner


3.0 miles north from Seaboard Air Line Railroad cross- Avon Park Citrus
ing south of Lake Letta on State Highway 17, then Co.
0.5 mile east on clay road, then 0.1 mile north of
road, NE SWY sec. 20, T. 33 S., R. 29 E.
1.9 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park J. P. Garber.....
on State Highways 25 and 17, then 0.4 mile south-
west on South side of clay road, SE 3SE Y sec. 9,
T. 88 S., R. 28 E.


Well
No.


38



40



43



48



49



61



64



68


70


72


Pickett ..


. Armstrong...



. Klemm



ite Maid Corp.







EUis.........


Sloman.......


Jackson......


Depth
(ft.)


43



107



1,150


1.7 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park L. S.
on State Highways 25 and 17, then 0.5 mile east on
private road on north side, SWYSWY sec. 10, T.
33 S., R. 28 E.
1.5 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park C. L.
on State Highways 17 and 25, then 0.8 mile east and
0.1 mile south on east side of clay road, NE NW Y
sec. 15, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.
1.5 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park A. R
on State Highways 17 and 25, then 1.0 mile east and
0.2 mile north on east side of road, SWYSWJ sec.
11, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.
1.5 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park Minu
on State Highways 17 and 25, then 1.8 miles east on
north side of road, SE 3SE 3 sec. 11, T. 33 S.,
R. 28 E.
1.5 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park do.
on State Highways 17 and 25, then 1.9 miles north
and 1.4 miles east on south side of clay road, SE
NEX sec. 1, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.
1.1 miles west from State Highways 17 and 25 at Avon C. H.
Park, on State Highway 64, then 0.1 mile south on
private road, NE SE Y see. 20, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.
2.6 miles west from State Highways 17 and 25 at Avon G. S.
Park on State Highway 64 on northwest corner of
clay road, SWINE % see. 19, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.
1.5 miles north from State Highway 64 at Avon Park H. A.
on State Highways 17 and 25, then 2.0 miles east
and 0.4 mile south on west side of clay road, SE 3
NE Y sec. 14, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.


Diam- Casing
eter depth
(in.) (ft.)


1


2


100


Probable
geologic
source

Lake City......



Hawthorn.......



Pleistocene (?)..



Hawthorn (?)....



do............



Hawthorn.......



Lake City. ......


Hawthorn.......


Hawthorn (?) ....


.... Hawthorn.


Use,


Remarks


554



315



29



60


48


38


80


See table 9.



do.



Sand-point well.



do.



do.



Screened well.



See table 9.



Sand-point well.


do.


do.


----'--~- -- --- --'


-1


I I I I I t


"
0



tE


0
0

on


. .







Table 11. Continued


Well Location Owner Depth Diam- Casing Probable Use Remarks
No. (ft.) eter depth geologic
(in.) (ft.) source


77



82



88


86


87


88



90


92



96


101

104


1.8 miles east from State Highways 17 and 25 at Avon
Park on State Highway 64, then 0.3 mile north and
0.4 mile east on north side of clay road, NWNE Y
sec. 23, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.
2.0 miles east from State Highways 17 and 25 at Avon
Park on State Highway 64, then 1.0 mile north and
then 0.8 mile east on north side of clay road, SE Y
NW% sec. 13, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.
0.5 mile south of intersection of State Highways 17 and
64 at Avon Park on east side of clay road, SWX
SWY see. 22, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.
0.8 mile south of intersection of State Highways 17 and
64 on clay road, then 0.25 mile east on south side of
clay road, SWNW&% sec. 27, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.
3.4 miles east of State Highway 17 on State Highway
64, then 0.5 mile south on east side of road, NE X
NW% sec. 30, T. 33 S., R. 29 E.
2.9 miles north of Seaboard Railroad crossing on State
Highway 17, then 1.6 miles east and 0.5 mile north
on west side of road, SWYNE Y sec. 29, T. 33 S.,
R. 29 E.
2.2 miles south of State Highway 64 on east side of
State Highway 17, NW NE sec. 25, T. 33 S.,
R. 28 E.
8.3 miles north of Seaboard Railroad crossing on State
Highway 17, then 0.8 mile west and south on west
side of clay road, NW %NE sec. 36, T. 33 S.,
R. 28 E.
1.5 miles south of State Highway 64, then 0.8 mile:
southeast to Lake Lotela, SW NE sec. 35, T.
88 S., R. 28 E.
1.9 miles south of State Highway 64, then 0.6 mile west
to Lake Lelia, SE YNE 3 sec. 34, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.
2.5 miles south of State Highway 64, then 0.2 mile
southeast to Lake Denton, NE NW X sec. 2, T. 34
S., R. 28 E.


T. H. Maxwell.....



D. M. Ellis........



S. McKenzie.......


W. O. Skipper.....


Snow Crop Corp. .


H. C. Maddox ....



W. Kluberge.......


C. E. Hyde........



L. D. Bigoney ....


G. E. Shaffer......

S. P. Durrance.....


85



64



78


38


979


26



35


94



28


87

30


3



2



3


2


8-5


2



1Y


2



2


Hawthorn.......



Hawthorn (?)....



Hawthorn.......


Hawthorn (?)....


Avon Park......


Hawthorn (?)....



Pleistocene (?)...


Hawthorn (?)....



Pleistocene (?)...


1 ........ Hawthorn (?)....

1 M ........ Pleistocene (?)...


D



D



D


D


D, I


S



D


D



D


D

D


Sand-point well.


do.



do.


do.


See table 9.


0


0
ti









z
0


C-


Sand-point well.



Sand-point well.


do.


do.


350








Table 11.- Continued


Owner


Depth
(ft.)


Diam-
eter
(in.)


4.7 miles south of State Highway 64 to Lake Sebring, Maxcy Securities,
then 0.9 mile west on north side of road, SE ,SE 6 Inc.
sec. 10, T. 34 S., R. 28 E.
2.5 miles north of Seaboard Railroad on State High- F. Addinsell.......
way 17, then 1.5 miles south, SW VNW Y sec. 31, T.
33 S., R. 29 E.


107


112


114


119


126


128



181


132


133


139



141


H. Jines...........


G. M. Towne......


N. Wolf..........


W. C. Waldron.....



0. Murphey.......


C. Redwine........


H. W. Harris. .....


R. Kosman........



Highlands
Hammock


- 1 1 1 -


6-


8 .


4 .


.. .Lake City...


....... Ocala (?) ....


2.0 miles north of Seaboard Railroad on west side of
State Highway 17, NE 3SWY sec. 31, T. 33 S.,
R. 29 E.
0.8 mile north of Seaboard Railroad on State High-
way 17, then 0.7 mile east on north side of road,
SW SW see. 5, T. 34 S., R. 29 E.
0.6 mile south of Seaboard Railroad on State High-
way 17, then 1.3 miles east and 0.1 mile south on
east side of road, SW YSW Y sec. 9, T. 34 S., R. 29 E.
0.5 mile south of Seaboard Railroad on State High-
way 17, then 1.3 miles east, 0.8 mile south and 0.8
mile east on south side of road, NE 3SW3 sec. 16,
T. 34 S., R. 29 E.
0.6 mile south of Seaboard Railroad on State Highway
17, then 8.9 miles east on north side of road, NW3j
SW~ sec. 81, T. 33 S., R. 20 E.
0.6 mile south of Seaboard Railroad on State Highway
17, then 11.6 miles east on north side of road, SW%
see. 26, T. 34 S., R. 30 E.
2.6 miles south from traffic circle in Sebring on State
Highway 25, on west side of highway, SE 3NE
sec. 5, T. 85 S., R. 29 E.
1.7 miles south from Seaboard Railroad crossing south:
of Lake Letta on State Highways 17 and 25 at tour-
ist court on east side of Highway, SW 3SE j sec. 18,
T. 34 S., R. 29 E.
5.9 miles westof State Highway 25 on State road 634,:
then 0.5 mile north to Highlands Hammock State
Park Office, NE MSE 3 sec. 32, T. 34 S., R. 28 E.


1,130


508


11


115


1,150


90



125


180


70


55



230


D, S


D See table 9.


D


D


I


D



S


D, S


D


D



D


Sand-point well.


do.


See table 9.


do.



Water level +-5 ft., May 9,
1950. See table 9.


Pleistocene .....


Hawthorn.......


Lake City.......


Hawthorn.......



do ............


Hawthorn .......


Hawthorn (?)....


do............



Hawthorn.......


Well
No.


Location


Casing
depth
(ft.)


Probable
geologic
source


Use


Remarks


102


n
0
0


CF


....


-1-1


1-1


See table 9.


- i 1 1


--


- I -


I


-i









Table 11. Continued


Location


Well
No.



