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 Title Page
 Florida State Board of Conserv...
 Transmittal letter
 Contents
 Illustrations
 Preface
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Geology
 Chemical quality of water
 Ground water
 Surface water
 Streamflow records
 Sources of additional informat...
 References


FGS FEOL



Water resource studies
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 Material Information
Title: Water resource studies water resources of Palm Beach County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 13 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Report of investigations 13 )
Physical Description: 63 p. : illus., maps (1 fold.) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Schroeder, Melvin C ( Melvin Carrell ), 1917-
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1954
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Groundwater -- Florida -- Palm Beach County   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by M.C. Schroeder, D.L. Milliken and S.K. Love.
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 63.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000955568
oclc - 01726064
notis - AER8195
lccn - a 55009230
System ID: UF00001197:00001

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Florida State Board of Conservation
        Unnumbered ( 3 )
    Transmittal letter
        Unnumbered ( 4 )
        Unnumbered ( 5 )
    Contents
        Unnumbered ( 6 )
    Illustrations
        Unnumbered ( 7 )
        Unnumbered ( 8 )
    Preface
        Unnumbered ( 9 )
    Abstract
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Introduction
        Page 4
        Page 3
        Page 6
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Geology
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Chemical quality of water
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 14
    Ground water
        Page 17
        Page 16
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Surface water
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 26
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Streamflow records
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 43
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Sources of additional information
        Page 62
    References
        Page 63
        Copyright
            Copyright
Full Text





STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Charlie Bevis, Supervisor


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Herman Gunter, Director




REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS
No. 13




WATER RESOURCE STUDIES





WATER RESOURCES
OF
PALM BEACH COUNTY, FLORIDA


By
M. C. Schroeder,
D. L. Milliken and S. K. Love
Water Resources Division
U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
In cooperation with the
THE CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA
FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT



TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
1954






.za4 4


FLORIDA STATE BOARD


A6Q.
CULTURAL
LIBRARY


OF

CONSERVATION


CHARLEY E. JOHNS
Acting Governor


R. A. GRAY
Secretary of State




J. EDWIN LARSON
Treasurer


NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture




THOMAS D. BAILEY
Superintendent Public Instruction


CLARENCE M. GAY
Comptroller


RICHARD ERVIN
Attorney General


CHARLIE BEVIS
Supervisor of Conservation








LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Jitmch c 2o&aiCda o tutkA2Q




September 1, 1954

Mr. Charlie Bevis, Supervisor
Florida State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida
Dear Mr. Bevis:
The officials of the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control
District have long felt the need for a tabulation and compilation of
water facts covering ground waters, surface waters and the quality
of such waters, as found within the district. In an attempt to make
this information on water resources readily available, the District
entered into cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey in 1953,
to compile and summarize all of the water data in the district. This
report, "Water Resources of Palm Beach County," is the first of
what is hoped to be a series of such studies and compilations.
The facts on water are necessary to a wise development of any
area and, in particular, to a wise and conservative development of
water controls and supplies of water for farms, industries and mu-
nicipalities. It is hoped that the integration of work programs of the
Flood Control District, the Florida Geological Survey and the U. S.
Geological Survey can be continued and more studies such as this
will be published.
This report is being published as Report of Investigations No.
13, a Water Resource Studies of the Florida Geological Survey, in
order that the data on water can be made available immediately to
all of the citizens of Florida.
Very truly yours,

Herman Gunter, Director








































Printed by ROSE PRINTING COMPANY. TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA







CONTENTS


Letter of Transmittal ......... .........
P reface ....... ............. .. ...
Abstract ........... ............

Introduction .... ......................
Central and Southern Florida Flood
Purpose and scope of this report.....


Page
. .iii
S..viii


Control


Project. ..
Project ....


Description of the area.... ..................... ........

Geology ............................ .................. .
G general features ......................................
Geologic formations ...............................
Hydrologic properties ................................

Chemical quality of water..................................
Ground water .................................................... ...
W ater-table conditions ................................
Artesian conditions ...................................


Surface water ............
Streamflow records .......


Sources of additional information..
References ......................


5

7
7
9
11

14
16
16
24


.26
.43
.62
.63


. . . . . . ..6ea. .







ILLUSTRATIONS


Figure Page
1. Map of Florida showing location of Palm Beach County......... 4
2. Map of Palm Beach County showing location of gaging
stations, observation wells, and quality-of-water-sam-
pling stations........................Between pages 4 and 5
3. Map of Palm Beach County showing the physiographic areas.... 6
4. Generalized west-to-east cross section through central Palm
Beach County showing the relationship of the nonarte-
sian and artesian aquifers to the confining beds.............. 10
5. Generalized north-to-south cross section along U. S. High-
way 27 in the Everglades area of Palm Beach County......... 15
6. Minimum, maximum and mean of the average monthly
water levels in well 88 for 7 years of record ending in 1951..... 17
7. Map of Lake Worth area showing water-table contours
for November 11, 1945...................................18
8. Hydrograph of water level in well 88 at Lake Worth for
1944-52 ...................................................20
9 Selected water-surface profiles on West Palm Beach Canal....... 37
10. Map of Lake Okeechobee area showing gaging station and
quality-of-water-sampling stations ...................... 39
11. Stage-duration curve for Lake Okeechobee for period Oc-
tober 1941 to September 1950 (3,287 days) ............... 51
12. Stage-duration curves for West Palm Beach Canal.............. 52
13. Stage-duration curve for Cross Canal at 20-Mile Bend
(above dam) for period August 1947 to September 1950
(1,157 days) ............................................53
14. Stage-duration curves for Hillsboro Canal.....................54
15. Stage-duration curve for North New River Canal at South
Bay (north of dam) for period November 1939 to Sep-
tember 1951 (4,352 days) ....................................55
16. Stage-duration curve for Miami Canal at Lake Harbor
(south of dam) for period May 1946 to June 1950 (1,522
days) ..................................................... 56
17. Flow-duration curve for West Palm Beach Canal at Canal
Point (northwest of dam) for period December 1939 to
September 1950 (3,957 days)................. ...........57
18. Flow-duration curve for West Palm Beach Canal at West
Palm Beach (above dam) for period November 1939 to
September 1951 (4,352 days)............................. .58
19. Flow-duration curve for Hillsboro Canal at Belle Glade for
period November 1942 to September 1950 (2,891 days).........59
20. Flow-duration curve for Hillsboro Canal near Deerfield
Beach (above dam) for period November 1939 to Sep-
tember 1951 (4,352 days)........... ............................60
21. Flow-duration curve for North New River Canal at South
Bay (south of dam) for period April 1942 to September
1950 (3,105 days) ..... .................................. 61







TABLES

Table Page
1. Geologic formations in Palm Beach County................ 8
2. Chemical analyses of ground waters in Palm Beach County,
in parts per million......................................... 25
3. Surface-water gaging stations in Palm Beach County
through December 31, 1951 ................................28
4, Chemical analyses of surface waters in Palm Beach County,
in parts per million.................... ................... 41
5. Tide-height records for Jupiter River at Jupiter ................45
6. Monthly and annual flow of West Palm Beach Canal at
Canal Point (northwest of dam), in thousands of acre-feet.... .46
7. Monthly and annual flow of West Palm Beach Canal at
West Palm Beach, in thousands of acre-feet.................47
8. Monthly and annual flow of Hillsboro Canal at Belle Glade,
in thousands of acre-feet................................ .48
9. Monthly and annual flow of Hillsboro Canal near Deerfield
Beach (above dam), in thousands of acre-feet ..............49
10. Monthly and annual flow of North New River Canal at
South Bay (south of dam), in thousands of acre-feet.......... 50






PREFACE


This report was prepared to provide a summary of ground- and
surface-water resources information that will be helpful in the orderly
planning for the utilization and control of water in Palm Beach County.
The surface-water section of this report was prepared by D. L. Milliken
under the supervision of A. 0. Patterson, district engineer, Surface
Water BrAnch; the ground-water discussion was prepared by M. C.
Schroeder under the direction of Nevin D. Hoy, district geologist,
Ground Water Branch; and the section on the chemical quality of
water was prepared by S. K. Love, chief, Quality of Water Branch.
The cost of preparation of the report was shared equally by the U. S.
Geological Survey and the Central and Southern Florida Flood Con-
trol District.
Most of the data on which this report is based have been collected
over a period of years by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation
with:
Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District
City of Delray Beach
City of Lake Worth
City of West Palm Beach
Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, Jacksonville District
Everglades Drainage District
Florida Geological Survey
Lake Worth Drainage District
Palm Beach County


Soil Conservation Service, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture







WATER RESOURCES OE PALM BEACH COUNTY, FLORIDA


By M. C. SCHROEDER, D. L. MILLIKEN, AND S. K. LOVE



ABSTRACT
Palm Beach County lies wholly within the Terraced Coastal Low-
lands (Vernon, 1951, p. 16), and is divided into three physiographic
subdivisions: The coastal ridge paralleling the Atlantic coast and
extending about 5 miles inland; the Everglades; and the sandy flat-
lands which lie between the coastal ridge and the Everglades.
The principal source of ground water in Palm Beach County is
the water-table aquifer, which ranges in thickness from 60 to 300 feet
and is composed of the surface sands and the permeable limestone
and shell beds underlying them. About 8,000 million gallons was
withdrawn from this aquifer by wells in 1951. The capability of the
water-table formations to transmit water to wells differs greatly from
place to place in the county, but large quantities of shallow ground
water are available in most parts of the county. The aquifer discharges
large quantities of water into canals that annually discharge about
five times as much water into the ocean as they receive from Lake
Okeechobee. Principal recharge of the aquifer is by local rainfall
which averages about 60 inches a year.
Control structures near the ocean ends of the canals that cut
through the coastal ridge are effective in maintaining high ground-
water levels in the ridge area. These high water levels, averaging about
7 feet above mean sea level, are a prime reason why salt-water en-
croachment in Palm Beach County has not been a serious problem.
The relatively low permeability of the shallow subsurface materials
makes it considerably easier to control water levels artificially in
Palm Beach County than in coastal areas to the south.
Beds of relatively impermeable silts and marls lie underneath the
water-table formations and separate them from the deeper formations
which contain water under pressure and which, collectively, are
named the Floridan aquifer. The Floridan aquifer is encountered at
depths ranging from 600 to 900 feet below land surface, and wells
that penetrate this aquifer will flow at the surface under pressures
ranging from about 53 feet above mean sea level near Belle Glade to
about 37 feet at West Palm Beach.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Wells less than 50 feet deep, within 1 to 3 miles of the coast, usually
yield relatively soft water-hardness is less than 100 parts per million
(ppm)--whereas farther inland the water from shallow wells is con-
siderably harder. Samples from wells near Lake Okeechobee showed
hardness ranging from 557 to 5,670 ppm. Throughout the county there
is a tendency for hardness to increase with depth in the water-table
aquifer. The water from shallow wells in the western part of the
county is of such poor quality that it is undesirable for practically
all purposes except possibly irrigation. However, because no other
source of water is available, shallow ground water is used extensively
for domestic purposes. Water from deep wells tapping the artesian
(Floridan) aquifer contains 3,000 to 4,000 ppm of dissolved minerals
and averages 2,000 ppm or more of chloride. This water is undesirable
for most uses.
The major surface waterways in Palm Beach County are the arti-
ficial drainage channels: West Palm Beach, Hillsboro, Miami, and
North New River canals. Lake Okeechobee, having an area of 700
square miles, lies entirely within the county and is fed by streams
draining areas that lie principally to the north of the lake. Discharge
from the lake is controlled by a system of gates on all outlet channels.
The principal use of surface water in the county is for the irri-
gation of truck crops and sugar cane. Lake Okeechobee and two
smaller lakes, Clear Lake and Lake Mangonia, in the eastern part of
the county serve as sources of public water supply for towns adjacent
to the lake and for Palm Beach and West Palm Beach. Estimates of
the total volume of surface water being used in the county are not
available.
For the 11-year period 1940-50, inclusive, the mean annual flow
of the West Palm Beach Canal was 787,000 acre-feet. Of this volume
of flow, 110,000 acre-feet was derived from Lake Okeechobee and the
remainder from surface runoff and ground-water inflow. The maximum
monthly flow at West Palm Beach during the 1940-50 period was
239,000 acre-feet and the minimum monthly flow was 11,600 acre-feet.
The mean annual flow of the Hillsboro Canal near Deerfield Beach
during the same period was 336,000 acre-feet with a maximum monthly
flow of 137,000 acre-feet and a minimum monthly flow of 300 acre-feet.
Although flow in the major drainage canals is generally from Lake
Okeechobee toward the coast, at times the flow in the lake ends of the
canals is toward the lake owing to various combinations of concen-
trated rainfall and drainage pumping from farmlands into the canals.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 13


Flow in Hillsboro Canal at Belle Glade and West Palm Beach Canal
at Canal Point was toward the lake during 17 percent of the period
1939-50. Flow in North New River Canal at South Bay was toward
the lake only 2 percent of the period 1942-50.
Flooding of the lowlands adjacent to the canals is rather frequent.
Records of stage collected since about 1940 show that water levels
in the canals in the vicinity of Lake Okeechobee were above land
levels only a few days at Belle Glade but as much as 11 percent of
the time at Canal Point. Canal water levels were above land levels
in the Everglades for 25 percent of the time in the developed areas
and 65 percent of the time in the undeveloped areas. In the sandy
flatlands and coastal ridge areas canal water levels are frequently near
but never above land levels.
Water in Lake Okeechobee is essentially uniform in chemical
composition, moderately hard (hardness 135 ppm) and satisfactory
without expensive treatment for practically all uses. Chemical quality
of water in the lake ends of the canals is generally similar to that in
Lake Okeechobee whenever water is being discharged from the lake.
Owing to inflow and seepage, the hardness, the total content of dis-
solved minerals, and the color of water in the canals increases rapidly
with distance from the lake. Water quality in the canals is highly
variable and, except near Lake Okeechobee, is generally unsatis-
factory for most uses except irrigation. During an 18-month period,
hardness of water in Hillsboro Canal at Shawano ranged from 164
to 418 ppm, total dissolved minerals from 286 to 863 ppm, and color
from 35 to 560.


INTRODUCTION
CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT
On January 3, 1950, construction was begun on works of the Cen-
tral and Southern Florida Flood Control Project. This extensive plan
for the control of water in the lower part of peninsular Florida has
as its aims: (1) the rapid removal of flood waters; (2) the storage
of portions of the surplus waters; (3) the prevention of over-drainage;
(4) the prevention of salt-water encroachment; and (5) the pro-
tection of developed areas.
A great change in the pattern of flow of the surface waters of Palm
Beach County will have taken place by the time the Project is com-






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


pleted. Changes in the pattern of flow have already occurred as a
result of the works completed thus far, and will continue as more
and more of the works are completed and put into operation. The
data presented herein were collected before project works had made
significant changes in the surface water pattern and are, therefore,
generally comparable. Data collected after the end of 1951, however,
may not be comparable to that collected before.

PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THIS REPORT
The purpose of this report is to summarize ground-water and
surface-water data collected in Palm Beach County (fig. 1) by the
U. S. Geological Survey. The report is intended to be an aid in the
development of farm, public, and industrial water supplies. It con-
tains information that will be of value in appraising flood-control
problems in the county and includes information pertinent to the


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FIOUBr 1. Map of Florida showing location of Palm IKeach County.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 13


Flow in Hillsboro Canal at Belle Glade and West Palm Beach Canal
at Canal Point was toward the lake during 17 percent of the period
1939-50. Flow in North New River Canal at South Bay was toward
the lake only 2 percent of the period 1942-50.
Flooding of the lowlands adjacent to the canals is rather frequent.
Records of stage collected since about 1940 show that water levels
in the canals in the vicinity of Lake Okeechobee were above land
levels only a few days at Belle Glade but as much as 11 percent of
the time at Canal Point. Canal water levels were above land levels
in the Everglades for 25 percent of the time in the developed areas
and 65 percent of the time in the undeveloped areas. In the sandy
flatlands and coastal ridge areas canal water levels are frequently near
but never above land levels.
Water in Lake Okeechobee is essentially uniform in chemical
composition, moderately hard (hardness 135 ppm) and satisfactory
without expensive treatment for practically all uses. Chemical quality
of water in the lake ends of the canals is generally similar to that in
Lake Okeechobee whenever water is being discharged from the lake.
Owing to inflow and seepage, the hardness, the total content of dis-
solved minerals, and the color of water in the canals increases rapidly
with distance from the lake. Water quality in the canals is highly
variable and, except near Lake Okeechobee, is generally unsatis-
factory for most uses except irrigation. During an 18-month period,
hardness of water in Hillsboro Canal at Shawano ranged from 164
to 418 ppm, total dissolved minerals from 286 to 863 ppm, and color
from 35 to 560.


INTRODUCTION
CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT
On January 3, 1950, construction was begun on works of the Cen-
tral and Southern Florida Flood Control Project. This extensive plan
for the control of water in the lower part of peninsular Florida has
as its aims: (1) the rapid removal of flood waters; (2) the storage
of portions of the surplus waters; (3) the prevention of over-drainage;
(4) the prevention of salt-water encroachment; and (5) the pro-
tection of developed areas.
A great change in the pattern of flow of the surface waters of Palm
Beach County will have taken place by the time the Project is com-







EXPLANATION
G AGING STATION LOCATION AND INDEX NUMBER
S (Conllnued allfr December 31, 1951)

G AGING STATION LOCATION AND INDEX NUMBER
(Oiscontinued on or before Deo. 31, 1951)
110
O WELL LOCATION AND NUMBER.

> CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER

LETTERS AT GAGING STATION INDEX NUMBERS
HAVE FOLLOWING MEANINGSt
(Fd) Reord of flow eoch day
( F ) Ocaotlonal moosurement of flow
(Ed) Record of walor elevation each day
( o) Occasional measurement of water elevotion


MARTIN COUNTY
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DELRAY
BEACH


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BOCA
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S SOA. IN MILES
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PiouRa 2. Map of Palm Beach County sho8 n t 1 o'n of gaging satlos, obseriiationig stti
.. ..h '... 1 0040.nof, -:0 0 ,. .'i"."obi. f'.w t


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REPORT oF INVESTIGATIONS No. 13


comprehensive water controls now practiced or contemplated in the
area. Surface and subsurface geologic features are discussed briefly
in order to provide a basic understanding of the occurrence of both
ground water and surface water in the county. Inasmuch as the
intelligent utilization of water resources requires that the chemical
quality of the water be adequate for its intended use, information is
given concerning the chemical constituents found in the waters of
Palm Beach County.
The scope of this report does not permit inclusion of all the basic
water data that are available. An index showing the principal obser-
vational stations at which water resources data have been collected
is given in figure 2. These data are on file at the Miami and Ocala
offices of the U. S. Geological Survey. Summaries of the more impor-
tant segments of the data are presented and conclusions and interpre-
tations are made wherever they are adequately supported by existing
information, In order to maintain the relative brevity of the report
many of the data supporting the various interpretations have been
omitted.

DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA
Palm Beach County is bordered on the north by Okeechobee and
Martin counties, on the west by Glades and Hendry counties, on the
south by Broward County, and on the east by the Atlantic Ocean.
Lake Okeechobee, having an area of about 700 square miles, is entirely
within Palm Beach County. The land area of the county is approxi-
mately rectangular in outline and has a total area of 1,978 square
miles. The area may be differentiated into three physiographic sub-
divisions (fig. 3): The coastal ridge, the sandy flatlands, and the Ever-
glades. The coastal ridge parallels the sea coast and extends inland
about 5 miles from the Atlantic Ocean. The sandy flatlands area lies
between the coastal ridge on the east and the Everglades on the west.
The Everglades, a part of which comprises the western part of the
county, is a southward extension of the Lake Okeechobee basin. The
land surface of Palm Beach County slopes gently to the south and
ranges in elevation from about 25 feet above sea level on the coastal
ridge near-thle northern boundary to about 11 feet above sea level in
the southern part of the Everglades.
In 1950 the population'of Palm Beach County was 114,688 persons.
The bulk of the population ts.concentrated in the cities and towns on
th1 ooahtel ridge a4d: in 'ii along thb .0n P esehe The
; ** .






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


remainder of the population is centered in small agricultural com-
munities along the shore of Lake Okeechobee or scattered sparsely
throughout the county on farms and ranches. West Palm Beach, the
county seat, is the largest city in the county, with a 1.950 population of
43,162.

Farming and cattle raising are major occupations, especially in the
sandy flatlands and the Everglades. The subtropical climate, with rain-
fall averaging 55 to 63 inches that falls principally in the months
from June to October, favors the growth of winter vegetables.

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 13


GEOLOGY
GENERAL FEATURES
The formations exposed at the surface in Palm Beach County are
composed of sand, limestone, coquina, and the oolitic limestone de-
posited during the "ice age," which began approximately 1 to 2 million
years ago. The western part of the county, which comprises a part
of the Everglades, is covered by organic soils which started accumu-
lating about 5,000 years ago and range in thickness from 3 to 10 feet.
Sand mantles almost the entire area east of the Everglades. Hard lime-
stone a foot or two thick occurs in some places immediately beneath
the surface sand in the sandy flatlands area. A soft oolitic limestone
exposed near Boca Raton grades northward into a coquina composed of
a cemented mass of broken shells. The coquina is exposed along the
Atlantic shore line near Palm Beach and north of Boca Raton.

The geologic formations underlying the .area may be described as
two aquifers separated by confining beds (fig. 4). The Pamlico sand,
Anastasia and Fort Thompson formations, and the Caloosahatchee
marl, composed of permeable sand, limestone, and shell beds, comprise
the water-table or nonartesian aquifer. The base of the nonartesian.
aquifer ranges from 10 to about 300 feet below land surface.

At depths varying from 550 to 650 feet below land surface the
other aquifer is encountered, which contains water under artesian
conditions and has sufficient pressure to flow to the surface. This prin-
cipal artesian aquifer underlies all of Florida and part of southeast
Georgia and is named the Floridan aquifer, and in Palm Beach County
is composed of limestone of the Hawthorn (lower part), Tampa, Su-
wannee, Ocala, and Avon Park formations ranging in age from 30
to 60 million years.

The artesian aquifer is overlain by relatively impermeable con-
fining beds which tend to prevent the upward movement of the artesian
water. These beds are composed of green silts and clayey marls of the
Tamiami and Hawthorn (upper part) formations. In some of the
other counties of Florida, the whole of the Hawthorn is composed
of impermeable beds.

The definitions of the formations are those used by Cooke (1945),
Vernon (1951), and Puri (1953). A generalized section of the forma-
tions in the order that they would be penetrated by a well 1,300
feet in depth is given in table 1. Also indicated is the approximate














Table 1.-GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS IN PALM BEACH COUNTY


APPROXIMATE OCCrT.RBECE
IN FEET BELOW LAND St-'FACE
FoMATIoxN GEOLOGIC AOE ______Cacra___

Everglades Area Coastal Area


oaie oils. ... ................. Recent. ................ 0 8 Absent

Pamlieo sand..................... Late Pleistocene ......... Absent 0 10 Sand. Yields water to sand-point wells.

Anastasiaformation.............. Pleistocene............ Absent 10 230 Sand. limestone, and shell beds. Fair to good aquifer.

Fort Thompson formation ......... Pleistocene. ............ 8 30 Absent Marine and fresh-water sands, marls, limestone, and shell beds.
Fair aquifer.
COlooahatcbee mar............. Pliocene ................ 30 110 230? 330? Shelly sands and shell marl. Fair aquifer.

Tamiami formation .............. Late Miocene........... 110 180 330 400 Marly sand. marl and shell beds. Low permeability; confining
beds.
Hawthorn formation.............. Miocene................ 180 680 400 890 Clayey and sandy marl. Low permeability; confinig beds. Lime-
stone beds in lower part yield some artesian water.
Tampa formation.................. Early Miocene.......... 680 800 890 940 Limestone and some marl. Yields some artesian water.

S.uannee limestone.............. Oligocene............... 800 890 940 1,000 Limestone. Yields artesian water.

Bma-roup...................... Late Eocene............ 890 970 1,000 ? do.

Avon Park limestone.............. Late middle Eocene?..... 970 1,300+ Unknown do.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 13


depth below land surface at which each formation occurs in the Ever-
glades and coastal areas. All the formations older than the Pleistocene
underlie the entire county. One or two of the three Pleistocene forma-
tions will be penetrated by a well, depending upon its location.

GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS'
The geologic formations in Palm Beach County are discussed in
the following paragraphs in order of occurrence from the land surface
downward. Additional information on each formation is given in
table 1.1
The gray or white surface sand (Pamlico sand) mantles all of
Palm Beach County east of the Everglades, except in the Loxahatchee
marsh area where organic soils cover the surface.
The surface sand ranges from 1 or 2 feet in thickness on the sandy
flatlands between the Everglades and the coastal ridge to about 10
feet along the coastal ridge and the barrier beaches that are separated
from the mainland by the Intracoastal Waterway. In the dune areas
this sand attains a maximum thickness of about 50 feet.
The Anastasia formation immediately underlies the surface sand.
It is composed of sand, sandstone, limestone, coquina, and shell beds
and underlies all of eastern Palm Beach County, extending westward
to the edge of the Everglades. The Anastasia formation is about 40
to 50 feet thick near the Everglades but beneath the coastal ridge
it is possibly as much as 200 feet thick.
The marine sands, shell beds, limestones or sandstone, and fresh-
water marls or limestones that underlie the soils of the Everglades
comprise the Fort Thompson formation and are equivalent in age to
the Anastasia formation. The thickness and character of these beds,
because they vary from place to place, can be determined only by
test drilling. The formation is between 20 and 50 feet thick and is
overlain by thin beds of fresh-water marl which in turn are overlain by
the organic soils of the Everglades.
The Caloosahatchee marl underlies the Fort Thompson and Anas-
tasia formations and is composed mainly of shelly sand and sandy
shell marl with minor amounts of limestone and sandstone. In the
Everglades area the formation apparently decreases in thickness from
1. The stratigraphis nomenclature of this report conforms to the nomenclature of the Plorida
Geological Survey. It also conforms to that of the U. S. Geological Survey except that
Tampa formation is used instead of Tampa limestone and instead of Ocala limestone the
Ocala group is applied to all sediments in Palm Beach County of Jackson age and subdivisions
of this unit were not made,







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


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about 70 feet near Belle Glade to about 7 feet near the Broward County
line. Along the coast the thickness of the formation is not known.

The Tamiami formation is composed principally of silty, shelly
sands and silty shell marls of low permeability with occasional thin


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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 13


interbedded limestone or sandstone. The formation underlies the Ca-
loosahtchee marl and is believed to occur beneath all of Palm Beach
County. The Tamiami formation ranges between 70 and 100 feet in
thickness, and occurs at greater depths in the eastern part.
Relatively impermeable clayey and sandy marls compose most of
the Hawthorn formation which underlies all the county. The formation
is encountered at 175 feet below the land surface near Belle Glade
and at 400 feet near West Palm Beach where it is about 500 feet thick.
The upper part of the Hawthorn formation separates the overlying
formations from the Floridan (artesian) aquifer.
The Tampa formation' is about 130 feet thick and is composed
mainly of light-colored sandy limestone with different amounts of
marl. It underlies the Hawthorn formation throughout Palm Beach
County. The lower part of the Hawthorn formation and the Tampa
formation in this area are the uppermost components of the Floridan
aquifer. The Tampa formation is underlain at successively greater
depths by the Suwannee limestone, Ocala group,' and Avon Park
limestone. These formations are composed of dense but cavernous
and permeable limestones which act as a hydrologic unit constituting
the artesian aquifer.

HYDROLOGIC PROPERTIES
The physical characteristics of the confining beds and of the Flori-
dan aquifer in Palm Beach County appear to be relatively uniform
whereas those of the water-table aquifer differ from place to place.
In most instances the only data available to determine the hydrologic
properties of the geologic materials were obtained by an examination
of well cuttings. In a few cases data concerning yield and drawdown
or pumping test in the water-table aquifer are available. The hydrologic
properties of the water-table aquifer described in this report will be
considered by areas: The coastal ridge, the sandy flatlands, and the
Everglades.
The samd and shell materials comprising the water-table aquifer in
the coastal ridge area of eastern Palm Beach County generally are
about 300 feet deep. Thiri beds of limestone or sandstone usually occur
locally, but in the vicinity of Boca Raton and Delray Beach a bed of
permeable sandstone about 100 feet in thickness underlies about 80
feet of sand. Confining beds, approximately 600 feet in thickness com-
posed of sandy and clayey marl, underlie the water-table formations
1. See footnote on page 9.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


and prohibit a vertical movement of water. In some places the upper
100 feet of this confining unit contains some permeable sand and
shell beds. Underlying the confining beds is a thick series of permeable
limestones containing water under pressure.
Yields and drawdowns have been recorded for various wells in
the water-table aquifer along the coastal ridge. At Boca Raton 10-inch
diameter open-hole wells ranging in depth from 175 to 215 feet will
yield 500 gallons per minute (gpm) with drawdowns of 2 to 15 feet.
A 10-inch gravel-packed well at Lake Worth, with a screen set be-
tween 54 and 136 feet, reportedly had a drawdown of 6 feet when
pumped at 700 gpm. These yields and drawdowns indicate that the
formations at Boca Raton and Lake Worth are similar in their ability
to yield water to wells.

