<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Main
 Main
 Letter of transmittal
 Contents
 Introduction/Cement
 Clays
 Heavy metals
 Magnesium compounds
 Oil and gas
 Peat
 Phosphate
 Sand and gravel
 Stone
 References
 Appendix














The industrial minerals of Florida ( FGS: Information circular 102 )
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001163/00001
 Material Information
Title: The industrial minerals of Florida ( FGS: Information circular 102 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Information circular 102 )
Physical Description: viii, 94 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Campbell, Kenneth M ( Kenneth Mark ), 1949-
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Natural Resources, Division of Resource Management, Bureau of Geology
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1986
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Mines and mineral resources -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Mineral industries -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Kenneth M. Campbell.
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 54-61.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000985855
oclc - 15363889
notis - AEW2271
issn - 0085-0640 ;
System ID: UF00001163:00001

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Table of Contents
    Main
        Main
    Main
        Page i
        Page ii
    Letter of transmittal
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Introduction/Cement
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Clays
        Page 5 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Heavy metals
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Magnesium compounds
        Page 16 (MULTIPLE)
    Oil and gas
        Page 17 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Peat
        Page 23 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Phosphate
        Page 28 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Sand and gravel
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Stone
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    References
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Appendix
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
Full Text






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STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Elton J. Gissendanner, Executive Director

DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Art Wilde, Director

BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
Walter Schmidt, Chief











INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102

THE INDUSTRIAL MINERALS
OF
FLORIDA

by


Kenneth M.


Campbell


Published for the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
TALLAHASSEE
1986


3w37


~B~fi:5:






DEPARTMENT
OF
NATURAL RESOURCES


BOB GRAHAM
Governor


GEORGE FIRESTONE
Secretary of State

BILL GUNTER
Treasurer

RALPH D. TURLINGTON
Commissioner of Education


JIM SMITH
Attorney General

GERALD A. LEWIS
Comptroller

DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


ELTON J. GISSENDANNER
Executive Director








II


no )o-2






LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Bureau of Geology
August 1986


Governor Bob Graham, Chairman
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Tallahassee, Florida 32301

Dear Governor Graham:

The Bureau of Geology, Division of Resource Management, Depart-
ment of Natural Resources, is publishing as its Information Circular No.
102, The Industrial Minerals of Florida.
This report summarizes the geology, mining and beneficiation of indus-
trial minerals found in Florida. Products, uses, economic trends and envi-
ronmental aspects are outlined. This report will be useful to geologists,
state and local governmental agencies and the citizens of the State and
will help the reader more fully realize the impact of mining on the econ-
omy of Florida.

Respectfully yours,

Walter Schmidt, Chief
Bureau of Geology










































Printed for the
Florida Geological Survey

Tallahassee
1986

ISSN No. 0085-0640


iv








TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

Introduction ........................................ 1

Cement .......................................... 1
D discussion ..................................... 1
Econom ic Trends ................................. 2
Environmental Concerns ................. .......... 2

C lays ............................................. 5
G eology ....................................... 5
Mining and Beneficiation ............................ 7
U ses . . .. . . .. . . . .. . 7
Transportation and Economic Trends .................. 9
Reserves ....................................... 9
Environmental Concerns ........................... 9

Heavy M inerals ..................................... 11
Geology ................. ............ ......... 11
Trail Ridge Deposit ............................ 11
Green Cove Springs and Boulougne Deposits ......... 12
Mining and Beneficiation ................... ....... 12
Products and Uses ............ ...... ............. 14
Transportation and Economic Trends .................. 15
Reserves ....................................... 15
Environmental Concerns ........................... 16

Magnesium Compounds ............................... 16
Processing ..................................... 16
Uses .......... ............... ... ..... .......... 16
Econom ic Trends ................................. 17
Reserves ....................................... 17
Environmental Concerns ........................... 17

O il and G as ........................................ 17
G eology ....................................... 17
Products and Uses ............................... 18
Transportation ................................... 19
Production Trends ................................ 19
Reserves ....................................... 19
Environmental Concerns .......................... 19
Byproduct Sulphur ................................ 23

Peat ...................... .............. .. ..... 23








G eology ....................................... 23
M ining ........................................ 24
U ses .......................................... 2 5
Transportation and Economic Trends .................. 25
Reserves ....................................... 25
Environmental Concerns ............................. 27

Phosphate ......................................... 28
Discussion .............................. ....... 28
Geology ...................... ... ............ 29
Central Florida Phosphate District ................. 29
Southern Extension of the Central Florida Phosphate
D district ................ ................. 31
Northern Florida Phosphate District ................ 31
M ining ........................................ 32
Beneficiation of Phosphate Ore ...................... 33
Products and Uses ............................... 34
Transportation ................................... 34
Economic Trends ................. ................ 34
Reserves ....................................... 36
Environmental Concerns ........................... 36
Water Usage .... ........ .... ................. 36
Power Consumption ........................... 36
Radiation ................................... 36
W ater Quality ........... ..................... 37
A ir Q quality .................................. 37
Clay Waste Disposal .......................... 37
W wetlands ................................... 38
Byproduct Fluorine ............................... 38
Recovery ................................... 38
U ses ....................................... 39
Economic Trends ............................. 39
Byproduct Uranium ............................... 39
G eology .................................... 39
Extraction ................................... 40
Economic Trends ............................. 40
Reserves ........................ ....... ...... 40

Sand and Gravel .................................... 41
Geology ...................................... 41
Northwest Florida ............................. 41
North Florida ................................. 42
Central Florida ............................... 42
South Florida ......... .............. .......... 43
Mining and Beneficiation ...... .. .................. 43
U ses .......................................... 44
Transportation ............ ...... ............. 44








Econom ic Trends ....................................
Reserves ..........................................
Environmental Concerns ...............................


Stone ..................
Geology .............
Northwest Florida ...
The Western One-Half
Florida ..........
Atlantic Coast ......
Southwest Florida ...
Mining and Beneficiation
Products and Uses .....
Transportation .........
Economic Trends .......
Reserves .............
Environmental Concerns


......................
......................
......................
North and Central Peninsular
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................


References ........................................

A ppendix ..........................................
Mineral Producers in Florida .........................

Producers By Commodity ..............................

Commodities By County ...............................


FIGURES


Figure


Quantity and value of portland cement ..............
Quantity and value of masonry cement .............
Fuller's earth mine, Marion County .................
Quantity and.value of clays ......................
Heavy minerals "wet mill" beneficiation plant ........
Getty Oil drilling rig, East Bay, Santa Rosa County .....
Past and present oil and gas production from Florida
fields .......................................
Quantity and value of petroleum crude ..............
Quantity and value of natural gas ..................
Quantity and value of peat .......................
Location of the Florida phosphate districts ...........


44
44
44


46
46
46

47
49
49
50
51
51
53
53
53

54

62
62

62

89






Page

3
4
8
10
13
18

20
21
22
26
30








12 International Minerals and Chemicals Corp. Clear Springs
phosphate mine, Polk County .............. ................ 32
13 Quantity and value of phosphate in Florida and North
C arolina .................................... 35
14 Suction dredge used in sand mining ................ 43
15 Quantity and value of sand and gravel .............. 45
16 Limestone quarry, Citrus County ................... 50
17 Limestone quarry, mining below water level with
dragline ..................................... 51
18 Quantity and value of crushed stone ............... 52


TABLES


Table Page

1 Conversion factors for terms used in this report ....... 1







THE INDUSTRIAL MINERALS
OF
FLORIDA

by
Kenneth M. Campbell

INTRODUCTION

Although Florida is not generally thought of as a mining state, it ranked
fourth nationally in total value of non-fuel minerals produced in 1985
(Boyle, 1986). In 1981, the total value of Florida's mineral production
(including fuels) was in excess of 3.8 billion dollars. In 1983, the Florida
phosphate industry was reported to have led the nation in phosphate
production for 90 consecutive years (Boyle and Hendry, 1985). Florida
and North Carolina produced 87 percent of the national production of
phosphate in 1983 and approximately 27.4 percent of the world produc-
tion (Stowasser, 1985a). These figures indicate the great importance of
industrial minerals, and mining activities, to the economy of the State of
Florida and the nation as a whole.
This publication is intended to respond to the needs expressed by the
general public, governmental agencies, and industry, regarding informa-
tion on Florida's Economic Minerals. The report will help the reader more
fully realize the impact of the mining industry on Florida's, and ultimately
the nation's economy. The units of measurement utilized in this report
are those commonly used by the respective industries. The metric con-
version factors for terms used in this report are given in Table 1.

TABLE 1

MULTIPLY BY TO OBTAIN
inches 25.4 millimeters
inches 2.54 centimeters
feet 0.3048 meters
miles (statute) 1.6093 kilometers
cubic feet 0.0283 cubic meters
cubic yards 0.7646 cubic meters
ton (short, 2000 Ib) 0.8929 long ton (2240 Ib)
ton (short, 2000 Ib) 0.9072 metric ton (2204.62 Ib)

CEMENT

Discussion

Portland cement and masonry cement are produced from a finely
ground mixture of lime, silica, alumina and iron oxide. Heating, or calcin-
ing the mixture in a rotary kiln forms a silicate clinker, which is then





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


pulverized. Carefully controlled proportions of these ingredients are nec-
essary to produce a satisfactory product.
The chemical composition of portland cement varies, depending on the
end product specifications but generally ranges from Ca3SiO, through
CaA1,FeO,, (Lefond, 1975). The primary ingredient of portland cement
is lime (CaO) which is obtained from limestone. Secondary ingredients
are silica, alumina and iron. Quartz sand is utilized to provide silica. Clay
provides silica, alumina, and iron oxide.
The raw materials for cement production in Florida can all be found
within the state, although some manufacturers are importing various
ingredients. Lime is provided primarily by limestones mined in Florida.
One manufacturer, however, has imported aragonite from the Bahamas
for this purpose (Wright, 1974). Quartz sand used in the manufacturing
process is mined within the state, as is much of the clay. Known reserves
of suitable clay in Florida are becoming depleted and portland cement
producers are increasingly looking outside the state for other sources.
One company is presently importing kaolin from Georgia to supplement
the clay obtained in Florida. Staurolite can be used to supply the alumina
and part of the iron that is required by the cement formula. The mineral
staurolite is a product of heavy mineral separation in the Trail Ridge area
of north Florida.

Economic Trends

Cement production is closely tied to construction activity. Demand for
cement is expected to increase at an annual rate of about two percent
through 1990 (Johnson, 1985). In 1984, production of portland cement
in Florida was up seven percent from the levels of 1983, while masonry
cement production was up 26 percent (Boyle and Hendry, 1985; Boyle,
1986). Preliminary figures for 1985 indicate a decrease to approximately
1983 levels for the production of portland cement, and an increase of
approximately four percent in masonry cement. Value of portland cement
increased five percent from 1983 to 1984 while the value for masonry
cement rose 26 percent. Preliminary figures for 1985 values indicate a
decrease to 1983 levels for portland cement and an increase of approxi-
mately seven percent for masonry cement (Boyle and Hendry, 1985;
Boyle, 1986). There are presently five cement producers active in Flor-
ida, with all operations located in the central and southern portion of the
state.

Environmental Concerns

The environmental concerns of prime importance with respect to
cement manufacturing are air and water pollution. Control of fugitive
dust is the main means of alleviating these problems. Current Environ-
mental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations limit total suspended solids,
pH and effluent temperature which can escape from kilns and clinker







QUANTITY (THOUSANDS OF SHORT TONS)
VALUE (MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)
p PRELIMINARY DATA


4.0. 250

30 10 10
0
o2C'
>. 3.5 200 o
I- u. 0 o @ 00

0 1


-I
2.5 100 C TI "
0 0. 2













1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985
YEAR

Figure 1. Quantity and value of portland cement (Boyle, 1986; U. S. Bureau of Mines,
1977- 1983).
2.0150 f




1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985









* QUANTITY (THOUSANDS OF SHORT TONS)
- VALUE (MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)
p PRELIMINARY DATA


w
.j

500 25


400 20



300 15



200 10


5 a a ..a
5 III
wU w w
o__ I
0 01 -


1982 1983 1984 1985


Figure 2. Quantity and value of masonry cement (Boyle, 1986; U. S. Bureau of Mines,
1977 1983).


co
o
0h
'n q
N C1

n


1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981
YEAR





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


coolers and stacks. Electrostatic precipitators and glass bag dust collec-
tors are widely utilized. When the chemical makeup of the dust is not
prohibitive (excess alkali), the collected dust can be recycled to the firing
and of the kiln (Hall and Ela, 1978) reducing the amount of dust which
must be handled for disposal. EPA regulations require strict dust disposal
control to eliminate potential water pollution with limitations on quantity
of suspended solids and runoff pH.
Energy demands may be considered as an environmental concern.
Cement manufacturing is highly energy intensive. Oil and gas shortages,
and sharply increased fuel costs have impelled cement producers to con-
sider coal as a primary and/or back-up fuel. Reduction in energy con-
sumption is possible with new plants being designed to be energy effi-
cient. Energy efficiency may be enhanced by recycling waste heat, dry
process grinding, blending and conveying, reduction in kiln size and com-
puter process and blending control (Schmidt, et al., 1979).

CLAYS

Clay deposits are found in many parts of Florida, but only in certain
locations are they found with the proper mineralogy, purity and volume
necessary for commercial exploitation. External factors such as ready
access to transportation facilities, power supply and the labor force must
also be favorable.
The U.S. Bureau of Mines classifies clays into six groups. These are
kaolin, ball clay, fire clay, bentonite, fuller's earth, and common clay
(Ampian, 1985a). Clays that are presently mined in Florida include
fuller's earth, kaolin and common clays for use as lightweight aggregate,
cement ingredients and construction material. With the exception of
kaolin, these clays are generally composed of varying amounts of the
minerals smectite, kaolinite, or palygorskite (formerly called attapulgite).