147


148


149


150


157



161



170




178


179


182


Owner


Depth
(ft.)


Diam-
eter
(in.)


Casing
depth
(ft.)


source


I I I


0.6 mile west of State Highway 25 on State Road 634,
then 2.8 miles south on graded road to edge of Lake
Buck, SE ~NWj sec. 17, T. 35 S., R. 29 E.
8.2 miles west from State Highway 25 on State Road
684 then 0.2 mile north on west side of road, SE
SEU sec. 35, T. 34 S., R. 28 E.
5.0 miles east of State Highway 25 on State Road 634,
then 1.9 miles south, and then 1.8 miles west on west
side of road, SW4SW% sec. 8, T. 85 S., R. 28 E.
1.4 miles north from State Highway 700 on State High-
way 25, then 0.2 mile east at end of road, NW Y
SW.3 sec. 10, T. 85 S., R. 29 E.
0.4 mile east from State Highway 25 on State Highway
700, then northeast and north 8.0 miles on old high-
way, and then west 0.5 mile on north side of clay
road, SW3 NE 3 sec. 3, T. 85 S., R. 29 E.
0.4 mile east from State Highway 25 on State Highway
700, then northeast and north 4.0 miles on old high-
way, and then 0.4 mile east to dairy, NE 3SE M sec.
34, T. 84 S., R. 29 E.
1.8 miles north from State Highway 700 on State High-
way 25, then east 0.2 mile on clay road, then north
1.6 miles, then west 1.0 mile, and then north 0.4 mile
on east side of road, NWySW sec. 33, T. 84 S.,
R. 29 E.
8.8 miles east from State Highway 25 on State High-
way 700, north side, SW3r NWX sec. 18, T. 35
S., R. 80 E.
8.5 miles east from State Highway 25 on south side of A
State Highway 700, NWYSWj sec. 12, T. 85 S.,
R. 80 E.
8.8 miles east from State Highway 25 on south side of I
State Highway 700, NE SWY sec. 12, T. 85 S.,
R. 80 E.


W. H. Calhoun.....


L. D. Mather......


J. Vaughn.........


A. H. Bee. ........


W. H. Brooker.....



J. R. Ramer.......



A. I. Young. ......




R. X. Droit........


A. C. Ponder.......


L. Waldron........


1MI.


45


40


24+


82


22



670



35




21


30


240


....... Hawthorn (?) ...


. .. do............


24 Hawthorn.......


...... Hawthorn (?)....


...... Pleistocene (?)...



.. ... Ocala...........



...... Pleistocene (?) ..




...... Pleistocene (?)...


...... do............


...... Hawthorn .......


Screened well.


Concrete curbing. See table
9.


Sand-point well.


do.


3


30


2


1 4



4



2




1 Y,


See table 9.



Sand-point well.




Sand-point well.


See table 9.


Flowing sand-point well.
See table 9.


od
W
0

0

"1

tid
CA




z
CA
0








Table 11. Continued


Well
No.


Location


183 13.0 miles north from Seaboard Railroad crossing south
of Lake Letta on State Highway 25, then 1.9 miles
east on north side of clay road, NE YSE Y sec. 30,
T. 33 S., R. 29 E.
192 10.9 miles east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto City,
on State Highway 700, 100 feet east of Post Office at
Lorida, SWSW see. 8, T. 35 S., R. 31 E.
195 About 11 miles east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto
City, on the north side of State Highway 700, on the
owner's property, SE YSWY sec. 8, T. 35 S., R. 31 E.
201 3.4 miles east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto City
on the north side of State Highway 700 at the junc-
tion with the road to Hendricks field, SW NW
sec. 18, T. 85 S., R. 30 E.
203 1.2 miles south from State Highway 700 at DeSoto
City on State Highway 25, then 1.2 miles west on the
south side of clay road, NE YNE Y see. 29, T. 35 S.,
R. 29 E.
204 1.2 miles south from State Highway 700 at DeSoto
City on State Highway 25, then 1.5 miles west on the
south side of clay road, NW NE3~ sec. 29, T. 35
S., R. 29 E.
a11 1.0 mile east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto City on
State Highway 700, then 1.8 miles south on paved
road, then 0.4 mile west on clay road, and then 0.1
mile north on the west side of private road, NW
SE 3 se. 27, T. 35 S., R. 29 E.
112 1.0 mile east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto City on
State Highway 700, then 1.8 miles south on paved
road, then 0.8 mile west on clay road, and then 0.5
mile north on the east side of unimproved road, SE 4
NWX sec. 27, T. 35 S., R. 29 E.
!14 1.0 mile east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto City on 1
State Highway 700, then 3.2 miles south on paved
road, and then 0.5 mile east to end of clay road, SE Y
SE X see. 35, T. 35 S., R. 29 E.


Owner


Avon Park Citrus
Corp.


R. L. Stokes.......


E. Boney..........


C. A. Causey......



L. C. Smith........



do..............



Maxcy Securities,
Inc.



J. H. Twitty.......


i










2




2


Depth Diam-
(ft.) eter
(in.)


Casing
depth
(ft.)


1,212 5 304


20


235


223



110



20



1,455




58




86


211


13-1.


12-10




2




2


........ Hawthorn.


Use


Probable
geologic
source


Lake City. ......



Pleistocene (?)...


Hawthorn .......


Hawthorn .......



do ...........



Pleistocene (?)...



Lake City.......




Hawthorn.......


Remarks


D



D


D


D



D



D



D, I




D




D


B. Tauchen.....


--~-~-~II


Water level 15.5 ft., June
29, 1952. Log included.
F.G.S. well W2397.

Sand-point well.










Sand-point well.



do.



See table 9; log. F. G. S.
well W1464.



Sand-point well.




Sand-point well See table
9.







Table 1I.


- Continued


Well Location Owner Depth Diam- Casing Probable Use, Remarks
No. (ft.) eter depth geologic
(in.) (ft.) source


217



222


280




285




286




241



251


255


260


2.5 miles south from State Highway 700 at DeSoto J.
City on State Highway 25, then 0.1 mile west on the
north side of private road, NWNW4 sec. 34, T.
35 S., R. 29 E.
6.2 miles south from State Highway 700 at DeSoto J.
City on west side of State Highway 25, at fruit stand,
SE N X sec. 14, T. 36 S., R. 29 E.
0.3 mile north from Atlantic Coast Line Railroad cross- P.
ing, which is about 1 mile north of Lake Placid, on
State Highway 25, then 0.6 mile west on south side
of road to Hen Scratch, SW SW3 sec. 25, T. 36 S.,
R. 29 E.
0.3 mile north from Atlantic Coast Line Railroad cross- M
ing which is about 1 mile north of Lake Placid on
State Highway 25, then 4.10 miles west on road to
Hen Scratch, and then 0.2 mile north at end of pri-
vate road, NE3 NE3j sec. 28, T. 36 S., R. 29 E.
0.3 mile north from At!antic Coast Line Railroad cross- J.
ing, which is about 1 mile north of Lake Placid, on
State Highway 25, then 8.3 miles west on the north
side of road to Hen Scratch, NE NW sec. 25,
T. 86 S., R. 28 E.
About 0.1 mile west of Atlantic Coast Line Railroad I.
crossing, which is about 1 mile north of Lake Placid
on State Highway 25 near the east shore of Lake
Stearns, SEK SWY sec. 30, T. 36 S., R. 30 E.
0.5 mile east from State Highway 25 at Lake Placid on A.
State Highway 621, then 0.2 mile south on east side
of private road, SE KSE X sec. 31, T. 36 S., R. 30 E.
1.4 miles east from State Highway 25 at Lake Placid on C.
State Highway 621, then 0.5 mile north on west side
of road, NW3NE sec. 32, T. 36 S., R. 30 E.
1.7 miles east from State Highway 25 at Lake Placid on G.
State Highway 621, then 1.9 miles south, and then
0.1 mile west at the end of private road, SE Y NE4
sec. 8, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.


E. Wilson.......



L. McLure......


. B. Hartman.....




. P. Miller.......




K. Roosevelt....




Boriss...........



Blair...........


Tompkins......


Parks ..........


30



51


37




25




50




46



115


48


26


2



2







13



2




2



2


12


2


....... Pleistocene.


D Sand-point well.


Hawthorn (?)....



do............


Pleistocene (?)...




Hawthorn .......




Hawthorn .......




do............



do.. ........


Pleistocene (?). .


Screened well.


Sand-point well.




do. See table 9.


M
0


0







rn
f-4


0







i,


Sand-point well.


D, I


D




D




D




D



D


D


D


20 ft. of screen; see log.
F.G.S. well W2850.

Sand-point well.


Sand-point well.


do.









Table 11. Continued


Well
No.


