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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Map
 introduction
 Topography
 Outline of geology
 Water supplies
 Chemical composition of the...
 Summary and conclusions
 Records of wells in Lake Okeechobee...
 Analysis of water from Lake Okeechobee...


FGS FEOL



Ground water in the lake Okeecheebee area, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 2 )
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 Material Information
Title: Ground water in the lake Okeecheebee area, Florida ( FGS: Report of investigations 2 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Report of investigations 2 )
Physical Description: 3 p.l. 31 numb. l. : incl. illus. (map) tables ( 1 fold.) ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Stringfield, V. T ( Victor Timothy ), 1902-
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1933
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Groundwater -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Water-supply -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by V. T. Stringfield.
Bibliography: Bibliographical foot-notes.
General Note: Prepared by the Florida survey in cooperation with the United States Geological survey.
General Note: Mimeographed.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000955567
oclc - 01725012
notis - AER8194
lccn - gs 39000217 revised2
System ID: UF00001186:00001

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Map
        Unnumbered ( 5 )
    introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Topography
        Page 4
        Page 3
    Outline of geology
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Water supplies
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 19
    Chemical composition of the water
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Records of wells in Lake Okeechobee area
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Analysis of water from Lake Okeechobee area
        Page 31
        Copyright
            Copyright
Full Text




FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
George W. Davis
Supervisor of Conservation
GEOLOGICAL DEPARTMENT
Herman Gunter
Assistant Supervisor

*** ********* ****-****X****5**


REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS

NO. 2


* ****** **** **#*# **# x *x


GROUI WATER IN TIE LAKE OIKECHOBEE AREA

FLORIDA

By

V. T. Stringfield


*********** ***** ***********








Prepared in cooperation between the Florida
Survey and the United States Geological
Survey





1933


Third mimeographed
edition, August 1, 3.951











AGRI-
CULTURAL
LIBRARY









CONTENTS


Introduction * * * *

Location * * *

Purpose and scope of investigation

Topography *. * *

Outline of the geology . .

General features . .

Geologic formations . .

Eocene and Miocene rocks .

Ocala limestone .

Tampa limestone .

Hawthorn formation .

Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Re

Caloosahatchee marl .

Fort Thompson formation

Water supplies . . .* .

Surface water . .

Ground water . .

Wells . .

Artesian conditions .


Page

I


. . 1




. S S 900 *14













. 15. .
. . . 6

. . . 13

. . . 13







cent rocks 16


. . . 17

. . . 17

. . . 19

. 0 0 19


* S 0

* 9 0


* 0 5 0

* 0 9

* 5 0 9


Relative resistivity of the water at different depths

Chemical composition of the water . *

Summary and conclusion . . .

Records of wells in the Lake Okeechobee area . .

Analyses of water from the Lake Okeechobee area .


I & a I


* *

* *


* *

* *


* S 0

* 9 0



















GROUND WATER IN THE LAKE OKEECOBEE
AREA, FLORIDA


By


V. T. Stringfield


Shaded portion indicates location
of Lake Okeechobee area.


FLORIDA


SCALE W -O R MSLES


Index Map











Ground water in the Lake Okeechobee area, Florida

Introduction



Location.- The area covered by this report is in the southern

part of the Florida peninsula and consists of parts of Okeechobee, Martin

Palm Beach, Hendry, and Glades Counties that border Lake Okeechobee. It

lies in the northern part of the Florida Everglades.

Purpose and scope of investigation.- The investigation that

forms the basis of this report was made during the latter part of April

1933, in order to obtain information regarding the available ground water

-suitable for domestic and public supplies. This work was undertaken as

a part of a comprehensive investigation of the gound-water resources of

Florida provided by a cooperative agreement between the Florida State

Geological Survey and the United States Geological Survey. The work

is under the direction of Herman Gunter, State geologist, and 0. E. Meinzer,

geologist in charge of the division of ground water of the Federal Sur-

vey. Several reports on the work done in other parts of the State have

been prepared.


Thompson, D. G., and Stringfield,V. T., Ground-water resources of Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Press Bull. 13, April 4, 1931.

Thompson, D. G., Problems of ground-water supply in Florida: American
Water Works Assoc. Jour., vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 2085-2100, December 1931.

Stringfield, V. T., Ground-water resources of Sarasota County, Florida,
and Exploration of artesian wells in Ssaseota,:County, Florida: Florida
Geol. Survey Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth Ann. Repts., 1933.

Stringfield, V. T., Ground-water investigations in Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Bull. 11, 1933.










Within the Lake Okeechobee area there are several towns --

Okeechobee (north side of Lake Okeechobee, in Okeechobee County), Pahokee

and Belle Glade (southeast side of Lake Okeechobee, in Palm Beach County),

Clewiston (south side of Lake Okeechobee, in Hendry County), and Moore

Haven (southwest side of Lake Okeechobee, in Glades County). According

to the Federal census of 1930 the population of Okeechobee was 1,795 and

the population of Pahokee was 2, 256. The other towns had a population of

less than 1,000 each.


There are comparatively few wells in this area, and most of

these yield highly mineralized water. The ground-water supplies available

from wells at the State farm near Belle Glade and several other localities

are not entirely satisfactory, and there is a demand for the development

of most desirable ground-water supplies or systems whereby water may be

obtained from Lake Okeechobee.


In the course of the field work well data and information in re-

gard to the formations penetrated by wells were obtained. The electric

resistance of the water was measured at different depths in several wells

to determine differences in the amount of mineral matter dissolved in the

water and thus to ascertain the depth at which highly mineralized water

enters the wells. Field tests were made of the chloride content of

samples of water from all the wells visited. Samples of water were ob-

tained from representative wells and analyzed in the water-resources labo-

ratory of the United States Geological Survey by S. K. Love.











The writer is indebted to the citizens who have contributed

information to this investigation. Thanks are due especially to Messrs.

A. R. Richardson and R. V. Allison and other state officials at Belle

Glade. Mr. J. Clarence Simpson, of the State Geological Survey, gave

effective assistance in the field work.


