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 Title Page
 Florida State Board of Conserv...
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Geography
 Geology
 Ground water
 Summary and conclusions
 References
 Table 5 Record of wells


FGS FEOL



Water resource studies
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001196/00001
 Material Information
Title: Water resource studies ground water resources of Pinellas County, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 12 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Report of investigations 12 )
Physical Description: iii, 139 p. : illus., maps (part fold.) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Heath, Ralph C
Smith, Peter C. ( joint author )
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1954
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Groundwater -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Water-supply -- Florida -- Pinellas County   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Ralph C. Heath and Peter C. Smith.
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 51-52.
Funding: Report of investigations (Florida Geological Survey) ;
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000955569
oclc - 01726077
notis - AER8196
lccn - a 55009229
System ID: UF00001196:00001

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Florida State Board of Conservation
        Page ii
    Letter of transmittal
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
    List of Illustrations
        Page v
        Page vi
    Abstract
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Geography
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 5
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Geology
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 10
        Page 15
        14c14b
        Page 17
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Ground water
        Page 17
        Page 18
        18a
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 16
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    References
        Page 52
        Page 51
    Table 5 Record of wells
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
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        Copyright
            Copyright
Full Text


STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Charlie Bevis, Supervisor


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
\ Herman Gunter, Director




I REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS
NO. 12




WATER RESOURCE STUDIES



GROUND WATER RESOURCES
OF
PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA



$ By

( Ralph C. Heath and Peter C. Smith
Ground Water Branch
U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY



Prepared By The
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
In cooperation with the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
and the
BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS
of
Pinellas County



TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
1954










AGRI-
CULTURAM

FLORIDA STATE BOARD mBRARY


OF

CONSERVATION


CHARLEY JOHNS
Acting Governor


R. A. GRAY
Secretary of State


NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture


J. EDWIN LARSON
Treasurer


THOMAS D. BAILEY
Superintendent Public Instruction


CLARENCE M. GAY
Comptroller


RICHARD ERVIN
Attorney General


CHARLIE BEVIS
Supervisor of Conservation







LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL








Siorida geological Survey

Callahassee

June 15, 1954


Mr. Charlie Bevis, Supervisor
Florida State Board of Conservation
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Mr. Bevis:

One of the first cities in Florida to experience a failure of a
well field through salt water intrusion was the city of St. Peters-
burg.

This large population center is located on a narrow peninsula
and the heavy draft of water for municipal and other rapidly de-
veloping enterprises, such as tourist and beach attractions, perm-
anent homes, and large agricultural and other water-using busi-
nesses encouraged the county commissioners and officials of the
larger cities of the county to inventory its water supply.

This water resource study, undertaken by the United States
and Florida Geological Surveys at the request of the citizens of
Pinellas County is being published as Report of Investigations No.
12. It is a pleasure to record that a large source of potable water
was discovered during the investigation, lying wholly within the
boundaries of Pinellas County, and an adequate supply is available
for an increased development of the economy of the area.

Respectfully,

Herman Gunter, Director









CONTENTS

Page
Abstract ..........------------...................... ........ .. ... 1
Introduction ... ............ ..---.... ..................... 2
Purpose and scope of investigation --...--......-..--......-......-..........--- 3
Personnel and acknowledgments -....------.....-- ....----..-- ....- .------ 3
Previous investigations ...------...----_.-------------------..--- 4
Geography -.......---.-.......--------------------- ------.--.------ 5
Location and area ....--..----........------- .....--.......-------.------- 5
Climate .----..---.--..------.-..--.--.-..-----.-----.- 5------
Topography ----.......--- .-........------- ..-----....-----... -- 6
Terraces .----. ...-...-.--......-----....------ -..--..-...--...---..----- 7
Drainage ........ .... ...------------..---------- .----....----. 10
Geology ...... ----..---..---------------------.. --.--- 10
Oligocene series ..--..-.-----.-. .--.----...--.. ..-.--------------....-.. 10
Suwannee limestone --...-..--......._...--------..--- .. ---------10
Miocene series .-----..---------....--------------............-...-........ 12
Tampa formation ......--------- -------.........----..----- 13
Hawthorn formation ------ .. ....-.....-------......-...---------........-.... 15
Middle and upper Miocene deposits ........-------..-...-..--.--.-- 15
Pliocene(?) and Pleistocene series .....---....-----...-----.....----. 16
Ground water .............---------- ....----...----------.........---. 16
Occurrence ..-----.-...-..-..-.-.-. ---..---- ------.. ----.. 16
Water-level records -.........--------------- -.....---------. 18
Fluctuations of water levels ...-....-..-.--.-.- ---..-- .. ...----... 21
Fluctuations caused by rainfall ....------..-..----.--------......... 21
Fluctuations caused by pumping ---....---------..-.- .---------.....--. 22
Fluctuations caused by tides .-....----..---.-- ...------------.. 24
Fluctuations caused by earthquakes and trains ___--------....... 25
Fluctuations caused by changes in atmospheric pressure ---....26
Piezometric surface in Florida ..---.--- ..--- ........--.-----...---- 27
Piezometric surface in Pinellas County --....-..-...------.......-..-..-----... 29
Area of artesian flow ..... ...--- .. .. ........---------- -------.-..... -----------. 31
Salt-water encroachment ....------..............-..-------..----..--...-..-..-.--.---- 31
Relationship between fresh water and sea water ...--........----.. 32
Salt-water encroachment in Pinellas County -..-.......-....-------..--. 34
Underground drainage of Lake Tarpon ......-- .---........--------- -- 38
Quality of water- .--....--....-- ........-.....- .. ....--... ................---------- 42
Use of water --------......-.-...--.......-- .... .....----------------------------- 45
St. Petersburg water supply ...--------..................---------------- 47
Summary and conclusions .....-.....--......-...--..--..........------... --.........-- 48
References- ...-----.... .....................--------------..- ------------.. 51









ILLUSTRATIONS


Figure Page
1. Map of Florida showing location of Pinellas County------- 5
2. Map showing the Pleistocene terraces of Pinellas County _--.---_ 8
3. Geologic map of the Miocene deposits in Pinellas County .....----. 11
4. North-south geologic section through Pinellas County .-....-----_ 12
5. Map showing the approximate altitude of the top of the
Tampa formation .----.............------....------------ Between 14 and 15
6. Hydrographs of wells 246, 269, 272, and 337 in Pinellas County,
and monthly rainfall at Clearwater _.--------..-..-... Between 18 and 19
7. Hydrographs of wells 13, 77, and 561 in Pinellas County and
monthly rainfall at three stations ._----__---_.------ ..-----.--.---. 21
8. Daily highest and lowest water levels in well 337, 0.3 mile north-
east of Coachman, and daily rainfall at Clearwater _--------- 22
9. Fluctuations of the water level in well 269 .......---.--..--..--..----. 23
10. Water level in well 272 showing fluctuations due to ocean tides,
earthquakes, and passing trains ._---.--__----- ....-------------_ 25
11. Effect of atmospheric pressure on the water level in well 337 ... 26
12. Map of Florida showing the piezometric surface --_-------- 27
13. Map showing the piezometric surface and the area of artesian
flow in Pinellas County in June 1949 _---.---- Between 28 and 29
14. Map showing the piezometric surface in Pinellas County in
May 1951 .--_-...-- .----.-.---__ -----..-..---- ..--_.--..------ ...-------..- 30
15. Diagram showing the relation between fresh water and sea
water beneath a narrow peninsula _----.. --.--.............-----...----..-. 32
16. Map showing the chloride content of water in wells that pene-
trate the limestone aquifer in Pinellas County .. Between 34 and 35
17. Section along line B-B' in figure 13 showing the theoretical con-
tact between fresh water and sea water in Pinellas County _--. 36
18. Map of northwestern Pinellas County showing locations of
Spring Bayou and Lake Tarpon _----.-----....-.....--...-..---.-.--.--.--. 38
19. Factors relating to underground drainage of Lake Tarpon --.- 40
20. Chloride content of water in sinkhole in Lake Tarpon in 1947 -- 41
21. Hydrograph of well 13 in Hillsborough County and monthly
rainfall at St. Leo, Pasco County -- --...___-----------___.-.--.-------. 46


TABLES

Table
1. Comparison of various types of data used to compile figure 5 ..- 14
2. Relationship between length of pumping time and chloride con-
tent of water in well 420 -----..-----.....-----......--...-------.-----. 35
3. Analyses of water from wells in Pinellas County --------- 44
4. Average daily output of public water supplies in Pinellas
County, 1947 -...... .....-- _____ .........--- .-............ ... ... 45
5. Record of wells -----..............- ....--------- ...---------------- 53-139









































































Printed by E. 0. Painter Printing Company, DeLand, Florida








GROUND-WATER RESOURCES
of
PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA
By
Ralph C. Heath and Peter C. Smith

ABSTRACT

Pinellas County comprises a land area of 290 square miles along
the west coast of Florida, and forms a peninsula between Old Tampa
Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. It is underlain by a series of limestone
formations having a total thickness of several thousand feet. The
upper several hundred feet of the limestone consists of the Suwan-
nee limestone of late Oligocene age and the Tampa formation of
early Miocene age. South of Palm Harbor these limestones are over-
lain by clays and sandy clays of middle and late Miocene age. A
veneer of Pliocene(?) and Pleistocene sands and shelly sands,
ranging in thickness from several feet to more than 50 feet, overlies
the clays and sandy clays in the area south of Palm Harbor and
overlies.the Tampa formation' in the area north of Palm Harbor.

The Tampa and Suwannee limestones constitute the principal
source of water in the county. Water in these formations occurs
under water-table conditions in most of the area north of Palm
Harbor and west of Lake Tarpon, and under artesian conditions in
the area south of Palm Harbor. Where the water is under water-
table conditions the formations are recharged locally by rain. In
the area south of Palm Harbor, where the clays and sandy clays con-
fine the water in the limestones under pressure, water enters the
formations wherever the confining beds are discontinuous or absent,
but principally through sinkholes in the vicinity of Coachman.
The artesian water in the Tampa formation and Suwannee lime-
stone in the area north of Old Tampa Bay and east of Lake Tarpon
is derived principally from recharge that enters the limestones in
northern Hillsborough County and southern Pasco County.

In the area north of Palm Harbor and west of Lake Tarpon, the
water table is relatively low, ranging from about 2 feet to about
6 feet above sea level. Over the rest of the county, where the water
'The stratigraphic nomenclature \of this report conforms to the nomen-
clature of the Florida Geological Survey. It conforms also to the nomenclature
of the U. S, Geological Survey except that Tampa formation is used in this
report instead of Tampa limestone.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


in the limestones is under artesian pressure, the piezometric sur-
face ranges from about 2 feet above sea level in some areas near
the coast to more than 22 feet in the northeastern part of the county.

The problem of salt-water encroachment first became prominent
in Pinellas County between 1920 and 1930 when the early municipal-
supply wells of St. Petersburg began to yield salty water. Areas
on both coasts of the county have been affected by the encroach-
ment. These include: (1) a small area that extends in a north-
easterly direction from the coast south of Palm Harbor almost to
Lake Tarpon; (2) most of the area between Indian Rocks and Long
Bayou; (3) an area along the southeastern coast of the county be-
ginning in the vicinity of Lake Maggiore and extending northward
for more than 15 miles; and (4) a small area at the north end of
Old Tampa Bay about 2 miles west of Oldsmar.

The chloride content of the water from many of the deep wells
in the areas of salt-water encroachment is more than 500 parts per
million, whereas the chloride content of uncontaminated ground
water in the county is generally less than 50 ppm. Uncontaminated
ground water generally contains less than 300 ppm of dissolved
solids and has a total hardness of less than 250 ppm.


INTRODUCTION

The difficulty of locating and preserving adequate potable water
supplies is a problem confronting many of Florida's coastal com-
munities. In some areas the problem is one of finding satisfactory
water in sufficient quantity to supply the needs of the community;
in others, the problem is one of protecting supplies already developed
against an encroachment of salt water. The presence of naturally
salty ground water in some of the water-bearing formations in
Brevard, Sarasota, Charlotte, Lee, and other counties of the State
makes the finding of satisfactory ground-water supplies difficult.
In Pinellas County, however, the problem is primarily one of pre-
venting the encroachment of salt water into the water-bearing
formations.

Salt-water encroachment began first in the southern part of
the county in the early twenties. By 1930 it had so seriously affected
the St. Petersburg supply that a new well field was developed for
the city at Cosme, more than 20 miles north of the city, in Hills-






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


in the limestones is under artesian pressure, the piezometric sur-
face ranges from about 2 feet above sea level in some areas near
the coast to more than 22 feet in the northeastern part of the county.

The problem of salt-water encroachment first became prominent
in Pinellas County between 1920 and 1930 when the early municipal-
supply wells of St. Petersburg began to yield salty water. Areas
on both coasts of the county have been affected by the encroach-
ment. These include: (1) a small area that extends in a north-
easterly direction from the coast south of Palm Harbor almost to
Lake Tarpon; (2) most of the area between Indian Rocks and Long
Bayou; (3) an area along the southeastern coast of the county be-
ginning in the vicinity of Lake Maggiore and extending northward
for more than 15 miles; and (4) a small area at the north end of
Old Tampa Bay about 2 miles west of Oldsmar.

The chloride content of the water from many of the deep wells
in the areas of salt-water encroachment is more than 500 parts per
million, whereas the chloride content of uncontaminated ground
water in the county is generally less than 50 ppm. Uncontaminated
ground water generally contains less than 300 ppm of dissolved
solids and has a total hardness of less than 250 ppm.


INTRODUCTION

The difficulty of locating and preserving adequate potable water
supplies is a problem confronting many of Florida's coastal com-
munities. In some areas the problem is one of finding satisfactory
water in sufficient quantity to supply the needs of the community;
in others, the problem is one of protecting supplies already developed
against an encroachment of salt water. The presence of naturally
salty ground water in some of the water-bearing formations in
Brevard, Sarasota, Charlotte, Lee, and other counties of the State
makes the finding of satisfactory ground-water supplies difficult.
In Pinellas County, however, the problem is primarily one of pre-
venting the encroachment of salt water into the water-bearing
formations.

Salt-water encroachment began first in the southern part of
the county in the early twenties. By 1930 it had so seriously affected
the St. Petersburg supply that a new well field was developed for
the city at Cosme, more than 20 miles north of the city, in Hills-







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 12


borough County. Since 1930 salt water has continued to move into
the water-bearing formations as a result of a gradual increase in
the withdrawal from wells. Among the other public water supplies
in the county that have increased in salinity are those of Clearwater,
Tarpon Springs, Pinellas Park, and the Pinellas County Water Sys-
tem. In addition, many wells supplying water for irrigation and
domestic uses have also been affected by the encroachment.

PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION

The investigation leading to this report was begun in 1944 by
the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida
Geological Survey and the Board of County Commissioners of
Pinellas County. Its primary purpose was to determine the extent
to which salt water had encroached into the water-bearing forma-
tions and, to evaluate the factors governing encroachment. An
investigation of the surface-water resources of the county also was
begun in 1944 by the Surface Water Branch of the U. S. Geological
Survey.

The field work of the ground-water investigation consisted of:

1. The collection of information on the location, the depth and
diameter, and other pertinent facts on the existing wells in the
county.

2. Analyses of the chloride content of water from all flowing wells
and from most of the wells equipped with pumps.

3. Repeated analyses of the chloride content of water from se-
lected wells.

4. Measurements of the water level in all open wells that could
be found.

5. The collection and geologic study of rock cuttings from 34
wells.

6. The installation of eight automatic water-stage recorders.

PERSONNEL AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Most of the field work of the investigation was done by P. C.
Smith, of the U. S. Geological Survey, whose death in March 1949






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


prevented his writing the report. Earlier field work was done by
A. G. Unklesbay and T. C. Wiggins, also of the Federal Survey.
R. C. Heath collected the data on the piezometric surfaces, the
terraces, and the geology and prepared the report. The investi-
gation was made under the immediate supervision of H. H. Cooper,
Jr., District Engineer, and under the general supervision of A. N.
Sayre, Chief of the Ground Water Branch, U. S. Geological Survey,
and Herman Gunter, Director of the Florida Geological Survey.
Helpful assistance was given throughout the investigation by
W. A. McMullen, who was then County Engineer of Pinellas County.
A. R. Swartz, of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Con-
servation Service, placed his office facilities at the disposal of the
authors during the investigation, and F. S. Mann, also of the Soil
Conservation Service, assisted in making water-level measurements.
A. O. Dunlap and other well drillers saved cuttings and gave infor-
mation on numerous wells. Also, information on wells was given by
many public officials and private individuals.

PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS

The water resources and geology of Pinellas County have been
treated briefly in previous reports of the Florida Geological Survey
and the U. S. Geological Survey. A report by Matson and Sanford
(1913, pp. 319-325) describes the geology and ground water of
Hillsborough County, which at that time included the area that is
now Pinellas County. A report by Sellards and Gunter (1913, pp.
258-262) contains a generalized map of the area of artesian flow
and describes the water-bearing formations. Chemical analyses of
23 samples of water from Pinellas County are listed in a report by
Collins and Howard (1928, p. 224). A recent report on the chemical
character of Florida waters (Black and Brown, 1951, pp. 91-93)
contains 81 analyses of water samples from Pinellas County. A
report by Stringfield (1933, pp. 13-17) gives a general discussion
of the occurrence of ground water in the county and calls attention
to the problems that need investigation. A map of the piezometric
surface of the principal artesian aquifers in the Florida peninsula
and a discussion of recharge and discharge areas are included in a
report by Stringfield (1936). The geologic formations that crop
out in Pinellas County have been described by Cooke (1945, pp. 131,
192, 224). A report by Ferguson and others (1947, p. 137) describes
two of the largest springs in the county and gives chemical analyses
of their waters.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 12


GEOGRAPHY

LOCATION AND AREA

Pinellas County is approximately in the center of the west coast
of Florida (see fig. 1) and includes the peninsula that separates
Old Tampa Bay from the Gulf of Mexico. It has a total of 439
square miles, of which only 290 square miles, or 185,600 acres, is
land. The county has a coast line of 128 miles, a length of about 40
miles, and an average width of about 7 miles.

CLIMATE

The climate of the county is subtropical. The average annual
rainfall at Tarpon Springs during the 51-year period beginning in
1892, according to the records of the U. S. Weather Bureau, was
51.20 inches. The average annual rainfall at St. Petersburg over
the 32-year period beginning in 1915 was 53.24 inches. Thus, the


Figure 1.-Map of Florida showing location of Pinellas County.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


average annual rainfall over a long period of years is about the same
in the northern part as it is in the southern part of the county.
However, in any particular year the amount falling on one part
may differ from that falling on another part by as much as 15
inches, or more. In 1941, for instance, Tarpon Springs had 62.46
inches of rainfall, whereas St. Petersburg had only 45.77 inches.
The months of heaviest rainfall are June through September. The
mean temperature in the county is 71.7 F.

TOPOGRAPHY

The topography of Pinellas County may be divided into three
types: hilly uplands, characteristic of the area from Oakhurst to
Palm Harbor; a flat upland, around St. Petersburg; and level low-
lands, characteristic of the area north and east of Pinellas Park.
All of these subdivisions lie within "The Terraced Coastal Low-
lands" (see Vernon, 1951, p. 16.).
The principal upland area, here referred to as the "Pinellas
ridge," is an area ranging from 3 to 4 miles in width, bordering the
Gulf of Mexico from the vicinity of Oakhurst to the vicinity of
Palm Harbor. It consists of gently rolling hills formed by the erosion
of small streams, and of sinkholes formed by collapse of the surface
formations into limestone caverns. Altitudes on the ridge range
from about 25 feet to as much as 100 feet above sea level. However,
the summits of most of the hills are between 80 and 95 feet above
sea level, their concordance indicating that the Pinellas ridge may
once have been a continuous, relatively level upland. The highest
altitude in Pinellas County, as recorded on the topographic maps
of the U. S. Corps of Engineers, is 97 feet, on State Highway 580
about 4 miles east of Dunedin. The maximum relief on the ridge is
in Sec. 5, T. 28 S., R. 16 E., near the southwest shore of Lake Tar-
pon, where the altitude changes more than 40 feet in less than a
tenth of a mile. North of Pinellas ridge, and separated from it, is a
line of small hills, extending around the north end of Lake Tarpon,
whose summits range in altitude from about 20 to about 60 feet. Al-
though these hills are not a part of the ridge, they give the area in
which they occur a topography similar to that of the ridge.
The upland in the vicinity of St. Petersburg has low relief, the
maximum altitude being about 50 feet. This area is roughly circular
and has a diameter of about 5 miles.
Surrounding the upland areas are areas of low-lying level land
and swamps, which range in altitude from sea level to about 25
feet. These level lowlands are best exemplified and have the greatest






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 12


areal extent north and west of St. Petersburg and south and east
of Lake Tarpon.

TERRACES

During Pleistocene time the sea stood above and below its present
level, submerging greater and lesser portions of the land according
to its height. Whenever it remained relatively stationary for a
long period, waves and currents washing back and forth across the
sea floor formed an essentially level surface, called a "terrace."
Upon the retreat of the sea to a lower level each terrace emerged
as a level plain having a slight seaward dip. The landward margin
of such a terrace is the abandoned shoreline, which is generally
marked by a low scarp.
Discussions of the Pleistocene history and the terraces in
Florida are included in a report by Cooke (1945, pp. 245-312) and
Vernon (1951, pp. 19-32). Three of these terraces, the Pamlico,
Penholoway, and Wicomico, have been recognized by the senior
author in Pinellas County. The Pamlico terrace, whose shoreline
is approximately 25 feet above present sea level, is well preserved
in Pinellas County. The Penholoway may be associated with a
scarp that is present at several places in the county between 60
and 70 feet above sea level. The Wicomico terrace, built when the
sea stood approximately 100 feet above its present level, is repre-
sented by the highest surfaces of the Pinellas ridge.
The terraces are not readily recognizable on the topographic
maps of the county because the maps have 20-foot contour inter-
vals and hence do not show sufficient detail. In order to identify
and delineate the terraces, several traverses across the county were
made with an aneroid barometer. However, the topographic maps
were used to delineate them in the relatively inaccessible areas
where traverses were not made. The boundaries of the terraces are
shown in figure 2.
When the sea stood 100 feet higher than it does today, during
Wicomico time, the Pinellas ridge was a shoal about 40 miles west
of the nearest land, which consisted of a large island located in
what is now the relatively high lake region of central Florida. Much
of the shoal, particularly in the area northeast of Dunedin, was so
near sea level that some parts of it may have emerged during low
tide.
During the formation of the Penholoway terrace, which is
believed by Cooke (1945, p. 17) to have occurred during the Sanga-







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 12


GEOGRAPHY

LOCATION AND AREA

Pinellas County is approximately in the center of the west coast
of Florida (see fig. 1) and includes the peninsula that separates
Old Tampa Bay from the Gulf of Mexico. It has a total of 439
square miles, of which only 290 square miles, or 185,600 acres, is
land. The county has a coast line of 128 miles, a length of about 40
miles, and an average width of about 7 miles.

CLIMATE

The climate of the county is subtropical. The average annual
rainfall at Tarpon Springs during the 51-year period beginning in
1892, according to the records of the U. S. Weather Bureau, was
51.20 inches. The average annual rainfall at St. Petersburg over
the 32-year period beginning in 1915 was 53.24 inches. Thus, the


Figure 1.-Map of Florida showing location of Pinellas County.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 2.-Map showing the Pleistocene terraces of Pinellas County.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 12


mon stage interglaciall), about 200,000 years ago, the Pinellas ridge
was a chain of islands about 35 miles west of the mainland. Rem-
nants of a scarp that was formed during that time are, among other
places, at the following locations: about three-fourths of a mile
east of Palm Harbor on State Road 580; about 3 miles east of
Dunedin and also about 5 miles east of Dunedin; near the south
side of Largo on U. S. Highway 19; and about a quarter of a mile
north of Walsingham on U. S. Highway 19.

Cooke (1945, p. 292) recognized the Talbot terrace having a
scarp based at 42 feet. The senior author recognized no such terrace
in Pinellas County but included in the Pamlico terrace deposits
which Cooke might have considered to be Talbot. However, at
several places in the county the base of the Pamlico terrace is at
an altitude of 42 feet. The most notable example is the segment
of the scarp on State Road 580 about half a mile west of Tampa Bay.
There, the land surface rises from 40 to 52 feet above sea level in
less than a tenth of a mile. Another is near the intersection of
38th Avenue West and 44th Street North in St. Petersburg, where
the surface rises from 42 to 53 feet above sea level.

The Pamlico is the best preserved and therefore the most easily
recognizable terrace in Pinellas County. Its landward margin,
which coincides with the shoreline of the Pamlico sea, occurs at the
base of a low scarp that is well preserved at many places in the
county. The scarp is well preserved, for example, along Clearwater
Harbor in the vicinity of Clearwater, where it is rarely more than
several hundred feet inland from the present shore, and also along
the west side of Old Tampa Bay. However, it is not generally as
well preserved on the bay as on the gulf.

The line of hills (see fig. 2) that extends from the Pinellas ridge
along the west and north shores of Lake Tarpon may have been
formed, as a bar (Leverett, 1931, p. 21) or a spit, of material trans-
ported from the Pinellas ridge by an ocean current flowing in a
northerly direction. The change in trend of the islands from north
to east around the north end of Lake Tarpon was probably caused
either by local currents, such as would accompany eastward-moving
storms, or by a change in direction of the dominant'ocean current
during the formation of the Pamlico terrace. The building of sand
dunes has increased the altitude of some of these islands by as
much as 15 to 40 feet above the level of the sea at that time.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


DRAINAGE
The northern part of the county is drained underground by
solution channels in the Tampa formation, and by the Anclote
River. The Pinellas ridge is drained by a series of short creeks on
both the east and west coasts. Sinkholes and lakes also receive some
of the surface drainage of the ridge, particularly in the area around
Coachman, where part of the rainfall percolates downward through
sinkholes into the underlying formations. The southern part of
the peninsula is drained by Long Bayou and Cross Bayou and their
short natural tributaries, and by the network of canals that have
been dug to drain the previously swampy areas in the vicinity of
Pinellas Park.