Location


269 1.8 miles east from State Highway 25 at Lake Placid on
State Highway 621, then 1.4 miles northwest, then
0.2 mile south, and 0.1 mile east on south side of road,
SW3SW% sec. 27, T. 36 S., R. 30 E.
273 2.9 miles east from State Highway 25 at Lake Placid on
State Highway 621, then 8.9 miles south on clay
road, and then about 300 feet east of road, SW
NW3. see. 23, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
284 6 miles east from State Highway 25 at Lake Placid on
south side of State Highway 621, NWNW3 sec.
6, T. 37 S., R. 81 E.
286 6 miles east from State Highway 25 at Lake Placid on
State Highway 621, then 6.6 miles northwest on road,
and then 800 feet west of road, SW 3NW 3 sec. 10,
T. 86 S., R. 31 E.
287 6 miles east from State Highway 25 at Lake Placid on
State Highway 621, then 7.4 miles northwest on road,
then 0.2 mile west on north side of private road,
SW SE % sec. 3, T. 86 S., R. 31 E.
292 11.3 miles east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto City
on State Highway 700, then 0.7 mile southeast on
sand road, and then 8.2 miles south on west side of
sand road, NE 3NW3~ sec. 33, T. 35 S., R. 31 E.
293 11.3 miles east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto City
on State Highway 700, then 0.7 mile southeast on
sand road, then 2. miles south on road, and then 0.4
miles east on north side of road, SW jSW sec. 28,
T. 35 S., R. 31 E.
295 0.6 mile south from State Highway 621 at Lake Placid
on State Highway 25, then 0.5 mile east on clay road,
and then 0.2 mile north on west side of road, NWX
NWY sec. 5, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
299 0.8 mile south from State Highway 621 at Lake Placid
on State Highway 25 at the southwest corner of junc-
tion with paved road, NW3SE& sec. 6, T. 37 S.,
R. 30 E.


Owner


J. R. Hendry. .....



J. J. Hendry.......



O. Reynolds.......


Lykes Bros.........



Lykes Bros.........



A. Boney..........



do..............




G. L. Pendarvis....



G. Smoak.........


Depth
(ft.)


137



65


580


150



35



214


Diam- Casing Probable
eter depth geologic
(in.) (ft.) source


3 90 Hawthorn.......



2 35 Tamiami........


1% I.


13.



2



3




2



4


Suwannee (?)....


Hawthorn .......



Pleistocene......



Hawthorn.......



Pleistocene. .....




Pleistocene (?)...


Use I


Remarks


-i
D Water level +15 ft., July
18, 1950. See table 9.


Water level +16 ft., July
19, 1950. See table 9.


Water level + 16.5 ft., April
11, 1951. Reported flow
300 gpm.





Sand-point well.







Sand-point well.


r



r1






Cf
0
0^
0-



N^


____ __


........ Hawthorn (?)...







Table II.


- Continued


Well Location Owner Depth Diam- Casing Probable Use2 Remarks
No. (ft.) eter depth geologic
(in.) (ft.) source


305



312



320


325



327


329


330


338


334


337


0.5 mile north from junction of State Highways 17 and R. H. Lawhon.....
64 near Lake Verona in Avon Park, then 0.3 mile
east on the north side of road, SW3~SE3~ sec. 14,
T. 88 S., R. 28 E.
1.6 miles south from State Highway 621 at Lake Placid L. L. Henderson....
on State Highway 25, then 1 mile west on unim-
proved road, then 0.3 mile north on east side of road,
NW3 SW3 sec. 7, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
3.5 miles west from State Highway 25 on State High- G. McSwain.......
way 70, then 2.1 miles north on west side of clay and
sand road, NWNW s sec. 25, T. 37 S., R. 29 E.
3.5 miles west from State Highway 25 on State High- J. C. Rails.........
way 70, then 1.5 miles north on clay and sand road,
and then 0.2 mile east on private road to well, NWY
SW3 sec. 25, T. 39 S., R. 29 E.
3.4 miles north from State Highway 70 on State High- E. W. Kelsey......
way 25, then 0.2 mile west on south side of road,
SES4SW3~ sec. 17, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
1.6 miles north from State Highway 70 on west side of E. L. Taylor.......
State Highway 25, SWNW3 sec. 28, T. 37 S.,
R. 80 E.
2.8 miles west from State Highway 25 on the north side A. J. Reynolds....
of State Highway 70, SE jSWY sec. 35, T. 37 S.,
R. 80 E.
7.5 miles west from State Highway 25 on State High- T. J. Durrance..
way 70, then about 0.1 mile south of road, NW 3
NE Y sec. 3, T. 38 S., R. 31 E.
9.1 miles west from State Highway 25 on State High- G. H. Tucker.....
way 70, then 0.1 mile north on east side of private
road, SW~SW see. 36, T. 37 S., R. 31 E.
19.0 miles east from State Highway 25 on State High- W. F. Underhill....
way 70, then 4.3 miles north and then 1.7 miles east
on sand road, SE YSE 3 sec. 33, T. 36 S., R. 33 E.


12-10


1 j .


1 i .


1,230



10



18


65



80


21


49


100


88


45


345





















45


Lake City.......



.. Pleistocene (?)...



. Pleistocene......


SHawthorn (?)....



. Hawthorn.......


. Pleistocene (?)...


Hawthorn (?)....


. Tamiami........


S do............


. Pleistocene. .....


I



D



None


D



D


D


D


D


D


D


Water level --67.5 ft., Aug.
15, 1950. Reported yield
1,500 gpm. See log.
F.G.S. well W2398.
Sand-point well.



do.


do.



Screened well.


Sand-point well.


Flowing well. See table 9.


See table 9.


do.


3


2 .


4


3 ..





2 .


tli



0
CIj
114


P-1
z






02
a
0n
I-


-----


I









Table 11. Continued


Depth Diam- Casing
(ft.j eter depth
(in.) ft.)


19.0 miles east from State Highway 25 on State High- L. L. Williams ....
way 70, then 9.0 miles north, then 2.5 miles north-:
west and then 0.2 mile north on sand road, NWW3


342



343



344



345



351


357



358


362



370



376


SE 3 sec. 2, T. 36 S., R. 32 E.
19.0 miles east from State Highway 25 on State High- J.
way 70, then 9.0 miles north, then 2.9 miles north-1
west, and then 0.1 mile north to fish camp, center of
west half, sec. 2, T. 36 S., R. 32 E.
19.0 miles east from State Highway 25 on State High- R.
way 70, then 9.0 miles north and 4.1 miles north-
west, and then 0.1 mile north to fish camp, SW Y,
SE Y see. 34, T. 35 S., R. 32 E.
19.0 miles east from State Highway 25 on State High- S.
way 70, then 9.0 miles north and then 7.3 miles north-
west on north side of road, NE JSE X sec. 30, T.
35 S., R. 32 E.
29 miles south from State Highway 70 on State High- J. (
way 17, then 0.1 miles west on clay road, SWY
SW3 sec. 17, T. 38 S., R. 30 E.
10.2 miles south from State Highway 70 on State High- S. ]
way 17, then 2.4 miles west and northwest, and then
0.2 mile northeast, NE34NW% sec. 3, T. 39 S.,
R. 29 E.
2.6 miles south from State Highway 70 on State High- Seb
way 17, then 0.2 mile east of highway in grove, cen-
ter sec. 17, T. 38 S., R. 30 E.
1.3 miles north from State Highway 731 on State High- N.
way 17, then 2.6 miles northwest, then 2.1 miles west,
then 0.2 mile south, NE3NW4 sec. 5, T. 39 S.,
R. 29 E.
3.8 miles west from State Highway 25 on State High- N.
way 731, then 0.6 mile north and then 0.2 mile east
on north side of road, NE3%SW 4 sec. 14, T. 39 S.,
R. 29E.
3.5 miles west from State Highway 25 on State High- B.
way 731, then 0.6 mile south on west side of road,
SE 3SW j see. 23, T. 39 S., R. 29 E.


171


Deadwyler ......



Durrance .......



McClelland......



C. Carlton......


Miller ..........



)ring Packing Co.


E. Browning....



B. Jackson......



Hope...........


1 ..... .Hawthorn.......


2



2



lc..






1%1



12-10


44



155










11



517


Tamiami........



Hawthorn .......



Pleistocene .....



Pleistocene (?)...


Hawthorn .......



Lake City .......


1%1 ........ Hawthorn (?) ....


252



43



34


30



1,550


18



35



20


0




0
t!j

0
0
0
0
tI.
i


C-
C^
eC


See table 9.







See table 9.


do. Well caves.



See table 9; see log. F.G.S.
well W2399.

Sand-point well.



do.



Water level +1.5 ft., Oct.
4, 1950. See table 9.