Comparison of data from test wells in Lake Worth indicates a
wide range of permeability for the shallow subsurface materials within
a distance of a mile or less. One well drilled to a depth of 193 feet
in the Lake Worth well field did not penetrate materials that would
yield water without the use of a screen. In contrast, two test wells
%Y-mile and 1 mile, respectively, north of the well field, which were
equipped with 5 feet of slotted casing at the bottom similar to the
test well drilled to 193 feet, were pumped with the casing set at
different depths between 40 and 95 feet. The pumping rates ranged
from 25 to 120 gpm. Lesser drawdowns with larger yields were ob-
tained between depths of 40 and 55 feet than at any other depths.
Well data at Morrison Field, west of West Palm Beach, suggest a
slightly lower permeability than at the areas cited above. A 30-inch
gravel-packed well, screened from 125 to 145 feet, yielded 750 gpm with
a drawdown of 78 feet in the pumped well and caused a lowering of
14 feet in the water table 50 feet away.
The data on well capabilities and variation of materials in the
water-table aquifer suggest that the hydrologic properties of the sub-
surface material differ along the coastal ridge. The only quantitative
study made by pumping-test method was at Delray Beach where a
6-inch well was pumped at 300 gpm and the rate of water level decline
was observed in adjacent wells. Results obtained from this test indi-
cate a coefficient of transmissibility for the shallow water-bearing
formations of 70,000 gallons per day per foot. This means that in 1
day 70,000 gallons of water will flow through a vetrical section of
the aquifer 1 mile wide under a hydraulic gradient of 1 foot per mile.'






REPORT-OF INVESTIGATION No. 13


The following table shows the declines in water level to be expected
at selected distances from a pumped well after varying time intervals
and for different rates of pumping. The computations are made with
the assumption that pumping in each case is continuous at a constant
rate and that no rainfall recharges the aquifer.


DRAWDOWN, IN FiET
Pumping
rate 1 day 1 week 1 month
(gpmn)
r--250 r=-500 r 500 r =1,000 r =500 r = 1,000

500 0.4 0.0 0.7 0.1 1.7 0.7
1,000 .8 .1- 1.4 .2 3.4 1.5
2,000 1.5 .1 2.7 .4 6.7 2.9

NoTE- r = distance, in feet, from the discharging well.

The hydrologic properties as determined for the aquifer at Delray
Beach would be comparable to those of the sand and shell materials
elsewhere in the county along the coastal-ridge area. Probably 200
to 300 gallons of water per day will flow through each mile of width
of the aquifer for each foot of thickness, under a gradient of 1 foot
per mile, at the prevailing temperature. (This numerical measure of
the flow is called the coefficient of permeability and is equal to the
transmissibility divided by the thickness of the aquifer.) This per-
meability is significantly lower than the 50,000 to 70,000 computed
by Parker (1951, p. 824) for the highly permeable limestones of Dade
County. These lower ranges of permeability make controls placed in
the canals that discharge into the Intracoastal Waterway effective in
maintaining high heads of water behind the dams.
The thin blanket .of gray or white surface sand in the sandy flat-
lands area is underlain by about 3 feet of rust colored sand or hard
sandstone, or both. Beneath these materials, sands grade downward
into shelly sands that in places contain irregular beds of shell and
sandstone of higher permeabilities and will supply fair yields of water
to wells. These materials probably extend to 200 feet in depth, where
the sandy marls of the confining beds occur. The nature of the ma-
terials and water-table-fluctuation data indicate that the permeabil-
ities are much lower than they are in most of Broward and Dade






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


counties, making water control in the sandy flatlands more readily
accomplished.
The Everglades area in western Palm Beach County is covered by
organic soil which is underlain by about 60 feet of marl, limestone,
shell marl, sand, and sandstone comprising the water-table aquifer.
The aquifer is thicker in the eastern part of the Everglades than it is
near the western edge. From Lake Okeechobee southward across the
Everglades, however, the thickness of the water-table aquifer in
Palm Beach County is relatively uniform (fig. 5). The water-table
aquifer in the Everglades, as a unit, has a lower permeability than
it has in the coastal-ridge area. An 8-inch diameter well near Okeelanta
(fig. 2) screened in shell marl between 22 and 28 feet below the sur-
face and having an open hole from 29 to 36 feet in soft limestone
yielded 410 gpm with a drawdown of 18 feet.
The 1- to 2-foot bed of impermeable marl that generally lies im-
mediately below the organic soil is a prime factor in making effective
water control possible. Drainage and irrigation ditches that do not
cut through the marl are more effective in controlling the water levels
than those ditches that penetrate the more permeable underlying
materials. However, water control in the Everglades area in either
instance is more feasible than in most areas of Broward and Dade
counties.

CHEMICAL QUALITY OF WATER
Water is commonly thought of as being fresh or salty. Rain, lakes,
rivers, and underground waters that are suitable for drinking and
other domestic uses and also for industrial and agricultural purposes
are usually called fresh water. Salt waters include the ocean water and
bodies of surface and ground waters that contain so much dissolved
saline minerals that they are not satisfactory for human consumption
or for almost any other use.
The amounts of the several mineral substances dissolved in water
are expressed as the number of parts of that substance contained in
a million parts of water (in ppm) and may be thought of as the
number of pounds of constituents in a million pounds of water.
To the average user of water the most important characteristics
are its hardness, taste, and color. Hardness is caused mainly by com-
pounds of calcium and magnesium dissolved from soil and rock ma-
terials with which the water has been in contact. To the household user









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(UNDERLAIN IN PLACES BY A THIN BED OF MARL)


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SHELL MARL, SAND. AND LENSES OF SANDSTONE
r(FORT THOMPSON FORMATION)





SHELLY SANDS AND SHELL MARLS
(C4LfOOS#ArCHA M4RRJ

APPROXIMATE BASE OF WATER-TABLE (UNCONFINED) AQUIFER

SILTY SANDS AND SANDY MARLS
(TrIAM/A FORMATION)
I Z6 miles
Note: Maximum depth to top of Tamiomi formation, 65 feet

PIGUR 5. Generalized north-to-south cross section along U. S. Highway 27 in the Everglades area
fe Palm Beach County.


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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


of water the evidence of hardness is the quantity of soap or other
detergent required to produce suds or lather. Water with hardness
of less than 60 ppm is usually considered to be soft and treatment to
remove hardness is seldom justified. Hardness of 60 to 120 ppm does
not seriously interfere with the use of water for household or many
industrial uses, but softening is frequently considered profitable. When
the hardness is in excess of 120 ppm treatment for its reduction is
usually desirable for most uses.
The presence of certain mineral constituents in water, within rea-
sonable limits, adds to the potability of a supply because they are
responsible for its pleasant taste. If there were no minerals dissolved
in water, it would have the flat taste of rain water. On the other hand,
the concentration can be high enough to make the water unpalatable.
Iron in excess of about one-half part per million imparts a taste that
is objectionable to most people. Iron is also undesirable because of
its tendency to produce rust stains.
Some waters are colored owing to the presence of organic matter
leached from plants, tree roots, and organic components of soil. Color
is a common characteristic of both surface and ground waters in Palm
Beach County. Color in excess of 10 is considered objectionable in
public-supply waters from an esthetic point of view but otherwise
has little deleterious effect unless caused by the presence of some
harmful constituent. The platinum-cobalt method is considered as the
standard for the determination of color in water, and the unit of color
is that produced by 1 milligram of platinum in a liter of water.
Data relating to quality of water in Palm Beach County are dis-
cussed in the sections on Ground Water and Surface Water.


GROUND WATER
WATER-TABLE CONDITIONS
The water table in general roughly parallels the land-surface fea-
tures. In Palm Beach County, differences in ground elevations are so
slight that the water table is a relatively uniform surface with few
undulations. From a map by Parker (1944, p. 13) showing surface
drainage it may be inferred that before man's operations in the Ever-
glades the water table probably sloped from Lake Okeechobee east-
ward toward the coastal ridge and southward through the Everglades.
A ground-water divide existed in higher areas along the coastal ridge
with the water table sloping to the Atlantic Ocean and toward the






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


counties, making water control in the sandy flatlands more readily
accomplished.
The Everglades area in western Palm Beach County is covered by
organic soil which is underlain by about 60 feet of marl, limestone,
shell marl, sand, and sandstone comprising the water-table aquifer.
The aquifer is thicker in the eastern part of the Everglades than it is
near the western edge. From Lake Okeechobee southward across the
Everglades, however, the thickness of the water-table aquifer in
Palm Beach County is relatively uniform (fig. 5). The water-table
aquifer in the Everglades, as a unit, has a lower permeability than
it has in the coastal-ridge area. An 8-inch diameter well near Okeelanta
(fig. 2) screened in shell marl between 22 and 28 feet below the sur-
face and having an open hole from 29 to 36 feet in soft limestone
yielded 410 gpm with a drawdown of 18 feet.
The 1- to 2-foot bed of impermeable marl that generally lies im-
mediately below the organic soil is a prime factor in making effective
water control possible. Drainage and irrigation ditches that do not
cut through the marl are more effective in controlling the water levels
than those ditches that penetrate the more permeable underlying
materials. However, water control in the Everglades area in either
instance is more feasible than in most areas of Broward and Dade
counties.

CHEMICAL QUALITY OF WATER
Water is commonly thought of as being fresh or salty. Rain, lakes,
rivers, and underground waters that are suitable for drinking and
other domestic uses and also for industrial and agricultural purposes
are usually called fresh water. Salt waters include the ocean water and
bodies of surface and ground waters that contain so much dissolved
saline minerals that they are not satisfactory for human consumption
or for almost any other use.
The amounts of the several mineral substances dissolved in water
are expressed as the number of parts of that substance contained in
a million parts of water (in ppm) and may be thought of as the
number of pounds of constituents in a million pounds of water.
To the average user of water the most important characteristics
are its hardness, taste, and color. Hardness is caused mainly by com-
pounds of calcium and magnesium dissolved from soil and rock ma-
terials with which the water has been in contact. To the household user






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 13


Everglades. The overflow from Lake Okeechobee drained southward
across the Everglades more or less as sheet flow.

Present drainage operations and the regulation of the water stages
of Lake Okeechobee, generally between 12.6 and 15.6 feet above
mean sea level, have produced a complex water-table pattern in the
county. The resistance of peat to lateral ground-water seepage (Clay-
ton, Neller, and Allison, 1942, p. 17) and the relatively impervious
character of the marl, which overlies the shallow permeable water-
bearing rocks, make water control economically feasible in the Ever-
glades area of Palm Beach County.

The average water level over a 7-year period (1945-51) for well
88 on the coastal ridge at Lake Worth was 7.9 feet above mean sea
level (fig. 6) and the average water level in the area of well 99, at
I ...


FiO'rtja Minimum, maximum and mean of the average monthly water
levels in well 88 for 7 years of record ending in 1951.


JAN. FEB. MAR. APR MAY JUN. JUL. AUG. SEP OCT. NOV. DEC.
14

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


of water the evidence of hardness is the quantity of soap or other
detergent required to produce suds or lather. Water with hardness
of less than 60 ppm is usually considered to be soft and treatment to
remove hardness is seldom justified. Hardness of 60 to 120 ppm does
not seriously interfere with the use of water for household or many
industrial uses, but softening is frequently considered profitable. When
the hardness is in excess of 120 ppm treatment for its reduction is
usually desirable for most uses.
The presence of certain mineral constituents in water, within rea-
sonable limits, adds to the potability of a supply because they are
responsible for its pleasant taste. If there were no minerals dissolved
in water, it would have the flat taste of rain water. On the other hand,
the concentration can be high enough to make the water unpalatable.
Iron in excess of about one-half part per million imparts a taste that
is objectionable to most people. Iron is also undesirable because of
its tendency to produce rust stains.
Some waters are colored owing to the presence of organic matter
leached from plants, tree roots, and organic components of soil. Color
is a common characteristic of both surface and ground waters in Palm
Beach County. Color in excess of 10 is considered objectionable in
public-supply waters from an esthetic point of view but otherwise
has little deleterious effect unless caused by the presence of some
harmful constituent. The platinum-cobalt method is considered as the
standard for the determination of color in water, and the unit of color
is that produced by 1 milligram of platinum in a liter of water.
Data relating to quality of water in Palm Beach County are dis-
cussed in the sections on Ground Water and Surface Water.


GROUND WATER
WATER-TABLE CONDITIONS
The water table in general roughly parallels the land-surface fea-
tures. In Palm Beach County, differences in ground elevations are so
slight that the water table is a relatively uniform surface with few
undulations. From a map by Parker (1944, p. 13) showing surface
drainage it may be inferred that before man's operations in the Ever-
glades the water table probably sloped from Lake Okeechobee east-
ward toward the coastal ridge and southward through the Everglades.
A ground-water divide existed in higher areas along the coastal ridge
with the water table sloping to the Atlantic Ocean and toward the





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


West Palm Beach, was probably about the same. These water levels
reflect the effect of the control operated from 1945 through 1951 on
the West Palm Beach Canal at West Palm Beach. The high ground-
water levels maintained in this area would have been appreciably
lower if the control had not been in operation. This effect is further
illustrated by a water-table map of the Lake Worth area for November
11, 1945, (fig. 7) which shows relatively high ground-water levels close
to the shoreline near the canal instead of swinging inland to parallel
roughly the canal.
The average water level for 1951, a slightly subnormal water year,
in observation wells along the Range Line Canal (see fig. 2) at points

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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 13


west of Lake Worth and west of Delray Beach, was 2.6 feet below
land surface datum (15.4 above msl). Ground-water levels west of
the Range Line Canal have sloped toward the Everglades during
part of each year of record. Records of water-level fluctuations to
date, however, are not of sufficient length to support the conclusion
that this occurs every year. Some support for the conclusion, how-
ever, is found in the fact that West Palm Beach, Hillsboro, North
New River, and Miami canals during certain times will flow from
water summits toward both Lake Okeechobee and the Atlantic Ocean.
This is illustrated by water-level profiles in the West Palm Beach
Canal on selected dates (fig. 9).

Ground-water levels in shallow wells in Palm Beach County
fluctuate in response to rainfall and pumpage from wells. Water-level
fluctuations between high and low levels in selected wells in the
county during 1951 ranged from 3.0 to 4.5 feet. The greatest fluctua-
tion occurred on the coastal ridge in West Palm Beach and the mini-
mum changes were recorded on the sandy flatlands north of the West
Palm Beach Canal about 18 miles west of Lake Park.

