<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Title Page
 Introduction
 Where does our water originate...
 How is one watershed separated...
 How does the land influence the...
 How much water do we have?
 What does water contain?
 Is it good water?
 What are the current uses?
 How do we lose water?
 Can we have too much water?
 Ownership
 Summary and conclusions


FGS



Your water resources
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PDF VIEWER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001169/00001
 Material Information
Title: Your water resources storage, origin, needs, uses, movement, conservation ( FGS: Leaflet 1 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Leaflet 1 )
Physical Description: 24 p. : ill. ; 25 x 11 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1960
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Water-supply -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Water resources development -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Geological Survey.
General Note: Title from cover.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001769007
oclc - 27055109
notis - AJJ2216
System ID: UF00001169:00001

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

UF00001169 ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Where does our water originate?
        Page 2
        Page 3
    How is one watershed separated from another?
        Page 3
        Page 4
    How does the land influence the supply?
        Page 5
    How much water do we have?
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    What does water contain?
        Page 10
        Page 9
    Is it good water?
        Page 11
    What are the current uses?
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    How do we lose water?
        Page 19
    Can we have too much water?
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Ownership
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 24
        Page 23
        Copyright
            Copyright
Full Text
FOUR 2
VATER
'ES RCS
NF

USES..-



FRORIDA
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
1960












INTRODUCTION


Florida has a high annual rainfall; more than
30,000 named lakes; one of the largest, most pro -
lific ground-water reservoirs in the world; and
numerous springs, of which 66 each discharge in
excess of six million gallons of water per day.
Seventeen of these springs produce at rates that
exceed 65 million gallons of water per day. The
runoff from this wealth of water has established
itself into 12 large stream basins and many other
smaller ones.

Water is the State's most important natural
resource, and since there appears to be such an
abundance of this resource, what are the problems?
Why the growing concern over it? Do we have less.
than we enjoyed in the past-and sometimes more?

Problems of supply and demand arise out of
the irregular distribution and movement of water.
The values for rainfall, stream flow, spring dis-
'charge, lake levels, and water levels in wells
reflect periods of great drought and excess of
water. It is this irregularity and variability of
occurrence that creates problems. Problems in
Florida, for the most part, arise out of not having
the water arrive at the place at the time it is
needed; although flooding, pollution, contamination,
and heavy mineralization are locally troublesome,





r 0o.


WHERE DOES OUR WATER ORIGINATE?




Cc i-^-iIIIZ .- *


-'/ // \/

w T__LAKE^ \ \
DFEP
PERCOLATI




Contrary to some popular opinions, our water
resources come entirely from precipitation (rain,
snow, hail, and sleet), that falls on Florida, south-
ern Georgia, and southern Alabama. The water
cycle, from atmosphere to land and water and back
to the atmosphere, constantly renews and revitalizes
the supply.

Water goes into the atmospheric cycle by
evaporation from open bodies of water and from land
surfaces. Vegetation helps this process. Once into
the air as vapor, water collects into clouds to be
transported and condensed into precipitation to
return to the earth. That which falls on the land
surface is the potential for our drinkable water
supply. Most of this water runs off to the sea or
goes back into the air by evaporation. Some of it
goes into ponds and lakes to form a reserve supply
for ground and surface water. A part of that which
goes into the ground forms a near-surface ground-
water supply which can be tapped by shallow wells.
The rest goes into deeper porous rocks, through
which the water travels under pressure from the
point of entry or recharge to remote regions of the
State. This is the principal source of ground water.

About 73 percent of the water falling as rain
is used by vegetation or evaporates from exposed
water and land surfaces.





r 0o.


WHERE DOES OUR WATER ORIGINATE?




Cc i-^-iIIIZ .- *


-'/ // \/

w T__LAKE^ \ \
DFEP
PERCOLATI




Contrary to some popular opinions, our water
resources come entirely from precipitation (rain,
snow, hail, and sleet), that falls on Florida, south-
ern Georgia, and southern Alabama. The water
cycle, from atmosphere to land and water and back
to the atmosphere, constantly renews and revitalizes
the supply.