Geology

Clay is a general term for common materials which have a very fine
particle size and which exhibit the property of plasticity when wet.
Strictly speaking, clay is both a size term and the name of a group of
minerals. Clay sized particles are those which are less than 0.000154
inches (1/256 mm) in largest dimension. Clay minerals are composed of
hydrous aluminum or magnesium silicates forming the minerals kaolinite,
smectite, illite, halloysite and palygorskite. These minerals combine with
a large number of possible clay sized impurities including silica, iron
oxides, carbonates, mica, feldspar, potassium, sodium and other ions
(Hosterman, 1973). The large number of possible components increases
the potential for variation from deposit to deposit.
The term fuller's earth is derived from the original use of the material,
that of cleaning wool and textiles. Ampian (1985a) states that, "the
term has neither a compositional nor a mineralogical connotation and the





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


substance is defined as a non-plastic clay or clay-like material, usually
high in magnesia, that has adequate decolorizing and purifying proper-
ties." Fuller's earths are composed primarily of palygorskite or varieties
of smectite (Ampian, 1985a). Florida fuller's earths in the Gadsden
County area are predominantly palygorskite while those located in
Marion County consist primarily of smectite (Hosterman, 1973).
The fuller's earth deposits in Gadsden County occur as beds and
lenses in the upper part of the Hawthorn Group of Miocene age. The
Hawthorn Group in the Gadsden County area is composed primarily of
sand, silt and clay, thin limestone beds and minor amounts of phos-
phorite. The fuller's earth generally occurs as two beds, each two to
eight-feet thick, separated by a hard sandy bed as much as 11 -feet thick.
Above this is a sequence of lenticular, reddish-brown, brown, and
yellowish-brown clayey sands, clay beds, and local channel-fill gravel
deposits known as the Miccosukee Formation. The upper part of the
Hawthorn Group and the Miccosukee Formation together constitute an
overburden thickness which ranges from a few feet to 75 or more feet.
The fuller's earth deposits located in Marion County represent the
lower Hawthorn Group and are located on the edge of the Hawthorn
outcrop belt. The fuller's earth clays are the only Hawthorn material
present (T. Scott, personal communication, 1983). The fuller's earth is
underlain by limestone of the Eocene Ocala Group, and is overlain by
undifferentiated sands, clayey sands and sandy clays (Patrick, et al.,
1983; T. Scott, personal communication, 1983).
The ore zone is approximately 26-feet thick and consists of several
beds of clay containing various amounts of quartz sand and silt, phos-
phorite granules and dendrites (Patrick, et al., 1983). The clay minerals
present in the fuller's earth include illite, sepiolite, smectite and possibly
palygorskite (Patrick, et al., 1983). Up to 28 feet of overburden covers
the fuller's earth. The overburden is often much thinner where part of the
overburden material has been removed by erosion (Patrick, et al., 1983).
There is only one active kaolin mine in Florida, located in western
Putnam County. This deposit is of probable Pliocene age, although, at the
present time, there is uncertainty as to the formation identity and age
(Scott, 1978; personal communication, 1985). The kaolin comprises
less than 20 percent of the material mined (Calver, 1957); the remainder
is predominantly quartz sand with minor amounts of mica, feldspar and
heavy minerals.
Common clays occur in essentially all of the geologic formations
exposed at the surface in Florida and in most of the counties. At present,
only one company is mining clay in Florida for use as lightweight aggre-
gate. This deposit located in Clay County is a naturally bloating clay
composed primarily of smectite and kaolinite and is thought to be
lagoonal in origin (Edward Phillips, personal communication, 1983). The
deposit is of Pliocene to Pleistocene age (T. Scott, personal communica-
tion, 1983).
Approximately 10 feet of sand overburden must be removed to expose





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


the bloating clay. The upper bed is brown clay which averages 15 feet in
thickness and contains a lower percentage of kaolinite than smectite.
This upper bed is separated from a lower clay bed by two feet of white
quartz sand. The lower clay bed averages 20 feet in thickness and con-
tains smectite as the dominant clay mineral. Both beds contain lenses of
shelly clay which are not used (Edward Phillips, personal communication,
1983).

Mining and Beneficiation

All clays in Florida are mined by the open pit method. The overburden
is first removed by a dragline or earthmover. A dragline is utilized to
remove the clay, which is then trucked to the plant for processing. The
kaolin-bearing sands are mined by a floating suction dredge.
The processing procedures vary widely due to the different purposes
for which the clay is mined. The processing required for fuller's earth
consists of drying, grinding, grading by size and packaging.
The kaolin-bearing sands are beneficiated by separation of the sand
and clay and removal of impurities through a series of disaggregating,
washing, screening, thickening, filtering, and drying operations. The
sand fraction is retained, further beneficiated and classified.
Clays for lightweight aggregate production are fired in a rotary kiln at
high temperatures. Two conditions are necessary for bloating (expand-
ing) to occur. When the bloating temperature is reached, the clay mass
must be in a pyroplastic condition and, at the same time, gasses must be
evolving throughout the clay mass (Conley, et al., 1948). The product is
a mass comprised of thin-walled bubbles produced by the gas expansion.
The expansion process is dependent on impurities in the clay such as iron
compounds, alkaline earths (CaO, MgO) and alkalis (K,Na,0), carbon in
some cases, and on pH (generally greater than 5) (Conley, et al., 1948).
The clay structure seems to play little part in the bloating process. After
firing, the expanded product is graded by size.

Uses

Fuller's earth is a term applied to clays and clay-like materials which
have adequate decolorizing and filtration properties. These clays were
originally used to "full" or remove oil from woolen cloth and fibers. The
term is still used today although the primary uses of the clays have
changed. Fuller's earth is used primarily as an absorbent (oil dry, kitty
litter, etc.), for drilling muds, as a carrier for insecticides and fungicides,
and for filtering and decolorizing. The advantage in using fuller's earth as
a drilling mud is that it does not flocculate (settle out) when salt water is
encountered (Hosterman, 1973).
Lightweight aggregates are used to reduce the unit weight of concrete
products without adversely affecting their structural strength. Some
properties of lightweight aggregates are: their relative light weight, high





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


I.


Figure 3. Fuller's earth mine, Marion County.
Photo by Tom Scott.



fire resistance, substantial compressive strength, good bonding with
cement, chemical inertness, and abrasion resistance.
Kaolin mined in Florida has uses which include ceramics, whiteware,
refractory brick, wall tile, and electrical insulators. Additional industrial
applications include use in paint, paper, rubber and plastics (Ampian,
1985a).
Common clays have a variety of uses, such as road construction, brick
manufacturing, and manufacturing of portland cement. Very little clay is
utilized in road construction, as limestone is the major road base material
used in the state. Only a few county road departments maintain "clay"
(usually a clayey sand) pits for local road construction and maintenance.
11





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


There is presently only one brick-manufacturing operation in the state,
ocated at the Apalachee Correctional Institution at Chattahoochee. This
.s not a commercial enterprise, and all of the bricks produced are used by
state agencies. All commercial brick manufacturing plants in Florida have
closed due to economic reasons.
Clay is commonly used as a source of silica and alumina in the manu-
facturing of portland cement. In the southern part of the state, known
clay deposits are very scattered and usually have a high content of impu-
rities. One manufacturer of portland cement imports kaolin from Georgia
for use as a source of alumina while another uses staurolite, which is
obtained as a by-product of the heavy minerals industry in Clay County.


Transportation and Economic Trends

Transportation of clays mined in Florida is primarily by truck and rail.
Demand for the various types of clay is expected to increase 2-4 percent
annually through 1990 (Ampian, 1985b). Production of clay increased
approximately 13 percent in 1984 from 1983, while value (excluding
kaolin) increased approximately eight percent (Boyle and Hendry, 1985;
Boyle, 1986). Preliminary figures for 1985 indicate an increase of
approximately 16 percent and 47 percent for production and value
respectively over the 1984 figures (Boyle, 1986).


Reserves

The majority of the state, with the exception of south Florida, contains
abundant quantities of common clays. The U.S. Bureau of Mines
(Ampian, 1985a) states that Florida reserves of common clays are virtu-
ally unlimited. Individual deposits, however, are not necessarily suitably
located or suitable for specific purposes. Identified deposits of common
clays suitable for lightweight aggregate are quite limited. This situation
probably reflects lack of exploration and testing. Fuller's earth resources
are estimated to be 300 million short tons (Ampian, 1985a). Reserves for
kaolin are not specified by Ampian (1985a), but can be considered lim-
ited to moderate.


Environmental Concerns

Environmental concerns related to clay mining are primarily associated
with air and water pollution. Dust control measures and settling ponds
are used to help alleviate these problems in and around production plants
and storage areas. Timely land reclamation and revegetation will mini-
mize the effects of dust and runoff from mining areas.






1300 50



1200 46



1100 40



1000 35



900 30


N
ON
0


1976 1977* 1978


19794


1980*
YEAR


1981 1982 1983


1984 1985


Figure 4. Quantity and value of clays (Boyle, 1986; U. S. Bureau of Mines,


QUANTITY ( THOUSANDS OF SHORT TONS )

VALUE ( MILLIONS OF DOLLARS )

P PRELIMINARY DATA
* EXCLUDES KAOLIN VALUE 0
0

in
s

!


UJ


25



20


800



700


600I5


500


10


,i lHgH B ig .,.r ,i,, i, i.. ., -- .


1977-1983).





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


HEAVY MINERALS

Geology

The history of the Florida heavy mineral deposits began millions of
years before their deposition in Florida sediments. The heavy minerals
were originally formed in the igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Blue
Ridge and the Piedmont regions in the southern Appalachians (Gilson,
1959). Following extensive weathering and erosion of the crystalline
rocks the heavy mineral grains were subjected to a lengthy period of
abrasion and winnowing as they were transported by fluvial and marine
longshore currents. Finally, they were deposited as sedimentary grains in
Florida. None of the economically important detrital minerals found in
Florida sediments are known to occur in Florida sedimentary rocks as
primary minerals (Garner, 1972).
Heavy minerals are associated with essentially all of the quartz sands
and clayey sands in Florida, however, economically valuable concentra-
tions are much less widespread. The areas which are of economic impor-
tance are the Trail Ridge and Green Cove Springs deposits located in the
northeast peninsula of Florida. All of the commercially valuable heavy
mineral deposits in Florida are inland from the present shoreline, and are
genetically associated with older, higher shore lines (Pirkle, et al., 1974).

TRAIL RIDGE DEPOSIT

The Trail Ridge is a sand ridge which extends southward from the
Altamaha River in southeast Georgia into Clay and Bradford counties in
the peninsula of Florida, a distance of approximately 130 miles. Ridge
crest elevations range from approximately 140 feet in southern Georgia
to approximately 250 feet near its southern end in Florida (Pirkle, et al.,
1977).
The Trail Ridge heavy mineral ore deposit is located at the southern end
of the Trail Ridge in Bradford and Clay counties. The ore body, which has
an average thickness of 35 feet, measures approximately 17-miles long
by one or two miles wide. Heavy minerals (specific gravity greater than
2.9) comprise approximately four percent of the deposit. The titanium
minerals rutile, ilmenite and leucoxene make up 45 percent of the heavy
mineral fraction (Carpenter, et al., 1953). Staurolite, zircon, kyanite,
sillimanite, tourmaline, spinel, topaz, corundum, monazite and others
make up the remainder of the heavy mineral fraction (Pirkle, et al., 1970).
The base of the ore body rests either on barren quartz sands and clayey
sands or on a compacted layer of woody and peaty materials including
tree branches, roots and trunks (Pirkle, et al., 1970).
The current hypothesis for the formation of the ore body is that Trail
Ridge was formed at the crest of a transgressive sea (rising sea level)
which was eroding the sediments of the Northern Highlands of Florida
(Pirkle, et al., 1974). The Trail Ridge is the highest and oldest shoreline





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


along which commercial concentrations of heavy minerals have been
found in Florida. The Trail Ridge deposit is significantly coarser in mean
grain size than the sediments of the Northern Highlands because fine
sediments were winnowed out by wave and current activity. The compo-
sition of the heavy mineral suite of the Trail Ridge deposit closely
matches that of the Northern Highlands (Pirkle, et al., 1974). Pirkle, et al.
(1977) concluded from a study of heavy mineral grain sphericities that
the high terrace sands of the Northern Highlands were the only possible
source of sand for the Trail Ridge. Thus, this interpretation of the origin of
the Trail Ridge is consistent with the mineral suite of the Northern High-
lands as well as the physiographic and sedimentary features of the area
(Pirkle, et al., 1977).

GREEN COVE SPRINGS AND BOULOUGNE DEPOSITS

The Green Cove Springs and Boulougne (now mined out) heavy min-
eral deposits are located within the Duval Uplands. These deposits are
believed to have formed within beach ridges on a regressional (falling sea
level) beach ridge plain associated with a sea level of 90-100 feet, with
the elevation becoming lower to the east (Pirkle, et al., 1974).
The Green Cove Springs ore deposit, which is oriented along a north-
west to southeast trend, is located in southeastern Clay and northeast-
ern Putnam counties. The deposit is approximately 12-miles long, 3/4-
mile wide and 20-feet thick (Pirkle, et al., 1974). The Boulougne ore
body (now mined out) is located several miles south of the Florida-
Georgia border in Nassau County and measures three-miles long (N-S
trend) by 1/2 to 3/4-mile wide and ranges from 5 to 25-feet thick (Pirkle,
et al., 1974).
The Green Cove Springs and Bolougne heavy mineral deposits are finer
grained than the Trail Ridge deposit. The sediment source for a regres-
sional beach ridge plain would be, predominantly, sediments delivered by
the coastal littoral drift system. These sediments would tend to be rela-
tively fine and would contain heavy mineral suites characteristic of their
source areas. This can explain the finer texture of the Duval Upland
beach ridge sediments as well as the occurrence of garnet and epidote in
the heavy mineral suite (Pirkle, et al., 1974).

Mining and Beneficiation

The mining process begins with harvesting any timber present and
clearing the land of vegetation. Top soil, if present, is stockpiled for later
use in reclamation. Heavy mineral sands are mined by a floating suction
dredge equipped with a cutter head. The dredge and wet mill float in a
man-made pond. The dredge cuts into the banks of the pond, while
waste sand, after processing in the wet mill, is backfilled into the pond
behind the dredge.
Initial heavy mineral separation is carried out within the wet mill by the







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


TL--~;aa


-.. .-


Heavy minerals "wet mill" beneficiation plant. Photo courtesy
of the Florida Bureau of Mine Reclamation.


use of Humphreys Spiral Concentrators. Spiral concentrators treat an ore
which contains approximately four percent heavy minerals, and produce,
after several stages, a concentrate which averages 85 percent heavy
minerals (Garner, 1971). Based on the acreage mined in 1985 (Florida
Bureau of Mine Reclamation figures) and assuming the 'average' thick-
ness of the two deposits presently being mined (Trail Ridge and Green
Cove Springs), approximately 43 million cubic yards of material were
processed through the wet mills, resulting in approximately 1.6 million
cubic yards of wet mill concentrate. Wet mill concentrates are pumped to
land based dry. mills for further processing.


Figure 5.


'a a


J ii


_~a~l-"
;'~ 'T .-*;.,~1
~ir--;
*.
,~,, "X~L. '~
-
"-
--p~L~U.
~W1~~
r- .i ..
.. -
'
,, ~~~4-4





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


The initial step in processing wet mill concentrates is scrubbing using
sodium hydroxide to remove organic coatings and clay minerals from the
grains. Scrubbed material is dried and then separated on a series of high
tension separators which take advantage of the variation in the electrical
conductivity of the different minerals (Garner, 1971). Titanium minerals
(ilmenite, rutile, and leucoxene) have relatively good electrical conduc-
tance and are separated from the heavy silicate minerals (includes
staurolite, zircon, kyanite, sillimanite, tourmaline and topaz) and quartz
which pick up an electrical charge and adhere to the separator rotor
(Evans, 1955). The concentrate is thus separated into titanium minerals,
tailings composed of heavy silicate minerals and quartz, and a middling
fraction of poorly separated grains which is recycled through the high
tension separator.
Concentrate from the high tension separator is separated magnetically.
The magnetic portion is shipped as ilmenite which contains 98 percent
titanium mineral and averages 64.5 percent TiO, (Garner, 1971). The
nonmagnetic fraction is recycled through high tension separators to sep-
arate leucoxene and rutile as a product which analyzes 80 percent TiO,.
After ilmenite, leucoxene and rutile are removed, tailings are recycled to
the initial high tension separators, and high intensity magnets separate
staurolite from zircon. Tailings from the staurolite separation are treated
in spirals to remove heavy silicates and quartz sand (Garner, 1971).
Through continuous control and recycling of materials nearly all of the
heavy minerals are recovered.

Products and Uses

The major use for the titanium-rich heavy minerals (ilmenite, rutile and
leucoxene) is for titanium dioxide pigment (known for its whiteness,
spreading quality and chemical stability). Ninety-nine percent of the
ilmenite and 84 percent of the rutile was utilized in the manufacture of
white pigments in 1984 (Lynd, 1985a).
Staurolite is an iron-aluminum silicate mineral containing 45 percent
Al O, and 13 to 15 percent Fe203. Staurolite product also contains tour-
maline and spinel as well as silicates with magnetic inclusions. This
material is utilized primarily as a source of iron and alumina in the manu-
facture of portland cement and as an abrasive (Garner, 1971).
Zircon is found in economic quantities in the Trail Ridge area, and is
recovered from the ore after the ilmenite and rutile have been removed.
Zircon is a silicate of zirconium with a theoretical composition of 67.2
percent ZrO, and 32.8 percent SiO2 (Dana, 1946). It is a constituent of
practically all stream and beach sands, however, it occurs in rather small
quantities in most deposits. The consumption of zircon in the U.S. in
1984 was as follows: 45 percent was used in foundry sands, 20 percent
in refractories, 12 percent in ceramics, six percent in abrasives and the
rest in making zirconium metal and alloys and in chemical manufacturing
(Adams, 1985).