For 1951, a relatively dry year but one for which a greater dis-
tribution of water-level data is available, the range of the difference
between the highest and lowest monthly average water levels was
3.0 feet along the coastal ridge at West Palm Beach; 2.5 feet in the
sandy flatlands north of the West Palm Beach Canal; and at the
western edge of the Lake Worth Drainage District along the Range
Line Canal the range was only 0.9 foot. These records clearly show
the damping effect of water control on ground-water levels. Figure
6 shows graphically the minimum, maximum, and the mean of
the average monthly water levels at Lake Worth during the period
1945-1951.
Figure 8 shows daily ground-water levels in a well at Lake Worth
which has the longest continuous water-level record in the county.
The graph shows the changes in water levels produced by drought
and flood conditions. The difference between the maximum and mini-
mum ground-water levels in this well since 1944 is 11.1 feet, with the
highest level, 15.5 feet above msl, occurring in October 1948 and the
lowest, 4.4 feet above msl, in June 1945 and August 1952. The highest
stages in the main canals in the Everglades and across the sandy
.flatlands during the same period of record occurred in October 1947.
Recharge to the ground water in this area is derived from local rain-








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


fall and by subsurface percolation from the canals into the permeable

materials. Rainfall is the principal source of recharge. Inspection of

rainfall records for periods ranging from 5 to 39 years indicates that

the average annual rainfall is about 55 inches in the vicinity of Belle

Glade, about 50 inches in the Everglades 10 to 20 miles to the south,

and about 63 inches along the coastal ridge and in the eastern part of


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REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 13


the sandy flatlands. Rainfall along the coastal ridge and sandy flat-
lands percolates fairly rapidly into the aquifer. The quick response
of the water table to local rainfall is shown by the rapid water-level
rises on the hydrograph in figure 8. In some areas the water table
rises to the land surface, and surface flow occurs.
Some recharge directly from Lake Okeechobee may occur in that
part of Palm Beach County bordering the lake. However, judging
from the low permeability of the shallow water-bearing formations,
from the slight difference in head between the lake surface and the
water table, and from a study, by Ferguson (1943, pp. 21-22) and
by others, of the surface water flowing into and out of the lake, the
recharge is relatively small. Also, the presence of ground water with
a relatively high chloride content adjacent to the lake which has a low
chloride content suggests that there is not a free exchange of water
below the lake and the shallow ground water. On the basis of the
available data, Parker and others (1953) also concluded that ground-
water seepage from Lake Okeechobee to the Everglades is very small.
Discharge from the shallow ground-water reservoir is by evapora-
tion from the land or water surfaces and by transpiration by plants in
those areas where the water table is at or near the surface, by seepage
into canals, pumping from shallow wells, and by outflow into the
Atlantic Ocean and the Intracoastal Waterway.
Evapotranspiration from Lake Okeechobee and from its swampy
shores is estimated by Ferguson (1943, p. 22) to be about 46 inches
annually. Experiments at Belle Glade, as reported by Clayton, Neller,
and Allison (1942, pp. 27-35) showed that the annual losses through
transpiration and evaporation from saw grass in peat, sugarcane in
peat, and bare peat soil were about 68, 49, and 40 inches, respectively.
Parker and others (1953) computed a difference of 42.8 inches be-
tween the average runoff, measured as streamflow, and the rainfall
for the Kissimmee-Lake Okeechobee-Everglades area, neglecting
ground-water outflow from the area not reaching the stream channels.
Thus, the evapotranspiration loss may be three-fourths, or more, of the
average annual rainfall. The Hillsboro, North New River, and West
Palm Beach canals annually discharge roughly about five times as
much water into the--ocean.-as is received into the canals from
Lake Okeechobee (for discharges see section on Surface Water).
During periods when the Everglades are flooded, a part of this pickup
is from overland flow. However, the major part of the pickup over
the entire year is from ground-water storage either being pumped
or flowing by gravity into the canals.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The use of shallow well supplies is steadily increasing. It is esti-
mated that the total withdrawal of ground water by wells in Palm
Beach County during 1951 was about 8,000 millions of gallons, an
average of a little more than 20 mgd.
Ground water is utilized for public, domestic, industrial, fire
fighting, and irrigation supplies. All of the municipal supplies along
the coastal ridge, except at West Palm Beach, are obtained from wells.
Several light industries use ground-water supplies in their operations.
It is difficult to determine with accuracy the quantity of ground
water used in Palm Beach County. In rural and agricultural areas
practically no records are available, and the pumpage for the ma-
jority of the industrial plants is estimated. The following is a rough
estimate, in millions of gallons, of ground water that was used in
Palm Beach County in 1951:
Municipal Industrial Rural and irrigation
3,000 2,000 3,000
It is not feasible to estimate the additional amount of water,
pumped from canals for irrigation, that is derived by seepage from
ground-water storage.
Shallow ground water in the Lake Okeechobee area of the Ever-
glades, according to Parker (1945, p. 531), is contaminated by sea
water that gained access to the water-bearing beds when the sea
covered this area during the Pleistocene epoch or "ice age." Salt
water has not been completely flushed from the less permeable ma-
terials and the enclosed permeable lenslike deposits. The shelly sands,
shell marls, and sandstones underlying the Everglades yield water
that generally is highly mineralized. The more permeable beds of the
water-table aquifer along the coast have long since been flushed
of salt.
In the Everglades area water obtained from limestone beds im-
mediately underlying the organic soil and marl generally contains
less than 100 ppm of chloride. However, in the sandy and shelly
material beneath the limestone beds, chloride in the ground water is
generally greater than 200 ppm (chloride much above 250 ppm is
objectionable in public or domestic supplies). A test well near Pa-
hokee yielded water containing 1,885 ppm of chloride at a depth of
45 feet. Stringfield (1933, p. 28), concerning mineralization of ground
waters in the Everglades area bordering Lake Okeechobee, states:
"It appears that although large quantities of ground water are ayail-






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 13


able, the poor quality of the water offers little encouragement for the
development of water supplies from either deep or shallow wells *."
The chloride concentration of the ground water in the water-table
aquifer decreases with distance from the Everglades toward the
coastal'ridge, where the normal concentration is approximately 30 ppm.
Salt-water ,encroachment along the coastal area of Palm Beach
County is not yet a critical problem. All of the municipal supplies
along the coastal ridge, except that from West Palm Beach, are ob-
tained from wells located approximately 1 mile from the ocean
or inland waterway. From the data available there is no indication
of salt-water encroachment at a depth of 200 feet that far inland,
One of the prime factors in the prevention of serious salt-water en-
croachment in this area is that only two canals cut across the coastal
ridge and both have controls that maintain high heads; this results
in higher ground-water levels closer to the shoreline than would
otherwise exist. The average ground-water level along most of the
coastal ridge, 1 mile inland, is probably about 7 feet above mean
sea level.
Most of the wells in Palm Beach County are developed either on
and along the coastal ridge in the eastern part of the county or near
Lake Okeechobee in the western part. For this reason the chemical
quality of ground water will be discussed in two parts corresponding
to the two major groupings of wells.
Chemical analyses are available on samples collected from about
80 wells in a strip approximately 10 miles wide adjacent to the coast
and about 35 miles long, extending from the Broward County line to
the Martin County line. The wells range in depth from a few feet to
more than 100 feet. Wells less ,than 50 feet deep, within 1 to 3 miles
of the coast, usually yield relatively soft water-hardness less than
100 ppm-whereas shallow wells farther inland are likely to yield
somewhat harder water. Water from wells more than 50 feet deep,
both near the coast and farther inland, is usually harder than water
from shallower wells.
Chemical analyses are available for samples from 22 shallow wells
in Palm Beach County in the vicinity of Lake Okeechobee. Almost
all these wells are located in areas where the topsoil consists of
several feet of muck and it is possible that some of the shallowest
wells terminate in the muck. Most of them, however, terminate in
the marl or limestone beneath the muck. Only three of the wells
sampled are more than 50 feet deep.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Concentrations of dissolved solids in the 22 samples from the
western part of the county were among the highest found in shallow
ground water in southeastern Florida (table 2). Dissolved solids
ranged from 557 to 5,670 ppm, and in 10 of the 22 samples dissolved
solids exceeded 1,000 ppm. The maximum concentration of 5,670 ppm
was found in a sample from a well 66 feet deep at Lake Harbor
just south of Lake Okeechobee.
Bicarbonate is the most characteristic anion in the water from
practically all wells in the Lake Okeechobee area. In some samples
sulfate and chloride were present in significant quantities, often sev-
eral hundred parts per million.
Ground water containing large amounts of dissolved solids, such
as those sampled in western Palm Beach County, are undesirable
for practically all purposes except possibly for irrigation. Even irri-
gation waters in which the ratio of sodium to all basic constituents
is more than 60 to 70 percent may retard the growth of some crops
under certain conditions, especially during dry periods. Those waters
in which sodium is the predominent basic constituent cannot be
economically improved by treatment processes in general use.
Analyses of typical ground waters in eastern and western Palm
Beach County are given in table 2.

ARTESIAN CONDITIONS
The piezometric or pressure surface at flowing wells in Palm
Beach County slopes southeasterly from about 53 feet above mean
sea level at Belle Glade to about 37 feet at West Palm Beach.
The lack of heavy withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer in this
county allows the artesian pressure to remain fairly constant; how-
ever, the water levels are affected by temporary barometric-pressure
changes.
So far as is known, discharge from the Floridan aquifer within
Palm Beach County is mainly through wells which probably dis-
charge less than 1 mgd. In addition, there probably is some leakage
upward through the confining beds, but the amount is not known.
The normally saline water from the Floridan aquifer in Palm
Beach County is utilized by a few industries only for cooling purposes.
The temperature of the water is about 73F, which is from 4 to 6
degrees cooler than the shallow ground water. The savings in pumping
costs and the temperature differential apparently compensate for the







Table 2.-CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF GROUND WATER IN PALM BEACH COUNTY, IN PARTS PER MILLION.

NONARTESIAN



Tem- Specile Cal- Magne- SoliLm Bicar- Sul- Chlo- Ni- Dis-
Well'- LOCATION 'Date of Depth pera- Color Conducta-ce Iron ciam sium and Po- bonate fate ride trate solved Hardness
Collection (feet). ture (Micronhos (Fe) (Ca) (Mg) tassium (HCOs) (SO4) (Cl) (NOs) Solids as CaCOs
(OF.) at 25C.) (Na & K)


203 Lake Worth Public Supply......... Mar. 15, 1"41 135 ........ 40 437 0.15 74 3.1 20 220 20 25 4.0 287 197

262 Germantown Road at South Bend... April 17, 1941 20 74 220 322 .10 42 5.2 13 48 56 37 7.0 184 126

271 Military Trail and Atlantic Avenue.. Apr. 18, 1941 111 ........ 40 576 .10 108 6.3 18 335 2.1 40 2.0 342 295

287 0.3 mile West of Military Trail and
0.2 mile North of Lateral No. 23.. May 16, 1941 30 75 40 246 .12 12 8.5 18 4.0 69 21 .0 131 65
202 Belle Glade, State Prison Farm..... Sept. 22, 1941 35 76 360 2,540 .05 114 83 371 776 295 340 13 1,600 626

412 Pahokee, State Highway 15, 1.6 miles
South of Pahokee Water-Tower.. Sept. 10, 1941 18 ........ 520 5,430 .05 237 128 862 849 661 1,140 ........3,450 1,118
419 State Highway 80, 0.4 mile East of
North New River Canal.......... Sept. 22, 1341 60 ........ 60 1,380 .10 80 76 143 751 57 104 .1 830 512
137 State Highway 25, 3.5 miles South of
Bolles Canal, along North New
RiverCanal.................... June 5,1942.. 16.5 75 360 1,130 .15 172 55 7.6 576 144 35 .2 698 655


ARTESIAN


203 Belle Glade, University of Florida
Everglades Experiment Station.... Sept. 12, 1941 1,132 78 10 616 0.03 166 131 864 22 5.8 1,990 ...... 3,170 953
407 West Palm Beach, North Railroad
Avenue and 4th Street........... Sept. 9, 1941 1,035 73 5 726 .10 127 161 1,207 194 449 2,110 ......4,150 979





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


greater cost of a deep well and for the corrosive nature of the water.
The quantity of artesian water used in the county is negligible as
compared to the amount of shallow ground water used.
Wells drilled into the artesian aquifer in Palm Beach County are
usually about 1,000 feet deep. Properly developed wells 12 inches
in diameter will yield a flow of 800 to 1,000 gallons per minute at
the land surface.
The first published discussion of artesian ground water in Palm
Beach County is included in a report by Sellards and Gunter (1913).
Analyses were given for only three wells along the coast. One is an
artesian well in Palm Beach which contained 3,000 ppm of dissolved
solids. This is typical of artesian waters in the area as shown by
analyses made in the 1940's.
Collins and Howard (1928) list an analysis for an artesian well
1,080 feet deep in West Palm Beach; the water had a chloride con-
centration of 2,345 ppm. This is typical of water from such depth
in this area. Stringfield (1933, pp. 22-25) observed that the water
from a well near Belle Glade was less mineralized between depths
of 900 and 1,332 feet than it was between depths of 300 and 900 feet;
water from the greater depths contained about 1,650 parts per million
of chloride, whereas the water from the shallower depths in this
well contained about 2,200 ppm. Artesian wells in the West Palm
Beach area tap the same part of the Floridan aquifer as does the
well near Belle Glade down to 900 feet; the quality of the water is
similar (table 2).

SURFACE WATER
Surface-water information of two types is collected at particular
points in a stream, lake, or other body of water. The first type per-
tains to the height or elevation of the water surface; the second, on
streams only, to the discharge or amount of water flowing and the
direction of flow. The points at which one or the other or both types
of information are collected are called gaging stations.
A record of the elevation of the water surface at a gaging station
is obtained either by reading a gage at intervals of time or by the
use of a water-level recorder. Gages that need to be read are generally
enameled steel scales set vertically in the water. The zeros of gages
are maintained at a known elevation, and are usually with reference
to sea level. Water-level recorders actuated by float and clock mecha-






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 13


nisms require setting to a reference gage but keep a continuous
record on graph paper of the height of the water surface.
The height of the water surface at the gage, measured in feet and
hundredths of.feet above an arbitrary datum, may be converted to
elevation above or below mean sea level. Mean sea level may be
thought of as the average elevation of the water surface of the ocean
at points along the shore.
Flow is determined by measuring the speed of the current, and
the width and depth of the stream. The rate of flow of a stream 1
foot wide and 1 foot deep with a current moving 1 foot each second
would be 1 cubic foot per second. Cubic feet per second may be
changed to million gallons per day by multiplying by 0.646, or to
gallons per minute by multiplying by 449. The term cubic feet per
second refers to the rate at which the water flows. The total amount
of water which has flowed past a gaging station in a definite period
of time may be recorded in acre-feet. One cubic foot per second
flowing 1 day gives close to 2 acre-feet. An acre-foot of water would
be the amount of water in a pond one foot deep with an area of
exactly 1 acre. One acre-foot contains 43,560 cubic feet or 325,851
gallons.

A list of gaging stations in Palm Beach County for which records
are available is given in table 3. Records for gages not shown as being
published in Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers are on file in
the Ocala District, Surface Water Branch (see p. 53). Table 3 also
gives pertinent data regarding the periods for which records are
available, the maximum and minimum rates of flow, and the water
elevations observed during the period of record. Localities at which
these records were collected are shown on the map in figure 2. A
summary of the more important records of streamflow in Palm Beach
County is given in graphical and tabular form later in this report in
the section on streamflow records.
Data from the graphs shown in figures 11-21 have been used in the
description of the flow in the canals given below. Although the graphs
are based on percent of days when daily stage or discharge equaled
or exceeded various amounts, this is so nearly equivalent to percent
of time that the latter term has been used in the following text.