Water goes into the atmospheric cycle by
evaporation from open bodies of water and from land
surfaces. Vegetation helps this process. Once into
the air as vapor, water collects into clouds to be
transported and condensed into precipitation to
return to the earth. That which falls on the land
surface is the potential for our drinkable water
supply. Most of this water runs off to the sea or
goes back into the air by evaporation. Some of it
goes into ponds and lakes to form a reserve supply
for ground and surface water. A part of that which
goes into the ground forms a near-surface ground-
water supply which can be tapped by shallow wells.
The rest goes into deeper porous rocks, through
which the water travels under pressure from the
point of entry or recharge to remote regions of the
State. This is the principal source of ground water.

About 73 percent of the water falling as rain
is used by vegetation or evaporates from exposed
water and land surfaces.








Both surface and ground waters are used in
the needs' of industry, municipalities, domestic and
farm areas, recreation, power, and irrigation-but
ground water supplies about 59 percent: of the con-
sumptive needs of the State.



HOW iS ONE WATERSHED SEPARATED
FROM ANOTHER?


Because of climatic controls, rainfall is not
uniform throughout the State and varies from an
annual average of 38 inches at Key West to 64
inches at DeFuniak Springs. Each city in Florida
receives varying amounts of rainfall.




\ \ I
/ b.e, r /
\ ',, ,, |'! ;/ / ,/

















are WA
'*- *




















Water that has fallen upon the State is sepa-
rated into watersheds, composed of all the land that
directs water into a common stream or body of water.
There are approximately 50 clearly defined water-
sheds in Florida.








Both surface and ground waters are used in
the needs' of industry, municipalities, domestic and
farm areas, recreation, power, and irrigation-but
ground water supplies about 59 percent: of the con-
sumptive needs of the State.



HOW iS ONE WATERSHED SEPARATED
FROM ANOTHER?


Because of climatic controls, rainfall is not
uniform throughout the State and varies from an
annual average of 38 inches at Key West to 64
inches at DeFuniak Springs. Each city in Florida
receives varying amounts of rainfall.




\ \ I
/ b.e, r /
\ ',, ,, |'! ;/ / ,/

















are WA
'*- *




















Water that has fallen upon the State is sepa-
rated into watersheds, composed of all the land that
directs water into a common stream or body of water.
There are approximately 50 clearly defined water-
sheds in Florida.









However, where water enters the ground in
high areas of a watershed it moves toward and
discharges into streams, lakes, and the ocean.
The direction of flow may cause the ground water
to cross beneath watershed boundaries established
for surface water. The slope of the ground sur-
face, size of channel and the volume of water,
control the rate of flow in surface streams, but the
amount of voids or space in the rock (porosity),
the degree of connections of the voids (perme-
ability), and the slope of the surface of the ground
water (gradient) controls rate of flow in ground
water.

Once surface water enters a watershed it can
not cross watershed boundaries (divides), but
ground water can pass beneath these watershed
boundaries moving downgradient from high areas
where it emerges in low areas as surface water.
Surface-water problems, therefore, are local ones
caused by floods and droughts, whereas ground-
water problems may affect broader areas.

Water can only be taken from one watershed
and diverted for use in another with the permission
of the State Board of Conservation. Problems of
flood, erosion, drought, contamination, and sedi-
mentation must usually be met within the boundaries
of each watershed.

Most streams originate in the highlands of
Florida and adjoining states and are separated by
rolling hills or stream divides which are composed
of several kinds of sediment and rock.


There are some rivers and streams that origi-
nate in the coastal lowlands and the divides are
flat marshy areas with very little relief.


Elevations of the ground surface in Florida
range from sea level to a little above 350 feet. This
low relief generally does not allow the development
of deep ravines in the divides, nor does it create
steep slopes.









HOW DOES THE LAND INFLUENCE
THE SUPPLY?















Because Florida has a very sandy soil and a
flat terrain broken by numerous sinkholes, lakes,
and swamps, much of the water falling on the land
is retained at the surface or enters the ground.
Because of this, the percentage of water that runs
off is moderate.

The amount that enters the ground or runs off
depends in part upon the slope of the land, the
vegetative cover, type of soil, condition of the soil
by mulching and tilling, and by terracing of slopes.

Loose, mulched soil can retain large quanti-
ties of soil moisture for plant use. Soil management
by the farmers, growers, and ranchers is the first
step in water control and management

Land regulates the amount of water that enters
the basins. Sloping surfaces are drained faster
than flatlands. Sandy land absorbs water more
readily than clayey lands. In some areas of Florida
there is a layer of dense, organic sand, called
hardpan, just under the surface, which may retard
the movement of water into the ground.

Sandy soils allow water to enter the ground
rapidly and permit its storage as ground water for
dry times. Clayey soil will absorb and store less
water.









The lakes and sinkholes of Florida are storage
basins through which the ground water is being
continuously replenished.


HOW MUCH WATER DO WE HAVE?

The State of Florida has an average annual
rainfall of 53 inches. This amounts to an average
of 148 billion gallons of water falling upon Florida i
in a day. This is the principal source for our
streams and thousands of lakes as well as the
water in the ground. Beneath Florida lies one of
the most extensive and productive ground-water
reservoirs in the Nation. The volume of water in
this reservoir has been estimated to be several
times that impounded behind Hoover Dam, the
Nation's largest man-made lake. There also are
several less extensive water-bearing rocks that
supply areas such as Miami and Pensacola. Certain-
ly Florida has more fresh, drinkable water available
than is now used or will be used for some time to
come, but this condition may prevail only if this
resource is wisely managed.

For all purposes of planning, the daily dis-
charge of streams, estimated at 40 billion gallons
of water per day, is the amount available for future
use. This is about 17 times the State's require-
ments today for consumptive uses.


SURFACE WATER RESOURCES


Surface water occupies defined channels upon
the ground surface to form rivers, brooks, creeks,
lakes, ponds, swamps, marshes, and variations and
combinations of these. Man-made dams may create
additional reservoirs in these surface channels to
increase the after r storage, or ditches and -anals
may be constructed to increase the discharge.

Surface water supplies the primary needs of
irrigation for citrus growers and farmers. Only four









hydroelectric power dams are operated in Florida:
Jim Woodruff Dam on the Apalachicola River at
Chattahoochee, Inglis Dam at Inglis on the Withla-
coochee River, Talquin Dam on the Ochlockonee
River at Bloxham, and a small dam at Moss Bluff
on the Oklawaha River. These dams store in
excess of 575,000 acre-feet of water for use in
power generation, navigation, recreation, and con-
servation. It requires 325,850 gallons of water to
cover an acre to a depth of one foot.



t -_ --


-- --_ -. -








With the completion of the large water-manage-
ment project, now under development by the Central
and Southern Florida Flood Control District, 4%
million acre-feet of water can be stored during
periods of abundant rainfall in three conservation
districts for release during droughts.

In addition, under the U. S. Soil Conservation
Service, more than 3,350 small ponds in Florida
have been constructed on farms and store about
28,764 acre-feet of water in areas where irregular
patterns of rainfall make these most useful.

The use of land in Florida changes from year
to year, and roads, building, poor mulching, and
soil conditioning, lack of terracing in high lands,
and destruction of forests may increase the amount
of ,vater that runs off. Any changes in land use
may also alter the timing and peak flow of streams,
the levels of lakes, amount of-recharge to ground
water, and quality.









Florida streams generally have moderate to
slow rates of flow because of the flat terrain and
low slopes. Much of the rainfall is trapped in
basins or by the sandy soil and enters the ground
as ground water. About 50 stream basins drain the
State, but south of Lake Okeechobee the water
stood in shallow sheets or moved as sheet flow
slowly through the Everglades until controlled by
man. Drainage canals and conservation districts
now concentrate this water and make the peaty
soils available for cultivation.

Because of differences in the soils, rocks,
climate, terrain, vegetation, and evaporation, twice
as much water runs off the land into streams in
Panhandle Florida as in the peninsula. Springs
add to the amount of water in streams. Silver
Springs, at more than 500 million gallons per day,
and Rainbow Springs, at about 450 million gallons
per day, are among the larger springs in the world.
Of the 53 inches of annual rainfall, 39 inches are
lost to evaporation and used by vegetation, and 14
inches enters the ground or runs off of Florida in
streams that empty into salt water. This measure-
ment of runoff does not include water entering the
State from Georgia or Alabama and water emerging
as springs under salt water.


GROUND WATER RESOURCES


The State is blessed in having some of the
best and most productive ground-water reservoirs
in the world. Several thousand feet of porous









limestones, that make up the principal ground-
water reservoir, contain an estimated 1,600 cubic
miles of fresh water, better than 44,000 times the
average daily stream discharge of 40 billion gallons.