Topography

The area slopes gently southward from an altitude of about 35

feet above sea level at Okeechobee and merges into the Everglades. As

stated by Cooke and Mossom-. "The Everglades form a level grassy plain

that slopes gently southward from an altitude of about 18 feet above

sea level near Lake Okeechobee and merges into the mangrove-covered keys

in Florida Bay. This plain is floored with Pliocene shell marl and lime-

stone (Caloosahatchee marl), which is generally covered by 6 or 8 feet of

peaty muck or by a thin layer of Pleistocene limestone. Before their

artificial drainage was undertaken the Everglades were usually flooded,

but now so much of their water is carried off by canals that their higher

parts stand above normal water level."


Lake Okeechobee is a fresh-water body about 35 miles across and

not more than about 15 feet deep. It lies in an original depression in

the floor of the sea that once covered that part of the peninsula. The

Kissimmee River and Taylor Creek flow into the lake on the north side, and

^-....-.... .........m~i----------------------.....-. ^ -.-.-.-^-----------.----

Cooke, C. W., and Mossom, Stuart, Geology of Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Twentieth Ann. Rept., p. 143, 1929.


-3-











Fisheating Creek empties into the lake on the west side. St. Lucie, West

Palm Beach, Hillsborough, North New River, and Miami Canals extend from

Lake Okeechobee to the Atlantic Ocean. On the west the Caloosahatchee

Canal connects the lake with the headwaters of the Caloosahatchee River,

which drains westward into the Gulf of Mexico. On the northwest side of

the lake the Indian Prairie Canal drains into it. The St. Lucie and

Caloosahatchee Canals are normally the chief spillways for the lake. A

sand ridge or natural levee a few feet above the general land surface forms

a rim around the lake except in several places at the southern edge, which

are natural spillways during flood stages.


Outline of geology

General features

The geologic formations of the Florida peninsula consist of

several thousand feet of sedimentary rocks that overlie a basement of

metamorphic rocks.


The formations exposed at the surface in different parts of the

peninsula include the Ocala limestone, of Eocene age, and younger forma-

tions of Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Recent age. The most recent

complete description of the geology of the State is given in a report by

Cooke and Mossoml/ which includes a geologic map showing the distribution

of the geologic formations at or near the surface.

^ ----------------------., .- -.--.------------------

Cooke, C. W., and Mossom, Stuart, Geology of Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Twentieth Ann. Rept., pp. 29-228, 1929
-----mm M M ~ m m w em m m ue1e e w a m m mu e ~ e m e e e o e m e e


.4-











The writer is indebted to the citizens who have contributed

information to this investigation. Thanks are due especially to Messrs.

A. R. Richardson and R. V. Allison and other state officials at Belle

Glade. Mr. J. Clarence Simpson, of the State Geological Survey, gave

effective assistance in the field work.


Topography

The area slopes gently southward from an altitude of about 35

feet above sea level at Okeechobee and merges into the Everglades. As

stated by Cooke and Mossom-. "The Everglades form a level grassy plain

that slopes gently southward from an altitude of about 18 feet above

sea level near Lake Okeechobee and merges into the mangrove-covered keys

in Florida Bay. This plain is floored with Pliocene shell marl and lime-

stone (Caloosahatchee marl), which is generally covered by 6 or 8 feet of

peaty muck or by a thin layer of Pleistocene limestone. Before their

artificial drainage was undertaken the Everglades were usually flooded,

but now so much of their water is carried off by canals that their higher

parts stand above normal water level."


Lake Okeechobee is a fresh-water body about 35 miles across and

not more than about 15 feet deep. It lies in an original depression in

the floor of the sea that once covered that part of the peninsula. The

Kissimmee River and Taylor Creek flow into the lake on the north side, and

^-....-.... .........m~i----------------------.....-. ^ -.-.-.-^-----------.----

Cooke, C. W., and Mossom, Stuart, Geology of Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Twentieth Ann. Rept., p. 143, 1929.


-3-











Fisheating Creek empties into the lake on the west side. St. Lucie, West

Palm Beach, Hillsborough, North New River, and Miami Canals extend from

Lake Okeechobee to the Atlantic Ocean. On the west the Caloosahatchee

Canal connects the lake with the headwaters of the Caloosahatchee River,

which drains westward into the Gulf of Mexico. On the northwest side of

the lake the Indian Prairie Canal drains into it. The St. Lucie and

Caloosahatchee Canals are normally the chief spillways for the lake. A

sand ridge or natural levee a few feet above the general land surface forms

a rim around the lake except in several places at the southern edge, which

are natural spillways during flood stages.


Outline of geology

General features

The geologic formations of the Florida peninsula consist of

several thousand feet of sedimentary rocks that overlie a basement of

metamorphic rocks.


The formations exposed at the surface in different parts of the

peninsula include the Ocala limestone, of Eocene age, and younger forma-

tions of Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Recent age. The most recent

complete description of the geology of the State is given in a report by

Cooke and Mossoml/ which includes a geologic map showing the distribution

of the geologic formations at or near the surface.

^ ----------------------., .- -.--.------------------

Cooke, C. W., and Mossom, Stuart, Geology of Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Twentieth Ann. Rept., pp. 29-228, 1929
-----mm M M ~ m m w em m m ue1e e w a m m mu e ~ e m e e e o e m e e


.4-











Florida forms the emerged part of a peninsula of the continent

of North America, known as the Floridian Plateau, which includes not only

the State of Florida but also part of the adjacent floor that is less than

300 feet below sea level. In the Gulf of Mexico the edge of the plateau

lies from somewhat less than 75 miles to more than 100 miles west of the

present coast of the peninsula of Florida. Along the south and east coast

of the peninsula, from Key West to Palm Beach, the edge of the plateau is

less than 20 miles off the coast.


The sedimentary rocks that overlie the basement rocks of the

plateau are arched into a broad anticline or elongated dome. As described

by Mossoml/, the arch trends northwest and plunges toward the southeast

in the southern part of the Florida peninsula. In the northwestern part of

the peninsula the crest of the arch is eroded and the Ocala limestone lies

at or near the surface. On some parts of the crest the Ocala limestone is

more than 120 feet above sea level, and dips under the younger formations,

which are exposed on the flanks of the fold. This large fold forms a struct-

ural feature that is favorable for the occurrence of water under artesian

pressure in the Ocala and Tampa limestone and the Hawthorn formation.