The major surface waterways in Palm Beach County are the
three artificial drainage channels: West Palm Beach, Hillsboro, and
North New River canals. The Miami Canal cannot be considered










Table --SURFACEIWATIR GAGING STATIONS IN PALM BEACH COUNTY THROUGH DECEMBRa 31, 1951


Highest of Record4 Lowest of Record'

No. Type
oa Streams. Canals,etc. Location Period of Record of Flow WaterElevation Flow WaterElevatioo Remarks
Map' Rerdl (cubic feet (feet above (cubic feet (feet above
persecond) sea level) per second) sea level)
&ZII -Iio _______________________


Jupiter River ........




TLmhathee Sloah..


Lake Okeechobee....




West Palm Beach
Canal............





do....... .......


do .............

do...............


At Jupiter........


May, 1944, to Feb, 1946,
April, May, 1946,
Aug., 1946, to Sept., 1947,
June to Aug., 1948.......


5.2 miles west of Jupiter.... Aug., 1946, to Jan., 1952*.


Gages at Moore Haven,
Clewtom, Lake Harbor,
Chosen, Canal Point,
Okeechobee, Port Mayaca..

Northwest of dam at Canal
Point ..................





Southeast of dam at Canal
Point................


Oct., 1931, to ........


Nov., 1939, to* ........






May, 1940, to- .....


At Big Mound Canal...... March, 1944, to-- ...


At 20-Mile Bend...........


Mar., 1944, to July, 1947..
July, 1947, to Oct., 1950..
Oct., 1950, to -.....


Ed

Fo





Ed

Fd and
Ed






Ed

Eo

Eo
Ed
Eo


2.37
..... ..... (Oct. 18, 1944)


1,060
(Oct. 9, 1947)


817 (to south-
east, March
18, 1948) and
1760 (to north-
west, June 15,
1942).......


............. None at times


20.1
(Sept. 4, 1933)





18.54
(Oct. 23, 1947)


18.70
.............. (Oct. 12, 1947)


17.48
(Oct.16,17,1948)


-1.02
(Mar. 8, 1945)


10.3
(May 17, 1932)


Affected by tide.


0


0






CJ


10.00 Water elevation 8.76 feet
(June 17, 1948) June 22-25, 30, 1928.


9.4
(May 24, 1944)


8.33
(June 30, 1944)


One of "West Palm Beach
Canal Profile" gages


do.











Table 3.A-SUFACE-WATER GAGING STATIONS IN PALM BEACH COUNTY THROUGH DECEjMBER 31, 1951-Continued


No.
on
Map1




8


9


10

11

12


13


14

15




16



17


Location


Streams, Canals, etc.





do...............


do. .............



do..............



do...............



do........ .......

do...............

West Palm Beach
Canal............


Period of Record2


Mar., 1944, to .....

July, 1941, to Aug., 1942..
Aug., 1942, to --- .....

Mar., 1944, to .....

March, 1944, to ...


do....................

Nov., 1939, to June, 1941..
March, 1944, to ...

do... .............. .


Nov., 1939, to ........


Cross Canal......r. At 20-Mile Bend.......... Mar., 1944, to June, 1947..


June, 1947, to Oct., 1950..
Oct., 1950, to -- .....


Jan., 1951, to-- .....


Rage Line Canal...


Above dam at Hilsboro
Canal.................


Type
of
Record3


Eo

Eo
Ed

Eo

Eo


Eo

Ed
Eo

Eo

Fd and
Ed



Eo
Ed
;Eo


Ed


Highest of Record4


Flow
(cubic feet
per second)


15 miles west of
Lozahatchee ...........

At Loxahatchee...........


1.7 miles east of Loxahatchee

At Range Line Canal......

1.3 miles east of Range
Line Canal.............

At Military Trail..........


At Stub Canal...........

Above dam at West Palm
Beach................


WaterElevation
(feet above
sea level)


..............

17.13
(Oct. 12, 1947)

..............







14.24
(Oct. 12, 1947)

..............

10.89
(Oct. 13,1947)




17.3


(Oct. 13, 1947)

15.80
(Oct. 10,1951)


Lowest of Record4


Flow
(cubiefest
per second)


... ...........

..............

124
(May 1, 1945)


WaterElevation
(feet above
sea level)


. ..........o..

6.66
(Jan. 9, 1943)









6.04
(July 6, 1949)



2.97
(May 7, 1941)




10.05
(Sept. 27,1950)

8.37
(Aug. 6, 1951)


Remarks


"Profile" gage.

Flow 2,120 cfs measured
Oct. 12, 1947.

"Profile" gage.

do.


do.


do.

do.

Highest elevation known
13.20 ft. Oct. 23, 24, 1924,
(Flow, 8,570 cfs.).
Elevation 1.00 ft. Aug. 28,
1929.


..............

..............

5,320
(April18, 1942)


C




cM
cc





02
w
=


I .


I I I I I I I --


--- --


I I-


1


..............

..............
............ *'


..............

..............
I
..............


I ............... I







Table 3--SURFAC-WATZR GAGING STATIONS IN PALM BEACH COUNTY THROUGH DECZMBaR 31, 1951-Continued


Highest of Record4


Lowest of Record'


No.

Map'


Streams, Canals, etc.


18 do...............


19 Equalxing Canal 4..


20 do...............


21 do...............


22 Boynton Canal......


23 1 Hilsboro Canal.....


Location


Above dam at West Palm
Beach Canal .........

3.6 miles southwest of
Deray Beach...........

At State Highway 802
Bridge .................

1.3 miles northwest of
Lake Worth............

Above dam at Boynton
Beach.................




At Hurricane Gate at
Lake Okeechobee........


Period of Rec


Jan., 1951, to---. .


Feb., 1951, to-- ...


May, 1944, to Jan., 1946


Jan., 1951, to --- ....


July, 1941, to June, 1943'
1947*..................
Nov., 1949, to* .......



Jan. to Sept., 1940*......


do............... At Belle Glade............ Jan. to May, 1940*.......
May, 1940, to Sept., 1942*


Oct, 1942, to Sept., 1950*


Type
cord2 of
Record
E


Flow
(cubic feet
per second)


. Ed


. E d ..............


., E d . . . .


Ed

Ed and
Fd
Fo
Fo and
Ed

Fo and
Ed





Fo
Fo and
Ed
Fd and
Ed


WaterElevation
(feet above
sea level)


16.41
(Oct. 14, 1961)

12.63
(Oct. 14, 1951)

11.03
(Sept. 5, 1945)

10.87
(Oct. 15, 1951)


2.720
(April 18, 1942) ..............

1,770 (to south-
east, March
13, 1940);
800 (to north-
west, Sept. 6,
1940) ...................

481 (to south-
east, Feb. 14,
1940);
289 (to north-
west, Sept. 9, 16.94
1940)....... (Feb. 14, 1940)


Flow
(cubic feet
per second)


WaterElevation I
(feet above
sea level)


12.73
. . .. (Oct. 24, 1951)


............. Less than 5.4

7.57
............. (June 30, 1944)


...... .... Less than 5.87




4.0


(Nov. 30,


1942) ..............


10.50
(Aug. 26, 1949)


Remarks


Elevation 14.14 ft. April 19,
1942;
6.42 ft. July 5, 1932






















Elevation 17.66 ft.
Sept. 26 to Oct. 1, 1926


I- ,


1 i I-- I


I


I--








Table 3.-SURFACE-WATER GAGING STATIONS IN PALM BEACH COUNTY THROUGH DECEMBER 31, 1951-Continued


Highest of Record4 Lowest of Record4

No. Type
on Streams, Canals, etc. Location Period of Record2 of Flow WaterElevation Flow WaterElevation Remarks
MapI Record3 (cubic feet (feet above (cubic feet (feet above
per second) sea level) per second) sea level)
I.,- I II


do.. ............


Hillsboro Canal,,...


do..............


do..............


do...............



do...............


Indian Run.........


North New River
Canal...........


0.1 mile northwest of
Cross Canal............

At Shawano .............


At Indian Run............


Oct., 1950,to* ........

Jan., 1929, to .....


June, 1947, to April, 1950.
June, 1950, to -- .....


. At. U.S. Highway 441 Nov., 1939, to June, 1941..
Bridge ................. Sept., 1947, to --- .....


Above dam 1.8 miles west
of Deerfield Beach
(Broward County).......

Below dam 1.8 miles west
of Deerfield Beach
(Broward County).......


Nov., 1939, to ...



July, 1947, to -- ....


Above dam at Hillsboro June, 1947, to April, 1950.
Canal ................. June, 1950, to -- ....


North of dam at South Bay July, 1943, to- .....


do............... South of dam at South Bay I Nov., 1939, to *...


Fo and
Ed ........


Ed



Ed


Ed


Fd and
Ed



Ed


Ed


Ed

Fd and
Ed


15..38
(Oct. 3, 1951)

15.37
(Oct.12,13,1947)

15.54
(Oct. 12, 1947)

14.87
(Oct. 7, 1947)


3,490 12.10
(Oct. 12, 1947) (Oct. 17, 1944)


1,040 (to south,
Sept.30,1947)
445 (to north,
June 10, 17,
1942).......


15.95
(Oct. 12, 1947)


16.39


None (Dec. 16,
1939; Apr. 11,
1940;June 18,
1940) .......


10.61
(Dec. 14, 1951)

8.73
(May 4, 1945)

6.6
(Aug. 22, 1950)


Elevation 16.7 ft.
Oct. 18, 1947.

Flow 505 cfs measured
Oct. 29, 1947.

Flow 927 cfs measured
Aug. 20, 1947


4.00 Flow 1,860 cfs measured
(Aug.18,25,1949)J Oct. 14, 1947


3.34
(Aug. 18, 1949)l


Less than 9


8.63


(Oct.15,16,1947) ............... (July 6, 1949)


Elevation 0.96 ft.
May 19 to June 12, 1927


Affected by tide.


z


U,
CA





z
z


P


Elevation 20.56 ft.

July 27, 28, 1926.





.












Table 3.--SURFACE-WATIR GAGING STATIONS IN PALM BEACH COUNTY THROUGH DrCXMBER 31, 1951-Continued


Highest or Record4 Lowest of Record4

No. Type
a Streams, Canals, etc. Location Period of Record2 of Flow WaterElevatio= Flow WaterElevation Remarks
Map1 Record (cubic feet (feet above (cubic feet (feet above
per second) sea level) per second) sea level)


do.. ......... .


At Broward-Palm Beach
County Line............


Boile Canal........ At U.S. Highway 27 Bridge


M .ami Canal........




do...............


38 Levee 8 Canal......


39 Levee 40 Borrow
Ditch ...........

40 Everglades .........


do...............


do...............


North of dam at
Lake Harbor...........



South of dam at Lake
Harbor ................

5 miles upstream from
West Palm Beach Canal..

1 mile south of West
Palm Beach Canal.......

17 miles west of Boynton
Beach..................

15 miles west of Delray
Beach.................

0.5 mile northeast of Hils-
boro Canal,
8 miles northwest of Elbow
Bend .................


Aug., 1946, to ....

1939-40, Oct., 1940, to
Feb., 1944*. ...........


Oct., 1939, to June, 1941*.
July, 1941, to June, 1943*.



April, 1946, to June, 1950..


Nov., 1951, to .....


- Nov., 1951, to .....


Oct., 1951 to-- ....


Oct., 1951, to-- .....




May, 1951, to -- .....


Fo and
Ed
Fd and
Ed


Ed


Ed


Ed


Ed


Ed




Ed


300
(July 28, 1941)

572 (to south,
Jan. 6, 1942)
808 (to north,
July 22, 1941)


14.09
(Oct. 13, 1947)


16.88
(Oct. 13, 1947)


None
(April 8, 1941)


6.28
(June 7, 1948)


12.05
(April 3, 1948)


Flow 1.210 efs measured
Oct. 1, 2, 1948


01


0

In


0


Elevation 18.56 ft.
Sept. 18, 1926;
10.05 ft. May 18, 1932


-- --


I









Table 3.-SURFACE-WATER GAGING STATIONS IN PALM BEACH COUNTY THROUGH DECEMBER 31, 1951-Continued


Highest of Record4 Lowest of Record4

No. Type
on Streams, Canals, etc. Location Period of Record2 of Flow WaterElevation Flow WaterElevation Remarks
MaP1 Record8 (cubic feet (feet above (cubic feet (feet above
per second) sea level) per second) sea level)
43 do............... 05milenortheast of Hills-
boro Canal,
4 miles northwest of Elbow
Bend................... M ay, 1951, to............ Ed ....... ..........................................

44 do............... 0.5 mile southwest of Hills-
boro Canal,
8 miles northwest of Elbow
Bend...............,. June, 1951, to ..... Ed ......................................... ..............

45 do.................. 0.5 mile southwest of Hills
boro Canal,
3 miles northwest of Elbow
Bend ................. June, 1951, to- ..... Ed .............. ............................ .........

46 do.............. 0.5 mile south of Hills-
boro Canal,
3 miles east of Elbow Bend May, 1951, to ..... Ed ........................................................

47 do.............. 0.5 mile northeast of North
New River Canal at
Broward-Palm Beach
_County Line............ June, 1951, to .... Ed .......................................... ..............
1 See numbered points on map (Fig. 2) for location.
2 When no second date is shown, station was continued in operation after December 31, 1951.
3 Meaning of symbols:
Fd-Record of flow each day; Fo-Occasional measurement of flow; Ed-Record of water elevation each day; Eo-Occasional measurement of water elevation.
4 Dates shown in parentheses.
Published in Surface Water Supply of the United States, Part 2 South Atlantic Slope, Eastern Gulf of Mexico Basin, U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper, issued annually.


-I






0






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


one of the major waterways in this county because it was dug to
full depth for only a short distance south of Lake Okeechobee. These
drainage canals follow roughly parallel southeasterly courses from
Lake Okeechobee to the Atlantic Ocean.

Natural streams are few and of relatively little importance in
the county. The largest is the Loxahatchee River.

The West Palm Beach Canal runs from Canal Point on the lake to
just south of West Palm Beach. It is from 80 to 150 feet wide and the
elevation of the bottom is from about 5 feet above sea level at Canal
Point to about 5 feet below sea level just upstream from the lock and
dam at Poinsettia Avenue (Dixie Highway), West Palm.Beach. The
flow and elevation of the water surface in the canal are regulated by
a hurricane gate at the lake, a lock and dam at Canal Point, and the
lock and dam near West Palm Beach.

The elevation of the land at Canal Point is about 15 feet above
sea level. During the more than 10 years of record presented in this
report, the water has been above the present ground surface eleva-
tion about 11 percent of the time (figure 12). The most serious flooding
occurred in October 1947, when the highest water elevation reached
was nearly 4 feet above ground surface.