GEOLOGY

The geologic formations that are exposed in Pinellas County
range from deposits of early Miocene age (the Tampa formation)
to undifferentiated deposits of Pliocene(?) and Pleistocene age.
Those below the Pliocene(?) and Pleistocene are exposed in a series
of belts across the county (fig. 3). The boundaries of the forma-
tions as shown on figure 3 are generalized, but probably represent
the true boundaries rather closely. Information on which the geo-
logic map was drawn was obtained from 34 well logs and from a
study of several outcrops of the formation. A geologic cross section
showing the vertical extent of the different formations from the
vicinity of Tarpon Springs to St. Petersburg is given in figure 4.
The following discussion of the formations of Pinellas County
does not include the Ocala limestone which, although it underlies
the county, is not important locally as a water-bearing formation be-
cause it is more than 300 feet beneath the surface and is overlain by
a productive aquifer composed of the Tampa formation and Suwan-
nee limestone, and because the water from the Ocala in Pinellas
County is more highly mineralized than the water in the overlying
formations.
OLIGOCENE SERIES

All deposits of Oligocene age in Pinellas County are referred to
the Suwannee limestone. These deposits are differentiated from
the underlying deposits of Eocene age and from the overlying de-
posits of Miocene age on the basis of lithology and fossil content.
Suwannee Limestone
In Pinellas County the Suwannee limestone is composed pre-


10











REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 12


O

mDIAN .


0m
0


LEGEND
111III1 Lower Miocene-Tompa formation
QX^ Undifferentiated middle and upper'
Miocene deposits
iti.- Middle Miocene-Hawthorn format


1 0 I 2 3
SCALE OF MILES
SCALE OF MILES


Figure 3.-Geologic map of the Miocene deposits in Pinellas County.


11


-r
*V
fg.
*o
*V







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


dominantly of a white to cream-colored, hard, generally fossiliferous
limestone. Well 5 (fig. 4), north of Tarpon Springs, penetrated 180
feet of Suwannee limestone. Although the well ended in the Su-
wannee, the formation is believed to be not much over 180 feet thick.
Cooke (1945, p. 88) reports that the Suwannee lies unconformably
on the Byram limestone or, where that is absent, on the Ocala lime-
stone and that it is unconformably overlain by the Tampa formation.
It is highly permeable and a good source of water where salt water
has not entered it. Water from the Suwannee is relatively hard.

MIOCENE SERIES

Sedimentary rocks and sediments of Miocene age in Pinellas
County cannot be differentiated on the basis of fossils because of
the scarcity of identifiable specimens. Therefore, a division of the
Miocene can be made only on the basis of lithology.

The lower part of the section of Miocene age consists of hard,
sandy limestone referred to the Tampa formation. In the southern
part of the county the Tampa is overlain by marine sands and clays
of the Hawthorn formation, also of Miocene age (see fig. 4). In
the central part of the county, from the vicinity of Clearwater to


00-i


too-


ItO



380


Figure 4.-North-south geologic section through Pinellas County along
line A-A' in figure 3.


12







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 12


Palm Harbor, the Tampa is overlain by sediments that appear to
have been derived from weathering of the limestone. They are re-
ferred to in this report as deposits of middle and upper Miocene age.
Tampa Formation'
The Tampa formation is generally a hard, sandy limestone,
whose color varies from white to light tan. Chert fragments are
abundant in some well cuttings. The formation contains many
molds of Gastropods and Pelecypods, and a few specimens of the
foraminifera Archais floridanus and Sorites (?) sp. The Tampa
ranges in thickness from about 100 feet in the northern part of the
county to about 150 feet in the southern part.
The Tampa formation is believed by Cooke (1945, p. 115) to lie
unconformably on the Suwannee limestone. The Hawthorn forma-
tion, according to Cooke (1945, p. 145), lies conformably on the
Tampa, and in some areas of the State the two formations are so
similar lithologically that it is difficult to differentiate them. How-
ever, according to Vernon (1951, pp. 183-186, table 14) there is an
unconformity between the two in the west-central and southwestern
parts of the Floridan peninsula.
The altitude of the top of the Tampa formation is shown in
figure 5. This map is based on the altitude of the top of the first
limestone penetrated in wells, as determined from a study of rock
cuttings from 34 wells, as reported in 75 drillers' logs, and as in-
dicated by the depth of casing in 7 wells.
Where no well cuttings or drillers' logs are available, the records
of the depths of casing in wells are a generally reliable index of
the depth to the limestone, because wells are commonly cased only
to the top of the limestone. Thus, in the area north of Pinellas Park,
where other data were lacking, the records of casings were used to
determine the altitude of the top of the formation. Table 1 shows
the generally close correlation between the various types of data
used in compiling figure 5. This table lists the wells for which all
three types of data were available. Only in wells 13 and 410 was
there any considerable discrepancy among the data.
Limestones such as those of the Tampa are formed beneath the
sea and originally have a smooth upper surface which dips gently
seaward. Later, if a different type of sediment, such as sand, is
'The stratigraphic nomenclature of this report conforms to the nomen-
clature of the Florida Geological Survey. It conforms also to the nomenclature
of the U. S. Geological Survey except that Tampa formation is used in this
report instead of Tampa limestone.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


COMPARISON
FIGURE


TABLE 1
OF VARIOUS TYPES OF DATA USED
5, MAP SHOWING ALTITUDE OF THE
THE TAMPA FORMATION


TO COMPILE
TOP OF


No. of well
in table 5
2
13
44
90
140
145
223
268
278
290
291
293
359
361
410
442
484


Depth to lime-
stone from well
cuttings (feet)
33
12
72
50
30
40
75
65
71
73
90
88
70
70
130
126
140


Depth to lime-
stone from driller's
log (feet
33
30
72
52
28
35
75
71
67
73
94
90
75
80
140
122
140


Depth of
casing (feet)
33
33
74
56
31
37
73
74
73
75
95
89
81
82
124
120
146


deposited on the limestone before it emerges from the sea, the
smooth surface is preserved, and the contact between the limestone
and sand is said to be conformable. If, on the other hand, the
younger material is deposited after the surface of the limestone has
been exposed to the atmosphere and altered by erosion, the con-
tact is irregular, and is said to be unconformable.

An inspection of figure 5 reveals that the surface of the Tampa
formation is irregular. Actually, the generalized representation
shown in the figure cannot show the numerous pinnacles and sink-
holes that are presumed to exist. As pointed out above, Vernon has
found that the Tampa formation and the Hawthorn formation are
separated by an unconformity in the west-central and southwest-
ern parts of the Florida peninsula. Thus, the irregular surface of
the Tampa in southern Pinellas County is doubtless due primarily
to erosion that preceded the deposition of the Hawthorn formation.
The irregular surface of the Tampa in the central part of the county
is probably due partly to erosion and partly to irregular weathering
of the Tampa during the formation of the middle and upper Miocene
deposits.
The limestone of the Tampa contains numerous solution chan-
nels, -which provide a large storage capacity anid readily transmit
water to wells. It comprises the upper part of the productive lime-
stone aquifer, which is the principal source of water in the county.


14






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


DRAINAGE
The northern part of the county is drained underground by
solution channels in the Tampa formation, and by the Anclote
River. The Pinellas ridge is drained by a series of short creeks on
both the east and west coasts. Sinkholes and lakes also receive some
of the surface drainage of the ridge, particularly in the area around
Coachman, where part of the rainfall percolates downward through
sinkholes into the underlying formations. The southern part of
the peninsula is drained by Long Bayou and Cross Bayou and their
short natural tributaries, and by the network of canals that have
been dug to drain the previously swampy areas in the vicinity of
Pinellas Park.

GEOLOGY

The geologic formations that are exposed in Pinellas County
range from deposits of early Miocene age (the Tampa formation)
to undifferentiated deposits of Pliocene(?) and Pleistocene age.
Those below the Pliocene(?) and Pleistocene are exposed in a series
of belts across the county (fig. 3). The boundaries of the forma-
tions as shown on figure 3 are generalized, but probably represent
the true boundaries rather closely. Information on which the geo-
logic map was drawn was obtained from 34 well logs and from a
study of several outcrops of the formation. A geologic cross section
showing the vertical extent of the different formations from the
vicinity of Tarpon Springs to St. Petersburg is given in figure 4.
The following discussion of the formations of Pinellas County
does not include the Ocala limestone which, although it underlies
the county, is not important locally as a water-bearing formation be-
cause it is more than 300 feet beneath the surface and is overlain by
a productive aquifer composed of the Tampa formation and Suwan-
nee limestone, and because the water from the Ocala in Pinellas
County is more highly mineralized than the water in the overlying
formations.
OLIGOCENE SERIES

All deposits of Oligocene age in Pinellas County are referred to
the Suwannee limestone. These deposits are differentiated from
the underlying deposits of Eocene age and from the overlying de-
posits of Miocene age on the basis of lithology and fossil content.
Suwannee Limestone
In Pinellas County the Suwannee limestone is composed pre-


10






k'1~~i I~ FD Al ~L tk. I


COUNTY
COUNTY









I
i












I

i


I


HARBOR


<40


I
0396


% %0 % %
546
\%
0850


** INELLAS
PARK ,


0
03


LEGEND


* Well for which driller's log or well cuttings \
or both are ovailoble
0 Well for which depth of casing was used
to determine top of limestone
as Number of well listed in Table 5
() Post office or principal intersection of town
Contour lines represent approximately the altitude, referred
to mean sea level, of the top of the Tampo formation
O/-*'Conour lines based on well cuttings or drillers log
,-60-''Con ur lines based only on depth of casing


Figure 5.-Map showing the approximate altitude of the top of the Tampa formation in Pinellas County.


IE IN 2 3MI
SCALE IN MILES


~-q~II'


I
--








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


/V


o

,0
ci


-14
12


HARBOR

BAYOU


INDIAN -


577


LEGEND
Observation well
Observation well on which altitude of
measuring point has been determined
Well on which water-level recorder has
been installed
Number assigned to well in Table 5
Contour lines represent the approximate
height, in feet, to which water would
rise in cased wells that penetrate the
limestone aquifer, June 1949.
Approximate areas of artesian flow


I 0 I 2 3
SCALE IN MILES


646 ST. PETERSBURG


6Ii l.&


Figure 13.-Map showing the piezometric surface and the area of artesian flow in Pinellas County in June 1949.


0317
320
LAR ,
322


MO

442
443


4,397
0o430


OAKH


*PINELLAS
PARK


546


0


REURTT OF INVESTICATIOlOhr s No. 12


~h~l~h~




F`LUKILIA C~tk~uliucCL ~LK~VkY


,\
o -PASC CO.
PINELLAS COU





TARPON SPRINGS I "s











// g s ** ^^


PALM HAR8O O O
^PALM HARBOR -b o-7


JNTY










z'
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aIQ
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XXi#O S o oo
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ODUNEDIN 06'1672n1lto02 I2




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1 O3 Wa








O = O O 0 4

i "'9 *COACRMAN Oa** 'g
% see 02G I 02 O








i2 )04 oo 4 o Pf4 %3\ -^

S !,4 429 _, @440 0,40. 5'_.00 0 547M



R OCK Si 476 (, s
%98 0290 O 04437










,0 OU', sD3








00LAR(E7 / PINELLAS0
1M i @602 057


















LEGEND 3PETERSBURG
Chloride Content
(Ports per Million) \\
O 50 or less A 6
0 51 to 250 \'W v. >
501 to 1000 ',, /
SIpl 0or more
Assigned to wel in table
Underlined well number indicates chloride '
determination made in 1943-45 by the '

Agricultural Experiment Stotion, Lake Alfred, e' A
Florida oi '//
Post office or principal intersection of town 5s40 ". -- -'. f
SC 1 MI E 3I 0 "















s CALE N MILES
251 o 50 6
501 to 1000
0 lpolor mor
v A. imq f~b
Numbr asigrd towellin able5 X 065


Figure 16.-Map showing the chloride content of water in wells that penetrate the limestone aquifer in Pinellas County.


INDIAN


56
'Us



U


___ ___


__


I*(I t f L






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 12


The hardness of its water ranges generally between 150 and 225
ppm in those wells whose water has not been contaminated by salt-
water encroachment.

Hawthorn Formation

As shown in figure 3, the Hawthorn formation underlies the
peninsula south of Clearwater. It ranges from a fairly hard gray
sandstone to sandy gray clay, and is calcareous in places. Irregu-
larly distributed through it are small grains of black and brownish
phosphate and angular fragments of chert. The formation ranges
in thickness from about 50 feet in the vicinity of Clearwater to 80
or 90 feet at the southern end of the county. It is overlain by sands
and shelly sands of Pliocene(?) and Pleistocene age.

The Hawthorn contains beds of sand which yield water to do-
mestic wells, but as a whole it is a relatively poor producer of water
because the sands are discontinuous and have a low permeability.
No analysis of water from the Hawthorn formation was made as a
part of this investigation, but it appears probable that the water
would be less hard than that from the underlying limestone forma-
tions.
The clays of the Hawthorn formation, together with those in
the deposits of middle and late Miocene age, confine the artesian
water in the limestone, retarding or preventing vertical movement
of water to or from the limestone.

Middle and Upper Miocene Deposits

The Tampa formation in the central part of the county, from
Clearwater to Palm Harbor, is overlain by deposits consisting pre-
dominantly of blue to gray clay, fine-grained sandstone, and
weathered lumps of limestone. Occurring irregularly in the deposits
are fragments of chert and cavities containing sand that probably
washed down from the Pliocene(?) and Pleistocene deposits above.
The thickness of these deposits is generally less than 50 feet.
The age of these deposits is uncertain because of the absence
of fossils. However, studies of well cuttings indicate that near their
contact with the Hawthorn formation the lower part may inter-
finger with the Hawthorn, whereas the upper part apparently
overlies the Hawthorn. Thus, these deposits are probably in part
contemporaneous with the Hawthorn formation and in part younger


15






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


than the Hawthorn. They are probably equivalent to deposits re.
ferred by Vernon (1951, pp. 180 and 189) to the Alachua formation
in Citrus and Levy counties.
The large percentage of clay in these deposits would probably
prevent them from yielding even small supplies of water. However,
they constitute a competent confining bed for the water in the
underlying limestones.

PLIOCENE(?) AND PLEISTOCENE SERIES

The surface deposits in Pinellas County consist of sands and
shelly sands ranging in thickness from a few feet to more than
50 feet. North of Oakhurst and north and west of Largo they con-
sist predominantly of fine to coarse sand. Southeast of Largo and
east of Oakhurst they consist principally of calcareous sandstone.
These deposits unconformably overlie the deposits of Miocene age.
The age of the surface deposits is not definitely known. Cooke
(1945, p. 224) referred the sand and shell deposits in the southern
part of the county to the Caloosahatchee formation of Pliocene age.
On the other hand, Vernon2 believes all the deposits in Pinellas
County above those of Miocene age were deposited during the
Pleistocene.
The Pliocene(?) and Pleistocene deposits are not generally an
important source of water in those parts of the county where water
of satisfactory quality is available from the limestone, although
they yield a few small domestic supplies throughout the county.
Where salt water has moved into the limestone formations many
domestic supplies are obtained from these deposits. However, the
water from these deposits is likely to contain appreciable amounts
of salt in some of the coastal areas, particularly around the southern
end of the county. Water from these deposits is likely to be cor-
rosive and to contain objectionable amounts of iron.

GROUND WATER

OCCURRENCE
Ground water is the subsurface water that is in the zone of
saturation-the zone in which all pore spaces are completely filled
with water. The zone of saturation is the reservoir from which
all water from wells and springs is derived. The water in the zone


2Personal communication.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 12


of saturation is derived from rain and snow that falls on the earth's
surface. Not all the precipitation on the earth's surface soaks into
the ground, however; part of it is returned to the atmosphere by
evaporation, and part of it enters streams, lakes, and other open
bodies of water and becomes surface water. Of the part that does
filter into the earth some is lost by transpiration of plants, and
some reaches the zone of saturation. Upon reaching the zone of
saturation, the water is available to supply wells and springs and
is thereafter referred to as ground water. Water between the zone
of saturation and the land surface is subsurface water but is not
called ground water.
The amount of rainfall that enters the ground to become ground
water depends upon many factors. Among these are the slope of
the land on which the rain falls, the vegetal cover, the intensity of
the rain, the climate and the character of the surface material
through which the water must percolate to reach the zone of
saturation. After water reaches the zone of saturation it begins
to move laterally under the influence of gravity toward a place of
discharge, such as a spring, a surface stream, or the ocean.
The ground water thus moving toward a point of discharge may
be under either water-table (nonartesian) conditions or artesian
conditions. Where it only partly fills a permeable formation, its
surface is free to rise and fall and it is said to be under water-table
conditions. Where it completely fills a permeable bed that is over-
lain by a relatively impermeable bed, it is confined and its surface
is not free to rise and fall. Water thus confined is said to be under
"artesian" conditions. Technically, the term "artesian" is applied
to ground water that is confined under sufficient pressure to rise
above the top of the permeable bed that contains it, but not
necessarily above the land surface.
A formation in the zone of saturation that is permeable enough
to transmit water in a usable quantity to wells and springs is
called an "aquifer" or water-bearing formation. Areas in which
water from the surface percolates downward to the zone of satura-
tion are called "recharge areas." Ordinarily, water-table aquifers
are exposed at the land surface almost everywhere and hence re-
ceive recharge over most of their expanse. On the other hand,
artesian aquifers can receive recharge only in areas in which their
confining beds are discontinuous or absent.
Ground water in Florida occurs under both artesian and water-
table conditions. The principal artesian aquifer consists of several


17






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


limestone formations of Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene age thft
act more or less as a single hydrologic unit. Stringfield (1936, pp.
125-132, 146) described the aquifer and mapped the piezometric
surface of artesian water in 1933 and 1934. Later, Parker (1946)
proposed the name "Floridan aquifer" as a collective term for the
water-bearing limestone formations. In a large part of Florida
the water in this aquifer is confined under pressure by relatively
impermeable beds of Miocene age. The collective term "Floridan
aquiclude" has been applied to these confining beds by Parker (1951,
pp. 819-820).
Ground water in Pinellas County occurs under both water-table
and artesian conditions. The water in the surficial sand deposits
throughout the county and the water in the Tampa formation and
Suwannee limestone in the area lying north of Palm Harbor and
west of Lake Tarpon is under water-table conditions. South of
Palm Harbor and east of Lake Tarpon the water in the limestone
aquifer is under artesian conditions.
The height to which water in an artesian well will rise above
a given datum is called the artesian "pressure head." The pressure
head at any place in the artesian system is controlled in part by
the head in the area in which the aquifer is recharged, which in
turn is determined by the amount of replenishment that reaches
the aquifer from rainfall. Systematic observations of the artesian
head or, as the case may be, of the water table are an important
part of any investigation of ground water.

WATER LEVEL RECORDS
Measurements of water levels have been made in many wells in
Pinellas County. The measurements are recorded in table 5, to-
gether with the dates on which they were made. They provide in-
formation on the altitude and seasonal variations of the artesian
head in the county.
Variations in water level from one time to another are principally
the result of such factors as rainfall, pumping, and tides. In order
to obtain continuous records of the changes in the artesian head,
eight wells in Pinellas County were equipped with automatic water-
stage recorders. Hydrographs for seven of the wells, prepared from
the records of these recording gages, are shown in figures 6 and 7.
The first recorder was installed on well 272 at Clearwater in No-
vember 1945 and was kept in operation until June 1949, when it
became necessary for the city to place the well in service as a


18









REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 12


w
-J
0a
z cr


'ELL 337, 0.3 mile northeast of Coachman


-Monthly Rainfall at ClearwaterIh- 4-

i1~T tl


:iffl::1:::a~:::1:::II


I! I_1I I L


i.Iiuli IIEL AI D


T


mIII


SI.1.1 I i I I I I I Il U I I I I


L-I IFT Li.LWLIJI.LJ!


Figure 6.-Hydrographs of wells 246, 269, 272, and 837 in Pinellas County, and monthly rainfall at Clearwater.


'45 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952
NDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMFAMJJASNDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJA ONDJFMAMJ JASONDJFMAMJJASOND





WELi 246, Clearwater II

S- il_ i Water-stage recorder removed December10
I1- j when owner installed pump.










WELL 269, on Stevenson Creek at Gulf to Bay Blvd. I I|1 1 ---- .lI- ,L111 Ill


Si 1111 HII I I I I


S Water-stage recorder removed May 31
when owner installed pump.
WELL 272, Clearwater i _- 1 1, !1.1 11- -I1111 11 11


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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


I I- I I II 1_ I I I I I I I I I U 1 I I I I I I -l I I I IILIJ I I I I1. I 1 1-1





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 12


municipal-supply well. Fortunately, however, the recorder on
well 246, only eight-tenths of a mile north of well 272, was placed
in operation shortly after the one on well 272. The records for the
other wells in the county were begun in the last half of 1947.

As may be seen from figures 6 and 7 the water-stage recorders
were removed from wells 269 and 337 when the owners installed
pumps. The record for well 337 ended in April 1950, and that for
well 269 ended in December 1952.

Long-time records from water-stage recording instruments are
very useful in studies of salt-water encroachment, as they indicate
the extent to which water levels may be declining because of such
factors as heavy pumping and artificial drainage through canals.
As the artesian head controls the extent to which sea water may
move into the formation, a progressive decline, however slow,
would indicate that the encroachment problem is likely to become
more critical. The hydrographs of the wells equipped with automa-
tic water-stage recorders (figs. 6 and 7) show a slight decline of
water levels from the beginning of each record to the spring of 1950.
The decline was probably due in part to a relatively low rainfall dur-
ing 1948 and 1949, although some of the decline may have been due
to withdrawal. During the summer and fall of 1950 the water levels
rose to the highest point on record in all wells except well 13. A
new high probably would have been recorded in well 13 also, had the
gage not become temporarily inoperative early in September.

After the high levels of September 1950 the water levels in
all wells declined slowly until May 1951, after which they declined
rapidly in all wells except well 13. This rapid decline was doubtless
due to a heavier use of water for irrigation during May and June
when the rainfall was below normal. About the middle of June
the water levels began to recover, probably as a result of decreased
pumping. During the rainy season, from July through September,
they were about the same as at the beginning of the year, although
they were still 1 to 3 feet lower than in September 1950. They re-
mained relatively stable until April 1952 when they began to decline
rapidly once more. By the middle of May they had reached the
lowest points on record in wells 246 and 269, in Clearwater, and in
well 561, east of Pinellas Park. These low water levels were probably
due to heavy pumping during April and May, which months were
exceptionally dry-the rainfall at Clearwater and Tarpon Springs
totaling less than 2 inches during the 2-month period.











wz Z
z-1






Lj.
910



35q



55







8
~LiW
zz
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315 Monthly Roinfall at t Petersburg --- -
Figure 7.- ydroraphs of wells 103, 77, and 561 in Pines County, and monthly rainfall at three stations.

Figure 7.-Hydrographs of wells 13, 77, and 561 in Pinellas County, and monthly rainfall at three stations.


1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952
SO NDJ F MAMJ J AS ON D J F AM J J ASON J FMAMJ J AS OND J FMAMJ J ASOND J FMAM J JASO ND





Well 13. in Tarpon Springs
Month Rnfall at T Spr rgs









Well 77 0.8 mile southeast of Palm Harbor
Monthly Rinfall at Clearte







Well 561, 2.6 miles east of Pinellas Park' I | III I






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 12


FLUCTUATIONS OF WATER LEVELS

The water levels in artesian wells fluctuate almost continuously.
Some of the varied causes of the fluctuations observed in Pinellas
County are rainfall, pumping, ocean tides, variations in barometric
pressure, earthquakes, and moving railroad trains. The fluctuations
range from almost inperceptible movements to changes of several
feet. The changes of water level produced by rainfall and pumping
are the largest of all the fluctuations and are the most important
because they affect the amount of water in the aquifer and the
extent to which sea water will encroach.
Fluctuations caused by tides, changes in barometric pressure,
earthquakes, and trains are usually less than a foot in amplitude
and of short duration, and are significant only in that they reveal
the elastic properties of the aquifer. Generally these fluctuations,
except those due to tides, occur only in wells that end in artesian
aquifers. Tidal fluctuations occur along coasts in both artesian and
water-table aquifers.
Fluctuations Caused by Rainfall
Fluctuations caused by rainfall are especially significant because
they indicate the extent to which the water in the aquifer is re-
plenished. Well 337, near Coachman, is in an area in which the
artesian limestone aquifer receives recharge from rain. Thus, the
water level in this well may be expected to respond relatively
rapidly and strongly to rains. A hydrograph giving the complete
record for well 337 is shown in figure 6, but the time scale of this
hydrograph is so condensed that the response of the water level
to individual rains is not apparent. However, the response is obvious
in figure 8, which gives the record for 1948 on an expanded time
scale. As the water level in the well is lowered during certain
periods of the year by intermittent pumping from other wells in
the vicinity, the daily highest and lowest water levels are given so
that the effect of pumping may be observed and differentiated
from the effect of rainfall.
A study of figure 8 indicates that rain at Clearwater is generally
followed within a few days by a rise in the water level in well 337.
At times, however, a rain at Clearwater is not followed by a rise
in the water level, and at other times the water level rises ap-
preciably when no rain at Clearwater is recorded. This occasional
lack of correlation between the water level and the rainfall is
doubtless due principally to differences between the rainfall at


21






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1948


KLr 11W i LLI ..1 11 .E.O:

Figure 8.-Daily highest and lowest water levels in well 337, 0.3 mile
northeast of Coachman, and daily rainfall at Clearwater.
Clearwater and that at Coachman. Such differences in rainfall
within short distances are common in Florida.
The hydrographs of those wells in the county on which recording
gages are maintained and the rainfall at the stations nearest the
wells, given in figures 6 and 7, indicate the manner in which the
water levels vary seasonally and from year to year in relation to
rainfall. The relationship is somewhat obscured by the fact that
periods of relatively heavy pumping accompany periods of little
or no rainfall. Thus, the decline of water levels during droughts is
only in part a direct result of the lack of rainfall, and the recovery
of water levels during rainy periods is only in part a direct result
of the rains. Where relatively heavy pumping of water for irrigation
accompanies droughts, as it does in Pinellas County, a differentia-
tion between respective effects of rainfall and of pumping on water
levels can be made only after much investigation and study, if at
all. The available information does not permit a differentiation
of the two effects in figures 6 and 7.
Fluctuations Caused by Pumping
When water is pumped from a well that penetrates an artesian
aquifer the water level in the well and the artesian head in the
surrounding area are lowered. The decline of the artesian head
is greatest at the pumped well and it decreases as the distance


22







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 12


A, A
S


S \
U.



5 1 E I
-- _._- __--







Figure 9.-Fluctuations of the water level in well 269, at Stevenson
Creek, caused by pumping from Clearwater municipal-supply wells.
(Figures in parentheses indicate daily rainfall, in inches, at Clearwater.)

from the well increases. As pumping continues the cone of de-
pression deepens and. broadens at a gradually diminishing rate.
As the cone encompasses another well the water level in that well

first, but more slowly later as it approaches the initial static level.