At least 100 named springs are known, most
of which are fed by water rising from the porous
limestones under pressure. Florida has more large
springs than any other state, and Silver Springs
alone discharges enough water to satisfy all of
Florida's municipal and rural domestic needs, if it
could be distributed to the place of need.

In areas along some of the coastal margins
and where the deep ground water is heavily mineral-
ized, shallow porous sand, shell, and limestone
contain sufficient amounts of water to supply the
needs of these areas. Miami, in particular, relies
upon highly permeable sediments that lie at or near
the ground surface of the area.

About 1.5 billion gallons of water per day are
drawn from ground water by domestic, municipal,
industrial, and agricultural users.


WHAT DOES THE WATER CONTAIN?


Rain falling on the earth is practically pure,
containing only a small amount of carbon dioxide
and oxygen dissolved from the atmosphere. As the
water soaks into the soil and becomes part of the
ground water, it begins to dissolve mineral matter
from the materials through which it passes.

The substances most commonly found dissolved
in Florida waters are hydrogen sulfide, calcium and
magnesium sulfates and bicar-
bonates, and sodium chloride.
Iron and organic materials are
also present, more commonly in
water at the surface and in shal- .
low wells. Sodium is usually re-
stricted to highly mineralized










waters, or in waters affected by salt-water intrusion.
Strontium and fluorine are also present in some Florida
waters although usually in very small quantities.


CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND WATER USE


Constituent Effect on Water Quality


IRON More than 0.3 ppm (parts per million)
of dissolved iron will cause staining,
discoloration ("red water'), and an
unpleasant taste.

HYDROGEN Gives the water an unpleasant odor,
SULFIDE but Is harmless and easily removed
by aeration.

Calcium. Magnesium) Gives water a bitter taste if concen-
SULFATE tration is greater than 500 ppm.

CALCIUM Main cause of hardness in water.

MAGNESIUM Second most important cause of hard.
ness.

SODIUM Public supplies must contain less than
CHLORIDE 250 ppm. Larger amounts give a saline
taste and increases the corrosion.

SODIUM AND The amount normally found in drinkable
POTASSIUM water is of little significance. High
concentrations sometimes found in very
deep wells may be harmful when used
directly for irrigation.
(Fluorine in Concentrations of 0.7 to 1.5 ppm are
the form of) helpful in preventing dental caries.
FLUORIDE Large concentration may cause mottling

of teeth. Concentrations of this ele-
ment in Florida ranges from a trace to
2.5 ppm.
(Calcium. Magnesium) Contributes to hardness of water.
BICARBONATE









limestones, that make up the principal ground-
water reservoir, contain an estimated 1,600 cubic
miles of fresh water, better than 44,000 times the
average daily stream discharge of 40 billion gallons.

At least 100 named springs are known, most
of which are fed by water rising from the porous
limestones under pressure. Florida has more large
springs than any other state, and Silver Springs
alone discharges enough water to satisfy all of
Florida's municipal and rural domestic needs, if it
could be distributed to the place of need.

In areas along some of the coastal margins
and where the deep ground water is heavily mineral-
ized, shallow porous sand, shell, and limestone
contain sufficient amounts of water to supply the
needs of these areas. Miami, in particular, relies
upon highly permeable sediments that lie at or near
the ground surface of the area.

About 1.5 billion gallons of water per day are
drawn from ground water by domestic, municipal,
industrial, and agricultural users.


WHAT DOES THE WATER CONTAIN?


Rain falling on the earth is practically pure,
containing only a small amount of carbon dioxide
and oxygen dissolved from the atmosphere. As the
water soaks into the soil and becomes part of the
ground water, it begins to dissolve mineral matter
from the materials through which it passes.

The substances most commonly found dissolved
in Florida waters are hydrogen sulfide, calcium and
magnesium sulfates and bicar-
bonates, and sodium chloride.
Iron and organic materials are
also present, more commonly in
water at the surface and in shal- .
low wells. Sodium is usually re-
stricted to highly mineralized








IS IT GOOD WATER?


W water which is considered good for one purpose
may be unsuitable for another. Water from wells
which penetrate covered limestone rocks containing
water under some pressure is less subject to con-
tamination from surface sources and is low in iroi.
It is, however, usually hard and, in some places,
salty enough to be unpleasant tasting and corrosive
to plumbing. Surface water and water from.shallow
wells often contains enough iron to cause staining
and give the water an unpleasant taste.

