Front Cover
 Geology of Torreya State Park,...


The geology of Torreya State Park ( FGS: Leaflet 11 )
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001179/00001
 Material Information
Title: The geology of Torreya State Park ( FGS: Leaflet 11 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Leaflet 11 )
Physical Description: 8 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Campbell, Kenneth M ( Kenneth Mark ), 1949-
Hoenstine, Ronald W
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
Publisher: Florida Bureau of Geology, Division of Resource Management, Florida Dept. of Natural Resources
Place of Publication: <Tallahassee Fla.>
Publication Date: 1982
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Florida -- Torreya State Park   ( lcsh )
Torreya State Park (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by Kenneth Campbell and Ronald W. Hoenstine.
Funding: Leaflet (Florida. Bureau of Geology) ;
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002193085
oclc - 25763543
notis - ALD2899
System ID: UF00001179:00001


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Geology of Torreya State Park, by Kenneth Campbell and Ronald W. Hoenstine
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
Full Text


[year of publication as printed] Florida Geological Survey [source text]

The Florida Geological Survey holds all rights to the source text of
this electronic resource on behalf of the State of Florida. The
Florida Geological Survey shall be considered the copyright holder
for the text of this publication.

Under the Statutes of the State of Florida (FS 257.05; 257.105, and
377.075), the Florida Geologic Survey (Tallahassee, FL), publisher of
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makes its documents public (i.e., published) and extends to the
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The Florida Geological Survey reserves all rights to its publications.
All uses, excluding those made under "fair use" provisions of U.S.
copyright legislation (U.S. Code, Title 17, Section 107), are
restricted. Contact the Florida Geological Survey for additional
information and permissions.

Leaflet No. I

On the front cdvr:-

A view of the Gregory-Hoe. from the River.-Note the floodplain
surface ani the tree roots exposed by erosion of the rivei bank. (

Inside-the back cover-.i

Map of Torre4 a State Parkshiowingi pint ieoloic interest.

Prepared by the'





Kenneth Campbell and Ronald W. Hoenstine

The pristine forest of Torreya State
Park stands overlooking the Apalachicola
River. Visitors to the park are greatly
impressed by the natural beauty of this
recreational area that is situated in
the physiographic zone known as the
Tallahassee Hills. This zone includes
the higher elevations in the eastern
Florida Panhandle. A great deal of the
park's appeal is attributed to its
rugged topography, with elevations
varying from a low of approximately 50
feet above MSL (mean sea level) at the
river to a maximum of 252 feet above MSL
in the park's interior. The unspoiled
natural setting is enhanced by numerous
streams which traverse the park; many of
which carry water only during heavy
rains or sustained wet periods.


The rugged landscape of Torreya
State Park, which is due to the process
of erosion, vividly illustrates the dra-
matic changes that can occur as a result
of the combined effects of such diverse
weathering agents as water, dissolution,
gravity, and wind on Florida's
landscape. Although water has played an
essential role in developing the beauty
of the park, it can also present
problems. The clayey sands, which form
the highlands, retard infiltration of
precipitation and enhance runoff.
During periods of heavy rains, the
numerous dry streams encountered in
hikes through the park may quickly fill

with rain water collected along the
higher ridges and steep slopes. These
streams can become "torrents of water"
rushing downstream, uprooting trees, and
carrying roots and debris along with
vast quantities of soil. This erosion
is an ever-changing dynamic process, the
results of which are visible in the
Runoff is not necessarily confined
to the stream beds. It may flow down
the sides of steep slopes causing
slumping. Slump scours, channels cut in
the steep slopes, can be seen below the
Gregory House. The newly exposed sedi-
ments become susceptible to additional
weathering and erosion. Eroded soil and
rock continue their journey downslope,
ultimately being transported by the
Apalachicola River downstream to the
Gulf of Mexico where the material is


The present location of the
Apalachicola River serves as a boundary
separating two areas with different
near-surface geology. West of the
river, carbonate rocks (limestones and
dolomites) are found near the land sur-
face, while east of the river, carbonate
rocks are overlain by a thick sequence
of sands and clays with some limestone
beds. These sands and clays form the
major portion of the bluffs at Torreya
State Park.