Proceeding down the West Palm Beach Canal, the land elevation
gradually gets lower until, at 20-Mile Bend, it is about 13.5 feet above
sea level. During the period July 1947 to October 1950, the water was
above the land about 26 percent of the time, occasional to a depth of
more than 3.5 feet. It should be realized that the 26 percent may be
a higher than average percentage of time of flooding, inasmuch as
the 2 flood years of 1947 and 1948 are included in the 3-year period
of record.

From 20-Mile Bend to Loxahatchee, the land surface rises to about
18.5 feet. At Loxahatchee, the water elevation in the canal has not
been higher than a foot below ground surface since 1942, when the
collection of records was started.

At the lock and dam near West Palm Beach, the land is about
18 feet above sea level and according to the records the canal at this
location has never overflowed its banks. Since November 1939, when
the Geological Survey record began, the highest water elevation was
7 feet below the ground level. Records of the Everglades Drainage
District show the water reached within 5 feet of ground level in 1924.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 13


The Hillsboro and North New River canals leave Lake Okee-
chobee in a single channel through a hurricane gate at Chosen, near
Belle Glade. They divide into separate channels about 0.2 mile east
of the hurricane gate.
Hillsboro Canal empties into the sea near Deerfield Beach in
Broward County. Its channel averages about 70 feet in width. The
elevation of the canal bottom is about 4 feet above sea level at Belle
Glade and about 7 feet below sea level just downstream from the
lock and dam near Deerfield Beach. Between Shawano and Elbow
Bend part of the channel was never dug to the depth originally
planned. Regulation of flow and water elevation is provided by the
hurricane gate at Lake Okeechobee, Structure S-39 (spillway) 14
miles upstream from the coast, and the lock and dam near Deerfield
Beach.
At Belle Glade, where the land is about 16.5 feet above sea level,
the Hillsboro Canal has not overflowed its banks during the 11 years
of record since 1940, except for a few days in 1940 and 1947 at which
time there was less than a foot of water above ground.
At the next gaging station downstream, Shawano, the land is about
13 feet above sea level. At this point, the land has been flooded about
25 percent of the time in the 10 years since January 1942. Depth of
water on the land surface has been more than 3 feet at times. The
1947 flood was the highest flood during that period-the water was
more than 19 feet above sea level.
The record at Hillsboro Canal at Range Line Road covers only a
4-year period. During that time, however, no overflow has occurred,
even during the flood of 1947. The ground elevation is about 15.5
feet above sea level.
At the lock and dam on Hillsboro Canal near Deerfield Beach, the
land is about 13.5 feet above sea level. The water elevation in the
canal has not been above land surface since collection of records
was started in 1939, although it was only 1.5 feet below ground surface
in October 1944.
After dividing from the Hillsboro Canal, the North New River
Canal runs south about 10 miles, then southeastward, entering Brow-
ard County at a point about 30 miles west of Deerfield Beach. From
that point, it flows south and east through Broward County to the
coast at Fort Lauderdale. Its channel is about 70 to 100 feet wide
and the elevation of the bottom varies from about 4 feet above sea





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


greater cost of a deep well and for the corrosive nature of the water.
The quantity of artesian water used in the county is negligible as
compared to the amount of shallow ground water used.
Wells drilled into the artesian aquifer in Palm Beach County are
usually about 1,000 feet deep. Properly developed wells 12 inches
in diameter will yield a flow of 800 to 1,000 gallons per minute at
the land surface.
The first published discussion of artesian ground water in Palm
Beach County is included in a report by Sellards and Gunter (1913).
Analyses were given for only three wells along the coast. One is an
artesian well in Palm Beach which contained 3,000 ppm of dissolved
solids. This is typical of artesian waters in the area as shown by
analyses made in the 1940's.
Collins and Howard (1928) list an analysis for an artesian well
1,080 feet deep in West Palm Beach; the water had a chloride con-
centration of 2,345 ppm. This is typical of water from such depth
in this area. Stringfield (1933, pp. 22-25) observed that the water
from a well near Belle Glade was less mineralized between depths
of 900 and 1,332 feet than it was between depths of 300 and 900 feet;
water from the greater depths contained about 1,650 parts per million
of chloride, whereas the water from the shallower depths in this
well contained about 2,200 ppm. Artesian wells in the West Palm
Beach area tap the same part of the Floridan aquifer as does the
well near Belle Glade down to 900 feet; the quality of the water is
similar (table 2).

SURFACE WATER
Surface-water information of two types is collected at particular
points in a stream, lake, or other body of water. The first type per-
tains to the height or elevation of the water surface; the second, on
streams only, to the discharge or amount of water flowing and the
direction of flow. The points at which one or the other or both types
of information are collected are called gaging stations.
A record of the elevation of the water surface at a gaging station
is obtained either by reading a gage at intervals of time or by the
use of a water-level recorder. Gages that need to be read are generally
enameled steel scales set vertically in the water. The zeros of gages
are maintained at a known elevation, and are usually with reference
to sea level. Water-level recorders actuated by float and clock mecha-





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


level at South Bay to about sea level at the county line. Water eleva-
tion and flow are regulated by the hurricane gate, a lock and dam
at South Bay, a dam at 26-Mile Bend in Broward County, about 8
miles southeast of the county line, Structure S-34 (culvert) at 20-
Mile Bend, and a 'lock and dam near Fort Lauderdale.
At South Bay, where the land surface is about 14.5 feet above sea
level, the water surface in the North New River Canal was above
ground level about 7 percent of the time between 1939 and 1951. The
maximum depth of water on the land surface during that period was
about 2 feet. The flood of July 1926, before construction of protective
levees around the south shore of Lake Okeechobee, was considerably
higher than any flood recorded in the period 1939-51. During the
1926 flood the water level was about 20.6 feet above sea level. This
water elevation does not represent 6 feet of water above ground in
1926, as might be supposed, inasmuch as the land surface at this place
was 2 or 3 feet higher than it is now. Settling and oxidation of the
muck soil are responsible for the lowering of this land surface that
has occurred since 1926.
The land elevation at 26-Mile Bend on the North New River Canal
in Broward County is about 9 feet above sea level. As is to be ex-
pected in the undeveloped Everglades, the land here has been flooded
about two-thirds of the time since 1941. For about 28 percent of the
time the water was from 1 foot to more than 3 feet deep over the land.
The Miami Canal would be equal to the other canals in impor-
tance if the channel were continuous. However, the canal was dug to
full depth for only about 9 miles south from Lake Harbor. From that
point it was dug only through the muck soil to the top of the under-
lying rock. Over the course of the years since this excavating
was done, the banks in this section of the canal have slid and washed
into the channel and vegetation has grown thickly so that the shallow
part of the canal is now almost completely choked. Thus, in effect,
water flows from the deep part of the channel directly into the open
Everglades.
Although flow in the canals is generally, from Lake Okeechobee
toward the coast, the flow at times is reversed at the upper ends of
each canal and movement of water is toward Lake Okeechobee,
owing to various combinations of concentrated rainfall and pumping
from cultivated lands into the channels. The flow was towards the
lake in Hillsboro Canal at Belle Glade 17 percent of the time (1942-
50), in North New River Canal at South Bay 2 percent of the time





















w"

sx
*,s


I-

-4
Z w

20

-J.
S18 "
w
-J





S14


w12 -
i.


10


ro






4
0.1


LL
ow
L'I
wq
j4
0


LLZ
04
L'i
V) w

W Z


11.8 19.5 25.1 26.6 28.3 31.0 32.3 36.6 38.2
DISTANCE,IN MILES, FROM LAKE OKEECHOBEE


LIZ





I-
C,


41.4


FIGURE 9.


Selected water-surface profiles on West Palm Beach canal.


I *


*0











I-





z


_





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


(1942-50), and in West Palm Beach Canal at Canal Point 17 percent
of the time (1939-50). Many laterals and pumps pour water into the
canals for drainage at times of excessive rainfall and at other times
take it out for irrigation, making the pattern of flow in the canals
quite complicated. Figure 9, which shows the water-level profile in
West Palm Beach Canal on selected dates, illustrates the variable
flow conditions that sometimes occur. The profile for October 24,
1950, shows that water was then flowing toward Lake Okeechobee
in the lake end of the canal and toward the ocean in the other end.
There are times when there is no discernible flow and no net
flow during whole days in either direction in varying reaches of
these canals.
Lake Okeechobee is the second largest fresh-water lake wholly
within the boundaries of the United States, being exceeded in size
only by Lake Michigan. Its area is about 700 square miles. It is rela-
tively shallow, the bottom at the deepest part being about at sea
level. Elevation of the lake surface is controlled by gates at the outlet
channels, and the lake level is generally held between about 12.6
and 15.6 feet above sea level. The lake is fed principally by the Kis-
simmee River which enters from Okeechobee County. Smaller tribu-
taries include Fisheating Creek, Harney Pond Canal, Indian Prairie
Canal, Taylor Creek, and lesser streams from small drainage basins
adjacent to the lake. The principal outlets, in addition to the canals
mentioned above, are the Caloosahatchee River, in Glades County,
and the St. Lucie Canal, in Martin County.
The principal use of surface water in Palm Beach County is for
the irrigation of truck crops and sugar cane. Clear and Mangonia
lakes are the major sources of water supply for the City of West
Palm Beach. Water for the cities of Canal Point, Clewiston, Belle
Glade, Okeechobee, Pahokee, and South Bay is taken from Lake
Okeechobee.
Lake Okeechobee is fairly uniform in chemical composition through-
out its area and from one season to another (see fig. 10). The average
hardness is about 135 ppm. An unusual fact about the lake water is that
the hardness is about 5 times greater than the hardness of the Kis-
simmee River and other tributary streams that contribute the greater
part of the water to the lake. Although there are several possible
explanations, it appears that the increased hardness of the lake water
is caused by the inter-action of the inflowing soft water with the
limestone bottom of the lake.






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 13


The major drainage canals in Palm Beach County are subject to
large changes in chemical quality. As they leave Lake Okeechobee
they have water of about the same quality as the lake so long as
water is released from the lake. Within a few miles, however, the
quality is affected adversely by inflowing surface and ground water
from the Everglades. The amount of dissolved minerals increases
rapidly from about 185 ppm in Lake Okeechobee to over 600 ppm


FIGURE 10. Map of Lake Okeechobee area showing gaging station and
quality-of-water sampling stations.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


in some locations in the canals. Hardness and color also increase
rapidly with distance from the lake.
Water in the West Palm Beach, Hillsboro, and North New River
canals, except close to Lake Okeechobee as noted above, is moderately
to excessively hard and is highly colored during most seasons of the
year. The color is generally higher during the rainy season when
most of the runoff is derived from water that flows over or through
the muck soils. The Hillsboro Canal is typical. During an 18-month
period of intensive study at Shawano (fig. 2) it was observed that
the hardness ranged from 164 to 418 ppm. During the same period
the total content of dissolved minerals ranged from 286 to 863 ppm
and color from 35 to 560. Color in excess of 10 is considered unde-
sirable for public water supplies.
For many years the public water supply for Belle Glade was ob-
tained from the Hillsboro Canal. The chemical quality was so highly
variable that the treatment plant was unable to cope with the sudden
and large changes in concentration of dissolved minerals and in the
color of the water. The situation was so unsatisfactory that the canal
was abandoned in favor of Lake Okeechobee as a source of supply.
The quality of water in the drainage canals in Palm Beach County
apparently has no adverse effect on the use of the water for irrigation,
although there are practical limits above which the concentration
of dissolved minerals interferes with plant growth. The canal waters
would have to be treated for most industrial uses. However, the
treatment would be variable and expensive, and probably not eco-
nomically feasible so long as water of better quality can be obtained
at moderate cost.
The only other surface waters of any consequence in the county
are the small lakes between the Everglades and the coastal ridge.
Clear Lake and Lake Mangonia are used as the source of the public
supply of Palm Beach and West Palm Beach. These waters are very
soft-hardness averages about 20 to 25 ppm. The water is treated to
overcome its tendency to corrode plumbing. Lake Osborne varies in
chemical quality with the seasons of the year. Based on a limited
study of the lake, the hardness ranges from about 125 to 240 ppm.
In summary, the chemical quality of the Everglades canals is
highly variable. The water is satisfactory for irrigation but unsatis-
factory for industrial or municipal use without costly treatment.
Lake Okeechobee provides a source of hard but otherwise good
quality water suitable for most beneficial uses. Two of the small
coastal lakes are sources of very soft water and are used for public





Table 4.-CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF SURFACE WATER IN PALM BEACH COUNTY, IN PARTS PER MILLION


Lake Okeechobee


July 30, 1940.......... .. .... 40....... 376 ................. 41 11 22 138 27 38 ........ 0.4 207 148
arch 11, 1941.................. 337 ........ ........ 38 11 17 121 29 33 ........ .4 188 140
DecemberS, 1950 ........ 6 104 7.3 313 7.1 0.01 34 7.3 16 1.7 117 21 25 0.1 1.4 202 115
April 6,1951............. 73 40 8.1 400 7.8 .02 36 8.6 22 1.6 117 32 34 .2 1.2 266 125



West Palm Beach Canal at West Palm Beach


April, 1941............. ........ 140 ........ 891 ........ ........ 67 25 90 259 69 127 ........ 4.0 510 270
October 23,1941................. 160 ....... 241 ................ 27 5.8 14 102 7.0 22 ........ .2 76 91
Jne 4, 1942................. 140 ......... 180 ................. 19 3.6 15 61 14 22 ........ .2 104 62
November 11, 1942. ...... ....... 150 ........ 1,010 ........ ........ 67 25 103 252 67 153 ........ 1.6 541 270
October 7, 1943.......... ..... ........ 1294 ........ ........ 34 6.6 12 98 10 33 ........ .3 144 112
December 31, 1943........ .. ...... 95 ........ 1,070 ........ ........ 62 22 132 252 58 188 ........ .8 587 245
M ay 31, 1944............ ........ 30 ........ 510 ........ ........ 53 12 35 178 28 58 ........ .4 274. 182
July 1, 1944 ..................... 70... ........ 1,050 ........ ........ 60 20 133 272 49 175 ........ .2 571 232



West Palm Beach Canal at Loxahatchee


1,110
267


24
5.2


0.00
.22


82
32


22
2.2


July 5-9, 1951...........
October 15-20, 1951......


124
18


o






z

c
"3


0
53


260
110


7.7


328
96


66


162
29


0.3
.2


4.0
.9








Table 4.-CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF SURFACE WATER IN PALM BEACH COUNTY, IN PARTS PER MILLION-Continued


I'ate of ('oUlctiou


I


M ay 21, 1941 ............
August 22, 1941 ..........
January 22, 1942.........
August 7, 1942...........
June 2, 1943.............
November 30, 1943.......
January 31, 1944.........
May 31, 1944............


.........


S. .... .. .


200
240
100
240
120
190
120
tO


.- C


... 40 ....... ......
. . 344
..... .. 178 .. .
S... 994 .... ...
1, i 470.


j 1,310 ........ ........