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


Monazite is a phosphate mineral which concentrates the rare-earth
elements ceriumm, yttrium, lanthanum, and thorium) and contains up to
12 percent thorium oxide and one percent uranium oxide. Monazite is not
present in commercial quantities in the Trail Ridge deposit but is pres-
ently recovered from the Green Cove Springs deposit. Thorium that is
derived from monazite is used as a fertile material in commercial high-
temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors and experimental nuclear reac-
tors to produce fissionable U-233. The major use at present is to produce
catalysts utilized in cracking petroleum crude. Non-energy uses include
the manufacture of gas mantles, high temperature alloys used in the
aerospace industry, refractory materials, optical glass, and other miscel-
laneous uses. Cerium is also extracted from monazite and is used in the
production of iron alloys, mischmetal (a metallic mixture of rare earth
elements), ferrocerium, carbon arc electrode cores, glass polishing proc-
esses and other miscellaneous uses (Moore, 1980).

Transportation and Economic Trends

Heavy mineral concentrates are shipped primarily by rail. Covered hop-
percars are utilized in bulk shipments (Lynd, 1980). Production and value
figures for heavy minerals in general (and the individual mineral compo-
nents) are withheld to protect the confidentiality of individual compan-
ies. In 1983, Florida was the only U.S. producer of staurolite, rutile,
zircon and rare earth minerals from mineral sands and was one of only
two states with ilmenite production (Boyle and Hendry, 1985). From a
1984 level, demand for titanium sponge metal is expected to increase at
an annual rate of five percent through 1990. Titanium sponge metal is a
spongy metal produced by reducing purified titanium tetrachloride with
sodium or magnesium in an inert atmosphere. Residual chlorides are
removed by leaching, inert gas sweep or vacuum distillation. The sponge
is compacted and formed into ingots by vacuum arc melting (Lynd,
1985b).
Demand for TiO2 pigments will increase from a 1981 base at two
percent annually (Lynd, 1985a). U.S. production of ilmenite in 1982 was
the lowest since 1954 at 263,000 short tons of contained TiO, (Lynd
and Hough, 1980; Lynd, 1985a).
Zirconium demand is expected to increase at a four percent annual rate
through 1990 (Adams, 1985). Rare earth metals demand is expected to
increase at an annual rate of three percent through 1990 (Hedrick,
1985).

Reserves

Florida reserves of titanium minerals consist of 5.2 million short tons of
contained titanium from ilmenite and rutile (Lynd, 1985b). Reserves of
rare earth minerals are considered limited.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Environmental Concerns

Environmental problems associated with heavy mineral mining in Flor-
ida are relatively minor. Water quality problems related to suspension of
clay and organic material are the most prevalent and may require use of
settling ponds to maintain water quality.
Land reclamation is required by the state of Florida on all land mined for
heavy minerals. Recontouring and revegetation are among the require-
ments. Timely reclamation will help minimize the impacts of mining.

MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS

Florida ranked second in the nation in the production of caustic-
calcined and refractory grade magnesium compounds recovered from
seawater in 1983 (Boyle and Hendry, 1985). One company produced
magnesium compounds in Florida.

Processing

Seawater is utilized as a source in the production of caustic-calcined
and refractory magnesia as well as magnesium metal (Kramer, 1985a).
Carbonate and sulfate levels in the feed water must be reduced to pre-
vent the precipitation of insoluble calcium compounds. Carbonate and
sulfate level reduction is accomplished by treatment with slaked lime to
precipitate calcium carbonate (CaCO,) or by treating with acid to release
carbon dioxide (CO,). The treated solution is mixed with dry or slaked
lime to precipitate magnesium hydroxide which is thickened, washed
with fresh water and filtered. The filter cake is then calcined to produce
caustic-calcined or refractory magnesia or may be calcined and pelletized
prior to dead burning (Kramer, 1985a). Caustic-calcined magnesia is pre-
pared at temperatures up to 16400F and is water reactive. Dead burned,
or refractory, magnesia is prepared at temperatures greater than 26400F
and is not reactive with water (Kramer, 1985a).

Uses

In 1985, 85 percent of the magnesium consumed in the U.S. was in
the form of magnesium compounds. The majority of magnesium com-
pound use is in the form of refractory magnesia (Kramer, 1985a; Adams,
1984) used primarily by the iron and steel industry for furnace refracto-
ries (Kramer, 1985a). Caustic-calcined magnesia is used primarily in the
manufacture of chemicals (Kramer, 1985a). Magnesium compounds are
used to prepare animal feeds, fertilizer, rayon, insulation, metallic magne-
sium, rubber, fluxes, chemical manufacturing and processing, petroleum
additives and paper manufacturing (Kramer, 1985a; Adams 1984).





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


Economic Trends

Production figures for Florida are not available, to protect the confiden-
tiality of individual company data. Adams (1984) shows the production
capacity of Basic Magnesia Co. (the sole Florida producer) as 100,000
short tons of MgO equivalent. Kramer, (1985b) estimates that in 1984,
the magnesium compounds industry operated at almost 70 percent of
capacity.

Reserves

Reserves of magnesium compounds from seawater are virtually unlim-
ited. Magnesium is the third most common element in seawater with an
average content of 0.13 weight percent (Kramer, 1985a).

Environmental Concerns

Magnesium plants which utilize seawater as a source return the water
to the ocean after magnesia removal. Turbidity of the return water has
been a problem in the past, however, modern treatment processes have
reduced the degree of turbidity. The return water is not noxious (Kramer,
1985a).

OIL AND GAS

Florida's oil and gas production is from two widely separated groups of
fields. The first group is located in Collier, Dade, Hendry and Lee counties
and includes the Sunniland, Forty Mile Bend, Sunoco Felda, West Felda,
Lehigh Park, Lake Trafford, Bear Island, Mid-Felda, Seminole, Baxter
Island, Townsend Canal, Raccoon Point, Pepper Hammock and Cork-
screw fields. The other group, located in Santa Rosa and Escambia coun-
ties includes the Jay, Mount Carmel, Blackjack Creek and Sweetwater
Creek fields and a presently unnamed field. The Forty Mile Bend, Semi-
nole, Baxter Island and Sweetwater Creek fields have been plugged and
abandoned.

Geology

The south Florida fields produce from a combination of subtle struc-
tural traps and stratigraphic traps in the Sunniland Formation of Early
Cretaceous Age. Production is from porous limestone containing abun-
dant disoriented gastropods and pelecypods (rudistids) (Al Applegate,
Florida Geological Survey, personal communication, 1983).
The oil and gas fields of northwest Florida produce from a combination
of structural and stratigraphic traps in the Jurassic Smackover Formation
(Sigsby, 1976). The productive interval of the Smackover is a porous
dolomite which includes a lower transgressive interval of mud flat and





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


:Lrp
- : ri


Figure 6. Getty Oil drilling rig, East Bay, Santa Rosa
County. Photo by Walt Schmidt.



algal mat deposits and an upper regressive interval composed of hard-
ened pellet grainstones (Ottmann, et al., 1973).

Products and Uses

Crude oil and natural gas are utilized primarily as fuels of various types.
Gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, jet fuel, fuel oil and propane, ethane, and
methane gases are examples. Lubricants, synthetic fibers, plastics,
asphalt and paraffin wax are examples of other products produced from





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


petroleum (U.S. Dept. of Energy, 1979). Sulphur is produced as a by-
product from the northwest Florida fields.

Transportation

All crude oil produced in Florida is shipped by pipeline or barge to
refineries in other states (Christ, et al., 1981). Crude oil from the south
Florida fields is shipped by truck and pipeline to Port Everglades for
distribution. Crude from the northwest Florida fields is transported by
16-inch pipeline to storage facilities in Alabama (Christ, et al., 1981).
Natural gas from the northwest Florida fields is shipped by pipeline and
truck after natural gas liquids are stripped from the gas. Florida Gas
Transmission Pipeline Company and Five Flags Pipeline Company market
natural gas to residential, commercial and industrial customers within the
state (Sweeney and Hendry, 1981).

Production Trends

In 1978, Florida ranked ninth nationally in production of petroleum
crude with 1.4 percent of the national production (Independent Petro-
leum Association of America, 1979). Production of petroleum and natu-
ral gas in Florida has been declining since 1978. Estimated 1985 oil
production is down 76 percent from the 1978 figure and 20 percent from
1984. Natural gas production is down 77 percent from 1978 and 15
percent from 1984. This trend is expected to continue unless additional
reserves are discovered in the near future (Florida Bureau of Geology,
unpublished data).

Reserves

Proven crude oil and natural gas reserves as of December 31, 1984,
consisted of 82 million barrels of oil and 90 billion cubic feet of natural
gas (U.S. Dept. of Energy, 1985). Statewide cumulative oil production,
through 1984, totals 474.976 million barrels. Cumulative natural gas
production totals 483.877 billion cubic feet (Applegate and Lloyd,
1985). In 1984, 76.5 percent of the crude oil production and 98 percent
of the natural gas was from the northwest Florida fields (Florida Bureau
of Geology, unpublished data).

Environmental Concerns

The environmental concerns associated with oil and gas drilling in
Florida center on fresh water resource protection, protection of environ-
mentally sensitive lands and endangered species. Aquifer protection is
ensured by proper well construction techniques, which are designed to
isolate freshwater aquifers from deeper saline water zones by cementing
casing in place through the entire fresh water zone and into the salt














SOIL IN THOUSANDS OF BARRELS
--- GAS IN THOUSANDS OF MCF


I I
I \
I \

i I

I
I
I
I


I I I I I

19431945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1930 1935

Figure 7. Past and present oil and gas production from Florida fields (Florida
Bureau of Geology figures).


50,000


45,000





70 1400

T


- ~~ &~ & L,-


1977 1978


1979


1980
YEAR


1981


o




a
01 1


Figure 8. Quantity and value of petroleum crude (production: Florida Bureau of Geology
figures; value: Independent Petroleum Association of America, 1978 1984).


QUANTITY (MILLIONS OF BARRELS) (1 BARREL-42 U.S. GALLONS)

W| VALUE (MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)
p PRELIMINARY DATA


1200



1000 0



oo00
8.00


>60




40

40
a


3 6&00



20 400



10 200


1976







QUANTITY ( BILLIONS OF CUBIC FEET ) I

Dl VALUE I MILLIONS OF DOLLARS I

p PRELIMINARY DATA

o o

50 100 6 s En p hn

> I. 2
040 80

c
V U,

3060 I s H
n n G)


20 40


1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985
YEAR
Figure 9. Quantity and value of natural gas (production: Florida Bureau of Geology figures;
value: Independent Petroleum Association of America, 1978- 1984).





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


water zone. Personnel from the Florida Bureau of Geology, Oil & Gas
Section, inspect the well construction.
Proposed well locations in the Big Cypress Swamp of south Florida are
inspected by the Big Cypress Swamp Advisory Committee which was
set up by the Governor and Cabinet of Florida. This five-member commit-
tee consists of the State Geologist, a professional hydrologist and a
professional botanist, as well as one representative from a statewide
environmental group, and one member from industry. Well drilling and
related plans are modified as necessary to minimize the impact on wild-
life and surface habitats.

Byproduct Sulphur

Crude oil from Jay Field area contains 87 percent hydrocarbons, 10
percent hydrogen sulfide and three percent carbon dioxide and nitrogen
(Ottmann, et al., 1973). The gas produced in this area also contains
hydrogen sulfide. The removal of the hydrogen sulfide from crude oil and
natural gas has resulted in a significant byproduct sulphur resource. A
plant treating 12,000 barrels a day will produce 80 long tons (89.6 short
tons) of sulphur per day (Ottmann, et al., 1973). Sulphur is shipped by
truck in liquid form to Mobile, Alabama.

PEAT

The following discussion is summarized in large part from a detailed
Florida Geological Survey publication on the peat resources of Florida
(Bond, et al., 1984) entitled An Overview of Peat in Florida and Related
Issues.

Geology

The conditions under which peat occurs in Florida are highly variable.
The geological and hydrologic relations of peat to adjacent materials are
poorly understood. Davis (1946) divided the peat deposits of Florida into
a number of groups based on their locations. These groups include: 1)
Coastal associations, including marshes and mangrove swamps, lagoons
and estuaries as well as depressions among dunes, 2) large, nearly flat,
poorly-drained areas as exemplified by the Everglades, 3) river-valley
marshes such as the marsh adjacent to the St. Johns River, 4) swamps of
the flat land region, 5) marshes bordering lakes and ponds, 6) seasonally
flooded shallow depressions, 7) lake bottom deposits, and 8) peat layers
buried beneath other strata. In Florida, peat deposits may be either wet
or dry, (Davis, 1946; Gurr, 1972). Wet peat deposits occur if the water-
table remains relatively high. Peat may be actively accumulating in these
deposits. Certain areas within the Everglades, the coastal mangrove
peats, and some lake-fringing peat deposits, such as the one associated
with Lake Istokpoga, are examples of undrained deposits in the state. In





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


other instances, peat deposits are dry. This drainage may have been
initiated to enhance the land for agricultural use. The Everglades agricul-
tural region contains numerous tracts drained for this purpose. Other
deposits have apparently been drained as a result of regional lowering of
the water table.
Peat forms when the accumulation of plant material exceeds its
destruction by the organisms which decompose it. Certain geologic,
hydrologic and climatic conditions serve to inhibit decomposition by
organisms. Ideally, areas should be continually waterlogged, tempera-
tures generally low, and pH values of associated waters should be low
(Moore and Bellamy, 1974).
Certain geologic characteristics are associated with waterlogged sur-
face conditions. The tendency toward waterlogging is enhanced if topo-
graphic relief is generally low and topographic barriers exist which
restrict flow and allow water to pond. Additionally, waterlogging is
encouraged if highly permeable bedrock is covered with material of low
permeability (Olson, et al., 1979).
The chemical nature of the plant litter may also serve to reduce its
susceptibility to decomposition. Moore and Bellamy (1974) note the
association of cypress and hardwood trees with peats characteristic of
the hammocks or tree islands of the Everglades. These hammocks occur
on peat deposits which are situated on limestone bedrock. The trees,
which are responsible for the peat beneath them, contain enormous
amounts of lignin, an organic substance somewhat similar to carbohy-
drates which occurs with cellulose in woody plants. Lignin is very resist-
ant to decay and acts as a 'preservative' (Moore and Bellamy, 1974).
Rates of peat accumulation computed from radiocarbon age dating are
grouped about an average of 3.6 inches per 100 years. The rate of peat
accumulation can vary with climate (which also varies with time), the
position of the water table, and nutrient supply (Moore and Bellamy,
1974).



Mining


Almost all peat presently mined in Florida is utilized for agricultural or
horticultural purposes. Draglines and other earthmoving equipment are
utilized in removing vegetation and peat. Moisture must be reduced to
approximately 90 percent for the bog to bear the weight of machinery.
Drainage is an integral and necessary first step in most large scale mining
operations. After excavation, the material is partially air dried and shred-
ded or pulverized (Davis, 1946). If peat is utilized on a larger scale for
fuel, more technologically advanced methods will need to be employed
and will probably be similar to current European peat technology. This
implies that peat will be air dried and burned directly (Kopstein, 1979).