Wel
No.


Location


Owner


Probable
geologic
source


Use


Remarks


Pleistocene (?)...



Hawthorn .......







Table 11. Continued


Well Location Owner Depth Diam- Casing Probable UseZ Remarks
No. (ft.) eter depth geologic
(in.) (ft.) source


879


384



387


389


390

391



392



393


394


396



899


2.0 miles west from State Highway 25 on State High-
way 781, north side, at garage, SE4NE3 sec. 24, T. 39
S., R. 29 E.
1.3 miles west from State Highway 25 on State High-
way 731, then 0.5 mile south, and then 0.7 mile west
on south side of road, NW3NE O see. 25, T. 39 S.,
R. 29 E.
.O mile north from Highlands-Glades County line on
State Highway 25, then 0.1 mile east on private road,
NW3SEY sec. 32, T. 39 S., R. 30 E.
1.0 miles north from Highlands-Glades County line on
west side of State Highway 25, NE NEY see. 17,
T. 39 S., R. 30 E.
Southwest corner of intersection of State Highways 25
and 70, NW3~NW3j sec. 4, T. 38 S., R. 30 E.
300 feet south of State Highways 64 and 17 in Avon'
Park between Seaboard Air Line and Atlantic Coast
Line railroad tracks, NWYSE3 sec. 22, T. 33 S.,
R. 28 E.
0.6 mile south from State Highway 64 at Avon Park on
State Highways 17 and 27, then 0.8 mile south anc
then 0.1 mile east to power plant, SE 3SSW sec. 26,
T. 33 S., R. 28 E.
14.5 miles west from State Highway 25 on north side of
State Highway 70, SWjSW sec. 31, T. 37 S.,
R. 28 E.
0.8 mile north from State Highway 700 on State High- ]
way 17, then 300 feet south on west side of clay road,
SWENE X sec. 15, T. 35 S., R. 29 E.


3.8 miles west from State Highway 25 on State High- C. Arnold.........
way 781, then 1.1 miles north on State Highway 17,
and then 3.0 miles west and 0.4 mile south on clay
road, NE4NWW see. 17, T. 39 S., R. 29 E.
10.9 miles east from State Highway 25 at DeSoto CitylR. C. Carlton......
on State Highway 700, then 2.5 miles south on sand
road, 50 feet west of post office at Lorida, NWY
NE sec. 29, T. 35 S.. R. 31 E.


125+1


W. J. Espenlaub


N. B. Jackson......



J. H. Peoples ......


R. J. Hargrove.....


H. R. Blair........

Town of Avon Park



Florida Power Corp.



C. C. Carlton......


DeSoto City.......


23+1


1,106


125


1:I ...


23



25


30


96

1,040



1,153



80


88


6


350



260


68


23



294


Hawthorn


Hawthorn (?)....



Pleistocene (?)...


do ...........


Hawthorn (?)....

Avon Park......



Lake City,
Avon Park


Hawthorn.......


do.......... .


Hawthorn (?)....



Lake City.......


Well flows
season


during rainy


Well flows after local rains.



Sand-point well.


do.


Screened well.

See table 9. Well listed in
W.S.P. 596-G.






See table 9.


20 feet of screen. See table 9.


Flows 7 gpm.



Water level + 10.5 ft., Mar.
11, 1951. See log. F.G.S.
well W2401.


4

10



15



13


4


0
0


z




0

z

z
0


--










Table 11. Continued


Location


Owner


400 3.9 miles south from State Highway 70 on State High- C. Brown..........
way 25, then 0.4 mile west on day road, and then
about 0.2 mile north of road, NEY SEX sec. 20,
T. 38 S., R. 30 E.
401 0.8 mile west from State Highway 17 on State High-! Minute Maid Corp.
way 64, then 1.8 miles north on clay road, and then
0.3 mile west on south side of sand road, SW XSW .
sec. 12, T. 33 S., R. 28 E.
403 3.5 mile north from State Highway 64 on west side of Town of Avon Park
Seaboard Air Line and Atlantic Coast Line railroad
tracks in Avon Park, then 0.2 mile west on south side
of day road, NEY4NW3 sec. 22, T. 33 S, R. 28 E.


T. O. Kuhl........



N. Gumenick......




T. U. Jackson......



B. F. Conner. .....



I. C. Hart.........




A. M. Huff........


Depth Diam-
(ft.) eter
(in.)


1,439 12-10

J


1,301


1,301



120



590




200



1,400



20




200


16-12


10



2



4-3




2



14








10


Casing
depth
(ft.)


Probable
geologic
source


700 do............



455 Lake City.......



301 do............


464


110


Hawthorn.......



Ocala......... .




Hawthorn ......



Lake City.......



aIawthorn .......




do............


Use


Remarks


I-
I Water level -115 ft., Oct.
15, 1951. See log. F.G.S.
well W2848.

I Water level --87 ft., Feb.
27, 1951.Yield 2,565 gpm.
See log. F.GS. well
W2378.
P Water level -74 ft., Apr.
11, 1951. Yield 636 gpm.
See log. F.G.S. well
W2843.
T See log. F.G.S. well W2849.


Water level
11, 1951.


-55 ft., June


See log. F.G.S. well W2845.



Water level -55 ft, June
25, 1951.Yield 1,200 gpm.
See log. F.G.S. well
W2859.
Water level +3 ft., July 13,
195L Well is large rec-
tangular ditch.


Gravel-packed well with 90
ft. of slotted pipe. Est.
yield 1,200 gpm.


Well
No.


406




407



408



409




411


0


O




Si
0
0




C',


___ ___ ___ __ __ __


405


3.8 mile south from traffic circle in Sebring on State
Highway 25, then 1.3 miles east of State Highway
17, and then 0.8 mile south on east side of roaa,
NW XSW % see. 34, T. 34 S., R. 29 E-
1.5 miles north from State Highway 64 in Avon Park
on otate Highway 25, then 3.0 miles east on clay road,
then 0.5 mite north on clay road, then 0.9 mile north-
east on clay road, and then about 0.2 mile north of
road, NW 3NE Y see. 7, T. 33 S, R. 29 E.
.)8 mile west on road from Atlantic Coast Line railroad
station in Lake Placid, and 70 feet north of road,
SWY4SWY see. 36, T. 36 S., R. 29 E.

1.3 miles south from Seaboard Air Line Railroad cross-
ing near Lakemont on State Highway 17, and then
0.4 mile west on north side of cay road, SE -NW 3
see. 18, T. 34 S, R. 29 E.
4.1 miles south from State Highway 634 at the entrance
of Highlands Hammock State Park on sand road,
then LO mile west on sand road, and then 0.4 mile
south on winding sand trail, NW4NW3W sec. 28,
T. 35 S., R. 28 E.
3.9 miles south from State Highway 70 on State High-,
way 25, then 0.5 mile west on clay road, and then 0.1
mile south of road, S MSE 3 sec. 20, T. 38 S., R. 30 E.






Table I. Continued


Well Location Owner Depth Diam- Casing Probable Use' Remarks
No. (ft.) eter depth geologic
(in.) (ft.) source


414


415



416


417



421



422


423


424


425


426

427


1.1 miles north from Seaboard Air Line Railroad cross-
ing near Lakemont on the west side of State High
way 17 in a drive-in-theatre, NW% NEY see. 6, T.
34 S., R. 29 E.
2.3 miles north from Seaboard Air Line Railroad cross-
ing near Lakemont on State Highway 17, and then
west 0.7 mile on south side of clay road, SE MNE Y
see. 31, T. 33 S., R. 29 E.
0.9 mile north from State Highway 621 on west side of
State Highway 25, NEasNW% see. 31, T. 36 S.,
R.30 E.
2.1 miles south from State Highway 70 on State High-
way 25, then 0.3 mile west on clay road, and i hen 1.3
miles north on east side of day road, NWNSW34
sec. 4, T. 38 S., R. 30 E.
1.3 miles north from the Seaboard Air Line Railroad
crossing near Lakemont on State Highway 17, then
0.7 mile east on clay road, and then 0.2 mile north of
road, SEYSSWY sec. 32, T. 33 S., R. 29 E.
0.3 mile north from State Highway 70 on State High-
way 25, then 0.3 mile east on north side of private
road, NWYSEY sec. 33, T. 37 S., R. 30 E.
4.0 miles north from Highlands-Glades County line on
State Highway 25, northwest corner sec. 16, T. 39 S.,
R. 30 E.
2.2 miles east from State Highway 25 on north side of
State Highway 70, SE 3SW sec. 35, T. 37 S.,
R. 30 E.
4.8 miles east from State Highway 25 on State High-
way 70, then 0.1 mile north of road, SW3SWY sec.
31, T. 37 S, R. 31 E.
1 mile east from Lake Istokpoga on south side of Istok-
poga Canal, NWk4NW3 sec. 3, T. 36 S., R. 31 E.
300 feet west of bridge over the Kissimmee River on
north side of State Highway 700, NWY NW j sec.
8, T. 36 S., R. 33 E.