Hillsboro Canal at Shawano


June 1-10, 1951 .......... ....... 45 .6 458 11 0.05 46 12 30 1.7 162 36 44 0.3 1.3 2 8 154
August 21-31, 1951............... 280 7.8 1,170 28 .00 105 38 113 4.5 502 52 136 1.0 3.2 863 413


Miami Canal at Lake Harbor


December 18, 1939.......
July 28 1940...........
March 10, 1941..........
October 26, 1941.........
May 29, 1945............
September 23, 1945......


190
200
280
180
190


........

1. .......


i. .. ..


425
666
351
194
1,470
418


.. . .. .
... 45

43
28
168
65


13

11
5.2
39
II


22

8.3
2.9
99
12


152
231
152
94
568
186


32
108
23
5.8
69
57


. . 226
. .. ... .... .. .
0.4 270
.6 91
8.3 841
.4 251


I -


Hillsboro Canal at Deerfield Beach


18
9.2
1.6
23
27
7.4
15
26


256
131
69
314
384
72
242
388


21
6.6
6.4
21
52
5.6
23
34


139
42
20
1 4
285
38
123
216


45'1


517

124
425
703i


211
I

(12
274
376
93
236
336
>


__ __


i






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 13


supply purposes. The water in a third lake is moderately hard but
otherwise of good quality.
Results of chemical analyses of surface waters in Palm Beach
County are given in table 4. Locations of sampling points at which
samples were collected during a study of water in Lake Okeechobee
are given in figure 10.

STREAMFLOW RECORDS
Summaries of several of the more important gaging-station records
in Palm Beach County are given in tables 5-10 which follow. Table
5 shows a summary of tide heights for Jupiter River near Jupiter as
an example of the effect of Atlantic Ocean tides on water levels in
the ocean ends of waterways draining into the sea. Tables 6-10 show
the volumes of water passing selected gaging stations each month
and year during the period of record for each station through 1950.
A casual examination of these tables reveals the large variations in
flow during the months of a single year as well as those during the
same month in the several years. Data of this type are indispensable
in determining the adequacy of available water supplies for irriga-
tion and other needs. Although tables, of monthly flow like those re-
produced in this report may be used in making rough appraisals of
volumes of water to be discharged during flood times, records of
daily flow are of much greater value. Records of daily flow should
be used in connection with the design of drainage channels for flood
control to determine the total volumes of water to be handled during
storm periods and the maximum rates at which the water must be
carried in the channels. Other uses of streamflow data, monthly or
daily, are numerous.
The records collected in Palm Beach County are available in
U. S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers or on file in U. S.
Geological Survey offices at Ocala and Miami, Florida.
Examples of one way in which water-level and streamflow data
are analyzed graphically are shown by the diagrams in figures 11-21
which follow immediately after the tables of discharge data discussed
above. These diagrams were used in making the analyses pertaining
to percentage of time given in the section on Surface Water. These
diagrams show the percentage of time during the period of record
that the water level (figs. 11-16) or discharge (figs. 17-21) equaled
or exceeded any given value. Extremely high water levels or high






FI-ORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


rates of flood were equaled or exceeded during only a small per-
centage of the time, whereas extremely low water levels or rates
of flow were equaled or exceeded during a large percentage of the time.
The two types of curves shown in figures 11-21 are called stage-
duration and flow-duration curves.
Stage-duration curves show the percentage of the time the water
elevation equaled or exceeded any given stage. For drainage channels
like those in Palm Beach County stage-duration curves (figures 11-16)
have many uses. When water levels in the canals are compared with
land-surface elevations these curves may be used to estimate the
percentage of time adjacent lands may be covered with water or to
estimate the percentage of time that water levels may be high enough
to waterlog the land. Thus these curves indicate, to some degree at
least, the acuteness of flood-control problems in particular areas.
These curves may be used also to estimate, for farming areas imme-
diately adjacent to gaging station sites, the percentage of the time
that water levels may be lower than is best for soil-moisture supply.
These curves, which represent past occurrences, can be used to esti-
mate future occurrences to the extent that water conditions during
the period of record are a fair sample of conditions over a long period
of time.
Flow-duration curves (figures 17-21) may be used to study the flow
characteristics of a stream. For example, a flat curve shows that the
variation in flow is relatively small during most of the time. This is
characteristic of streams that have large surface or ground storage
from which to draw water and are the more dependable streams for
water supply.








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 13 45



Table 5.-TIDE-HEIGHT RECORDS FOR JUPITER RIVER AT JUPITER
(Negative Figures Indicate Elevation below Mean Sea Level)


Water Elevation in Feot Above Mean Sea Level
Average
Period Range
Highest Lowest Average of Tide
High Tide Low Tide Average Low Tide (Feet)


1044
July............... ....... .. ... 0.8 0.5 0.21 -0.04 0.49
August.......... ........ ....... .8 .5 .09 .10 .50
September1..................... 1.2 .2 .48 .22 .52
October......................... 2.4 0 1.01 .78 .48
November.......................1 4 .1 .83 .59 .48
Decembert...................... 1 4 8 .26 .04 .40

1045
January ................. .... .7 -.5 .07 -.18 .50
February...................... .2 -.8 -.33 -.55 .44
March........... .......... .... .2 -1.0 -.44 -.04 .42
April .................... .. .. .n -.0 -.05 27 .44
May..................... .... .8 .5 0.00 .24 .49
June....... .............. ..... 0 -.8 -.10 -.42 .46
July1........................... .3 -.6 -.18 -.41 .46
August.................. ....... .7 .5 .04 .18 .40
September ............... ........ 1.1 .1 .4 .23 .46
October....................... 2.2 .3 1 15 .94 .42
November....................... 1.7 0 .92 .70 .44
December................... .... 1.1 -.3 .43 .19 .46

1040
January................. ..... .8 -.7 -.01 -.24 .46
February1 ....................... -. -. -.27 .44
March 1.................. ....... -. .21 -.03 .48
May1................... ...... 5 --8 .13 .36 .46
September............. ......... 1.5 .4 .88 .600 .45
October1... ..... ........ .... 2,1 .4 1.26 1.03 .45
November ..................... 1..0 0 1.07 .85 .44
December............... ...... 2.4 -.3 .96 .74 .44

1947
January.................. .... .8 --.6 .09 -.15 .49
February1...................... 1.3 -.5 .29 .05 .47
M arch .............. ............ 1.2 .4 .45 .22 .47
April .................. ....... .7 -.8 .09 -.15 .49
May............ ............... .8 -- .0 .08 .17 .51
June......................... 1.5 -.1 .66 .44 .45
July.... ... ..... .............. 1.3 .4 .61 .39 .44
August. ....................... 1.4 .5 .38 .03 .81

1048
JulyI .... ........................ 1.0 -.6 .18 -.22 .80

July, 1944, to July, 1947 (33 months).. 2.4 -1.0 .34 .11 .46


1 Record for month not complete.















Table &6-MONTHLY AND ANNUAL FLOW OF WEST PALM BEACH CANAL AT CANAL POINT
(NORTHWEST OF DAM), IN THOUSANDS OF ACRE-FEET

(Negative Figures Indicate flow to Northwest)


Year


1939................
1940...............

1941............ ..
1942......... ....
1943...............
1944............. .
1945............ .

1946.............
1947...............
1948 ...............
1949................
1950.. ........ ..

Avemrge.............

Eg .est ... .... ...
Lwestr..............


January February



22.59 21.35


-.84
23.09
15.16
15.33
20.15

25.44
23.36

35.05
4.47

16.71

35.05
-.84


-4.47
20.82
15.71
16 79
16.08

23.47
21.87
22.13
35.37
26.17

19.57

35.37
-4.47


March April


17.19

8.59
10.88
14.16
15.65
21.43

24.66
-.38
34.01
37.48
32.30

19.63

37.48
-.38


18.96

7.65
3.08
16.92
12.60
19.59

24.25
4.50
26.93
33.71
31.54

18.168

33.71
3.08


May June


28.98

12.29
19.68
16.95
20.08
21.03

22.29
14.35
24.39
36.36
33.27

22.70

36.36
12 29


7.47

23.90
-67.24
11.25
9.53
9.12

16.92
-13.86
23.47
15.43
30.06

6.00

30.08
-67.24


July August



13.32 -8.17


-29.36
-9.57
-13.86
13.29
-24.94

11.64
-57.75
22.40
4.01
24.29

-4.23


24.29
-57.75


12.50
23.58
1.92
8.72
-11.34

-.54
-27.30
-.82
-5.01
22.21

1.43

23.58
-27.30


September October November December


........ ......... 19.80
-17.17 19.71 16.70 23.31

-12.71 -14.93 20.66 22.31
6.31 25.44 12.36 13.66
-6.02 4.26 16.52 11.16


857
-48.36

-17.66
-18.42
-27.66
-25.63
19.15

-12.69

19.15
-48.36


-17.67
-2.04


20.52
...........
-7.41
-6.39


2.15


12.20
20.07


.05


26.05
...........




13.90

26.05
...........


25.44
-17.67


23.57
26.38


22.62

38.85
22.63
...........

20.39

38.85
...........


23

>
Cm
S
I
5

0



n
r
v,


c



.<
,<


Annual



164.2

45.60
82.03
104.1
138.7
67.23

173.7
-53.63
170.7
209.1
...........


110.18

209.1
-53.63


i


I


r- -


I.-













Table 7.-MONTHLY AND ANNUAL FLOW OF WEST PALM BEACH CANAL AT WEST PALM BEACH,
IN THOUSANDS OF ACRE-FEET


Year January February March April May June July August September October November December Annual


1939............... ........... ....... ... ........... ........ ... ........ .......... .......... ............ ..... ...... ........... 52.22 42.08 ...........
1940............... 45.95 44.22 46.58 47.14 41.78 78.00 60.17 102.4 161.7 88.46 69.52 68.22 854.1

1941 .............. 119.4 94.21 84.36 89.68 62.63 46.06 136.4 93.06 131.3 132.3 71.20 49.13 1,110
1942 ................ 52.27 39.90 56.47 117.0 60.96 169.9 90.25 59.68 77.81 56.46 34.89 26.77 842.4
194 82 ............. 25.46 23.06 30.10 22.75 21.53 22.98 53.50 51.51 68.32 89.38 58.07 35.08 501.7
194................ 29.42 21.89 25.55 21.87 26.38 23.03 27.37 48.35 48.57 91.99 58.68 35.58 458.7
194..5............. 34.70 21.43 20.06 11.65 12.93 28.06 47.72 44.84 122.9 128.9 64.66 37.11 575.0 .

1946............... 39.16 24.77 32.30 24.42 51.57 68.79 68.52 65.96 128.1 79.18 97.25 60.64 740.7
947................ 37.49 35.26 103.4 56.20 28.69 123.5 182.0 143.6 169.2 239.1 154.0 120.6 1,393
1948................ 96.20 56.08 48.22 38.02 42.80 32.93 41.42 82.45 149.9 190.9 78.16 49.91 907.0
1949................ 37.99 29.64 30.49 29.64 34.56 53.92 55.12 74.14 99.09 84.69 46.66 54.59 630.5
1980................ 87.49 32.19 31.92 29.05 26:77 28.36 42.19 56.80 66.71 123.7 83.29 38.52 647.0

1951................ 27.37 31.44 19.45 33.00 34.56 40.99 66.97 65.22 70.02 ...........................................

Average............. 52.75 37.84 44.07 43.37 37.10 59.71 72.63 74.00 107.8 118.6 72.38 51.52 787.2

Higbest............. 119.5 94.21 103.4 117.0 62.63 169.9 182.0 143.6 169.2 239.1 154.0 120.6 1,393
Lowest.............. 25.46 21.43 19.45 11.65 12.93 22.98 27.37 44.84 48.57 56.46 34.89 26.77 458.7













Table 8-MONTHLY AND ANNUAL FLOW OF HILLSnORO CANAL AT BELLt GLADE,
IN THOUSANDS OF ACRE-FEET

(Negative Figures Indicate Flow to Northwest)


Year January February March April May June July August September October November December Annuld i


1940................ 16.97 16.51 19.62 17.32 21.77 16.96 14.82 9.47 -0.01 14.15 17.65 18.45 183.7

1941 ................ 10.38 3.03 9.18 6.23 7.35 7.98 -5.15 3.68 3.42 -.14 8.68 11.14 65.78 )
1942................ 12.26 10.20 8.29 5.53 6.92 -10.35 -6.74 3.23 -.34 9.67 9.40 9.54 57.61 ,
1943 ............... 9.93 8.98 9.23 7.94 6.13 3.84 2.53 5.31 3.87 7.42 7.15 5.23 77.56 0
1944................ 6.19 7.93 9.25 9.08 6.51 5.60 4.75 -1.77 4.13 -.89 9.68 12.39 72.67
1945................ 10.92 9.41 8.53 5.93 4.36 .48 -8.04 -3.75 -1.17 5.32 2.46 8.74 43.19

1946................. 8.78 11.82 12.56 12.25 7.35 6.50 6.02 6.75 1.68 1.08 -2.82 -4.25 67.72
1947................ 5.00 7.10 2.95 -.01 5.28 3.39 -.27 6.26 3.20 -7.07 -10.55 -.08 15.20 ^
1948 ............... .38 7.84 15.97 11.86 18.39 16.86 11.61 9.14 3.53 -1.10 .25 14.45 109.2 C
1949............... 17.20 16.12 20.92 13.54 13.76 14.46 8.44 .10 -7.56 .85 8.38 12.20 118.4
1950 ................ -.62 13.45 16.62 15.43 15.84 15.53 14.38 12.52 8.16 ...........................................

Average.............. 8.85 10.22 12.10 9.55 10.33 7.39 3.85 4.63 1..72 2.93 5.03 8.78 81.10

Highest ............. 17.20 16.51 20.92 17.32 ..21.77 16.96 14.82 12.52 8.16 14.15 17.65 18.45 183.7
Lowest............... -.62 3.03 2.95 -.01 4.36 -10.35 -8.04 -3.75 -7.56 -7.07 -10.55 -4.25 15.20














Table 9.-MONTHLY AND ANNUAL FLOW OF ILLSmORO CANAL NEAR DEERFIELD BEACH
(ABOVE DAM), IN THOUSANDS OF ACRE-FEET


Year January February March April May June July August September October November December Annual


1989. .............. ........... ........... ........... ........... ........... ........... ........... ........... ........... ........... 52.96 12.94 ...........
.1940................. 18.07 17.87 13.23 13.69 3.40 26.07 13.35 24.84 92.47 53.21 .36.16 29.13 341.5

.191................ 44.87 57.63 38.57 47.68 20.72 29.78 94.76 58.64 60.31 79.74 36.03 14.17 582.9
192............... 40.89 16.52 20.31 52.58 46.89 103.4 .55.58 20.69 34.75 13.86 4.17 4.17 413.8
194................. 2.84 2.12 1.94 2.00 2.13 2.20 3.13 4.21 16.78 25.23 10.55 10.00 83.13
.1944 ................ 4.67 2.60 1.25 1.36 1.44 1.46 1.74 18.23 15.89. 32.22 12.60 3.53 96.99
1945.... ............. 4.62 1.33 1.01 .30 .40 .48 2.72 5.05 27.83 51.52 44.45 9.71 149.4

1946 ................ 12.94 .56 .51 .39 5.94 12.96 15.64 13.10 36.51 30.76 28.80 15.04 173.2
1947................ 9.01 5.82 36.28 16.51 8.18 62.66 94.89 89.91 104.7 137.0 87.61 75.95 728.5 0
1948............... 59.04 27.29 13.06 16.36 17.59 17.52 23.94 48.28 82.28 113.4 56.57 18.85 494.2 2
1949................ 8.81 5.11 4.34 11.14 8.23 23.93 26.19 38.45 63.76 64.41 34.41 34.70 323.5
1950 ............... 61.01 11.70 7.79 13.48 14.10 14.48 19.32 26.39 20.31 63.83 37.53 14.90 804.8

1951................ 8,34 12.59 3.22 13.45 7.59 12.05 30.52 45.15 46.96 ............................................