Figure 9 shows fluctuations of the water level in well 269, at
Stevenson Creek, caused by pumping from several other wells in
the vicinity, including wells 253, 263, 266, 267, 270, and 271 of the
Clearwater municipal supply. The nearest of these is well 270, 0.3



magically start and stop, it has not been possible to identify the
drawdowns and recoveries shown in the hydrographs with the wells
that caused them. The relatively long downward trends in the










hydrograph, such as the one between the hours of 5:00 a.m. and
11:00 a.m., April 6, are typical of the drawdown curves caused by
steady pumping from one or more wells. Had the drawdown curve
Figure 9 shows fluctuations of the water level in well 269, at







on April 6 not been entered by a a pumping from several wells
the vicinity, including wells 253, 263, 266, 267, 270, and 271 of the







ome of the wells, it would have contain ued downward, gradually ap-
fluence the water level more than those farther away, but, as no
record is made oflh times at which the individual pumps auto-




proaching the horizontal, tas indicated by the dashed line B-B'
representing a logarithmic extension of the curve. ra thwever, as
that caused them. The relatively long downward trends in the

11:00 a.m., April 6, are typical of the drawdown curves caused by
steady pumping from one or more wells. Had the drawdown curve
on April 6 not been interrupted by a cessation of pumping from
some of the wells, it would have continued downward, gradually ap-
proaching the horizonttal, as indicated by the dashed line B-B'
representing a logarithmic extension of the curve. However, as


23






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


than the Hawthorn. They are probably equivalent to deposits re.
ferred by Vernon (1951, pp. 180 and 189) to the Alachua formation
in Citrus and Levy counties.
The large percentage of clay in these deposits would probably
prevent them from yielding even small supplies of water. However,
they constitute a competent confining bed for the water in the
underlying limestones.

PLIOCENE(?) AND PLEISTOCENE SERIES

The surface deposits in Pinellas County consist of sands and
shelly sands ranging in thickness from a few feet to more than
50 feet. North of Oakhurst and north and west of Largo they con-
sist predominantly of fine to coarse sand. Southeast of Largo and
east of Oakhurst they consist principally of calcareous sandstone.
These deposits unconformably overlie the deposits of Miocene age.
The age of the surface deposits is not definitely known. Cooke
(1945, p. 224) referred the sand and shell deposits in the southern
part of the county to the Caloosahatchee formation of Pliocene age.
On the other hand, Vernon2 believes all the deposits in Pinellas
County above those of Miocene age were deposited during the
Pleistocene.
The Pliocene(?) and Pleistocene deposits are not generally an
important source of water in those parts of the county where water
of satisfactory quality is available from the limestone, although
they yield a few small domestic supplies throughout the county.
Where salt water has moved into the limestone formations many
domestic supplies are obtained from these deposits. However, the
water from these deposits is likely to contain appreciable amounts
of salt in some of the coastal areas, particularly around the southern
end of the county. Water from these deposits is likely to be cor-
rosive and to contain objectionable amounts of iron.

GROUND WATER

OCCURRENCE
Ground water is the subsurface water that is in the zone of
saturation-the zone in which all pore spaces are completely filled
with water. The zone of saturation is the reservoir from which
all water from wells and springs is derived. The water in the zone


2Personal communication.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


the demand for water decreased during the evening, the pumping
became intermittent, and the water level recovered and declined in
a complicated fashion. The rise of the water level during the night
of April 5 and the morning of April 6 has the form of a typical
recovery curve, such as that which follows the cessation of pumping
from one or more wells. Such curves have very nearly the form
of a drawdown curve on an inverted scale. If there had been no
further pumping, the recovery during the morning of April 6 would
have continued at a diminishing rate, as indicated by the dashed
line A-A', until the water became stabilized at some higher level.
The relationship between the hydrograph shown in figure 9
and the rainfall at Clearwater demonstrates the manner in which
rainfall acts as a secondary influence on water levels through its
effect on the use of water and, hence, on the rate of pumping. The
rainfall recorded by the U. S. Weather Bureau at Clearwater was
0.45 inch on April 5, 0.11 inch on April 6, 0.26 inch on April 11, and
0.90 inch on April 12. No rainfall was recorded during the period
April 7 to 10. A heavier use of water during the period April 8 to 11
is indicated by the fact that the water level in well 269 was more
strongly affected by pumping during that period. It appears prob-
able that the heavier pumping of water beginning April 8 was a
result of the use of water for lawn sprinkling during the brief
drought. The fact that the heavier pumping extended into April
11, when 0.26 inch of rain was recorded, might be explained by the
possibility that the rain fell during the late afternoon, or by the
fact that April 11 fell on Monday, which is washday for many
homes.
Wherever there is pumping, water levels react in much the same
way as they do in well 269. The resultant effect is a general lower-
ing of the water levels which is most pronounced where heavily
pumped wells are concentrated. In those areas where large quan-
tities of ground water are used for irrigation, water levels will be
lowered most during droughts, when wells are pumped most
heavily.

Fluctuations Caused by Tides

The water levels in many wells near the coast fluctuate in
response to ocean tides. These fluctuations are due to one of two
causes: (1) where the aquifer is exposed to the sea, to a direct
marginal transfer of water between the ocean and the ground
water, and (2) in an artesian aquifer that is exposed to the ocean


24







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 12


August 1946
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

/ Predicted times of high tide Fluctuations due to passage of trains


0



t e q an ,I t

CLL
.oo a e ri



0IO











the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1946. The maximum water









levels in the well lag half an hour or more behind the predicted
w ,iw ihJ I

'< I;..



Figure .-Water level in well 272 showing fluctuations due to ocean
tides, earthquakes, and passing trains.

only at places more or less remote from the well, to an alternate
compression and expansion of the aquifer by the rise and fall of
the tide. Tidal fluctuations are apparent on the records of the
automatic recording gages on wells 246 and 272, which are respec-
tively 0.2 and 0.3 mile from Clearwater Harbor. The maximum
recorded tidal fluctuation in these wells is about half a foot. Figure
10, which is a tracing of the record of an automatic recorder, shows
the effect of tides on the water level in well 272 during the period
August 2 to 9,1946. Short vertical lines above the line representing
the water level show the predicted times of high tide at St.
Josephs Sound (Clearwater Harbor) as given in the tide tables of
the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1946. The maximum water
levels in the well lag half an hour or more behind the predicted
times of high tide.

Fluctuations Caused by Earthquakes and Trains

The water levels in many wells that penetrate the artesian aqui-
fers in Florida fluctuate when earthquake waves pass the wells.
Such waves cause very rapid alternate expansion and contraction
of the acquifer, which force the water level in the well to rise and
fall.


25







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Fluctuations of the water level in well 272 that were caused by
the destructive Dominican Republic earthquake of August 4, 1946,
are shown in figure 10. Also shown are fluctuations caused by the
aftershock of the earthquake, which occurred on August 8, 1946.
The maximum magnitude of the earthquake fluctuation of August
4 was 0.9 foot, and the water level continued to fluctuate for about
2 hours.
Slight fluctuations caused by the passing of trains are not un-
common in artesian wells near railroad tracks (Jacob, 1939, pp. 666-
674). Such fluctuations are small and are perceptible only in wells
that are within a few hundred feet of the railroad tracks. They
are caused by a compression of the aquifer by the weight of the
train. The fluctuations in well 272, shown in figure 10, were caused
by trains passing on the Seaboard Air Line Railroad tracks about
50 feet from the well.

Fluctuations Caused by Changes in Atmospheric Pressure

Changes in atmospheric pressure cause corresponding changes
in the water level of artesian wells (Parker and Stringfield, 1950,
pp. 450-453). Fluctuations of water level due to changes in at-
mospheric pressure are often masked by greater fluctuations that
are due to other causes, but they are readily recognizable on the
charts obtained from the water-stage recording instruments on
wells 337 and 561.

Figure 11 shows a comparison between the water level in well
337 and the atmospheric pressure as recorded by a barograph at
the U. S. Weather Bureau Station, Drew Field, Tampa, from April

APRIL 1949
23 24 23 26 27 28 29 30

--WATER LEVEL IN WELL 337 4 O
,-- 45.2
w U)
____________________________ _____


33.8 '

34.2-


Figure 11.-Effect of atmospheric pressure on the water level in well
337, located 0.3 mile northeast of Coachman.


26







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 12


23 to 30, 1949. The atmospheric pressure, which is recorded on the
barograph in inches of mercury, has been converted to the equiva-
lent pressure in feet of water and plotted on an inverted scale. The
similarity between the two graphs is obvious. Rises in atmos-
pheric pressure cause corresponding declines in the water level
in the well, and vice versa.

PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE IN FLORIDA

The height to which water will rise above sea level in wells
that penetrate the principal artesian aquifer in Florida is shown by
the contour lines in figure 12. The imaginary surface represented
by the contour lines is referred to as a "piezometric surface." The
shape of the piezometric surface indicates the direction of move-
ment of artesian water and the areas in which the aquifer is re-
plenished by water that falls as rain. Water enters the aquifer


Figure 12.-Map of Florida showing, the piezometric surface.


27





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


in those areas in which the piezometric surface is high and moves
in a direction approximately perpendicular to the contour lines to
the areas in which the piezometric surface is low.
One of the most conspicuous features of the piezometric surface
in Florida, shown in figure 12, is the dome centered in Polk County,
which indicates that considerable recharge enters the artesian
aquifer in Polk and surrounding counties (Stringfield, 1936, p. 148).
The artesian aquifer is also recharged in Pasco County and parts
of Hernando and Hillsborough Counties, where the piezometric
surface has the shape of a smaller dome with a maximum altitude
of about 80 feet. As indicated by the slope of the piezometric sur-
face, the artesian water flows southwestward from the central part
of Pasco County into northeastern Pinellas County.

PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE IN PINELLAS COUNTY

The piezometric surface in Pinellas County is shown in figures
13 and 14. Figure 13 was prepared from measurements made in
June 1949 of water levels in 69 wells in the county. Figure 14 was
prepared from measurements made in May 1951 of water levels
in 57 wells in the county. As indicated by the contours in the figures,
the piezometric surface at the time of the measurements ranged
from less than 2 feet above sea level in the northwestern part of
the county to slightly more than 22 feet above sea level in the north-
eastern part of the county. In the Pinellas peninsula the piezometric
surface is highest in a small area south of Coachman, where it
stands slightly more than 16 feet above sea level.
The piezometric surface changes constantly in response to such
influences as rainfall and pumping, but its general features remain
the same. Thus it can be seen from a comparison of figures 13 and
14 that in response to differences in rainfall and pumping the
piezometric surface was appreciably lower in May 1951 than it was
in June 1949. In fact, a comparison of the water-level measure-
ments, which are included in table 5, shows that the water levels
were 0.2 foot to 4.3 feet lower in 1951 than in 1949.
Owing to the lack of a sufficient number of wells in which
water-level measurements can be made, the details of the piezo-
metric surface cannot be mapped accurately in many parts of the
county. Although nearly 1,000 wells have been drilled to the
Tampa formation in Pinellas County, water levels were accessible
for measurement in less than 75 wells, because of the way in which


28





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 12


turbine pumps were installed. In other parts of the State most
wells that have turbine pumps are equipped with air lines which
permit measurement of the water levels, but few wells in Pinellas
County are so equipped. Facilities for making water-level measure-
ments are especially desirable in areas affected by salt-water en-
croachment to aid in determining the extent of encroachment, which
is controlled by the height of the water table or the artesian head.

Prior to the mapping of the piezometric surface it was thought
that the artesian water in the Pinellas peninsula was derived from
recharge in Pasco and Hillsborough counties (Stringfield, 1933, pp.
15-16). The more detailed mapping of the piezometric surface
(fig. 13 and 14) has revealed, however, that in addition to the
artesian water moving into the county from adjoining counties
the aquifer receives recharge locally by rains. Most of the local re-
charge apparently occurs where the piezometric surface has a
ridgelike shape in the area north and south of Coachman. The
rate of recharge is probably greatest in the area centered about a
mile south of Coachman where the piezometric surface has the
shape of an elongated dome.
It is not possible to determine the extent of the recharge area
from a study of the piezometric surfaces. In fact, it appears prob-
able that some recharge enters the aquifer by slow percolation
through the confining bed wherever the water table stands ap-
preciably higher than the piezometric surface. Recharge doubtless
enters the aquifer also wherever the confining bed is discontinuous
or absent, as, for example, through the sinkholes in the eastern part
of Dunedin. A study of the piezometric surfaces has revealed,
however, that the artesian water in all the county south of a line
through Palm Harbor and Oldsmar is derived wholly from local
rainfall. The water in the aquifer in the county north of Palm
Harbor and Oldsmar is derived in part from local recharge and in
part from recharge in Pasco and Hillsborough counties.
In the area north of Palm Harbor and west of Lake Tarpon the
piezometric surface is low and has very little slope. In this area
the aquifei contains large solution channels and is so permeable
that the water moves very freely through the aquifer on its way to
the Gulf. Wall Springs, the submarine spring offshore at Crystal
Beach, and the spring in Spring Bayou at Tarpon Springs are three
known points of discharge from the aquifer in this area. East of
Palm Harbor is an embayment in the piezometric surface, which
may be caused by heavy pumping from the large number of irri-


29























'lc; e


COUNTY


0
4%


.jita


Figure 14.-Map showing the piezometric surface in Pinellas County in May 1951.


0











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0
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so






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 12 31

gation wells in that area, or possibly by a relatively free movement
of water through subterranean solution channels, or by both. An-
other small embayment occurs south of Palm Harbor on the 1951
piezometric surface, but not on the 1949 piezometric surface. This
feature is probably due to heavy pumping in that area for irrigation
at the time the water-level measurements were made in 1951. The
largest embayment in the piezometric surface, which occurs around
the north end of Old Tampa Bay, is doubtless caused by natural dis-
charge of water into the bay. Over all the southern part of Pinellas
County, south 'of Walsingham, the piezometric surface is relatively
flat and has a maximum height of less than 10 feet. The lowness
of the piezometric surface in this area doubtless is a result of the
lack of local recharge.

AREA OF ARTESIAN FLOW

Wherever the piezometric surface stands higher than the land
surface, wells will flow under natural artesian pressure. The stip-
pled areas in figure 13 represent the areas in Pinellas County in
which artesian wells will flow. The areas of flow include: a narrow
band, generally less than a mile in width, that extends from a
point about 2 miles south of Clearwater around the southern end
of the peninsula to a point on the east coast about 2 miles south
of Coachman; an area about a mile wide that extends up the valleys
of Long Bayou and Cross Bayou east of Oakhurst and Largo; a
small area slightly more than a mile wide at the north end of Old
Tampa Bay about 2 miles west of Oldsmar; and a small area at the
south end of Lake Tarpon which extends a short distance up Booker
Creek. The areas of artesian flow decrease in size as the artesian
head declines. Many wells that are reported to, have flowed con-
tinuously when first drilled 10 or more years ago now flow only
when there is a high tide in the Gulf or in wet periods when there
is little or no use.

SALT-WATER ENCROACHMENT

The encroachment of sea water into fresh ground water has, in
the last few decades, become a major problem in many coastal areas
in the Nation. Such encroachment may occur wherever the pressure
head in an aquifer that is exposed to the sea is lowered excessively
by pumping or by artificial surface drainage. The problem first
became prominent in Pinellas County between 1920 and 1930 when
the early municipal-supply wells of St. Petersburg began to yield






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


salty water. Subsequently many irrigation wells, other public-
supply wells, and domestic wells began to yield salty water.

Relationship Between Fresh Water and Sea Water

The relationship between fresh ground water and sea water in
coastal areas was investigated by Badon Ghyben in 1887 and, ap-
parently independently, by Baurat Herzberg about 1900 (Brown,
1925, p. 16). These investigators found that in small islands and
in certain coastal areas that are composed of permeable material,
fresh ground water, because of its lower density "floats" upon the
sea water. As with any other floating body, part of it is above
sea level and part of it is below sea level, the ratio of the density
of fresh water to that of sea water being such that the volume of
fresh water below sea level is much larger than that above sea level.
Thus, as postulated by Ghyben and Herzberg, the depth to salt
water is a function of the height of the water table above sea
level and of the density of sea water. The relationship may be
expressed by the formula
h t
g-1
where h is the depth of fresh water below sea level, t is the height
of the water table (or piezometric surface) above sea level, and

SANO SURFACE
_WATER TALE




FRESH WATER







SEA WATER

Figure 15.-Diagram showing the relation between fresh water and
sea water beneath a narrow peninsula, according to the Ghyben-Herzberg
principle.


32






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 12


g is the specific gravity of sea water. For practical purposes the
specific gravity of fresh water is assumed to be 1.000.
The formula may be explained by reference to figure 15 which
represents the occurrence of fresh water and sea water in a small
island, or narrow peninsula, composed of permeable material, in
conjunction with a large imaginary U-tube having one leg beneath
the land and one leg in the sea. It is apparent that in such a U-tube
the column of fresh water in one leg, which has a height of h + t,
will balance the column of sea water in the other leg, which has
a height h. The ratio of the height of the column of fresh water
to that of the column of sea water will be equal to the ratio of the
specific gravity of sea water to the specific gravity of fresh water.
That is,
h+t g.
h 1

This equation reduces to the formula given above.
The specific gravity of sea water varies from one place to another
but is generally considered to be 1.025. If this value is substituted
in the formula given above then h = 40t which indicates that the
depth of fresh water below sea level is 40 times the height of the
water table above sea level. In other words, for each foot that the
water table stands above sea level the fresh water will extend be-
low sea level an additional 40 feet.
The Ghyben-Herzberg principle is tacitly based on the assump-
tion that the body of fresh water floats on sea water in static
equilibrium. In fact, however, such a body of ground water is never
static but, instead, is in constant motion, receiving replenishment
from rain and discharging into the sea. It has been shown by
Muskat (1937, p. 289) and Hubbert (1940, p. 924) that the dynamic
condition under which ground water occurs tends to vitiate the
Ghyben-Herzberg principle wherever the slope of the water table
is comparatively steep, as in the immediate vicinity of discharge
along a shoreline or a pumped well. In general, however, the slope
of the water table is so gentle that the condition of hydrostatic equi-
librium assumed by Ghyben and Herzberg is closely approximated.
The contact between fresh and sea water is not a well-defined
boundary such that on one side is found fresh water and on the other
side sea water. Instead there is a zone of intermixture, commonly
called the "zone of diffusion," which separates the overlying fresh
water from the underlying sea water. Within the zone of diffusion


33





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


the salinity of the water ranges from that of uncontaminated ground
water to undiluted sea water. The zone of diffusion arises principally
from the vacillation of the fresh water-sea water contact in response
to fluctuations of the water level and the rise and fall of the tide.
As indicated by Brown (1925, p. 36), European investigators found
the zone of diffusion ranges in thickness from 60 to 100 feet under
normal conditions. Investigations in the Miami area have shown the
width of the zone of diffusion there to be 60 feet (Parker, 1945, p.
539).

Salt-Water Encroachment in Pinellas County

About 91 percent of the dissolved solids content of sea water
consists of chloride salts. Thus, determinations of the chloride con-
tent of ground water are generally a reliable indication of the extent
to which normally fresh ground water has become contaminated
with sea water. More than 500 determinations of chloride content
of water from wells in Pinellas County have been made. It has been
found that, in general, ground water which has not been contam-
inated by sea water contains less than 50 ppm of chloride, whereas
that which is contaminated contains up to 1,000 ppm and more. To
most persons, water having a chloride content of 350 to 500 ppm
has a perceptibly salty taste.
The determinations of chloride content are listed in table 5. The
generalized results of these determinations are shown in figure 16.
As can be seen from this figure, there are four areas in the county
in which a considerable number of wells yield water with a chloride,
content in excess of 50 ppm, and in which salt-water encroachment
has likely occurred. These areas include: a small area south and
east of Palm Harbor that extends from Clearwater Harbor inland
for a distance of 2 to 3 miles most of the area in the vicinity of
Indian Rocks, Walsingham, and Oakhurst; a narrow band about
a mile wide along the southeastern coast; and a small area at the
north end of Old Tampa Bay about 2 miles west of Oldsmar.
Although salt water has apparently encroached into the areas
described above, it can be seen from figure 16 that there are a few
wells in each of the areas that yield water with a chloride content
of less than 50 ppm. Conversely, there are a few wells in nearly
every other part of the county that yield water with a chloride con-
tent of more than 50 ppm. These irregularities are due in part to
the fact that the wells sampled varied considerably in depth, and
in part to the fact that some had been pumped extensively prior


34







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 12


to sampling. As a rule the deeper wells may be expected to yield
water with a higher chloride content than the shallower ones and
a given well will yield water with a higher chloride content after
prolonged pumping.

One example of how the chloride content differs between wells
of different depths may be cited. On January 28, 1947, well 458,
which is 108 feet deep, had a chloride content of 25 ppm, whereas
on the same day well 459, which is no more than about 0.1 mile
from well 458 and is 289 feet deep, had a chloride content of 400
ppm.

An example of how the chloride content increases when a well
is pumped is shown in table 2, which gives the results of tests
made on well 420 by V. C. Jamison of the University of Florida
Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred.

TABLE 2
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LENGTH OF PUMPING TIME AND
CHLORIDE CONTENT OF WATER IN WELL 420
Period Chloride content as C1
Date pumped (parts per million)
1943
June 7 15 min. 129
June 7 3 hrs. 2,984
June 7 8 hrs. 2,940
June 8 10 min. 2,970
June 8 4 hrs. 2,970
June 8 8 hrs. 2,928
June 9 10 min. 2,914
June 9 9 hrs. 2,970
June 10 10 min. 2,928
June 10 3 hrs. 2,928
June 10 9 hrs. 2,941

The well had been idle for at least several days prior to June 7.
After it had been pumped for 15 minutes the chloride content was
only 129 ppm, but after 3 hours of pumping the chloride content had
risen to 2,984 ppm. The chloride content did not change significantly
after the first 3 hours of pumping. Although the yield of the well
is unknown, it was probably more than 100 gallons a minute.

According to the Ghyben-Herzberg principle, the contact be-
tween fresh water and sea water along a section from Clearwater
Harbor to Coopers Bayou would be as shown in figure 17. Several
assumptions were made in drawing this section ard it approximates
the actual contact so far as these assumptions are correct. One as-


35









i 'z
W4





100.






2W.'j FRESH WATER

4
us





4MU
z


80
6w .si SA WATER


Figure 17.-Section along line B-B' in figure 13 showing the theoretical contact between fresh water and sea water in Pinellas County.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 12


sumption is that the limestone aquifer is isotropic (equally per-
meable in all directions) so that water may move through it ver-
tically as well as horizontally. There appears to be no doubt that
the limestone contains some layers that are less permeable than
others and hence that water will move less freely vertically than
horizontally. It appears likely, however, that there is enough
interchange of water between the upper and lower parts of the
aquifer to enable the fresh water-sea water contact to adjust, in
time, to the piezometric surface. Moreover, because there are
hundreds of wells in the county which have open holes through
several hundred feet of limestone, there is probably a relatively
free exchange of water between the different permeable zones
in some parts of the county.

Another assumption is that the fresh water-sea water contact
is in equilibrium with the piezometric surface. The contact probably
rises during times of heavy withdrawal and is depressed by fresh
water entering the aquifer during the wet season. However, be-
cause the contact can rise only as the fresh water immediately above
it is withdrawn from storage and replaced by sea water, a process
referred to by Wentworth (1942, pp. 683-693) as "change in bottom
storage," there is necessarily a lag between the time the fresh-
water head is lowered and the time the contact has reached the
new point of equilibrium. In fact, the recent experience of well
owners in some of the coastal areas in Pinellas County, especially in
the area from Clearwater to Indian Rocks, where wells have become
contaminated with salt water without any detectable decline in
artesian head, seems to indicate that the head declined to about
its present level prior to 1947, when water-level observations were
begun, and that the contact has not yet reached equilibrium with
the lowered position of the piezometric surface.

A study of figure 16 reveals that wells on the upland area in the
vicinity of St. Petersburg (see fig. 2) yield water with a chloride
content of less than 50 ppm, although numerous wells between this
area and the principal recharge area near Coachman yield water
with a chloride content of more than 50 ppm. Thus, it appears
probable that the limestone aquifer in the vicinity of the upland
area is being recharged by water percolating downward from the
water-table aquifer through the confining bed. Additional evidence
that local recharge is occurring in southern Pinellas County is
offered by the configuration of the contour lines of the piezometric
surface on figure 14.


37






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 18.-Map of northwestern Pinellas County showing locations
of Spring Bayou and Lake Tarpon.

UNDERGROUND DRAINAGE OF LAKE TARPON

Lake Tarpon, formerly known as Lake Butler, in the northern
part of Pinellas County, is connected by an underground channel
with Spring Bayou, at Tarpon Springs (fig. 18). At irregular in-
tervals the lake drains through this underground channel into
Spring Bayou, and between drainings the salt water from Spring
Bayou moves through the channel, contaminating the lake water.
An explanation of how the draining occurs has been suggested by
0. E. Meinzer and V. T. Stringfield and described by H. H. Cooper,
Jr. (personal communication) as follows:


38







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 12


"During the intervals between drainings the channel evidently
becomes blocked in such a way as to retain the water in the lake and
allow the stage to build up. Ultimately the stage builds up so high
that the block is overcome, and the lake drains. The nature and me-
chanics of this block have been a subject of interesting speculation.
"A plausible explanation of the phenomenon has been suggested
by Mr. Meinzer. He points out that the underground channel, in
conjunction with the vents in the lake and bayou, forms a crude
U-tube, in which a column of the relatively dense sea water in Spring
Bayou balances a higher column of fresh water in the lake. So long
as the system is in balance, the contact between fresh water and sea
water is in the lake vent at a depth which depends on the lake stage, the
tide in the bayou, and the relative densities of the two waters. As the
differential in head increases with a rising stage or a falling tide, this
contact is depressed. When the differential in head is great enough
to depress the contact to the bottom of the U, any further increase
throws the system out of balance, the sea water flushes out of the
channel, and the lake drains.
"The lake will cease to drain when a new static balance between
the two columns of water is established at a lower stage. Probably
the cessation of flow occurs during a rising tide in the bayou, and
subsequently, near high tide, sea water moves back through the
channel into the lake vent once more to complete the cycle.
"The reason that the lake stage at which flushing begins varies
from one time to another is apparent when one considers that this
critical stage is dependent on two variables: one is the tide level
in the bayou, and the other is the density of the lake water. The
density of the lake water varies with the extent to which it is mixed
with sea water by the constant agitation of the tide. At times the
concentration of salts in the lake water, especially in the vicinity
of the sink, may be so high as to allow the lake to flush under a con-
siderably lower head differential than if the water were altogether
fresh.
"The ratio of the specific gravity of sea water to that of fresh water
is about 1.025 to 1.000, or 41 to 40. Thus, a column of sea water 40 feet
in height will balance a column of fresh water 41 feet in height. Ap-
plied to the problem at hand, this relationship indicates that for each
foot of lake stage above the bayou tide level there will be a depth of
40 feet below the bayou level to the contact between the two waters,
providing the lake water is fresh. If the lowest section of the U-system
were, for example, 120 feet below sea level, the highest possible head
differential that could occur without flushing would be about 3.0 feet.
Differentials in head of more than 3.0 feet would indicate that the
lowest section of the underground channel is more than 120 feet below
sea level. When additional studies have been made, it may become
possible to predict with a fair degree of accuracy when flushings will
occur. Investigations of the specific gravity of water at various depths
in the lake sink immediately prior to the flushings are needed. Also
needed are studies of the differentials in head with consideration of the
time required for tidal fluctuations to be transmitted through the
system."