Floyd Theaters,
Inc.


B. H. Griffin.....



M. A. Smoak....


G. McSwain...



J. M. Stiles......



J. K. Roosevelt..


H. B. Snivley....


U. S. Geological
Survey

U. S. Geological
Survey

do..............

do ..............


110



397



150


80



60


do. ...........



Lake City......



Hawthorn.......


120



1,140



250


130



180



100


82


21


125


65

101


4



12-10



10


8



12-10



2


4


6


4


4

4


I



I



F


D


0


T


T

T


Gravel-packed well with 10
ft. of screen. See log.
F.G.S. well W2846.

Water level -35.5 ft., Nov.
21, 1951. Est. yield
1,400 gpm.

Gravel-packed well with
100 ft. of slotted pipe.
Yield 1,320 gpm.
Gravel-packed well with 50
ft. of slotted pipe.


Water level -22 ft., Dec.
11, 1951. Gravel-packed
well with 120 ft. of slotted
pipe. Est. yield 1,800 gpm.
See log. F.G.S. well W2847.


8 ft. of screen. Yield 60
gpm. See log. F.G.S. well
W2840.


See log.


do.

do.


do.. .. .......


. do.... .. ...


74 do............


18 Pleistocene (?)...


65 .......


54 ................

94 .........


M
O
LTjf



0

Z
z



1-

C12

z
0


I


- ---


i













Well Location
No.


Table 11. -- Continued


Owner Depth Diam- Casing
(ft.) eter depth
(in.) (ft.)


Probable UseL
geologic
source


In Highlands Hammock State Park, NWY NW sec. Florida Park Service
5, T. 35 S., R. 28 E.
3.2 miles east from State Highway 25 on the north side U. S. Geological
of State Highway 70, SE 3SW Y sec. 36, T. 37 S., Survey
R. 30 E.
2.7 miles east from State Highway 25 on the south side do..............
of State Highway 70, NE 3%NE see. 2, T. 38 S.,
R.30 E.
2.2 miles east from State Highway 25 on the north side do...............
of State Highway 70, SE 3SW sec. 35, T. 37 S.,
R. 30 E.
1.4 miles east from State Highway 25 on south side of U. S. Geological
State Highway 70, NW 3NE sec. 3, T. 38 S., R. Survey
6 E.
4.2 miles west from State Highway 25 on south side of do..............
State Highway 70, NW3YNWY sec. 2, T. 38 S.,
R. 29E.
6.5 miles west from State Highway 25 on south side of do..............
State Highway 70, NE NE sec. 5, T. 38 S.,
R. 29 E.
10.1 miles south from State Highway 70 on State High- do..............
way 25, then 3.7 miles west on south side of State
Highway 17, SE XNW Y sec. 23, T. 39 S., R. 29 E.


428

433


434


435


436


437


438


439


Remarks


. ..... T do.

T do.


do.


48 2


130


60


220 .. . .


140 ...


160


60


210


do.


See log.


0



0

0
O
0




n
I




C!
ti
cS


do.


do.


___


I







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


MEASURED GEOLOGIC SECTIONS
The Hawthorn formation and formations of Pleistocene age are
exposed in many of the clay pits, road cuts, and drainage ditches
in Highlands County. Some of the best exposures are listed below;
all the material described is nonfossiliferous.
Stations 401 and 426. Road-metal pit in the NE/4NE/4 sec. 11,
T. 33 S., R. 28 E., 3 miles north of Avon Park. The geologic section
exposed in this pit shows the unconformable contact between the
Hawthorn formation and formations of Pleistocene age and also gives
some indication of the unevenness of the pre-Pleistocene land surface.
(See figure 11.)
Station 407.--Abandoned road-metal pit in the SW4SE4 sec.
16, T. 35 S., R. 29 E., 1 mile west of DeSoto City. Surface altitude
110 feet.


SECTION


THICKNESS
(FEET)


Pleistocene deposits:
2b. Sand, fine to medium, carbonaceous, tan-gray............................ 0.5
2a. Sand, medium to coarse, slightly clayey, light-gray-orange
to orange .......................................................................... 22.0
Hawthorn formation:
lb. Clay, sandy (medium to very coarse), red-orange; nodules
of yellow to white sandy clay. Hardens on exposure,
stands in vertical cuts ..................... ...................................... 6.0
la. Sand, medium to very coarse, clayey, tan-gray to orange............ 1.5
Station 410. Stream bank and auger hole in the northwest cor-
ner, SE/4NW/4 sec. 3, T. 39 S., R. 29 E., 4 miles northwest of Venus.
Surface altitude 90*5 feet.
SECTION THICKNESS
(FEET)


Pleistocene deposits:
2b. Sand, fine to medium, quartz, carbonaceous, light-gray
to brown. Grades into bed below ............................................
2a. Sand, quartz, fine to medium, with some coarse sand
at bottom of bed, tan................................................
Hawthorn (?) formation:
Ic. Clay, sandy, medium to coarse, plastic, tan, stained with
lim onite .............................................................................
lb. Same as bed Ic but clay is tan to turquoise ..............................
la. Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, with some tan clay ................
Station 415.-- Road cut in the NE/4SE/4 sec. 12, T.
R. 29 E., 6 miles southeast of Sebring. Surface altitude 115Y5


3.0
2.0

2.0
1.0
0.5
35 S.,
feet.


SECTION
Pleistocene deposits:
lb. Sand, quartz, fine to coarse (average medium), rounded,
frosted, light-yellow-orange ....................................................
la. Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, (average coarse),
rounded, partially frosted, gray-orange, with a.large
amount of heavy minerals...............................................


THICKNESS
(FEET)

0.5


30.0







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Bed la is typical of the material comprising the many coastal bars
in the eastern and southern parts of the Highlands Ridge.

Station 408. Road-metal pit in the center of the NE,4 sec. 32,
T. 37 S., R. 30 E., 6 miles south of the town of Lake Placid. Surface
altitude 165'5 feet.

SECTION THICKNESS
(FEET)
Pleistocene deposits:
2. Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, cream-orange ........................ 4.0
Hawthorn formation:
1. Clay, sandy (medium to very coarse), brick-red to brown;
nodules of white sandy kaolinite and ironstones.


Stands in vertical cuts .......................................................


5.0


S 0. 15 MI. P- N
Station 401 Station 426
Lond surface is /65 feel obove meon soo leve/r
"' ... 'o. .0 : :. .. : :...

0 40'., 7,77,7777::.- -
:10 O* .... -

-- --0- --- 0

I5 0 a l0 -- o 0
I0 0- 0
g0 o 0- -" -0- o
-6-_ ". _.... _
0 00


0-0- o o-o-
0-01
20 oo-- o-- a O-


EXPLANATION


Sand, quartz, light gray-orange, medium to coarse. This
bed contains numerous rounded ironstones at station 401
with the stones increasing in number toward base of bed.
(Pleistocene) .


Sand, quartz, light gray to orange, medium to coarse with
layers of red-brown to yellow-brown clayey sand becom-
ing massive toward bottom of bed. Upper part of bed
shows some stratification on weathered surfaces.
(Pleistocene).


Sand, quartz, white, coarse. This bed forms a thin layer
between beds 1 and 3. Spring line. (Pleistocene).




Clay, sandy, massive, orange to red-orange, with nodules
of ironstone and nodules and pipes of yellow-brown
sandy clay. Sand fine to coarse, average coarse.
Bed is capped locally with hard limonitic sandstone.
Stands in vertical cuts. (Hawthorn formation).


FIGURE 11. Idealized geologic section between stations 401 and 426.


78


..4








I ," ...








" '. "*.
e-o.'"







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 79

Station 409. Drainage ditch in the center of section 11, T. 36 S.,
R. 28 E., about 8 miles southwest of DeSoto City. Surface altitude
70 10 feet.
SECTION THICKNESS
(FEET)
Pleistocene deposits:
2. Sand, quartz, carbonaceous, medium to fine, gray .................. 1.5
Hawthorn (?) formation:
1. Marl, sandy, light-gray to tan-gray, hardens to limestone
on exposure .............................................................................. 1.5


WELL LOGS

Well 22
(F. G. S. no. 894)
At Sebring near power plant. Surface altitude 120 feet.

MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
N o sam ple ...................................................................... 0- 130
Hawthorn formations:
Quartz sand ................................................................ 130- 180
Sand, fine to granule-size, quartz, brown and
black phosphorite .......................................................... 180- 190
Sand, sandy limestone, shell fragments, and
brown phosphorite .......................................................... 190- 305
Limestone, phosphatic, coarsely sandy .................................. 305- 315
As above, and sand .............................................................. 315- 345
Limestone, impure, 50 percent black phosphorite ................ 345- 355
As above, and sand ................................................................ 355- 375
Limestone, impure, black phosphorite .................................. 375- 395
Dolomite, "sugary", light-tan; "sugary"
phosphatic limestone .................................................... 395- 415
Limestone, sandy, phosphatic ................................................ 415- 435
Sand and phosphorite .......................................................... 435- 445
Sand, phosphorite, and limestone ........................................ 445- 515
Suwannee limestone:
Limestone, chalky, white to very light tan,
Rotalia mexicana .......................................................... 515- 585
Ocala limestone:
Limestone, cream-colored, very granular, Lepidocyclina
ocalana, Eponides jacksonensis, Gypsina globula,
Operculinoides sp ........................................................... 585-?
Avon Park limestone:
Limestone, chalky-white to light-tan, mostly aggregate
of calcite rhombs. Discorinopsis gunteri, Coskino-
lina floridana, at 1,000 feet Spirolina coryensis ........ ?-1,040
Lake City limestone at 1,110 feet:
As above, and 10 percent brown "sugary" dolomite
with Fabularia vaughani at 1,110 feet ........................ 1,040-1,200
Dolomite, dark-tan, dense .................................................. 1,200-1,240
Dolomite, dark-tan, and nearly white limestone with
Dictyoconus cookei ........................................................ 1,240-1,260
No sample .......................................................................... 1,260-1,278






80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Well 5

(F. G. S. no. 595)
Near DeSoto City, 400 feet west of the southeast corner of sec. 7, T. 35 S., R. 30 E.

Surface altitude, 60.5 feet.

MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE

Undifferentiated Pleistocene deposits:
Sand, quartz, white to brown, very fine to coarse (aver-
age fine), rounded to angular, frosted .......................... 0- 20
Sand, quartz, brown, very fine to coarse, average med-
ium, rounded to angular, frosted; some organic
m material ............................................................................ 20- 35
As above, plus about 40 percent silty or clayey organic
m material ............................................................................ 35- 37
Sand, quartz, black, carbonaceous, containing thin
pieces of laminated peat ................................................ 37- 42
Sand, quartz, gray-brown, silty ............................................ 42- 45
As above, plus some gray clay ................................................ 45- 50
Sand, quartz, gray-white, with only a small amount of
silt, sand grains (average fine) ...................................... 50- 55
As above, very fine to coarse (average medium) .................. 55- 60
As above, plus a few medium, sand-size phosphorite
grains ........................................................................... 60- 70
Sand, quartz, tan-gray (average medium) .......................... 70- 75
Sand, quartz, gray-white, very fine to medium (average fine) 75- 90
As above, but very fine to coarse (average medium) ............ 90- 94
As above, plus some peat and carbonaceous sandstone ........ 94- 100
As above, but sand is cream white, very fine to coarse
(average medium ) ........................................................ 100- 105

Tamiami formation:
Shell marl, green-gray, very finely sandy and silty.
Shells compose 20-30 percent of sample, mainly
pelecypod fragments ...................................................... 105- 113
As above, plus some muscovite and numerous small
grains of brown to black phosphorite. Sparse foram
fauna, principally Rotalia beccarii var.; also a few
unidentified ostracods and fish bones. Mollusk
fragments compose about 5-10 percent of sample .......... 113- 118
As above, but with more muscovite and phosphorite,
and fewer shell fragments. Eponides cf. mansfieldi,
Elphidium incertum? and other forams ...................... 118- 143
Shell marl, slightly silty and clayey, sandy, fine to coarse
(average medium) ........................................................ 143- 148

Hawthorn(?) formation:
Sand, quartz, white, very fine to coarse, (average med-
ium), with phosphorite grains, some as large as 9
mm in diameter. Few shell fragments, very sparse
foram fauna ...................................................................... 148- 150
As above, but phosphorite grains smaller in size .................... 150- 176







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 79

Station 409. Drainage ditch in the center of section 11, T. 36 S.,
R. 28 E., about 8 miles southwest of DeSoto City. Surface altitude
70 10 feet.
SECTION THICKNESS
(FEET)
Pleistocene deposits:
2. Sand, quartz, carbonaceous, medium to fine, gray .................. 1.5
Hawthorn (?) formation:
1. Marl, sandy, light-gray to tan-gray, hardens to limestone
on exposure .............................................................................. 1.5


WELL LOGS

Well 22
(F. G. S. no. 894)
At Sebring near power plant. Surface altitude 120 feet.

MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
N o sam ple ...................................................................... 0- 130
Hawthorn formations:
Quartz sand ................................................................ 130- 180
Sand, fine to granule-size, quartz, brown and
black phosphorite .......................................................... 180- 190
Sand, sandy limestone, shell fragments, and
brown phosphorite .......................................................... 190- 305
Limestone, phosphatic, coarsely sandy .................................. 305- 315
As above, and sand .............................................................. 315- 345
Limestone, impure, 50 percent black phosphorite ................ 345- 355
As above, and sand ................................................................ 355- 375
Limestone, impure, black phosphorite .................................. 375- 395
Dolomite, "sugary", light-tan; "sugary"
phosphatic limestone .................................................... 395- 415
Limestone, sandy, phosphatic ................................................ 415- 435
Sand and phosphorite .......................................................... 435- 445
Sand, phosphorite, and limestone ........................................ 445- 515
Suwannee limestone:
Limestone, chalky, white to very light tan,
Rotalia mexicana .......................................................... 515- 585
Ocala limestone:
Limestone, cream-colored, very granular, Lepidocyclina
ocalana, Eponides jacksonensis, Gypsina globula,
Operculinoides sp ........................................................... 585-?
Avon Park limestone:
Limestone, chalky-white to light-tan, mostly aggregate
of calcite rhombs. Discorinopsis gunteri, Coskino-
lina floridana, at 1,000 feet Spirolina coryensis ........ ?-1,040
Lake City limestone at 1,110 feet:
As above, and 10 percent brown "sugary" dolomite
with Fabularia vaughani at 1,110 feet ........................ 1,040-1,200
Dolomite, dark-tan, dense .................................................. 1,200-1,240
Dolomite, dark-tan, and nearly white limestone with
Dictyoconus cookei ........................................................ 1,240-1,260
No sample .......................................................................... 1,260-1,278







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 81

Well 9

In the NEYNWY4 sec. 7, T. 33 S., R. 31 E., Highlands County.
Surface altitude 131 feet.
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
Undifferentiated Pleistocene deposits:
Sand, quartz, white, fine to medium.................................... 0- 4
Sand, quartz, brown to gray-white, fine to medium
(average fine) ........................................... .............. 4- 18
Sand, quartz, grayish-white, fine to medium (average
m edium ) .......................................................................... 18- 24
Sand, quartz, dirty gray-white, fine to medium .................... 24- 26


Well 10

In the NEY4SE 4 sec. 2, T. 35 S., R. 29 E., Highlands County.
Surface altitude 117.8 feet.
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
Pleistocene deposits and Hawthorn(?)
formation undifferentiated:
Sand, quartz, brown, fine to medium (average medium) .... 0- 35
Sand, quartz, tan, fine to medium (average medium) ........ 35- 40.5
Sand, quartz, gray-white, tan, fine to medium (average
m edium ) .................................................................... 40.5- 45

Well 11

In the NW/4SWV4 sec. 14, T. 35 S., R. 31 E., Highlands County.
Surface altitude 51.2 feet.
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
Undifferentiated Pleistocene deposits:
Sand, quartz, gray-brown, fine to medium (average
m edium ) .................................................................... 0- 12
Sand, quartz, grayish-white, fine to medium (average
m edium ) ..................................................................... 12- 16
Clay, gray, sticky, and very fine quartz sand ......................... 16

Well 12

In the NE,4SW/4 sec. 7, T. 36 S., R. 33 E., Highlands County.
Surface altitude 45.6 feet.
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
Undifferentiated Pleistocene deposits:
Sand, quartz, grayish-white, fine to medium (average
fine) ..................................... ........................................ 0- 16
Sand, quartz, grayish-brown, fine to medium ...................... 16- 18
Sand, quartz, light-tan, fine to medium .............................. 18- 21







82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Well 13
In the NEV4NEV4 sec. 26, T. 37 S., R. 33 E., Highlands County.
Surface altitude 29.2 feet.
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
Undifferentiated Pleistocene deposits:
Sand, quartz, white, fine to medium (average fine) ............ 0- 15
Sand, quartz, brown, fine to medium .................................. 15- 20