For the most part drinkable water of high
purity is available over most of the State from
streams, lakes, ponds, deep wells, and from shallow
wells in areas where the deeper well water is highly
mineralized.

HOW MUCH WATER WILL WE
USE IN THE FUTURE?


JlO\OW'


PUTUI E
AGAMiNINM--S








It has been estimated that in 1975 the Nation
as a whole will be using twice the amount of water
that was used in 1956. As the rate of growth of
Florida is much greater than that of the Nation we
can expect a greater proportional increase in water
use. The estimated 1956 consumptive use in the
State was about 2.3 billion gallons per day. The
1975 consumptive use will probably amount to about
5 billion gallons per day.


WHAT ARE THE CURRENT USES?


The uses of Florida's water are as diverse as
the many activities in the State. The major uses
range through agricultural, municipal, rural, domestic
and livestock, industrial, power, and recreational
The last two uses cannot be evaluated quantitative-
ly in a manner similar to that of the other principal
uses. A summary of consumptive-water use ir
Florida in million gallons per day (mgd) for 195f
and projected to 1975 is as follows:


1956 1975 % Increase
Agricultural 1,182 2,500 111
Industrial 839 1,550 142
Municipal 390 750 92
Rural 104 200 92
Total (mgd) 2,315 5,000 111


HOW MUCH WATER FOR CITIES
AND TOWNS?


The foremost priority for an area's water re-
sources is a safe and drinkable supply. In general,
the requirements for water are based upon the number
of people served, with proper allowance for the
standard of living of the population. The present
daily per capital consumption, of persons served by
public systems in Florida, is 131 gallons with the








national daily average of 153 gallons. The urbani-
zational trend and rapid population growth indicates
that by 1975 the average water demand in Florida
should exceed 150 gallons daily per person. Better
than 90 percent of municipal requirements for water
comes from ground water.


Cities and areas of industrial development use
from 300 to 500 gallons per person per day. As
Florida develops industrially it can be anticipated
that its per capital use of water will accelerate.



FROM WHERE WILL THE WATER FOR
LIVESTOCK AND FARM HOMES COME?


Practically all farm water supplies are obtain-
ed from privately developed wells which furnish
water at a fairly constant temperature and quality
throughout the year. In some areas wells flow
naturally making pumping unnecessary. In most
areas, however, a pump is needed to furnish an
adequate supply.

Daily requirements for farm use are estimated
at 35 gallons for each person, 12 gallons each for








horses and beef cattle, 25.30 gallons each day for
dairy cattle, and about 2 gallons each for small
stock.













The use of wells for watering livestock has
greatly increased because wells are more depend-
able as a supply than surface sources.


HOW ABOUT IRRIGATION?


In Florida more water is used for irrigation
than for any other consumptive purpose. A large
amount of water is supplied for crops and groves by
rain falling on the area where it is to be used, or
by surface water stored in adjacent areas. Due to
the seasonal nature of rainfall in Florida, it is
sometimes necessary to supply additional water to
growing crops, especially when the rainy season
does not correspond with the growing season. A
large number of wells are now in use for this pur-







pose, many flowing naturally and others being
pumped. Use of water for Irrigation can be expected
to increase as more land is put into cultivation.

Surface water supplies about 70 percent of the
requirements for agriculture, this being the largest
consumptive use of water in Florida. When spread
out on cultivated land, large amounts of water are
utilized by vegetation, but the greatest loss is
through evaporation.


WILL INDUSTRY HAVE ALL THE
WATER IT NEEDS?


The water requirements for industry are more
diverse than those for other uses. Some industries
use very large volumes of water while others use
practically none. The quality requirements also
vary greatly depending upon the type of industry -
some requiring water of the highest purity while
others can use water of almost any quality.










for Meed'?


In all uses conservation should be undertaken
by reusing water whenever possible, and by reclaim-
ing it where desirable and necessary. However,
it is not expected that there will be a shortage of
water for industrial use in the foreseeable future,
provided that intelligent plans for water supply are
made prior to the location of new industrial sites,
or expansion of present plants.









There are four major industrial users of water
in Florida: (1) Electric power installations 1,590
million gallons per day, of this only about 4 percent
was actually consumed, the remainder was returned
to the reservoirs; (2) pulp and paper and chemical
industries 354 million gallons per day; (3) citrus
processing industry 94 million gallons per day;
and (4) the mining industry 191 million gallons
per day.