In the Lake Okeechobee area the Ocala limestone dips in a general

southerly direction, and the formations that overlie it become thicker to-

ward the south.



Mossom, Stuart, A review of the structure and stratigraphy of Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Seventeenth Ann. Rept., pp. 171-268, 1926.


-5-







Geologic formations in the Lake Okeechobee area


The geologic formations that are believed to underlie the Lake

Okeechobee area are represented in the following table:



'Thickness
Age Formation (feet) Character


Recent and 0-20 Undifferentiated
Pleistocene sand, soil and muck
I 1 t
mmmm mmmmmmmmmmm m w mm memememinm mmme mttmWinMMUmi mememmmem memmmememm

Pleistocene Fort Thompson 10+- Marl, limestone,
Formation and sand. Yields
water to shallow wells
mmmmm-mmmminminmmmmmminmin -mmi------------m --------mi----m-mm m m m m m m m m m m m--

Pliocene Caloosahatchee 50-100 Marl, shells and
Smarl '' sand. Yields,..wter
S -- to wells.
meemmem mnnelmemmemememmeemm meommememememmm omeememm meme memmmm memmemem
t t t
SHawthorn formation 400-500 Interbedded clay, marl,
S(of Alum Bluff sand, and limestone.
'group) Contains water.
memmmmmemmemmmesmemememmmm memmmemmem m mtmmmmssmmenememememem

'Tampa limestone 150-250 Limestone. Yields
water to wells
I I

I I I

Eocene Ocala limestone 500+- Limestone. Yields
S(of Jackson age) water to wells.
I I B
t t !

t t B
Eocene and Undifferentiated
Cretaceous sediments.


.1 I I
Paleozoic or '' Mica, schist, etc.,
older metamorphic basement.







mmm mmmm m m.. m mmmmmmm
6-







Log of well 5 at Everglades Yxperiment Station of the

University of Florida near Belle Glade, Florida

(FSG8. No. W-20)


Thickness j Depth
(feet) (feet)

Muck 8 8

Fort Thompson formation and Caloosahatc1ee marl:

Limestone, white, hard and soft, with broken
shell material . .... . .... 24 32

Caloosahatchee marl:

Limestone, gray-white, broken shell material;
some gray-green marl .... . .. 20 52

Limestone, gray-white, with blue hard limestone,
Chione cancellata, Phacoides multilineatus,
Corbula barrettiana, Ostrea sp., Arca sp.,
Turritella sp., and other fossil fragments ....... 13 65

Dark-gray jagged semicrystalline material, much
broken shell matter cemented with crystalline
calcium carbonate. Same material as above and
masses of broken shell, Plicatula marginata,
Chione cancellata, Phacoides waccamawensis,
Dosinia sp., Olivella mutica, Turritella sp.,
Ostrea sp., Area sp., and other forms as
fragments. . . . .. 18 105

Marl, light-colored, gray-green and broken shell
(top sample)
Limestone, white, soft, with broken shell (middle
sample). . . . . . 70 175

Hawthorn formation:

Sand, mostly drab, micaceous; small amount of
shell (bottom sample)
Sand, dark-green, micaceous. . ... . 200 375

Marl, gray with greenish cast, earthy, very
calcareous; some shell . . 165 540

Marl, same as above with Ostrea sp .. . 10 550

Marl, same as marl at 540 feet . 20 570

Clay or shale, dull green, slightly calcareous '5 575
-7-









f
Thickness Depth
(feet) (feet)


Limestone, white, fairly hard; some gray-green
marl (2 samples) . . . . 20 595

Limestone, same as above, with considerable gray-
green marl and some shell. . .. ..... 10 605

Limestone, white, soft, pure; some shell
m r10 615
material . . . . . 10 615

Limestone, light-colored, and gray-green clay. 10 625

Limestone and clay, same as above, with black
pebble. . . 15 640

Limestone, same as limestone at 625 feet
(3 samples). . . . 32 672

Tampa limestone:

Limestone, similar to that above but lighter-
colored and more calcareous (9 samples). . 88 760

Limestone, light-colored, with green calcareous
clay (3 samples) . . . . 30 790

Gray-white, very calcareous material .. 10 800

Light-yellow calcareous material .. 10 810

Gray-white, very calcareous material . 10 820

Light gray-green, very calcareous material
(3 samples).. . . .. 30 850

Limestone, light gray-white; some clay . 10 860

Gray-green, very calcareous material (4 samples) 40 900

Ocala limestone:

Limestone, white soft. . 25 925

Limestone, white, soft and hard; Lepidocyclina
p., Operculina sp., and mollusk fragments 45 970

Limestone, similar to above but slightly browner;
finely powdered by drill .... . ... 30 1,000
I Iak


-8-










'Thickness Depth
(feet) (feet)

Limestone, white, hard; many small Laganu sp.
cf. L. dalli, Dictyoconus sp. and orbitoids 190 1,190

Limestone, white powdered fine. . . 15 1,205

Limestone, white, hard and soft, contains some
blue limestone and smaller Foraminifera . 127 1,332

-.m------------------------------------------------ ------------- .-.--- --

The log of this well 5 to a depth of 900 feet is published in a report by

Mossom. With reference to the probable stratigraphy he states:1/

"The first diagnostic material is the Caloosahatchee marl (Pliocene)

at 52 feet. Above this the Pleistocene limestone and marl had

probably been-passed through. The Caloosahatchee is present at

105 feet, and the shell in the first two samples of 105 to 375

seems to represent this formation also. The micaceous green sand

or marl is probably of Miocene age, and the limestone toward the

bottom from 585 feet down seems also to be of this age, possibly

the equivalent of the Tampa limestone, though no fossil evidence

is present. The material from 625 to 900 is much the same. As

the samples are powdered fine by the drill it is difficult to

determine the true nature of the rock. At 625 feet the material

is very calcareous -- possibly an impure limestone or very calca-

reous marl. At 640 there are some semierystalline pieces of

^ --.-.-.---------------------------------------------------...

Mossom, Stuart, A review of the structure and stratigraphy of Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Seventeenth Ann. Rept., p. 251, 1926.

mmr* merrrmrerremelreemrre mearome ewm nwo eworrm wom men ome mon wom


-9-







limestone, and these are found intermittently in the succeeding

samples. Some samples contain more impurities than others, but

the whole should probably be regarded as an impure limestone.