Well 14
In the NENW sec. 4, T. 38 S., R. 30 E., Highlands County.
Surface altitude 136 feet.
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
Pleistocene deposits and Hawthorn(?)
formation undifferentiated:
Sand, quartz, grayish-white, fine to medium ...................... 0- 2
Sand, quartz, brown, fine to medium (average medium)...... 2- 19
Sand, quartz, tan, fine to medium (average medium)........ 19- 30
Sand, quartz, light-tan, grayish-white, fine to medium
(average medium ) ..................................................... 30- 35

Well 15
In the SW4SEY4 sec. 32, T. 39 S., R. 30 E., Highlands County.
Surface altitude 58.5 feet.
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
Pleistocene deposits and Hawthorn(?)
formation undifferentiated:
Sand, quartz, carbonaceous, black ...................................... 0- 0.3
Sand, quartz, brown, grayish-white, fine to medium
(average medium) ..................................................... 0.3- 14
Sand, quartz, brown, fine to coarse (average medium-
coarse) ............................................................................ 14- 17
Sand, quartz, tan, fine to coarse (average medium to
coarse) ............................................................................ 17- 20
Sand, quartz, grayish-white, fine to medium (average
m edium ) .......................................................................... 20- 23

Well 183
(F.G.S. no. 2397)
Three miles southeast of Avon Park in the NESE/ sec. 30,
T. 33 S., R. 29 E. Surface altitude 105 feet.
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
N o sam ples ...................................................................... 0- 177
Hawthorn formation:
Sand, quartz, micaceous, white, fine to granule-size,
rounded to angular, and some white clay .................... 177- 188
Sand, quartz, micaceous, light-yellow to tan-gray, fine
to small pebbles, with pebbles of phosphorite and
white clay nodules ........................................................ 188- 199
As above, plus some blue-green clay and gastropods............ 199- 222
Sand, quartz, light-cream, fine to pebble-size, with
phosphorite pebbles up to 6 mm in diameter................ 222- 242







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15


MATERIAL


As above, plus some very sandy white limestone. Phos-
phorite makes up about 30 percent of this sample.
Mollusk fragments....................................................
Clay, tan-gray, sandy, phosphatic, with some limestone
as above .................................................................
Sand, quartz, gray, medium to coarse, with some dense
crystalline phosphatic limestone. Shark's teeth and
echinoid fragments .................................... ..............
Limestone, cream, dense, finely crystalline, with phos-
phorite and some very coarse quartz sand..................
Limestone, clayey, dark-gray, dense, hard, with some
limestone, as above, and phosphorite pebbles ..............
Limestone, quartz sand, phosphorite pebbles, and clay;
limestone, white to dark-gray, dense, hard to soft,
finely crystalline, sandy, phosphatic; quartz sand,
clear to gray, fine to very coarse; phosphorite
pebbles up to 5 mm in diameter; clay, dark-green.
Echinoid spines, shark's teeth, mollusk fragments,
ostracods and Foraminifera ...................................
Suwannee limestone:
Limestone, slightly sandy, cream, soft, porous, crystal-
line; calcite rhombs and some phosphorite. Echi-
noid spines, Foraminifera, Rotalia mexicana and
others ........................................................................
Limestone, slightly sandy, cream, soft, chalky, a few
phosphorite pebbles and pieces of dark dense lime-
stone. Numerous Foraminifera, Rotalia mexicana,
Elphidium leonensis and others ......................................
Ocala limestone:
Limestone, large foraminiferal coquina, cream, soft,
porous; with some material as above. Lepidocyclina
ocalana, Operculinoides ocalanus, and others ................
No samples ................................................ ........................
Moodys Branch (?) formation:
Limestone, cream, hard, calcitic. Few large foraminifera ......
Limestone, large foraminiferal coquina, cream, hard,
porous, some soft chalky limestone ...............................
Limestone, large foraminiferal coquina, light-gray. Cam-
erinidae num erous ............................................................
No samples ................................................ ........................
Avon Park limestone:
Limestone, light-tan-gray, hard, crystalline, with some
white chalky limestone. Gastropods, Foraminifera
and echinoids; Coskinolina floridana, Peronella dalli ....
Limestone, cream, hard, porous. Dictyoconus cookei ............
As above, plus some white dense crystalline limestone.
Fossiliferous ..............................................................
Limestone, cream to tan, hard, porous. Fossiliferous ............
As above, plus Spirolina coryensis and numerous miliolids....
Dolomite, tan to light-brown, dense, waxy, crystalline,
with some limestone, as above ..........................................
As above, plus some dense dark limestone ..............................
As above, plus some soft white limestone ................................
Lake City limestone:
As above, plus Dictyoconus americanus .................................
Dolomite, light-brown, finely crystalline, waxy; with
some hard white porous limestone. Fossiliferous ...........
Sand, dolomite, with some chalky, white porous limestone ....


83


DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE


242- 254

254- 310


310- 321

321- 360

360- 375





375- 435




435- 450



450- 495



495- 615
615- 635

635- 665

665- 720

720- 735
735- 765



765- 825
825- 840

840- 975
975-1,000
1,000-1,050

1,050-1,057
1,057-1,066
1,066-1,085

1,085-1,100

1,100-1,155
1,155-1,212






84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Water-level measurements made during drilling of well. Well cased to 304 feet.
Date Depth of hole Formation Water level, feet
1950 (feet) penetrated below land surface
May 31 330 Hawthorn 20.80
June 8 850 Avon Park 17.00
June 12 915 do. 16.00
fune 15 945 do. 15.20
June 21 1,066 do. 16.20
June 23 1,102 Lake City 16.20
iiiJu 29 1,192 do. 16.00
Well 211
(F. G. S. no. 1464)
Two miles south of DeSoto City in the NWSE/ sec. 27, T. 35 S., R. 29 E. Surface
altitude 135 feet. (Adapted from a log by Robert O. Vernon,
Florida Geological Survey)
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
Hawthorn formation:
Sand, quartz, medium to fine, poorly sorted, red ................ 20- 70
As above, but white ............................................................ 70- 100
Sand as above, and sandy cream to light-gray limestone
containing phosphorite .................................................. 100- 140
Sand, quartz, coarse to fine .................................................. 140- 165
As above, fine to medium ...................................................... 165- 185
Sand, quartz, fine to medium and sandy gray-green
fuller's earth clay ........................................... ......... 185- 200
As above, plus a sandy carbonaceous clay .......................... 200- 210
Sand, quartz, fine to medium; black carbonaceous clay;
cream sandy phosphatic limestone ................................ 210- 215
Sand, quartz, coarse to fine, and phosphorite ...................... 215- 240
Limestone, tan, finely crystalline, sandy, phosphatic,
many mollusk fragments ............................................... 240- 252
No sam ple .................. ............................................................... 252- 270
Sand, quartz, coarse to fine, and brown sandy waxy clay.... 270- 295
Sand, quartz, fine to medium, and phosphorite .................. 295- 325
Sand, quartz, coarse to medium, phosphorite, and finely
crystalline limestone ...................................................... 325- 335
As above, plus tan impure dense limestone .......................... 335- 340
As above, but increased phosphorite and tan limestone ........ 340- 345
Sand, quartz; dense argillaceous gray limestone; and
fissile gray clay ................................................................ 345- 350
No sam ple .................. ............................................................... 350- 368
Limestone, dense, finely crystalline, cream, containing
phosphorite and mollusk shell fragments ...................... 368- 375
As above, more phosphorite .................................................. 375- 400
Limestone as above and dense brownish-gray hard phos-
phatic limestone ....................................................... 400- 405
Limestone as above and cream finely crystalline dense
sandy phosphatic limestone .......................................... 405- 440
Limestone, dense, cream, finely crystalline; sand and
limestone as above .......................................................... 440- 451
Limestone, dark-gray, dense, hard, phosphatic .................... 451- 460
Limestone as above, mottled brown and made porous by
many mollusk and coral remains; much phosphorite
and sand .......................................................................... 460- 465
Clay, micaceous, dark-greenish-gray, and dark-gray
dense phosphatic limestone .......................................... 480- 500
Sand, quartz, fine to medium, with phosphorite and
rock above ....................................................................... 500- 505