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


Uses

The principal extractive use of Florida peat is as a soil conditioner, with
large amounts used for lawns, golf courses, and in nurseries and green-
houses. The benefits derived from the use of peat result largely from
improved physical conditions in the soil. Also, peat's ability to hold eight
to 20 times its own weight in water makes it valuable in the improvement
of soils.
Farming is the major consumptive nonextractive use of peat in Florida.
One major effect of farming is the deterioration of peat by the various
processes which result in subsidence. Subsidence occurs when organic
soils decrease in volume and is the net result of a number of causes: 1)
shrinkage due to desiccation, 2) consolidation which occurs with loss of
the buoyant force of water, as well as from loading, 3) compaction
accompanying tillage, 4) erosion by wind, 5) fire damage, and 6) bio-
chemical oxidation (Stephens, 1974). Biochemical oxidation results in
actual soil loss, as opposed to volume decrease. It is the primary cause of
declining soil thickness in south Florida.


Transportation and Economic Trends

Both bulk and packaged peat are shipped primarily by rail and truck
(Searls, 1980). In 1984 Florida ranked first in U.S. peat production
(Davis, 1985a). Florida peat production reported in 1984 increased dra-
matically from 114,000 short tons in 1983 to 263,000 short tons in
1984 due to a large increase in companies reporting production (Boyle,
1985). The U.S. Bureau of Mines production figures up to 1983 repre-
sented production reported by five companies. In 1984, there were 21
peat producers in Florida (Bond, et al., 1984), however, only 15 reported
production to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. Nationwide demand is expected
to increase from a 1983 base at an annual rate of approximately 3.3
percent through 1990 (Davis, 1985b).


Reserves

The known original reserves of peat in Florida were estimated by Soper
and Osbon (1922) at 2 billion short tons (air dried). Recent reserve esti-
mates have varied widely. The American Association of Petroleum Geol-
ogists (1981) reported the estimate of 6.8 billion short tons (air dried).
Griffin, et al. (1982) report that, 'It is now estimated that Florida could
produce 606 million tons of moisture free peat' of fuel grade if no other
constraints were present (cost, environmental problems, land use con-
flict, etc.).



















. Z


z

0 2


.repau of Minminn 1.977 -19 3 __


1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981
YEAR

Figure IU. Uuantity and value of peat (Bovle. 1988: U. S. BL


1 I t -





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


Environmental Concerns

Drainage, or water level control undertaken in order to create a work-
able substrate affects the vegetation in two primary ways. Within the
area to be mined and also in areas designated for processing, storage,
roads, and parking lots, vegetation must simply be cleared or eliminated.
The ditch system devised for drainage lowers the water table both
beyond and within the boundaries of the area to be mined (Minnesota
Department of Natural Resources, 1981). The lowering of the water table
affects vegetation in that original plants adapted to wetland situations
will be replaced by plants tolerant of drier conditions. The elimination of
vegetation destroys wildlife habitat and results in displacement of wild-
life. The changes in vegetation which accompany drainage will result in
changes both in population and species make-up of wildlife inhabiting an
affected area (Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 1981).
Surficial waters will be affected by drainage. Ditches used in drainage
may disrupt flow down slope from a bog. Drainage may also alter the
hydrologic budget of a peatland. Evapotranspiration will be reduced
because the water resides deeper within the ground due to the lowering
of the water table. It is thus more difficult for moisture to reach the
surface. The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (1981) reports
that changes in evaporation and water stored must affect runoff, but the
effects are poorly understood. It seems that drainage results in
decreased peak runoff so that runoff is distributed more uniformly
throughout the year.
Recharge to the shallow aquifer occurs in Florida's wetlands (McPher-
son, et al., 1976). Drainage canals constructed in the Everglades have
resulted in accelerated runoff which, in consequence, has reduced the
amount of water available to recharge the shallow aquifer (McPherson,
et al., 1976). This relationship between canals, runoff, and water avail-
able for recharge should be considered if peat mining requires drainage.
The effects will, of course, depend on the size of the area to be mined
and its relation to the regional aquifers.
The last implication of drainage is that of peat subsidence. The caus-
ative relationship between drainage and subsidence is well known in
Florida. Experience in the Everglades has shown that subsidence itself
has very serious implications. Stephens (1974) reviews various aspects
of drainage and subsidence in the Everglades.
Most environmental problems associated with construction of pro-
cessing, storage, and transportation facilities are short-lived. Excavation
and landscaping will temporarily be associated with increased erosion
and sediment in runoff water (Minnesota Department of Natural
Resources, 1981). The construction and presence of roads, parking lots,
and buildings will result in some further decrease in wildlife habitat.
Certain species will be vulnerable to traffic. The low permeability of
paving materials will generate some further increase in runoff.
The effects of mining universally include both removal of peat from the





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


site and alteration of the configuration of the landscape (Minnesota
Department of Natural Resources, 1981). If drainage is required, the
previously discussed environmental effects of drainage must be consid-
ered. Wet mining methods do not require drainage. The effects of wet
mining on water quality and quantity depend strongly on the design of
the operation. Specifically, if the mined area discharges to surface
streams, both water quality and quantity may be affected (Minnesota
Department of Natural Resources, 1981). Additionally, and critically,
given the already enormous demand for water in Florida, wet mining
methods may require water beyond that available in the peatland.
Since peat is characterized by a high moisture content, dewatering is
often necessary during processing. This water may contain an abun-
dance of peat fibers as well as nutrients. Water released during dewa-
tering, as well as waste water from gasification operations, can generate
water quality problems, although the effects may be mitigated if waste
water is treated (Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 1981).
The effects of exhaust emission and noise creation are universal in all
phases of mining operations.
Peat, due to its high moisture content is heavy. The large amounts of it
necessary for fuel operations cannot be economically transported. For
that reason peat will probably be burned near the site at which it is
mined. Emissions from peat combustion are similar to those resulting
from combustion of coal. These include nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides,
carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, particulates and com-
pounds of trace elements, including mercury and lead (Minnesota Depar-
ment of Natural Resources, 1981).

PHOSPHATE

Discussion

River pebble phosphate was discovered in central Florida in the early
1880's in the Peace River near the town of Fort Meade. The river had
eroded away the overburden and finer fractions of the Bone Valley Mem-
ber, leaving behind concentrations of pebble-size phosphate rock (known
as "river pebble") on the river bottom and in the sand bars.
The earliest mining of these deposits was in the river channel by
hydraulic dredging. The residual or spoil material was returned to the
river, thus obliterating any visual record of the activity. Mining of this
type was intermittent and records of ore removal are poor. However, it
appears that approximately 1.3 million long tons were removed over a
period of 20 years before extraction costs caused cessation of opera-
tions (Zellars-Williams, 1978).
Land pebble phosphate was discovered in the late 1880's, also in the
vicinity of Fort Meade. It was this discovery that led to the eventual
demise of the hard rock phosphate (so named because it is found as a
replacement mineral in limestone) and soft rock phosphate (mined from





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


the waste ponds of hard rock phosphate operations) industries. The hard
rock phosphate district is located in portions of Taylor, Lafayette, Dixie,
Gilchrist, Alachua, Levy, Marion, Citrus, Hernando and Sumter counties.
Land pebble has larger reserves, is easier to mine, and has lower benefi-
ciation costs. The vast majority of phosphate produced in Florida is land
pebble, with only a few small companies producing colloidal (soft rock)
phosphate.
The land pebble deposits of economic importance at the present time
are the Central Florida Phosphate District, the Southern Extension of the
Central Florida Phosphate District and the Northern District. The Central
district is located in portions of Polk, Hillsborough, Hardee and Manatee
counties, and the Southern Extension in portions of Hardee, DeSoto,
Manatee, Sarasota and Charlotte counties. The Northern District is
located in parts of Hamilton, Columbia, Baker, Suwannee, Union, Brad-
ford, Alachua and Marion counties (Zellars-Williams, 1978).

Geology

CENTRAL FLORIDA PHOSPHATE DISTRICT

The Central Florida Phosphate District encompasses the southwest
corner of Polk County, the southeast corner of Hillsborough County, and
extends southward into Hardee and Manatee counties. The phosphate
deposits occur as a thin sheet of highly reworked marine and estuarine
sediments deposited on the southern flank of the Ocala Arch. The phos-
phate appears to have been deposited (for the most part) during the
Miocene in warm shallow seas and generally near shore.
The Bone Valley Member, Peace River Formation, Hawthorn Group is
the primary phosphorite horizon being mined in the phosphate district.
The most popular explanation for the formation of the Bone Valley phos-
phate deposits is summarized by Altschuler, et al. (1964), "The Bone
Valley Formation (Member) is a shallow water marine and estuarine
phosphorite .. (it) ... is an excellent example of marine transgression
during which the phosphate was derived, by reworking, from the under-
lying, weathered, Hawthorn Formation (Group)".
The Hawthorn Group, in the Central Florida Phosphate District consists
of sandy, phosphatic dolomite or dolomitic limestone of the Arcadia For-
mation which is overlain by a predominantly plastic unit of interbedded
phosphatic sands, clayey sands, clays and dolomite of the Peace River
Formation, including the Bone Valley Member. The Bone Valley Member
is the uppermost unit of the Peace River, and may contain several uncon-
formities (Scott, 1986). In the central and northern part of the district,
the Bone Valley overlies the Arcadia Formation unconformably. In this
area, the bottom of the "matrix" (ore zone) is generally marked at the
contact between the eroded carbonate surface of the Arcadia and the
phosphate-rich sands and clays. Occasionally, a palygorskite-rich clay
underlies the matrix. In the southern portion of the Central Florida Phos-











BUREAU OFGEOLOG


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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


phate District the Peace River Formation (undifferentiated) has not been
removed by erosion (Scott, 1986).
The Bone Valley sediments are generally represented by approximately
equal amounts of quartz, clays (chiefly smectite) and carbonate-
fluorapatite, although proportions may change significantly within short
distances (Altschuler, et al., 1956). Post-depositional alteration of the
Bone Valley Member has been severe, and may either diminish or enrich
the phosphate concentration. Weathering in the sub-tropical climates of
Florida has resulted in lateritic types of leaching, mobilization and super-
gene enrichment of phosphate. The weathering results in the alteration
of carbonate-fluorapatite to calcium phosphates and aluminum phos-
phates. Aluminum phosphates are less soluble than the calcium phos-
phates and remain after the upper zones have been leached. Enrichment
of uranium is widespread within the leached zone. The more soluble
calcium phosphates enrich the lower (ore) zones.
The Pleistocene sediments overlying the Bone Valley Member consist
of loose quartz sands. The origin of these sands is a subject of debate.
Altschuler and Young (1960) consider these sands to be a weathering
residuum of the Bone Valley, while Cathcart (1962), supports a primary
depositional origin as the result of transgressive Pleistocene seas. Pirkle,
et al. (1965) states that the surface sands are not the result of in situ
weathering of the Bone Valley Member.

SOUTHERN EXTENSION OF THE CENTRAL FLORIDA
PHOSPHATE DISTRICT

The Southern Extension of the Central Florida Phosphate District
encompasses portions of Hardee, Manatee, DeSoto, Sarasota and Char-
lotte counties. Initial exploration efforts within the Southern Extension
were directed toward the location of high grade deposits similar to the
Central District. It was soon realized, however, that the deposits of the
Southern Extension had an entirely different depositional history and
geologic setting from the Bone Valley type deposits. The Southern Exten-
sion contains vast reserves of lower grade material (lower BPL, increased
contaminants, especially MgO) which are predominantly contained
within an upper plastic section (Peace River Formation) of the Hawthorn
Group (Hall, 1983). The sediments of the upper plastic section of the
Hawthorn are highly variable in lithologic composition both horizontally
and vertically and exhibit evidence of reworking of previously deposited
material (Hall, 1983). The traditional Bone Valley type sediments are
found only in northwestern Hardee County (Hall, 1983).

NORTHERN FLORIDA PHOSPHATE DISTRICT

The Northern Florida Phosphate District is present in parts of Hamilton,
Baker, Columbia, Union, Bradford, Suwannee, Marion and Alachua coun-
ties. This area is within the Northern Highlands physiographic province of





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Figure 12. International Minerals and Chemicals Corp. Clear Springs
phosphate mine, Polk County. Photo by Kenneth Campbell.



Florida (White, 1970). The Miocene beds pinch out against the flanks of
the Ocala Arch to the west. Tertiary sediments deposited earlier than the
Miocene in this area are predominantly porous marine limestones which
form the Floridan Aquifer.
The Miocene sediments are phosphatic sands, clays, clayey sands and
carbonates, primarily dolomite. The Hawthorn Group consists of four
basic units (Scott, 1983): A basal dolomite is overlain by sands and clays
which are overlain by a dolomitic unit. The uppermost unit is a quartz
sandy and clayey phosphatic unit. The uppermost plastic unit is the only
portion of commercial interest.
Sediments overlying the Hawthorn are predominantly comprised of
reworked Hawthorn material, marine terrace sediments or fluvial sedi-
ments associated with topographic lows. The Pliocene and Pleistocene
sediments comprise overburden in the phosphate district approximately
30-feet thick.

Mining

Although there are several types of phosphate deposits found in Flor-
ida (land pebble, hard rock, and soft rock), land pebble is the only source
being extensively mined today. The land pebble deposits include the vast
majority of the Central Florida and North Florida phosphate districts.


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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


Modern day mining techniques include the almost exclusive use (in
Florida) of large electrically powered walking draglines equipped with
buckets as large as 71 cubic yards. Only one company has mined with
dredges in the recent past. Draglines remove overburden and place it
either on adjacent unmined land or into the preceding mined-out cut.
After stripping of overburden, the dragline removes the matrix which is
then placed in a shallow pit where it is slurried with high pressure water
and pumped to the beneficiation plant.


Beneficiation of Phosphate Ore

Beneficiation of phosphate ore prior to 1929 was a relatively simple
and extremely wasteful process. Screens were utilized to separate and
recover the coarse phosphate. The sand-sized phosphate was not recov-
erable, because no technique existed to separate the sand-sized phos-
phate from the quartz sand. More phosphate was lost to the waste
"debris" than was recovered.
In 1929 a process was introduced which revolutionized the phosphate
industry. The advent of the froth flotation process allowed separation of
sand-sized phosphate grains from waste grains (primarily quartz sand) of
essentially the same size, and resulted in a significant increase in the
percent of phosphate recovered from the matrix. Specific reagents are
utilized to create a froth to which the treated material adheres, while the
other material sinks. Either the phosphate or the waste material can be
treated to cause them to float. In a "reverse" process, two flotation
stages are utilized to float first phosphate then to float the waste mate-
rial which was included in the first float. The reagents used create either
an oily or a soapy film on the treated particles. Fuel oil, pine oil, caustic
soda, fatty acids, and oleates are examples of the reagents used (Hoppe,
1976). In a typical beneficiation plant, the rougher flotation utilizes
anionic reagents (crude fatty acid, fuel oil/kerosene) in agitated tanks
with the feed material dewatered to 65 percent solids. Addition of
ammonia controls pH (between 9.0-9.5) and helps promote absorption
of the reagent coating. Prior to entering the cleaner flotation stage (cat-
ionic) the rougher flotation products are scrubbed with water and sulfuric
acid to remove the anionic reagents. The cleaned rougher product goes
to the cleaner circuit where amine reagents (chemical derivatives of
ammonia in which the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by radicals
containing carbon and hydrogen: ex. methyl amine) and kerosene condi-
tion the surface of any sand particles remaining causing them to float
(Hoppe, 1976).
Typical recovery from a two stage flotation circuit rejects 99 percent
of the free quartz sand and recovers 80 percent of the phosphate grains
from the feed (Zellars-Williams, 1978). Flotation concentrate comprises
between 10-25 percent of the ore weight.