The material from 925 to 950 feet is certainly the Ocala

limestone. The sample Just above may belong to this formation

and probably does. The material from 1,000 to 1,190 also is

Ocala; the echinoid Laganm sp. cf. L. dalli is characteristic

of the Ocala limestone. Apparently all the material to 1,332

feet should be placed in the Ocala. Thus at this location we

have a thickness of over 400 feet for the Ocala with none of

the brown limestone usually encountered."'i


Log of well 1 at Okeechobee, Fla., on lot 5, block 134,

at site of old water plant of Okeechobee.2/



Thickness Depth
(feet) (feet)
*memamommemmeemm------------mewmm-------------------------------------------------

Caloosahatchee marl and younger material: 2 2

Sand and soil, fine gray sand, chbcolate-
colored, fine, some of it indurated organic
matter, ordinary hardpan . . 10 12

Sand, gray or slightly brownish, indurated 3 15

Sands, gray.. . . . .. 23 38


Idem, p. 252, and unpublished nptes.

2-Mossom, Stuart, op. cit. p. 236.


-10-








,Thickness Depth
(feet) (feet)
-------------------------------------------- ----------- ----------
The sample preserved consists chiefly of black
clay containing considerable sand, one fragment
of shell, but aside from this no indications of
marl . . . . . 3 4

Marl, shell, sandy; shells much broken .. .15 56

Shell marl, pecten, barnacles, etc., marine
shallow-water marl ... .......... 6 62

Marl, gray, sandy, similar to material at 41-56
eet . . . .. 65

Coarse, clear grain sand and broken shell
Ostrea sp., Turritella sp., Bryozoa. . 16 81

Hawthorn formation:

Sand, light gray, incoherent . . 58 139

Marl, light-colored, sandy, with shell fragments,
pecten sp., occasional phosphate pebbles, black
and shiny... . ...... 19 158

Sand, olive-green, or very sandy marl. . .. 17 175

Clay, olive-green, with black, smooth shiny
pebbles, phosphatic.. . .. 37 212

Marl, dark-colored, very sandy, or calcareous
sands; some broken shells. . . 28 240

Clays, olive-green, very sandy and calcareous,
or clayey sands.. .............. 5 245

Marl, dark-colored, very sandy, with shell
fragments. . . . .. 31 276

Clay, calcareous and very sandy, or clayey sand. 24 300

Sand, dark-colored, broken rock and shell
fragments. . . . . 80 380
O o @ ,


-11-











Thickness Depth
(feet) (feet)


Marl, dark-colored, very sandy; small sand
grains . 23 403

Sand, light-colored, broken rock and shell
fragments. . . . . 55 458
I 1
Clay, dark, and broken shells. .. . 10 468
a a
Tampa limestone:

Clay, drab ......... ... ............ ......... 32 500

Limestone, white, with fragments of
echinoderm spines. .. ... ... 10 510

Limestone, white, with fragments of
echinoderm spines; also pieces of dark-
colored rocks with small phosphate
pebble. The dark rock is probably from
above the light rock . .. .. ... 510

Chiefly white sand ... . .... 608

Ocala limestone:

Limestone, white, with Operculina sp.,
Gypsina sp., Lepidocyclina sp. . . 7 615

Limestone powdered fine by the drill . 160 775
mememm memmmmmeasumewmmemmmmemmemmem mm mmm mmmemewmememememm mm mmewa

In a discussion of the probable stratigraphy of the material penetrated by

well 1 at Okeechobee, Mossomi- states:



Mossom, Stuart, op. cit., p. 237.
Mem-memmmmemW ~ememmme memmeeemmmmemmememmmmemmm e emmem mnmemqmine m m e


-12-









"The material from the surface down to the samples marked

94-139 represents the Pleistocene and Pliocene; the con-

tact of the Pliocene and Miocene seems to be in the inter-

val from 94 to 139, for the material from 139 to 500 feet

represents the Miocene. From 500 to 608 feet the rock is

probably of Oligocene age or basal Miocene, and from 608

to 775 feet is the Ocala limestone, of Eocene age."


Eocene and Miocene Rocks

Ocala limestone


The Ocala limestone, of Eocene age, is the oldest and most deeply

buried of the formations that are penetrated by wells drilled for water in

this area. The logs of only two wells (see pp. 7-12) penetrating this for-

mation are available. The Ocala is present at a depth of about 600 feet

below the surface at the town of Okeechobee, in the northern part of the

area, and at about 900 feet below the surface 40 miles to the south, at

Belle Glade. It is exposed about 150 miles north of this area in Citrus,

Sumter and Marion counties.


The formation consists essentially of limestone but in places con-

tains beds of chert. The material penetrated by well 1 (see p. 10) and well
white
5 (see p. 7) is chiefly hard and soft/limestone, part of which is

fossiliferous.


The maximum thickness of the Ocala limestone in the Florida penin-

sula has not been definitely determined. The contact with the older Eocene


-13-









rocks in Florida is not exposhd4, and no complete section of the formation

has been described. It is estimated to have a thickness of about 500 feet

in the northern part of the peninsula and possibly is somewhat thicker in

the Okeechobee area.


The limestone is one of the chief water-bearing formations of the

peninsula. In the southern part of Florida, however, the formation is deep-

ly buried and yields mineralized water. The chemical composition of the

water from the two wells penetrating the Ocala is shown on page 31. The

fresh water of the Ocala limestone enters the formation in the area where it

is at or near the surface, in the central part of the State, or in areas

where it is overlain by permeable material that permits free downward perco-

lation. The water in the Ocala limestone is under artesian pressure, and

wells penetrating the formationn.normally overflow at the surface.