OTHER IMPORTANT USES


The use of water resources may be divided in-
to consumptive and nonconsumptive uses. Irrigation,
domestic and municipal, are examples of consump-
tive uses, whereas, recreational, power and trans-
portation uses are nonconsumptive. In dollars and
cents value to the State probably the most important
use is that of recreation. The money spent in boat-
ing, swimming, fishing, skiing, and other recreation-
al activities utilizing water cannot be accurately
given, but because of the unique appeal of Florida
and its great attraction to tourists, estimates of the
recreational value of water run to several hundred
million dollars, including more than 300 million
dollars spent annually on the purchase of boats,
their upkeep, and operation.













Florida has a coastline of about 8,500 miles
measured to tidal water limits, or upstream to a
width of 100 feet. The total water area, including
lakes and streams, exceeds 3,800 square miles.










Few states have as many natural waterways and im-
)roved harbors. Eight seaports, having a depth of
)0 or more feet, and eight having 21-28 feet, handle
millions of tons of commerce. Tampa, Jacksonville,
and Miami are the largest. Petroleum, chemicals,
paper and its products, phosphate, oyster shell and
limestone, are the principal commodities transported.

Because of the unique appeal of the State's
climate and recreational possibilities, the many
miles of navigable waterways are extremely impor-
tant in the economy of the State. A coordinated
waterway program is underway and will be devel-
oped.


HOW ABOUT THE NEEDS FOR
RECREATION AND WILDLIFE?






















In any local or statewide long-range planning
for the use of our water resources, the preservation
of uncontaminated surface waters for recreation and
wildlife must be considered. In 1955 it was esti-
mated that $381 million was spent by the public in
the use of our fresh-water resources for recreation.
The chief threats to our recreational use of water
are pollution and restriction of public access.
the se f or frsh-ate resurcs fr rereaio4
T lh*. che het oorrceto al s f a
ar/ [oluio an etito fphi ces









Water used for recreation, boating, and wild-
life is not consumed or changed by that use, but
consumptive uses may reduce the amount available
for game and fish and other recreation management.

With a tidal coastline of about 8,500 miles,
along with numerous streams, springs, and lakes,
the State is adequately endowed for recreational-
purposes and wildlife management.



WHAT ARE THE PROSPECTS OF
USING WATER FOR POWER?


Because of the low relief and terrain natural
to Florida, and the resulting sluggish streams,
there are very few sites available for the develop-
ment of dams suitable for power production. At
the present time, small plants are operated at
Inglis, Bloxham, and Chattahoochee. The Jim
Woodruff Dam at Chattahoochee is the largest of
the three, and it is designed to produce an average
of 212 million kilowatt hours of electricity, but
that only during times when the head pool is higher
than the tail pool. Almost any quality of water
can be used for power production.
















Steam-generation installations used in excess
of 1,600 million gallons of water per day during
1956, of which only 2 to 3 percent was obtained
from ground water.










HOW DO WE LOSE WATER?


Much of the fresh water of the State runs
rapidly off to the ocean. This loss could be reduced
greatly by more adequate storage facilities, but
when developing and improving water-storage facili-
ties we should consider the increased loss of water
by evaporation. Any method-whereby the water can
be retained upon the land for a longer period of time
will reduce the loss from runoff. Mulching and till-
ing of the soil, terracing, farm pond construction,
and winter crops help in this conservation.

Great quantities of municipal and industrial
wastes find their way into streams, lakes, and
ground water. Contaminated and polluted water is
not suitable for most uses. Some of our streams are
being contaminated to a degree that they can be
used only as running cesspools for disposal of in-
dustrial wastes.

The former reckless drainage of the Ever-
glades, coastal marshes, and other storage basins
has not only wasted the State's water but allowed
the very rapid oxidation of organic soils.

In areas of artesian flow, water is lost through
leaking valves, open casings, valves deliberately
or carelessly left open, abandoned and rotted cas-
ings, and wasteful irrigation practices.

Contamination of ground water is another
cause for water loss. Disposal of industrial and
city wastes into the ground can cause the water
supply to be unfit for many purposes. In some
areas the absence of streams make it necessary to
dispose of surface water through wells. In this
manner lake levels can be controlled and street
drainage carried underground. Some industrial
wastes have also been placed in these wells, and
their disintegration has produced inflammable gas
which has accumulated in the porous limestones
that underlie the area.