An investigation of the underground drainage of the lake was
undertaken by the U. S. Geological Survey. As a part of the in-
vestigation, automatic recording gages were installed on well 13
at Tarpon Springs and on Lake Tarpon. Charts from the recorder
on Lake Tarpon show, that the lake drained 27 times from July
1945 to November 1949. The stage of the lake at the start of the
drainings has ranged from 2.5 to 5.5 feet above mean sea level


39






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


and at the cessation of the drainings, from 1.2 to 3.1 feet above
mean sea level.
The hydrograph for well 13 (see fig. 19) shows that the water
level in the area west of Lake Tarpon fluctuates in response to the
changes in lake level. In fact, the fluctuations of water level in
well 13 and of Lake Tarpon are almost identical. Thus, as shown
in figure 19, unusual fluctuations associated with the draining of
Lake Tarpon occurred in both the well and the lake in August and
October of 1948 and in August, September, October, and November
of 1949.
The lake drains through a sinkhole having a maximum mea-
sured depth of 115 feet just off the northwest shore of the lake
(fig. 18). After entering the sinkhole the water moves through
an underground channel or channels and emerges through a vent
in the bottom of Spring Bayou.
1947 1948 1949
J F M A M J J A SO N D J FMAM J J A SO NDJ F M AM J A S O N O
Mean Doily Woter Level
4 in Well 13 t Tarpon Springs






Mean Iaily Stage D
of Lake TArpon



SIIII
j--


20 Monthly Rainfall
6i9 otfTarpon Springs



Figure 19.-Factors relating to underground drainage of Lake Tarpon.


40










0 10 20 .
0

MARCH 24
20

30

40

50

60
70

80
90

100 -
110
-.J
lIO


10 20 0


CHLORIDE CONTENT IN PARTS PER THOUSAND
10 200 10 200 10 200 10 20 0


JULY 7 JULY 14 JULY 21 JULY 28 AUGUST 4 AUGUST II








x b
-oo o 0 o 2
g 03 0 0 "
____ x a ___ co __ __ O __ __41 I CDI __ B ___ 5
i v" \ _- -ic
____^<. ___L--_-_< _W.__^ W \_W_. __ _e
2 2 2 Z
2 Tz z z
aI 1 4W
F 2 0 -h lo i o 1 i Ti


Figure 20.-Chloride content of water in sinkhole in Lake Tarpon in 1947.


AUGUST 25










Z.
c,


=J


10 20 0


10 20 0


10 20


I.-
w
.w
L'r



w


IL'
La-


8
U
I-
0
'4
-J
0


0


0



-4
z






0
z
w




z





O





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 20 shows the variations in the chloride content, and thus
indicates the variations in density, of the water in the lake sink
during one drainage cycle. The lake stopped draining on March 30
or 31, 1949, probably during a high tide in the bayou, after which
relatively salty water flushed into the lake sink, reaching almost
to the surface of the lake by April 7. From April 7 to June 30,
while the lake was relatively low (fig. 19), salty water remained
in the lake sink, its vertical position changing, partly as a result of
tides in Spring Bayou. As the lake rose, beginning in July (fig. 19),
the salt water in the lake sink was depressed and diluted (fig. 20)
until, sometime between August 4 and August 11, the balance
between the fresh water and salt water was upset and the lake
started to drain. Draining of the lake is accompanied by a partial
draining of the aquifer in the area west of the lake, as indicated
by the hydrograph of well 13 in figure 19. A plot of the chloride
content of water at the surface and at the bottom of the sinkhole
in Lake Tarpon from early 1947 to April 1948 is shown in figure 19.
A comparison of this plot with the mean daily stage of the lake
during 1947 shows that during the period from May to July, after
the lake had drained, its level remained relatively low and salty
water was present in the bottom of the sinkhole. In August, as the
stage of the lake began to rise, the salty water in the sinkhole was
depressed until it could no longer be reached for sampling.

QUALITY OF WATER

Chemical analyses of 10 samples of water from selected wells in
the county, made by the Quality of Water Branch of the U. S.
Geological Survey, are shown in table 3. The relative mineralization
of the different samples is best observed by comparing the amount
of dissolved solids. In general, such a comparison shows that min-
eralization increases with depth and with distance from the re-
charge area. Thus, the wells at Clearwater, Dunedin, Largo, and
Safety Harbor, all of which are relatively near the Coachman re-
charge area, contained less than 300 ppm of dissolved solids, where-
as the wells at Bay Pines, Oldsmar, and Pinellas Park, which are
much farther from points of recharge, contained more than 900
ppm.
Nitrate is derived from the decomposition of organic material,
and a relatively high content of this constituent generally indicates
the presence of local recharge. No analyses were made of the
nitrate content of water from wells near the center of the Coachman


42





REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No, 12


recharge area. However, the nitrate content of well 167 at Dunedin
and well 640 at St. Petersburg was 6.0 and 6.5 ppm respectively,
indicating local recharge near both these wells. As pointed out in
a previous section, the possibility of local recharge at St. Peters-
burg is indicated also by the fact that wells in the upland part of
the city yield water having a lower chloride content than wells in
the area between St. Petersburg and the principal recharge area
in the vicinity of Coachman.

Hardness affects the suitability of water for certain uses.
Among the most noticeable effects are the increased quantities of
soap needed to form a lather and the scale formed in vessels when
the water is heated. Most hardness is due to the presence
of calcium and magnesium, although iron, aluminum, and other
substances, which are generally present only in negligible quantities,
contribute to it. Water having a hardness of less than 50 ppm is
generally considered soft. Hardness of 50 to 150 ppm does not
seriously interfere with the use of water for most purposes, al-
though the quantity of soap required to form a lather is noticeably
larger. Water having a hardness of more than 150 ppm is rated as
hard and is commonly softened when used for household and other
domestic uses. Each sample analyzed for this report had a hardness
of more than 175 ppm. Three samples, those from Bay Pines, Olds-
mar, and Pinellas Park, each had a hardness of more than 495 ppm.
Studies in some areas of the United States have shown that
children who drink water that contains about 1 ppm of fluoride
have fewer cavities in their teeth than children who drink water
that contains much less than 1 ppm (Dean, 1943, pp. 1161-1183).
However, fluoride in concentrations more than 1.5 ppm tend to
cause mottling of the enamel of the permanent teeth of young
children who habitually use the water. In view of this, it is sig-
nificant that the samples from well 167 at Dunedin and well 25 at
Tarpon Springs did not contain measurable amounts of fluoride and
the others contained only 0.1 to 0.6 ppm.
Iron differs from most of the other chemical constituents
normally found in ground water in that concentrations as low as
0.1 ppm may impart objectionable characteristics such as a fer-
ruginous taste and the staining of plumbing fixtures. Three of the
samples from Pinellas County, those from Oldsmar, Safety Harbor,
and St. Petersburg, contained more than 0.1 ppm of iron. However,
it appears possible that the relatively high iron contents of 0.81
ppm in well 212A at Oldsmar and 1.64 ppm in well 640 at St. Peters-








TABLE 3
ANALYSES OF WATER FROM WELLS
(Analyses by Quality of Water Branch, U. S.
are expressed in parts per million except


IN PINELLAS COUNTY
Geological Survey. All results


those for color


and pH.)


Bay Pines
Clearwater
Dunedin
Largo
Largo (at Wal-
singham
Reservoir)


Oldsmar

Pinellas
Park

Safety
Harbor
St. Petersburg
Tarpon Springs
(near NW
shore of Lake
Tarpon)


Z

I


594
270
167
315


464


212A


566


326
640



25


c

- .-E


Tampa fm.
Tampa fm.
Tampa fm.
Tampa fm.
Tampa fm.
& Suwan-
nee Is.
Tampa fm.
& Suwan-
nee Is.
Tampa fm.
& Suwan-
nee Is.
Tampa fm.
& Suwan-
nee Is.
Tampa fm.



Tampa fim.


qw 4

P.4 .04


3-10-49
3-8-49
3-8-49
3-8-49


3-28-49


3-9-49


3-10-49


3-9-49
3-9-49



3-7-49


42
25
18
29


36


28


29


15
19



10


-
goE
g&(


0.08
.08
.01
.08


.02


.81


.04


.17
1.64



.02


w
0)
-6j
ci
cc


245
196
142
187


223


207


215


231
216



63


B
3
r(
00


C V


37
9.2
4.8
11


28


23


36


8.1
7.6



13


138
62
66
58


63


162


186


72
72



49


CZ


76
23
15
18


32


255


193


18
27



135


C4.
tRI2


46
3.0
63
4.0


3.4


57

42


2.6
2.5



39


w
'-4
'0


0.2
.3
0
.3


.6

.2


.1


.1
.10



.00


fa
0-<
S3
tU^


308
52
23
48


107

560


540


43
57



262


E00
It.


496
193
184
190


272

498


612


213
211



176


wP
O~


911
288
271
288


428


1,190


1,130

281
328



588


0)
4I'
Ia


II


296
32
68
37


89


329

436


24
34



124


0.5
.5
6.0
1.5


1.0

1.5


1.0


1.0
6.5



.5


5
0
0
10


30


5

0.0


5
20



0.0


7.1
7.7
7.7
7.5


7.5


7.3


7.5

7.4
7.2



7.5


+ __ __ __ -I I __ _ J. __ _S __ I I I' ___ __ __ _S





i 1 1 i I 1- 1 1 1- i -


---------- q-


-I-


---I-





-I-








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 12


burg are due in part to contamination by the casing and other iron
pipes through which the water passed and thus do not give a true
indication of the iron content of water in the aquifer.
The significance of the chloride content of water is discussed in
the section entitled "Salt-Water Encroachment."
USE OF WATER
Nearly all water for public, industrial, agricultural, and domestic
uses in Pinellas County is obtained from wells. The Pinellas County
Water System, which obtains part of its supply from McKay Creek,
is the only public system using surface water as a source of supply
at the present time, but it, also, obtains part of its supply from
ground water.
Wells tapping the artesian aquifer range in diameter from 3
to 12 inches and range in depth from about 50 feet to as much as
300 feet. The yield of deep wells varies with the permeability of
the limestone penetrated, the amount of open hole, and the diameter,
but wells having diameters of 8 inches and more generally yield
several hundred gallons a minute. Shallow wells are generally
developed by driving 11/ inch casing, equipped with a well point,
to a depth of from 25 to 50 feet. A few shallow domestic supplies
are obtained from dug wells having diameters of 24 inches or more.
The Florida State Board of Health lists 13 public water systems
in Pinellas County, all of which, except the St. Petersburg system,
obtain water from wells in the county. St. Petersburg obtains its
water from wells in Hillsborough County. The average output of
each system in 1947 (Florida State Board of Health, 1948, pp.
20-21) is given in table 4.

TABLE 4
AVERAGE DAILY OUTPUT OF PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES
IN PINELLAS COUNTY, 1947
Million gallons
Public supply a day
Pinellas County Water System 0.650
Belleair .18
Belleview-Biltmore .144
Clearwater 1.50
Crystal Beach .036
Dunedin .33
Largo .175
Oldsmar .20
SPalm Harbor .024
Pinellas Park .070
Safety Harbor .075
St. Petersburg 7.10
Tarpon Springs .20


s ~ ~-- --- ~I


45







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The consumption of water in Pinellas County is increasing so
fast that any figures given on consumption are obsolete before
publication. For example, the average daily output of the Clear-
water system increased from 1.5 million gallons in 1947 to 3.2 mil-
lion gallons in 1951, and that of the Pinellas County Water System
increased from 0.65 to 1.5 million gallons over the same period.
One of the most important items to be considered in a study of
the ground-water resources of an area is the total consumption of
ground water. However, because there are hundreds of domestic
and irrigation wells scattered throughout Pinellas County on which
no pumping records are kept, it has not been feasible to derive a
consumption figure that is much more than a calculated guess.
About the best estimate that can be made is that the consumption
of water in Pinellas County was 13 to 14 million gallons a day in
1951.
St. Petersburg Water Supply
Although the investigation leading to this report was concerned
primarily with the ground-water resources of Pinellas County,
the report would not be complete without a discussion of the water
supply of St. Petersburg, which is now obtained from 12 wells near
Cosme, in northwestern Hillsborough County. The St. Petersburg
supply serves approximately half the population of Pinellas County.
All the wells draw water from the limestone aquifer. The water
in the aquifer in the Cosme area enters the limestone formations
through the recharge area in Pasco County and northern Hills-
borough County.
Measurements made in 1930 of the water levels in the Cosme
wells indicate that the piezometric surface stood between 36 and
43 feet above sea level prior to the time the wells were put into
operation (see table 5). The current average daily pumping of
about 12 million gallons has doubtless created a cone of depression
around the well field, but the depth and extent of the cone have not
been mapped. However, a record of the water level since October
1930 in Hillsborough County well 13 (see fig. 21), about 4 miles
east of the nearest supply well at Cosme, indicates that the piezo-
metric surface has not been lowered appreciably at that distance
from the well field. When it is considered that in other places in
Florida, as in northeastern Florida (Cooper and Warren, 1945, pp.
263-282), the piezometric surface has been lowered substantially
by heavy pumping over distances much greater than 4 miles with-
out any serious consequences, tle record of the water level in Hills-


46













S50

i 49

o 48

47
"-

2 47

S46

45

f44


- ----- ---
S20 0







Figure 21.-Hydrograph of well 13 in Hillsborough County and monthly rainfall at St. Leo, Pasco County, 1980-1951 inclusive.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


borough County well 13 appears to indicate that the ground-water
resources in the Cosme area are not being unduly affected by pump-
ing. In fact, the available information indicates that the ground
water resources in the region north and east of Cosme have the
capacity to yield several times the amount of water that is now
being pumped, provided new wells are dispersed over an area of
sufficient breadth to avoid excessive drawdowns.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The results of the investigation of ground-water resources in
Pinellas County may be summarized as follows:

1. The principal source of ground water in Pinellas County is
an aquifer composed of the Tampa formation and Suwannee lime-
stone. In the northern part of the county the top of this aquifer is
10 to 50 feet beneath the surface. Toward the south its depth in-
creases until in the vicinity of St. Petersburg it is more than 125
feet beneath the surface. In the area north of Palm Harbor and
west of Lake Tarpon the water in the aquifer is under water-table
conditions. In the remainder of the county the water is under ar-
tesian conditions.

2. West and south of Lake Tarpon the water in the aquifer is
derived wholly from local rainfall. North of Palm Harbor the
aquifer is covered only with permeable material and hence receives
recharge from rainfall readily. South of Palm Harbor the aquifer
is overlain by material of low permeability but nevertheless receives
substantial quantities of recharge through sinkholes in the area
around Coachman; the area of recharge possibly includes the
vicinity of Dunedin. Recharge in this area is indicated by the fact
that the piezometric surface stands high-as much as 16 feet above
sea level about a mile south of Coachman. Lesser quantities of
recharge doubtless enter the artesian aquifer wherever the water
table stands very high above the piezometric surface, as, for ex-
ample, in the upland area around St. Petersburg.

3. Salt-water encroachment is the most critical ground-water
problem confronting the county. Areas already affected by en-
croachment include: (1) most of the area between Palm Harbor
and the southwest shore of Lake Tarpon; (2) most of the area
between Indian Rocks, Walsingham, and Oakhurst; (3) an area
about a mile wide along the southeastern coast of the county; and


48







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 12


(4) a small area at the north end of Old Tampa Bay about 2 miles
west of Oldsmar. The chloride content of the water from wells in
these areas ranges from less than 50 to as much as several thousand
parts per million.
The quantity of water that may be safely withdrawn from the
aquifer at a given place depends on the water-transmitting capacity
of the aquifer and on the height of the piezometric surface. Where
the piezometric surface stands highest, more water can be with-
drawn without causing salt water to move into the wells. Wherever
the piezometric surface is lowered, water is removed from storage,
and the water so removed is replaced in part by water from the sea.

4. In the long run, salt-water encroachment can be controlled
only by limiting the total draft to a rate at which an adequate fresh-
water head will be maintained. Where feasible, the safe draft at a
given place and from a given group of wells might be increased by
artificially recharging the aquifer-that is, by injecting surplus
surface water into the aquifer through wells. To be effective, how-
ever, the artificial recharge would have to be introduced in the
immediate vicinity of the pumped wells. If, for example, the aquifer
were artificially recharged in the vicinity of Coachman, no ap-
preciable beneficial results would accrue to the wells in the vicinity
of Walsingham, but the safe draft at Coachman might be increased.
At some places, where geologic conditions are favorable, artificial
recharge would be most effective if applied immediately adjacent to
the coast, where it would build up a ground-water "ridge" to act
as a barrier to the inland advance of sea water (Laverty and others,
1951). This approach to the problem would be effective, however,
only if the aquifer were underlain by a watertight formation, for
otherwise the salt water could move upward from the deeper forma-
tion, thereby bypassing the barrier. The scanty information on
the geology of Pinellas County indicates that there is no watertight
formation underlying the aquifer and, hence, that an attempt to
halt the advance of sea water by creating a ground-water ridge
along the coast probably would not be successful.
Artificial recharge can put a stop to an encroachment of salt
water only if the rate of recharge exceeds the rate of withdrawal.
So long as the draft of ground water in Pinellas County continues
to increase the problem of salt-water encroachment will grow more
serious. An encroachment of salt water is especially lamentable
because its effects are long lasting. Having once established inroads


49







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


into the aquifer, the salty water will rinse out only very slowly,
leaving traces for many years and perhaps for generations after
remedial measures are undertaken.
The investigation leading to this report was restricted largely
to a study of the existing wells in the county, because funds for
drilling test wells and observation wells were not available. As
most of the wells are finished with open holes that extend through
more than 100 feet of limestone and thus draw from more than one
water-bearing zone, several aspects of the problem of salt-water
encroachment could not be investigated. Among these are (1) the
relation between the height of the piezometric surface and the
depth below sea level of the fresh water-sea water contact, (2) the
rate of advance of the contact in the areas already affected by
salt-water encroachment, and (3) the possibility of differences in
pressure heads between various water-bearing zones.
The relation between the height of the piezometric surface and
the depth to the salt-water contact must be studied before the
problem of salt-water encroachment can be adequately understood.
Figure 17 was drawn on the basis of the Ghyben-Herzberg principle,
described in the section titled "Salt-Water Encroachment," to show
where the contact would be if it were in hydrostatic equilibrium
with the piezometric surface. The position of the contact as shown
in figure 17 may differ from the true position because the permea-
bility of the aquifer in a vertical direction is doubtless much less
than the permeability in a horizontal direction, and because vertical
movements of the contact that accompany changes in the height
of the piezometric surface are delayed by changes in "bottom
storage." On the other hand, if the Ghyben-Herzberg principle is
found to apply approximately, the effects of pumping at a given
place can be predicted fairly well.
Studies are needed also to determine the rate at which salt-
water encroachment is occurring. Water samples for chloride
analyses have been collected from selected wells several times
since 1948 in an effort to determine the rate of encroachment. How-
ever, the results of these analyses have not been consistent, because
each well draws from several water-bearing zones so that the
samples are mixtures of water from several depths, and possibly
because intermittent pumping of the wells by the owners causes
the chloride content to vary inconsistently from one sampling to
another. Where the rate of encroachment can be determined it
may be possible to predict when the wells will become contaminated.


50








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 12


A program designed to determine how closely the Ghyben-
Herzberg principle applies and to observe the advance of the salt-
water contact would consist of establishing a series of observation
stations approximately 1 mile apart across the county from Clear-
water to Tampa Bay. Each station should consist of three or four
small-diameter wells drilled and cased to different depths in the
aquifer. The deepest of the wells would end in the zone of diffusion
between fresh water and salt water, the shallowest would end near
the top of the aquifer, and the other one or two would end at in-
tervening depths. Such a system of wells would provide a means of
extracting water samples and measuring pressure heads at isolated
depths in the aquifer, an operation that is not possible with the
existing, open-hole wells. Tests of chloride content of water from
the wells of each station would indicate how the salt-water contact
advances and retreats, and measurements of the water levels would
provide a record of the changes in pressure head that cause the
contact to advance and retreat. Similar stations could well be
established in each of the areas affected by salt-water encroachment
to provide accurate information on how the extent of the encroach-
ment may increase or decrease.
Further analyses of the chloride content of water from many
wells throughout the county, at least once a year, would provide
much needed additional information on the extent of salt-water
encroachment. As of February 1, 1953, five recorders were in
operation (on wells 13, 77, 166, 246, and 561), three having been
discontinued because the owners of the wells rightfully elected to
restore the wells to their own service. As the height of the piezo-
metric surface controls the extent to which salt water will encroach,
it is especially desirable that records of water levels such as are
obtained through the use of automatic recording gages be continued
indefinitely on at least five or six wells strategically located over
the county.
REFERENCES
Black, A. P.
1951 (and Brown, Eugene) Chemical character of Florida's waters-
1951: Florida State Board Conserv., Water Survey and Res.
Paper 6.
Brown, John S.
1925 A study of coastal ground water, with special reference to Con-
necticut: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 537.
Collins, W. D.
1928 (and Howard, C. S.) Chemical character of waters of Florida:
U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 596-G.
Cooke, C. W.
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29.


51







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Cooper, H. H., Jr.
1945 (and Warren, M. A.) The perennial yield of artesian water in the
coastal area of Georgia and northeastern Florida: Econ. Geology,
vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 263-282.
Dean, H. T.
1943 Domestic water and dental caries: Am. Water Works Assoc.
Jour., vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 1161-1183.
Ferguson, G. E.
1947 (Lingham, C. W., Love S. K., and Vernon, R. 0.) Springs of
Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 31.
Florida State Board of Health
1948 Tabulation of water-supply data (Mimeo. rept.).
Hubbert, M. K.
1940 The theory of ground water motion: Jour. Geology, vol. 48, no.
8, pt. 1.
Jacob, C. E.
1939 Fluctuations in artesian pressure produced by passing trains as
shown in a well on Long Island, New York: Am. Geophys. Union
Trans. of 1939.
Laverty, F. B.
1951 (Jordan, L. W., and Van der Goot, H. A.) Report on tests for
the creation of fresh water barriers to prevent salinity intrusion
performed in West Central Basin, Los Angeles County, California:
Los Angeles County Flood Control District.
Leverett, Frank
1931 The Pensacola terrace, and associated bars and beaches in Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 7.
Matson, G. C.
1913 (and Sanford, Samuel) Geology and ground waters of Florida:
U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 319.
Muskat, Morris
1937 The flow of homogeneous fluids through porous media: New York,
McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.
Parker, Garald G.
1945 Salt-water encroachment in southern Florida: Am. Water Works
Assoc. Jour., vol. 37, no. 6.
1946 (and others) Water resources of southeastern Florida: U. S.
Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper (in preparation).
1950 (and Stringfield, V. T.) Effects of earthquakes, trains, tides,
winds, and atmospheric pressure changes on water in the geologic
formations of southern Florida: Econ. Geology, vol. 45, no. 5.
1951 Geologic and hydrologic factors in the perennial yield of the
Biscayne aquifer: Am. Water Works Assoc. Jour., vol. 43, no. 10.
Sellards, E. H.
1913 (and Gunter, Herman) The artesian water supply of eastern and
southern Florida: Florida Geol. Survey 5th Ann. Rept.
Stringfield, V. T. (Also see Parker, Garald G.)
1933 Ground water investigations in Florida: Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 11.
1936 Artesian water in the Florida peninsula: U. S. Geol. Survey
Water-Supply Paper 773-C.
Vernon, R. 0. (Also see Ferguson, G. E.)
1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy Counties, Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 33.
Wentworth, C. K.
1942 Storage consequences of the Ghyben-Herzberg theory: Am.
Geophys. Union Trans. of 1942, pt. 2.


52








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 12


A program designed to determine how closely the Ghyben-
Herzberg principle applies and to observe the advance of the salt-
water contact would consist of establishing a series of observation
stations approximately 1 mile apart across the county from Clear-
water to Tampa Bay. Each station should consist of three or four
small-diameter wells drilled and cased to different depths in the
aquifer. The deepest of the wells would end in the zone of diffusion
between fresh water and salt water, the shallowest would end near
the top of the aquifer, and the other one or two would end at in-
tervening depths. Such a system of wells would provide a means of
extracting water samples and measuring pressure heads at isolated
depths in the aquifer, an operation that is not possible with the
existing, open-hole wells. Tests of chloride content of water from
the wells of each station would indicate how the salt-water contact
advances and retreats, and measurements of the water levels would
provide a record of the changes in pressure head that cause the
contact to advance and retreat. Similar stations could well be
established in each of the areas affected by salt-water encroachment
to provide accurate information on how the extent of the encroach-
ment may increase or decrease.
Further analyses of the chloride content of water from many
wells throughout the county, at least once a year, would provide
much needed additional information on the extent of salt-water
encroachment. As of February 1, 1953, five recorders were in
operation (on wells 13, 77, 166, 246, and 561), three having been
discontinued because the owners of the wells rightfully elected to
restore the wells to their own service. As the height of the piezo-
metric surface controls the extent to which salt water will encroach,
it is especially desirable that records of water levels such as are
obtained through the use of automatic recording gages be continued
indefinitely on at least five or six wells strategically located over
the county.
REFERENCES
Black, A. P.
1951 (and Brown, Eugene) Chemical character of Florida's waters-
1951: Florida State Board Conserv., Water Survey and Res.
Paper 6.
Brown, John S.
1925 A study of coastal ground water, with special reference to Con-
necticut: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 537.
Collins, W. D.
1928 (and Howard, C. S.) Chemical character of waters of Florida:
U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 596-G.
Cooke, C. W.
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29.


51










































TABLE 5


RECORD OF WELLS


__








tADL3 5. WLL siCORDS






I~ '4
o0U
St


Two miles northwest of Tarpon Springs,.about 0.3 mile
northeast of Victor Chemical Vorks, on south side of a
railroad siding, near County Line east of vell 2, in a
lumphouae. NWINE see. 2, T. 27 8., R. 15 E. Owner's
weil 4.
Two miles northveet of Tarpon Springs, about 0,2 mile
north of Victor Chemical Vorkes on northwest side of a
railroad aiding, near County Line, in pumphouse, west
of well 1. Near NW cor. NWINE s@eo. 2, T. 27 8., R. 15
E. Owner's well 2.
About 2.2 miles northwest of Tarpon Springs about 0.2
aile north of Victor Chemical Works, about 900 feet
wet of well 2, near County Line, in pumphouse. NEiNVJ
sec. 2, T. 27 ., R. 15 E. Orner' well 3.
Two and two-tenths miles northwest of Tarpon Springs,
about 0.2 mile north of Victor Chemical Works, about
00 feet vest of a railroad sidin, near County Line,
about 10 feet south of vell 3. NEtNW see. 2, T. 27 S.,
R. 15 E.
One and nine-tenths miles northwest of Tarpon Springs,
about 300 feet east of main office of Victor Chemical
Works about 100 feet south of County Road 47. SE)NWi
sec. 2, T. 27 S., R. 1 5 .
Tarpon Sprlnes, northeast corner of Tarpon Ave. and
Scoring B91d., at site of Old Tarpon Hotel. S5ESW* sec.
12, T. 27 S., R. 15 E.
Tarpon Springs, at 20 Wes Tarpon Ave., north side of
owner's residence. SEtSW sec. 12, T. 27 S., R. 15 E.


Tarpon Sorlngs,
Tarpon Ave. and
R. 15 Z.
TAroon oringe,
Tarpon Ave. and
R. 15 E.
Taroon Springs,
Tarpon Ave. and
R. 15 E.
Trroon Springs,
Tbroon Ave. and
R. 15 E.

Tarpon Springs,
Tarpon Ave. and
R. 15 E.


on vest side of Orosse Ave. between
Lanon St. SW1SEI sec. 12, T. 27 .,

on west side of Orosse Ave., between
Lemon St. SWiSEj eeo. 12, T. 27 8.,

on vest side of Orosse Ave., between
Lemon St. SWSEt see. 12, T. 27 B.,

on weft side of Orosse Ave., between
Lemon St. SWistE sec. 12, T. 27 8.,


on vest side of Orosse Ave. between
Lemon St. SWiSEt eeo. 12, 27 8.,


4








6


7


8


9


10


11



12



13







14


15



16


17


Victor Chemical Works
Tarpon Springs,
Florida


Victor Cheailcal Works
Tarpon Springs,
Florida


Victor Chemical Works
Tarpon Springs,
Florida

Victor Chemical Works
Tarpon Springs,
Florida


Victor Chemical Works
Tarpon Springs,
Florida


David Black
Tarpon Springs,
Florida
City of Tarpon Springe


City of Tarpon Springe


City of Tarpon Springs


City of Tarpon Springs



City of Tarpon Springs



United States Depart-
ment of Interior.
Geological Survey.





H. F. Heye


H. F. Heye



C. E. JackPon


J. L. Soyd


Layne Atlantic Co.
Orlando, Florida



Layne Atlantic Co.
Orlando, Florida



Layne Atlantic Co;
.Orlando, Florida


April
1947


Layne Atlantic Co. April
Orlando, Florida 1947


Layne Atlantic Co.
Orlando, Florida









Delong


Delong


Delong


Zimmerman
Otona, Florida


Zimmerman
Ozona, Florida


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida






FrankY ay
Tarpa, Florida





Frank May
Tampa, Florida

Porter Zir erman
Osona, Florida


Maroh
1946


1931


1907


1946


Dec.
1946


.1 I j I,


Six-tenths of a mile southeast of Tarpon Springe, on
south edge of city dump. Near SE.cor. SEINEI sec.
13, T. 27 S., R. 15 E.






One anA nine-tenthe miles north of Palm Harbor, 0.4
rile east of U. S. Highway 19. 8WtSWt sec. 25, T. 27
S., R. 15 E.
One and nine-tenthe miles north of Palm Haroor, 0.1
mile east of U. S. Highway 19, east of Wall Springs,
>n east side of a house. SEISEt seo. 26, T. 27 S.,
R. 15 E.
One and two-tenths miles north of Palm Harbor 0.3 mile
east of U. S. Highway 19. Near NW cor. SEi NE see. 35
T. 27 S., R. 15 I.
About ,0 miles vwet of Tarpon Springs, 0.6 mile north
of State Highway 582, about 0.1 mile east of the Sea-
board Air Line Railroad. BESVW s*e. 4, T. 27 8., R.
16 E.









PINELLAS COUNTY
KASURING POINT WATER LE CHLO IDQ CONTEN


0to

a ,I ~sr .

I ag 0
i'. 1 1.1


33


.4.2




L3.5


13.0


Top of 8-inch cas-
ing, 0.3 foot above
land surface.


Top of 8-inch cas-
ing, flush with
land surface.







Top of 12-inch cae-
ing, flush with land
surface.
































Top of 6-inch cae-
'ing, 2.9 feet above
land surface.













Top of 12-inch cas-
ing, 0.4 foot above
land surface.

Top of 3-inch cas-
ing, 0.2 foot above
land surface.


9.75


14.08


8.51


9-12-47


8.50 9-12-47


.67 9-12-47


1052 6-21-49


12.08
12.89
12.22
12.51


6.88


4.06
3.18
5.41
5.0


12-18-47
1-29-4b
4-19-48
5-1-511


5-1-46


3-3-47

6-21-49
5-14-51


276
470
450

276
470
450


131 0C


9-12-47




9-12-47








9-12-47


Industrial




Industrial




Industrial



Test




Industrial






Unused
Domestic


4-?-48 Public
S 9--48 Supply
- 5-15-51


4-?-48 Public
9-?-48 Supply
5-15-51


10-2-47
11-10-47
11-18-47
11-25-47
12-1-47


Oneervation


5-2E-43 Irrigation
434


4-3-47
5-15-51


9-3-47


Domr.atic


Irrigation


3-31-47 Irrigation


Drawdown 5 feet
when pumped 110
g.p.m.

Well probably
destroyed.







Well filled with
rubbish.

Well abandoned
owing to high
sBlinity of water.
Well probably
buried.

Well probably
buried.

Well probably
buried.-

Water samples
were a mixture
from vells 11 and
12.

Water samples
vere a mixture
front wells laand
12.
F.G.S. Well W1619,
Cuttings from
strata penetrated
on file with
Florida Geological
Survey. Automatic
water-level record-
er installed
10-6-47.


14.88


651


40


42


40 1 8


II







TABLE 5. WILL RECORDS


Ii

u
8 8 1


Two and four-tenths miles northeast of Tarpon Springs,
1.0 sile east of U. S. Highway 19, 75 feet east of a
residence near County Line. Near NW oor. NWtNVt leo.
5, T. 27 4., R. 16 3.
Two and two-tenths miles northeast of Tarpon Springs,
vest side of Salt Lake, 0.3 mile north of Atlantic Coast
Line Railroad. Near SW oor. NVMW*S soe. 5, T. 27 8., R.
16 I.
Two miles northeast of Tarpon Springs, 0.4 mile east of
U. 8. Highway 19 0.28 mile north of County Road 71,
east side of esail pond about 100 feet west of location
for new State Highway J in an orange grove. Near SE
cor. NHtW see. 6, 27 8., R. 16 .
One and eight-tenths miles northeast of Tarpon Springe,
0.3) ile west of State Highway 3J, 300 feet south of a
small pond, 10 feet north of a dirt roa4, southwest of
well 20. WtNt seeo. 6, T. 27 8., R. 16 3.

About 3.0 milee northeast of Tarpon Springs, 0.45 ile
north of State Highway 582, 0.1 mile east of Seaboard
Air Line Railroad, east of a residence. Near NW ocr,
NEtNt see. 9, T. 27 8., R. 16 Z.


Three and one-tenth miles northeast of Tarpon Springs,
0.5 mile north of State Highway 582, 0.4 aile east of a
dirt road. NWiNE seeo. 9, T. 27 S., R. 16 E.
Three and four-tenths ailes northeast of Tarpon Springs,
0.5 mile north of State Highway 582, 0.6 mile east of a
dirt road. Near MV oor. NEtNEt seeo 9, T. 27 8., R. 16
S.
One and five-tenths miles east of Tarpon Springs, 0.4
sile Pouth of State Highway 582, 0.45 mile east of State
Highway 5 wee t side of a water tank. SViNV seeo. 17,
T. 27 8., A. 16 E.


E. H. Beckett
Tarpon Springs,
Florida

Warren



I. H. Beokett
Tarpon Springs,
Florida


E, H. Beckett
Tarpon Springs,
Florida


J. L. Boyd



J. L. Boyd


J. L. Boyd



City of Tarpon
Springs


One and four-tenths miles east of Tarpon Springs, 0.2 City of
mile south of State Highway 582, 0.35 aile east of State Springs
Highway 55. NENEi see. 18, T. 27 S., R. 16 3.


27 One and one-tenth miles east of Tarpon Springs, 0.25
aile south of State Highway 582, 0.1 mile east of State
Highway 55, north side of a Skeet Range, on a sand hill,
10 feet north of a dirt road. NWtNEt soo. 18, T. 27 S.,
R. 16 3.



28 Six tenths of a mile east of Tarpon Springs, 0.2 mile
south of State Highway 582, about 300 feet east of Boyer
St., top of a hill. Near NH oor, NWIt seeo. 18, T. 27
S., R. 16 g.
29 One sile southeast of Tarpon Springs, 0,5 atle south of
State Highway 582, about 200 feet west of State Highway
55, north side of a small pond. SEiNWJ seo. 18, T. 27
S., R. 16 z.
30 Five miles eoutheaet of Tarpon Springs, 3.1 miles east
of State Highway 53, 3.0 miles south of State Highway
582 0.1 *ile east of East Lake Road, east side of a
residence. 5waSSt see. 27, T. 27 8., R. 16 3.
31 Three and three-tenthse iles southeast of Tarpon Springs,
0.335 ile east of State Highway 5 0.6 mile north of
County Road 42, ab9ut 50 feet north of a sand road.
Near NW eor. evtsvt sro. 29, T. 27 8., R. 16 E.


Tarpon


City of Tarpon
Springs





Atlantio Ice Co.
Tarpon Springs,
Florida

David Bilgore Co.



Johnson



L. 0. Binder


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida






A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida



A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida



Porter Zimmerman
Ozona, Florida


Porter Ziamerman
Ozona, Florida

Porter Zimmerman
Ozona, Florida


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida






A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida





A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


Frank May
Tampa, Florida






A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida-


I-- I I ;? .7 4


2)


24



25


April
1936


April
1946


June
1947


June
1947


Oct.
1927


March
1947


L I


(Continued)


I








PINELLAS COUNTY


b~e LIe

1.-
~ r.~


98



100
(1)


87



101




70



73


56



115



85







72






128



270
(M)


78 I10


Top of 8-inch cou-
pling, 0.2 foot
above land surface.


Top of 6-inch cou-
pling, 0.2 foot
above land surface.






Top of 3-inch casing,
0.8 foot above land
surface.
















Top of 10-inch cou-
pling, flush with
and surface.












Top of 2-inoh cas-
ibtr 3.4 feet above
land surfaces.

Top of 12-inch cou-
pling, 0.3 foot
above land surface.


oil


18.35




20.60


15.79


20.07



16.29


uamwD Mv lrW1 I


14.18
15.50
17.56
15.55
15.82
16.3
17.50
17.18
16.50
15.68
17.63




4.14
40
4:899


20.80
17.70
18.09
20.92
21.88
22.0


6.77
7.10
11.90
11:49
9.55
10.84
10.76
11.50


8-29-47
12-18-47
4-19-48
10-25-48
6-21-49
5-14-51
3-31-47
12-18-47
1-29-48
4-19-48;
6-21-49




3-31-47
5-1f-5I


8-1-47
12-18A4
3-11-48
4-19-48
6-21-49
5-14-51










12-5-47
4-19-48
6-22-49.
5-16-51
3-10-47
7-16-47
8-28-47
12-18-47
1-29-48
4-19-48


nm t nTnir ArtiH HIuf


NO|s


112 --


120 0
100 --



20 0
20 --


132 --


15 0
12 --


3-31-47 Domestic



.1-


3-31-47
5-10-48


Irrigation


Irrigation


3-31-47. Domestic



3-31-47 Irrigation


3-31-47 Irrigation


4-?


-48 Public
Supply


3-27-47



3-31-47



12-4-47



3-10-47
5-5-48


Ice Plant



Irrigation



Domestic



Irrigation


F.o.S. Well W-1521.
Cuttings from stra-
ta penetrated on
file with Florida
Geological Survey.
Drilling discontin-
ued when well
failed to produce.
water.
F.G.S. Well W-1522.
Cuttings from stra-
ta penetrated on
file with Florida
Geological Survey.
Drilling discontin-
ued when well oaved.


- I -I .1 I J....---.-4.-------. I -d


3



10



10


661


.~II~U~L~1ZY ~ Z I NATNI 1 UNIAIrnUUIIJPI G 41'NTKNII


1 I IIi I I~


fAmdfawrM BATum








TABLI 5. VW LL RICuuRD


,II
j


32


Three and three-tenths miles southeast of Tarpon
Springs, 0.45 mile eat of State Highway 55, 0.55 aile
north of County Road 42, south side of a sand road. 83t
9tt see. 30, T. 27 S., R. 16 z.


33 threee and two-tenthe miles southeast of Tarpon Springs,
0.6 mile north of County Road 42, 0.3 mile east of
State Highway 55, 30 feet north of a sand road. Near
NV cor. SWSj| see. 30, T. 27 S., R. 16 S.


34 Three and two-tenths miles southeast of Tarpon Springs,
0.6 mile north of ty Road 42, 250 feet east of
State Highway 35, ;v feet north of a sand road. SVtS3t
see. 30, T. 27 S., R. 16 E.
35 Three and three-tenths miles southeast of Tarpon
Springs, 0.55 mile north of County Road 42, 200 feet
east of State Highway 55, 300 feet south of a sand road.
SVWSEL1 se. 30, T. 27 S., R. 16 .
36 Two miles northeast of Palm Harbor, 0.35 mile north of
County Road 42, about 500 feet vest of State Highway 53,
about 600 feet north of owner's residence. NENVi seeo.
31, T. 27 S., R. 16 E.

37 One and nine-tenths miles northeast of Palm Harbor, 0.25
mile north of County Road 42, about 300 feet west of
owner's residence, on south side of a small building.
Near NV cor. SZtNVt soe. 31, T. 27 8., R. 16 E.
38 Two miles northeast of Palm Harbor, 0.25 mile north of
County Road 42, about 75 feet west 9f State Highway 55,
southeast of owner's residence. SEINVI seo. 31, T. 27
S., R. 16 E.
39 Two and one-tenth miles northeast of Palm Harbor, 0.22
mile north of County Road 42, about 600 feet east of
State Highway 55, northwest of a residence, in a pump-
nouse. Near NW cor. SWVNE seo. 31, T. 27 S., R. 16 E.
40 Two and two-tenthe miles northeast of Palm Harbor, 0.2
mile north of County Road 42, about 700 feet east of
State Highway 55, east side of a residence. SVtNEI see.
31, T. 2? S., R. 16 E.
41 One and eight-tenthe miles northeast of Palm Harbor, 0.1
mile north of County Road 42, 0.2 mile west of State
Highway 55 0 1 mile north of a sand road, in an orange
grove. svltNW see. 31, T. 27 S., R. 16 S.
42 One and seven-tenthe miles northeast of Palm Harbor, 0.3
Smile vest of State Highway 55, 15 feet north of County
Road 42, south side of an grange tree, southeast corner.
of grove. Near SE cor. SVtlNV see. 31, T. 27 S., R. 16
g.


* one ana eigtni-r nts miles nornteast or ralm narbor, u.1
Smile north of County Road 42, about 0.2 mile vest of
State Highway 55, north side of a residence, in an
orange grove. SEiNVW see. 31, T. 27 S., R. 16 E.
44 One and five-tenths miles northeast of Palm Harbor, 0.4
mile south of County Road 42, 0.25 mile vest of State
Highway 55, 0.1 mile north of a sand road, west side of
an equipment shed at edge of an orange grove. Near NW
cor. SEtSVW see. 31, T. 27 S., R. 16 E.
45 One and six-tenths miles northeast of Palm Harbor 0.35
mile south of County Road 42, 0.15 mile vet of State
Highway 55, 0.15 mile north of a sand road, east side ol
an eq ipment shed, in a pumphouse, in an orange grove,
8ttSVt see. 31, T. 27 S., R. 16 3.
46 One and five-tenths miles northeast of Palm Harbor, 0,4
alie south of County Road 42 0,25 mile west of State
Highway J5, 0.1 mile north of a sand road, east side of
an equipment hed, in a pumphouee, at edge of an orange
grove. StiSVt see. 31, T. 27 S., R. 16 E.
47 Two miles northeast of Pals Harbor, 0.45 aile south of
C County a Road2.2 0i;. eeeast o t!se5e.n


L. 0. Binder




L, 0. Binder




L. 0, Binder



L. 0. Binder



V. B. Thompson
Tarpon Swinge,
Florida


W. B. Tnompson
Tarpon Springs,
Florida

V. B. Thompson
Tarpon Springs,
Florida

L. L. Riviere
Palm Harbor, Florida


L. L. Riviere
Palm Harbor, Florida


Pasco Packing Co.



E. E. E. Developing
, Co.
Dade City, Florida


SV. B. Thompson
Tarpon Springs,
Florida

Manatee Packing Co.




Manatee Packing Co.




Manatee Packing Co.



Chase


A. O. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida




A. 0. Dunlap

Dunedin, Florida




Jack Clyatt
Oena, Florida


Jack Clyatt
Oona, Florida


D. C. Ammons




V. B. Thompson
Tarpon Springs,
Florida

V. B. Thompson
Tarpon Springs,
Florida

Frank May
Tampa, Florida


A. E. Mountain
Palm Harbor,
Florida

Frank May
Tampa, Florida


Frank May
Tampa, Florida







A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida



A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida



A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida



Frank May
Tampa, Florida


1947


1947



1947



Aug.
1946



1934



1934



Oct.
1947


April
1945


1944




1934



Aug.
19147



Cot.
1945


1940


--


I


(Oontinued)


I


f










PINELLAS COUNTY

n_ U M RINIRTN I P tTN CAT= ERci. fTT. H lnt = nMTEM -




b r I I Ie |


--- 120





187 187





55 55


118 87 12



--- -- 12




90 --- 2


Top of 10-inch oa- 17.58
ing, flush with land
surface.



Top of 12-inch cou- 21.09
pling, 3.8 feet
above land surface.



Top of 2-inoh cou- 16.78
pling, 0.5 foot
above land surface.

Top of 2-inch eou- 21.12
pling, 0.9 foot
above land surface.

Top of 4-inoh cou- 17.51
pling, 0.5 foot
above land surface.


Top of 2-inch casing, 11.19
1.3 feet above land
surface.


Top of 12-inch cas-
ing, flush with land
surface,






Top of 12-inch cou-
pling, 0.6 foot
above land surface.


9.45
6.73
7.72



21.41
19.1
17.89
14.10
10.47
5.22
12.53
9.4
112 1
16.85
15.78
16.82
17.20
12.78
12.67
12.82
13.42
14.66
7.08
7.17
.786


51.58 48.3


81.43


76.96
7T.18
77.61
78.35
78.78
79.93
---


3-10-47
6-21-49
5-15-51



8-2-46
3.10-47
7-16-47
12-18-47
6-21-49
5-15-51
3-10-47
12-18-47
6-21-49
5-15-51
3-10-47
12-18-47
6-21-49
5-15-51
3-10-47
1- 5-48
1-29-48
4-19-48
6-21-49
5-15-51

19-48
6-21-49
5-15-51


7-11-46
6-21-49







12-18-47
1- 5-48
1-29-48.
4-19-48
6-21-49
5-15-51


20




10


10



300
300



1187




612?
2200
510


---I


3-10-47




3-10-47


Test



Test



Irrigation




Irrigation


3-10-47 Domestic
Irrigation


Irrigation



3-11-47 Domestic



Irrigation








3-10-47 Domestic


9-11-47
1-5-48


5-28-43
3-12-47
5-15-51


.*.J I I__________I _____________________


a Chloride analysis sup
Lake Alfred, Florida.


Irrigation



Irrigation


Driller reported
sand entire depth of
well. Drilling die-
continued when well
failed to produce
water.
Driller reported
sand entire depth of
well. Drilling dis-
continued when well
failed to produce
water.


F.G.S. Well W1614.
Cuttings from strata
penetrated on file
with Florida Geolog-
ical Survey.
Salinity is reported
to decrease with
pumping.


57



102




90



65



151



68


J-12-47 Irrigation


)plied by agricultural ICxperimental Station,








TA B L WILL ROO RD


I Ie I
I I I


Two and two-tenths ailes northeast of Palm Harbor, 0.3
mile south of County Road 42, 0.s a e east of State
Highway 5, in an orange grove. sEtSIst so. 31, T. 27
8., R. 16 I.
One and five-tenthe miles northeast of Palm Harbor, 0.1
mile south of County Road 42, 0.73 mile east of State
Highway 55, in a pumphouse in an orange grove. NItSV*
see. 32, T. 27 S., R. 16 I.
Two and eight-tenths miles northeast of Palm Harbor,
about 75 ftet south of County Road 42, 1.0 mile east 9f
State Highway 55 south side of owner's residence. HNW
Set s*o. 32, T. 27 8., R. 16 I.
Three and five-tenths miles northeast of Palm Harbor
east *ide of Lake Butler, about 2.0 amles north of State
Highway 584 1.8 alles east of State Highway 55, 1.0
mile west of Bast Lake Road. southeast corner of a
cottage, at edge of Lake. sVtNk aoo. 33, T. 27 8., R.
16 I.
East side of Lake Butler, 1.0 mile north from Brooker
Creek Bridge, along ast Lake Road, 0.2 mile east of
Eaet Lake Road, south side of a phaok, 50 feet north of
a sand road. Near 8W eor. SEitNt seo. 34, T. 27 8., R.
16 I.


last side of Lake Butler, 1.4 miles north
Creek Bridge, along lapt Lake Road, about
of last Lake Road. SVtWt seo. 33, T. 27


from Brooker
1.0 mile east
8., R. 16 I.


One and one-tenth miles northeast of Palm Harbor, 0.5
mile north of County Road 41 0 65 mile west of State
Highway 55. Near NW cor. NEIN i oo. 1, T. 28 8., R.
15 S.
Six-tenths aile northeast of Palm Harbor, 0.25 mile
north of County Road 41, 0.65J ile east of U. 8. Highway
19. Near SE oor NEiNVi seo. 1, T. 28 S., R. 15 IE
Two-tenths mile northeast of Palm Harbor, 0.26 mile east
of U. S. Highway 19, 300 feet north of County Road 41
at site of old college. SWtNW* seo. 1, T. 28 8., R. is
9.
One mile east of Palm Harbor 0.55 mile west of State
Highway 55, 0.1 mile north of County Road 41, 100 feet
west of a paved road. SSrNi aseo. 1, T. 28 S., R. 15 1.


About 0.95 mile east of Palm Harbor, 0.6 mile west of
State Highway 55, 0.1 aile west of a paved road, 400
feet north of County Road 41, north side of owner's
residence, in a pumphouse. 8tSN seeo. .1, T. 28 B., R.
15 I.
Nine-tenths mile east of Palm Harbor, 0.7 mile west of
State Highway 55, 0.18 mile west of a paved road, north
side of County Road 41. SiNji e#so. 1, T. 28 8., R. 15
I.
Five-tenthe mile east of Palm Harbor, 0.2 mile east of
County Road 36 south side of County Road 41 east side
of a house. N~iSVj see. 1, T. 28 S., R. 1i i.
Six-tenthse ile east of Palm Harbor, 0.15 mile east of
County Road 6, 8CO feet south of County Road 41, in a
grove. NlsWS seo. 1, T. 28 8., R. 15 L.
Nine-tenthse ile southeast of Palm Harbor 0.35 mile
north of State Hil.way 584, west side of County Road 39.
Near S cor. 8Wt8Bt see. 1, T. 28 8., R. 15 I,
Two-tenths aile southwest of Palm Harbor, 900 feet south
of a fruit packing house at Pala Harbor, 100 feet east
of U.. 8. Highway 19. MfItl seo. 2, T. 28 S., R. 15 go
Palm Harbor. 200 feet north of Florida Ave., 400 feet
eait of U. 8. Highway 19, 20 feet west of a dirt road,
Nt1Sti see. 2, T. 28 8., R. 15 I.


Chase


a ate__r level __ pres in fee above th searin point
a Vater levl pressed In fet above the seasuring point.


L. J. Cobb



L. J. Cobb



C. Jackson




C. n. Johnson




J. A. Boyd



James 0. Hamilton
Palm Harbor, Florida


Food Machinery Co.
Dunedin, Florida

Claude Wood
Dunedin, Florida


Herbert C. Mann
Palm Harbor, Florida



H. 0. Sooggins
Palm Harbor, Florida



Robert Hamilton
Palm Harbor, Florida


Hubert McDaniels


Charles Jackson
Palm Harbor, Florida

J. L. Beckton
Palm Harbor, Florida

I. H. Harris
Palm Harbor, Florida

H. K. Riohmond


1942



Oot.
1946


1943



Jan.
1948


Frank May
Tampa, Florida


A. O0 Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida












L. V. Mixon
Tampa, Florida






A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida

m---



A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida



A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida



A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida





A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


Feb.
1946



Oct.
1945


1943


1945


A. I. Mountain Apr.
Palm Harbor, Florida 11946


63a


L


(Contlnued)


Inc-b.
plete
June
1948
1918




1946

1900









PINELLAS OUNTI

WnARTO PTHIIM &WJAL. .~W


;Ir Ifor
14 __ __ _1 ___ _____t
0.%ro

El H


265



170



105



80




65



1400



305



260


100



147


29.78


a2 0
al.74
al.30
al.10


T6p of 12-inoh cas-
ing 3.85 feet below
lani surface datum.

Top of 12-inoh oas-
ing, 0.4 foot above
land surface.





Top of 2-inoh cas-
ing, flush with land
surface.



Top of 2-inch oas-
ing, 1.0 foot below
land surface.













Top of highest point
on 6-inoh oasing,
1.0 foot above land
surface.
Top of 6-inoh oou-
pling, 0.4 foot above
land surface.


Top of 10-inch one-
ing, 0*5 foot above
land surface.


67.96 65.00


67.51
68.93
70.6


3-11-47







1-29-48
6-22-49



12-5-47
1-29-48
4-19-48
6-21-49


8-1-46
2-28-47


5-25-48




6-3-46
6-21-49
5-15-51


1031 5


350 -
345 --



75 -
70 --


550 -
920 --


437 --


621*
.590

110


117


5-28-43 Irrigation



3-11-47 Irrigation


3-11-47



1-29-48
5-15-51



12-5-47
5-16-51


Domestic



Domestic




Stock


Oil test


4-7-47 Irrigation


2-28-47



5-24-48
5-24-48
5-24-48


0 3-12-47
0.5 5-o20-48


3-17-47
5-15-51


3-17-47


6-4-43
5-16-51

3-20-47


3-20-47


Irrigation






Irrigation
Domestic



Irrigation




Domestic






Irrigation


Irrigation


Domestic


Public
Supply


___________________________ 3........1...'.! I ___________________


Chloride anslyesis upplled
Lake Alfred, Florida.


by AgriOUJuImlr Experiment DBU1Ion,


9.72



34.9


continuous automatic
Iater-stage recorder
Installed 12-15-48.


































F.G.B. Well W1742.
Cuttings from strata
penetrated on file
with Florida Geologi-
cal Survey.















i


4.20




12.0


46 4.51


75 10


75 110


60.69
62.19


202


255


72.3


I I I 1 111 1


W"







TABLE 3. YELL RECORDS


0
aId
II
ir a B IH


64


65

66




67

68




69




70




71



72




73




74



75



76




77




78




79


Ozona, 300 feet south of Bay St., 100 feet west of See- N. 5. Buchuan
tion Ave., south side of owner's residence. NZiNE* Osona, Florida
*eo. 10, T. 28 S., R. 13 .
Ozona, about 600 feet south of Bay St., about 73 feet Fred Williams
east of Section Ave. E*NNE* sea. 10, T. 28 B., R. 15 E. Ozona, Florida
One and five-tenths ailes southwest of Palm Harbor, 0.5 B. V. Cram
mies south of intersection of State Highway 384 with Ozona, Florida
U. 8. Highway 19, 0.2 5 il* west of U. 8. Highway 19,
vest side of a bridge, at owner's residence. NiESEt sec.
10, T. 28 8., R. 135 .
Osona, 3 Bay St. south side of owner's residence. NWM Ann Kennedy
NVWt *o. 11, T. 28 S., R. 13 3. Ozona, Florida
Seven-tenths mile southwest of Palm Harbor, 0.2 aile C. Pomerenhe
east of U. 8. Highvay 19, 0.1 mile north of State High- Ozona, Florida
way 584, northeast of owner's residence, in an orange
grove. NEINVi se*. 11, T. 28 8.,, R. 15 .

Four-tenths mile south of Pala Harbor, 0.32 mile north Fred B. Allan
of State Highway 384, about 100 feet west of County Road Pala Harbor, Florida
1, at Baaboo Gardens. NEINEL see. 11, T. 28 S., R. 13
C.

One and two-tenths ailes southwest of Pals Harbor 0.3 J. C. Suaner
alle south of intersection of State Highway 584 with Oxona, Florida
County Road 69, 100 feet west of County Road 69, in a
vacant lot. Near SE cor. SVtNV seo. 11, T. 28 8., R.

One and one-tenth ailes south of Pal Harbor, 0,45 mile S. E. S Developing
south of State Highway 384, 1200 feet west of County Co.
Road 1, west of a residence. NWISJt eso. 11, T. 28 8., Dade City, Florida
R. 15 S.
One and one-tenth miles south of Palm Harbor, 0.45 mile S. Developing
south of State Highway 384, 600 feet vest of County Road Co.
1 100 feet southwest of a barn, in an orange grove. NE* Dade City, Florida
Sit se. 11, T. 28 8., R. 1 5 .

One and one-tenth miles south of Palm Harbor 0.43 mile E. I. E. Developing
south of State Highway 384, 50 feet vest of County Road Co.
1, 100 feet south of a residence, in an orange grove. Dade City, Florida
NW3IIt se. 11, T. 28 8., R. 15 3.

Six-tenths aile southeast of Pala Harbor, 0.2 mile north Paln Harbor Junior
of State Highway 584, 0.22 aile east of County Road 1, High School
vest Cide of a paved road, south side of a high school. Palm Harbor, Florida
NVtNVj see. 12, T. 28 8., R. 15 t.
About 0.95 aile southeast of Pals Harbor 1.1 miles wast Charles S I anford
of State Highway 55, 0.13 mile north of State Highway 8arasota, Florida
584, west side of a graded road, near southwest corner
of a residence. NVtNSi seo. 12, T. 28 8., R. 15 3.
Seven-tenthe aile southeast of Pala Harbor, 0.4 aile R. Duguid
east of County Road 1, 1,000 feet north of State Righwiy Pala Harbor, Florida
584, 1,000 feet east of a high school, in an orange
ve in a pumphouse northwest of owner's residence.
NVt see. 12, ?. 288., R. 13 E.
About 0.8 aile southeast of Palm Harbor, 05.2 mile east R. Duguid
of County Road 1, 0.2 mile north of State Highway 84, Pala Harbor, Florida
in an orange grove, north of over's residence. NWVNSI
see. 12, T. 28 S., R. 153 .

Six-tenths mile southeast of Pals Harbor 0.15 mile east dward M. Herman
of County Road 1, about 450 feet north of State Highway
84. at east edge of an orange grove. NW, NV see. 12,
T. 28 S., R. 135 .


light-tenthe mile southeast of Pala Harbor, 0.5 mile R. Duguid
east of County Road 1, 400 feet north of State Highway Pala Harbor, Florida
8 rnder a windmill, north side of owner's residence.
ItiWt see. 12, T. 28 8., R. 1f 3.


1I_______________


C. Woodoook
Palm Harbor, Florka
Porter Zlnrman
Ozona, Florida



Porter Ziaerman
Ozona, Florida
Frank May
Tampa, Florida



A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida








Frank May
Tampa, Florida


Louis May
Tampa, Florida



Frank May
Tampa, Florida



A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


Harold May
Tampa, Florida


Frank May
Tampa, Florida








Frank May
Tampa, Florida




A. E. Mountain
Paln Harbor,
Florida


1944


1945


1946



Mar.




1940


Aug.




194



Sept.
1947


Jan.
1947


(Continued)







PINILLAS COuNTY

e MEARuRINa POINT WATER LEVEL CHLORIDE CONWTEN



14P a Q
M- 604
go *4 l
1 Ir~b


Top of 4-inch cas-
ing, 0.8 foot above
land surface.


Top of 4-inch cou-
pling, 3.2 feet above
land surface.






Top of 12-inch cou-
pling, 0.3 foot
above land surface.


Top of 12-inch cou-
pling, 0.5 foot
above land surface.















Top of 10-inch cas-
ing, flush with land
surface.


Top of 12-inch cou-
pling, 0,8 foot
above land surface.


24.58 18.63


17479


47.57




40.33


69.50




46.19


15.34
14.95
114.53
15.42
15.42
15.84



44.04
43.70
43.97
.44.73
45.00
45.67
30.19
30.4
29.71
30.54
0.44
41.63


64.04
64.74
65.84
64.86
65.09
66.76
41.94
42.40
43.02
43.17
,45.71
42.94
44.16
I---


5- 1-46
4- 2-47
5-10-40
~-19-48
6-23-49'
5-15-51



7-11-46
12-18-47
1-29-48;
4-19-48
6-23-49
5-16-51
7-11-46
3-17-47
12-18-47
4-19-48
6-23-49
5-16-51
.












11-20-47
2-20-48
5-25-48
8-25-48
4-19-48
5-16-51
9- 3-47
12- 4-47
12-18-47
1-29-48
4-19-48
6-23-49
5-16-51


27

5100


2100
340
-- __


15




65



162
125



640
400



225



25



525
350

600

600
425



20
25




372
115


7-1-47 Domestic

7-1-4? Domestic


7-1-47
5-16-51










4-2-47




6-19-47



3-17-47
4-30-48



t17-47
30-47


Domestic






Domestic
Irrigation



--m




Irrigation



Irrigation




Irrigation


4-30-48 ISchool


4-3-47


Domestic



Irrigation




Irrigation




Irrigation




Domestic


0 3-27-47
--- 5-25-48
-- 5-16-51


3-28-47
5-5-48



9-3-47
4-30-48




2-28-47
5-25-48


38 2.5


2812


Water not used for
drinking.



Water not used for
drinking.
Water unfit for any
use owing to high
salinity. Well is
capped and covered
with dirt.
F.G.8. Well W1738.
Cuttings from strata
penetrated on file
with Florida Geologi-
cal Survey.
































Automatic water-stage
recorder installed
11-19-47.


51 110


553 4


77 P2


--- bO


80 4


I I I I i I I I I _








TABL I 5. WI LL R ORD (Continued)







1 %0g


About 0.8a mile southeast of Palm Harbor 0.6 mile east R
of County Road I, about 700 feet north of State Highway P
584, northeast o owner's residence, in an orange grove,
south side of a small pond. NWINEt seo. 12, T. 28 8.,
R. 153 .
One aile southeast of Palm Harbor, 600 feet west of C
County Road 39, 15 feet north of state Highway 584, at 8
south edge of an orange grove, in a pumphouse. NWtNEt
seo. 12, T. 28 8., R. 15 3.
One and two-tenths miles southeast of Palm Harbor, 0.25 J
aile east of County Road 39, 0.1 mile north of State P
Highway 584, vest side of a dirt road, south side of a
house. Near 3S cor. NENzt) seo. 12, T. 28 8., R. 15 3.
Nine-tenths aile southeast of Palm Harbor 0.6 mile east H
of County Road 1, 30 feet south of State highway 584, 5 C
feet west of a pumphouse, at north edge of an orange
grove. Near NW cor. SVBNIe seo. 12, T. 28 8., R. 15 E.



Nine-tenths mile southeast of Pala Harbor, 0.6 mile east I
of County Road 1, 30 feet south of State Highway 584, in (
a pumphguse, at north edge of an orange grove. Near NW
cor. SVWtNE seo. 12, T. 28 8., R. 15 3.
One and one-tenth miles southeast of Palm Harbor, 0,7
mile east of County Road 1 900 feet south of State High-
way 84 400 feet west of County Road 39, In an orange
1rove,.in a pumphouse. 8NVtt seo. 12, T. 28 8., R. 15

tight-tenths mile southeast of Pala Harbor, 0.15 mile
south of State Highway 584 700 feet east of County Road
I, In an orange grove. SW NVt seo. 12, T. 28 8., R. 15
3.
Sight-tenths mile southeast of Pala Harbor 0.3 mile east
of County Road 1, 700 feet south of ttate highway 584,
in an orange grove. Near NW oor. SEINVI sao. 12, T. 18
S., R. 15 t.
One and two-tenths miles southeast of Palm Harbor, 0.2
mile west of County Road 39, 0.3 aile south of State
Highway 584, 890 feet north of a barn, in an orange grovq
north side of a shed. Near BV oor. SViNEt sea. 12, T.
28 S., R. 13 5.
One and three-tenths miles southeast of Pala Harbor, 0.43
alle south of State Highway 584, 900 feet west of County
Road 39, about 300 feet northeast of a barn, in an
orange grove. NWSLt seo. 12, T. 28 8., R. 15 E.
One nilo south of Pala Harbor, 0.35 mile south of State
Highway 584, 300 feet east of County Road 1, north side
of owner's residenoe. Near NW cor. NWiSW8 seo. 12, T.
28 S., R. 15 3.
One mile south of Palm Harbor, 0.36 mile south of State
Highway 584, east side of County Road i, ralt side of
ovnerts residence, in a pumphou e. NVt8SV sea. 12, T.
28 S., R. 153 .
One and four-tenths olles southeast of Palm Harbor 0.7
sile south of State Highway 084. 0.14 ile east of county
Road 1 east lid* of a dirt road, under a tank. SEtSVt
seo. 12, T. 28 S., R. 15 3.
One and sevon-tenths miles south of Palm Harbor, 0,25
mile north of County Road 38 about 300 feet southwest
of County Road 1, n a oemeni puphouse near a residence.
Near OW ar. SVwiVt e*** 13, T. 25 S., R. 15 3.
Two and one-tenth siles southeast of Pala Harbor, 0,6
aile east of County Road 1, north si0e t County Road 38,
north side owner's reeldence. SEtNEt eoo. 1l, T. 28
S.. R. 15 3.
Two and one-tenth iles southelet of Palm Harbor, 0,65
mlle east of County Road 1, north slde of Opunty Road
38, northeast corner of a residence. SliNEt aoo. 13, T.
28 S., R. 15 .,


_______________________________________________ I


* Duguid
alm Harbor, Florida



harles E. Sanford
arasota, Florida


ames Smith
alm Harbor, Florida


larry Biggine
Clearwater, Florida




Harry Biggins
Clearwater, Florida


Harry Biggine
Clearwater, Florida



Arthur Z. Yahn



F. H. Moody
Crystal Beach,
Florida

A. S. Schneider
Plant City, Florida



A. 8. Sohneider
Plant City, Florida


Kenneth Overoash
Dunedin, llorida


Kenneth Overoash
Dunedin, llorida


Carl Merritt
Palam arbor, Florida


WV. 0MClane
Tampa, Flcrida


J, H. Woodhaa
Palm Harbor, Florida


84



85



86



87



88




89




90



91



92



93



94



95


Florida


A. E. Mountain
Palm Harbor,
Florida


Harold May
Tampa, Florida


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


Frank May
Tampa, Florida




Frank May
Tampa, Florida


Frank Hay
Tampa, Florida



Frank May
Tampa, Florida


Frank May
Tampa, Florida


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida



Frank May
Tampa, Florida


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida






A. E. Mountain
Palm Harbor,
Florida





A. O. Dunlap and
Howell
Dunedin, Florida

A. X. Mountain
Palm Harbor,
Florida


Jan,
1947


1945



April
1945


Jan.
1945


1927


John C. John
Palm Harbor,
































Top of 4.5-inoh oou-
pling, 0.5 toot a-
bove land surface.







Top of 10-inch oae-
ing, 0.2 foot above
land eurfaoe.


0L Top
ing,
land


12


of 10
0.2
surt


57.59


59.9


)-inch oae-- 65.63
foot above
'ace.


-----


Top of 6-inch cou-
pling, 0.9 root
above land eurface.


Lj ______I .


44.87


r--






53.29
54.39
52.45
52.71
52.65
53.03
54.32




54.18
34.99
34.93
56.60


61.11
61.14
59.87
61.35
61.20
62.55



41.24
43.38
43.04


PINELLAS COUNTY




oto

tj I~ I L ,t O
md


7-10-46
3-27-47
9-5-47
12-4-47
12-15-47
12-18-47
4-19-48




7-10-46
3-27-47
6-23t49
5-1 -51


6-26-46
4- 3-47
12-16-47
4-19-48
6-23-49
5-16-51



1-2-48
6-21-49
5-16-51


1681'



199"
300
275
375


445


37
50




85*


* hloride analysis supplied by Agricultural
Lake Alfred, Florida.


131*


553* --
200 0


300 0


40 -


3-29-45 -



6-4-43 Irrigation
4-9-48
4-12-48
5-16-51
9-8-47 Domestio


3-27-47 Test well
5-5-48




2-26-45 Irrigation


3-27-47 -


5-28-43


5-28-43
3-22-45
4-3-41


Irrigation


Irrigation


4-3-47 Irrigation


1-2-48 Irrigation


12-31-47 Domeetio


9-11-47


Domestio


9-11-47 IDomeetic


3-18-47


3-18-47


Domestio


Domestlo


Szperiment station,


57 4.1


82 4.,





92 12


204 10


122


260 52







108 56


108 $1


90 60






0---



50 ..


12


I








TABLI 5. VILL RIO RD 8


I I
V U


96



97



98



99



100



101



102




103



104



105



106



107




108



109



110


Two and two-tenths miles southeast of P1la Harbor, 07
aile east of County Road 1, south ide of County Road
38, south side of a residence. N1tSt seeo. 13, T. 28 8.,
R. 13 S.
Two siles south of Pals Harbor southeast corner of in-
tersection of County Road 1 vWh County Road 38, south
side of owner's residence. Near NW cor. NEISV) seo. 13,
T. 28 8., R. 15 E.
Two and two-tenths ailes south of Pala Harbor, 0.2 aile
south of County Road 38, about 300 feet east of County
Road 1, southeast of owner's residence, in a pumphouse.
N*tSVt sec. 13, T. 28 S., R. 135 B
Two silee south of Pala Harbor 0.8 aile south of State
Righway 584, about 30 feet west of County Road 1, 15
feet south of a dirt road, at intersection of a dirt
road with County Road 1. Near N cor. HtNINE eeo. 14,
T. 28 8., R. 15 1.
Two and one-tenth miles south of Pals Harbor, 0.4 mile
north of County Road 38, about 30 feet west of County
Road 1, at southeast corner of an orange grove, in a
pumphouse, ntnl s*e. 14, T. 28 8., R. 15 .
One and nine-tenths milee south of Pala Harbor, 0.6 sile
east of O. 8. Highway 19, 100 teet north of County Road
38, northeast of a residence. SBViNi teo. 14, T. 28 8.,
R. 15 3.
Two and three-tenths miles north of Dunedin, 0,25 mile
south of County Road 38, 0.2 mile east of U. S. Highway
19, south side of Curlew Creek, on golf course, in punp-
house. Near 8V cor. NWIWt see. 14, T. 28 8., R. 15 1.
Owner's well 1.

Two and three-tenths siles northeast of Dunedin, 0.35
mile south of County Road 38, 0.48 aile east of U. 8.
Highway 19, 650 feet northeast front olub house on double
drive, 700 feet north of double drive. SEtSVi see. 14,
T. 28 8., R. 15 1. Owner'e well 1.
Two and three-tenths miles northeast of Dunedin, 0.35
aile north of County Road 98, 0.6 aile east of U. 8.
Highway 19, about 1000 feet northeast from olub house on
double drive, 600 feet south of double drive. BiSE*
sec. 1), T. 28 8., R. 15 Owner's well 2.
Two and six-tenths miles northeast of Dunedin 0.4 aile
north of County Road 98, 0.9 mile east of U. 8. Highway
19, about 0.5 aile east of Country Club, east si@e of a
barn horth side of a residence. 8VtSI soo. 14, T. 28
s., A. 15 8.
Two and two-tenths miles north of Dunedin south side of
Ourlew Creek, west side of U. S. Highway 19, west ede
of barracke, in small building. Near NE oor. BV*8 see.
15, T. 28 8., R. 15 3.

One and one-tenth miles north of Dunedin, 0.45 mile
north of north end of igbland Ave., 400 feet east of a
hard surface road. 8t6Bt soo. 22, T. 28 8., R. 15 3.



One and nine-tenths miles north of Dunedin, 0.4 mile
east of U. 8. Highway 19, south side of County Road 98,
at owner's residence. Near NV cor. 8V5LZ see. 23, T.
28 8., R. 15 I.
Two and three-tenths miles northeast of Dunedin 0.7
aile east of O. 8. Highway 19, 0.2 alie north of County
Road 98, about 0.3 mile southeast of Country Club, south
eide of a sand road, in a puhouseo Near V I or. Ic t
NSt ee., 23, T. 28 S., R. 153. Owner's wll 2.
One and six-tenths milee northeast of Dunedin, 045 mile
south of Couty Road 98 about 0.2 aile west of County
Road 99, 1Ntati see. 23, 0. 28 5., R. 15 I.


R. o. Hurst
Pala Harbor, Florida


B. 0. Hunt
Dunedin, Florida


Vernon Fraser
Dunedin, Florida


e. B. 3. Developing
Co.
Dade City, Florida


3. I. I. Developing
Co.
Dade City, Florida

Paso 'Packing Co.



Dunedin Isles Country
Club
Dunedin, Florida



N. 8. Knight
Dunedin, Florida



M. 8. Knight
Dunedin, Florida



M. 8. Knight
Dunedin, Florida



Civil Aeronautics Ada.
Washington, D. O.



F. L. Skinner
Dunedin, Florida



A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


Dunedin Isles Country A. 0. Dunlap
Club Dunedin Florida
Dunedin, Florida


J. A. Merritt


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedn, Florida


R. ,C Howell
Pala Harbor,
Florida

A. 0. Dunlap
Duedin, Florida


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


Frank May
Tampa, Florida



Frank May
Tampa, Florida






A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida




A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida



A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida



A.. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, rForlda



A. O. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida



T. J. Zi-merman
Osona, Florida



A. O. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


June
1946


June
1946


1944


1941




Feb.
1944



1944


July
1943



1904




1939



1941



1927


- --


(Contlnued)








PINILLAS COUNT!

NZAuBmumPOINT Z 3 ~SL iL(QkTEU





r H1 o
1 0
aa a tlC) C'l1
li 19:


Top of 4.5-inoh oas-
ing, 0.5 toot above
land surface.

Top of 4.5-inch eae-
ing, flush with land
surface.

Top of 12-inch cou-
pling, 0.7 foot
above land surface.

























Top of 8-inoh ear-
ing 0.1 foot above
lana surface.


Top of 8-inoh ae-
ing, flush with lana
surface.


21.42



10.50


26.81
26.06
26.23

28.36
28.96
5.44
6.49
6.43
5.15
5.57
7.05


25.6



19.3



36.24


6-26-46



7-10-46






























4- 4-47
12-18-47
1-29-:4
4-19-48'
6-23-49
5-15-51
4- 3-47
12-18-47
1-29-48
419-48
6-23-49
5-15-51


317-47
30-48


4-3-47
4-30-48






4-3-47
5-5-48
5-16-51


Domestic



Domestic



Domestic


Irrigation


6-19-47 Domestic



4-4-47 Irrigation


4-4-47
5-15-51



4-4-47
4-30-48



4-4-47
4-30-48



4-3-47
4-28-48


-15-51


Irrigation




Irrigation



Irrigation








Irrigation




Domestic



Irrigation


Well is capped.


F.G.S. Well V584.
Cuttings from strata
penetrated between
40 and 80 feet on
file with Florida
Geological Survey.



















Listed in the U. S.
Geological Survey
Water-Supply Paper
319, P. 322. For-
merly owned by L. B.
Skinner.


1880
450
1020

280



180




283
185



80
75



32
37



430
375



591
360



45



45


34.54



7.99


- -- --







TA BL 59 V LL R COORDS (Continued)




-f -i
I a


111




112



113




114



115



116



117


Tvo and two-tenths miles northeast of
east of County Road 1 100 feet south
580. Near NV cor. NwtSi seo. 25, T.


Dunedin, 1.1 miles
of State Highyay
28 a., R. 15 E.


One and nine-tenths miles east of Dunedin, 0.75 mile
east of County Road 1, about 400 feet south of State
NHihway 580, 300 feet east of County Road 36. NWiSWi
see. 25, T. 28 S., R. 15 E.


one and seven-tenths miles northeast of'Dunedin, 0.32
mile north of County Road 1 about 0.15 mile east of
County Road 99, northeast o a barn, in an orange grove
known as Old Tappan Grove. SVtSEt ee. 23, T. 28 S.,
R. 15 K.
One and nine-tenths miles northeast of Dunedin, 0.7 mile
south of County Road 98, 0.1 aile vest of County Road 1,
east ide of a small pond, in a pumphouse. Near SI cor.
3swis seoe. 23, T. 28 8., R. 15 I.
Two and seven-tenths miles northeast of Dunedin 0.6
mile south of County Road 38, 150 feet east of county
Road 1 on south side of a fruit packing house. NEtN~
sec. 24, T. 28 8., R. 15 Z.

Two and six-tenths miles northeast of Dunedin, 0.65 mile
south of County Road 38, about 100 feet east of County
Road e, east side of owner's residence, in a pumphouse.
NINVt see. 24, T. 28 R., R. 15 Z.
Two and four-tenths miles northeast of Dunedin, 660 'feet
vest of County Road 1, 150 feet north of County Road 98,
in a tool house. Near SV cor. NVWNVI seo. 24, T. 28 8.,
R. 15 1.
Two and three-tenths miles northeast of Dunedin 0.1
vile siuth of County Road 98, 0.1 mile vest of County
Road 1, ve*t of well 117. SVINVW see. 24, T. 28 8., R.
15 K.
To and three-tenths miles northeast of Dunedin, 0.1
mile south of County Road 98, about 400 feet west of
County Road 1, vest side of owner's residence, east of
vell 116. WVi*V sec. 24, T. 28 8., R. 15 E.
Tvo and three-tenths miles northeast of Dunedin, 0.25
rile fouth of County Road 98, 60 feet east of County
Road 1 in an orange grove. NViSW see. 24, T. 28 8.
4. 15 E.
Two and two-tenths miles northeast of Dunedin, 0.35 mile
south of County Road 98, 38 feet vest of County Road 1,
esutheast of owner's residence. NViSWt see. 24, T. 28
S., R. 15 Z.
Two and three-tenths miles northeast of Dunedin, 0.9
mile south of County Road 38, about 350 feet east of
County Road 1, In an orange grove. NWV8W) see. 24, T.
28 S., R. 15 t.
Two in4 tye-tenthe miles northeast of Dunedin, 0.6 mile
n',rto of State Highway 580, 0.25 mile east of County
Road 1, in an orange grove. Near SW cor. SEiSVt sec.
24, T. 28 S., R. 15 E.
Tvo and one-tenth miles northeast of Dunedin, 0.45 mile
north of State Highway 580, 02 mile east of County Road
1, in an orange grove. NWINVt seo. 25, T. 28 8., R. 15
C.
One and eight-tenths miles northeast of Dunedin, 0.55
mile east of County Road 1, 660 feet north of State High-
way 580, in an orange grove. BVi NW sea. 25, T. 28 8.,
R. 15 I.

fwo miles northeast of Dunedin, 0.8 mile east of County
Road 1, 660 feet north of State Highway 580, in an
orange grove. SEtNV soo. 25, T. 28 8., R. 15 E.
Two and two-tenths miles northeast of Dunedin, 1.0 mile
east of County Road 1, 190 feet north of State Highway
580, Near NM cor. SEtNWt sso. 25, T. 28 8., R. 15 3.


0. A. Davis
Dunedin, Florida


Inman ovell




Bill Garrison
Dunedin, Florida


A. J. Grant
Dunedin, Florida


3. V. Nigles
Dunedin, Florida


E. V. Niglee
Dunedin, Florida


S. V. Nigles
Dunedin, Florida


Eugene Niglep
Dunedin, Florida


Lee Nigles
Dunedin, Florida


E. E. E. Developing
Co.
Dade City, Florida

Royal Barnum
Palm Harbor, Florida


A. J. Grant
Dunedin, Florida



J. L. Howell


W. C. Overoash
Dunedin, Florida

Jernigan and Thomas
Clearwater, Florida

Covey


1942




1928



June
1945



June
1946


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida



J. L. Howell



A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida



A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


sermons



Frank May
Tampa, Florida


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


Frank May
Tampa, Florida


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida



A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida

A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida

A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida

A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin. Florida


1931


120



121



122



123



124


125


126


127


I I


I -L


~- I


I







PIRILLAS oouNr

V WATER LEVEL C0 RIS0NTENT



W '4

r~r ri I __ ___
Af A
DPisl


-- I


Top of 8-inch cas-
ing 0.5 foot above
lan& surface.