Tampa limestone


In the southern .part of the State the Tampa limestone, of Miocene age,

overlies the Ocala and is overlain by the Hawthorn formation. It is pene-

trated by many wells drilled for water northwest of the Lake Okeechobee area

in a large area that includes Sarasota, Manatee, Hillsborough, and Pinellas

counties. It lies at or near the surface in an area that includes all parts

of Hillsborough, Pinellas, Pasco, Sumter, and Citrus counties. Well records

indicate that in the eastern and northeastern part of the peninsula the

Tampa limestone is absent, although no diagnostic fossils of the Tampa lime-

stone have been found in cuttings from wells in the Lake Okeechobee area, the


-14-









material overlying the Ocala probably represents the Tampa limestone. Nor-

mally the 1hmpa limestone ranges in color from white to brown. The texture

and hardness of the formation are variable; some parts may consist of loose

masses of fossils, and other parts may be dense, compact, and silicified.

The material referable to the Tampa limestone penetrated by wells 1 and 5

is essentially limestone with calcareous clay or marl. The formation has

an estimated thickness of 150 to 250 feet in this area. Apparently the

greatest thickness is in the southern part of the area.


The Tampa limestone is an important water-bearing formation in the

west-central part of the peninsula and yields large quantities of water to

wells in Hillsborough and Pinellas counties. In the Lake Okeechobee area,

however, although water under artesian head may be found in the formation,

it is likely to be highly mineralized, especially in the southern part of

the area. The water from well 9, at Moore Haven (see analyses on p. 31),

is probably in part front the Tampa limestone.


Hawthorn formation


The Hawthorn formation, of Miocene age, is one of the most ex-

tensive formations of Florida and is present throughout the peninsula

except in areas where it has been removed by erosion and older formations

are exposed. It occurs at or near the surface in an extensive area which

includes all or parts of Hardee, Manatee, Polk, and Hillsborough counties,

northwest of the Lake Okeechobee area. The formation overlies the Tampa

limestone in the southern part of the peninsula and is overlain by the


-15-









Caloosahatchee marl or younger material.


It is estimated to have a thickness of 400 to 590 feet and con-

sists of interbedded clay, sand, sandy phosphatic limestone, and marl. As

indicated by cuttings from well 1, much of the material penetrated in the

northern part of the area is green-gray marl or sandy marl. Cuttings from

well 5 indicate that in the southern part of the area the upper part of the

formation is chiefly gray-green marl and sandy marl and the lower part is

chiefly limestone.


The formation contains water under sufficient artesian head to

produce flowing wells. Some of the water, however, is highly mineralized.


Pliocene, Pleistocene and Recent rocks


Surficial materials representing the Pliocene, Pleistocene and

Recent series overlie the Hawthorn formation and are present at or near the

surface.


Caloosahatchee marl


The Caloosahatchee marli/probably includes all the known marine

Pliocene deposits in Florida. According to Cooke the marl probably rests

unconformably on the Hawthorn formation and is overlain by Pleistocene

material.


The formation underlies the entire Lake Okeechobee area and is


-/Cooke, C. W., and Mossom, Stuart, Geology of Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Twentieth Ann. Rept., p. 152, 1929.
mmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmemm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmm









exposed at or near the surface in the northern half of the area. It con-

sists chiefly of sand, shells, limestone, and marl and ranges in color from

white to gray, blue, or yellow. The thickness of the formation is estimated

at 50 to 100 feet. According to Mossomlthe contact with the Miocene rocks

at Okeechobee (see log of well 1, p. 10) seems to be in the interval between

94 to 139 feet below the surface. At Belle Glade (see log of well 5, P. 7)

the contact of the Caloosahatchee with the Miocene rocks is probably between

105 and 150 feet below the surface.


The Caloosahatchee yields moderate amounts of water to shallow

wells but some of the water is highly mineralized.


Fort Thompson formation


The Fort Thompson formation, of Pleistocene age, consists of alter-

nating deposits laid down in fresh-;.asd brackish-water and marine shell, and

is present in the southern part of the Lake Okeechobee area. It overlies

the Caloosahatchee marl and is overlain by 8 to 10 feet of peaty muck in most

of the area.

According to Cooke and Mossom:;

"The marine beds in the Fort Thompson consist chiefly of

great quantities of Chione cancellata in sand. The beds

deposited in brackish-water are similar but contain also

Rangia cuneata (Gray) and other shells whose favorite


SMossom, Stuart, op. cit. p. 236.
2/ Cooke, C. W., and Mossom, Stuart, op. cit., pp. 211-212.


-17-










habitat is in bays or estuaries. The fresh water origin of

certain gray limestone is shown by the abundance in them of

shells of Planorbis.

"The Fort Thompson formation is generally less than 10

feet thick but may be somewhat thicker in parts of the Ever-

glades. The individual beds range in thickness from a few

inches to about 3 feet.

"The formation covers an area occupied by Lake

Okeechobee at a time when it was much larger than it is now.

The northern boundary of the lake was probably not far from

its present shore line, but the lake extended westward as far

as LaBelle and southeastward probably to the eastern border of

the Everglades. The lake was separated from the Atlantic Ocean

by barriers that at times were swept away or overflowed so com-

pletely that salt water penetrated inland to the farthest part

of the lake. The alternation of marine and brackish-water de-

posits with beds deposited in fresh water records several in-

vasions of the sea.

"The surface of the Fort Thompson is a plain that ranges

in height from a foot or two below mean sea level at the deep-

est places in Lake Okeechobee to a maximum of little more than

10 feet above sea level in the Everglades."


This formation supplies water to shallow driven wells. Some of the most

suitable water obtained from wells for domestic use at Pahokee apparently

comes from this formation. Recharge of the formation is in part local,


-18-










and in some localities the formation yields water with a swamp coloring. Water

from well 11 (see analysis, p. 31) is probably derived from the Fort

Thompson formation.


The surficial sands of Recent age supply shallow wells. The water,

however, is subject to pollution from contaminated surface water.


Water Supplies

Surface Water


Water supplies in the area are obtained from both surface and

ground water sources. The surface water is drawn from Lake Okeechobee or

from canals connected to it. Water from the lake is suitable for public

and domestic use after is has been decolorized, filtered, and chlorinated.

However, owing to the shallowness of the lake the intake pipe line must be

laid and maintained to a distance of several hundred yards into the lake.

The public water supply of Okeechobee is obtained from the lake. The pub-

lic water supplies of Clewiston and Moore Haven are obtained from canals

connected with the lake.


Ground Water

Wells


The record of 12 representative wells are shown in the table on

page 29. Except at Okeechobee there are only three deep flowing wells

(Nos. 2, 5, and 9) in the area. There are 6 or more deep flowing wells in

Okeechobee, the record of one of which is shown on pages 10 to 13. Probably

all those wells penetrate the Ocala or Tampa limestone.


-19-










The public water supply of Belle Glade is furnished by a 3-inch

well, 26 feet deep (well 6, p. 29). A 6-inch well 810 feet deep (well 1, p.

10) formerly furnished water for the public supply of Okeechobee. A 6-inch

well 804 feet deep (well 9, p. 30) is used for emergency purposes for the

Moore Haven public supply.


There are numerous driven wells 10 to 15 feet deep that draw water

from the ridge or natural levee of the lake. Some of these wells, as well

11, p. 30 are in the muck areas and penetrate the Fort Thompson formation.


Another group of wells that probably yields most of the ground

water in the area are 25 to about 150 feet deep and about 2 to 6 inches in

diameter and draw water from the Caloosahatchee marl or the upper part of

the Hawthorn formation. Wells 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8 belong to this group. The

static water level in these wells is from a few inches to a few feet below the

surface. Wells of this type are found along the natural levee bordering the

lake, at the field camps of the United States Sugar Corporation, and in most

of the towns of the area.


Artesian conditions


Water in the Ocala and Tampa limestones and in the Hawthorn forma-

tion is under artesian pressure, and wells penetrating these formations over-

flow. Well 1, at Okeechobee, has sufficient artesian head to raise the water

12 feet above the surface, or about 50 feet above sea level. Measurements

of the artesian pressure on wells 2 and 5 indicate that the artesian head in

the southern part of the area is probably slightly less than that in the north-

ern part of the area. This suggests that there may be a circulation of arte-

sian water toward the south.
-20-










Water in wells terminating in the Caloosahatchee marl or in the

upper part of the Hawthorn formation rises to levels ranging from a few

inches to a few feet below the surface.


Relative resistivity of the water at different depths


The resistance of the water at different depths was measured in

representative wells (Nos. 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, and 10) to indicate differences in

the concentration of dissolved mineral matter in order to determine the depth

at which the most highly mineralized water enters the wells. The resistance

of the water was measured between a pair of electrodes with a slide wire

bridge using a 1,000-cycle alternating current obtained from an audio-oscil-

lator operated by four 1 -volt dry-cell batteries. A reel operated by hand

and a wire cable with an insulated wire core were used for lowering the

electrodes into the well. The insulated wire and the outer steel strands

served for the leads from the bridge to the electrodes/. The electrodes

were lowered a few feet at a time into the well, and a measurement of the

resistance was made. An odometer consisting of a trip counter and a grooved

brass wheel with a circumference of 1 foot, over which the cable passed,

was used for recording the distance the electrodes were lowered into the well.

The electrodes were not calibrated to furnish a basis for calculation of the

actual resistivity.



Stringfield, V. T., Exploration of artesian wells in Sarasota County:
Florida Geol. Survey Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth Ann. Rept.,
pp. 215-216, 1933.


-21-









The resistivity of the water in the wells that were examined in

this area decreased with increasing depth, but the decrease was probably no

more than can be attributed to the increase in the temperature, indicating

that there was no appreciable difference in the concentration of the water

at different depths. In wells 1, 2, 3, and 5, which yield highly mineral-

ized water, the records of the measured resistance indicate that the mineral-

ized water comes from strata penetrated in the lower parts of the wells. If

fresh or less concentrated water were entering the lower part of the wells,

there would have been an appreciable increase in the resistivity of the

water in that part of the well.


A record of the resistance of the water as measured with the

electrodes used in well 5 is shown in the following table. This well was

drilled 10 inches in diameter to a depth of 300 feet, and 10-inch casing was

inserted to that depth, below which it was drilled 8 inches in diameter, and

8-inch casing, extending from the surface, was seated at a depth of 900 feet.

The total depth of the well is 1,332 feet. At the present time the well

yields water from both the 10-inch and the 8-inch casing. The water from

the 10-inch casing is more highly mineralized (see analyses, p. 31) than

that from the 8-inch casing, and prior to the examination of the well it

appeared that water from the 10-inch casing might be leaking into the 8-

inch casing and thereby causing the high mineralization of the water from

that source. The resistance record, however, indicated that there is no

appreciable difference in the concentration of the water at different depths

in the 8-inch hole and therefore that there is no transfer of highly mineral-

ized water from the 10-inch hole to the 8-inch hole. The records also


-22-










indicate that no water of low mineralization enters the lower part of the

well. The construction of the well prevents exploration to determine the

source of the water in the 10-inch casing. However, the head of water in

the 10-inch casing was about 2 feet less than that in the 8-inch casing,

indicating that the water comes from some source above 900 feet. The 8-inch

casing doubtless was tightly seated, and there was no subsurface leakage of

water, because lowering the head as much as 30 feet in that casing had no

effect on the head in the 10-inch casing. The water from the 8-inch casing is

from the Ocala limestone and that from the 10-inch casing probably from the

Hawthorn formation.


-23-











Apparent resistance of water at different depths in


Well 5, near Belle Glade.



Depth Resistance Depth Resistance' Depth 'Resistance' Depth 'Resistance
(feet) (ohms) feet) (ohms) (feet) (ohms) (feet)' (ohms)


10' 81 350 77 725 72 '1,100 67

28 81 375 77 750 71 1,125 67

51 81 400' 76 775 71 '1,150 67

75 81 4'25 76 800' 71 1,175 67
SI I I t I
100 80 450 75 825 71 '1,200 66

125 80 475 75 850 71 1,225 66

150 80 500 74 875 70 1,250 66

175 79 525 74 900 70 '1,275 65

200 79 550 73 925 69 1,300 65
I t I I I I
225 79 575 73 950 69 1,325 65
II t I I
250 79 600' 73 975 69 1,320 65

275 78 625 72 '1,000 68

300 78 650 72 '1,025 68
I I I I I I I
325 77 675 72 1,050 68
I 1 I I I I
700 72 1,075 68
.......... .r.... .*...i. -...... -. ...*w......


-24"










and in some localities the formation yields water with a swamp coloring. Water

from well 11 (see analysis, p. 31) is probably derived from the Fort

Thompson formation.


The surficial sands of Recent age supply shallow wells. The water,

however, is subject to pollution from contaminated surface water.


Water Supplies

Surface Water


Water supplies in the area are obtained from both surface and

ground water sources. The surface water is drawn from Lake Okeechobee or

from canals connected to it. Water from the lake is suitable for public

and domestic use after is has been decolorized, filtered, and chlorinated.

However, owing to the shallowness of the lake the intake pipe line must be

laid and maintained to a distance of several hundred yards into the lake.

The public water supply of Okeechobee is obtained from the lake. The pub-

lic water supplies of Clewiston and Moore Haven are obtained from canals

connected with the lake.


Ground Water

Wells


The record of 12 representative wells are shown in the table on

page 29. Except at Okeechobee there are only three deep flowing wells

(Nos. 2, 5, and 9) in the area. There are 6 or more deep flowing wells in

Okeechobee, the record of one of which is shown on pages 10 to 13. Probably

all those wells penetrate the Ocala or Tampa limestone.


-19-









Chemical composition of the water


Analyses of water from 10 representative wells and Lake Okeecho-

bee are shown on page 31. All the ground water analyzed except that from

wells 7 and 12 is excessively hard or otherwise highly mineralized and is

unsatisfactory for domestic or public supplies. With proper treatment,

however, such water as that from well 6 may be made suitable for domestic

use.


The chloride content of the water may be referred to as an indi-

cation of the relative saltiness of the water. It has little effect on the

suitabilityof the water for domestic purposes unless there is enough to

cause a disagreeable taste. Water containing as much as 1,000 parts per

million of chloride is undesirable for drinking, and to be acceptable to

most people it should not contain more than about 250 parts per million.

All the samples of water collected from wells penetrating the Ocala and

Tampa limestones and the Hawthorn formation contained more than 400 parts

per million of chloride. Some of the samples from the Caloosahatchee for-

mation were high and some were comparatively low in chloride. There are

variations in the quality of the water with reference both to horizontal

distribution and to depth. For example, well 7, near Clewiston, yields

water with a chloride content of 135 parts per million from the Caloosa-

hatchee formation, and a few miles north of that area salt water is encounter-

ed at about the same depth. Variations in the quality of water with depth

is shown by a comparison of analyses of water from wells 3, 4, and 6. Al-

though the water from wells 3 and 4 is relatively soft, it is high in sodium


-25-








afd bicarbonate and therefore undesirable for domestic use. All the samples

of water collected from the Fort Thompson formation and the younger over-

lying material were low in chloride. Samples of water from the Fort Thomp-

son and upper part of the Caloosahatchee formation had a swamp color.


Water from Lake Okeechobee is moderately soft and is satisfactory

for domestic or public supplies after decolorization, filtration, and chlori-

nation. Analyses of the lake water are shown on page 31 and published in

a report by Collins and HowardI/. The report also includes analyses of

water from the lake 3 miles north of Ritta Island and from the mouth of the

Kissimmee River, which flows into the lake.


Summary and conclusion


Flowing wells that yield large quantities of water from the Ocala

and Tampa limestones may be obtained in this area, but all the water from

these formations is hard and is likely to be high in chloride. According

to the available information it appears unlikely that water supplies sat-

isfactory for domestic or public use can be obtained from these formations

in the southern part of the area. In the northern part of the area wells

that are not drilled too deep may obtain water similar to that from well 1,

(see analysis, page 31) which is usable although of poor quality, whereas

water from deeper sources is likely to be still more highly mineralized.


The Hawthorn formation also yields water to wells, but although

the composition of the water may not be the same throughout the formation,

the water is likely to be too highly mineralized for domestic or public


JCollins, W. D., and Howard, C. S., Chemical character of waters of Florida:
U. S. eol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 596, pp. 222-224j 1928.


-26-








afd bicarbonate and therefore undesirable for domestic use. All the samples

of water collected from the Fort Thompson formation and the younger over-

lying material were low in chloride. Samples of water from the Fort Thomp-

son and upper part of the Caloosahatchee formation had a swamp color.


Water from Lake Okeechobee is moderately soft and is satisfactory

for domestic or public supplies after decolorization, filtration, and chlori-

nation. Analyses of the lake water are shown on page 31 and published in

a report by Collins and HowardI/. The report also includes analyses of

water from the lake 3 miles north of Ritta Island and from the mouth of the

Kissimmee River, which flows into the lake.


Summary and conclusion


Flowing wells that yield large quantities of water from the Ocala

and Tampa limestones may be obtained in this area, but all the water from

these formations is hard and is likely to be high in chloride. According

to the available information it appears unlikely that water supplies sat-

isfactory for domestic or public use can be obtained from these formations

in the southern part of the area. In the northern part of the area wells

that are not drilled too deep may obtain water similar to that from well 1,

(see analysis, page 31) which is usable although of poor quality, whereas

water from deeper sources is likely to be still more highly mineralized.


The Hawthorn formation also yields water to wells, but although

the composition of the water may not be the same throughout the formation,

the water is likely to be too highly mineralized for domestic or public


JCollins, W. D., and Howard, C. S., Chemical character of waters of Florida:
U. S. eol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 596, pp. 222-224j 1928.


-26-








use, except possibly in the northern part of the area.


In some localities the Caloosahatchee formation yields water rel-

atively low in mineralization that is fairly satisfactory for domestic use

(see analysis 7), but in other places the water is excessively hard or other-

wise highly mineralized (see analyses 3, 4, and 6). With proper treatment

the hard water from well 6, derived from the upper part of the Caloosahatch-

ee at Belle Glade, could be improved. There is a possibility, however,

that with heavy draft from the well the water would become more concentrated

in dissolved material.


Wells 3 and 4, at the Florida State farm No. 2, near Belle Glade,

yield water from the Caloosahatchee formation that is unsatisfactory for

domestic use. Probably hard water similar to that from Vell 6 (26 feet

deep) at Belle Glade may be obtained from wells of similar depth at the

State farm, but with heavy draft water similar in quality to that from

wells 3 and 4 may be drawn in from below. There are no wells yielding

water from the lower part of the Caloosahatchee formation in this area,

and the quality of the water is undetermined. However, the presence of

mineralized water at a depth of only 40 feet below the surface suggests

that the prospects are poor for obtaining water of low mineralization in

the lower part of the formation in this locality.