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 1


MATERIAL


As above, plus light-green fissile fuller's earth clay ................
Sand as at 500-505 .......................................... ................
No sam ple ..........................................................................
Suwannee limestone:
Limestone, granular, cream, porous, soft, Rotalia mexi-
cana, Cytheridea blanpiedi(?) Starfish ossicles ..........
N o sam ple ...............................................................................
Limestone, porous, white to cream, soft. Fossils above;
crab claws ...............................................................
As above, plus quartz sand ......................................................
Limestone, porous, cream, soft, chalky ..................................
Ocala limestone:
Limestone as above. Lepidocyclina ocalana, Lepidocy-
clina fragilis ..................................................................
N o sam ple .......................................................................
Limestone as above, foraminiferal coquina. Operculina,
Camerina, Lepidocyclina..........................................
Coquina limestone, cream, soft, porous; composed of
Lepidocyclina, Bryozoa, echinoids and camerinids ......
Coquina limestone, cream, soft, porous, large foraminifers
Moody's Branch(?) formation:
Coquina limestone as above, the camerinids making up a
greater percentage of the total Foraminifera ................
Limestone, cream, soft, massive, porous, containing
many flat echinoids, crab claws, and large Foraminifera
Same as above, but containing many calcite clusters
and vugs, and more granular, with fewer large fos-
sils. Amphistegina pinarensis var .................................
Avon Park limestone:
Limestone, cream, granular, soft, massive, porous, fos-
sils as above, and a large rotalid foram ..........................
Limestone, cream, granular, soft, massive, porous, with
fossils from above. Coskinolina sp. large rotalid ...........
Limestone as above, many Coskinolina and associated
forams and also fossils caved from above ......................
Limestone, light-gray to brownish-gray, granular, soft,
massive, slightly porous. Spirolina coryensis,
Lituonella, Coskinolina and savings from above..........
Limestone, cream to light-gray, granular, moderately
hard, rather dense, massive, foraminiferal; com-
posed of a mass of forams set in a light-gray chalky
matrix. Coskinolina relatively abundant ........................
Limestone, light-gray, granular, soft, massive, foramini-
feral; fossils as above, but rare. Calcite rhombs ............
Limestone as above but harder, having more cement
and more fossils; species as above ..................................
Limestone as above and tan finely crystalline, soft mas-
sive porous dolomite; limestone and associated fos-
sils caved from above .................................. ...........
Limestone, cream to tan, granular, soft, massive, dense to
porous, with cavings from above ....................................
Limestone, cream to light-gray, granular, dense to por-
ous, hard but containing soft streaks, massive; made
up of forams in a light-gray chalky matrix, which
has been recrystallized in places ..................................
Limestone as above and light-gray porous soft chalky
limestone; many Coskinolina, Lituonella, Spirolina,
Textulariella, and other Gulf Hammock fauna ...........


5 85

DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE


505-
510-
515-


510
515
541


541- 565
565- 575


575-
590-
600-


590
600
610


610- 635
635- 640

640- 695

695- 745
745- 840


840- 889

889- 895


895- 900


900- 910

910- 920

920- 935


935- 980



980-1,005

1,005-1,025

1,025-1,065


1,065-1,085

1,085-1,105



1,105-1,125


1,125-1,145







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


MATERIAL


Limestone as above and tan dense brittle fine-grained
to granular, hard, fossiliferous limestone; the fossils
appear to be somewhat rounded by abrasion. Fabu-
laria sp. ................................... ............... .................
Top of Lake City limestone at 1,150:
Limestone, tan to light-brown, dense, with porous layers,
fine granular to crystalline; some pieces are waxy
and very dense and others are somewhat laminated
with carbonaceous plant remains, small amounts of
pyrite; fragments of limestone from above ....................
Limestone as above and fragments of cream dense soft
chalky limestone with harder limestone granules
embedded in the matrix. Dictyoconus americanus ........
Limestone, tan to light-brown, dense, hard and brittle
to soft and waxy, fine-grained to chalky. Dic-
tyoconus s p ...........................................................
Limestone as above and tan to light-gray dense fine-
grained to chalky massive limestone with much se-
condary calcite. Some particles seem to be argil-
laceous, to have laminated carbonaceous plant
remains, and to be waxy. Many Foraminifera.
Dictyoconus americanus ................................. ...........
Limestone, tan to cream, finely ground and possibly
granular, dense, very fine grained, hard, foramini-
feral. Dictyoconus americanus, Spirolina sp. ................
Limestone, cream, granular, soft, massive, slightly por-
ous, foraminiferal, with calcitic secondary growths.
A large percentage of the sample is composed of
whole and broken specimens of Dictyoconus and
Coskinolina ....................... .......................................
Limestone as above in larger fragments and fragments
of dark-brown finely crystalline soft dense dolo-
mite. Dictyoconus americanus ........................................
Limestone and dolomite, as at 1,325-1,365 feet, in fine
grains of about equal proportions ................................
Top (?) of the Oldsmar limestone at 1,375:
Sample predominantly brown finely crystalline dense
hard dolomite and limestone, as above. A fragment
that is questionably referred to Helicostegina gyra-
lis (?), at 1,375-1,385 feet, and an unidentifiable
Lepidocyclina, at 1,385-1,395 feet ................................
Predominantly dark-brown to black finely crystalline soft
slightly porous massive dolomite and limestone as
above .........................................................................
Dolomitic limestone, tan to light-brown, finely crystal-
line, soft, porous, and limestone as above. No
new fossils .................................................................


1,145-1,185




1,185-1,195


1,195-1,225


1,225-1,265




1,265-1,285


1,285-1,315



1,315-1,325


1,325-1,365

1,365-1,375




1,375-1,415


1,415-1,435


1,435-1,455


()One mile east


Well 251
(F. G. S. no. 2850)
of Lake Placid in the SEY4SE4 sec. 31, T. 36 S.,
County. Surface altitude 90 feet.


R. 30 E., Highlands


MATERIAL

Pleistocene deposits and Hawthorn formation, undifferentiated:
Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, frosted light-gray ..............
Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, frosted, gray-orange ..........
Sand, quartz, medium to very coarse, frosted, dark-brown ....


DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE


0- 1
1- 7
7- 8


DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE


86








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 15 87

MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
As above but lighter in color ................................................ 8- 11
Sand, quartz, carbonaceous, medium to coarse, frosted,
gray-orange ..................................................................... 11- 15
Sand, quartz, fine to coarse, frosted, red-brown .................. 15- 18
Sand, quartz, fine to elongated pebbles 8 mm in length,
poorly sorted, frosted, light-brown .............................. 18- 50
Clay, lilac-colored, and fine to coarse frosted sand ................ 50- 58
As at 18-50 feet ..................................................................... 58- 60
Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, frosted, light-brown ............ 60- 65
Sand, quartz, fine to pebble-size, frosted, and some
light-brown clay .............................................................. 65- 82
Clay, sandy, fissile, yellow-green, very micaceous, num-
erous small grains of ilmenite, and round clear
quartz sand grains ..................... ....................................... 82- 87
Sand, quartz, medium to very coarse, frosted to clear,
with some dark-lilac clay coating the grains ................ 87- 88
Clay, sandy, orange to gray-orange, some white clay,
and clear medium to coarse quartz sand ...................... 88- 94
Sand, quartz, medium to coarse, frosted to clear, yellow-
cream, some mica and white calcareous clay particles .... 94- 115

Well 305
(F. G. S. no. 2398)
One mile northeast of Avon Park, in the southwest corner, SWI4SEA sec. 14, T. 33 S.,
R. 28 E., Highlands County.
Surface altitude 160 feet.
MATERIAL DEPTH, IN FEET
BELOW LAND SURFACE
N o sam ples ......................................................................... 0- 220
Hawthorn formation:
Phosphorite, clayey, calcareous; black phosphorite in
light-green nonplastic clay, phosphorite pebbles up
to 12 mm in diameter; numerous small calcite rhombs.. 220- 260
Clay (fuller's earth) and phosphorite, slightly sandy,
calcareous, light-green to olive-drab ............................ 260- 295
Limestone, phosphatic, finely crystalline, white. Mol-
lusk fragments ............................................................... 295- 345
Limestone, phosphorite, and sand; limestone finely cry-
stalline to porcelaneous, dense, phosphorite brown
to black. Mollusks, echinoid spines and Foramini-
fera-Elphidium sp. and others .................................. 345- 440
Suwannee limestone:
Limestone, hard, white, chalky, porous, with some dense
hard gray limestone and sand, possibly from above.
Mollusks, echinoid fragments, and numerous Fora-
minifera-Rotalia mexicana, miliolids ........................ 440- 500
Ocala limestone:
Limestone, hard to soft, cream, chalky, porous, highly
fossiliferous; Lepidocyclina ocalana and other Fora-
minifera common to the Ocala limestone .................... 500- 640
Limestone, large foraminiferal coquina harder than
above, cream to tan-gray. Lepidocyclina ocalana,
Heterostegina ocalana, and Camerinidae .................... 640- 680
Moodys Branch(?) formation:
Limestone, large foraminiferal coquina, hard, cream to
tan-gray. Camerina moodybranchensis ........................ 680- 730
As above, plus some hard, dense gray limestone .................... 730- 760
Avon Park limestone: