<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Title Page
 Transmittal letter
 Contents
 Part 1 Dissolved phosphorus in...
 Part 1 Contents
 Part 1 Abstract and introducti...
 Part 1 Patterns of distribution...
 Part 1 Conclusions and referen...
 Part 1 Appendix
 Part II Petrology in Eocene limestones...
 Part II Nature of the problem
 Part II Methods of study
 Part II Data obtained
 Part II Interpretation
 Part II Bibliography


FGS ODUM



Miscellaneous studies ( FGS: Report of investigations 9 )
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PDF VIEWER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001193/00001
 Material Information
Title: Miscellaneous studies ( FGS: Report of investigations 9 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Report of investigations 9 )
Alternate Title: Dissolved Phosphorus in Florida Waters
Physical Description: 70 p. : illus., maps. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Geological Survey
Odum, Howard T, 1924-
Fisher, Alfred George
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1953
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Phosphorus   ( lcsh )
Limestone -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographies.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000955654
oclc - 06803441
notis - AER8283
lccn - a 54009412
System ID: UF00001193:00001

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

UF00001193 ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Transmittal letter
        Unnumbered ( 4 )
    Contents
        Unnumbered ( 5 )
    Part 1 Dissolved phosphorus in Florida waters, by Howard T. Odum
        Unnumbered ( 6 )
        Unnumbered ( 7 )
    Part 1 Contents
        Unnumbered ( 8 )
        Unnumbered ( 9 )
    Part 1 Abstract and introduction
        1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Part 1 Patterns of distribution of dissolved phosphorus
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Part 1 Conclusions and references
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Part 1 Appendix
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Part II Petrology in Eocene limestones in and aroundthe Citrus-Levy County area, Florida, by Alfred George Fischer
        Part II - i
        Part II - ii
        Part II - iii
        Part II - iv
    Part II Nature of the problem
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Part II Methods of study
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Part II Data obtained
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 48
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Part II Interpretation
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Part II Bibliography
        Page 70
        Copyright
            Copyright
        Page 69
Full Text




STATE OF FLORIDA

STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION

Charlie Bevis, Supervisor


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Herman Gunter, Director








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS

NO. 9


MISCELLANEOUS STUDIES


TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA

1953




E. O. PAINTER
PRINTING CO.
DE LAND, FLORIDA









AL,7
AGRI-
CULTUAI

FLORIDA STATE BOARD

OF

CONSERVATION


DAN McCARTY
Governor


R. A. GRAY
Secretary of State


NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture


J. EDWIN LARSON
Treasurer


THOMAS D. BAILEY
Superintendent Public Instruction


CLARENCE M. GAY
Comptroller


RICHARD ERVIN
Attorney General


CHARLIE BEVIS
Supervisor of Conservation







LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


lorida JeoloqicaifSurveiy

Cal&akassee

June 20, 1953


MR. CHARLIE BEVIS, Supervisor
FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA

SIR:
The Florida Geological Survey, through its cooperation with
other state agencies and with the universities of the Nation, is
able at moderate cost to have many excellent studies undertaken
and reports of the results of these prepared for publication by the
Survey.
These studies benefit the State by providing information on our
mineral resources and the author of the paper is provided funds
for a chosen research problem, the publication of which will make
him better known to his associates and may in some cases be used
as partial fulfillments of graduate degree requirements.
I am pleased to forward two papers herewith published as
Report of Investigations No. 9. One is entitled, "Dissolved Phos-
phorus in Florida Waters," and is written by Dr. Howard T. Odum,
Department of Biology, University of Florida. The other paper
was prepared by Dr. Alfred G. Fischer while attending Columbia
University, New York, and is entitled, "Petrology of Eocene Lime-
stones in and around the Citrus-Levy County Area, Florida." These
two papers compose the first of our "Miscellaneous studies."

Respectfully submitted,


HERMAN GUNTZR, Director
























CONTENTS


PART I Dissolved Phosphorus in Florida Waters.


PART II Petrology of Eocene Limestones in the Citrus-
Levy County Area, Florida


43











Part I


DISSOLVED PHOSPHORUS IN FLORIDA WATERS



By
HOWARD T. ODUM


Department of Biology
College of Arts and Sciences
University of Florida










January 9, 1953


Report to the Florida Geological Survey




























































































J






















TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract _.. -.... .... ..- .-........ -.............................-- 1
Introduction ---............................ ------ ..1
Purpose and scope of investigation ...-- -..-----..-- ...----..------ 2
Cooperation and acknowledgements ...- ...-- ..--. ---- 2
Previous investigations --.----- -----... ------... 3
Methods ------......-------.- .......-... .--... 4
Patterns of distribution of dissolved phosphorus ----..-----------.. 7
Dissolved phosphorus and geological formations ...--.-----..-----.. 7
Dissolved phosphorus and type of water .- ----.....---. ....----.. ---. 9
Dissolved phosphorus in Florida compared with other regions -- 18
Dissolved phosphorus and the origin of phosphate deposits 18
Dissolved phosphorus and potential fertility .---.-------.-------- 21
Dissolved phosphorus and pollution -.----....-...-...-......--------------- 28
Dissolved phosphorus and red tide .-...-------..--.. --------.. 25
Conclusions -..--.....-.......... .. ........-- ......- 28
References -........-...._....---... -----.--- ---.-----.--.--...-- 28
Appendix .....-....,...........-.. .....--- .....- --......-... ..-...30




















ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure Page
1. Surface phosphate-bearing formations .-- ..............--..........-------- 6
2. Dissolved phosphorus in the region of Gainesville, Florida, and
the phosphatic Hawthorn formation .--.. .....---......---...--------..... -- 7
3. Dissolved phosphorus in Florida waters .......-----..-...---..-..-....--... 8
4. Dissolved phosphorus in Lake Mize, Florida, during summer
stratification .. -- ..------- .... ...--......... ........-- ... ..---..----- 9
5. Dissolved phosphorus in the Peace River system ...............-....... 10
6. Dissolved phosphorus in the Devils Millhopper, Alachua County,
Florida- ........ ........-------------...... -------------------........... 11
7. Dissolved phosphorus in the Tampa Bay region, Florida -....--..--. 12
8. Dissolved phosphorus in the rivers and canals of south Florida,
during August, 1952 ......--..-.--.....--...-- ..------.---....... ........---.........------ 14
9. Dissolved phosphorus in the St. Johns River system .......------... .. 16

TABLES
Table Page
1. Technique test on known Standard Solutions ...-----...-.......----....-- 5
2. Phosphorus values in Silver Spring Run ..----.--.. --.-----........-----.. 5
3. Mean values of phosphorus in types of Florida waters ---..--...... 13
4. Solubility of inorganic phosphorus as a fraction of calcium
and acidity .. -- .. ..... ...--.--..................---............--..- 13
5. Regional comparisons of dissolved phosphorus in lakes ..--.--.... 15
6. Phosphorus in Florida lakes and streams .-.....---.--...--------........--.. 17
7. Phosphorus relative to red tide ....._ ............ ----------...... 26








DISSOLVED PHOSPHORUS IN FLORIDA WATERS

by
Howard T. Odum'

ABSTRACT

A basic survey has been made of the concentrations of dissolved
phosphorus in many types of Florida's surface waters. The ex-
tensive deposits of phosphate rock in Florida lead to unusually high
dissolved phosphorus contents in the streams and lakes which drain
these areas. Thus these waters are potentially of high fertility for
growth of aquatic organisms. Additional quantities of dissolved
phosphorus are being added by sewage and industry in some areas,
although little recognition has been made of the possibly large
biological effects that relatively small amounts of added phosphorus
can have on those areas which are not receiving drainage from
phosphate areas. The moderately low phosphorus content of basic
springs in contrast to acid surface streams suggests a controlling
role of pH in phosphorus solubility in Florida. It seems likely that
percolating rainwaters are continually concentrating phosphorus
in the layers just beneath the surface as the acid rainwater becomes
basic. The natural and artificial phosphates contributed to Florida's
surface streams hypothetically seem to be of the magnitude to con-
tribute to red tide phenomena and the rapid growth of water hya-
cinths in prescribed areas.

INTRODUCTION

Over the surface of the earth as a whole phosphorus is a scarce
substance and much in demand as it is an absolutely necessary
requirement for Man's civilization and indeed for all life. With-
out phosphorus no plants can grow and no food production is pos-
sible for Man or for fish and wildlife.
Phosphorus is a magic word in Florida because the extensive
natural phosphate rock deposits located near the surface have
directly and indirectly made many profound changes in the culture
of the State. Directly, benefits such as those developing from the
phosphate industry and from agricultural advances due to low
cost phosphate fertilizer have resulted. Indirectly, as the evidence
'The writer wishes to acknowledge the able assistance of Mr. Richard
Highton, Laboratory assistant.






2 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

in this report suggests, sports fishing, commercial fishing, red
tide, water hyacinth growth, and pollution are all related to the
distribution of phosphorus dissolved in the Florida fresh and
marine waters.

Purpose and Scope of Investigation

The purpose of this study has been to analyze representative
samples of all kinds of Florida surface waters for dissolved phos-
phorus and to determine what relationships there are between:
dissolved phosphorus and the type of geological rock formations
underlying the area; between dissolved phosphorus and the type of
body of water; between dissolved phosphorus in Florida and in
other regions of the world; between dissolved phosphorus and the
processes of formation of phosphate rock; between dissolved phos-
phorus and the growth of aquatic organisms such as plants and
fish; between dissolved phosphorus and the increasing problem of
pollution of streams and estuaries; and between dissolved phos-
phorus and the spectacular red tide.

Cooperation and Acknowledgements
The data and interpretations have resulted from the cooperation
between the Department of Biology of the University of Florida in
Gainesville and the Florida Geological Survey with the aid of
many other persons. The Department of Biology furnished the in-
vestigator and laboratory facilities. The Florida Geological Survey
furnished the financial support for the assistant Mr. Richard
Highton and for supplies. The Office of Naval Research through its
support of another project on the productivity of Florida Springs
provided considerable aid indirectly since it was possible to collect
water samples in the course of this work. Mr. A. 0. Patterson,
District Engineer, Surface Water Branch, United States Geological
Survey, Ocala, Florida, furnished a large series of samples collected
by his staff throughout Florida. Mr. Ellis Landquist furnished a
series from Peace River. Series of marine samples were received
from Mr. William Beck, Florida State Board of Health; Mr. David
Karraker, University of Florida; Dr. Harold Humm, and Dr.
Nelson Marshall, Oceanographic Institute, Florida State University;
Mr. Forrest G. Wood, Marineland; Mr. William Jennings, Florida
Game and Fresh-water Fish Commission; Mr. K. Hansen, Univer-
sity of Florida, Dr. Minter Westfall, University of Florida, Dr. J.
B. Lackey, Department of Sanitary Engineering, University of






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 9


Florida; Mr. Kirk Strawn, University of Texas. The study was
much aided by discussions with the above especially as indicated in
the text. I am grateful to Dr. A. P. Black, Mr. R. Highton, Dr. J.
B. Lackey, and Dr. E. B. Phelps, University of Florida; Dr. G. A.
Riley, Bingham Oceanographic Institute, Yale University; and
Dr. R. O. Vernon, Florida Geological Survey for comment and
criticisms on the manuscript.

Previous Investigations
Over the world as a whole a very large number of studies have
established the geochemical behavior of the element and importance
of phosphorus to growth on land and in the lakes and ocean. Current
knowledge on this may be found in Hutchinson (1952) and Riley
(1951).
In Florida although much work has been done on phosphorus
in land deposits and its behavior in terrestrial agriculture, relative-
ly little knowledge has been accumulated about the phosphorus in
water. Routine analyses of waters have not included phosphorus
primarily because in contrast to the usual elements analyzed it is
present usually in small quantities, much less than a part per
million. However, it is this low concentration that makes the
element important. Along with dissolved nitrogen dissolved phos-
phorus has been shown to be the usual limiting factor to growth
in waters in, other regions.

Specht (1950) has published a series of analyses of phosphorus
dissolved in fresh water of Peace River in a report on phosphorus
pollution. Additional analyses of this river have been made by
Florida State Board of Health but have not been published.
Some data on the estuarine and marine waters from the Miami
area have been published by Miller (1952) and from waters as-
sociated with the red tide phenomenon by Ketchum and Keen
(1948).

A general survey of the phosphorus over the whole State has
been needed in order that the values in special situations could have
comparative meaning. The results and principles of general sur-
veys of this sort which have been done in Wisconsin by Juday,
Birge, Kemmerer and Robinson (1928) and in marine waters by
Redfield, Smith and Ketchum (1937) can not be directly applied
to Florida because the State has extensive rock phosphate deposits






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


and Wisconsin does not. In turn the study of phosphorus behavior
in an area where phosphorus minerals occur abundantly can con-
tribute to the general understanding of this critical chemical ele-
ment the world over.

Methods
Samples were collected in 100 to 400 cc. soft glass bottles with
vinylite lined plastic caps. About two-thirds of the samples col-
lected received several drops of chloroform in order to reduce the
fixation by adsorption and bacteria of the dissolved phosphorus on
the walls of the bottles. Where the quantity of phosphorus present
is in concentrations of the magnitude of .020 ppm., the loss to bottle
walls has been shown to be appreciable (Harvey, 1948). Phos-
phorus is present in waters as fine particulate matter, as dissolved
organic compounds, and as dissolved inorganic phosphate. Except
in a few cases no attempt was made to distinguish between these
fractions because the partition of phosphorus changes rapidly
due to the action of organisms in the sample bottles. Thus with
the delay inherent in the sampling, it was only feasible to make
determinations of total phosphorus in most cases. The total phos-
phorus is of primary interest because in the course of one day the
phosphorus in a natural body of water may fluctuate between an
inorganic fraction and an organic fraction during phytoplankton
plant photosynthesis and decay.

Samples of 100 cubic centimeters were digested with acids over
a hot plate to convert all fractions into inorganic phosphorus, a pro-
cedure used by Robinson and Kemmerer (1930). When this solu-
tion was diluted to 50 cubic centimeters, a blue color developed pro-
portional to the phosphorus content. The intensity of color after
five minutes was measured in a Klett Summerson colorimeter. A
graph was prepared of the color intensity of known standards that
had been treated in the same way as the samples. The concentration
of phosphorus in unknown samples was obtained from this graph.
With homogeneous materials this method has been reported with
an accuracy of reproducibility of 5-10%. For a single series the
data in Table 1 and the data for Silver Springs (Table 2) indicate
a similar accuracy in these analyses. However for heterogeneous
materials and for the lower concentrations it is likely that the
errors are considerably greater. Fortunately the types of differ-
ences discussed below seem to be much greater than can be ac-
counted for as experimental error by the largest estimate.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 9


TABLE 1
TECHNIQUE TEST ON KNOWN STANDARD SOLUTIONS
Known concentration: .033 .033 .033
Date of series: July 12 July 13 July 13
Procedure: Without Without With
Digestion Digestion Digestion
Analyses: .032 .036 .032
.033 .040 .035
.032 .036 .035
.026 .030 .035
.032 .028 .032
.033 .038 .037
.035 .028 .033
.030 .033 .030
.035 .030 .033
.038 .034 .035
Mean: .0326 .0333 .0337
Standard Deviation .00327 .00421 .00205
With the amount of vari-
ation above, 95% of
analyses made will be
within the following
percent of the correct
value: 22% 29% 14%
Test of Phosphorus loss by digestion over hot plate ppm P
Digestion continued until boiling stops ..-----. .....---------..120
Digestion continued until boiling stops .-...--- __---------..127
Digestion continued 40 seconds after boiling stops .....125






TABLE 2
PHOSPHORUS VALUES IN SILVER SPRING RUN
August 9, 1952
ppm P
Inorg. P Total P
Boil .041 .047
1/8 mile .045
1/2 mile .045 .047
1 mile .040 .046
1 1/2 mile .051 .053
2 miles .043 .046
2 1/2 miles .042 .046
3 miles .041 .041
4 miles .040 .048
5 miles .043 .046
Mean .0431 .0466
Standard Deviation .00332 .00307
95% of analyses can be expected to have
less error than: 15% 13%
Organic phosphorus .0035 ppm 7.5% of Total






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 2


PHOSPHATIC FORMAL


Figure 1.-Surface phosphate-bearing formations. (Position of formations
after Cooke, 1945)


In waters that are highly saline the blue color has been shown
to be depressed by some interaction with the salts (Robinson and
Thomson 1948). This error is usually compensated by analyzing
standards to which low phosphorus sea water has been added and
deducing a correction usually between 1.1 to 1.35. In this survey
a correction of 1.2 was used for saline waters. However for these
very varied waters of contrasting qualitative salt compositions and
varying salinities, considerable error has necessarily been incorp-
orated by such a procedure. Thus the error is possibly 20%
greater for saline than for fresh waters. The analyses include
any small quantities of arsenic which may act with phosphorus in
this test.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 9


PATTERNS OF DISTRIBUTION OF DISSOLVED PHOSPHORUS

Dissolved Phosphorus and Geological Formations

In general most of the dissolved contents of waters are derived
from the rocks over which the waters flow. Thus it is a reasonable
hypothesis to expect the dissolved phosphorus in waters to cor-
respond to the type of underlying rock.
The phosphate bearing formations in Florida are primarily
the Miocene Hawthorn formation, Alachua formation, and Duplin
marl and the Pliocene Bone Valley formation. The areas of out-
crops of these rocks in Florida are shown in figure 1.

The streams that cross these formations and the total phos-
phorus content of their waters in parts per million are shown in
figures 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9. In much of Florida a close correlation
exists between the phosphate areas and the dissolved phosphorus in


/ Union Co.


Block
Creek


Co.
(5a,


Clay Co.


013


A-/


-Lake Santo Fe


SIm
S Alacho CGo.
MILES
0 0 '....


( Hawthorn


Levy Co.

formation


V Duplin marl


Putnam Co.


Oklowaha R.


IMarion Go.

i


r a.141
Orange Lake


7<43


Figure 2.-Dissolved phosphorus in the region of Gainesville, Florida,
and the phosphatic Hawthorn formation. (Position of formations after
Cooke, 1945)


d






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


the waters. The correlation seems good in the north central Florida
area and in the Bone Valley phosphate mining district in central
Florida. Some relatively high values that are not associated with
phosphatic geological formations are due to pollution. Some de-
posits are not crossed by major streams and therefore correlative
data are lacking on these. The analyses for Alachua County, figure
2, show the manner in which the dissolved phosphate reflects the
geology. In figure 3, lines of equal phosphate concentration have
been drawn over the whole State much as one would draw lines
of equal height on a topographical map. These are of course ap-
proximations but serve to emphasize the superposition of areas
of high dissolved phosphate concentration over known phosphate
deposits.

Deevey and Bishop (1940) had shown in Connecticut that crys-


ppm P


.050 .-....
.100.- "
.50 00--.
1.000.....
5.000......----











S..


L] ~bJ~.


Figure 3.-Dissolved phosphorus in Florida Waters.


I---.-._1U(r
IIU
~tYI;-~L~CC~-~I~






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 9


LAKE MIZE, FLORIDA 26 AUG. 1952
PPM P
.050 .100
0.'-o -- -- ,1-- .... -- -- -- 1 --
0.




0. 50.0

TOTAL
INORGANIC
90.
Figure 4.-Dissolved phosphorus in Lake Mize, Florida during summer
stratification.

talline rock areas possess slightly lower dissolved phosphate con-
tents than the central lowland sedimentary area. These results con-
firm in a striking way the general principle of the geologic control
of phosphate content of the waters, and it is possible that future
prospecting may be facilitated by analyses of dissolved phosphates
in stream systems.2 It has long been known that dissolved phosphor-
us is so scarce in the ocean that it is rapidly removed by phytoplank-
ton and lost to the deeper water through sedimentation of organic
detritus so that the upper ocean waters are maintained in an im-
poverished condition receiving a little phosphorus for growth only
from turbulent exchange of the element brought up from the deeper
waters and in from rivers (Riley, 1951). The analyses of estuarine
waters of Florida further document this pattern by showing that
Charlotte Harbor and Tampa Bay are one of the richest phosphatic
areas and receive more dissolved phosphate from streams than any
other estuary in Florida.

Dissolved Phosphorus and the Type of Water

The essential features of the distribution and circulation of
phosphorus within streams, lakes, ground waters, and estuaries
have. been established in other regions (Juday, Birge, Kemmerer,
and Robinson 1928; Mortimer 1941-1942; Hutchinson 1941; New-
combe 1940). In general, streams and ground waters have been
2It is amusing to remember the excitement that arose in the laboratory
when waters from the Econlochatchee River were found to possess relatively
enormous phosphorus concentrations although no phosphate districts were in
the drainage. It was learned that a recent shift in the disposition of the
Orlando sewage into this river accounted for these values.







10 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Lake Hancock
.49.ALulu Lake
N .39 .190, -
T Bear Branc 6 39 190
j .085

.9
MILES 4
0 10 20

'.5

Peace River

5.5


Horse Creek 8
Charlie Creek

ppm P
.273
.2



067



.423

Charlotte Harbor
.012
.073.023



.02 Caloosahotchee River



Sonibel Island


Figure 5.-Dissolved phosphorus in the Peace River
system. Data obtained in cooperation with Mr. Ellis
Landquist.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 9


found to contain moderate amounts of dissolved phosphorus derived
from the rock strata in an inorganic form. In streams with little
or no plankton and attached plants the volume of water is large
compared to the number of plants that derive phosphorus for
growth and thus there is more phosphorus than is needed in plant
metabolism. But the situation shifts when these waters flow into
lakes where the relatively still waters in the upper levels support
microscopic floating plants which take up the phosphorus and con-
vert it into the phosphorus of organic matter. Then the lack of
phosphorus often becomes limiting to plant growth. When these
tiny single celled plants are eaten by microscopic plankton animals,
the phosphorus may be transferred into other organisms and
eventually returned to the water as dissolved organic phosphorus or
deposited on the bottom as particulate phosphorus. Thus the in-
organic phosphorus in shallow lakes and in the upper levels of
deeper lakes is small and the organic phosphorus is only a little
more. But in the bottom waters of the deeper lakes much larger
concentrations of phosphorus are found during the summer strati-
fication. Here the chemically reduced conditions associated with
lower oxidation reduction potential and sometimes lower pH and
the absence of green plants cause more phosphorus to remain in
solution both as dissolved inorganic phosphorus and dissolved
organic phosphorus. Thus the processes within the lake remove
phosphorus from water as it flows through the lake and deposit it
in the lake's lower waters and sediments. It has been shown thus

ppm P Surface stream
.236 9
i


\-- /Recharge?
Hawthorn .081, .060, .053
formation Springs in
sides




Devils Millhopper
Alachua Co.
Figure 6.-Dissolved phosphorus in the Devils Millhopper, Alachua Co.,
Florida.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Hillsborough R


Alofia R.


ppm P 900 10 0 6
N .280

vd ps i Little Mnaategi
the fall, 1952.
rivers and sMantee R.
/s\ .0' 45/




MILES
M I .
0 10 to

Figure 7.-Dissolved phosphorus in the Tampa Bay region, Florida. Data
obtained in cooperation with Dr. Nelson Marshall, Florida State University in
the fall, 1952.

that lakes are a phosphorus filter as in River Sussa, Denmark (Berg,
1945). In a similar manner, when phosphorus laden river waters
reach the sea the phosphorus is removed and deposited on the bot-
tom of the ocean in the sediments. Estuarine waters are zones of
mixing where the phosphorus content is intermediate between
rivers and sea.

With the above introductory account of the occurrence and
distribution of phosphorus in natural waters, it is interesting to
compare data from Florida as summarized in tables 2, 3, 5, 6, 7. It


12







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 9


will be noticed that streams are high and in fact enormously laden
with phosphorus in the phosphate districts. The lake waters at
the surface have smaller amounts than the streams because of the
filtering action of the lakes. Estuarine waters contain more phos-
phorus than open, water, as reported in the literature, but somewhat
less than the.streams from which the phosphate is derived. In com-
parison to lakes, streams and estuaries which receive high values
in phosphate areas, the spring waters have moderate values irre-
spective of the area in which they occur. As shown in the Silver
Springs analyses the springs have primarily inorganic phosphate,
the organic phosphorus having been removed by the soils and rocks
of the recharge areas. The spring waters in these limestone areas
are basic so that little calcium phosphate is dissolved and very
little can be held in solution. Thus pH is critical in regulating the
amounts of dissolved phosphate of inorganic form but not that of
the organic phosphorus. The solubility of calcium phosphate under
a variable pH is represented in Table 4. However, calcium phos-
phate is found in nature usually in some type of apatite mineral,
a complex chemical composition, upon which no such solubility
tables are available.

TABLE 3
MEAN VALUES OF PHOSPHORUS IN TYPES OF FLORIDA WATERS
Water Types / ppm Total P
Phosphate District Other
Streams .876 (18) ----.046 (44)
Estuaries .269 (2) .._.044 (21)
Lakes .290 (8) .038 (31)
Springs .061 (5) _045 (27)
(The number of different bodies of water average in each case is indicated by
the figure in parentheses).

TABLE 4
SOLUBILITY OF INORGANIC PHOSPHORUS AS A FUNCTION OF
CALCIUM AND ACIDITY. (Based on theoretical data of Green and Holmes
(1947) for 68 deg. F.)
Calcium ppm
.4 4. 12. 20. 40. 80.
Acidity 6.0 Greater I 33.
as 6.5 Than I 33. 12. 4.
pH 7.0 40. ppm 10. 4. 1.6 .33
7.5 8. 1.6 .66 .3 .10
8.0 2.3 .33 .16 .066 .026
8.5 27. .33 .16 .066 .026 .007


Dissolved phosphorus in ppm






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 8.-Dissolved phosphorus in the rivers and canals of south Florida
during August 1952.

Among the lakes there are great ranges of phosphate contents
just as there are great ranges of conditions such as hardness, car-
bon dioxide and color. The vertical pattern of phosphorus distri-
bution within Lake Mize, Florida, is similar to that of Lake Mary,
Wisconsin, although the values are much higher for these two lakes
than for most of the other lakes reported in Wisconsin or elsewhere







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 9


(see figure 4 and Juday and Birge, 1931). These lakes are similar
in being deep soft seepage lakes with high phosphates possibly due
to low pH. Lake Mary, Wisconsin, is very atypical. It is not known
whether the stratification of phosphorus in Lake Mize is typical for
Florida's relatively few deep lakes.

TABLE 5
REGIONAL COMPARISONS OF DISSOLVED PHOSPHORUS IN LAKES
(Modified from Hutchinson, 1937, 1952)


HUMID CLIMATE; EXTERNAL DRAINAGE:
N. E. Wisconsin (Birge and Juday)
Connecticut (Deevey)
Eastern Highland
Western Highland
Central Lowland
Japan (Yoshimura)
Austrian Alps (Ruttner)
Sweden (Lohammar)
Uplands
South
North
North Germany
Florida
Phosphate districts
Other districts
Gran Chaco, Paraguay (Carter and Beadle)


Mean

.023
.011
.013
.020
.015
.020
.038
.026
.024
.077
.290
.038


ppm P


Range


.008-.140
.004-.021
.007-.031
.010-.031
.004-.044
.000-.046
.002-.162
.004-.092
.007-.064
.005-.600
.100-.660
.000-.197
.5 -1.5


ARID CLIMATE; INTERNAL DRAINAGE; SALINE LAKES:


Nevada (Hutchinson)
Aegean (Stankovic)
Central Africa (Beadle)
South Africa (Hutchinson, Pickford, Schuurman)
Indian Tibet (Hutchinson)
Owen's Lake, California
Salt Range, Punjab (Hutchinson)
Goodenough Lake, British Columbia


.90 .05-3.0
.... .097-.45
.16 -.76
.05-2.0
.023-.30
76.
.17
208.


The data in Table 6 indicate that some of the lowest values are
found in waters where attached littoral plants have possibly had
a r61e in depleting the waters such as in marshy pools surrounding
lakes, pools along roads, and small lakes without appreciable drain-
age in the sandhills. The action of a lake in filtering phosphorus
is illustrated in figure 2.
Data from analyses of water entering Orange Lake from the
north and discharging eastward into the Oklawaha River show
a marked decrease in phosphorus content. Also in figure 2, the
waters entering Newnans Lake, the moderate sized lake just east
of Gainesville, show a drop from a phosphorus content of .247 to
.117 ppm.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


locksonville


lower St.Johns


sources


Atlantic Ocean


.086


seWOa


Econ


0 10 20 3
MILES


upper St. Johns R


Figure 9.-Dissolved phosphorus in the St. Johns River system.


ppm P




V


REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 9


The general impression that one obtains, that water filled sinks
are often fertile, is supported by the analyses of phosphorus. Ap-
parently the water filling the basins are phosphorus laden in con-
trast to the deeper artesian aquifers as represented by the large
springs which have moderate phosphate values.

TABLE 6
PHOSPHORUS IN FLORIDA LAKES AND STREAMS


Cases Mean


Grassy, sand bordered lakes
Flatwoods ponds
Sinks
Lakes with organic mud borders and
extensive water hyacinths
Larger lakes receiving sewage
(Jessup, Monroe, Griffin, Lulu,
RCeedy, Tohopekaliga)
Larger lakes not receiving sewage or
\phosphate district drainage
\Geneva, Brooklyn, Kingsley,
Eustis, Ola, Weir)
Streams:
Small streams, not polluted, not
draining phosphatic formations
Small, humic watered creeks, draining
phosphatic formations, no
pollution, generally acid
Streams not draining phosphate
formations but receiving sewage


ppm P
Range


6 .008 .001- .014
4 .151 .030- .43
4 .320 )228-1.01
5 .298 .100- .1


6 .185


.007


18 .019

10 .413
7 .836


.042- .49


.000- .014



.003- .034

.141-1.5
.038-3.1


The classification of analyses according to the type of water as
given in Table 6 suggests some relationship between the percentage
.of dissolved phosphate and the type of lake water but a general
classification of the water types biologically is one outstanding
problem not yet completed. In Table 6, it should be noted that the
high phosphate contents are found in small acid streams which had
relatively short surface courses since falling as rain. The more
basic waters which have received ground waters and salts have
lower values depending of course on the rocks through which the
water passed.
Ohle (1934) found higher values in German dystrophic waters
(brown waters) than in clear waters. Similar results noted in
Florida are suggested as due to the soft acid nature and to the
course of these waters. Also Barbier and Maroger (1950) have
shown that colloidal humates increase the amount of calcium phos-
phate that is dissolved by binding action. Humates are brown mo-


Standing Waters:






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


lecular and colloidal breakdown products of the lignin that in natur-
al wood holds the fibers together and in Florida stain many streams
brown.

Dissolved Phosphorus in Florida Compared with Other Regions

Since Florida has such large resources of phosphate rock, it is
reasonable to expect Florida's waters to contain on the average
higher phosphorus concentrations than most other regions of the
world. G. E. Hutchinson, in an unpublished manuscript, collected
data on dissolved phosphorus in lakes to which averages of Florida
data have been added and both are presented as Table 5. This table
indicates that Florida has higher dissolved phosphorus concentra-
tions than the rest of the world with humid climate, with the pos-
sible exception of those districts elsewhere that indicate major
phosphate deposits. Of those analyzed only the salt lakes in arid
parts of the world show higher phosphate contents than those of
the phosphate districts of Florida. It is interesting that the areas
that are most similar to Florida are the sedimentary North Ger-
many area, which resembles Florida in some respects such as
elevation and general geological structure, and the Gran Chaco
of Paraguay, which has a somewhat similar climate. In contrast,
waters in crystalline rock areas are low and the older and more
modified sedimentary areas are intermediate in dissolved phos-
phorus concentrations such as shown for Connecticut and Sweden
in Table 5. It is likely that other areas of the world possessing
phosphate districts, such as North Africa, Idaho, Esthonia, Egypt,
etc., (Johnson, 1952), would similarly possess high dissolved
phosphorus.

Dissolved Phosphorus and the Origin of Phosphate Deposits
No wholly satisfactory explanation has become accepted for
the origin of Florida's extensive and varied phosphate deposits.
The status of knowledge on this is discussed in detail by Vernon
(1943, 1951). Apparently a combination of initial deposition of
phosphatic minerals, bones and teeth in marine and terrestrial
sediments followed by a possible later concentration of these parts
of the sediments have produced the existing deposits. Although
there is little evidence of phosphate deposition during the Recent,
other than at bird and mammal rookeries, following the hypothesis
of uniformitarianism we look at contemporary Florida for answer
to the processes in past geologic time for there is little evidence






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 9


that Florida is geologically much different now than it was in the
Tertiary times.
An examination of the data on dissolved phosphate from the
present Florida waters suggests two things: First, the marine
estuarine deposits now forming off some rivers are forming in the
presence of relatively high phosphate concentrations so that these
sediments may be expected to contain a proportionately high phos-
phate content. Miller (1952) has shown for Biscayne Bay in the
Miami area that the ratio maintained between dissolved phosphorus
and the sedimentary phosphorus is about 1/1000. The high phos-
phorus contents of the rivers moving into sea water are possibly
supersaturated in relation to the high calcium, basic, ocean waters
as estimated theoretically by Dietz, Emery, and Shepard (1942).
Second, the highest dissolved phosphorus contents have been found
where soft acid streams crossed phosphatic formations suggesting
that acidity regulates the amount of phosphorus which becomes
dissolved.
Since the basic spring waters are moderately low in dissolved
phosphorus, even in phosphatic districts, it seems that phosphorus
may become dissolved in the surface drainage water but becomes re-
moved again as the ground water passes through deeper strata.
This suggests a mechanism by which the deposits already rich in
phosphorus now found most abundantly a few feet below the sur-
face have been enriched. First the phosphorus is dissolved and then
redeposited'as the water becomes more basic on reaching the deeper
ground water levels and as the initial carbon dioxide acidity is
neutralized with the limestone. Those acid surface waters moving
down surface streams to the sea gradually become basic but much
of the dissolved phosphorus by this time is converted into the
organic phosphorus of plant and animal matter in particulate,
colloidal, and dissolved form so that it remains in solution in estu-
arine waters for some time in spite of high pH. Thus the difference
observed between the high phosphorus content of acid surface
water and the low phosphorus content of more basic ground waters
indicate that phosphorus leached out of one layer can be precipitated
in the rocks through which it may pass or that the ground water was
relatively free of phosphorus at the recharge area.
That enrichment of phosphorus may occur in existing forma-
tions due to the above causes does not imply that the present phos-
phatic formations are themselves older formations concentiate'd by
leaching. The Alachua formation of Florida (Vernon, 1951) is


19






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


typical of those phosphate deposits formed by the fixation of phos-
phatic acid solutions through reaction with carbonate rocks. Ver-
non (1951) using detailed stratigraphic data from Citrus and
Levy counties, Florida, found that Miocene phosphatic formations
(Hawthorn and Duplin marl) were probably laid down in shallow
seas adjacent to a land mass upon which the phosphate of the
Alachua formation was forming. He feels that the high phosphate
content of these formations was derived from a high dissolved
phosphate level in the sea and adjacent land at the time of for-
mation.
The solubilities of calcium phosphate in fresh water of varying
acidity shown in Table 4, have been modified from Green and
Holmes (1947). These solubilities are based on the theoretical
equation for the solution of excess tricalcium phosphate under
equilibrium conditions, and in the ionic strength of fresh water.
Although these assumptions rarely correspond exactly to natural
conditions, the important role of pH and calcium concentration is
demonstrated nevertheless. Acid soft water streams have capacity
for taking up very large concentrations of phosphorus mineral
matter through which they pass whereas basic hard waters such
as in Florida's ground waters, even at equilibrium can hold less
than one part per million. The values for the large typical Florida
Springs of .020-.123 ppm P with pH ranges mostly between 7.3
and 8.3 with calcium concentrations 30 to 70 ppm are only slightly
above those predicted by Table 4.

For salt waters the assumption used in calculating these data
do not apply, for solubilities of many substances in saline waters
are greater due to the greater ionic strength. The greater ionic
strength in part counteracts the effects of high calcium in sea
water. However, from similar calculations based on greater ionic
strength Dietz, Emery, and Shepard (1942) found that the ocean
is possibly saturated with phosphorus. The unusually high phos-
phorus values reported in Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor are
of course total values including organic and colloidal fractions.
Note that if some source of acidity such as industrial pollution
should lower the pH much greater phosphate solubilities are
possible and although later neutralized this mechanism would
permit the introduction of high phosphate concentrations into or-
ganic fractions and into colloidal and soluble form. Bear Branch,
which receives wastes from a superphosphate plant near the town
of Bartow, was reported by Mr. Ellis Landquist in his biological


20






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 9


study of the Peace River during 1950-51 to possess a pH range from
2.5 to 6. Such acidity accounts for the dissolved phosphate contents
up to 177 ppm phosphorus in this branch. Although subsequently
diluted by the Peace Creek, the high values of 5 ppm which per-
sisted in the Peace Creek below this point (see figure 5) seem to
have been due to this pollution since other streams in the system
at the same time had dissolved phosphorus values ranging .5 to
3 ppm.
Some observations made of the dissolved phosphorus in streams
in the Devils Millhopper, a large sink near Gainesville, may be
interpreted as in agreement with the hypothesis of concentration
discussed above. Several small springs issue from the sides of
the Millhopper and one stream falls into this sink from the surface.
These flows rush down the sides and out through a fissure in the
bottom of this 80-foot hole. The sink penetrates the Hawthorn
formation which is heavily phosphatic. The data presented as
figure 6 indicate that the water which has passed through the
ground has a lower phosphate content than the water that flows
in over the top of the sink. If surface water does lose its
phosphorus upon passing through rock, there should be a concen-
tration of phosphate not far below the soil surface in areas of
ground water recharge. Such a concentration has not been de-
termined, but may be present.

Dissolved Phosphorus and Potential Fertility
As indicated in the introduction, all life requires phosphorus
as a basic chemical material for its metabolic processes. About two-
tenths of one per cent of phosphorus is required to make chromo-
somes in the cells and to make coenzymes and other energy trans-
forming substances. In most aquatic environments it has been
substantiated by many workers (Hutchinson, 1952) that the growth
of plants, and the subsequent growth of animals that derive nu-
trition from these plants, is limited by the amounts of phosphorus
and nitrogen available and utilized by the plant. In fresh waters
of many tropical areas blue-green algae are abundant and fix nitro-
gen from the air to help supply the nitrogen requirements, and
thus cause phosphorus to be the limiting factor in plant growth.
Hutchinson (1937), in discussing lakes in desert regions considered
values of phosphorus over .050 as certainly not limiting. There is
some evidence that this is true in Florida, for continual blooms of
blue-green algae through the long summer have been reported to


21






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


me in personal communication by J. C. Dickinson and in the
monograph on the St. Johns River by E. L. Pierce (1947). There
are of course many other factors affecting the biological produc-
tivity of waters and where phosphorus and nitrogen are not so
scarce as to limit growth, these other factors will determine the
production of protoplasm by the natural community of organisms.
For example, trace elements such as copper and cobalt may be
limiting.
The phosphorus distribution is not expected to be the same as
the distribution of high production but the dissolved phosphorus
can be thought of as a measure of potential productivity and fer-
tility. The phrase potential fertility is used in the sense of phos-
phorus availability. Other things being equal regions of high
phosphorus might be proposed as regions of high fertility. This
is very important to Florida. The growths of microscopic plants
that support fish and other fauna are fundamental to the pros-
perity of commercial and sports fishing, both of which are very im-
portant to Florida's tourist trade. Someone with experience in
other regions quickly gains the impression that the waters of the
State are fertile and contain much life. Indeed, with a very high
annual sunshine average and with its waters carrying considerable
phosphorus, one suspects that productivities may be high on a
world basis. There are little data as yet to test such a hypothesis,
but it can be said that the potential fertility of the State, as meas-
ured by the dissolved phosphorus, is very large.
Although a high fertility is generally a good thing from man's
point of view in that more life is produced in the lakes, streams and
estuarine waters, it is not necessarily so. If the fertility results in
the proliferation of some objectionable organism or does not pro-
duce the desired type of organism, then either less fertility is
needed or some control needs to be exercised over the type of
organisms which are permitted to make use of the potential fer-
tility. The clogging of waters by water hyacinths is an example
of an undesirable result of high fertility. Another is the over-
production of undesirable fish species in some waters at the ex-
pense of species desired for food or sport.
Superficially the distribution of high potential fertility as meas-
ured by high concentrations of dissolved phosphorus in figure 3
suggests a possible relationship to the areas of water hyacinth
nuisance. Certainly, rapid growths of these plants occur in the St.
Johns, Peace and Suwannee river systems and in the lakes of the


22






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 9


phosphate district such as Newnan Lake and Orange Lake in
Alachua County. Indeed, this possible correlation should be in-
vestigated and comparative growth of hyacinths measured in dif-
ferent waters.
Much work has been done in ponds of other areas to increase
the fertility of water by artificial fertilization similar to that done
in terrestrial agriculture. However, nothing has been done to work
out a method for decreasing the potential fertility of a water
should it be deemed advisable. Actually this is a major engineering
need since great sums of money are spent each year killing algae
blooms in lakes in which clear water is desired rather than rapid
production. The approach to the problem of using chemicals is
rather a backwards approach for whenever blooms of algae or rafts
of hyacinths are killed, the phosphorus within them is released
into the water and into the lake muds so that the remaining or-
ganisms grow even faster. A much better approach would be one
designed to remove the phosphorus. Commercially this might be
possible since the dissolved quantities involved are so small, being
usually much less than one part per million. As yet, no practical
solution seems to be at hand. Perhaps a biological filter is feasible
in which phosphorus and plant growth are removed from water
running through a lake, with resultant improvement downstream,
or perhaps ferrous or aluminum salts could be added to remove
the phosphorus as a precipitate.
An understanding of the quality and quantity of the aquatic
production under various situations in Florida is needed. A con-
certed research program should be made to uncover the basic fac-
tors and their interactions, which control this natural aquatic agri-
culture.
It is likely that phosphorus fertilization of the Florida waters
which contain more than .050 ppm total phosphorus will not in-
crease biological production because it is probably not limiting at
these concentrations.

Dissolved Phosphorus and Pollution

Some types of pollution produce extreme effects on the potential
fertility of Florida's waters by adding large amounts of dissolved
phosphorus relative to the amounts naturally present. By pollution
is here meant the addition of materials to a natural body of water
as a result of man's activity so that the conditions of the lake,


23







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


stream, or estuary are markedly changed with respect to the
quality and quantity of biological growth. By this definition a pol-
lution may not necessarily be bad if the man made changes are not
undesirable to the long range welfare of all concerned. However,
pollution by changing the natural situation often restricts the
variety of organisms and often markedly affects the populations
of fish organisms in indirect ways by affecting their plant and
animal foods.
In Florida two sources are at present increasing the dissolved
phosphorus in Florida waters: Industrial and municipal sewage
and the byproducts of the phosphate industry. Phelps and Barry
(1950) have summarized sources of pollution in Florida. When
sewage is passed through chemical treatment many of its ob-
jectionable properties, such as disease organisms and organic
matter, are removed, which if dumped directly in streams would
use up tht dissolved oxygen and kill the organisms. However, the
very high content of phosphorus in urine and in the solid materials
of raw sewage is not completely removed by sewage treatment
plants. By the time the decomposing raw sewage reaches the plant
there is already a high concentration of phosphorus in the dissolved
inorganic form. Apparently this inorganic fraction passes through
the plant without much loss. Raw sewage entering the university
sewage plant in Gainesville, April 9, 1953, possessed a dissolved
inorganic phosphorus content of 2.1 ppm. The final effluent emerg-
ing from the same plant contained 1.9 ppm dissolved inorganic
phosphorus. These values in comparison to the natural concentra-
tions in most streams are enormous.

A sample of the phosphorus developed from Lakeland sewage
and taken out of Lake Hancock in Saddle Creek and analyzed was
2.0 ppm. and a sample of the Orlando sewage taken in the Econ-
lochhatchee Creek analyzed 3.2 ppm. Standard engineering prac-
tice has not recognized these relatively small phosphorus quantities
on a weight basis as being a pollution. Considering the possible
stimulus to undesirable growths or undesirable species, it is clear
that this may at times be harmful although a general increase in
fertility is promoted in some fish culture. With the increasing popu-
lation of Florida and the increased dumping of sewage into
Florida's i relatively small surface streams, the result of this practice
must be studied. It is certainly not possible to say from the avail-
able evidence whether the character of Florida's freih waters and
estuaries, which are an important resource, are being markedly


24




t-x


REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 9 25

changed and if so whether for the better or worse by these large
changes in potential fertility. It is, however, important that the
total biological character of the major water types be established
before and after such increase in potential fertility to determine if
there is a resultant increased hyacinth growth, game fish, or algae
blooms in previously clear waters.

The phosphate industry particularly in the Peace and Alafia
river systems is discharging phosphate slimes and, in the case of
Bear Branch, Bartow, Florida, acid waters high in dissolved phos-
phorus into a river which must already have had high concentra-
tions because of the underlying rock formations. A high original
phosphorus concentration is indicated by the streams in the Peace
and Alafia river area which do not receive industrial wastes but
have very high values although not as great as the Peace and Alafia
proper. It seems likely that the pollution somewhat accentuates
the addition of phosphorus. The data in figure 5 support this.
Relatively undisturbed Charlie Creek, for example, has a lower
phosphorus value than the streams receiving wastes. It is unlikely
that at these high levels phosphorus is limiting in the Peace River
or that the potential fertility is in any way realized. But the effect
on the fertility of Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor is probably be-
ing increased by the increase in phosphorus going down these rivers.
Phosphorus also goes down the Peace River through Lake Hancock
from Lakeland sewage. The problem of the possible effects of
colloidal and slime phosphorus on river organisms is a separate
problem that is being studied by Mr. Ellis Landquist of the Uni-
versity of Florida.

Dissolved Phosphorus and the Red Tide

If there are increasing quantities of phosphate going down
some rivers, the question is raised whether this additional fertility
is increasing the incidence of the red tide offshore. The so called
red tide is a bloom of a microorganism Gymnodinium brevis in
marine waters which becomes so concentrated that fish are killed in
large numbers and are washed up in great quantities on the beaches
(Gunter et al, 1948).

Much work has been done to show that similar phenomena
occur in many parts of the world at widely timed intervals.
Walton Smith (1949) postulated that the occurrence is due to nu-
trients becoming available, especially phosphorus. Ketchum and






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Keen (1948) found unaccountably high total phosphorus concentra-
tions in the 1947 growth off the coast at Sarasota. As yet, however,
there is no definite proof that high phosphorus concentrations are
required for red tide blooms.
Slobodkin (1952) has postulated that the relatively frequent
red tide occurrence off the lower Florida west coast is a result of
rains and northeast winds which carry low salinity waters con-
taining a few of the Gymnodinium organisms and nutrients out over
the saltier open waters where they develop a bloom and then drift
northward and shoreward in the prevailing Gulf drift. The mechan-
ism of this drift was demonstrated by E. L. Pierce (1951). Specht
(1950) has shown high phosphorus concentrations entering Char-
lotte Harbor from the Peace River. From the data in figures 3 and
7 it is suggested that the Peace and Alafia rivers are sources, of
larger nutrient concentrations than the Caloosahatchee and Okee-
chobee which have smaller amounts of dissolved phosphorus. The
Caloosahatchee river crosses phosphatic formations but is derived
largely from phosphorus poor Lake Okeechobee and is not so acid
when it crosses phosphorus rocks. A charge of phosphate laden
low salinity water might accumulate in Tampa Bay or Charlotte
Harbor and then be blown out to sea as a fairly intact mass of
water before mixing.
The data in Table 7 suggest that adequate phosphorus is found
in these waters in excess of that needed for a red tide bloom. After
the initial bloom further fertilization can come from fish that swim

TABLE 7
PHOSPHORUS RELATIVE TO RED TIDE
PPM Total Phosphorus
Cases Mean Range
Amber water off Ft. Myers
July 1947 (Ketchum and Keen, 1947) 5 .335 .152-.630
Nov. 1952 (Marshall and Odum) 3 .052 .036-.076
during late stages of bloom
Off Ft. Myers, not at times of Red tide
Aug. 1947 (Ketchum and Keen, 1947) 5 .029 .019-.038
Dec. 1952 (Lackey and Odum) 4 .016 .008-.024
Estuaries which contribute phosphorus
Tampa Bay (Marshall and Odum)
September 27, 28, 1952 15 .318 .125-.840
Charlotte Harbor, June-Dec., 1952 2 .376 .327-.425
Caloosahatchee Estuary
June, Nov., Dec., 1952 3 .071 .022-.118
Caribbean open water (Ketchum and
Keen, 1947) ...... .0003-.015
Indian River, summer 1952 3 .034 .001-.086


26







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 9


into the area, die and decompose. The data on samples collected
from the recent red tide in 1952 by N. Marshall show that lower
concentrations are required at least in these last stages of the bloom
than might have been surmised from the values taken by Ketchum
and Keen (1948). Perhaps, however, during the last stages, the
bloom was being dispersed by mixing although the water was
recognizably red at the time. To further test these hypotheses a
continuous series of samples must be taken regularly until the initial
formation stages of the red tide are covered. Of course adequate
phosphorus does not guarantee a bloom for there are other factors,
but certainly adequate phosphorus is a prerequisite (Specht, 1950;
Smith, 1949; Ketchum and Keen 1948) .

If the phosphate going down the rivers into the coastal areas
in large amounts is increasing due to expansion of industry and
population, further examinations must be made to determine
whether the general fertility of some coastal waters is being in-
creased and whether or not this is following desirable lines or
is producing undesirable products. The procurement of adequate
fishing statistics may permit some examination of change in this
respect.


3(This note was added in press.) Three recent papers and a fresh outburst
of red tide in September 1953 at the mouths of Tampa Bay and Charlotte Har-
bor have further increased interest in red tide phenomena. (Kierstead, H.
and L. Slobodkin, 1953. Journ. of Marine Research, vol. 12, pp. 141-147; Slo-
bodkin, L., 1953. Journ. of Marine Research, vol. 12, pp. 148-155; Chew, F.,
1953. Bull. of Marine Science of the Gulf and Caribbean, vol. 2, pp. 610-625.)
Slobodkin proposes that a lens of brackish water blowing out from shore on
the surface provides a means of developing a critical minimum mass for
starting a full bloom. He thinks that the nutrient phosphorus could be con-
centrated by organisms migrating vertically into the surface layer. Thus he
thinks that the amount of phosphorus initially present need not be larger
than usual. Chew found patches of low salinity water offshore but found
that the red tide was not in these but was in slightly higher salinity waters
nearby. He interpreted the lower salinity water as derived from rivers and
the higher salinity water which was high in phosphorus as derived from
offshore. It seems possible that Chew's lower salinity water could have been
from the Caloosahatchee and the red tide water could have originated further
north in the polluted Tampa Bay estuary and Charlotte Harbor. Slobodkin's
idea of critical mass seems more applicable if applied to nutrient containing
water from the polluted estuaries. Even if phosphorus is not a limiting
nutrient to red-tide blooms, it is likely to be correlated with limiting nutrients
from the polluted bays and thus act as a water marker in tracing such
water. The repeated localization of the red tide blooms in areas near the
mouths of the phosphatic rivers suggests that some causal factor is localized
there.


27






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


CONCLUSIONS
1. The dissolved phosphorus content of Florida fresh waters is
correlated with the underlying phosphatic rock formations of the
drainage area.
2. The dissolved phosphorus content of Florida estuarine waters
is determined by the proximity of the rivers and the phosphorus
content of these rivers.
3. In the phosphatic districts the dissolved phosphorus is highest
in the soft acid streams, lower in lakes due to a biological filtering'
action, and lowest in springs possibly due to a geological precipitat-
ing action.
4. The dissolved phosphorus and thus the potential fertility in
Florida waters especially in the phosphatic districts is considerably
higher than in waters in most other humid regions of the world
yet studied.
5. Dissolved phosphorus liberated by sewage and by the phosphate
industry is producing a high potential fertility in many waters.
There is no definite evidence whether or not this is desirable.
6. The high frequency of the red tide off the mouths of the Peace
and Alafia rivers suggests causal relationship between the large
quantities of natural and industrial phosphorus passing down these
rivers.
7. A program of research is needed to discover what other factors
determine how the high potential fertility of Florida's waters is
expressed in terms of fish production, water hyacinth growth, and
cloudy waters. The natural condition of Florida streams should
be studied and recorded as a valid basis for resource use manage-
ment before further pollution destroys our chance to establish the
biological structure of the natural streams.

REFERENCES CITED
Barbier, G. and M. Maroger, 1950. Compt. Rendo, vol. 230, pp. 130-132.
Berg, Kaj, 1945. Physiographic studies on the river Sussa: Folia Limnologica
Scandinavica, Einar Moksgaard, Copenhagen.
Cooke, C. W., 1945. Geology of Florida: Fla. Geol. Surv. Bull. 29, 339 pp.
Deevey, E. S. and J. S. Bishop, 1940. Limnology, a fishery survey of im-
portant Connecticut lakes: Conn. Geol. and Natural Hist. Surv. State
Board of Fisheries and Game, Bull. no. 63, 69-298.
Dietz, R. S., K. 0. Emery and F. P. Shepard, 1942. Phosphorite deposits on
the sea floor off southern California: Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. 53, pp.
815-847.
Green, J. and J. A. Holmes, 1947. Calculation of the pH of saturation of tri-
calcium phosphate: Journ. Amer. Water Works Assoc., vol. 39, pp. 1090-
1096.


28








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 9


Gunter, G., Robert M. Williams, C. C. Davis and F. G. Walton Smith, 1948.
Catastrophic mass mortality of marine animals and coincident phyto-
plankton bloom on the west coast of Florida November 1946 to August
1947: Ecological Monographs, vol. 18, pp. 309-324.
Harvey, H. W., 1948. The estimation of phosphate and of total phosphorus
in sea waters: J. Marine Biol. Assoc. U. K., vol. 27, pp. 337-359.
Hasler, A. D., 1947. Eutrophication of lakes by domestic drainage: Ecology,
vol. 28, pp. 383-395.
Hutchinson, G. E., 1937. A contribution to the limnology of arid regions:
Trans. of the Conn. Acad. of Arts and Sci. vol. 33, pp. 47-132.
Hutchinson, G. E., 1941. Limnological studies in Connecticut. IV. Mechanisms
of intermediary metabolism in stratified lakes: Ecol. Monographs, vol. 11,
pp. 21-60.
S-Hutchinson, G. E., 1952. Biogeochemistry of phosphorus. in symposium on:
Biology of phosphorus: Mich. State College Press, pp. 1-35.
Hutchinson, G. E., 1952. Unpublished manuscript.
Johnson, B. L., 1952. Phosphate rock. in Van Royen, W. and D. Bowles,
1952. Mineral resources of the world, atlas, vol. 2, pp. 141-146. Prentice
Hall for the Univ. of Maryland.
Juday, C., E. A. Birge, G. I. Kemmerer, and R. J. Robinson, 1928. Phosphorus
content of lake waters of northeastern Wisconsin: Trans. Wisco'sin Acad.
Sci. Arts. Let., vol. 23, pp. 233-248.
Juday, C., and E. A. Birge, 1931. A second report on the phosphorus content
of Wisconsin lake waters: Trans. Wise. Acad. Sci., Arts, Let., vol. 26,
pp. 353-382.
Ketchum, B. W. and J. Keen, 1948. Unusual phosphorus concentration in
the Florida "red tide" sea water: Journ. of Marine Res., vol. 7, pp. 17-21.
Miller, S. M. 1952. Phosphorus exchange in a sub-tropical marine basin:
Bull. of Marine Science of the Gulf and Caribbean, vol. 1, pp. 257-265.
Mortimer, C. H., 1941-1942. The exchange of dissolved substances between
-. j mud and water in lakes: Journ. Ecology, vol. 29, pp. 280-329; vol. 30, pp.
147-201.
Newcombe, C. L. 1940. Studies on the phosphorus content of the estuarine
waters of the Chesapeake Bay: Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc., vol. 83, pp. 621-630.
Ohle, W., 1934. Chemische und physikalische Untersuchungen in nord-
deutschen Seen. Arch. F. Hydrobwol., vol. 26, pp. 386-464.
Phelps, E. B. and D. E. Barry, 1950. Stream sanitation in Florida: Florida
Engineering and Industrial Expt. Sta. Bull. No. 34., Engineering Progress
at the Univ. of Florida, vol. 4, No. 5, 56 pp.
EPierce, E. L. 1947. An annual cycle of the plankton and chemistry of four
aquatic habitats in northern Florida: Univ. of Florida Studies Biol. Sci.
Series, vol. 4, No. 3, 67 pp.
Pierce, E. L. 1951. The Chaetognatha of the west coast of Florida: Biol.
Bull., vol. 100, No. 3, pp. 202-228.
Redfield, A. C., H. P. Smith and B. Ketchum, 1937. The cycle of organic
phosphorus in the gulf of Maine: Biol. Bull. vol. 73, pp. 421-433.
Riley, G. A., 1951. Oxygen, phosphate, and nitrate in the Atlantic Ocean:
Bull. Bingham Ocean. Coll., vol. 8, art, 1, 126 pp.
Robinson, R. J. and G. Kemmerer, 1930. Determination of organic phosphorus
in lake waters. Trans. Wisconsin Acad., vol. 25, pp. 117-121.
Robinson, R. J. and T. G. Thomson, 1948. The determination of phosphates in
sea water: Journ. of Marine Res., vol. 25, pp. 117-121.
Slobodkin, L. B., 1952. November and December press releases in Florida
newspapers.
Smith, F. G. Walton, 1949. Probable fundamental causes of red tide off the west
coast of Florida: Quart. Journ. of the Florida Academy of Sciences, vol.
11, No. 1, pp. 1-6.
Specht, R. C. 1950. Phosphate Waste Studies. Florida Industrial and En-
gineering Expt. Sta., Bull. No. 32, Engineering Progress at the University
of Florida, vol. 4, No. 2, 28 pp.
Vernon, R. 0., 1943. Florida mineral industry, with summaries of produc-
tion for 1940-41: Florida Geol. Surv. Bull., No. 24, 207 pp.
Vernon, R. O., 1951. Geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Florida:
Fla. Geol. Surv. Bull., No. 33, 256 pp.


29







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


APPENDIX

I. Total Phosphorus Analyses of Marine and Estuarine Waters
(Collaboration with others as indicated)

Alligator Harbor Series: (With Nelson Marshall, Harold Humm
of Oceanographic Institute, Fla. State. Univ.)
Bald Point, Ochlockonee Bay, Franklin Co., Aug. 21, 1952
Panacea Bridge, Ochlockonee R., Aug. 21, 1952
Camp W(ed Pier, Alligator Harbor, Aug. 21, 1952
Marine Lab. pier, Alligator Harbor, Aug. 21, 1952
Mouth South Creek Alligator Harbor, Aug. 30, 1952
Midway South Creek, Alligator Harbor, Aug. 30, 1952
Mouth North Creek, Alligator Harbor, Aug. 30, 1952
Midway North Creek, Alligator Harbor, Aug. 30, 1952
Station No. 208, Alligator Harbor, Aug. 30, 1952
Station No. 210, Alligator Harbor, Aug. 30, 1952
Station No. 217, Alligator Harbor, Aug. 30, 1952
Station No. 213, Alligator Harbor, Aug. 30, 1952
Peninsula Pt. Channel, Alligator Harbor, Aug. 30, 1952


Sanibel Island-Tampa Bay series during Red Tide (with Nel
Oceanographic Institute, Fla. State Univ.)


Plantation Key, Surface, Nov. 19, 1952
Four miles off Sanibel in Red Water, Nov. 15
Four miles off Sanibel, clear water, surface
Four miles off Sanibel, Red water, surface, Nov. 16
Buoy 4B Tampa Bay, Surface, Nov. 15, 1952
Buoy 4B Tampa Bay, 20 ft., Nov. 15, 1952
Twelve miles off Sanibel in Red Water, surface, Nov. 16
End of Naples Pier Nov. 17, Surface
Nine miles off Sanibel, surface, Nov. 16
Nine miles off Sanibel, 10 feet deep, Nov. 16
Sanibel clear water, surface, Nov. 16
Boca Clega shore, Nov. 14


ppm
Filtere
.024
.018
.041
.096
.025
.018
.021
.012
.025
.025


Sanihel island-Tanma Bay series after Red Tide (With J. B.
of Sanitary Engineering, Univ. of Florida)
Peace R., Punta Gorda, Dec. 3, 1952, Temp. 23 deg. C.
Estero Lagoon Dec. 2, Temp. 21.5 deg. C.
Sanibel, Dec. 1, 1952
Sanibel, Dec. 1, 1952
Naples Harbor, centrifuged
Gulf 8 Miles off Naples entire sample
Naples Harbor, Dec. 2
Two miles west of the pass, Naples
Olga Bridge (Caloosahatchee R.), T. 24 deg. C.
Jones Res. Caloosahatchee, T. 24. deg. C.
Nokomis Bay, Venice, T. 22 deg. C.
Myakka R. 22 deg. C., Dec. 3, 1952
Caloosahatchee R. Ft. Myers Pier, T. 24 deg. C.


Tampa Bay Series Sept. 27, 1952 (With
Nelson Marshall, Oceanographic
Institute. Fla. State Univ.)

On Ballast Pt. pier 300 yds. out
McDill Field, east coast


Depth
feet
0
0


Salinity
ppt
25.2
25.6


son Marshall,
P (Total)
d Unfiltered
.021
.043
.017
.076
.174
.160
.036
.024
.038
.030
025
Lackey, Dept.

.423
.030
.025
.032
.032
.017
.015
.008
.023
.000
.024
.069
.073


Total P
ppm
.74
.84


Total P
ppm

.058
.057
.013
.040
.028
.040
.028
.030
.048
.019
.021
.050
.018


30





V


REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 9 31

Depth Salinity Total P
feet ppt ppm
East end of longer bridge of Courtney-
Campbell causeway 0 27.3 .274
St. Petersbury-Tampa causeway, west end
of Gandy bridge 0 27.7 .250
St. Petersbury, S of Papys Bayou
about 54th St. 0 28.4 .33
End of St. Petersbury pier 0 28.9 .285
50 yds. out from Bee line Ferry dock 0 30.0 .290
Buoy 5 off Pinellas Pt. (pH 8.3) 0 30.3 .280
Buoy 1 0 30.6
10 30.6 .256
Buoy Can 3B 0 29.1 .33
10 30.0
20 32.8 .148
Buoy 3A 0 29.4 .284
10 29.9
20 32.0
30 33.0 .136
Buoy 2A 0 ..--- .295
Buoy 14 0 .163
Buoy 13 0 .154
Buoy 11 at Harbor mouth 0 33.2 .130
10 33.0
20 34.2
30 34.4 .073
Just outside harbor in Egremont Channel 0 34.0 .126
10 34.2
20 34.2
30 34.0 .096

East Coast Marine Waters:
Indian River, Melbourne June 23, 1952 .001
Surf, Melbourne Beach, June 23, 1952 .006
Indian River, Cocoa, June 23, 1952 .016
Sound, Bayfront Park, Miami, June 22, 1952 .189
Miami Inlet, June 22, 1952 .083
Tomaka River, July 19, 1952 .096
Matanzas R. Estuary, St. Augustine, July 19, 1952 .053
Moultrie Creek, St. Augustine, Aug. 29, 1952 .255
Indian R. at Indian R. City, July 19, 1952 .086
St. John's Estuary, Jacksonville, Aug. 10, 1952 .289
Surf, Daytona Beach, July 19, 1952 .086

Marineland Scries (With Mr. Forrest G. Wood, Marineland)
Fresh Ocean Water-gallery water, Aug. 29, 1952 .023
Marineland Inlet, high tide, Aug. 29, 1952 .033
Gallery water, 2 hrs. after low tide, Sept. 14, 1952 .068
Marineland Inlet, low tide, heavy rain, Sept. 22, 1952 .054
West Coast Florida Marine Waters
Surf, Naples, June 21, 1952 .032
Naples Estuary, June 21, 1952 .000
Everglades, Florida, June 21, 1952 .100
Tampa Pay, along Rt. 541, June 19, 1952 .720
Alafia Estuary on Tampa Bay, June 19, 1952 .660
Manatee River estuary, Rt. 301, June 19, 1952 .097
Sarasota bay, City pier, Sarasota, June 20, 1952 .010
Charlotte Harbor, Punta Gorda, June 20, 1952
Suwannee Estuary, Auust 6, 1952
nr ey a rEarm-ne iepl-.lr -~952-E. f6)..







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Total P
ppm
Cedar Key main channel, July 13, 1952 (E. L. Pierce) .051
Bayport Estuary, May 30, 1952, sample 1 .018
Bayport Estuary, May 30, 1952 sample 2 .010
Bayport Estuary, May 30, 1952 sample 3 .024
(hassahowitzka Bay series (With William Jennings, Florida
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission)
July 22, 1952 aquatic plants listed
Bay, Chara flats .014
Mouth of Chassahowitzka, Chara and Ruppia .025
Dog Island, Sago, Ruppia .032
Alligator creek, Valisneria .044
Porpoise Bay, Mangrove Island, Sago .018
Hlomosassa series July 22, 1952 (With William Jennings,
Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission)
West of town of Homosassa 1/ mile .030
North of town, 1/4 mile .040
Halls river .023
Brices Cove west of Homosassa .067


II. Inorgalw and Total Phosphorus of Spring Waters (With
Office of Naval Research) (samples from springs marked
by asterisk are aged samples.) Inorganic Total
P P
ppm ppm
Silver Springs, July 15 1952, canal entrance .......045
June 30, 1952, 3 miles down run .057 .037
June 30, 1952, 5 miles down run .050 .040
June 30, 1952, in littoral plants .025 .027
Aug. 16, 1952, boil .036 ..
Sept. 3, 1952, boil .- .061
Warm Salt Springs, Murdock
June 15, 1952* .040
June 19, 1952 ...-.. .050
June 19, 1952 .033
June 19, 1952 .013 ..
June 19, 1952 .053
Alexander Springs, Astor Park
March 8, 1952*, boil .067 ..
March 8, 1952 .070
Aug. 14, 1952, boil .039 .068'
Aug. 14, 1952, %-mile downstream .045 .061
Salt Springs, Marion County
Oct. 9, 1951* .020 ..
Oct. 9, 1951 .018
Oct. 9, 1951 .005
Aug. 7, 1952 .......027
Juniper Springs, Marion County
Aug. 14, 1952 .013
Aug. 14, 1952 .017
Rock Spring, Apopka
Dec. 27, 1951* .140 .127
Dec. 27, 1951 .150 .120
Dec. 27, 1951 .127
Sulphur Springs, Tampa
Dec. 1, 1951* .007
Dec. 1, 1951 .017 ..
Dec. 1, 1951 020


32








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 9 33

Inorganic Total
P P
ppm ppm
Mud Spring, Welaka
Nov. 1951* .083
Nov. 1951 .083 .
Beecher Spring, Welaka
Nov. 24, 1951" .145
Nov. 24, 1951" .137
June 6, 1952 .101
June 6, 1952 .120 .
Weekiwachee Springs, Hernando County
Nov. 29, 1951* .083
Nov. 29, 1951 .073
May 29, 1952 .060
Wacissa Springs, Jefferson County
August 3, 1952 .033
Ichtucknee Springs, run, Rt. 27, Hildreth
Aug. 3, 1952 .072
Aug. 12, 1952 ---- .060
Rainbow Springs, Marion County
Aug. 22, 1952 .053
Wakulla Springs, Wakulla County
Aug. 12, 1952, boil .039
Chassahowitzka Springs, Citrus County
Aug. 23, 1952, boil .013
(with J. H. Davis)
Neck below boil .013
Boil of 2nd Spring .013
Down run of 2nd Spring, 1/ way .022
Mouth of second spring .033
First curve below head springs .009
Second curve .013 -
Boil of third spring .019
Downstream, %-mile .017
Downstream, 114 miles .015
Downstream, 1% miles .018
Downstream, 3 miles .019
Downstream, 4 miles .017
Downstream, 5 miles-estuarine water .023
Downstream, 6 miles-in Gulf .023 ....
Su No Wa Springs
Aug. 10, 1952 .013
Aug. 10 1952 .022
Devils Millhopper Springs, Alachua County
Aug. 26, 1952 .060
Aug. 26, 1952 .053
Aug. 26? 1952 .081
Bonita Springs
June 21, 1952 Hotel .013
Blue Springs, Orange City
Undated .123
Manatee Springs
Aug. 6, 1952
Boil .037 .028
Down run .023
Down run .013
Down run .039 -
Down run .048
River sink, Wakulla County
Feb. 9, 1951 .223
Feb. 9, 1951 .220
Buckhorn Spring, Hillsborough County
June 18; 1952 .140 "







34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Inorganic Total
P P
ppm ppm
Crystal Springs, Pasco County
June 18, 1952 .020
Lithia Springs, Hillsborough County
June 19, 1952 .050
June 15, 1952 .__- .067
Silver Glenn Springs, Marion County
March 22, 1952 Boil .001
August 14, 1952 Boil .023 .042
Mouth of Run ,020 .036
Orange Springs, Marion Co., Aug. 7, 1952 ......095
Blue Springs, Gilchrist Co., June 9, 1952 ,032
Homosassa Springs, Citrus Co., May 29, 1952 Boil .008 -
Blue Springs, Marianna, Jackson, Co., Aug. 1, 1952
Boil .013 .021
Among plants .033
Downstream 100 yds. .065
Glen Julia Springs, Gadsden Co., Aug. 1, 1952
Boil .003 .000
Downrun 50 yds. .011
Mouth of run .032 ..
Ponce De Leon Spring, Holmes Co., Aug. 2, 1952
Boil .009 .027
Start of run .005
End of run .015
Morrison Springs, Walton Co., Aug. 2, 1952 .......027
Blue Springs, Madison Co., Aug. 1952, (With William
Beck of Florida State Board of Health) __---- .060
Green Cove Springs, Clay Co., Night Series 9-11 p.m.
Aug. 10, 1952
Boil .005 .006
Pool outlet .004 .006
Rapids below falls .005 .005
Middle bridge .005 .006
Next curve .005 .012
Last curve .006 .008
Green Cove Springs Day Series
July 16, 1952 2-4 p.m. Many people in pool at Sta. B
Boil .022.
Pool Outlet .041
Rapids below falls .041
Middle bridge .018
Next curve .008 .
Last curve .005...


III. Total and Inorganic phosphorus in streams of the Peace River system:
(Station numbers of Florida State Board of Health) (With
Ellis Landquist, Univ. of Fla., Dept of Biology)

Six mile creek south of Bartow, Station p-33,
Aug. 8, 1952 3.86
Peace creek, Ft. Meade, Station p-9, Aug. 7, 1952 4.86
Bear branch, Station p-37, Bartow, pH 3.5
Aug. 4, 1952 66.
Aug. 4, 1952 96.
March 2, 1952 178.
Bearbranch, Bartow, Station p-35, Aug. 9, 1952 .... 25.3
Peace River, Homeland, Station p-11, Aug. 4, 1952 5.86 ....
Peace River, Bowling Green, Station p-7, Aug. 5, 1952 4.53
Peace creek, Station p-16, Aug. 6, 1952 ..39








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 9


Inorganic Total
P P
ppm ppm
Arcadia, Station p-4,
Aug. 3, 1952 5.3
June 20, 1952 .-.-. >3.3
Peace River, Zolfo Springs, Station p-5,
Aug. 3, 1952 5.3 -
Aug. 2, 1952 5.1
Peace creek, east of L. Hancock, Station p-55a,
Aug. 6, 1952 .186
Paines creek, below Bowling Green, Station p-18,
Aug. 8, 1952 -.72
Charlie creek, Garderner, Station p-17,
Aug. 3, 1952 .83
Shell creek, Rt. 17, Cleveland, Fla.
Punta Gorda,.June 20, 1952 .. 2.1
Charlotte Harbor, Punta Gorda, June 20, 1952 .273
Horse Creek, Arcadia, June 20, 1952 .273
Peace River, Bartow, March 2, 1952 >3.3
Peace creek, east of Eloise, March 2, 1952 -- .013
Saddle creek, south of L. Hancock, March 2, 1952
(including much animal plankton) -..--- 2.13
Citrus waste, canal, Snively Plant, Polk Co.,
March 2, 1952 .007
Peace creek, outlet near Alturus, (near station p-55a)
Aug. 19, 1952 .085
Phosphate water, clear, Pembroke settling basin 1.00
Lulu lake outlet, Eloise, (receives Winterhaven
sewage, flows into Peace Cr. Aug. 15, 1952) (USGS) .49

Suwannee-Santa Fe River System
(With William Beck, Florida State Board of Health)
Carver's camp, river backwater, near mouth,
Suwannee River, Aug. 7, 1952 .112
Small creek, tributary of Santa Fe River,
Monteocha, Alachua Co., Aug. 31, 1952 .194
Santa Fe River, Rt. 234, Brooker, Bradford Co.,
Aug. 31, 1952-- .180
Creek, tributary of Santa Fe River, Graham,
Bradford Co., Aug. 31, 1952 .205
Suwannee River at Fanning Springs, Aug. 6, 1952 .060
Santa Fe River, Camp O'leno Park,
Sept. 16, 1952 High water .163
Aug. 29, 1952 .155
May 27, 1952 .145
Santa Fe River, Rt. 441, Sept. 16, 1952 .121
Santa Fe River, Ft. White, Aug. 11, 1952 .075
Suwannee River, Bell, Aug. 11, 1952 .080
Suwannee River, White Springs, Aug. 12, 1952 .333
Suwannee River, Branford, Aug. 13, 1952 .081
Suwannee River, Ellaville, Aug. 12, 1952 .152
Withlacoochee River, Rocky Ford, Brooks Co., Ga.,
Aug. 1952 .253
Withlacoochee River, Rt. 145, Madison Co. Fla.,
Aug. 1952 .169
Withlacoochee River, Pinetta Bridge, Madison
Co., Fla., Aug. 1952 .083
Withlacoochee River, Blue Springs Bridge,
Madison Co., Fla., Aug., 1952 ..- .193
Withlacoochee River, junction with Suwannee,
Aug. 1952 .. .101


35







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Streams Draining into sinks, Alachua Co.
Hatchet creek, Monteocha Rd. 2.3 miles north of
Waldo Gainesville road, Aug. 31, 1952
Hatchet creek, Rt. 24,
July 17, 1952
Aug. 26, 1952 low water
Alachua sink, north edge of Paynes Prairie
receives Prairie creek, Sept. 11, 1952
Hatchet Creek, Rt. 26, Sept. 9, 1952
Camp's Canal, near Rochelle,
Hogtown Creek, Univ. Ave., Gainesville,
Aug. 26, 1952
Hogtown Creek, west branch, 16th Ave. Gainesville,
Aug. 26, 1952
Hogtown Creek, east branch, 16th Ave., Gainesville,
Aug. 26, 1952
Hogtown sink, receives Hogtown creek,
Sept. 2, 1952
Prairie Creek, Rt. 20, east of Gainesville,
Aug. 31, 1952
Stream draining Hammock, Southwest of
Paynes Prairie, Sept. 11, 1952


Inorganic
P
ppm


Total
P
ppm


.027

.184
.125
1.0
.247
.065

1.4
>2.0
>1.0
>2.0

.114
.087


.41lfia River system
Alafia estuary, June 19, 1952
Fishawk creek, June 19, 1952
Alafia River
Above Lithia Springs, June 19, 1952
at Lithia Springs, June 19, 1952
Alafia River Riverview, June 19, 1952
South branch of Alafia, Pinecrest, June 19, 1952
Alafia River, Bloomingdale-Lithia Rd., June
19, 1952

Smaller West Coast Rivers (draining Phosphate districts)
Manatee River estuary, Rt. 301, June 19, 1952
Rt. 675, June 19, 1952
Hillsborough River, Univ. of Tampa bridge,
June 18, 1952
SulphuI Springs, Tampa, June 18, 1952
Myrtle's Fish Camp, June 18, 1952
Hillsborough River State Park, June 18, 1952
Rt. 39, June 18, 1952
Drainage canal near Hillsborough River June
18, 1952
Braden River, tidal estuary, June 19, 1952
Myakka River
West of Murdock, Rt. 41, June 20, 1952
At State Park June 20, 1952
Little Manatee River
Rt. 674, June 19, 1952
Rt. 301, June 19, 1952
Anclote River, Elfers, Aug. 7, 1952
Brooker Creek, Mt. Odess, Aug. 9, 1952
Withlacoochee River
Dunnellon, May 29, 1952
Rt. 33, March 2, 1952
Lake, Southshore, May 29, 1952
Fenholloway River, Aug. 3, 1952
Perry, July 30, 1952
Palatlakaha Creek, Okahumpa, Sept. 11, 1952


.660
.390
1.81
2.37
1.36
>3.33
1.25

.097
.450
.220
.160
.107
.097
.018
.057
.054
.067
.059
.400
.587
.014
.011

.063
.028
.045
.013
.070
.017


36








REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 9


Canals and Rivers of South Florida (See figure 8)
(with William Jennings, Florida Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission)


Inorganic
P
ppm


Total
P
ppm


Tamiami Canal, Ochopee, June 21, 1952 .--- .018
West of Ochopee, 10 miles, June 21, 1952 .051
East of Ochopee, 7.5 miles, June 21, 1952 .- .016
East of Ochopee, 18 miles, June 21, 1952 ..011
East of Ochopee, 30 miles, June 21, 1952 .057
East of Dade County line, 2 miles, June 21, 1952 .073
East of Ochopee, 40 miles, June 21, 1952 .087
Collier-Seminole State Park, June 21, 1952 -- .050
At Rt. 27 .013
At Coral Gables canal, June 22, 1952 -. .006
Coral Gables Canal, pool, Univ. of Miami
Service Center, June 22, 1952 .157
Miami Canal
At 26th Street, Miami, June 22, 1952 .073
At 37th St., Miami, June 22, 1952 ..... 007
Eighteen miles north of Miami, June 22, 1952 .007
Rt. 29 canal running north from Everglades, Fla.
estuarine for first 6 miles, June 21, 1952
At Everglades .100
North of Everglades, 1 mile .008
North of Everglades, 2 miles .063
North of Everglades, 4 miles .018
North of Everglades, 6 miles .010
North of Everglades, 9 miles *- .007
North of Everglades, 12 miles .007
Hillsboro Canal
Deerfield, June 17, 1952 .016
Belle Glade, June 22, 1952 .017
Deerfield Beach, Aug. 22, 1952 ..-- .048
St. Lucie Canal, Port Mayaca, June 18, 1952 -- .097
South New River Canal, Rt. 27, June 22, 1952 ..- .003
North New River Canal
Rt. 27, June 22, 1952 ..-- .015
North of Miami, 45 miles, June 22, 1952 .079
At Bolles Canal, Okeelanta, June 22, 1952 .028
Lake Okeechobee
Bean City, south dike canal, June 22, 1952-- .003
Clewiston, June 22, 1952 .007
Near mouth of Taylor Creek,
north shore, June 22, 1952 .030
Caloosahatchee River
Moorehaven, June 22, 1952 .010
Olga, June 20, 1952 .012
Olga, Dec. 2, 1952 (J. B. Lackey) .023
Ft. Myers, June 20, 1952 .022
Ft, Myers, Dec. 2, 1952 (J. B. Lackey) .073
West Palm Beach Canal, West Palm Beach, Aug. 22, 1952..- .125
Fisheating Creek, Rt. 78, June 22, 1952 .031
Indian Prairie Canal, Rt. 78, June 22, 1952 .121
Kissimmee River
Rt. 78, June 22, 1952 .012
Below Kissimmee, Aug. 19, 1952 -.. .060
Ft. Bassinger, June 16, 1952 .- .002
Taylor Creek, mouth at Lake Okeechobee, June 22, 1952 --- .057
Imperial River, Bonita Springs, June 20, 1952 .. .055
Estero River, Rt. 41, Estero, June 21, 1952 .037
Josephine Creek, De Soto City, Aug. 19, 1952 .....043


37







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Inorganic Total
P P
ppm ppm
Small Cieek, Rt. 441, Osceola-Okeechobee
County Line, June 23, 1952 ....007
Small Creek, Rt. 441 6 miles north of
Yehaw Junction, June 23, 1952 .... .003
Streams of West and Northeast Florida
Apalachicola River
Chattahoochee, Aug. 26, 1952 (USGS) .200
Chattahoochee, Aug. 3, 1952 .....041
Perdido River, Barrineau Park, Aug. 23, 1952
(USGS) --.021
Escambia River, Century, Aug. 23, 1952 (USGS) -- .033
Chipola River, Altha,
Aug. 11, 1952 .- .025
Aug. 1, 1952 .- .030
Coldwater Creek, Milton Aug. 24, 1952 (USGS) .-.005
Ochlockonee River, Bloxham,
Aug. 11, 1952 (USGS) .. .687
Aug. 1, 1952 .... .072
Choctawhatchee River, Caryville,
Aug. 2, 1952 .033
Aug. 26, 1952 (USGS) .047
St. Mary's River, Macclenny, Sept. 16, 1952 (USGS) .. .033
Nassau River, Rt. 1, Aug. 10, 1952 -- .020

Oklawaha River System
Above Silver River, Aug. 9, 1952 .003 .041
Rt. 40, Aug. 1952 .043
Eureka, Aug. 7, 1952 ...- .040
Eureka, 1952 .051
Moss Bluff, Aug. 18, 1952 ..027
Orange Springs, Aug. 20, 1952 .050
Lake Griffin (headwater of Oklawaha,
receives sewage), June 23, 1952 -.152
Orange Lake Outlet, Citra, July 22, 1952 .... .141
Lochloosa Lake outlet, Lochloosa, July 22, 1942 ...
Lochloosa Creek, Grove Park, .453
Orange Creek, Aug. 20, 1952 ....-.127
Creek near Mud lake, Aug. 7, 1952 .033
Haines Creek, Lisbon, Aug. 18, 1952 .027
St. John's River System (see figure 9)

Lake George, at Silver Glen Springs,
Aug. 14, 1952 .044
St. John's River, Green Cove Springs,
July 16, 1952 ..-- .119
Doctor's Lake, Rt. 17, Aug. 9, 1952 ......065
Ortega River, Rt. 21, Aug. 9, 1952 .-- .044
Black creek, Rt. 17, Aug. 9, 1952 .040
Trout creek, Dinsmore, Rt. 1, Aug. 19, 1952 ..... .121
St. Johns River, Crows Bluff, Volusia Co.,
(K. Strawn) Sept. 3, 1952 .... .117
St. Johns River, Rt. 192, June 23, 1952 -. .007
St. Johns River, Rt. 50, June 23, 1952 .015
St. Johns River (Palatka), July 19, 1952 .015 .061
Econlockhatchee River,
Rt. 419, Oviedo, June 23, 1952 3.1.....
Chulota (USGS), July 29, 1952 .... 2.67


38







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 9


Inorganic Total
P P
ppm ppm
Lake Jessup, June 23, 1952 ...188
Lake Monroe, Sanford, June 23, 1952 .180
Wekiva River, Rt. 46, June 23, 1952 --- .088
Creek, north shore of Crescent Lake,
Andalusia, July 19, 1952 --.034
Lake Washington, marshes, August, (W. Jennings) --.008
Creek, Hastings, Rt. 207, July 14, 1952 .......540
Crescent Lake, Andalusia, July 19, 1952 -----. .033
Clarke creek, south of Green Cove Springs,
Aug. t, 1952 --- .080
IV. Lakes, ponds, sinks
(Some data on lakes in appendix sections on Oklawaha
and St. Johns rivers)
Sinks
Green sink, Univ. of Fla., Gainesville,
Aug. 31, 1952 1.01
Dairy sink, Univ. of Fla., Gainesville,
Aug. 31, 1952 .129
Sink, Administration Building, Univ. of
Fla., Gainesville, Aug. 31, 1952 ...... 120
Lakes
Lake Alice, Gainesville,
(fertilized surrounding fields, Heron rookery) -----.660
July 16, 1952 (D. Karraker) .550 .631
July 16, 1952 (D. Karraker) .530
Lake Santa Fe, July 13, 1952 .015 .044
Lake Geneva, Keystone Heights, July 16, 1952 .013
Brooklyn Lake, Keystone Heights, July 16, 1952 .005
Kingsley Lake, July 16, 1952 .015
Hampton Lake, Bradford Co., Aug. 31, 1952 .025
Newnan's Lake, Gainesville, Aug. 31, 1952
West edge .119
Outlet .117
May 16, 1952 .081
Lake Kanapaha, Gainesville, Aug. 31, 1952 .506
East Tohcpekaliga Lake outlet, St. Cloud,
Aug. 21, 1952 (USGS) .055
Tohopekaliga Lake Outlet, St. Cloud,
Aug. 21, 1952 (USGS) .042
Lake Rochelle, town of Lake Alfred, March 2, 1952 .067
Johnson Lake, Clay Co., June, 1952 (M. Westfall) .000
Pebble Lake, Putnam Co., June, 1952 (M. Westfall) .000
Lake Ola, Mt. Dora, June 20, 1952 (W. Jennings) .027
Spring Lake, Winterhaven, Fla., March 2, 1952 .002
Lake Dora, Mt. Dora, June 20, 1952 (W. Jennings) .027
Lake Weir, Oklawaha, June 20, 1952 (W. Jennings) .000
Lake, Okeechobee,
Clewiston, June 22, 1952 .007
North shore, June 22, 1952 .030
Bivin's Arms, Gainesville, July 11, 1952
Unfiltered .070 .233
Filtered .100
Lake Eustis, Tavares, June 23, 1952 .008
Clubhouse Lake, 7 miles east of Keystone
Heights, June 15, 1952 (H. Hansen) .000
Reedy Lake, outlet, Frostproof, Aug. 19, 1952 (USGS) .061
Istokpoga ,Lake, outlet canal, Cornwell,
SAug. 19, 1952 (USGS) -.033


39






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Inorganic Total
P P
ppm ppm
Red Water Lake, 6 miles southeast of Hawthorne,
Sept. 10, 1952 (H. Hansen) ...... .197
Johnson Lake, 4 miles north of Gainesville,
Sept. 8, 1952 -... .039
Hanna Lake outlet, Lutz, Aug. 8, 1952 (USGS) .061
Hutchins Lake, outlet, Lutz, Aug. 8, 1952 (USGS) .016
Lake Wauberg, Gainesville,
July 6, 1952 ...... .087
July 25, 1952 ..... .091
June 27, 1952 .--- .127
Lake Winnemesset, DeLand, Aug. 29, 1952 ...... .024.

Small Ponds, Pools, Marshes
Flatwoods pond, roadside ditch connection,
Alachua Co., 4.2 miles north of Rt. 24
on Monteocha road, Aug. 31, 1952 .......072
Pool, marshy margins of Lake Kerr, north shore,
Marion Co., Aug. 7, 1952 .....000
Swampy tributary in Suwannee floodplain, Carver's
camp, 10 miles south of Oldtown, Aug. 6, 1952 .......112
Pond in Hammock, Duckweed covered, Rt. 329, 4 miles
south of Rt. 235, 3 miles east of La Crosse,
Alachua Co., Aug. 31, 1952 ...... .19)
Flatwoods pond, Rt. 301, 1 mile north of Orange
Heights, Alachua Co., Aug. 31, 1952 ...... .030
Boat basin, near mouth of Silver Springs,... .035
Creek, sluggish meander in cypress swamp, Rt. 52,
San Antonio, June 18, 1952 ...... 004
Pond, sandy dunes, maidencane, in scrub area,
Rt. 19, north of Weekiwachee Springs, Hernando
Co., May 30, 1952 ...001
Pond, sand dunes, maidencane, in scrub area, Rt. 19,
Weekiwachee Springs, Hernando Co., May 30, 1952 .004
Pond, sand dunes, maidencane in scrub area, Rt.
19, north of Weekiwachee Springs, Hernando
Co., May 30, 1952 ...... 008
Marsh water, seepage from Fowlers Prarie, Rt. 20,
Putnam Co June 9, 1952 ....260
Flatwoods pond, 1/-% mile south of Devils
Millhopper, Alachua Co., Sept. 11, 1952 .___.- .070
Edgar Clay Pits, Edgar, PutnanY Co., 25 miles
east of Gainesville, Sept. 10, 1952 .... .027
Pond, 7/10 miles south of Wachoota, Alachua
Co., Sept. 11, 1952 ...... 1.0
Slough between Kanapaha Prarie and Levy Lake,
Alachua Co., Sept. 11, 1952 .017
Pond, hyacinth filled, along road, 12.2 miles
south of Wachoota, Alachua Co., Sept. 11, 1952 ..... .077
Flatwoods pond, along road, 11.3 miles south of
Wachoota, Alachua Co., Sept. 11, 1952 .... .433
Watermelon pond, Archer, July 30, 1952 .. .044
Pond, watershield, just north of Watermelon
Pond, Archer, July 30, 1952 ....- .136
Cummer Limestone Co. Quarry, Ocala, Aug. 18, 1952 _- .353
Tsala Apcpka Lake, pond-like coves, Rt. 200,
June 18, 1952 -... .013
Tsala Apopka Lake, small stream draining margins,
Rt. 200, June 18, 1952 -.... .027
Pond, Marion Co., 1% miles east of Rt. 42 and
Rt. 450, Aug. 30, 1952 ..... .121


40











Part II


PETROLOGY OF EOCENE LIMESTONES IN AND

AROUND THE CITRUS-LEVY COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA







By
Alfred George Fischer


University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas














May 21, 1949
Report to the Florida Geological Survey













TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
The Nature of the Problem- .-..----__...-----... ---- ------- .... 43
Location of samples ....----..-..-- ..-..---- -------....-.. -----.. 43
Acknowledgments .......-..............------ ---..---- -------- -43
Methods of Study .---..--..........---....-------- --- -- --------- ... ... 45
Examination under binocular microscope ..----.----..------...----- 45
Insoluble residues .-----......-- ...------------..-----.--. 46
Thin-sections ....--...-.--...----...........-..-.-- ..--- --- ------------ 48
Data Obtained -----------...-.. ..............------...-.. .....-------..----- -- .- 48
Data derived from microscopic study of hand specimens ----------- 48
True limestones ._.----_----_........ -------..-----..----48
Composition -----....-......--...--.--..........--------------- --- 48
Non-carbonate constituents- .---..-- ----...------------ 52
Porosity .......---...---- --------------------. 52
Sedimentary structure ..-----..------- .---------..--..-- 53
Color ...-------....-.........-------...--.--- ----------..-----...- 653
Changes on weathering --..-..-.._--_-.----.. ----.--------....-..---.- 53
Dolomitic limestone ....--..----.--.--.-- ---- ----.-..----.- 53
Dolomite rocks ...........------ ------------------- 54
Composition and texture ---. --------------.--..------..- 54
Porosity --......---------------------------------- 55
Sedimentary structure .--.-.....------------..---..---- 56
Color --..-------...... --.......--...-..-..-.. ---------------- 56
Compaction phenomena .____------_-.--------.---. --.... -----. 57
Data derived from insoluble residues --...--..-..--..--.--.-.----.-----... 57
Allogenic minerals ..---.....-----...........-......-.-------.---. 57
Clastic quartz ......-- ..-----...--- ........-------------..-----.......- 57
Heavy minerals --........--............----------------......-...---.--- 58
Clay minerals --........-.........---.-..--........--. -------... 58
Authigenic minerals -- ----.......-----.......-..--.- --... ----........ 58
Pyrite ------..........--.. .....--- ....----- -------..-------...-.- 59
"Glauconite" .-----...--...--..-- .. ...----- .. ..--. --.. -- --------------...-.. .---... 59
Secondary silica -.--.--........------..---..-----...-...-.-...------- 60
Limonite .....--......................----------.----. 61
Carbonaceous matter .....----...........--.---..--..-..--- .....--------- 61
Distribution of lithologies and insoluble residues .----..----------..... 62
Avon Park limestone -------..............- ---------------..- ..... 62
Moodys Branch formation (Inglis member) ......-..-..................... 63
Ocala limestone (restricted) and Williston member of Moodys
Branch formation .-----------------------..--------.-...... 64
Interpretation ---------------.........--------------.-........65
Significance of data in correlation --........-.----.--.------- ..... 65
Rock origin -------..-..-....----------------------- --.......... ......... 65
Massive limestone ---------------------------- -----... .............. 65
Laminated limestone ----------.....--. ----_--_-...-------.....-..... 66
Dolomite rocks -----...----- --...---------------------.............. 66
Bibliography -..----------------------------------- --------.-----.................... 69



















ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure Page
1. Index map -------..-........----....-.- ...........---...-----.... .....----..--.-- -------- 44
2. Eocene facies changes from Dixie County to Pasco County .-. 46
3. Thin section of limestone ..- .----.-------...-......----....-..-.......-....--.. 47
4. Thin section of limestone -..-----...-....------...-......-----........ 49
5. Thin section of limestone -.......--.-.-- ... ...----- -.----.......----. 50
6. Thin section of dolomitic limestone ...--- ...-----------...........------- 50
7. Thin section of foraminiferal limestone -----......... ----............------ -.. 51
8. Thin section of massive dolomite rock ---..---...--------........ ..--.-.-- 52
9. Thin section of dolomite rock .---.-.---.... ... ----.............................. 54
10. Polished section of laminated dolomite rock .-..---.....---...--..-..---.... 55
11. Thin section of laminated dolomite rock --..--.....--....................-. -56
12. Deformed internal mold of echinoid ..--..--..----...-------....--...-..---. 57
13. "Glauconite" .........- ----------..- --.... --------... .....--.-..---............--- -....--. 60
14. Authigenic silica ............ ..... -- -----...-.... ------....... ....-..-.._ -....... 61
15. Areal distribution of carbonate rocks ...-------------------.............. 62

TABLES
Table Page
1. Location of surface samples .--..-------. ------..-.......--..--..-...--... 45
2. Occurrence frequency of minerals in subsurface samples _-----_ 59
3. Occurrence frequency of minerals in surface samples- ....----...--... 59
4. Occurrence frequency of minerals in Avon Park limestone ....--- 63
5. Occurrence frequency of minerals in the Inglis member, Moodys
Branch formation--- ...--. -.-----...-...-----.. -.......--..--------.. 63
(. Occurrence frequency of minerals in Ocala limestone (restricted)
and Williston member of Moodys Branch formation ----...--.......... 64








PETROLOGY OF EOCENE LIMESTONES IN THE CITRUS-
LEVY COUNTY AREA

Alfrei by
MH George Fischer
THE NATURE OF THE PROBLEM
The Eocene sediments of the Florida peninsula consist of
relatively pure carbonate rocks composed largely of the minerals
calcite and dolomite. As part of a study of the stratigraphy of
Citrus and Levy counties (see Vernon, 1947, 1951) the Florida
Geological Survey sponsored a research project on the petrology
of the Eocene limestones which are there exposed. The aim of
this project was twofold, namely to provide data which might
supplement faunal studies in developing a detailed stratigraphic
zonation, and to clarify questions of rock origin, dealing with the
original deposition of the rocks and with the changes subsequently
wrought in them.
In order to gain regional perspective and to test the applica-
tion of petrographic methods to these rocks over considerable dis-
tances, the study was not restricted to the Citrus-Levy County area,
but was extended into Dixie County to the northwest, and into
Hernando and Pasco counties to the south (Fig. 1). The section
studied includes the upper portion of the Avon Park limestone, the
Inglis member of the Moodys Branch formation, and the Ocala
limestone (restricted) (Fig. 2), with which were included beds
now classified as the Williston member of the Moodys Branch for-
mation.
Location of Samples

Of the 299 samples studied, 32 subsurface cores are from Dixie
County, 87 cores and 118 surface samples from Levy County, and
62 cores from the Hernando-Pasco County area. The majority of
the subsurface samples are from core borings on file at the Florida
Geological Survey office. The locations of core holes are shown
in Table 1.

Acknowledgments
The work was carried out partly at the offices of the Florida
Geological Survey, partly at the Department of Geology, Columbia







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


/W-1220 %-Np6 NtR MAR(ON COUNTY
D4A SUMTER COUNTY


..


CITRUS
"HERNAND .COUN .
S. COUNTY


5C -2__ 28*50_ 26
McN^"o-i OMtLr-i *
.PA4co re -1
S10 20 30 mfooBY-4 J# A 1
M i L L. 5 -
o Wells d1d Tfest/ r j 1
S 10/ ? Whi c hn w 3ich a/ 'e



ST WVA'iF
Figure 1.-Index map, showing location of wells and surface exposures
studied in Levy, Citrus, Marion, Hernando, and Pasco Counties.

University, and partly at the Department of Geology and Geog-
raphy of the University of Rochester. The samples from the Her-
nando-Pasco County area were made available by the Ohio Oil
Company.
The study was supervised by Professor Marshall Kay, to whom
the writer is deeply grateful for stimulation, help and advice. Spe-







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 9


TABLE 1.


LOCATION OF SUB-SURFACE SAMPLES
A. Levy-Citrus County area


tes Army
est borings
Florida
al


Location
Sec. 6, T. 17 S., R. 18 E.
Sec. 36, T. 17 S., R. 18 E.
Sec. 34, T. 16 S., R. 18 E.
Sec. 4, T. 17 S., R. 17 E.
Sec. 5, T. 17 S., R. 17 E.
Sec. 10, T. 17 S., R. 16 E.
Sec. 17, T. 17 S., R. 16 E.
Sec. 18, T. 17 S., R. 16 E.


Fla. Geol.
Survey No.
W-1112 (natural "well")
W-1197
W-1200 United Stal
W-1203 Engineers t
W-1204 for Trans-I
W-1217 Barge Cam
W-1219
W-1220


B. Hernando-Pasco County area


Fla. Geol.
Survey No.
W-1538 Ohio Oil Co. Mizell No. 1
W-1539 Ohio Oil Co. Moody No. 4
W-1540 Ohio Oil Co. Bradac No. 1
W-1541 Ohio Oil Co. Hernasco No. 62
W-1542 Ohio Oil Co. Hernasco No. 2D
W-1543 Ohio Oil Co. Hernasco No. 2A
W-1544 Ohio Oil Co. Hutto No. 1
W-1545 Ohio Oil Co. Hernasco No. 1


Location
NW 14 Sec. 11, T.24S., R.19E.
SW 14 Sec. 18, T.24S., R.17E.
SW 1/ Sec. 25, T.23S., R.18E.
SE cor. Sec. 18, T.22S., R.18E.
SW cor. Sec. 13, T.23S., R.17E.
SW cor. Sec. 13, T.23S., R.17E.
NE 1% Sec. 24, T.24S., R.19E.
NW cor. Sec. 6, T.24S., R.18E.


cial thanks are due to Dr. Herman Gunter and Dr. Robert 0.
Vernon of the Florida Geological Survey for their help during the
study and in the preparation of the report; to Professor Paul Kerr
and his staff for aid in the mineral identification, and to Professor
Harold Alling for help in the analysis of thin-sections, in the in-
terpretation of data, and in the preparation of the manuscript.
Among the various geologists from whom the writer has received
aid are Dr. W. H. Twenhofel, Mr. and Mrs. Paul L. Applin, Mr.
David B. Ericson, Dr. C. Wythe Cooke, Mr. Joseph Banks, Dr.
Louise Jordan, Mr. H. Glen Walter, Dr. Hans Naegeli, and Mr. J.
Clarence Simpson (deceased March 29, 1952). To all of these he
expresses sincere thanks.

METHODS OF STUDY

Each sample was described under the binocular microscope and
analyzed for insoluble residues. In addition, some samples were
studied in thin-section.

Examination under Binocular Microscope

Examination at magnifications of 15 to 30 diameters served to
place the rock into one of the major categories of rock types rep-
resented-as being composed nf calcite, dolomite, or a mixture


45


v






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


NW 5E
NW HMZNANDO-PAUco cCOuTINC
DIXIt COUNTY
< Lin /el one *


1---- W _ILL/STON MBR fl I


S... -MOODYS-BRA NCI- M-


AVON PARK LL ME TONE




Figure 2.-Eocene faces changes from Dixie County to Pasco County.

thereof, and as being laminated or massive. Notes were made on
color, texture, fossil content, and the presence of notable amounts
of non-carbonate material. Confirmatory tests for calcite and dolo-
mite were made with dilute hydrochloric acid, and in a few cases
with Lemberg's silver nitrate-potassium chromate staining method
(Krumbein and Pettijohn, 1930).

Insoluble Residues
From cores and hand-specimens, samples of 20 to 30 grams were
prepared for insoluble residue study. In the case of cores, a sepa-
rate sample was prepared for each lithologic unit, and in cases
of uniform lithology a sample was prepared for every five feet
wherever possible. An attempt was made to obtain a composite
sample of several chips from various parts of the interval sampled.
The sample was weighed to an accuracy of one gram, and was
then digested with dilute hydrochloric acid in a 600 or 1000 cc
beaker. After digestion the relative amount and color of the fine,
flocculant material slimess) was noted. Slimes and solution were
then decanted. The remaining coarse residue (silt and sand grades)
was repeatedly washed, and dried on a watchglass. The residue
was weighed to an accuracy of 0.01 gram, and the weight expressed
as percentage of the original rock sample. Volumetric methods
which have proved useful in insoluble residue studies elsewhere
which have proved useful in insoluble residue studies elsewhere


46






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 9


A B


Figure 3.-Thin-section of limestone. Microcoquina of altered small
Foraminifera and unidentified skeletal material (strongly stippled), bound
together by chalky paste (lightly stippled), recrystallized paste (clear),
and secondary calcite (clear areas surrounding pore space). Interstitial
pore space shown photograph in black. A- x 13, B- x 42. Inglis member
Moodys Branch formation, W-1544, 327-332 feet, Hernando County.

were not feasable, since despite the large samples used, the amount
of residue was commonly microscopic, and since in numerous sam-
ples the bulk of the residue consisted of lacy or spongy masses of
silica, which occupy a volumetric prominence far out of propor-
tion to their comparative weight.

The residue was studied under the binocular microscope, at
magnifications of 30 to 60 diameters. The various constituents
were identified and the quantity of each constituent in terms of
the entire residue was estimated by eye. In these estimates al-
lowance was made for differences in specific gravity, so that the
resulting figures could be converted into percent by weight of
the original rock sample. This method is admittedly crude, but
most of the constituents are present in such minute quantities
(0.001 to 0.1 per cent of the rock) that small errors in estimation
are not likely to change the overall aspect.

Finally the residues were filed in standard foraminiferal dry-
mount slides, and in special cases grains were mounted in Canada
balsam for study under the petrographic microscope.


47






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Thin-sections

Thin-sections were prepared by the writer for representative
rock-types. In order to facilitate pore-space studies, most of the
rock slices were impregnated, prior to sectioning, with bioplastic,
a synthetic polyester resin, stained with methylene orange. The
thin-sections were studied under the petrographic microscope, and
were quantitatively analyzed according to the Delesse-Rosiwal
method, by the use of a Wentworth stage.

DATA OBTAINED
Data derived from microscopic study of hand-specimens and
thin sections

Examination of the rocks under the binocular microscope, and
in thin-section under the petrographic microscope, yielded numer-
ous data on composition. The carbonate rocks studied are com-
plex in makeup, and are consequently subject to much variation.
However, three major classes may be recognized on the basis of
mineral composition: rocks composed mainly of (1) calcite (here
called limestone), (2) calcite and dolomite dolomiticc limestone),
and (3) dolomite (dolomite rock). The great bulk of rocks studied
are limestones (1), and dolomite rocks (3).
Within these major classes the chief variables seen under the
microscope are structure (presence or absence of lamination),
texture, porosity, color, fossil content, and the amount of carbona-
ceous matter and other "impurities."

TRUE LIMESTONES

Composition.

The limestones are largely composed of three calcareous con-
stituents, skeletal material, paste, and secondary calcite. These
occur in varying proportions.

Skeletal material. Most of the limestones studied are coquinas,
or "shell sands," in the sense that they appear to be composed
largely of skeletal material in the form of calcite shells, tests, and
ossicles, or fragments thereof. Actually there is also generally
considerable (but less apparent) paste and secondary calcite, which
fills the shells and cements the skeletal material. A few samples






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 9


contained less than five per cent skeletal matter, whereas most con-
tained between 40 and 70 per cent. It is the nature of these fossil
remains which determines the texture and to some extent the
porosity of the rock.
In most of the rocks studied, the greater part of the skeletal
matter (up to 56 per cent of total rock volume) is of foramini-
feral origin. Sma ll
Foraminifera, especial-
ly miliolids, are most
common (Figs. 3, 4, and
5), but in soine cases
I a r g e Foraminifera
(Amphistegina, valvuli- te brds r
nids, orbitoids, or cam-
erinid s) predominate 7m
(Fig. 7). In some beds

cially those of Peri-
archus, are quantita-
tively important. Skele-
tal elements of many
other groups of organ-
isms occur in minor Figure 4.-Thin-section of limestone. Large
quantities, generally not miliolid Foraminifera, an echinoid fragment
exceeding ten per cent with typical grid-structure, and other shell frag-
ments in matrix of medium to coarsely crystal-
of any one rock. Thus line calcite. Porosity shown in black. X 42. In-
remains of red algae glis member Moodys Branch formation (well
remains of red algae bottomed in Inglis), so far as samples show.
and green (for the most
part of the genus Dasycladus) algae are encountered (Fig. 5), bryo-
zoa are widely distributed, barnacle plates and the claws of the
ghost-shrimp Callianassa characterize certain beds, starfish ossicles
are locally common, and certain pelecypods and gastropods that had
shells of calcite rather than aragonite are minor rock-forming
constituents. In many cases the present composition of the rock
in terms of skeletal material is not a true reflection of the compo-
sition of the original sediment, as aragonitic skeletal matter, in-
cluding most of the pelecypod and gastropod shells as well as the
occasional remains of corals, has been removed by solution, leaving
only molds. If these be taken into account, the Mollusca in some
beds rivalled the Foraminifera as agents of sedimentation.
In most rocks the calcitic remains have undergone considerable


49






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 5.-Thin-section of limestone. Milio-
lid Foraminifera, a dasycladacean alga, and
other skeletal remains embedded in dense past;
former pore-spaces filled with coarsely crystal-
line secondary calcite. Porosity shown in black.
x8. Lower part, Inglis member Moodys Branch
formation. Taken from boulders in borrow pits
south of Gulf Hammock, Levy County.


Figure 6.-Thin-section of dolomitic lime-
stone. Chalky shell fragments (light stippling)
grade into paste (heavy stippling). Clear
rhombs of dolomite appear to be replacing paste
and possibly filling some former voids. X 42.
Ocala limestone, western Dixie County.


alteration, in some cases
so much as to render
them unidentifiable. The
degree of alteration de-
pends chiefly upon the
composition of the orig-
inal particles. Miliolids
and other small Fora-
minifera have lost the
chitinouss" organic
matter, and therewith
the coherence, of their
tests; the latter have
become chalky, and may
remain distinct from
the embedding matrix
or may blend with it
(Figs. 3, 5). Bryozoa
and large Foraminifera
appear to be more re-
sistant to alteration
(Fig. 7) but commonly
are also soft and chalky.
The calcitic remains of
mollusks, algae, and
echinoderms generally
show little alteration,
retaining their original
internal structure.

Past e. Extremely
fine-grained calcite,
termed calcite paste,
commonly makes up 20
to 50 per cent of the
rock, but is less con-
spicuous than the skele-
tal material. It is gen-
erally chalky (Fig. 3),
but in a few cases it
is firmly consolidated
(Fig. 5). While much


50






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Thin-sections

Thin-sections were prepared by the writer for representative
rock-types. In order to facilitate pore-space studies, most of the
rock slices were impregnated, prior to sectioning, with bioplastic,
a synthetic polyester resin, stained with methylene orange. The
thin-sections were studied under the petrographic microscope, and
were quantitatively analyzed according to the Delesse-Rosiwal
method, by the use of a Wentworth stage.

DATA OBTAINED
Data derived from microscopic study of hand-specimens and
thin sections

Examination of the rocks under the binocular microscope, and
in thin-section under the petrographic microscope, yielded numer-
ous data on composition. The carbonate rocks studied are com-
plex in makeup, and are consequently subject to much variation.
However, three major classes may be recognized on the basis of
mineral composition: rocks composed mainly of (1) calcite (here
called limestone), (2) calcite and dolomite dolomiticc limestone),
and (3) dolomite (dolomite rock). The great bulk of rocks studied
are limestones (1), and dolomite rocks (3).
Within these major classes the chief variables seen under the
microscope are structure (presence or absence of lamination),
texture, porosity, color, fossil content, and the amount of carbona-
ceous matter and other "impurities."

TRUE LIMESTONES

Composition.

The limestones are largely composed of three calcareous con-
stituents, skeletal material, paste, and secondary calcite. These
occur in varying proportions.

Skeletal material. Most of the limestones studied are coquinas,
or "shell sands," in the sense that they appear to be composed
largely of skeletal material in the form of calcite shells, tests, and
ossicles, or fragments thereof. Actually there is also generally
considerable (but less apparent) paste and secondary calcite, which
fills the shells and cements the skeletal material. A few samples







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 9


Figure 7.-A. Thin section of foraminiferal (camerinid and orbitoid) lime-
stone, showing interstitial pore-space (black) and cementation of fossils by
secondary calcite (clear). x 42. From the Ocala limestone of western Dixie
County (subsurface).
B. Thin section of dolomite rock formed by replacement of foraminiferal
limestone. Note crudely preserved in lower center of field. Interstitial pore
space appears to have been maintained. x 13. From the Ocala limestone of
western Dixie County (subsurface).

of this material is of primary origin many thin-sections show a
gradation from recognizable, clearly bounded fossil shells through
shells with indistinct borders into paste with phantom fossils, in-
dicating that at least some of the paste is derived from the dia-
genetic break-down of skeletal material.

Secondary calcite. In rocks composed largely of skeletal matter,
with open spaces between the fossils, a thin crust of calcite crystals
commonly covers and cements the fossil particles (Figs. 3, 7). In
some cases cavities in the rock are partly or completely filled with
secondary calcite. Thus in the case of the limestone boulders of the
Moodys Branch formation found south of Gulf Hammock, the
molds left by aragonitic shells have been filled with coarsely crys-
talline calcite, producing casts of the originals.

In many cases the calcite paste grades into more coarsely
crystalline material which is evidently the result of recrystalliza-
tion, and in one bed (Fig. 4) the paste appears to have com-
pletely gone over into translucent, buff, coarsely crystalline calcite.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


A
Figure 8.--Thin sections of massive dolomite rock.
A. Finely crystalline dolomite (stippled), and crude fossil molds lined
with medium-crystalline dolomite. Pore-space shown in black. X 42. From
a bed 5-6 feet above base of the Inglis member Moodys Branch formation,
at the power dam on the Withlacoochee River, Levy County. See Vernon
(1951, D. 129)
B. Medium crystalline minutely vugular dolomite rock. X 42. Sample
taken two feet below the other one (A).

Non-carbonate constituents.

Many of the samples contain such small quantities of non-
carbonate matter that it is not apparent under the binocular micro-
scope and not identifiable in thin-section. Other samples are mottled
with smali quantities of pyrite, and many surface samples show
a limonite stain. Some of the rocks contain appreciable quantities
of carbonaceous matter (up to 12.4 per cent), and one of them
contains 3.7 per cent clay.

Porosity.
The two main types of visible pore-space are intersticial pores
between the constituent skeletal particles of coquina limestones,
and secondary cavities formed by the solution of aragonitic shell-
matter. In addition, there is intergranular pore-space, which is
too fine to be visible in thin-section. Visible porosity measured in
ten thin-sections ranges from 0 to 13 per cent, and values of 5 to 13
per cent aie representative of the rock-types most commonly en-
countered.


52






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 9


Sedimentary structure.

With the exception of a single, finely laminated bed, the rocks
are characterized by a conspicuous lack of sedimentary structures.
There are few well-defined bedding planes, but a rude type of
massive stratification is produced by vertical changes in compo-
sition and cementation. The above mentioned exception is a bed
in the Avon Park limestone, exposed at the base of the Lebanon
quarry, and consists chiefly of calcite paste which is laminated with
thin layers of carbonaceous matter.

Color.
Most of the unweathered limestones are white to cream colored.
Some show a bluish-gray mottling due to pyrite. A few limestones
from the Avon Park are buff colored, probably because of finely
divided organic matter.

Changes on weathering.
Weathering generally causes "case hardening" of the rocks by
deposition of mineral matter at exposed surfaces. Some of the
limestones are partly replaced by silica, to form after continued
weathering and leaching a dull white, porous, friable mass of fine
grained quartz, containing crude molds and pseudomorphs of the
original calcite constituents. Weathering also commonly stains
the rock with limonite.

DOLOMITIC LIMESTONES

Limestone composed of a mixture of dolomite and calcite grains
are less common than nearly pure limestones or dolomite rocks, and
the examples found have come from zones of vertical or horizontal
transition from one rock type to the other. Thus, a fifteen-foot
sequence of cores from the Avon Park limestone of Dixie County
shows a white miliolid limestone at the base that is overlain by simi-
lar rock containing scattered buff dolomite rhombs in the chalky
paste between the miliolids. Above this a buff, finely crystalline, fri-
able dolomite rock which retains abundant white miliolids of chalky
calcite, grades upward into similar dolomite rock from which the
miliolid calcite has been removed, leaving a large amount of cellular
pore space.
Another dolomitic limestone shows the calcite paste and some


53






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


of the chalky skeletal elements to be invaded and largely replaced
by dolomite rhombs (Fig. 6).

DOLOMITE ROCKS

Composition and texture.
The dolomite rocks consist chiefly of fine (about 0.01 mm.) to
medium grained (about 0.1 mm), buff colored, anhedral to rhombic
crystals of dolomite. In some rocks these crystals are interlocked
to produce a very hard
-. 'I sedimentary "marble."
'^." i In many of the finer
^i" grained rocks the crys-
r, :^ tals are merely in loose
:..... contact, and the rock is
4W. 1. friable.
,'t. J W A< 4'/' hir de i by the
...''. -' !In addition to tex-
Yt '.....:*: ture determined by the
L :s :.' size of the component
crystals, most of the
.i^'-r ^ dolomite rocks exhibit
',,..^ : texture which is inheri-
ted from the parent sed-
-iment. This inherited
texture may be posi-
Figure 9.-Thin section of dolomite rock tive or negative. The
derived from a limestone which contained abun-
dant camerinids. Pore-space shown in black, positive inherited tex-
Dolomitization has produced a rock of tightly ture is shown in Fig.
innerlocking, medium grained dolomite 'crystals
with irregular intercrystalline pore-spaces, and 7-B, a case in which
has obliterated the character of the parent sedi- skeletal constituents
ment except for the camerinids, which are pre-eta consuen
served as cavities (external molds). x8. From (larger Foraminifera)
the Ocala limestone of western Dixie County have been replaced by
(subsurface).
dolomite, and the inter-
stices have remained open. The negative inherited texture is more
common; in this, paste and pore-space of the original sediment have
become converted to dolomite, and former skeletal material is
represented by pore space (Figs. 8-9). In some cases dolomitization
leaves little or no pore space, and inherited texture in obscure,
represented by phantom outlines of skeletal elements which may
be observed only in thin-section.
Under the binocular microscope and in thin-section many of







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 9 55











-'l -.--
Sire 1.-olised seio o a seien o lied oloie
























rock. Note interbedding with thin beds of "massive" types, from
which burrows extend downward. X 1.6. From the Avon Park lime-
stone at the Lebanon Quarry, Levy County, see Vernon (1951, pp.
108-110) for section.

the dolomite rocks show little in the way of impurities except for
very finely divided material which clouds the sections and is com-
monly concentrated at crystal boundaries. Some rocks are speckled
gray or black with pyrite, and others are speckled gray with
minute quantities of "glauconite." These minerals are discussed
below, under the heading of insoluble residues. Carbonaceous mat-
.a -..L



































ter is present in small quantities in virtually all of the dolomite
rocks and is sufficiently abundant in some to be apparent in hand-
specimens and thin-sections. It occurs in amorphorus form, or as
C /7-


























fossil twigs and leaves of land plants.









Porosity.

In ten samples analyzed in thi n-section, visible porosity ranged
from 2 to 39 pey cent. Porosity occurs as original intersticial
Inr ta-le
bro 2Pr
L~~-4,
~S~T~L~c~C- ~ r
C~isr~Zv
... .............








th dlmie oksshwlitl n h wy fimurtesexet o
very ~ finl ivddmaeil hc cod thescin n scm
monl conentatedat cystl bondares.Somerock ar spekle
gryorbak ih yiead tes r sekedgaywt
miut qatiie o glucnie" hee ierlsar isuse
beow ude tehedig f nslbl rsiue. aboacou mt







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


porosity inherited from the parent limestone, as fossil mold porosity,
and as intercrystalline porosity (the latter commonly not visible in
thin-section). Fossil mold
porosity is even more
common in the dolomite
rocks than it is in the
limestones as not only
aragonitic skeletal re-
mains but also those
originally composed, of
calcite are most com-
Smonly represented as
i molds in the dolomite
rocks.

Sedimentary structure.
.* Like the limestones,
the dolomite rocks occur
Figure 11.-Thin section of laminated dolo- in two faces: the mas-
mite rock. Note fine texture with scattered
patches of medium-crystalline dolomite (cavity sive and the laminated.
killings) Organic laminae shown in black, The latter is not a rarity
pore-space by parallel lines, x 100. Sample e er a rari
from Avon Park limestone at the Lebanon like its calcareous equiva-
quarry, Levy County, for section see Vernon lent but occurs widely in
(1951, pp. 108-110).
the Avon Park limestone
(Figs. 10-11). The lamination is produced by the alternation of
thin beds of dolomite crystals and carbonaceous material. The car-
bonate layers are from 1 to 10 or more millimeters thick, largely
composed of finely crystalline dolomite (the crystals being generally
less than 0.01 mm. in diameter), but containing patches of some-
what coarser crystals. The carbonaceous material occurs as dis-
continuous laminae which may be as closely spaced as twelve in
one millimeter. Commonly these laminated beds of fine dolomite
are interstratified with thin beds of medium crystalline dolomite
(crystals generally ranging from 0.015 to 0.04 mm. in diameter).
These medium-grained beds are devoid of organic lamination, and
show much fossil porosity. They correspond to the usual massive
type of dolomite rock of the type illustrated in Figure 8.

Color.
The dolomite rocks studied are universally buff to brown. Some
show additional gray'mottling due to pyrite, "glauconite," or both,


56







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 9


and many are speckled or laminated with black carbonaceous
matter.

Compaction phenomena.
Whereas the limestones examined show no evidence of com-
paction after deposition, shells and echinoid tests in some (but not
all) of the dolomite rocks are flattened parallel to the bedding.
Thus abundant molds of Cassidulus (Fig. 12) occurring in a bed
of unconsolidated, fine grained dolomite rock (Vernon, 1951, pp.
129-30, bed 4) show compaction of up to 30 per cent. The molds
are marked by jagged fractures which follow the sutures of echi-
noid tests, indicating that the tests were collapsed as compaction
occurred. The tests subsequently were removed by solution.


A








Figure 12.-Deformed internal molds of echinoids (Cassidulus) from
dolomite rock of the Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation, at the power
dam on the Withlacoochee River, Bed 4 of Locality L-138, Vernon (1951,
p. 129).

Data Derived from Insoluble Residues
By dissolving and removing the carbonate portion of the rock,
constituents that make up only a fraction of a per cent of the rock,
and that are rarely seen in the rock itself, may be concentrated
and made available for study. These constituents may be separated
into three groups: (1) mineral grains derived from pre-existing
rocks, generally brought from afar, termed allogenic; (2) minerals
precipitated in place from solution, termed authigenic; and (3)
organic (carbonaceous) material.

ALLOGENIC MINERALS

Clastic quartz.
Quartz sand and silt comprise the greater part of most residues.


57






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Sand. Sand grains that lie free in the cavities of cores and
surface samples represent contamination of the Eocene limestones
from later Tertiary and Quaternary sources. Pleistocene sands
lie directly on the limestone over most of the area studied, and are
slowly being removed from the surface by sifting into solution
channels and other pore spaces of the underlying rock. In the pro-
cess of coring, some sand may have been pumped into the cores
with the drilling fluid, and some sand also may have been introduced
by later handling of the cores. No sand grains were seen to be
firmly embedded in the rocks, hence none are believed to be original
constituents of the sediments.

Silt. Some silt is probably derived from the same sources as
the sand, and represents contamination. Thin-sections and analyses
of tight, uncontaminated rocks indicate that there are also small
quantities (fractions of one per cent) of quartz silt which are
original constituents of the sediments.
Heary Minerals.
Ilmenite, zircon, garnet, and other "heavy minerals" accompany
the quartz sand and silt in variable proportions. As in the case
of the quartz, the majority of these grains represent contamination
from younger, overlying sediments, though it is likely that among
the silt-sized particles there are some which represent original con-
stituents of the Eocene rocks.

Clay Minerals.
All of the rocks studied contain insoluble matter in the size-
range of clay; some of this probably consists of true clay minerals.
In most cases this material comprises less than one per cent of the
rock, though the laminated limestone bed and the clayey limestone
bed of the Avon Park limestone in the Lebanon quarry (see Vernon,
1951, pp. 108-109) yielded 7.4 and 3.7 per cent of incombustible
clay-size material respectively. Occasional flakes of clay in the
coarse residues are due to contamination from Miocene and Plio-
cene (?) sediments that probably covered the entire area, and that
have been removed except for thin remnants.

AUTHIGENIC MINERALS

In addition to the authigenic grains of calcite and dolomite that
compose the bulk of the rocks studied, and that have been discussed
above, minor quantities of other authigenic minerals are found


58







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 9


in the insoluble residues. The authigenic minerals may be divided
into those formed before burial, called syngenetic, and those formed
after burial, called epigenetic. Both types are represented.

Pyrite.
Forty-nine per cent of the subsurface samples and three per
cent of the surface samples studied contained pyrite. This is
generally finely crystalline, and may occur either in scattered
crystals or in spongy aggregates of greenish gray or dull brassy
appearance. Small euhedra of pyrite are commonly seen in pellets
of "glauconite." While most of the pyrite aggregates are irregular,
some represent internal molds of Foraminifera, especially of milio-
lids. As little as 0.01 per cent pyrite may impart a gray mottling
to the rock. The discrepancy in the occurrence frequency of pyrite
in surface and subsurface samples (tables 2-3) is due to the
alteration of pyrite to limonite in the oxidizing environment at the
surface.

TABLE 2.
OCCURRENCE FREQUENCY OF PYRITE, "GLAUCONITE," AND
CARBONACEOUS MATTER IN SUBSURFACE SAMPLES
(Figures indicate the percentage of limestone and dolomite rock
samples in which the constituent was found.)
Limestones Dolomite rocks
(113 samples) (70 samples)
Pyrite 38 70
"Glauconite" 22 41
Carbonaceous matter 62 97
None of these three constituents 29 0


TABLE 3
OCCURRENCE FREQUENCY OF PYRITE, "GLAUCONITE," AND
CARBONACEOUS MATTER IN SURFACE SAMPLES
Limestones Dolomite rocks
Pyrite 2 4
"Glauconite" 26 42
Carbonaceous matter 4 88
None of these constituents 70 8

"Glauconite."
Among the most conspicuous elements of the coarse residues,
though rarely present in amounts exceeding a fraction of one per-
cent, is a soft, slightly translucent, clay-like substance. Many of the
grains are internal molds of foraminiferal tests (Fig. 13), and


59






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


some have been observed in the interior of
echinoids (Peronella). The color varies from
sea-green and grass green to white and
brown; intermediate shades of olive green
and olive gray are most common. The oc-
currence of this mineral or group of min-
erals suggests glauconite, as does the green
Figure 13.-"Glau- color of some samples. The optical properties
conite," internal molds could not be studied in detail because of the
of foraminiferal cham-
bers, x 30. Moodys extremely small size of the crystal units
Branch formation, which compose the grains. Some of the grains
Dixie Couny.appeared optically isotropic (perhaps because
of crypto-crystalline structure) whereas others showed some bire-
fringence. The refractive indices of the grains diverged in some
cases widely from those reported for glauconite. The latter shows
a variation of na from 1.590 to 1.612, of nf from 1.609 to 1.643
and of ny from 1.610 to 1.644. The highest indices observed in
the insoluble residues were 1.590, and the pale grains showed in-
dices below that of balsam (1.537). Thus both true glauconite and
the "glauconite" of the residues studied show a wide range in re-
fractive index, but the range of the latter lies entirely below that
of the former. That this discrepancy may be partly due to changes
caused by the hydrochloric acid used in the preparation of the
residues is attested by the fact that "glauconite" grains which
were not treated with acid (seen in thin-sections of the rocks) all
showed indices higher than that of balsam (1.537).
Attempts to obtain an x-ray diffraction pattern failed, the pat-
tern showing only pyrite and quartz which were also present in
the sample. Not enough material could be obtained to run either
a thermal diffraction analysis or a chemical analysis. Although the
material has not been positively identified as glauconite, its af-
finities to that mineral have not been disproved. In general habit
it resembles glauconite more than any other mineral described, and
is therefore here referred to as "glauconite." Its occurrence fre-
quency is shown on tables 2 and 3.

Secondary Silica.
Secondary silica is widely distributed in the coarse residues, and
is occasionally seen in thin-sections. It takes the form of white
spongy, lacy masses (Fig. 14) consisting of variable proportions of
chalcedony and quartz. In some cases the quartz predominates and
forms more massive subhedral drusy aggregates while in other


60







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 9


cases miliolids, echinoid fragments and other
rock constituents have been crudely replaced.
The distribution of authigenic silica does not
appear to be correlated with either strati-
graphic horizons or the occurrence of other
residues.
Limonite.
In the subsurface, limonite is absent, or Figure 14.-Authi-
genic silica, x 10. Avon
present in very small quantities. Most of the Park limestone, W-
samples that contained little or no carbona- 1197, 135.1-144.3 feet.
Marion County.
ceous matter yielded slimes colored various
shades of ochreous yellow and orange brown, by traces of limonite.
Many of the rocks on the surface are stained with larger quantities
of this material, derived from the weathering of pyrite or intro-
duced from overlying deposits.

CARBONACEOUS MATTER.

Some of the samples examined contain large quantities of car-
bonaceous matter, up to 12.4 per cent of the entire rock (laminated
limestone from the Lebanon Quarry). Insoluble residues show
the presence of small quantities of organic (carbonaceous) matter
in many rocks in which it is not apparent in hand specimen or thin-
section. Virtually all of the dolomite rocks and half of the lime-
stones studied contained some carbonaceous material, of which
the following types were recognized:

(1) Very finely divided matter, which slowly settles out of
suspension, has a greasy feel, and is highly adhesive. (2) Shreds or
irregular filamentous aggregates, visible at magnifications above
100 diameters. (3) Massive brown consolidated aggregates in
which no structure is visible. (4) Plant tissues in various stages
of preservation, some showing cellular structure: fragments of
leaves and stems of land plants and sea weeds. (5) Pollen grains
of various types. (6) Tiny, clear, spheroidal bodies that are in-
soluble in alcohol, ether, or butyl acetate, and take a deep brownish
red stain when treated with iodine in a medium of hydrochloric
acid. (7) Organic matter from the tests of invertebrate animals,
such as chitinous linings of foraminiferal tests (obtained in acetic
acid preparations from the laminated limestone of the Lebanon
quarry).






62 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Distribution of lithologies and insoluble residues

The distribution of limestones and dolomite rock is essentially in-
dependent of the formation boundaries drawn on faunal and minor
lithologic changes (Figs. 2-15). Other characters of the carbonates
PLAFAYrrTT LAFAY TT LAFAYETTE D-< O
S0DX/E j ALACHUA O/XIE ALACHUA / /XIE ( ALACHUA

I. -...-(, ....... I.T- .












lM4Tou4 0. MooPV'C (yCTRicTOD)
MA oRMA 0MA MM-R -A















VZo M AlO MA
V.. U CIT.US---








facies are conjectural.
I -- :Z\- -.

Nearly aDo. JhEOrAN t of allogenic
_JPA3C- PASCO-- -
i -.------------

youner beds. Authienic insoluble residues and organic matter

Avo PAR, IGUIAVMO.NAR OcALALI"OKK LIM
LIM"xTou.; O MOODYV' (ACTRlICTt-D)
BIRAIWC l 40)D .\VILI031ON
4ORMAI10O1 MtMPMR OU_
AOODY'q P RA c
4 oAMAT mOW
Figure 15.-The real distribution of limestone and dolomite rocks of the
three stratigraphic units. Dashed areas are limestone, stippled areas, dolomite
rock. Due to scarcity of available geologic sections the boundaries of the
faces are conjectural.

such as lamination and faunal composition appear to be more
nearly related to time lines. The distribution of allogenic minerals
could not be determined because of excessive contamination from
younger beds. Authigenic insoluble residues and organic matter
are more closely correlated with the type of carbonate (calcite or
dolomite) than with position in the stratigraphic column.

AVON PARK LIMESTONE

The upper portion of the Avon Park limestone is represented
by dolomite rock with some interbedded limestone in Dixie, Levy,
and Citrus counties, and by limestone in the Pasco-Hernando County
area. The rocks are partly massive, partly laminated. The lami-
natedi facies occurs near the top of the formation in Dixie, Levy and







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 9


Citrus counties but has not been recognized in the Moodys Branch
formation or the Ocala limestone. The distribution of authigenic
constituents is shown in Table 4.

TABLE 4
OCCURRENCE FREQUENCY OF RESIDUES IN AVON PARK
LIMESTONE
(For explanation, see Table 2, p. 59)
Percentage of Percentage of
limestones dolomite rocks
(27 samples) (36 samples)
Pyrite 59 83
"Glauconite" 22 42
Carbonaceous matter 89 95
None of these constituents 0 0

Organic matter is more widespread and occurs in greater quan-
tities in the Avon Park limestone than in either the Moodys Branch
formation or the Ocala limestone, and is present not only in dis-
seminated form, but also as fossil leaves and twigs. The massive
limestones of the Avon Park contain abundant miliolids, some
of which reach larger size than those of the overlying formations.
Among the larger Foraminifera, valvulinids are prominent.

INGLIS MEMBER OF MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION

In western Dixie County the Inglis member of the Moodys
Branch formation is entirely represented by gray, mottled ("glau-
conitic" and pyritic), slightly carbonaceous, hard dolomite rock.
In central and eastern Dixie County the upper portion is a massive
miliolid limestone. Over much of Levy County the lithology is
limestone, with traces of "glauconite," the lower portion contain-
ing abundant crab claws, mollusk molds and echinoids, whereas
the upper is a miliolid coquina. Along the Citrus-Levy County

TABLE 5
OCCURRENCE FREQUENCY OF RESIDUES IN THE INGLIS
MEMBER, MOODYS BRANCH FORMATION
(For explanation, see Table 2, p. 59)
Percentage of Percentage of
limestones dolomite rocks
(42 samples) (23 samples)
Pyrite 19 52
"Glauconite" 17 61
Carbonaceous matter 40 100
None of these three constituents 47 0


63






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


border, the basal portion of the Inglis member grades into massive,
fine grained, poorly consolidated dolomite rock containing pyrite
and "glauconite." In the Hernando-Pasco County area the Inglis
member is present as a pure, fairly hard, mollusk-bearing miliolid
limestone. The only large Foraminifera which reach local promi-
nence as rock builders are comparatively small valvulinids.

OCALA LIMESTONE AND WILLISTON MEMBER OF MOODYS
BRANCH FORMATION

At the time the analyses were made the rocks now classified
as the Williston member of the Moodys Branch formation were
considered to be basal Ocala limestone by the writer. Samples from
these beds are therefore grouped with samples of the Ocala lime-
stone, which they resemble lithologically more than they resemble
the underlying Inglis member.
The Ocala limestone and Williston member of the Moodys
Branch formation are represented by true limestones in the entire
area except in western Dixie County. Here the Williston member
passes into carbonaceous beds of dolomite rock, and the Ocala
limestones are interbedded with similar rocks. The limestone are
massive, and tend to be more chalky than the limestones of the
Inglis member of the Moodys Branch formation. Many of them
are composed largely of altered small Foraminifera (including
miliolids) and shell fragments. Much of the Ocala limestone con-
tains abundant large Foraminifera (camerinids and orbitoids),
or mollusk remains. In the Pasco-Hernando County area the
Ocala limestone becomes slightly "glauconitic" and slightly car-
bonaceous. The distribution of authigenic residues is summarized
in Table 6.

TABLE 6
OCCURRENCE FREQUENCY OF RESIDUES IN THE OCALA
LIMESTONE AND WILLISTON MEMBER OF THE MOODYS
BRANCH FORMATION
(For explanation, see Table 2, p. 59)
Percentage of Percentage of
limestones dolomite rocks
(44 samples) (11 samples)
Pyrite 39 64
"Glauconite" 34 0
Carbonaceous matter 43 100
None of these three constituents 41 0


(4






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 9


INTERPRETATION
It was hoped that the data obtained would furnish new means
of correlation, and would shed new light on the origin of the rocks
and thereby on the conditions which existed in the region at the
time when the rocks were deposited.
Significance of data in correlation
No widespread zones of distinctive minerals were discovered.
Allogenic minerals could not be used because of excessive con-
tamination from younger beds. Organic matter, pyrite, and "glau-
conite" show great differences in vertical distribution in different
parts of the area (Figs. 2-15). In some cases the occurrence of these
constituents appears to be closely related to the occurrence of
dolomite, which was found to cut across the formation boundaries
established largely on faunal differences. Yet, the following gen-
eralizations can be made: (1) Throughout the area, the top of
the Avon Park formation is characterized by more carbonaceous
matter than is present in the overlying beds. (2) Over large parts
of Dixie County, the dolomite rocks of the Inglis member, Moodys
Branch formation are distinctively mottled gray by pyrite, and
may be differentiated on that basis from the overlying dolomite
rocks of the Ocala limestone. (3) In Levy and Dixie counties the
Ocala limestone is largely devoid of "glauconite," which is present
in the underlying rocks. This situation is reversed in the Hernando-
Pasco County area (Fig. 2). Zones established on the presence or
abundance of carbonaceous matter, pyrite, or glauconite may be
found useful for detailed subsurface work in limited areas, es-
pecially in thoroughly dolomitized sections. On a regional scale
correlation of these beds on the basis of mineral content does not
appear to be feasible.
ROCK ORIGIN
Limestones and dolomite rocks are each represented by a mas-
sive and by a laminated facies. Textures, fossils, and pore-space con-
figuration indicate that most of these rocks were derived from two
types of parent sediment: massive calcitic and aragonitic "shell
sands," and lime mud laminated with organic matter. Both of
these sediments find modern counterparts in the sediments being
deposited in the region of the Florida Keys.
Massive limestone.
The massive limestones are diagenetic alteration products of


65






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


calcitic and aragonitic shell sands, containing variable amounts
of fine, chalky calcareous paste. Carbonaceous matter was present
in some cases, absent in others. The abundance of miliolids and of
large Foraminifera such as camerinids, orbitoids, and large valvuli-
ni(d, as well as the sporadic occurrence of calcareous algae indicate
deposition in warm waters, within the zone of light (maximum
depth 200 meters). Lack of stratification may be accounted for by
uniform sedimentation and by mixing of the sediment by burrowing
organisms; one of the latter, the ghost shrimp Callianassa, has
left abundant remains in part of the limestone of the Inglis member,
Moodys Branch formation. The abundant enthonic fauna and the
general scarcity of carbonaceous matter indicate deposition on well-
aerated bottoms.
The original sediment underwent considerable change. In
some cases "glauconite" formed in the empty chambers of foramini-
feral tests, while pyrite crystallized in or between the tests. The
aragonite, present mainly as the chief constituent of most mollus-
can shells, was in all cases removed in solution, leaving shell molds.
Calcite, on the other hand was precipitated from solution to form
secondary incrustations upon the original grains of the sediment,
thus cementing the loose sediment into rock. The less stable shells
disintegrated to chalk and in many cases blended with the paste.
In other cases the paste recrystallized, to grade into the secondary
calcite.

Laminated limestone.
The single example of the laminated limestone faces, from the
Avon Park limestone of the Lebanon Quarry (Vernon, 1951, p.
109, bed 2), is a virtually unaltered sediment of unconsolidated cal-
careous mud with laminations of carbonaceous matter. Small Fora-
minifera are present, but form only a small percentage of the
sediment. They are so well preserved that treatment with acetic
acid yields the chitinous chamber-linings of entire tests. The large
amount of organic matter, including what appear to be branches
of land plants, suggests deposition in shallow water, protected from
waves and currents. The writer has observed sediments of this
type around mangrove islands in Florida Bay.

Dolomite rocks.
The occurrence of the textural features of the limestones in
most of the dolomite rocks is strong indication that the latter are
largely a result of secondary dolomitization of limestone sediments.


66






REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS NO. 9


In this process, rhombs of dolomite appear to form in the calcite
paste which lies between the shell fragments, foraminiferal tests
and other.skeletal constituents. Various stages of this process
are exhibited by samples of dolomitic limestones, ranging from
limestones with scattered dolomite rhombs in the paste to those in
which all of the paste has been dolomitized, and only the fossils
remain as calcite. Dolomitization may proceed beyond this, to
replace the fossils, and to fill the pore-space with dolomite crystals;
this results in a tight, hard rock of interlocking dolomite crystals,
of the type found in the deposits of the Moodys Branch formation
and the Ocala limestone of Dixie County. In most of the dolomite
rocks studied, dolomitization has gone only to partial completion,
and has been followed by solution of the remaining calcite, re-
sulting in a rock riddled by the molds of formerly calcareous fossils.
In some cases this removal of calcite has led to compaction of the
rock, as shown by up to 30 per cent flattening of enclosed fossils
(Fig. 12). Alteration of the rock may proceed by the deposition of
dolomite on the walls of cavities. The dolomite rhombs thus formed
tend to be larger and clearer than those which replace the paste.
They convert the fossil molds and other cavities into microscopic
geodes, and may fill them entirely.
All of the dolomite rocks studied may be explained in this
manner, as penecontemporaneous or epigenetic alteration products
of calcitic and aragonitic sediments. However, the question arises
as to whether some may not equally well be accounted for by
other processes. It is conceivable that some of the fine-grained,
friable dolomite rock showing little or no inherited texture was
formed as a primary chemical precipitate, or as a plastic sediment
derived from the physical breakdown of older dolomites possibly
exposed on nearby islands. If the sediment had accumulated as a
dolomite silt, either of chemical or plastic origin, then the rocks
might be expected to show some of the following features:
(1) Primary sedimentary structures such as bedding, ripple
marks, and cross-lamination.
(2) Valvulinid and other foraminiferal tests of dolomite. Ag-
glutinating organisms would have built their tests of dolomite,
picked up from the bottom.
Well defined bedding is shown only by the platy facies of these
rocks, laminated with organic matter. The absence of other sedi-
mentary structures suggests that these fine-grained friable dolomite
rocks are probably not of plastic origin. The fact that arenaceous






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Foraminifera such as the various valvulinids (Eodictyoconus,
Coskitolina, Dictyoconus, Discorinopsis and others) are found
preserved as molds only is taken as definite evidence that they built
their tests of calcite rather than dolomite, and that the bottom
sediment was chiefly composed of calcite.
Furthermore, it seems unwise, at the present state of our
knowledge, to postulate a large-scale precipitation of primary dolo-
mite on the sea floor, in the absence of evidence (1) from the mod-
ern ocean bottom (where such occurrences have not been observed),
(2) from the chemical laboratory (where dolomite has not yet
been formed under conditions approaching those of the ocean bot-
tom).
It therf.fore seems most reasonable to conclude that the dolomite
rocks studied are the result of secondary (possibly penecontemp-
oraneous) alteration of normal calcite and aragonite sediments,
the massive dolomites having been derived from the massive lime-
stones, the laminated dolomites from the laminated limestones.
The when, how, and why of dolomitization remain among the
most perplexing problems in sedimentation. A theoretical approach
to the problem will not yield conclusive evidence until the true
solubility constants of dolomite have been determined and until
chemists ire able to predict solubility relationships in such complex
solutions as sea water and connate waters. Thus the study of
(dolomitization is at present limited largely to an empirical approach.
The data furnished by microscopic study of the rocks and the in-
soluble residues were scanned for possible correlation of any fea-
tures with dolomitization, which might yield clues as to the en-
vironment in which dolomitization occurred. Such correlation was
found in the occurrence of carbonaceous matter. Out of a total of
70 subsurface samples of dolomite rock, 68 (97 per cent) yielded car-
bonaceous matter in the insoluble residues. Of the remaining two,
one contained pyrite (indicative of the presence of reducing sub-
stances, presumably organic matter, in the original sediment). The
distribution of these samples may be compared on Tables 2, 8, 4,
5, and 6. Only 88 per cent of the dolomite rock samples from sur-
face exposures yielded carbonaceous matter; this is believed to be
due to surface oxidation of organic matter, and to the difficulty of
recognizing small quantities of carbonaceous matter in slimes dis-
colored by limonite. Among limestones from the subsurface 62
per cent contained carbonaceous matter, among surface limestones
only 4 per cent (Tables 2 and 3).


68







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 9


In summary, carbonaceous matter is present in virtually all
dolomite rocks but only in part of the limestones. This suggests that
the presence of carbonaceous matter may have been necessary for
dolomitization to take place. It seems likely that bacterial decompo-
sition products such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, or am-
monia, may have played a decisive role in the chemical changes
within the original sediments, which led to the transmutation of
calcitic and aragonitic shell sands and muds into dolomite rock.

BIBLIOGRAPHY


Allen, E. T.
1912
Ailing, H. L.


(and J. L. Crenshaw and J. Johnston). The mineral sulphides of
iron: Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 33, pp. 169-236.


1943 The use of microlithologies as illustrated by some New York
sedimentary rocks: Geol. Soc. Am., Bull., vol. 66, pp. 737-756.
1946 Quantitative petrology of the Genessee Gorge sediments: Ro-
chester Acad. Soc. Proc. vol. 9, pp. 5-63.
1947 Diagenesis of the Clinton hematite ores of New York: Geol.
Soc. Am., Bull., vol. 58, pp. 991-1018.
Applin, Paul L.
1944 (and Esther R. Applin). Regional subsurface stratigraphy and
structure of Florida and southern Georgia: Am. Assoc. Pe-
troleum Geol., Bull., vol. 28, pp. 1673-1753.
Bramlette, M. N.
1946 The Monterey formation of California and the origin of its
siliceous rocks: U. S. Geol. Surv., Prof. Paper 212.
Cayeux, L.
1916 Introduction h l'6tude p6trographique des roches sedimentaires:
Mdmoires pour servir a l'explication de la carte g6ologique d6-
taill6e de la France, Paris, France.
1929 Les Roches sedimentaires de France-Roches siliceuse: Impri-
merie National, Paris.
Crickmay, G. C.
1945 Petrography of limestones, in Geol9gy of Lau, Fiji, by H. S.
Ladd and J. E. Hoffmeister, Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bull.,
181, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Cooke, C. Wythe
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Surv. Bull. 29.
De Ford, R. K.
1946 Grain size in carbonate rock: Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geol., Bull.,
vol. 30, pp. 1921-1928.
De Sitter, L. U.
1947 Diagenesis of oil field brines: Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geol.,
Bull., vol. 31, pp. 2030-2040.
Galliher, E. W.
1935 a Geology of glauconite: Geol. Soc. Am., Bull., vol. 40, pp. 1351-2366.
1935 b Glauconite genesis: Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geol., Bull., vol. 19,
pp. 1569-1601.


Giles, A. W.
1935
Goldich, S. S
1947


Grabau, A,
1913


Boone chert: Geol. Soc. America, Bull., vol. 46, pp. 1815-1878.
(and E. B. Parmelee). Physical and chemical properties of
Ellenburger rocks, Llano County, Texas: Amer. Assoc. Pe-
troleum Geol., Bull., vol. 31, pp. 1982-2020.


W.
Principles of stratigraphy. Seiler, New York.


ol






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


lIadding, A.
1929


The pre-Quaternary rocks of Sweden: Lunds Universitats Ars-
skrift, vol. 25.


Howard, W. V.
1926 A classification of limestone reservoirs: Amer. Assoc. Petroleum
Geol., Bull., vol. 12. pp. 1153-1161.
193(1 (and M. W. David). Development of porosity in limestone:
Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geol., Bull., vol. 20, pp. 1389-1412.
Issatchenko, 1I. [L.
1912 Ueber die ablagerung von schwofligem Eison in den Bakterion:
Hull. de Jard. Imp6r. Botan. d. St. Petersbourg, vol. 12, pp.
134-1139.
Krumbein, W. C.


1938
Krynine, P.
1945
Landes, K.
194,1
Sander, I.
1936

Sorby, H. (
1871)


Steid


(and F. J. Pettijohn). Manual of Sedimentary Petrography.
Appleton-Century Co., New York.
Sediments and the search for oil: Penn. State College, Mineral
Industries Experiment Station Technical Paper 101.
K.
Porosity through dolomitization: Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geol.
Hull., vol. 30, pp. 305-318.
BeitrAge zur Kenntnis der Anlagerungagefdge (Rhytmische
Kalke und Dolomite aus der Trias): Minoralogischo und Pe-
trographische Mitteilungen, vol. 48, pp. 27-139.
On the structure and origin of limestone: Geol. Soc. London,
Proc., vol. 35, pp. 56-95.


Itmann, E.
1911 Evolution of limestone and dolomite: Jour. Geol., vol. 19, pp.
323-345, 393-428.
1917 Origin of dolomite as disclosed by stains and other methods: Geol.
Soc. America, Bull., vol. 28, pp. 481-450.


Sverdrup, II. U.
19.I4 (and M. W. Johnson, and R. II. Fleming). The Oceans: Prentice-
11all.
Twenhofel, W. IH.


19138


(and others). Treatise on sedimentation: Williams and Wilkins
Co. Baltimore.


Van Tuyl, F. M.
19111 The origin of dolomite: Iowa Geol. Survey Ann. Rep., vol. XXV,
pp. 251-421.
Vernon, lobert 0.
1947 (and others). Guidebook of Fifth Field Trip, Southeastern
Geological Society, Tallahassee, Fla.
1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy Counties, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey,
Bull. 33, pp. 1-256.


Zobell, C. E.
1946 a
194(1 b


Marine Microbiology. Chronic Botanica Co., Waltham, Mass.
Studies on redox potential of marine sediments: Amer. Assoc.
Petroleum Geol., Bull., vol. 30, pp. 477-513.


70










FLRD GEOLOSk ( IC SUfRiW


COPYRIGHT NOTICE
[year of publication as printed] Florida Geological Survey [source text]


The Florida Geological Survey holds all rights to the source text of
this electronic resource on behalf of the State of Florida. The
Florida Geological Survey shall be considered the copyright holder
for the text of this publication.

Under the Statutes of the State of Florida (FS 257.05; 257.105, and
377.075), the Florida Geologic Survey (Tallahassee, FL), publisher of
the Florida Geologic Survey, as a division of state government,
makes its documents public (i.e., published) and extends to the
state's official agencies and libraries, including the University of
Florida's Smathers Libraries, rights of reproduction.

The Florida Geological Survey has made its publications available to
the University of Florida, on behalf of the State University System of
Florida, for the purpose of digitization and Internet distribution.

The Florida Geological Survey reserves all rights to its publications.
All uses, excluding those made under "fair use" provisions of U.S.
copyright legislation (U.S. Code, Title 17, Section 107), are
restricted. Contact the Florida Geological Survey for additional
information and permissions.







REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS No. 9


In summary, carbonaceous matter is present in virtually all
dolomite rocks but only in part of the limestones. This suggests that
the presence of carbonaceous matter may have been necessary for
dolomitization to take place. It seems likely that bacterial decompo-
sition products such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, or am-
monia, may have played a decisive role in the chemical changes
within the original sediments, which led to the transmutation of
calcitic and aragonitic shell sands and muds into dolomite rock.

BIBLIOGRAPHY


Allen, E. T.
1912
Ailing, H. L.


(and J. L. Crenshaw and J. Johnston). The mineral sulphides of
iron: Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 33, pp. 169-236.


1943 The use of microlithologies as illustrated by some New York
sedimentary rocks: Geol. Soc. Am., Bull., vol. 66, pp. 737-756.
1946 Quantitative petrology of the Genessee Gorge sediments: Ro-
chester Acad. Soc. Proc. vol. 9, pp. 5-63.
1947 Diagenesis of the Clinton hematite ores of New York: Geol.
Soc. Am., Bull., vol. 58, pp. 991-1018.
Applin, Paul L.
1944 (and Esther R. Applin). Regional subsurface stratigraphy and
structure of Florida and southern Georgia: Am. Assoc. Pe-
troleum Geol., Bull., vol. 28, pp. 1673-1753.
Bramlette, M. N.
1946 The Monterey formation of California and the origin of its
siliceous rocks: U. S. Geol. Surv., Prof. Paper 212.
Cayeux, L.
1916 Introduction h l'6tude p6trographique des roches sedimentaires:
Mdmoires pour servir a l'explication de la carte g6ologique d6-
taill6e de la France, Paris, France.
1929 Les Roches sedimentaires de France-Roches siliceuse: Impri-
merie National, Paris.
Crickmay, G. C.
1945 Petrography of limestones, in Geol9gy of Lau, Fiji, by H. S.
Ladd and J. E. Hoffmeister, Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bull.,
181, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Cooke, C. Wythe
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Surv. Bull. 29.
De Ford, R. K.
1946 Grain size in carbonate rock: Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geol., Bull.,
vol. 30, pp. 1921-1928.
De Sitter, L. U.
1947 Diagenesis of oil field brines: Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geol.,
Bull., vol. 31, pp. 2030-2040.
Galliher, E. W.
1935 a Geology of glauconite: Geol. Soc. Am., Bull., vol. 40, pp. 1351-2366.
1935 b Glauconite genesis: Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geol., Bull., vol. 19,
pp. 1569-1601.


Giles, A. W.
1935
Goldich, S. S
1947


Grabau, A,
1913


Boone chert: Geol. Soc. America, Bull., vol. 46, pp. 1815-1878.
(and E. B. Parmelee). Physical and chemical properties of
Ellenburger rocks, Llano County, Texas: Amer. Assoc. Pe-
troleum Geol., Bull., vol. 31, pp. 1982-2020.


W.
Principles of stratigraphy. Seiler, New York.


ol