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Products and Uses

Essentially all of the Florida phosphate rock destined for the domestic
market is utilized to form wet process phosphoric acid. The rock is
digested by sulfuric acid to produce phosphoric acid and waste gypsum
(too impure to be commercially useful). Phosphoric acid is then utilized to
produce normal superphosphate, triple superphosphate (TSP) and
nitrogen-phosphorous-potassium (NPK) complete fertilizer. Phosphoric
acid is also reacted with ammonia to produce diammonium phosphate
(DAP) and monoammonium phosphate (MAP).
Defluorinated phosphate rock is utilized for mineral supplements to
livestock and poultry feed. Defluorination is necessary because fluorine
is toxic to animals (Opyrchal and Wang, 1981).
Elemental phosphorus is utilized in the production of sodium phos-
phate detergents among others. Elemental phosphorus is obtained by
smelting phosphate rock with coke and quartz in electric furnaces (Opyr-
chal and Wang, 1981).
Approximately 90 percent of the phosphate produced in recent years
has been utilized for agricultural fertilizers. The remainder is utilized in
various industrial applications mostly as elemental phosphorus. Some of
the common uses include: food preservatives, dyes for cloth, vitamin
and mineral capsules, hardeners for steel, gasoline and oil additives,
tooth paste, shaving cream, soaps and detergents, bone china, plastics,
optical glass, photographic films, light filaments, water softener, insecti-
cides, soft drinks, flame resistant lumber, fire fighting compounds and
aluminum polish (Florida Phosphate Council, 1984a).

Transportation

Approximately 85 percent of phosphate rock is transported by rail to
port facilities or fertilizer plants. The remainder is transported by truck.
Truck transport is utilized during periods of peak production to augment
rail transportation, when rail service is interrupted or where low volumes
are involved (Opyrchal and Wang, 1981).
Transportation by rail and ship or barge is utilized for the majority of
shipments out of the state. In 1979 phosphate rock and phosphate prod-
ucts accounted for 93 percent of all exports from the Port of Tampa
(Boyle and Hendry, 1981). Extensive exports are also shipped from Jack-
sonville.

Economic Trends

In 1983, Florida and North Carolina accounted for 87 percent of the
total U.S. and 27 percent of the total world phosphate production (Sto-
wasser, 1985a). According to data collected by the U.S. Bureau of
Mines, phosphate production increased 10 percent in 1983 from the
1982 figures. Preliminary 1984 figures indicate an increase of approxi-






E QUANTITY (MILLION METRIC TONS)

W VALUE (MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)
P PRELIMINARY DATA W


> 46 1000 9 -
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38 600



34 400



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26 0
1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981

YEAR
Figure 13. Quantity and value of phosphate in Florida and
1986; U. S. Bureau of Mines, 1977-1983).


North Carolina (Boyle,





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


mately 18 percent from 1983's depressed levels (Stowasser, 1985a).
From a 1983 baseline, phosphate rock demand is expected to increase at
an average annual rate of about 1.8 percent through 1990 (Stowasser,
1985a).

Reserves

The Florida phosphate districts contain 520 million metric tons of
phosphate rock reserves (cost less than $35.00 per metric ton) and a
reserve base (reserves and resources recoverable at a cost of less than
$100 per metric ton) of 2.4 billion metric tons (Stowasser, 1985b).
Florida reserves will last more than 250 years at current mining rates
(Florida Phosphate Council, 1984b).

Environmental Concerns

The environmental concerns generally associated with phosphate min-
ing include water consumption and power demands, radiation, water and
air quality, waste disposal, and wetlands. Steps are being taken to miti-
gate these concerns.

WATER USAGE

Reduction of water usage required by the phosphate industry is being
addressed in several ways. Recirculation of mine process water is exten-
sive and averages 90 percent throughout the industry. The major mine
process which uses water is the clay settling system. Progressive clay
settling techniques such as sand-clay mixing, the dredge mix process
and chemical flocculation all speed the initial release of this water.
Recharge wells are being utilized in pre-mining dewatering. The water
in the surficial aquifer is gravity fed into the Floridan Aquifer. This has the
dua! advantage of recharging the aquifer to some extent and reducing
pumping requirements for mine cut water control.

POWER CONSUMPTION

Power consumption can be reduced by elimination of phosphate rock
drying except where actually necessary. Optimum mine planning can
provide an efficient operation thus reducing power consumption. In addi-
tion, co-generation of power at chemical plants may afford reduction in
the quantity of purchased electrical power.

RADIATION

Uranium is associated with the phosphate ore. The majority of the
uranium in the ore can be extracted as a byproduct. Some uranium
remains in overburden materials and waste sands and clays. Radium-
226, a decay product of uranium, has received the most attention





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


because its decay generates radon gas (Zellars and Williams, 1978).
There are not any established limits for allowable radiation in reclaimed
mined lands. Pre-mining and post-reclamation radiation readings are now
required by the Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services
(HRS) which will provide a data base for future decisions. HRS has, in
proposed rules, set a limit of 0.020 annual average working level concen-
tration of radon gas in new residences built on reclaimed land after the
effective date of the rules (Mason Cox, personal communication, 1985).
Proposed HRS rules also include recommended construction techniques
to ameliorate radon gas concentrations. The primary construction tech-
niques include "ventilated crawl space designs" and "improved slab
designs" which provide a barrier to radon gas migration.

WATER QUALITY

Water discharged from phosphate mines must meet requirements
specified in discharge permits. The primary water quality problems of the
past were associated with breaks in the walls of clay settling ponds.
There have been no such breaks since 1971 when the State instituted
dam construction standards and mandated regular inspection and main-
tenance programs (Zellars and Williams, 1978). Timely land reclamation
and revegetation, as now required by the State, minimizes water quality
problems associated with mined land.

AIR QUALITY

Air quality problems associated with phosphate mining are relatively
minor. Airborne dust is generated by earth moving activities and expo-
sure of bare soil materials and by the dry grinding of phosphate rock.
Dust from these sources will be reduced from past levels by timely land
reclamation and reclamation of previously mined but unreclaimed lands.
As more plants are built utilizing wet grinding, or are converted to the
wet process, airborne dust from that process will be limited. Fluorine is
extracted from flue gases as an environmental safeguard and is utilized
as a byproduct.

CLAY WASTE DISPOSAL

Conventional clay waste disposal has been done by above ground
settling ponds. The clays present in the "matrix" (predominantly smec-
tite and palygorskite) are disassociated when the ore is slurried and
pumped to the beneficiation plant. These materials are highly resistant to
settling and require more storage space as waste clay than they occupied
prior to mining. Large quantities of water are thus removed from the
recirculating water system both as interstitial water and by evaporation
from the settling ponds. Reclamation of full settling ponds is delayed for
many years as the clays gradually dewater and settle. The current trend





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


is to minimize the surface area covered by settling areas and to maxi-
mize clay storage in existing settling ponds (R. Bushey, Florida Bureau of
Mine Reclamation, personal communication, 1986). This will require the
use of alternative methods of dewatering waste clays such as mixing
with sand tailings, dredging pre-settled clay and mixing with sand tail-
ings, capping of pre-thickened clays and chemical flocculation (Yon,
1983). These methods are capable of producing ultimate solids contents
of 36-42 percent compared to 31 percent for conventional clay settling
(Lawver, 1983, citation in Yon, 1983).

WETLANDS

The State of Florida contains approximately 20 percent of the wet-
lands remaining in the U.S. (Zellars and Williams, 1978). These areas are
of use as wildlife habitat, for surface water retention, sediment removal
and nutrient uptake. In some areas the wetlands may enhance aquifer
recharge. Swamps, marshes and river flood plains are common examples
of these areas. The decision to mine wetland areas must take into
account the value of the phosphate, as well as the ability to reconstruct a
functioning wetland.

Byproduct Fluorine

Fluorine production, in the form of fluosilicic acid (H2SiF,), in Florida is
a byproduct of wet-process phosphoric acid production (Boyle and Hen-
dry, 1985). The most common ore of fluorine is the mineral fluorite
(CaF,) which is commonly known as fluorspar. U.S. reserves of fluorite
are not sufficient to meet U.S. demand to the year 2000 (Pelham, 1985).
By the end of the century, phosphate rock may be the primary domestic
source of fluorine (Pelham, 1985).

RECOVERY

Phosphate rock (fluorapatite) contains 3-4 percent fluorine (Nash and
Blake, 1977). When fluorapatite is treated by the wet-acid process, solu-
ble phosphates are formed and part of the fluorine contained in the phos-
phate rock is volatilized as HF. HF reacts with silica which is present as
an impurity in the fluorapatite, forming the volatile gas silicon tetraf-
luoride (SiFj).
As SiF, gas evolves it is scrubbed from the gas column and hydrolyzes,
fluosilicic acid and silica are formed (Nash and Blake, 1977). Nash and
Blake (1977) state, "In the wet acid process about 41 percent of the
fluorine in the phosphate rock is volatilized, 13 percent remains in the
concentrated acid, and 46 percent is discarded with the gypsum filter
cake." Stowasser (1985b) states that overall recovery is rarely greater
than 75 percent of the fluorine in the phosphate rock. The remainder is
retained as waste in the coolant water pond. U.S. Environmental Protec-





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


tion agency regulations require that volatile fluorine be scrubbed from
stack gasses (Opyrchal and Wang, 1981).

USES

Fluorine is required in the manufacturing of aluminum, steel, and many
chemical compounds (Opyrchal and Wang, 1981), as well as for water
fluoridation (Boyle and Hendry, 1985). In 1983 fluosilicic acid from Flor-
ida phosphate was used to produce synthetic cryolite, aluminum fluoride
and sodium silicofluoride and for water fluoridation (Boyle and Hendry,
1985).

ECONOMIC TRENDS

In 1985, byproduct fluosilicic acid production from phosphoric acid
(nationwide) totaled 63,000 tons, the equivalent of 110,000 tons of
fluorspar (Pelham, 1986). Estimated primary fluorspar production for the
same period is 70,000 tons. Demand for fluorine is expected to increase
at an annual average rate of 3.7 percent through 1990 (Pelham, 1986).
Resources of fluorine in U.S. phosphate rock are estimated to be 35
million tons of fluorspar equivalent (Pelham, 1986).

Byproduct Uranium

GEOLOGY

Uranium is produced as a byproduct of Florida's phosphate mining and
beneficiation in the Central Florida Phosphate District and its southern
extension. Uranium was discovered to be associated with the phos-
phates found in Florida in 1949 (Altschuler, et al., 1956). Because of the
lack of suitable technology, only recently has it become economically
feasible to remove the uranium from phosphate rock. Uranium is present
in the pebble-size phosphate of the Central Florida Phosphate District at
concentrations ranging from 0.010 percent to 0.020 percent, and from
0.005 percent to 0.015 percent in the finer phosphates (Cathcart,
1956). The phosphate deposits of North Florida contain an average of
0.006 percent uranium which is not presently economically recoverable
by the wet process method. The uranium content of the quartz sand
fraction of the matrix is generally less than 0.001 percent while phos-
phatic waste clays generally have a uranium content of less than 0.005
percent.
A potential source of uranium, phosphate, and alumina in the Central
Florida Phosphate District is the leach zone. This zone overlies the phos-
phate matrix and derives its name from its being a residuum of weather-
ing of the matrix. It is also known as the aluminum phosphate zone, as
the leaching has enriched the phosphate in aluminum. Because of its low
phosphate content, it is not always sent to the plant for processing. The





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


average thickness of this zone is six to seven feet, and its uranium
content ranges from 0.010 percent to 0.015 percent (Altschuler, et al.,
1956).


EXTRACTION

Uranium is extracted from phosphate by a two phase solvent extrac-
tion system. In the first phase, the uranium is removed from wet process
phosphoric acid by solvent extraction. The resulting uranium-bearing
solution then undergoes a second solvent extraction and stripping stage
to produce specification grade uranium oxide (U308) called yellow cake
(Sweeney and Windham, 1979). One ton of U3O, yields one pound of fuel
grade U2a,.


ECONOMIC TRENDS

In 1980, the only year for which information is available, Florida ura-
nium oxide production was approximately 1.5 million pounds (750 short
tons). Nuclear Exchange Corporation (1986) reports that in 1985 3.3
million pounds (1650 short tons) of uranium oxide were produced from
phosphoric acid. The vast majority of this would be from Florida phos-
phate rock.
The U.S. Bureau of Mines (Stowasser, 1985b) reports five companies
with a combined annual recovery potential of 1,870 short tons of U30,
from the Central Florida Phosphate District. Based on the production
capacity figures above, up to 15 percent of the U.S. uranium demand
could be met by byproduct uranium recovery from Florida phosphate
rock (Sweeney, 1979).


RESERVES

Florida's reserves of uranium are directly dependent on the reserves of
phosphate. Only the uranium oxide contained in phosphate rock treated
by the wet-process phosphoric acid method is economically feasible for
recovery. The central and southern Florida phosphate deposits contain
approximately 1.5 billion short tons of phosphate rock recoverable at
$ 15-20 per short ton (Zellars and Williams, 1978). Assuming an average
uranium oxide content of 0.015 percent, approximately 225,000 short
tons of uranium oxide are present in the deposits (Sweeney, 1979). In
general, for central and southern Florida deposits one pound of U,30 can
be extracted from one short ton of P20s (Sweeney, 1979).





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


SAND AND GRAVEL


Geology

Quartz sand is one of Florida's most abundant natural resources.
Almost all of Florida is blanketed with a veneer of sand. Very few areas
within the state do not have deposits of general purpose sand located
within reasonable distances (Scott, et al., 1980). Commercial quantities
of gravel are present only in the western panhandle of Florida, associated
with modern day river deposits.
The identification of terraces and previous shorelines has been based
on elevation. Terraces which have been mapped in Florida include the
Silver Bluff, Pamlico, Talbot, Penholoway, Wicomico, Sunderland, Coha-
rie and the Hazelhurst. Shorelines associated with these terraces were at
approximately 10, 25, 50, 70, 100, 170, 220 and 320 feet, respectively
(Cooke, 1945; Healy, 1975).
The sand deposits associated with the marine terraces are composed
primarily of quartz sand with various amounts of silt, clay and organic
matter. According to Cooke (1945) the older (high) terraces contain the
coarsest material while the younger (low) terraces contain finer sand plus
clay and carbonate. In addition, the lower deposits are thinner and con-
tain more clay, silt and organic in south Florida relative to the northern
deposits (Cooke, 1945).
Scott, et al. (1980) divided sand and gravel deposits in Florida into four
categories: 1) recent beach type deposits (wave or wind derived); 2) river
alluvium; 3) marine terrace deposits, including associated relict bars,
dunes and beach ridges; and 4) sand and gravel from a particular geo-
logic formation.


NORTHWEST FLORIDA

The plastic sediments found in northwest Florida overlie sediments
which range in age from Eocene to Pleistocene. Thickness of the clastics
ranges from a thin veneer in the vicinity of Leon and Wakulla counties to
greater than 1,500 feet in the Pensacola area.
Most of the sand and gravel mined in northwest Florida is derived from
marine terrace sands (Leon and Wakulla counties south of Tallahassee)
and from the Citronelle Formation in Escambia County where sand and
gravel are mined (Scott, et al., 1980). The Citronelle Formation is of
Pliocene or early Pleistocene age (Vernon, 1951) and consists of "angu-
lar to subangular, very poorly sorted, fine to very coarse grained quartz
sand." Lenses of gravel and clay are also present (Scott, et al., 1980).
The Citronelle Formation, and fluvial sediments derived from it are the
only appreciable. source of gravel found in the state.




BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


NORTH FLORIDA

Several units containing significant quantities of sand are present in
north Florida. Scott, et al. (1980) lists them as the Hawthorn Group,
Miccosukee and Alachua formations, an unnamed coarse plastic unit and
the undifferentiated Pliocene and younger sands, which include the ter-
race deposits.
Utility of the sands contained in the Hawthorn Group and Miccosukee
Formation is limited by wide variability of lithologic characteristics. Tex-
ture and lithology of both formations vary widely in both the horizontal
and vertical directions. Use is precluded except for local uses such as fill
and road base material (Scott, et al., 1980).
The Alachua Formation, Which locally reaches thickness of 100 feet is
considered to be residuum of the Hawthorn Group. Material from the
Alachua Formation is suitable for road base and fill material (Scott, et al.,
1980).
The Lake Wales Ridge extends from western Clay County southward
into Highlands County. The ridge is composed of thick deposits (up to
150 feet) of plastic sediments of relatively uniform lithology. The clastics
consist of loose surface sands which overlie red, yellow, and white
clayey sands. Locally, quartz gravel and quartzite pebbles are present.
Terrace deposits are of variable thickness, with clay and organic mat-
ter as the major contaminants. The terrace sand deposits comprise a
significant resource (Scott, et al., 1980).

CENTRAL FLORIDA

The numerous sand ridges of the Central Highlands contain the sand
deposits of greatest importance in central Florida. The majority of the
construction sand mined in Florida comes from these deposits which are
composed of Mio-Pliocene age clastics (Cooke, 1945; Scott, 1978). The
plastics are predominantly poorly sorted quartz grains ranging in size
from fine sand to pebble. With the exception of surface sands, the sands
contain, in most cases a kaolinite matrix.
Recent dune and alluvium sand deposits are present, but are of varia-
ble quality and low volume. These deposits are economically important
only on a local scale.
Scott, et al. (1980) states that although the Atlantic Coastal Lowlands
do not contain large sand deposits there is potential for limited produc-
tion. This production is from discontinuous beds in the Pleistocene age
Anastasia Formation and Pleistocene terrace deposits as well as recent
alluvial and dune deposits. These deposits are only locally important.
The majority of sand deposits in the Gulf Coastal Lowlands are related
to Pleistocene terraces. Although these deposits are too fine grained for
construction uses, they have been mined for glass sand in the Plant City
area (Wright, 1974).





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


oil



Figure 14. Suction dredge used in sand mining. Florida Bureau of Geol-
ogy file photo.



SOUTH FLORIDA

The majority of the sand deposits in the south Florida region are of
local importance only and are utilized for construction sand, blasting grit
and fill material. The Pleistocene terrace sands, Anastasia Formation,
Fort Thompson Formation, and the Pliocene-Pleistocene Caloosahatchee
Formation, all contain sand deposits of local importance. The Pliocene
age Tamiami Formation is presently being mined for sand in Glades
County (Scott, et al., 1980).

Mining and Beneficiation

The sand mined in Florida is produced by surface mining. Depending on
the level of the water table, either earthmoving equipment or suction
dredges are utilized to mine sand. For most purposes, sand must be
graded by size. The typical operation pumps sand in a slurry to a set of
screen shakers to separate the coarse fraction into several size fractions.
The fines are pumped to a settling pond while the coarse fraction is
loaded or stockpiled (Scott, et al., 1980).


43





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Uses

In 1984, construction sand and gravel made up approximately 96 per-
cent of total United States sand and gravel production (Tepordei,
1985a). Industrial sand and gravel made up 7.3 percent of Florida's
1984 production (Boyle, 1985). Glass, foundry, and abrasive sands are
produced as byproducts of the kaolin and heavy mineral industries. The
major uses of construction sand and gravel are concrete aggregates,
roadbase material, construction fill, and asphalt mixtures. For industrial
sand the major uses are glass making and foundry sand.

Transportation

Sand and gravel are transported by truck, rail and barge. In 1982, 87
percent of all construction sand and gravel was shipped by truck, four
percent by rail and waterway with the remainder utilized on site (Tepor-
dei, 1983). Construction sand and gravel in Florida are transported
almost exclusively by truck. Industrial sand and gravel, however, are
transorted by both truck and rail. In 1983 truck transport accounted for
68 percent while rail accounted for 27 percent and barge accounted for
four percent of the national industrial sand and gravel total (Tepordei,
1984a).

Economic Trends

Production of sand and gravel in Florida increased in 1985 from 1984
levels, according to preliminary U.S. Bureau of Mines figures for 1985.
Construction sand and gravel production was up seven percent while
industrial sand and gravel produced during the same period rose less than
two percent, while value for industrial sand and gravel rose approxi-
mately 12 percent from 1984 levels (Boyle, 1986). Demands for sand
and gravel can be expected to increase at an approximate one to two
percent annual rate through 1990 (Tepordei, 1985a).

Reserves

Reserves of sand in Florida are large. Due to the low value per ton
many constraints such as distance to market and conflicting land uses
play a part in determining whether deposits are mineable.

Environmental Concerns

Environmental concerns associated with sand and gravel mining in
Florida are relatively minor. Water pollution from organic and clays sus-
pended during wet pit mining operations is the primary problem. This can
be controlled in most cases as fines are pumped back into mined out
areas. In some cases settling ponds may be needed to ensure quality of
water to be discharged.






QUANTITY ( MILLIONS OF SHORT TONS ) cc

"4 I VALUE ( MILLIONS OF DOLLARS ) 5) e


1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985
YEAR

Figure 15. Quantity and value of sand and gravel (Boyle, 1986; U. S. Bureau of Mines,
1977 1983).





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


STONE

Geology

Limestones and dolomites ranging in age from late Middle Eocene to
Pleistocene are presently mined in Florida (Schmidt, et al., 1979). The
primary geologic factors which control the mining potential of limestones
and dolomites are lithology, structure and geomorphology. Lithology is
the most important factor and it is the most variable. Structure and
geomorphology, however, control unit thickness and overburden depth
which are important as limiting factors in determining whether mining is
economically feasible.

NORTHWEST FLORIDA

Most of the panhandle of Florida is underlain by thick plastic
sequences. Limestone and dolomite crop out in Holmes, Jackson,
Walton and Washington counties. The lithologic units which make up the
limestone and dolomite resources in this area range from the Upper
Eocene Ocala Group through the Oligocene age Marianna and Suwannee
limestones to the Upper Oligocene and Miocene (Poag, 1972) Chatta-
hoochee Formation (Schmidt, et al., 1979).
The Ocala Group limestones are white to cream colored, poorly indu-
rated, permeable, fossiliferous limestones of high purity. Textures range
from very chalky to a foraminiferal microcoquina to a coarse allochemical
limestone composed almost entirely of fossil material (Schmidt, et al.,
1979). The Ocala Group is 200 to 300-feet thick in this region according
to several authors (Vernon, 1942; Moore, 1955; Puri, 1957; Reves,
1961) and dips to the south and southwest at 12 to 20-feet per mile
(Vernon, 1942; Reves, 1961).
The Marianna Limestone overlies the Ocala Group and crops out in a
narrow band to the south and southwest of the Ocala Group. This lime-
stone is white, cream or light gray in color, is massive, calcilutitic and is
poorly indurated in fresh exposures, but casehardens after exposure.
Some beds may be composed almost completely of large foraminifera
(Moore, 1955). The Marianna Limestone is generally 25 to 40-feet thick
but thins to zero due to erosion toward the area of the Eocene outcrop
(Schmidt, et al., 1979). The Marianna Limestone dips to the south at 11
to 18-feet per mile (Vernon, 1942).
The Suwannee Limestone overlies the Marianna Limestone and crops
out to the south of the Marianna Limestone outcrop belt. The Suwannee
Limestone is cream to buff colored, poorly to well indurated, porous,
massive and highly fossiliferous (Schmidt, et al., 1979). The thickness
ranges from a feather edge at the Marianna outcrop to over 200-feet
thick down dip.
The Chattahoochee Formation overlies the Suwannee Limestone
unconformably and crops out to the south of the Suwannee Limestone





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


)utcrop belt. The lithology of the Chattahoochee Formation is quite vari-
3ble and ranges from a sandy, silty, dolomite with greenish, clayey silts
at its base to a white to cream colored, very silty to sandy, chalky to crys-
talline dolomite of variable induration which contains lenses of clay.
Locally, the base of the formation may consist of cream to brown, finely
sucrosic dolomite (Hendry and Yon, 1958). The Chattahoochee Forma-
tion ranges from 50 to 227-feet thick and dips to the south at 12 to 20-
feet per mile (Vernon, 1942).

THE WESTERN ONE-HALF OF NORTH AND
CENTRAL PENINSULAR FLORIDA

This area extends from Wakulla and Jefferson counties in the "Big
Bend" of Florida southward to Manatee County. The limestone resources
include the Avon Park Limestone of late middle Eocene age, the Upper
Eocene Ocala Group, the Oligocene Suwannee Limestone, the Miocene
St. Marks Limestone, and the Miocene Hawthorn Group.
The Avon Park Limestone, where it is being mined, is a tan to brown,
thin bedded dolomite. The formation varies from poorly indurated and
porous to well indurated and dense. Fossil molds, lignite, carbonaceous
plant remains, and beds of dolosilt are common (Schmidt, et al., 1979).
In Levy County where the formation crops out Vernon (1951) estimates
the formation thickness to be 200 to 300 feet. East of the crest of the
Ocala Uplift the Avon Park dips to the northeast and east at approxi-
mately 15-feet per mile; west of the crest the formation dips to the
southwest at the same rate. The Ocala Uplift plunges gently to the south-
east and the Avon Park follows this trend (Schmidt, et al., 1979).
The limestone of the Upper Eocene Ocala Group overlies the Avon Park
and crops out in an oval pattern around the Avon Park outcrop. The Ocala
Group dips in all directions off of the elongate Ocala Uplift. In this area,
the Ocala Group is subdivided into three formations (Puri, 1957) in
ascending order, the Inglis, Williston and Crystal River formations.
The Inglis Formation is a cream to tan, porous, granular, massive,
fossiliferous limestone of moderate induration which occasionally is a
coquina of foraminifera, molluscs and echinoids (Vernon, 1951). The
base of the unit is generally dolomitized to some degree and is generally
marked by a rubble zone of Avon Park lithology (Vernon, 1951). The
Inglis Formation is approximately 50-feet thick (Schmidt, et al., 1979).
The Williston Formation overlies the Inglis and crops out in an annular
band around the Inglis. Two lithologies which are interbedded predomi-
nate in the Williston. One is a soft, friable, cream colored, foraminiferal
coquina. The other is a cream to tan colored, highly fossiliferous detrital
limestone (Vernon, 1951). The top of the formation is gradational with
the overlying Crystal River Formation. The Williston is approximately 30-
feet thick (Vernon, 1951).
The Crystal River Formation overlies the Williston and crops out in a
band around the Williston. Typically the formation is a white to cream






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


colored, soft, massive and friable coquina consisting almost entirely of
large foraminifera in a pasty calcitic matrix (Vernon, 1951). Thin beds of
more granular, miliolid-rich limestone occur throughout the formation,
but especially near the base, as a transition zone with the Williston For-
mation (Vernon, 1951). The thickness of the formation is variable due to
post-depositional erosion. The formation ranges in thickness from zero to
approximately 300 feet in the subsurface of the central peninsula.
The Suwannee Limestone of the Oligocene Epoch unconformably
overlies the Ocala Group. The Suwannee Limestone is typically pale
orange in color, thin bedded, of variable hardness and porosity, finely
crystalline and highly fossiliferous. To the north in Jefferson and Taylor
counties the Suwannee is dolomitized to varying degrees. Throughout
the outcrop area silicified limestone boulders are common (Schmidt, et
al., 1979).
The Suwannee crops out at the northwest and south ends of the Ocala
Group outcrop area. The thickness of the Suwannee is variable due to
erosion but is greater than 200 feet in the subsurface in Pasco and
Hernando counties (Schmidt, et al., 1979)
The St. Marks Limestone overlies the Suwannee Limestone in the "Big
Bend" area of Florida, cropping out in Wakulla and Jefferson counties.
The St. Marks is considered to be Early Miocene in age (Schmidt, et al.,
1979). Yon (1966) describes the St. Marks as a white to pale orange,
finely crystalline, sandy, silty and clayey limestone with poor to moder-
ate porosity. The formation dips to the south and has a maximum thick-
ness of approximately 120 feet (Yon, 1966).
The Tampa Member of the Arcadia Formation, Hawthorn Group (Scott,
1986) is present in Hillsborough, Pinellas, Sarasota, Manatee, and west-
ernmost Polk, Hardee and DeSoto counties. The Tampa is considered to
be Early Miocene or Late Oligocene in age, based on correlations by
MacNeil (1944) and Poag (1972). King and Wright (1979) described the
Tampa as a quartz sandy limestone with a carbonate mud matrix. The
formation contains only trace amounts of phosphate, no clay seams and
10 30 percent fine to very fine quartz sand. Localized beds within the
Tampa contain over 50 percent quartz sand. The carbonate matrix is
dolomitized locally.
The Tampa Member is of variable thickness. In the type core, W-
11541, SE 1/4, NW 1/4 of Section 11, Township 30S, Range 18E,
Hillsborough County, the formation is 55-feet thick. Thickness is reduced
to zero to the north due to erosion. The formation dips generally to the
south.
The Lower to Middle Miocene Arcadia Formation of the Hawthorn
Group overlies and interfingers with the Tampa Member. The Arcadia
Formation is predominantly a carbonate unit. Typically the carbonate is
white to yellowish gray, silty, sandy, phosphatic dolomite (Scott and
MacGill, 1981). The degree of dolomitization varies greatly and beds of
loosely consolidated silt sized dolomite occur. The Arcadia Formation






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


dips to the south and thickens down dip ranging in thickness from zero to
250- feet thick in the subsurface (Scott, 1986).

ATLANTIC COAST

Limestone and lithified coquina are mined from St. Johns County in the
north southward to the Keys in Monroe County. The Pleistocene Anasta-
sia Formation and Miami Oolite form the backbone of the Atlantic
Coastal Ridge. The lithified coquina is found in the Anastasia Formation
southward to approximately the Palm Beach-Broward County line. South
to the Keys the Miami Oolite is present (Schmidt, et al., 1979). The
Upper Keys, from Soldier Key to Big Pine Key, are composed of the
Pleistocene age Key Largo Limestone. The Lower Keys are composed of
the Miami Oolite (Vernon and Puri, 1964).
The Anastasia Formation lithologically consists of a sandy coquina
loosely cemented with calcite (Vernon and Puri, 1964). The Anastasia
represents an ancient beach and is present only in a narrow band near or
on the present coast. The formation may exceed 100-feet thick in some
areas according to Parker, et al. (1955).
The Miami Oolite is a soft, white to yellow, stratified to massive, cross
bedded, sandy to pure limestone of oolitic origin (Puri and Vernon,
1964). The formation reaches a thickness of almost 40 feet beneath the
Atlantic Coastal Ridge, but thins rapidly away from the ridge. The Miami
Oolite interfingers with the Anastasia Formation on the north and the
upper Key Largo Limestone on the south. The Miami Oolite overlies the
lower part of the Key Largo Limestone (Schmidt, et al., 1979).
The Key Largo Limestone preserves a Pleistocene age coral reef tract
and its associated environments. The Key Largo is a white to cream
colored, coralline and skeletal limestone. Approximately 40 percent of
the formation is composed of reef building corals with the remainder
being a conglomerate of skeletal detritus. Skeletal material derived from
coral, coralline algae, molluscs, echinoids, and foraminifera is common
(Puri and Vernon, 1964).
The Key Largo interfingers with the Miami Oolite and the Fort Thomp-
son Formation (Schmidt, et al., 1979). The formation is reported to be
about 60-feet thick by Parker, et al. (1955).

SOUTHWEST FLORIDA

The limestone resources of the southwest portion of Florida are
extracted primarily from the Pliocene age Tamiami Formation. The area
of active mining includes Lee, Hendry, and Collier counties (Schmidt, et
al., 1979).
The Tamiami Formation is in part a tan to white, soft to hard, sandy
and abundantly fossiliferous limestone. Molluscs, barnacles, echinoids
and corals are common. Preservation of the fossils is varied depending
on the amount of recrystallization (Meeder, 1979).