Average ............. 22.93 13.43 11.79 15.74 11.38 25.58 31.82 32.74 50.21 60.47 36.82 20.26 335.6

Highest ............. 61.01 57.63 38.57 52.58 46.89 103.4 94.89 89.91 104.7 137.0 87.61 75.95 728.5
Lowest............. 2.84 .56 .51 .30 .40 .48 1.74 4.21 15.89 13.86 4.17 3.53 83.13











Table 10.-MONTHLY AND ANNUAL PLOW OF NORTH NEW RIVER CANAL AT SOUTH BAY
(SOUTH OF DAM), IN THOUSANDS OF ACIRE-FET
(Negative PFgures Indicate Flow to North)


Year January February March April May June July August September October November December Annual


10.9..................... ...................................... ........... ........... ................................. ........... 8.06...........
140................ 8.92 5.80 3.42 2.61 6.89 7.74 9.28 9.47 6.72 4.77 11.09 8.90 85.61

1941................ 8.20 6.09 7.27 5.66 7.22 1.41 -12.34 2.64 5.08 6.90 5.23 8.08 51.44
94................. 5.16 4.72 6.06 4.94 2.72 -10.93 -.19 10.58 5.67 10.24 11.03 12.29 62.29
1943................ 8.80 8.72 9.40 7.23 5.84 3.42 4.76 5.33 6.18 10.91 11.60 10.56 92.75
144 ................ 10.41 8.74 8.45 5.86 8.77 3.21 7.63 1.04 1.44 3.80 4.91 4.84 69.10
1945................ 11.22 7.53 4.84 7.99 5.92 4.32 1.53 5.60 3.75 3.14 3.33 3.75 62.89 1

1946................ 4.55 5.77 7.75 11.60 11.73 5.71 5.41 5.10 5.12 3.94 5.27 11.33 83.28
1947................ 11.46 10.23 6.71 3.67 6.81 6.27 2.44 .78 19.66 24.64 17.06 4.83 114.6
1948................ 6.07 10.02 21.51 22.02 23.88 14.77 17.18 19.75 11.05 9.66 -.02 5.19 161.1
1949................ 22.94 26.11 35.03 26.98 19.39 14.66 8.65 9.85 14.54 7.93 18.97 25.01 230.1
1950................ 14.16 23.70 25.84 26.00 26.32 26.67 27.49 19.83 15.99 ....................... ........... ...........

Average............ 10.17 10.68 12.39 11.32 11.41 7.02 6.53 8.18 8.65 8.59 8.85 9.35 101.3

Highest............. 22.94 26.11 35.03 26.98 26.32 26.67 27.49 19.83 19.66 24.64 18.97 25.01 230.1
Lowest.............. 4.55 4.72 3.42 2.61 2.72 -10.93 -12.34 .78 1.44 3.14 -.02 3.75 51.44






19


-J3 '.
_j I.
LUI

~ I7
w

w

016
cc -

z 4
* LUi





Scz

w
12




II


_______ ________ _________ I. I ________


Ij


20


30


40


50


60


70


80





90


10


PERCENT OF DAYS WATER ELEVATION EQUALED OR EXCEEDED THAT SHOWN
FIGURE 11. Stage duration curve for Lake Okeechobee for period October 1941 to September 1950 (3,287 days).


0
0
.0s




I

f

?
%3.
0
0,


)0


.j








18



- 16
w

-
>I
414
s 1

ct
w

w
10



2 8

-J
w



4


20


30


40


50


60


70


80


90


PERCENT OF DAYS WATER ELEVATION EQUALED OR EXCEEDED THAT SHOWN
FIGURE 12. Stage-duration curves for West Palm Beach Canal.


Conar Point (S.E. of dam ),June 1940 to Sept. 1950(3,774 days)
Lond-surface elevation 15.5 ft above sea level

20-Mile Benl, July 1947 to Oct 1950 ( 1,066 days)
Lond-surface elevation 13.5 ft above sea level
















Loxahotchee, Sept. 1942 to Dec. 1951 (3,409 days)
Land-surface elevation 18.5 ft above sea level

West Palm Beach (above dam), Nov. 1939 to Sept. 1951 (4,352 days)
Land-surface elevation 18 ft above sea level
I I ---- I I L..I-


100









18








o 15
1, 7 __-----------------






01



i, L 14
Land-surface elevation 13.-5f above sea level
z _

l Ii 4








10
0 10 20 30 40 50 so 70 .80 90 100
PERCENT OF DAYS WATER ELEVATION EQUALED OR EXCEEDED THAT SHOWN,
FxGuR 13. Stage-duration curve for Cross CanaL at O0-Mile Bend levatbov dam) for period August 1947

to September 1950 (1,157 days).










-J

_J




LaJ
0




z

0
o
-J


I--
<








SJ
I--


10 20 30 40 50 60. 70 80 9
PERCENT OF DAYS WATER ELEVATION EQUALED OR EXCEEDED THAT SHOWN


'0


FrIGR 14. Stage-duration curves for Hillsboro Canal.


I I I I I
/ elle Glade, June 1940 to Sept 1950 ( 3,774 days)
Land-surface elevation 16.5 ft above sea level


Shawono, Jan. 1942 to Dec. 1951 (3,652 days)
Land-surface elevation 13 ft above sea level


















Range Line Road, Oct. 1947 to Dec. 1951 (1,553 days)
Land-surface elevation 15.5 ft above'sea level

Deerfield Beach (above dam ), Nov. 1939 to Sept. 1951 (4,352 days)-
Land-surface elevation 13.5 ft above sea level
I\ I i -I I


100














W Land-surface elevation 14.5 ft above sea level
24 14 --------------------------------
w







0
t1 2 ____________ _ _ _ ---------------------------------------------- _





cc .





d 0-------------------------------- 0 S1 0 0
November 1939 to September 1951 (4,352 days).
4 0
-. 12 ___________







0 10 20 30 40 50 60 .70 80 90 100
PERCENT OF DAYS WATER ELEVATION EQUALED OR EXCEEDED THAT SHOWN

FIGURE 15. Stage-duration curve for North New River Canal a t South Bay (north of dam) for period
November 1939 to September 1951 (4,352 days). .











































10. 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90


PERCENT OF DAYS WATER ELEVATION EQUALED OR


EXCEEDED THAT SHOWN


Stage-duration curve for Miami Canal at Lake Harbor (south of dam) for period May
June 1950 (1,522 days).


1946 to


IjJ





0
UJ






LLU
LIJ
ta







LJ
3

.-
UJ
UJ




O





I-u


FIGURE 16.


100








1,600


1,400
z
0
W 1,200

C r Note.- No measurable flow on 7.6% of days
1 ,000. ..

Flow to northwest o

0 00









S400 i 20 SO 40 50 60 70 80 90 00
200











PERCENT OF DAYS DISCHARGE EQUALED OR EXCEEDED THAT SHOWN
FIGURE 17. Flow-duration curve for West Palm Beach Canal at Canal Point (northwest of dam) for period
December 1939 to S eptember 1950 (3,957 days)
q 400 --






0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
PERCENT OF DAYS DISCHARGE EQUALED OR.EXCEEDED THAT SHOWN
FIGURE 17. Flow-duration curve for West Palm Beach Canal at Canal Point (northwest of dam) for period
December 1939 to September 1950 (3,957 days). u












Q
0
U
IdJ
Co

0.
I-
w
tU
w









a-
0




3


0)


20


30


40


50


60


70


80


90


FIGURE 18.


PERCENT OF DAYS DISCHARGE EQUALED OR EXCEEDED THAT SHOWN
Flow-duration curve for West Palm Beach Canal at West Palm Beach (above dam) for period
November 1939 to September 1951 (4,352 days).


8,00(



7, 00



6,00C



5,OOC



4,OOC






2,000



.1,000


31


0




0
cI.

W




C3


100








4 00 _____-------------- ------ ------------
400




o
0
w 300

I- Note.- No meosuroble flow on 1.4% of days
0
a.-


o200 "
m M
S\ Flow to southeast











1950 (2,891 days)
(\ /Flow to northwest -





0 ,10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
PERCENT OF DAYS DISCHARGE EQUALED OR EXCEEDED THAT SHOWN

FIGURomE 19. Flow-duration curve for Hillsboro Canal at Belle Glade for period November 1942 to September ,
1950 (2,891 days).






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 13


supply purposes. The water in a third lake is moderately hard but
otherwise of good quality.
Results of chemical analyses of surface waters in Palm Beach
County are given in table 4. Locations of sampling points at which
samples were collected during a study of water in Lake Okeechobee
are given in figure 10.

STREAMFLOW RECORDS
Summaries of several of the more important gaging-station records
in Palm Beach County are given in tables 5-10 which follow. Table
5 shows a summary of tide heights for Jupiter River near Jupiter as
an example of the effect of Atlantic Ocean tides on water levels in
the ocean ends of waterways draining into the sea. Tables 6-10 show
the volumes of water passing selected gaging stations each month
and year during the period of record for each station through 1950.
A casual examination of these tables reveals the large variations in
flow during the months of a single year as well as those during the
same month in the several years. Data of this type are indispensable
in determining the adequacy of available water supplies for irriga-
tion and other needs. Although tables, of monthly flow like those re-
produced in this report may be used in making rough appraisals of
volumes of water to be discharged during flood times, records of
daily flow are of much greater value. Records of daily flow should
be used in connection with the design of drainage channels for flood
control to determine the total volumes of water to be handled during
storm periods and the maximum rates at which the water must be
carried in the channels. Other uses of streamflow data, monthly or
daily, are numerous.
The records collected in Palm Beach County are available in
U. S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers or on file in U. S.
Geological Survey offices at Ocala and Miami, Florida.
Examples of one way in which water-level and streamflow data
are analyzed graphically are shown by the diagrams in figures 11-21
which follow immediately after the tables of discharge data discussed
above. These diagrams were used in making the analyses pertaining
to percentage of time given in the section on Surface Water. These
diagrams show the percentage of time during the period of record
that the water level (figs. 11-16) or discharge (figs. 17-21) equaled
or exceeded any given value. Extremely high water levels or high






4,000 1


3,500 0

0
'Q


Uj
a
o
w 3,000


2,5 0 0



o 2,000
0 1
U)
\





S 1.50 ---^- ------------------------- -*----- ----------
0
z 1,500







O ----------------


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
PERCENT OF DAYS DISCHARGE EQUALED OR EXCEEDED THAT SHOWN
FIzGRE 20. Flow-duration curve for Hillsboro Canal near Deer field Beach (above dam) for period November
1939 to September 1951 (4,352 days).












0
0
wU

-
w.

0



U


0n


800


700


600


500


400


306'


200


100


0


60


70


80


PERCENT OF DAYS


DISCHARGE EQUALED OR EXCEEDED THAT SHOWN


Flow-duration curve for North New River Canal at South Bay (south of dam) for period April
1942 to September 1950 (3,105 days).


Note.- No measurable flow on 1.6% of days





SFlow to south





Flow to north


50


20


7iGURE 21.


0




z
9
j
m
8

I


I
CO
2:
<^*


100


30


40


90


V


Y





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


SOURCES OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
Inquiries relating to current water-resources information for Palm
Beach County may be addressed to the following members of the
U. S. Geological Survey:

Ground Water:
District Geologist, GW
P. O. Box 348
Coconut Grove Station
Miami 33, Florida

Quality of Water:
District Chemist, QW
P. O. Box 607
Ocala, Florida

Surface Water:
District Engineer, SW
P. 0. Box 607
Ocala, Florida






REPORT OF INVESTrIGATIONS No. 13


REFERENCES
Black, A. P.
1951 (and Brown, E.) Chemical character of Florida's waters 1951:
Florida State Board of Conserv., Water Survey and Research
Paper, no. 6, 119 pp.
Clayton, B. S.
1942 (Neller, J. R., and Allison, R. V.) Water control in the peat and
muck soils of the Everglades: Univ. Fla. Expt. Sta. Bull. 378, 74 pp.
Collins, W. D.
1928 (and Howard, C. S.) Chemical Character of waters of Florida:
U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 596-G, pp. 177-233.
Cook, C. Wythe (Also see Parker, C. G.)
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29, 339 pp.
Ferguson, G. E. (Also see Parker, G. G.)
1943 Summary of 3 years of surface-water studies in the Everglades:
Soil Sci. Soc. of Florida Proc., vol. V, pp. 18-23.
Love, S. K.
1942 (and Swenson, H. A.) Chemical character of public water sup-
plies in southeastern Florida: Jour. Am. Water Works Assoc.,
vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1624-1628.
Parker, G. G.
1944 (and Cooke, G. W.) Late Cenozoic geology of southern Florida,
with a discussion of the ground water: Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 27, 119 pp.
1945 Salt-water encroachment in southern Florida: Jour Am. Water
Works Assoc., vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 526-542.
1951 Geologic and hydrologic factors in the perennial yield of the
Biscayne aquifer: Jour. Am. Water Works Assoc., vol. 43, no. 10,
pp. 817-834, 7 figs.
195- (Ferguson, G. E. Love, S. K., and others) Water resources of
southeastern Florida with special reference to the geology and
ground water of the Miami area: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply
Paper (in preparation).
Puri, Harbans S.
1953 Zonation of the Ocala Group in Peninsular Florida (abstract):
Jour. Sedimentry Petrology, vol. 23, no. 2, p. 130.
Sellards, E. H.
1913 (and Gunter, Herman) The artesian water supply of eastern and
southern Florida: Florida Geol. Survey 5th Ann. Rept.
Stringfield, V. T.
1933 Ground water in the Lake Okeechobee area, Florida: Florida
Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 2, 31 pp.
Vernon, R. 0.
1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy Counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Sur-
vey Bull. 33, 255 pp.










FLRD GEOLOSk ( IC SUfRiW


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