Overpumping of a ground-water source may
draw salt water into the aquifer from the sea, or
from below, and will increase the mineral content of
water in wells of the area. A number of our com-
munities have experienced this problem and have
had to relocate their well fields.


CAN WE HAVE TOO MUCH WATER?


Much of the recent damage and difficulty occur-
ring from too much water has stemmed from Florida's
rapid population growth, and the ensuing encroach-
ment into the lakes and river basins in the never-
ending search for water-front
property. Since most of
Florida is within 60 miles e ,
of the sea, and less than 350 bfl
feet above sea level, drain-
age is often inadequate dur- Jo)
ing heavy seasonal rains.
Not only do some sections
of the State suffer from sea-
sonal stream flooding, but
also from a high water table ,
and raised lake levels accom- -
panied by waterlogged soils
and temporary ponds. The
problem of too much water is being studied and at-
tacked not only from the standpoint of single water-
shed areas, but also within much larger areas involv-
ing several counties.

Flooding in Florida is frequent because of the
flatlands, the concentration of much of the annual
rainfall over short periods, and absence of protec-
tive water-control facilities.


HOW CAN WE PROTECT AND CONSERVE
OUR WATER RESOURCES?


We can best protect and conserve our water
resources by developing a comprehensive statewide










long-range water plan. This plan should be based
on a complete understanding of the natural and man-
made controls that regulate the storage, movement
and quality of water conditional to the availability
and need for water, fairly apportioned among the
users.

Ground-water management must be statewide
but surface-water management is a watershed pro-
blemand must be approached within each watershed.
A coordinated district action is required and usually
a soil conservation program is included. The con-
struction of terraces to reduce slope wash, the en-
couragement of good soil tilling and mulching prac-
tices, the planting of protective vegetative cover,
all work toward soil and water conservation.

CONSE RVATION












The Watershed Protection and.Flood Preven-
tion Act (U. S. Public Laws 566 and 1018) provides
for management and use of water by upper water-
shed control structures. Flood control and agricul-
tural benefits can be combined with improvements
for industrial and municipal supplies, wildlife man-
agement, and recreational facilities with these shar-
ing in the costs of construction according to the
value and degree of the benefits.


WHO OWNS THE WATER IN FLORIDA?


Florida follows the general rule of riparian
rights, which essentially guarantees that each ri-










long-range water plan. This plan should be based
on a complete understanding of the natural and man-
made controls that regulate the storage, movement
and quality of water conditional to the availability
and need for water, fairly apportioned among the
users.

Ground-water management must be statewide
but surface-water management is a watershed pro-
blemand must be approached within each watershed.
A coordinated district action is required and usually
a soil conservation program is included. The con-
struction of terraces to reduce slope wash, the en-
couragement of good soil tilling and mulching prac-
tices, the planting of protective vegetative cover,
all work toward soil and water conservation.

CONSE RVATION












The Watershed Protection and.Flood Preven-
tion Act (U. S. Public Laws 566 and 1018) provides
for management and use of water by upper water-
shed control structures. Flood control and agricul-
tural benefits can be combined with improvements
for industrial and municipal supplies, wildlife man-
agement, and recreational facilities with these shar-
ing in the costs of construction according to the
value and degree of the benefits.


WHO OWNS THE WATER IN FLORIDA?


Florida follows the general rule of riparian
rights, which essentially guarantees that each ri-










parian proprietor is entitled to make use of any
water resources on his land, provided his use does
not unreasonably affect the rights of adjacent ri-
parian owners. This right implies "reasonable use, "
but this term has never been clearly defined by
legislative or judicial authority in Florida.

In 1955 the Legislature of the State of Florida
declared that the, "Waters in the state are a natural
resource," and that, "The ownership, control of de-
velopment and use of waters for all beneficial pur-
poses is within the jurisdiction of the state which
in the exercise of its powers may establish measures
to effectuate the proper and comprehensive utiliza-
tion and protection of the waters."

Such implementation of this policy must be
within the framework of judicial opinion relative to
the riparian doctrine. Irrigation is necessary in
Florida. The construction of surface reservoirs
and the use of waste waters for this purpose should
be encouraged. But irrigation is not possible with-
out the loss of water through evaporation, and
large losses might exceed the "reasonable use"
provision of the riparian doctrine.