The effects of river erosion are
dramatically evident along the bluffs
viewed from the campground, the Gregory
House, and the Apalachicola Bluffs
Trail. This trail, which starts at the
Gregory House, follows along the bluff
and down to the river. The bluffs are a
topographic feature which can be found
on the east side of the Apalachicola
River from Lake Seminole at the north to
the town of Bristol at the south, a
distance of approximately 20 miles.
Rising up to 150 feet in height, the
bluffs have formed from a combination of
geologic conditions and geomorphic pro-
cesses (those which shape landforms)
that have been dominated by the
Apalachicola River. The Apalachicola
River cuts into these highlands,
widening its floodplain by the process
known as lateral planation. In this
process, rock and soil materials are
eroded from the outside and downstream
sides of river bends (meanders) while
material is deposited on the inside and
upstream sides. The result is a slow
widening of the meander belt as well as
a slow downstream migration of the mean-
ders. Part of the floodplain can be
seen starting below the Gregory House
and extending downstream on the park
side of the river. In addition, there
are shallow channels cut in the
floodplain that can be seen along the
Apalachicola Bluffs Trail just to the
west of the Gregory House. These are
floodplain scour routes which may be the
initial stage in the development of a
new river channel, or may be the final
remnant of an old channel.

Geologic conditions influence the
river as the channel migrates and widens
the floodplain. The rocks in this area
dip to the southeast and cause the river
to migrate slowly eastward as it cuts
its channel. The lowlands, swamps, and
river deposits on the west side of the
river are remnants of former high ridge
areas that have been eroded and lowered
by the river over the years.


As a result of these erosional
forces and the subsequent removal of
soil, park visitors can see the
underlying limestone exposed at several
sites in the park. The first exposure
is encountered in the vicinity of the
Confederate gun pits which are located
on the bluff along the nature trail
below the Gregory House (see map). This
limestone, which formed from the hard
shells of animals that died and accumu-
lated on an ancient sea floor, is just
visible at the ground surface. Other
limestone exposures can be seen while
hiking along the river bank below the
Gregory House and near the River Bluff
Primitive Camp. These outcrops, which
are very prominent during extended dry
periods and associated low river stages,
are generally submerged and hidden from
view by the river during years of normal

A view of the limestone exposed at Rock Bluff near the River Bluff Primitive Camp.


Torreya State Park offers a unique
setting for an impressive array of
plants and animals, some of which can be
seen in the park's fossil record. This
record, in part, has been preserved in
the limestone which underlies the park.
A cursory examination of this limestone
may show little detail; however, when
viewed under a microscope, this
limestone is found to contain tiny
fossil plants and animals. These relics
of past life have enabled geologists to
date the deposition of the sediments as
having been laid down approximately 15
million years ago during a period of
time known as the Miocene Epoch. In
addition, an analysis of these micro-
fossils enables a reconstruction of the
park's environment during that period of
time millions of years ago. Though it
may be difficult to imagine, the
limestone, which is exposed near the top
of the Bluff, was, in fact, part of an
ancient seafloor. The microfossils
contained within the limestone are
related to those that occur in a present
day marine coastal setting. It is an
indication that the present park area
was covered by a relatively shallow
ocean during this period of Florida's
past. This interpretation is compatible
with other studies which have indicated
that much of Florida was covered by
water during the Miocene Epoch.


Torreya State Park offers visitors
the opportunity to experience the beauty
and natural wonder of a unique setting.
As you walk along the numerous trails
and paths within the park, we hope your
enjoyment is enhanced by an increased
understanding and awareness of the
geologic forces that have molded and
shaped this magnificent landscape over
the millennia.

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M!b u

View of Rock Bluff (looking north) near the River Bluff Primitive Camp.

11".,' -". .. "

rt -[ '~~i~ 1''"':. -I'^

Geologists from the Florida Bureau of Geology examine the limestone out-
crop at Apalechicola Bluffs, just upstream from the Gregory House. This
outcrop is covered by the river except during very low water.

River Flood

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Map of Torreya State Park showing points of geologic interest.

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