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Figure 16. Limestone quarry, Citrus County. Photo by Tom Scott.



Mining and Beneficiation

All limestone, dolomite and coquina mined in Florida is mined by open
pit methods. Mining methods vary depending on the position of the
water table (wet or dry pit) and the hardness of the rock. In almost all
cases, overburden must be removed to gain access to the rock. Overbur-
den is normally stripped using bulldozers or draglines and is stacked near
the mine site. In some cases the overburden material is marketable as a
byproduct (sand, clay, peat, etc.).
The easiest mining occurs in dry pit, soft rock conditions where bull-
dozers equipped with a claw can rip the rock loose. Where pits are
flooded, draglines are utilized to remove the rock. Under certain condi-
tions both methods may be utilized in mining the same pit. As rock
hardness increases, blasting becomes necessary prior to mining. After
rock is mined it may be loaded directly for transport to a processing plant
or may be crushed and stockpiled.
Processing operations are those which physically change a material on
the way to becoming a finished product (Schmidt, et al., 1979). For the
most common uses of limestone, dolomite and coquina (crushed stone
and aggregate material) size reduction and grading are the primary pro-






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


MCA


. .'
.- .- ,
. ... .... ....", .- ,'* ': ,^'5 '3 e:. .


Figure 17. Limestone quarry, mining below water level with dragline.
Photo by Tom Scott.





cessing procedures. This involves crushing and screening to produce the
desired size material.
Beneficiation processes are those which upgrade the material by
removing inpurities or adding desirable materials (Schmidt, et al., 1979).
The most common beneficiation processes for limestone, dolomite and
coquina are washing, screening, drying and blending.


Products and Uses


The major uses of crushed stone in Florida are for road base material,
concrete and asphalt aggregate, cement manufacturing, fertilizer, soil
conditioners and rip rap.


Transportation


Crushed stone is transported by truck and rail in Florida. Truck trans-
port represents the principle method of transportation, with 84 percent
of the total tonnage for 1983. Rail carried six percent while five percent
was transported by waterway, while other or unspecified methods car-
ried the remainder (Tepordei, 1984b). Shipment by water has been a
minor method of transportation in the past.


rn.







* QUANTITY I MILLIONS OF SHORT TONS )

| VALUE ( MILLIONS OF DOLLARS )

p PRELIMINARY DATA


1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985


Figure 18. Quantity and


YEAR
value of crushed stone (Boyle, 1986; U. S. Bureau of Mines,


__ 5 ~ 177 1983). *


-1





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


Economic Trends

1985 production and value of crushed stone in Florida increased
approximately eight percent from 1984 levels (Boyle, 1985). Nationwide
demand for crushed stone is expected to increase at a one percent
annual rate through 1990 (Tepordei, 1985a).

Reserves

Florida limestone reserves are very large and may be considered practi-
cally unlimited (Tepordei, 1985b). Large portions of the peninsula of
Florida and portions of the panhandle are underlain by limestone. Edger-
ton (1974) suggested that limestone reserves in Dade, Broward and
Palm Beach counties totaled 102 billion tons, of which 34 billion tons
were readily available for mining. The remainder was rendered unavail-
able either by urban development or statutory constraints.

Environmental Concerns

The major environmental problems with the mining of stone in Florida
include dust, noise, traffic, vibration (Singleton, 1980) and aquifer pro-
tection. Dust control measures in the quarry and plant areas can mini-
mize dust related air pollution. Examples of effective measures are sprin-
kling with water and dust collection systems. Artificial or natural screens
can reduce noise and visual impact of quarries and plants. Vibration
problems can be controlled by ripping rock where possible and blasting
only when necessary. Special blasting techniques can also reduce vibra-
tion.
Since most limestones and dolomites mined in the State are portions
of, or are contiguous with regional aquifer systems, the quarry repre-
sents a direct route of access to the aquifer. If poor quality water is
allowed to enter the quarry, that water has direct access to the aquifer.
Control of on and off site drainage can prevent these problems.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


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BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


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Hall, R. B., 1983, General Geology and Stratigraphy of the Southern
Extension of the Central Florida Phosphate District: Geological Society of
America, S. E. section, Field Trip Guidebook, March 16, 1983, pp.
1 -27.

Hall, W. B., and R. E. Ela, 1978, Cement: U.S. Bureau of Mines, Mineral
Commodity Profiles No. 26, 21 p.

Healy, Henry G., 1975, Terraces and Shorelines of Florida: Florida Bureau
of Geology Map Series 71.

Hedrick, J. B., 1985, Rare Earth Metals, in Mineral Commodity Summar-
ies; U.S. Bureau of Mines, pp. 124- 125.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


Hendry, C. W., Jr., and J. W. Yon, 1958: Geology of the Area in and
Around the Jim Woodruff Reservoir: Florida Geological Survey Report of
Investigation 16, Part I, pp. 1 52.

Hoope, Richard, 1976, From Matrix to Fertilizer: Florida's Phosphate
Industry Girds to Produce over 50 million TPY: Engineering and Mining
Journal, September 1976, pp. 81 -93.

Hosterman, John W., 1973, Clays, in United States Mineral Resources:
U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 820, pp. 123- 131.

Independent Petroleum Association of America 1978- 84, The Oil Pro-
ducing Industry in Your State.

Johnson, Wilton, 1985, Cement, in Mineral Commodity Summaries,
1985: U.S. Bureau of Mines, pp. 28 29.

King, K. C., and Ramil Wright, 1979, Revision of The Tampa Formation,
West-central Florida: Transactions, Gulf Coast Association of Geological
Societies, Volume XXIX, pp. 257 262.

Kopstein, Melvyn, 1979, Peat-Prospectus: United States Department of
Energy, Division of Fossil Fuel Processing, 79 p.

Kramer, D. A., 1985a, Magnesium Compounds, in Mineral Facts and
Problems: U.S. Bureau of Mines, Bull. 675, pp. 471 -482.

1985b, Magnesium Compounds, in Mineral Com-
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Lefond, S. V., 1975, Industrial Minerals and Rocks, 4th ed.: Copyright
by Am. Inst. of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc.,
1360 p.

Lynd, L. E., 1980, Titanium, in Mineral Facts and Problems: U.S. Bureau
of Mines, Bull. 671, pp. 961 -978.

1985a, Ilmenite and Rutile, in Mineral Commodity
Summaries, 1985: U.S. Bureau of Mines, pp. 70 71 and 130-131.

1985b, Titanium, in Mineral Facts and Problems:
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Bulletin 675, pp. 859-879.

and R. A. Hough, 1980, Titanium, in Minerals Year-
book, 1980: U.S. Bureau of Mines, Volume 1, pp. 843-856.

MacNeil,F. S., 1944, Oligocene Stratigraphy of Southeastern United
States: American Association of Petroleum Geologist, Bulletin V. 28, pp.
1313-1354.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


McPherson, B. F., G. V. Hendrix, H. Klein, and H. M. Tyus, 1976, The
Environment of South Florida, A Summary Report: United States Geolog-
ical Survey Professional Paper 1011, 81 p.

Meeder, J. F., 1979, A Field Guide with Road Log to the Pliocene Fossil
Reef of Southwest Florida: Miami Geological Society, 19 p.

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 1981, Minnesota Peat Pro-
gram Final Report: The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St.
Paul, 93 p.

Moore, Christine M., 1980, Rare Earth Elements and Yttrium, in Mineral
Facts and Problems, 1980: U.S. Bureau of Mines, Bulletin 671, pp.
737 752.

Moore, P. and D. Bellamy, 1974, Peatlands: London, Elek Science, 221
p.

Moore, W. E., 1955, Geology of Jackson County, Florida: Florida Geo-
logical Survey Bulletin 37, 101 p.

Nash, B. D. and H. E. Blake, Jr., 1977, Fluorine recovery from phosphate
rock concentrates: U.S. Bureau of Mines, RI 8205, 16 p.

Nuclear Exchange Corporation, 1986, Monthly Report on the Nuclear
Fuel Market, Feb. 1986.

Olson, D., T. J. Malterer, D. R. Mellen, B. Leuelling, and E. J. Tome,
1979, Inventory of Peat Resources in Southwest St. Louis County, Min-
nesota: The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Hibbing, Min-
nesota, 76 p.

Opyrchal, Anthony M. and Kung-Lee Wang, 1981, Economic Signifi-
cance of the Florida Phosophate Industry: U.S. Bureau of Mines Informa-
tion Circular 8850, 62 p.

Ottmann, R. D., P. L. Keyes, and M. A. Ziegler, 1973, Jay Field-A
Jurassic Stratigraphic Trap: Transactions, Gulf Coast Association of
Geologic Societies, vol. XXIII, pp. 146-175.

Parker, G. G., G. E. Ferguson, S. K. Love and others, 1955, Water
Resources of Southeastern Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Water Supply
Paper 1255, 965 p.

Patrick, G. C., R. N. Strom, and S. B. Upchurch, 1983, Chemical and
Mineral Stratigraphy of a Miocene Fullers Earth Deposit: Green Acres
Mine, Ocala Florida: Florida Academy of Science Abs., Florida Scientist,
v. 46 supl., p. 37.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


'elham, L., 1985, Fluorspar, in Mineral Facts and Problems: U.S. Bureau
3f Mines, Bull. 675, pp. 277 290.

,1986, Fluorspar, in Mineral Commodity Summaries:
U.S. Bureau of Mines, pp. 52-53.

Pirkle, E. C., W. H. Yoho, and A. T. Allen, 1965, Hawthorn Bone Valley
and Citronelle Sediments of Florida: Florida Academy of Sciences, Jour.
v. 28 No. 1, pp. 7 58.

W. H. Yoho, and C. W. Hendry, Jr., 1970, Ancient
Sea Level Stands in Florida: Florida Bureau of Geology Bulletin 52, 61 p.

W. A. Pirkle, and W. H. Yoho, 1974, The Green Cove
Springs and Boulougne Heavy-Mineral Sand Deposits of Florida: Eco-
nomic Geology, Vol. 69, pp. 1129 1137.

W. A. Pirkle, and W. H. Yoho, 1977, The Highland
Heavy-Mineral Sand Deposit on Trail Ridge in Northern Peninsular Flor-
ida: Florida Bureau of Geology Report of Investigation 84, 50 p.

Poag, C. W., 1972, Planktonic Foraminifera of the Chickasawhay Forma-
tion, United States Gulf Coast: Micropaleontology, Vol. 18, No 3, pp.
257-277.

Puri, H. S., 1957, Stratigraphy and Zonation of the Ocala Group: Florida
Geological Survey Bulletin 38, 248 p.

and R. O. Vernon, 1964, Summary of the Geology of
Florida and a Guidebook to the Classic Exposures: Florida Geological
Survey Special Publication 5 Revised, 312 p.

Reves, W. D., 1961, The Limestone Resources of Washington, Holmes
and Jackson Counties, Florida: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 42,
121 p.

Schmidt, W., R. W. Hoenstine, M. S. Knapp, E. Lane, G. M. Ogden, Jr.,
and T. M. Scott, 1979, The Limestone, Dolomite and Coquina Resources
of Florida: Florida Bureau of Geology Report of Investigation 88, 64 p.

Scott, T. M., 1978, Environmental Geology Series-Orlando Sheet: Flor-
ida Bureau of Geology Map Series 85.

1983, The Hawthorn Formation of Northeastern
Florida, Part 1: Florida Bureau of Geology Report of Investigation 94, pp.
1 -43.

,1986, The Lithostratigraphy of the Hawthorn Group


59





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


(Miocene) of Florida: Phd. Dissertation, Florida State University, Talla-
hassee, FL, 450 p.

R. W. Hoenstine, M. S. Knapp, E. Lane, G. M.
Odgen, Jr., R. Deuerling, and H. E. Neel, 1980, The Sand and Gravel
Resources of Florida: Florida Bureau of Geology Report of Investigation
90, 41 p.

and P. L. MacGill, 1981, The Hawthorn Formation of
Central Florida: Florida Bureau of Geology Report of Investigation 91,
Part 1, pp. 1 -32.

Searls. J. P., 1980, Peat, in Mineral Facts and Problems, 1980 edition:
U.S. Bureau of Mines Bulletin 671, pp. 641 -650.

Sigsby, R. J., 1976, Paleoenvironmental Analysis of the Big Escambia
Creek-Jay-Blackjack Creek Field Area, Florida: Transactions, Gulf Coast
Association of Geological Societies, Vol. 26, pp. 258 278.

Singleton, R. H., 1980, Stone, in Mineral Facts and Problems: U.S.
Bureau of Mines Bulletin 671, pp. 853-868.

Soper, E. K., and C. C. Osbon, 1922, The Occurrence and Uses of Peat
in the United States: U.S.. Geological Survey Bulletin 728, 205 p.

Stephens, J. C., 1974, Subsidence of Organic Soils in the Florida
Everglades-A Review and Update in Environments of South Florida:
Present and Past: Memoir 2, Miami Geological Society, pp. 191 237.

Stowasser, W. F., 1985a, Phosphate Rock, in Mineral Commodity Sum-
maries, 1985: U.S. Bureau of Mines, pp. 114-115.

1985b, Phosphate Rock, in Mineral Facts and Prob-
lems, 1985 ed.: U.S. Bureau of Mines Bulletin 675, Alvin W. Keoerr ed.,
pp. 579- 594.

Sweeney, J. W., 1979, Florida Stakes Its Claim in the Uranium Market:
Mining Engineering, Vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1324-1325.

and C. W. Hendry, Jr., 1981, The Mineral Industry of
Florida, 7977: in Minerals Yearbook, 1977: U.S. Bureau of Mines, V. 2,
pp. 145-158.

and S. R. Windham, 1979, Florida: the New Uranium
Producer: Florida Bureau of Geology, Special Publication 22, 13 p.

Tepordei, J. V., 1983, Sand and Gravel, in Minerals Yearbook, 1982:
U.S. Bureau of Mines, V. 1, pp. 731 -752.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


1984a, Sand and Gravel, in Minerals Yearbook,
1983: U.S. Bureau of Mines, V. 1, pp. 737-750.

1984b, Crushed Stone, in Minerals Yearbook, 1983:
U.S. Bureau of Mines, V. 1, pp. 801 -820.

1985a, Sand and Gravel and Crushed Stone in Min-
eral Commodity Summaries, 1985: U.S. Bureau of Mines, pp. 134- 135
and 146-147.

1985b, Crushed Stone, in Mineral Facts and Prob-
lems, 1985: U.S. Bureau of Mines Bulletin 675, pp. 757-768.

U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Yearbook, 1977- 1983.

U.S. Department of Energy, 1979, Energy Data Reports, 8-79.

1985, U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas and Natural Gas
Liquids Reserves, 1984 Annual Report, pp. 22 26.

Vernon, R. O., 1942, Geology of Holmes and Washington Counties, Flor-
ida: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 21, 90 p.

1951, Geology of Citrus and Levy Counties, Florida:
Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 33, 256 p.

and H. S. Puri, 1964, Geologic Map of Florida: Flor-
ida Bureau of Geology Map Series 18.

White, W. H., 1970, The Geomorphology of the Florida Peninsula: Flor-
ida Bureau of Geology Bulletin 51, 164 p.

Wright, Alexandra, P., 1974, Environmental Geology and Hydrology,
Tampa Area, Florida: Florida Bureau of Geology Special Publication 19,
94 p.

Yon, J. W., 1966, The Geology of Jefferson County, Florida: Florida
Geological Survey Bulletin 48, 115 p.

1983, Status of Phosphatic Clay Waste Disposal:
Florida Bureau of Mine Reclamation Open File Report, November, 1983,
28 p.