It appears that although large quantities of ground water are

available, the poor quality of the water offers little encouragement for

the development of water supplies from either deep or shallow wells, although


-27-











in some localities in the northern part of the area it may be possible to

obtain small supplies of usable water from shallow wells. In view of the

fact that satisfactory water can be obtained from Lake Okeechobee, it

appears advisable to develop water supplies so far as practicable from the

lake or from the canals connected with it.


-28-





Records of wells in Lake Okeechobee area
(For analyses see following table)
............................................................ .........----.....-------------------------....


Owner or name


Depth of
well
(feet)


Diameter
of well
(inches)


Depth to
which well
is cased
(feet)


Pressure head
or altitude of
water level
above or below
surface


Remarks


(feet

1 Lot 5, block 134 City of Okeechobee 718 8-6 484 +12 Original depth
Okeechobee was 810 feet.
(Okeechobee Co.) See log p. 15.


SW 1/4 Sec. 12
T. 42 S. R. 18 E.
south of Conners
Highway, 3 miles
SE of Canal Point
(Palm Beach Co.)


United States Sugar Corp.


958


800+


+32


Yield from
Tampa & Ocala
limestones.


3 Florida State Farm Florida State Farm
No. 2, near Belle
Glade
(Palm Beach Co.)

4 do do

5 University of Fla. Everglades Experiment
Everglades Experi- Station Univ. of Fla.
ment Station, near
Belle Glade
(Palm Beach Co.)


6 Belle Glade
(Palm Beach Co.)


20+


37

1,332


3

10-8


20+

957


-1.5


-.9

+35


Town of Belle Glade


Yield from
Caloosahatchee
marl.


do

See resistance
record on p. 27
& log on p. 10
10-inch casing
to depth of
300 feet. Yield
from Ocala
limestone.

Yield from
Caloosahatchee
marl.


No.


Location


2






No. Location Owner or name Depth of Diameter Depth to Pressure head Remarks
well of well which well or altitude
(feet) (inches) is cased of water level
(feet) above or below
surface
(feet)
mllm~e memme-m ameem- -e-m mmmmm-em-em-ee-emamem-e-mmemmeemmemme eememmmmmememememem ee eeeemm


S7 Dairy about 1
mile west of
Clewiston
(Hendry Co.)

*8 Essambee Farms
Sec. 30, T. 42 S.
R. 34 E, east
side of Moore
Haven Rd.
(Glades Co.)


Clewiston Dairy Company




T. P. McBride


9 Moore Haven
(Glades Co.)


10 West of Brighton
south side of
St. Ed. No. 8
(Highlands Co.)

11 Torry Island
(Pa3nBeach Co.)


12 La Belle Everett
Hotel


Town of Moore Haven


Brighton


H. A. Braddock



Everett Hotel


804


219


700


15



650


-3



+30 +


Yield from Tampa
or Hawthorn.

Test well for
oil. Plugged at
219 feet.


Yield from Fort
Thompson forma-
tion.

Yield from
Hawthorn and
Tampa formations.


107


100+


142




Analyses of water from the Lake Okeechobee area.
yi (Parts per million. Numbers in first column refer to corresponding numbers in preceding table. S. K. Love, analyst).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
~~)~)e emm emmw m ))elmmllm e
mem~~~~~Lmm ew m m m m9 m m m w l I mm e


No. : Location or
source


: Depth
:(feet) :


Date of
collection


: Total : : : : : : : : Total
: dissolved :Calcium:Magnesium:Sodium and :Bicarbonate:Sulphate:Chloride:Nitrate: hardness as
: solids : (Ca) : (Mg) :Potassium : (HC03) (S) : (Cl) : (NO3) : (CaCO3)
: (calculated): : :(Na +K) : : : : (calculated


1 :Okeechobee City :
:Fla. Near Canal :
2 :Point State Farm:
3 :near Belle Glade:


b
3-i
lI.


718 : Apr. 24,1933

958 : Apr. 11,1933
42 : Apr. 17,1933


: do


S do

S do


5 :Experiment Sta- :
:tion near Belle
:Glade
/ do

6 :Belle Glade

7 :Clewiston

9 ::oore Haven

11 :Torry Island

12 :La Belle


: do :


: 37 : May 8, 1933 :


1,332 :


do


May 17, 1933 :


26 : May 5, 1933

107 : Apr. 20,1933 :

800 : May 1, 1933


15 :


Apr. 18,1933 :


650 : Apr. 24,1933 :


1,344

1,941
2,740

2,757

2,311

3,470


4,530

1,162

678

2,660

1,058

1,282


111 :

108
29

30

57


86
42

43

72


1,

1,


144 : 138


lo4


230

146

136

217

57


150


80

12

105

66

47


1,

1,

1,


294

495
011

o013

758

948


,375

64

105

694

26

342


--A|


I


-k %1


124 :

157
323

313

186

151


37

615

518

22

427

120


248

233
170

179

192

516


630

398

25

426

244

312


13/ :Lak Okeechobee Aug. 17,193 : 272 : 37 11 : 34 128 19 58 ;(trace): 138 ;o 1
~ ~ 11~------ &L hk _^_ ^^ ^ ^27,e 37 I: 11 ------------m


-- ^


1,


2,





1,


570 (a)

942 : (a)
838 : ()

845 : (a)

648 : (a)

650 (a)


255 (a)

87 : (a)

135 : (a)

290 (a)

45 250

465 : (a)


524

623
245

251

438

926


875

903

414

770

813

335


00
0 ) :H

0 14
0 cl

k 0
OHO
0 WO I
;ri C
0 N~
PH H OH
14 CHO0Hr
to O
P4 4)O (D

-P4)0 :

(1\ ) 0u 0.
:0 H H 1-i kON
0 0 0)

A *u1 l 0)
:P~aP a a)
to Cd -P
s M D <9m\l


:


1i


--f -










FLRD GEOLOSk ( IC SUfRiW


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