Top of 4.5tinoh cae-
ing, 0.5 foot above
land surface.













Top of concrete pump
base, 0.2 foot above
land surface.


7.538


45.60



.50.15
47.3


.10-23-45
6-19-47
18-30-47
*1-29-48
6-23-49
5-16-51,
3-18-47


42.90 15-27-46
43.23 3-18-47


36*



230
225


73


76 -
25 --


35* 1--


4.8-47




6-19-47


Domestic
Irrigation



Irrigation


3-18-47 Domestic


3-20-47



3-20-47



3-18-47



5-28-43
4-2-47


7-6-45


4-2-47



5-28-43



4-9-47


3-20-47


Irrigation



Domestic
Irrigation


Domestic











Irrigation



Irrigation



Irrigation



Irrigation


Domestic
Irrigation

Domestic


Well is covered with
sand.


C hbloride amllyle supplsid by Agrioultoral IZpwrinent Station,
Lake Alfred.,,2o zrl .


58 l8


226


271 1156


---2



--8



98 ic


62



103



78



61



77


76


57


87





TA ILI L. V LL REC ORD (Continued)
0I


I







128



129




130




131




132



133


One and nine-tenths miles east of Dunedin, 0.3 all*
south of State Highway 580, 50 feet veat of County Road
36 at east edge of an orange grove. Hear NE oar. 8Vt
SVk rec. 23, T. 28 S., R. 15 3.
One and five-tenthe Mlle northeast of Dunedin, 0,75
llie south of County Road 98 0.25 mile north of County
Road 1, 50 feet east of County Road 99, about 5 feet
north of owner' resideno. WVtNI **e.o 26, T. 28 8.,
R. 15 S.
One and five-tenths amles northeast of Dunedin, 0,?5
*ile south of County Road 98, 0.25 mile north of County
Road 1 about 50 feet east of County Road 99, south of
*ill 19, at over's residence. NWtEt seo. 26, T. 28
S., R. 15 I.
One and five-tenthse iles northeast of Dunedin, 0.8 mile
south of County Road 98, 0.2 lite north of County Road
1 about 300 feet east of County Road 99, on east side
o owner's residenoe. NVfNZ *seo. 26, T. 28 8., R. 15
3.
One and five-tenths miles northeast of Dunedln 0.15
mile north of intersection of County Road 1 vith County
Road 99, eapt side of County Road 99 at 1310 Georgia
ATe. NViNt rse. 26, T. 28 8., R. 1 j .
One and fire-tenthe miles northeast of Dunedin 0.13
mile north of intersection of County Road 1 vith County
Road 99, 0.1 mile east of County Road 99, north side of
Oeorgia Ave., east of well 132. NVWNt seeo. 26, T. 28
S., R. 15 3.
One and five-tenths lles northeast of Dunedin, 0.13
mile north of intersection of County Road 1 with County
Road 99, about 0.05 ile east of County Road 99 south
side of Georgia Ave. at owner's residence. NWINEt seo.
26, T. 28 8., R. 15 .
One and five-tenths miles northeast of Dunedin 0.13
aile north of intersection of County Road 1 with County
Road 99, about 0.07 ailo east of County Road 99 south
slde of Georgia Ave., at owner's evidence. NVNE seo.
26, T. 28 8., R. 15 3.
One and five-tenths aile northeast of Dunedin, 0.13
mile north of intersection of County Road 1 with County
Road 99, about 0.12 mile east of County Road 99, south
side of Georgia Ave., east of well 137. NVitNE seo. 26,
T. 28 8., R. 15 3.
One and five-tenths miles northeast of Dunedin about
0.1 mile east of County Road 99, 0.13 mile north of
County Road 1 south side of OGorgla Ave east of well
135 at owner' residence. NVJNEt lse. 26, T. 28 8.,
A. 15 I.
About 1.4 miles northeast of Dunedin, about 400 feet
north of County Road 1, 150 feet east of County Road 99,
south side of Ohio Ave., under a water tank. NVWNE@ eec.
26, T. 28 8., R. 15 I.
One and five-tenthe s les northeast of Dunedin, 0.75
*ile south of County Road 98 0.25 mile north of inter-
section of County Road 1 vith County Road 99 about 400
feet vest of County Road 99 at ower's reaidenoe. NEt
NIt see. 26, T. 28 8., R. 15 3.
One and three-tenths miles northeast of Dunedin, about
0.1 mile vest of interseotion of County Road 1 vith
County Road 99, 200 feet north of County Road 99. Nit
WIt eo. 26, T. 28 5., R. 15 3.
One and six-tenthe miles northeast of Dunedin about 0.4
mile ea.t of intersection of County Road 1 with County
Road 99, about 400 feet south of County Road 1, in pump-
house, southeast of owner's residence. SIjNli seo. 26,
T. 28 8., R. 15 L.
One and eight-tenths liles northeast of Dunedi, 0.62
mile east of Intersection of County Road 1 with State
Righway 580, 60 feet south of State Highway 580. NW
Sat see. 25, T. 28 8., R. 15 I.


J. L, Hovell
Dunedin, Fnorlda


A. A. 8ohulti
Palm Harbor, Florida



A. A. Sohulta
Palm Harbor, Florida



Clarenoe 1. Burns
Dunedin, Florida



H. J. Fillinux
Palm Harbor, Florida


J. 0. Hagln
Palm Harbor, Florida



R. 8. Vhitaler
Palm Harbor, Florida



T. J. Vhitaker
Dunedin, Florida



V. Oven
Palm Harbor, Florida



L. F. Helms
Dunedin, Florida



0. 8. Gladding
Dunedin, Florida


Logan V. Davis
Dunedin, Florida



Elliott Beatty
Dunedin, Florida


H. E. 8umner
Dunedin, Florida



Eueno Nigels
Pan Rlarbor, Florida



- I 1 ___________


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


A. O, Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida



A. S. Mountain
Pala Harbor,
Florida


F. H. McBride
Tampa, Florida



A. I. Mountain
Palm Harbor,
Florida

A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida



A. E. Mountain
Pala Harbor,
Florida


A. E. Mountain
and Hovwel








L. P. elms
Dunedin, Florida



O. 5. Oladdinx
Dunedin, Florida


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida



A. O. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida



A. 0. Dunlap
Dunodin, Florida


135




136




137




138



1)9




140



141




142


1926


April
1946



Mar.
1948


1946




1945


ff i i






PXINLLAB COUNT!

HE&SUMRNO POINT WATE JVk I & CONTENT



r] I I_
MAN a to 'm
f? r!to
cr 8 Al


Top of 2-inch cas-
ing 1.7 foet above
land surface.













































Top of 4-inch cou-
pling, 2.2 feet
above land surface.

Top of 8-inch cas-
ing, 0*1 foot above
land surfaoeo


4-23-46
6-23-49
5-15-51


3-26-48
419-48


6-26.46


37


29



27



32



30



31



35


25
215


25



32


4-9-47


2-5-47


6-19-47



4-2-47


4-2-47



2-5-47


154-247:


29.75
34.219
54.18


3-26-48 Domestio


3-18-47


Irrigation



Irrigation


Well is capped.








F.G.S. Well W1620.
Cuttings from strata
penetrated on file
with Florida Geolog-
ical Survey.


F.0.8. Well W1743.
Cuttings from strta
penetrated on file
with Florida Geolog-
ical Surrey.


71


Irrigation







Domestic



Domestic



Domestic


Domestic



Domestic



Domestic



Domestic



Domestic



Domestic



Domestic


- 2


26.76 18.00
13.54


50.6,


----







tAILI I. VILL R300ORDbS


I --
_ __ __ __ _ _


143



144


145



146




147



S148



149









151



132


I1)


153



155



I 136


About 1.83 sles northeast of Dunodin, 0.70 aile east of
Intersection of County Road 1 with 8tate Highway 580,
100 feet south of State Highway 580, south side o ofwn-
er's residence. N Si leoo. 23, T. 28 S., R. 15 3.
One and eight-tenthe iles east of Dundin, 0.70 mile
ast of intersection of County Road 1 with State Highway
$ o, 800 ftet south of State Highwa 580, south of well
143. NVtsvt ,e. 25, T. 28 S., R. 15 .
One and two-tenths slres northeast of Dunedin about 100
tfot east of intersection of County Road 1 with Stat
Highway 380, about 0.2 sile south of State Highway 580
along sand road leading into oqnesr' residence west
side of house. NWtSt roo. 26, T. 28 8., R. 15 .
One and three-tnths siles east of Dunedin 0.25 sile
north of County Road 34, 0.25 mil south of State High-
way 380 0.13 mile east of intersection of County Road
1 with 8tate Highway 580, about 190 oot west of a hard
surface road. Near NV oar. 8VtS seo. 26, T. 28 8., R.
.15 .
light-tenths silo, *at of Dudin 0.5 milt east of in-
terseotion of County Road S34 wi tate Righway 580,
0.20 mile north of County oat 34 500 fet east of New
York Ave., in a grove. 8 s8Vt seo. 26, T. 28 8., R. 15
8.
About 0.0 sile eapt of Dunedin, 0.33 ile east of Inter-
section of County Road 34 th State RHighway 580, 600
feot north of County Road 34, 0.2 mile east 9f wev York
Ave. in a grove, southeast of wll 147. SwVtn S *s.
26, '. 28 S., R. 13 I.
One and four-tenths alles east of Dunodin 1.2 miles
east of intersection of County Road 34 with State High-
way 380, 0.435 ile south of State Highway 580, about 660
feet east of a hard surface road, about 400 feat north
of County Road 34 south side of owner's residence. SVW
S3t soo. 26, T. 28 ., R. 15 3.
Nine-tenths aile north of Dunedin 0,85 mile south of
County Road 98, 300 feet west of 6. 8 Highway 19 about
)00 ftot east of snore line. N&NVI seo. 27, T. i8 S.,
R. 15 .

About 0.735 ale north of Dunedin 1.0 mile south of
County Road 98, 0.25 mile east of U. 8. Highway 19 at
northeast corner of property belonging to Juice Indus-
tries, near guard house, SVINtt soo. 27, T. 28 8., R.
135 Owner's well 1.
About 0.75 mile north of Dunedin 1,0 mile south of
County Road 98, 0.25 mil east .ofU 8. Highway 19
known as *'fed Mil1 well. SVIMt seo. 27, T. 28 8.,
R. 15 3. Owner's well 2.
About 0.75 mile nortn of Dunedin 1.0 mile south of
County Road 98, 0.25 sile east of U. Hlihw 19
southeast of a boiler house, SwVN rso. 27, .? 26 s.,
R. 1 5 Ownr's well 3.
About 0.75 mile north of Dunedin 1.0 sile south of
County Road 98, 0.25 mile east of U IS, Highway 19, at
southeast corner of ain building t.own as *ain plant'
well. SViNt eoo. 27, T. 28 s., R.l 5 I. OwnPers well
4.
About 0.73 ile north of Dunedin 1.0 mile souta of
County Road 98, 0.25 ile ast of U. S. Highway 19. "et
of a water tanl. Known as general supply wll. Sink
ee*. 27, T. 28 i., R. 15 I. Ovwnr'e wll 5,
About 0*735 ile north of Dunedin 1.0 mile south of
County Road 98, 0.25 sile iaot o 0. S. Hig Ba 19, in
sothyest emotion of property. nona as thi fire well'.
SWtiet seo. 27, t. 28 8., R. 15 I. Owner's well 6.
About 0.75 ile north of Dunedin. 1.0 ile south of
County Road 98, 0.25 3ile oat of U. 8. highway 19, near
Iin ate, at southeast *dli of prop rty,' Kin as
VollPr house well. VNIo see, 27, T. 2 o., 3. 5 I.
Owner's well 7.


Juice Indusries,
Dunodin, Florida


Juoie Industries,
Dunedin, Florida


Juice Industries,
Dunedin, FlOrida


Juice Industries,
Dunedin, firida


Inoc

X0f(


David Nigels
Dunedin, Florida


David Nigels
Dunedin, Florida


Major Diokinion
Dunedin, Florida


Norman Mendel
Dunodin, Florida



Robert MoDougal
Chicago



Robert MoDougal
Cnicago


J. L. Howell
Dunedin, Florida



B. L. Skinner
Dunedin, Florida



Julo .Induitrile, In.o
Dundin, Florida



Juto lndutris, Ino.
Dunidin, Florida


Juice Industries, Inc.
Dunodin, Florida


May
Plant


Ino. MIy
Plant


Ino.


Nay
Plant


City, Florida


City, Florida


City, Florida


Aug.19
1943


1927


A, 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


A. 0, Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida



A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida












A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida



Frank May
Tampa, Florida



Morrill
Bradenton, Florida



SMorrill
Bradenton, Florida


Morrill
Bradenton, Florida


Morrill
Bradenton, Florida


Jan.
1948


A
954


I"


(Oontimed)


6


own







PIrULLAO COUNTY


ASSURING POINT


VATER Lttrm.


aflmlnt tnfiW Nue


Mw-us I-runia


It.


i


ii


- 4 I -- ** -I -- 1 31 -- 2-5-47 Domestio


Top of 4-inch can-
ing 1.3 feet above
lanI eurfaoe.
















Top of 6-inoh cou-
pling, 0.7 foot
above land aurfaoe.


U.27


18.05


1.03
0.95
8
10.18
8.13
--W


1.2-48

















4- 2-47
8- 1-47
4-28-948
6-23-49
5-14-51
--


21 .---


21* --.


5-20-48 Domoetio


1-2-48 Domestic


5-28-43 Irrigation


5-28-43


Irrigation


3-20-47 IDometio


Oh~~~~~o~~~ide~ ~ ~ anlsssple yAroltr2 eietSain


hlooride aunlysisr auppli.d-
Lake Alt o, rlorita.


Industrial



Industrial


Industrial


Industrial



Industrial


Industrial


Industrial


BP


76 8


65 4


*.- 10


60 --


37 6


-- 112


12


-12


- 12


-12


I I I I I


by Agricultural grperiment Station,








TABLE 5. WELL RECORDS


158 About 0.75 mile north of Dunedin,
County Road 98, 0.25 mile east of
NEt sec. 27, T. 28 S., R. 15 E.


1.0 mile south of
U. S. Highway 19. SVt


About 0.85 illp n rth of Dunedin, 1.05 mile south of
County Road 19, o.4 nile eie, of U. S. Highway 19 in a
nurn.hrae, in an or~ni~e rove, northeast of well 160.
lepr SW cor. IE:!S E sec. 2?, T. 28 3., R. 15 E.
Seven-tenthe mile north of Dunedin, 0.4 mile north of
Skinner ?1vl., e.st side of Hizhland Ave. east of Juice
In'lu'tele, Inc., near a windr.ll. SEt!E4 sec. 27, T.
2e S., 1. 15 E.


161 Five-tenths mile nor:h of Dunedin, about 0.25 mile north
of Skinner 31vd., vaot side of Hig'.land Ave., near south-
eist corner of a cycl)ne fence, on property belonging to
Juice Industries, Inc., south of main gate, in swampy
land. SVWNEJ sec. 27, 7. 28 S., R. 15 E.

162 Dun.dln, 1053 BasA 9lvi., in basement of owner's
residence. NOSE1 sec. 27, T. 28 S R. 15 E.
163 Dunoedn, 1244 Bies 9lvd., NEJSE) sec. 27, T. 28 S., R.
15 E.


Dunedin, 500 feet vest of Base Blvd., opposite 1129 Base
Blvd., in an ornze crove. Near SW cor. NE3SE* sec. 27,
T. 28 S., R. 15 E.


l~5 Dunedin, 303 feet west of Bass Blvd., 50 feet south of
Bay Street, near a residence. Near SW cor. NEISE$ sec.
27, T. 28 S., R. 15 E.


166 Dunedin, one block north of )ain
Atlantic Corst Line Railroad, at
plint of Juice Industries, Inc.
S., R. 15 E.


Street, east side of
south platform, south
SVWSE| sec. 27, T. 28


i6?7 unedin, soutreast of intersection of Grant Street and
highland Ave., northeast of Fire Station and City Hall,
in a pumphouse. SWVSE* see. 27, T. 28 S., R. 15 E.


Dunedin, northeast of intersection of Main Street with
Broadway, under city water tank, in a pumphouee. SEt
SWt see. 27, T. 28 S., R. 15 E.


Nine-tenthe mile south of Dunedin, 45 feet west of Edge-
wter Drive 300 feet south of Oranrewood Drive, across
ro, a from 43 Edgewater Drive. SVW BI sec. 34, T. 28 8.,
R. 15 E.

Five-tenths mile southeast of Dunedin, about 20 feet east
of Milvwukee St., at southeast corner of intersection of
Milwaukee St. and James St., near a garage, in a pup-
house. Near SW cor. N tNEi see. 34, T. 28 S., R. 15 E.


-- i -


Juice Industries,
Dunedin, Florida


L. B. Skinner
Dunedin, Florida


F. L. Skinner
Dunedin, Florida


Juice Industries,
Dunedin, Florida


Inc.


Inc.


0 S. Oldding
Dunedin, Florida
0. S. Gladding
Dunedin, Florida

West Coast Packing
Co.
Clearwater, Florida

0. S. Gladding
Dunedin, Florida


Juice Industries, Inc.
Dunedin, Florida


City of Dunedin



City of Dunedin




Guy A. Neal
Dunedin, Florida



Green


171 Seon-tenths mile southeast of Dunedin, 300 feet east of F. L. Skinner
New York Ave. on projection of Scotland Ave. NWtNWV Dunedin, Florida
sec. 35, T. 26 S., R. 15 E.


172 One end one-tentn miles east of Dunedin, 1.2 miles east of
U. S. Highway 19, 0.25 mile south of County Road 34, near
a house, in an orange grove, known as Milwaukee Grove,
southeast of well 171. NEINWj sec. 35, T. 28 S., R. 15
E.


One and two-tenths miles southeast of Dunedin 1.2 miles
Rpst of U. S. Highway 19, 0.45 dile south of county Road
34, southeast of a barn, in an orange grove, known as
Yilvaukee Grove, south of well 172. StIMt sec. 35, T.
28 S., R. 15 E.

One and five-tenthe mlles southeast of Dunedin, 1.6 miles
east of U. S. Highway 19, 0.4 mile south of County Road
34, about 0.2 1ile vest of County Road 34, about 0.4 mile
southeast of Coun;y arn, southeast of a pond in an
orAnfe grove. StNVi se. 35, T. 28 S., R. 15 E.


F. L. Skinner
Dunedin, Florida



F. L. Skinner
Dunedin, Florida



Robert McDougal


T. J. Zimmerman
Ozona, Florida


T. J. Zimmerman
Ozona, Florida


Frank May
Tampa, Florida



0. S. Gladding
Dunedin, Florida
Po-ter Ziasmerman
Ozona, Florida

A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida

0. 8. Gladding
Dunedin, Florida


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida














A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


Howell


Howell




Howell




A, 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


159



160


164


168




169




170


Feb.
1947


1904


1939

1936

1927


1942


1942


1925


1928


Oct.
1945


117?




174


--------------- r I I .


(Continued)


I


I


r


i








PINELLAS COUNTY


14 H 0 4 z






188 12 Industrial



120 80 6 Top of 6-inch ca- 18.35 7.69 10-23-45 30 4-9-47 Irrigation isted in U. S. Geo-
ing, flush with land 10.88 3-25-48 logical Survey Water
surface. 10.92 41948 Supply Paper 319, p.
69 6-23-9 322.
188 --- 12 --- --- ---- --- Indutrlal



120 80 6 Top of 6-inch cas- 18.35 7.69 10-23-45 30 0 4-9-47 Irrigation Listed in U. 8. Geo-
ing, flush with land 10.88 3-25-48 logical Survey Water
surface. 10.92 4-19-48 Supply Paper 319, p.
15.69 6-23-49 322.

50 50 1.5 --- --- 47 o 4-8-47 Irrigation Listed in U. S. Geo-
logical Survey Water
Supply Paper 319, P.
322.

12 --- 1 1 -3-47 -- Sample for chloride
determination taken
after well had been
flowing for an in-
definite period.

100 73 2 Top of 2-inch cae- .- 21.56 4-23-46 --- -- -- Domestic
ing, 9.2 feet below
land surface.
55 50 2 --- 18 --- 3-20-47 Domestic

164 38 6 --- --- 32 0 4-8-47 Irrigation


80 b5 2 --- 41 --- 3-20-47 Domestic


200 -* 12 Top of 12-inch cae- 9.72 7.67 10-22-45 80 --- 2-5-47 Industrial Automatic water
ing, 3.85 feet below 9.00 6-23-49 level recorder in-
land surface. 9.54 5-14-51 stalled 12-15-48.

146 32 10 -- -27 --- 2-5-47 Public
25 -- 4-28-48 Supply


96 --- 10 -- --- 40 --- 2-5-47 Public Water analysis given
Supply in U. S. Geological
Survey Water-Supply
Paper 596-G, p. 224,
analysis 316.

60 -- --- 32 --- 12-1-47 --- Samples for chloride
25 -- 5-7-48 Ideterminatione taken
after vell had been
flowing for an in-
!definite period.

202 71 10 -- --- ---- --- --- Irrigation



240 26 8 Top of 4-inch cas- 20.70 9.8 2-2-48 30 0 2-5-47 Irrigation
ing, about 2.0 feet
below land surface.
114 65 3 -- -- --- 30 2-5-47 !Domestic Well was originally
I drilled to a depth
!of 161 feet but
later filled to dept
lof 114 feet.

201 --- 8 --- -- 20 0 2-5-47








TA BLI 5. VILL R 1 C 0R D 8 (Continued)








S!A.


One and seven-tenths miles southeast of Dunedin,
feet vst of County Road. 34, 0.1 11e south of a
tery, in an orange grove, west side of a house,
sec. 35, T. 28 S., R. 13 S.


300..
ce'e-


175



176


177



178



179




180




181



182



183



184



185


186



187



188


189



190



191


About 2.0 miles east of Dunedin, 0,5 mile south of State
Highway 580, east side of County Road 36, north side of
Jerry Lake. nNI3wV Seo. 36, T. 28 8., R. 15 3.
One and eight-tenths miles southeast of Dunedin, 0.2
mile vest of interseclon of County Road 36 with County
Road 31, about 600 feet south of County Road 34, near a
house. NVSVi sec. 36, T. 28 8., R. 15 E.
Two and tnree-tenths miles southeast of Dunedin, about
0.35 mile north of Sunset Point Drive ( county Road 32)
350 feet vest of County Road 34. 8StSVt sec. 36, T. 26
8., R. 15 I.
Tnree and seven-tenths miles east of Palm Barbor, about
2.1 miles east of State Highway 55 east side of Lake
Butler, 0.2 mile south of Brooler Croek, about 0.1 mile
west of Caqt Lake Road. Near NW cor. SV1N2t eeo. 4, T.
28 8., R. 16 3.
Two and nine-tenths miles east of Palm Harbor, 1.3 miles
east of State Highway 55, 0.7 mile north of State High-
way 584, about 0.7 mile northeast of a bridge, in an
orange grove about 10 feet soutn of a sand road. Near
SV cor. SEiNjt sec. 5, T. 28 S., R. 16 E.
One and eight-tenths miles east of Palm Harbor, 0.8 mile
soutn of County Road 42, 0.2 mile east of State Highway
55, In an orange grove, in a pumphouse. NtNEt seo. 6,
T. 28 5., R. 16 1.
One and eignt-tentne miles east of Palm Harbor, 1,1 miles
south of County Road 42, 0.2 aile mast of State Highway
55 0 7 mile north of State Hignway 5U4. Near 8 cor.
SVNSI seec. 6, T. 28 8., R. 16 E.
One and three-tenths miles east of Pala Harbor, 0.55
mile vest of State Hignway 55, 0.3 Nile south of County
Road 41, about 300 feet vest of County Road 94 west
side of a dairy. NiSVi seo. 6, T. 2U 8., R. 16 E.

One and three-tenths miles east of Palm Harbor, 0.55
mile west of State Highway 55 about 0.3 mile south of
County Road 41, west side of bounty Road 94. SVSSVi
oee. 6, T. 28 8., R. 16 s.
About 1.8 miles east of Palm Harbor, 0.6 mile north of
State Highway 584 about 0.1 mile west of State Highway
55, vest of well 187. NVaSE* seo. 6, T. 28 8., R. 16 E.
One and eight-tenths miles east of Palm Harbor, 0.5 mile
north of State Highway 584, west side of State Highway
55, in an orange grove, east of well 187, north side of
road to a residence. SWiSSt seo. 6, T. 28 8., R. 16 I.
About 1.8 miles east of Pal RHarbor, 0.5 mile north of
State Highway 584, 0.1 mile west of State Highway 55,
vest of well 186, east of well 185. SVt8Et seo. 6,
T. 28 8., R. 16 3.
Two miles east of Palm Harbor, 0.3 mile north of State
Highway 584 315 feet east of State Highway 5. StES61
see. 6, T. 18 S., R. 16 E.
Two and one-tenth miles southeast of Palm Harbor, 0.2
mile north of State Highway 584 0 2 mile east of State
Highway 55, in swampy land. SE5Isl see. 6, T. 28 8., R.
16 E.
One and signt-tenths siles southeast of Palm Harbor, 0.3
mlel west of intersection of State Highway 584 with
State Hilhway 55, about 100 feet north of State Highway
584. NtNVwt se.e 7, T. 28 8., R. 16 E.
One and nine-tenths mile southeast of Palm Harbor, 800
feet south of State Highway 584 500 feet west of County
Road 74, north of well 192. srWiVi see. 7, T. 28 S.,
R. 16 3.


I


_________________________________________ _______________ ______________


Dorthy Douglas



H. F. Heye
Clearwater, Florida

J. Springer



Henry Wilson
Clearvater, Florida


J. A. Boyd




S. I. I. Developing
Co.
Dade City, Florida


8. Chase
Dunedin, Florida


C. E. Jackson
Pal BHarbor, Florida


McClane
Palm Harbor, Florida


Riviere Dairy
Palm Harbor, Florida


C. E. Jackson
Palm Harbor, Florida

C. 3. Jaokson
Palm Harbor, Florida


C. E. Jackson
Palm Harbor, Florida


J. M. McCord


Sanford
Palm Harbor, Florida


G. V. Kersey
Palm Harbor, Florida


H. L. Grider
Palm Harbor, Florida


1937


June
1945


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida





A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida







Frank Hay
Tampa, Florida



A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida






A. 0, Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


A. E. Mountain
Palm Harbor,
Florida

Frank May
Tampa, Florida

Frank May
Tampa, Florida






Frank May
Taapa, Florida

A. 0, Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


Frank May
Tampa, Florida


Frank May
Tampa, Florida


Mar.
1947


1944


Dec.
1944


June
1946



June
1936








PINILLAS COUNT!