The laws of Florida should anticipate the re-
lative rights of human -needs, stock requirements,
irrigation, industrial, and recreational uses, and
should adopt means to fairly apportion such rights
to the extent to which they are most reasonably
capable. In this way, waste and unreasonable use
of water should be prevented.










The Department of waterResources was created
in 1957 for the purpose of implementing the water
policy of Florida. This department primarily exer-
cises control over and manages our water resources,
formulating reasonable rules and regulations to
implement the policy. The Florida Geological Survey
is designated by the Legislature as the primary
state agency for the collection of data on water' re-
sources, and joins the U. S. Geological Survey, State
universities, Salt Water Fish Commission, and the
State Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission to
provide specialized data on water resources relating
to specialized fields of responsibility.



SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS



Florida's water supply is adequate to meet all
presentneeds for many years to come, with a surplus
bf water for future development. This surplus is
sufficient for the expected increases in water use
for all purposes. Industry has been, and will be,
attracted by large volumes of good water combined
wvith extensive tracts of available land, good re-
search facilities, and an unexcelled climate, beaches
And recreational facilities. While the State has
large quantities of available water resources now,
responsible public officials must take a long-range
Manning view of the total quantity and quality of
Available water. Excluding storage, it has been
estimated that we have a surplus runoff of about 17
limes the amount of water used in Florida at the
present time. This water is available for additional
|nd increased uses. The limited problems.that have
arisen in the use of the State's water resources can
fe eliminated for the most part by wise management
nd control.

How we use our water resources, whether
Iisely or unwisely, will rest upon each citizen of
Florida. Floridians can look to the future with
optimism.






















































TEXT PREPARED BY: Vernon, Robert 0.; Sproul,
C. R.; Lavender, J. A.; Hendry, C. W., Jr.; Bishop,
E. W.

ILLUSTRATIONS BY: Whitehead, Harry; Janson,
Andrew.




24










The Department of waterResources was created
in 1957 for the purpose of implementing the water
policy of Florida. This department primarily exer-
cises control over and manages our water resources,
formulating reasonable rules and regulations to
implement the policy. The Florida Geological Survey
is designated by the Legislature as the primary
state agency for the collection of data on water' re-
sources, and joins the U. S. Geological Survey, State
universities, Salt Water Fish Commission, and the
State Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission to
provide specialized data on water resources relating
to specialized fields of responsibility.



SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS



Florida's water supply is adequate to meet all
presentneeds for many years to come, with a surplus
bf water for future development. This surplus is
sufficient for the expected increases in water use
for all purposes. Industry has been, and will be,
attracted by large volumes of good water combined
wvith extensive tracts of available land, good re-
search facilities, and an unexcelled climate, beaches
And recreational facilities. While the State has
large quantities of available water resources now,
responsible public officials must take a long-range
Manning view of the total quantity and quality of
Available water. Excluding storage, it has been
estimated that we have a surplus runoff of about 17
limes the amount of water used in Florida at the
present time. This water is available for additional
|nd increased uses. The limited problems.that have
arisen in the use of the State's water resources can
fe eliminated for the most part by wise management
nd control.

How we use our water resources, whether
Iisely or unwisely, will rest upon each citizen of
Florida. Floridians can look to the future with
optimism.










FLRD GEOLOSk ( IC SUfRiW


COPYRIGHT NOTICE
[year of publication as printed] Florida Geological Survey [source text]


The Florida Geological Survey holds all rights to the source text of
this electronic resource on behalf of the State of Florida. The
Florida Geological Survey shall be considered the copyright holder
for the text of this publication.

Under the Statutes of the State of Florida (FS 257.05; 257.105, and
377.075), the Florida Geologic Survey (Tallahassee, FL), publisher of
the Florida Geologic Survey, as a division of state government,
makes its documents public (i.e., published) and extends to the
state's official agencies and libraries, including the University of
Florida's Smathers Libraries, rights of reproduction.

The Florida Geological Survey has made its publications available to
the University of Florida, on behalf of the State University System of
Florida, for the purpose of digitization and Internet distribution.

The Florida Geological Survey reserves all rights to its publications.
All uses, excluding those made under "fair use" provisions of U.S.
copyright legislation (U.S. Code, Title 17, Section 107), are
restricted. Contact the Florida Geological Survey for additional
information and permissions.