MEASURING POINT WATR LEVEL CHLO (ONTENT










286 64 12 17 0 4-8-47 Irrigation


Top of 12-inch cae-
ing 0.5 foot above
land surface.


Base of pump, flush
with land surface.






Top of 6-ioch cas-
Ing, 0.2 foot above
land surface.


Top of 3-inch can-
ing, 0.2 foot above
land surface.


38.8




69.8


29.75
30.56
33.12


65.89


67.65 161.48


-*T


59.69


7-13-46
3-13-47
6-24-49


3-12-47


7-12-46


825




45




275



63



13



12


2-5-47


Domestic






Domestic


3-27-47 1Domestio


3-13-47 Irrigation




3-12-47 Irrigation



3-13-47 Irrigation



3-11-47 Stock



3-18-47 Domestic
Stock


Domestic


3-13-47 Irrigation


3-13-47


3-13-47 Irrigation


3-13-47


I I I _I I --tI I-


Drainage


Irrigation


Domestic


Well is covered.


12 1


-- 12







TABLE 5. WELL RECORDS


SIO


Two miles southeast of Palm Harbor, 0.1 mile west of in-
tersection of State Highway 584 with County Road 74,
1200 feet soutn of Stete Hignway 584, southwest of a
barn. SVWNts sec. 7, T. 28 S., R. 16 E.
Two and seven-tenths miles southeast of Palm Harbor, 0.7
mile east of intersection of State Highway 584 with
State Highway 55, about 200 feet nortn of State Highway
581, 50 feet northeast of a house, near a bridge. Near
SE cor. NSINWt sec. 8, T. 28 S., R. 16 S.
Two and three tenths miles southeast of Palm Harbor,
0.35 mile east of intersection of State Highway 584 with
County Road 74, 350 feet south of State Highway 584, in
an orange grove. SWJNWJ seo. 8, T. 28 8., R. 16 E.
Two and five-tenths miles southeast of Palm Haroor,
0.42 mile east of County Road 74 200 feet south of
State Highway 584. SWNWit sec. ,. T. 28 S., R. 16 E.

Two and six-tenths miles southeast of Palm Harbor, about
0.2 mile north of east end of County Road 95, 0.45 mile
east of County Road 74, vest side of a sand road, north
side of a residence. Near SW cor. NWtSWt sec. 8, T. 28
S., R. 16 E.
About 2.0 miles northeast of Oldsmar, 2.1 miles north of
intersection of State Highway 580 with Tampa Shores Road,
about 0.8 mile north of Sunshine Race Track about 0.5
mile north of intersection of Tampa Shores Road with a
sand road, 50 feet west of a sand road, vest of a log
gate, near county Line. Near NE oor. NE*SE* sec. 12, T.
28 S., R. 16 E.
About 1.5 miles northwest of Oldsmar, 0.5 mile northwest
of"intersection of State Highway 584 with State Highway
580, about 50 feet south of State Highway 584, 2 feet
south of an irrigation ditch, northwest of well 200 and
well 201. Near NE cor. SWISE* sec. 15, T. 28 8., R. 16
3.





About 1.5 miles northwest of Oldesar, about 800 feet
south of well 198, north of well 202, about 20 feet east
of an irrigation ditch, west of wells 201, 203, and 211.
SVWSEO see. 15, T. 28 8., R. 16 E,

About 1.3 miles northwest of Oldesar, 0.28 mile northwest
of intersection of State Highway 584 with State Highway
580, about 500 feet south of State Hignway 584, 20 feet
east of a small house, east of well 198, west of well
201. SVWSWt sec. 15, T. 28 S., R. 16 E.
About 1.2 miles northwest of Oldsmar, 0.2 mile northwest
of intersection of State Highway 584 with State Highway
580, 40 feet soutn of State Highway 584 5 feet south
of an Irrigation ditch east of well 200, north of well
203. S9VSi sec. 15, T. 28 S., R. 16 E.
About 1.3 miles northwest of Oldsmar, 0.45 mile southwest
of intersection of State Highway 584 with State Highway
580, 5 feet east of an irrigation ditch at north edge
of swampy area south of wells 198 and 199, west of
wells 20 and i2l. Near SE cor. SWtSEi see. 15, T. 28
S., R. 16 E.
About 1.2 miles northeast of Oldsmar, 0.30 mile south-
west of intersection of State Highway 55 with State
Highway 580, south of well 201 north of well 211, east
of well 202, about 50 feet south of an irrigation ditch,
about 200 feet south of a bulb packing house. SESEt
see. 15, T. 28 S., R. 16 E.
Three miles southeast of Palm Harbor, 0.4 mile east of
east end of County Road 95, about 0.5 mile north of
County Road 38, about 0.25 mile south of St. George Lake,
on a sand hill, east of well 205. NEHNWi seo. 17, T.
28 S., R. 16 E.


H. L. Rider
Palm Harbor, Florida


E. E. E. Developing
Co.
Dade City, Florida


F. J. Sutton
Palm Harbor, Florida


F. J. Sutton
Palm Harbor, Florida

J. C. Mueller
Palm Harbor, Florida



Jessie Boyd
Palm Harbor, Florida





A. and W. Bulb Co.
Clearwator, Florida








A. and V. Bulb Co.
Clearwator, Florida



W. D. Day
Oldsmar, Florida



A. and W. Bulb Co.
Clearwater, Florida



A. and V. Bulb Co.
Clearwater, Florida




A. and W. Bulb Co.
Clearwater, Florida


E.
Co,
Dad


E. E. Developing
le City, Florida


Frank May
Tampa, Florida


Frank May
Tampa, Florida



Frank May
Tampa, Florida


Caraway
Tarpon Springs,
Florida

A. O. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida










L. W. lixon
Tampa, Florida








L. W. iUxon
Tampa, Florida



L.w, Nixon
Tampa, Florida



L.W. Nixon
Tampa, Florida



L. W. Nixon
Tampa, Florida



I.e. Nixon
Tampa, Florida




Frank May
Tampa, Florida


a Water level expressed in feet above the measuring point.


198









199




200




201




202





203





204


1917


Dec.
1947








Dec.
1947



Jan.
1948



Dec.
1947



Dec.
1947




Dec.
1947




June
1946


(Continued)








PTNELLAS COUNTY





14 1 0
IH E4 94
M3. d to
aB'Az to


Top of 2-inch cas-
ing, 1.0 foot above
land surface.




Top of 8-inch cas-
ing, flush with
land surface.







Top of 8-inch cas-
ing, flush with
land surface.


Top of extreme west
end of 5-inch pipe
which empties into
irrigation ditch.


Top of 6-inch cas-
ing, flush with
land surface.



Top of 12-inch cas-
ing, 0.8 foot above
land surface.


7-25-47
11-24-47
1-29-48
4-19-48
6-24-49
5-16-51


1.52 12-22-47


12-18-47
1-2-48
6-22-49












1-2-48





12-8-47
12-10-47
12*22-47
1-2-4
:1-29-48
6-22-49
7-13-46
3-13-47


30
25





825









1950


500
550
587


1750
1800


400 ---
125
1775 1


3-13-47


Irrigation




Domestic
Irrigation


3-20-47 Irrigation



3-13-47 Domestic


3-18-47
5-10-48


12-3047 Irrigation


12-18-47 Irrigation


12-10-47
12-10-47
5-7-48


1-2-48
J-7-48


Domestic
Irrigation



Irrigation




Irrigation


12-3-47 Irrigation
12-8-47
4-19-48


3-13-47


Irrigation


Samples for chloride
determinations taken
after well had been
flowing for an
indefinite period.


F.G.S. Well W1643.
Cuttings from strata
penetrated on file
with Florida Geolog-
ical Survey. Well
was originally
drilled to a depth
of 140 feet, but was
later deepened to a
depth of 242 Set to
obtain more water.

F.G.S. Well W1645.
Cuttings from strata
penetrated on file
with Florida Geolog-
ical Survey.


Samples for chloride
determinations taken
after well had been
flowing for an
indefinite period.

Samples for chloride
determinations taken
after well had been
flowing for an
indefinite period.


42.16
a2.97
a2.27

al.80
al.2


13.19






7.79


2.59





8.51





56


4.31
4.12
4.18


a2.54





2.7.6
3.03
3.27
3.20
3.80
3.38
44.12
45.26


I r I -







TA LI 5. V LL RE 0 0 RD 8 (Continued)







I o
t I8I


205




206



207




208




209




210




211




212




212


213




214



215




216



217



218


Two and eight-tenths miles southeast of Palm Harbor
aoout 0.1 mile east of east end of County Road 95, 6.5
mile north of County Road 30, near a small house, in a
shed, near a large tank, west of well 204. Near HE cor.
NWiNVi seo. 17, T. 28 8., R. 16 1.
About 3.2 miles southeast of Palm Harbor, 1.1 miles west
of County Road 31, 900 feet south of County Road 38,
south of owner's residence,in an orange grove. NVSVi
see. 17, T. 28 8., R. 16 I.
Two and five-tenths miles southeast of Palm Harbor, 1.5
alleys east of intersection of County Road 1 with County
Road 38, 0.3 mile north of county doad 38, 0*2 mile
south of County Road 95, about 1200 feet east of County
Road 74 (a dirt road). Near SW oor. NHtNE seeo. 18, T.
28 S., R. 16 1.
Two and one-tenth miles southeast of Palm Harbor, about
1.0 mile east of intersection of County Road 1 with
County Road 38, 0.3 mile north of County Road 38, north-
east of Curlew Church south side of a house. Near NE
oor. OSVIKt seo. 18, 1. 28 8., R. 16 S.
Two and nine-tenths miles southeast of Palm Harbor, 1.8
miles east of intersection of County Road 1 with County
Road 38, about 0.1 mile south 9f County Road 38, south
side of owner's residence. ntSE*t see. 18, T. 28 8.,
R. 16 E.
About 3.0 miles southeast of Palm Harbor, 1.8 miles east
of intersection of County Road 1 with County Road 38,
0.25 mile south of County Road 38, west elde of a dirt
road, east side of a house, south of well 209. NEZBSE
eec. 18, T. 28 S., R. 16 S.
About 1.2 miles northwest of Oldsmar about 0.4 mile
southwest of intersection of State Highway 584 with
State Highway 580, south of well 203, east of well 202,
about 30 feet south of an irrigation ditch. NEtENt seo.
22, T. 28 8., R. 16 C.
About 0.6 mile west of Oldsmar, about 0.4 mile east of
a bridge across Moccasin Creek, 400 feet south of State
Highway 580, east ride of a dirt road, south side of a
residence, in a vacant lot, near shore line of Safety
Harbor. SWIU see. 23, T. 28 8., R. 16 2.
Oldsmar, west side of Bay View Blvd., between Seaboard
Air Line Railroad and State Highway 584. NVIllt seo.
23, T. 28 8., R. 16 E.
About 2.0 miles southwest of Oldsmar, 0.2 mile west of
State Highway 590, 0.2 mile south of State Highway 580,
about 0.2 mile front a railroad crossing along a dirt
road north side of a house. NWJINI seo. 27, T. 28 8.,
R. 16 &.
About 2.0 miles southwest of Oldomar, 0.4 mile west of
intersection of State Highway 580 with State Highway
590, south eide of State Highway 580 at the Tangerine
Shop. NECNEt sec. 28, T. 28 8., R. 16 E.
About 2.3 miles southwest of Oldsmar 0.5 mile west of
intersection of State Highway 580 with State Highway
590, about 300 feet south of State Highway 580, east
side of a dirt road, south pide of location for new
house. Hear NW oor. NEiNIt seo. 28, T. 28 8., R. 16 E.

About 2.2 miles southwest of Olsmar, about 0.35 mile
west of intersection of State Highway 580 with State
Rilhway 590, 700 feet south of State Highway 580. NE2
NIt sec. 28, T. 28 S., R. 16 S.

Two and five-tenths miles north of Safety Harbor, 300
feet south of State Highway 5801 100 feet west of State
Highway 593, east side of owner e residence, in a small
pumphouse. SVimNW sec. 28, T. 28 S., R. 16 1.
Two and one-tenth miles northwest of Safety Harbor,
about 1.0 mile north of County Road 50, east side of
Lake Bowden, at Camp Soule. 8VNI6 s0eo.32, T. 28 8.,
R. 16 1.


Pasco Packing Co.
Dade City, Florida



V. R. Tnomas
Palm Haroor, Florida


David Bilgore Co.
Clearwater, Florida




Floyd Grissett
Palm Harbor, Florida



A, D, Boyd
Palm.Harbor, Florida



Jessie Boyd
Palm Harbor, Florida



A. and V. Bulb Co.
Clearwater, Florida



Farmer
Oldsmar, Florida



Town of Oldsmar


J. T. Humphrles
Safety Harbor,
Florida


J. T. Humphries
Safety Harbor,
Florida

J. T. Humphries
Safety Harbor,
Florida


J. T. Humphries
Safety Harbor,
Florida

B. 0, Nason
Dunedin, Florida


Boy Scouts of America


Jan.
1946


Frank May
Tampa, Florida



Frank May
Tampa, Florida


Frank May
Tampa, Florida



---




A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida



A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida



L. V. Nixon
Tampa, Florida



Frank May
Tampa, Florida






Frank May
Tampa, Florida



Frank May
Tampa, Florida


P. Vasbinder
Safety Harbor,
Florida


Frank May
Tampa, Florida


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


A. 0. Dunlap
Duneiln, Florida


July
1946


Oot.
1947


,1945




Mar.
1945



July
1947



Dec.
1947



Feb.
1948



1916


- -


I







PINELLAB COUNT!


Top of 8-inoh cas-
ing, flush with
land surface.


Top of 2-inch oas-
ing, 0.5 foot above
land surface.


Top of 3-inoh cae-
ing, 0.8 foot above
land surface.


Top of 6-inch cae-
ing, 0.2 foot above
land surface.

Top of 6-inch cas-
ing, 0.2 foot above
land surface.


in depth.







TA L I VILL RIO RDS (Continued)









,, ,, .. ,


219



220



221



222




223



224




225




226



227




228




229




230




231


232


233



234


One and eight-tenths miles northwest of Safety Harbor, D
o.35 mile north of County Road 50, 600 feot east of a <
dirt road leading into Scout Camp. SWitSt see. 32, T.
28 S., R. 16 I.
One and seven-tenthe miles northwest of Safety Harbor,
700 foot north of County Road 105, 0.453 ile west of
State Highway 393, 0.6 sile north of County Road o0,
east of well 219. stSei seo. 32, T. 28 8., R. 16 I.
One and five-tenths siles northwest of Safety Harbor,
1.1 miles north of County Road 50, about 0.1 ile eastof
State Highway 593 (Haines Road). 8EtNVt soo. 33, T. 28
s., R. 16 E.
One and five-tenths miles northwest of Safety Harbor,
1.0 amil nortn or County Road 50, 1.25 miles south of
State Highwa 580, 150 feet eat of State Highway 593
(Haines Road). Hear S8 cor. SEItNt se. 33, T. 28 S.,
R. 16 3.
One and five-tenths miles northwest of Safety Harbor.
0.9 mile north of County Road 50 1.35 miles south of
State Highway 580, about 200 feet west of State Highway
593 (Haines Road). NWVSWV seo. 33, T. 28 S., R. 16 E.
About 0.8 mile northeast of Safety Haroor, 1.7 siles
toutn or State Highway 580, about 30 feet west of State
Highway 590, east edge of an or grove, across high-
way trom owner's reaidenoe. NVitt seo. 3, T. 28 8.,
R. 16 E.
About 0.7 mile northeast of Safety Harbor, 1.8 miles
south of State Highway 80, about 0.1 mile vest of State
Highway 590, southwest of well 224, about 300 feet north
of a dirt road, in an orange grove, n a puaphouse In
owner's grove 1. NVW seo. 34, T. 28 S., R. 16 1.
About 0.7 mile northeast of Safety Harbor, about 200
feet southwest of intersection of Bay Shore Blvd. with
Grand Central Ave., in a vacant lot. Near 85 cor. S5t
St seo. 34, T. 28 S., R. 16 I.
One and five-tenths miles northeast of Safety Harbor,
northeast of Phillippi's Grave in Phillippi Park about
200 feet east of County Road 30 at bottom of a h;ll, 30
feet west of shore line, 15 feet northwest of well 228.
NHWNVI seo. 35, T. 28 S., R. 16 z.
One and fire-tenths siloe northeast of Safety Harbor,
northeast of Phillippl'es rave, about 200 feet east of
County Road 30, at bottom of a hill, 15 fet east of
shore line, southeast of well 227. NWItWit eo. 33, T.
28 S., R. 16 3.
About 0.83 mile northeast of Safety Harbor, about 300
feet northeast of intereeotion of Grand Central Avenue
with Bay Shore Drive, west sid of Bay Shore Drive vest
side of owner's residence. StSVt seo. 35, T. 28 S., R.
16 C.
About 0.83 aile northeast of Safety Harbor, about 300
feet northeast of intersection of Grand Central Avenue
and Bay Shore Blvd. east ld Ba Short vd., 5
foot from shore line, east of well Z9. 8 se *. 35,
T. 28 S., R. 16 I.
Two and five-tonth milles southeast of Dunedin, 0.2 mile
north of Sunset Point Drive, about 300 feet east of
County Road 34. NViNt* see. 1, T. 29 S., R. 15 3.
Two and three-tenths liles southeast of Dunedin, 750
feet north of Sunseof 9int Drive, 00 feet west of
County Road 34. NStNWt eso. 1, T. 29 S., R. 15 3.
Two and seven-tenths siles southeast of Dunedin 0.18
mile east of County Road 34, about 130 feet nsrn of
Sunset Point Drive, north side of a shed. WNVtt coo.
1, T. 29 S., R. 15 .
Two and three-tenths miles southeast of Duepdin, 0.3
mile west of intersection of County Road 4 with Sunset
Point Drive, south side of Sunset Point Drive, across
road troa a fruit packing house. SVtNVI ceo. 1, T. 29 S,
R. 153 .


IBuster Allen


T. Kamenskey
Dunedin, Florida

J. B. Johnson



lifford


Frank May
Tampa, Florida


David Bilgove Co.
clearvater, Florida


3. R. Taylor
Portemouth, Ohio


J. Couch
Safety Harbor,
Florida

J.. Couh.
Safety Harbor,
Florida


Harold Toth
Safety HarDor,
Florida

e. L. Hackney
Safety Harbor,
Florida


C. H. Taylor
Portsmouth, Onio



Zinser
Safety Harbor,
Florida

Pinellas County
Clearwater, Florida



Pinellas County
Clearwater, Florida



L. 3. Wilson
Safety Haroor,
Florida


L. E. Vilson
Safety Harbor
Florida


1920



1946


March
1948


A* 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida



A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida






















P. Vasbinder
Safety Harbor,
Florida







A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida

Frank May
Tampa, Florida

A. 0, Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


A. 0. Dunlap
Dunedin, Florida


Karoh
1945


_________________________________ .1_____________I____________1 I


1946


1929








PINELLAS COUN T

Me MSRITm POINT IAT LEVEL _OLO IDE CONTENT







0 -- 10 I

380 --10 Irrigation


Top of 10-inch cas-
ing, 0.3 foot above
land eurfaoe.


Top of 6-inoh cae-
ing, 0.2 foot above
top of concrete
pumphouse floor.

Top of 6-inch cas-
ing, 0.6 foot above
land surface.

Top of 20-inch steel
curbing, 2.0 teet
below land surface.


Top of 6-inoh oot-
,lj1ng, 0.2 foot above
ilana surface.


23.81




21.2


5.66


16.96
16.27
16.87
15.60
17.30
13.95
13.90
14.71
14.72

11.58
1HSB


3.89' '2.10


7-11-47
1-29-48
4-19-48
6-22-49
5-17-51
6-24-46
4-19-48
6-22-49
5-15-51


4-20-48
6-22-49



4-20-48


176* --- 10-23-44 Irrigation


30 10


50



20




1175




185



100


3-18-4?


Irrigation


Domestic


3-24-48 Domestio



7-11-47 Irrigation


#-24-47



4-21-48




4-21-48


4-24-47







6-4-43
2-4-47


--- 2-4-47


8-1-47


Irrigation

















Domestic


Irrigation


Irrigation



Domestic


Domestic


Sample for chloride
determination taken
after well had been
flowing for an in-
definite period.


_ I I ._ _I I I _
S Chloride analysis supplie& by Lgricultural Ixpelrient Station,
Lake AlfreA, Florida.


306







TABLE 5. VILL RECORDS (Continued)


----4 I


235




236




237





238




239




240



241



242

243


Clearwater, vest end
Street Pier, east of
T. 29 S., R. 15 3.

Clearwater, west end
Street Pier, east of
T. 29 S., R. 15 3.

Clearwater, west end
Street Pier, east of
T. 29 S., R. 15 t.


of Seminole Street, at Seminole
Clearwater Harbor. N mwSB seo. 9,


of Seminole Street, At 9eminole
Clearwater Harbor, NWtS3 soe. 9,


of Seminole Street, at Seminole
Clearvater Harbor. W NSE seo.


Two and five-tenths miles southeast of Dunedin about
600 feet vest of intersection of County Road 34 with
Sunset Point Drive, about 600 feet south of Sunset Point
Drive, in an orange grove. SEJNWe see. 1, T. 29 8., R.
15 L.
Thrne miles southeast of Dunedin about 0.3 mile east of
intersection of County Road 34 with Sunset Point Drive,
about 0.3 mile south of Sunset Point Drive, about 15
feet south of an irrigation ditch. NIESIt sec. 1, T. 29
S., R. 15 E.
Two miles southeast of Dunedin, about 0.6 mile east of
intersection of Sunset Point Drive (County Road 32) with
Highland Ave., 0.25 mile north of Sunset Point Drive,
north side of well 238, north edge of an orange grove.
NKtNEt sec. 2, T. 29 S., R. 15 1.


About 2 miles southeast of Dunedin, 0.6 mile east of in-
terseotion of Sunset Point Drive with Highland Ave.,
about 0.2 aile north of Sunset Point Drive in an orange
grove, south of well 237, 300 feet north of a pond. Sit
NEt sec. 2, T. 29 8., R. 15 E.
One and eight-tenths miles southeast of Dunedin, 0.3
mile east of intersection of Sunset Point Drive with
Highland Ave., about 0.2 mile north of Sunset Point
Drive in a pumphouse, in an orange grove. Near NW cor.
SWtNEt sec. 2, T. 29 ., R. 15 3.
One and eight-tenths miles southeast of Dunedin, about
300 feet east of intersection of Sunset Point Drive with
Highland Ave. about 500 feet north of Sunset Point
Drive. SZENiV sec. 2, T. 29 S., R. 15 3.
One and two-tenths miles south of Dunedin, 0.45 mile
east of U. S. Highway 19 0.4 mile north of Sunset Point
Drive, at 1222 Idlewild Drive, NWtIEt seo. 3, T. 29 5.,
R. 15 E.
One and three-tenths miles south of Dunedin, at 1261
Idlevlld Drive. NVtNEt sso. 3, T. 29 8., R. 15 E.
One and five-tenths miles south of Dunedin, 100 feet
north of Sunset Point Drive, 50 feet west of Douglas
Ave. Near SE cor. SEINWt sec. 3, T. 29 8., R. 15 E.
One and eleht-tenths miles northeast of Clearvater, 0.35
mile vest of Highland Ave., 1100 feet south of Sunset
Point Drive, in an orange grove, 400 feet west of a dirt
road. Near SE cor. NEZSEt sec. 3, T. 29 8., R. 15 E.
Clearwater, 200 feet north of Fairaont St. 10 feet rest
of Myrtle Ave east side of Sunburst Apartments. Near
NZ cor. HENEt sec. 9, T. 29 S., R. 15 E.
Clearwater, 250 feet south of Marsnall St., 30 feet east
of Oarden Ave. SEtINE see, 9, T. 29 S., R. 15 E.


George Smoyer
Clearwater, Florida



T. J. Constantine
Clearvater, Florida



Never Xerxs





H. H. Constantine
Clearvater, Florida'



H. H. Constantine
Clearwater, Florida



Neverse Yrxa



D. E. Wiloor
Clearvater, Florida


A. H. Patterson
Clearvater, Florida
City of Clearwater


H. F. Heye
Clearvater, Florida


Sunburst Apartments
Clearwater, Florida

City of Clearwater





City of Clearvater



City of Clearwater



City of Clearvater


Frank May
Tampa, Florida



Frank May
Tampa, Florida









Frank May
Tampa, Florida












P. Vasbinder
Safety Harbor,
Florida

Frank May
Tampa, Florida




Frank May
Tampa, Florida


Albert Ginn
Clearwater, Florida


245


246





247



248



249


1930





March
1945


1932



1945


1906







PINELL.A C OU T

MEABURIN POINT WATER LEVEL CHLORIDE CONTENT



sRE r o

~ __ __ ____
-- __ _I __ _


Top of 12-inch cas-
ing, 0.5 foot above
land surface.






























Top of concrete pump
base, 1*0 foot above
land surface.





Top of 3-inch cas-
ing, 1.4 feet above
land surface.
Top of 10-inoh cas-
ing, 1,0 foot above
land surface.


57.49


27.40


32.27


43.53
42.35


19.89


21.04


24.94
25.23
25.40
25.26
25.75
25.59
---


7-16-47
10-17-47































8-6-46










9-4-45
10-22-45
1-12-48
1-29-48
4-19-48
5-14-51


210 .--


27* ---
26 0


6-4-43
4-11-47


Irrigation


7-16-47 Irrigation


6-20-47



6-20-47





5-28-43
4-11-47





3-26-47


Oil Test






Irrigation


Irrigation




Oil Test



Domestic



Domestic

Unused
Public
Supply

Irrigation



Unused
Domestic

Unueed Pub-
lie Supply




Destroyed
Public
Supply

Destroyed
Public
Supply

Destroyed
Public.
Supply


F.G.S. Well W1668.
Cuttings from strata
penetrated between
220 feet and 995
feet on file with
Florida GeologicaL
Survey.











F.G.8. Well W221.
Cores on file with
Florida Geological
Survey.







Well never used
owing to high
salinity.








I Well never used
owing to high tur-
bidity of water.
Automatic water-
level recorder in-
stalled 2-25-46.
Well was abandoned
owing to high salin-
ity and is cemented
over.
Well was abandoned
owing to high salin-
ity and is cemented
over.
Well is abandoned
and cemented over.
Water analysis given
in U. S. Geological
Survey Water-supply
Paper 596-0, p. 224,
analysis 314.


* Choride analysis upplied by Agricultural Zxperiment Station,.
Lake Alfred, Florida.


- 12