Zellars and Williams, Inc., 1978, Evaluation of the Phosphate Deposits of
Florida Using the Minerals Availability System: Final report prepared for
the U.S. Bureau of Mines, 196 p.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


APPENDIX

Mineral Producers In Florida

The Bureau of Geology has used a number of sources in compiling
the following list of mineral producers in Florida. The list includes all of
the mining operations known to the Bureau and is current through
December 1985. The Bureau will appreciate notification of any addi-
tions, corrections, or deletions that can be used for future editions of the
mineral producers directory.
The directory lists the name and address of each producer under the
commodity that is mined. The commodities are further listed separately
by commodity and by county.

PRODUCERS BY COMMODITY


Name & Address of Operation


Mine, Quarry, Pit
or Operation


T R S


CEMENT


DADE


General Portland Inc.
Box 22348
Tampa. FL 33622

Lonestar Florida Inc.
Box 6097
Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33310

Rinkar Portland Cement Corp.
P.O. Drawer K
W. Palm Beach. FL 33402



Florida Mining & Materials Corp
P.O. Box 6
Brooksville, FL 33512



General Portland Inc.
Box 22348
Tampa. FL 33622
Florida Division. Tampa Plant



National Portland Cement of
Florida Inc.
Route No. 1. Port Manatee
Palmetto, FL 33561


Florida Division, Miami
Plant


Pennsuco Cement &
Aggregates


Miami Plant



HERNANDO

i. Cement Division



HILLSBOROUGH


52S 40E 31




















i


MANATEE


Port Manatee


__






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


Name & Address of Operation


Mine, Quarry, Pit
or Operation


T R S


CLAY-FULLER'S EARTH

GADSDEN


Engelhard Corp.
P.O. Box 220
Attapulgus, GA 31715

Floridin Co.
P.O. Box 510
Quincy, FL 32351

The Milwhite Co, Inc.
P.O. Box 96
Attapulgus, GA 31715


La Camelia
Mine/Swisher Mine
Midway Mine

Complex A Mine
Complex B Mine
Complex C Mine


McCall Mine


3W

2W

3W
3W
3W


Multiple

Multiple

Multiple
17
35


3N 3W 4


MARION


Mid-Florida Mining Co.
P.O. Box 68F
Lowell, FL 32663


Emthla Mine


13S 20E 1


CLAY-KAOLIN

PUTNAM


The Feldspar Corp.
P.O. Box 8
Edgar, FL 32049


Edgar Mine


10S 24E 30


CLAY-GENERAL

CLAY


Florida Solite Co.
P.O. Box 27211
Richmond, VA 23261


Russell Mine


5S 25,26E Multiple


GADSDEN


Apalachee Correctional Institute
Box 699
Sneads, FL 32460


Chattahoochee Pit


3N 6W 8


LAKE


Codding Sand & Soil Inc.
Box 795 State Road 19A
Mt. Dora, FL 32757


Codding Pit


19S 27E 33


_ __ __





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Name & Address of Operation


Mine, Quarry, Pit
or Operation


T R S


Clay-general, cont'd.



CTC Construction, Inc.
P.O. Box 686
Gainesville. FL 32601


MARION


Green Acres Mine


13S 20E 1


EXFOLIATED VERMICULITE

BROWARD


W. R. Grace & So.
62 Whittemore Avenue
Cambridge. MA 02140



W. R. Grace & So.
62 Whittemore Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02140



Schmelzer Sales Corp.
Box 11385
Tampa. FL 33610

W. R. Grace & So.
62 Whittemore Avenue
Cambridge. MA 02140


Zonolite Division,
Pompano Beach
Plant


DUVAL


Zonolite Division,
Pompano Beach
Plant

- HILLSBOROUGH


Verlite Co.


Zonolite Division,
Tampa Plant


EXPANDED PERLITE

BROWARD


W. R. Grace & So.
62 Whittemore Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02140



Chemrock Corp.
P.O. Box 100922
Nashville, TN 37210



World Industries Inc.
Armstrong House Lancaster
square 1704
Lancaster, PA 17604


Zonolite Division,
Pompano Beach
Plant


DUVAL


Jacksonville Plant



ESCAMBIA

Escambia Plant





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


Name & Address of Operation


Mine, Quarry, Pit
or Operation


T R S


Expanded Perlite, cont'd.


Arlite Processing Corp.
3505 65th Street
Vero Beach, FL 32960


Jim Walter Corporation
1500 N. Dale Mabry
Tampa, FL 33607

United States Gypsum Co.
101 S. Wacker Drive
Chicago, IL 60606


Occidental Petroleum Co.
P.O. Box 25597
Tampa, FL 33622


INDIAN RIVER

Processing Plant


GYPSUM

DUVAL


Celotex Division,
Jacksonville Plant


Duval County Plant


HAMILTON


Suwannee


HILLSBOROUGH


National Gypsum Co.
2001 Rexford Road
Charlotte, NC 28211


Standard Gypsum Corp.
3401 Bulk Street
Port Everglades, FL 33316


Associated Minerals LTD, Inc.
P.O. Box 1307
Green Cove Springs, FL 32043


E. I. DuPont
P.O. Box 753
Starke, FL 32091


HEAVY MINERALS

CLAY

Green Cove Springs
Mine


Florida Mine


7S 25,26E Multiple



5,6S 23E Multiple


Tampa Plant


65






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Name & Address of Operation


Mine, Quarry, Pit
or Operation


T R S


LIME

GULF


Basic Inc.
Box 160
Port St. Joe. FL 32456


Port St. Joe Limekiln


HERNANDO


Chemical Lime Inc.
Box 317
Leesburg. FL 32748


Brooksville Limekiln


SUMTER


Dixie Lime & Stone Co.
Drawer 217
Sumterville. FL 33585


Sumterville Limekiln


y LIMESTONE (CRUSHED AND BROKEN) AND SHELL

ALACHUA


Dickerson Florida Inc.
Box 177
Newberry, FL 32669

Florida Rock Industries Inc.
P.O. Box 4667
Jacksonville. FL 32216


Umerock Industries Inc.
Drawer 790
Chieflad. FL 32626

S. M. Wall Company
1650 NE 23rd Blvd.
Gainesville, FL 32601


Haile Quarry



1) Newberry Limerock
Quarry
2) Haile Quarry
3) Chastain Quarry

1) Haile Quarry
2) Newberry Quarry


High Springs Quarry


9S 17E Multiple


N/A

9S
9S


17E Multiple
18E 18


9S 17E 24
9S 17E 25


7S 18E 30


BREVARD


Blackhawk Quarry Co. of
Florida, Inc.
7750 Babcock Street
Palm Bay. FL 32905


Blackhawk Quarry


30S 37E Multiple


C





'N


I _II






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


Name & Address of Operation


Mine, Quarry, Pit
or Operation


T R S


Limestone (Crushed and Broken) and Shell, cont'd.


Brevard County Department of
Public Works
1948 Pineapple Ave., Suite C
Melbourne, FL 32901


1) Kings Park Quarry
2) Pluckebaum Quarry
3) Rifle Range Quarry
4) Rockledge Quarry


BROWARD


Badgett Resources
4160 Ravenswood Road
Ft. Labderdale, FL 33312

Bee Line Engineering &
Construction, Inc.
10900 Griffin Road
Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33328

Bergeron Sand & Rock Mining,
Inc.
P.O. Box 6280
SHollywood, FL 33021

Broward Paving Inc.
2001 N. State Road 7
Hollywood, FL 33021

Broward Vito's Trucking &
Excavating Co.
16001 West Hwy. 84
Sunrise, FL 33314

Cherokee Crushed Stone Inc.
P.O. Box 8307
Pembroke Pine, FL 33024

Devcon International Corp.
P.O. Box 498
Pompano Beach, FL 33061

Hardrives Co. Inc.
846 N.W. 8th Street
Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33311

Hollywood Quarries Inc.
3000 SW 64th Avenue
Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33314

L. W. Rozzo Inc.
2610 S.W. 50th Avenue
Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33314


Saw Grass Quarry



84 Rock & Fill Quarry


1) Hollywood Pit
2) Ponderosa Quarry
3) Snake Creek Quarry


Rhodes Quarry



Markham Park Pit




1) Cherokee Quarry
2) Hollywood Blvd.
Quarry

York Chase Ronto



1) Gateway Quarry
2) Miramar Lake Pit
3) State Road Quarry

Hollywood Quarry


Rozzo Quarry


52S 39E 53



49S 40E 27


51S
N/A
N/A


39E 12


50S 42E 31


49S 40E
50S 40E


N/A
51S


40E Multiple


48S 42E 9


N/A
51S
50S


39E 36
41,42E Multiple


50S 41E 23



50S 40E 31


24S 36E
22S 35E
21S 34E
25S 36E






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Name & Address of Operation


Mine, Quarry, Pit
or Operation


T R S


Limestone (Crushed and Broken) and Shell, cont'd.


Miramar Rock Inc.
Box 8819
Hollywood, FL 33024


Miramar Quarry


51S 39E 36.


Pema Asphalt Paving Inc.
P.O. Box 50189
Lighthouse Point, FL 33064

Vulcan Materials Co.
P.O. Box 660097
Miami Springs, FL 33166




Chariotte Rock Industries
P.O. Box 1428
Cape Coral, FL 33910

Desrosier Brothers Enterprises
P.O. Box 43, Star Rt. A.
Punta Gorda, FL 33950


Macasphalt
P.O. Box 2579
Sarasota, FL 33578


Pit No. 1


Broward Quarry



CHARLOTTE


Route 31 Pit



Pit No. 1


Charlotte Co. Pit


N/A


51S 39E 24


42S 25E Multiple



40S 24E 32



41S 21E Multiple


Roger A. Chase
Star Route A, Box 140
Puna Gorda, FL 33950

Rowe Inc.
6629 53rd Ave. East
Bradenton, FL 33508

Sunland Paving Co. Inc.
134 Electric Way
Charlotte Harbor, FL 33950


County Line Pit



Shell Quarry



Sunland Shell Quarry


CITRUS


Carroll Contracting & Ready
Mix, Inc.
P.O. Box 1659
Inverness, FL 32651

Crystal River Quarry Inc.
Box 216
Crystal River, FL 32629


1) Lecanto Quarry
2) Storey Quarry



1) Red Level Quarry
2) Lecanto Quarry


18S 18E 33
20S 19E 35



17S 16E 25
19S 18E Multiple


N/A



N/A



N/A






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


Name & Address of Operation


Mine, Quarry, Pit
or Operation


T R S


Limestone (Crushed and Broken) and Shell, cont'd.


Dolime Minerals Co.
P.O. Box 1206
Crystal River, FL 32629


Crystal River Quarry


17S 16E Multiple


Springs Construction Equipment
Co., Inc.
P.O. Box 1797
Crystal River, FL 32629


Cement Products Corporation
Rt. 6, Box 1760
Naples, FL 33999

Florida Rock Corp.
Box 2037
Naples, FL 33940

Florida Rock Industries Inc.
P.O. Box 4667
Jacksonville, FL 32216

Harmon Brothers Rock Co.
P.O. Box 14
Ochopee, FL 33943


Highway Pavers Inc.
Box 8809
Naples, FL 33941

Lee Mar
Route 3, Box 489
Ft. Myers, FL 33908

Macasphalt Inc.
P.O. Box 7368
Naples, FL 33941


Mule Pen Rock Quarry



Golden Gate Estates
Area Quarry


1) Sunniland Quarry
2) Caloosa Limerock


Copeland Quarry



1) Naples Limerock
Quarry
2) North Quarry

Quarry 31



Golden Gate Quarry


48S 26E Multiple



49S 26E 21



48S 30E 30
45S 26E 5


52S 29E 12


50S 26E

48S 26E


N/A


49S 27E 16


COLUMBIA


Limerock Industries Inc.
Drawer 790
Chiefland, FL 32626


Columbia City Mine


5S 16E Multiple


Tanner Quarry


N/A


COLLIER






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Name & Address of Operation


Mine, Quarry, Pit
or Operation


T R S


Limestone (Crushed and Broken) and Shell, cont'd.

DADE


A. J. Capeletti Inc.
P.O. Box 4944
Hialeah, FL 33014


1) Dade Quarry No. 9
2) Dade Quarry No. 10
3) Dade Quarry No. 11
4) Dade Quarry No. 12
5) Dade Quarry No. 13
6) Dade Quarry No. 15


A. J. House & Sons Inc.
Box 440457
Miami, F. 33144

Coral Aggregates Inc.
3500 Pembroke Road
Hollywood, FL 33021

Florida Rock Industries
P.O. Box 521705
Miami, FL 33152

Florida Rock & Sand Co.
P.O. Box 3004
Florida City, FL 33030

Krome Aggregates, Inc.
PO. Box 260
Hollywood, FL 33022

Lone Star Florida Inc.
Box 6097
Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33310

Lowell Dunn
P.O. Box 2577
Hialeah, FL 33012



Loyal Rock Inc.
1385 Coral Way, Suite 407
Miami. FL 33145


Miami Crushed Rock, Inc.
9bx 650309
Miami, FL 33165

Redland Construction Co., Inc.
23379 SW 167th Avenue
Homestmd, FL 33165


Quarry No. 1


Miami Mine Quarry


1) Sterling Quarry
2) Golden Prince Quarry
3) Card Sound Quarry

1) Card Sound Pit
2) Cutler Pit


Kendall Quarry


Pennsuco Quarry


1) Airport Pit
2) Dunn Airport Quarry
3) Indian Mound West
Pit
4) Lehigh Lakes Quarry

Loyal Rock Quarry



Sweetwater Quarry



County Line Quarry


53S 39E 13



53S 39E 27


N/A
N/A
58S

58S
N/A


N/A


39E 17

39E 17


52S 39E Multiple


52S 39E
N/A
54S 40E


N/A

N/A


53S 39E 24



52S 39E 1


53S
53S
53S
53S
52S
53S


39E
39E
39E
39E
39E
39E


26
23
21
Multiple
13
20






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


Name & Address of Operation


Mine, Quarry, Pit
or Operation


T R S


Limestone (Crushed and Broken) and Shell, cont'd.


Rinker-Southeastern Materials,
Inc.
P.O. Box 5230
Hialeah, FL 33014

Ronlee Inc.
P.O. Box 660655
Miami Springs, FL 33166

Siboney International
P.O. Box 6665
West Palm Beach, FL 33405

Standard Rock Pit Corp.
7855 NW 12th Street
Miami, FL 33182

The Brewer Co. of Florida
(Redland Construction Co.)
9800 NW 106 Street
,Miami, FL 33166

Vulcan Materials Co.
P.O. Box 660097
Miami Springs, FL 33166



DeSoto County Public Works
P.O. Box 1399
Arcadia, FL 33821


DeSoto Shell
P.O. Box 1862
Arcadia, FL 33821


1) SCL Quarry
2) FEC Quarry
3) Rinker Lake Quarry


Ronlee Inc. Quarry



Royal Rock Quarry



Standard Rock Pit



Brewer Doctors Pit


1) 41st Street Quarry
2) Medley Quarry


N/A
52S
52S


39E 25
40E 20


52S 39E 12


N/A



N/A


52S 39E 1


N/A
53S


40E 10


DESOTO


County Pit


DeSoto Shell Pit


39S 25E 28



39S 25E 28


GLADES


Macasphalt Inc.
P.O. Box 1819
Winter Haven, FL 33880



Labelle Limerock Company
General Delivery
Labelle, FL 33935

M. E. C. Construction Inc.
Drawer Q
South Bay, FL 33493


Brighton Reservation Pit


40S 32E Multiple


HENDRY


Labelle Quarry



MEC Rock Quarry


43S 28E 13


N/A






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Name & Address of Operation


Mine, Quarry, Pit
or Operation


T R S


Limestone (Crushed and Broken) and Shell, cont'd.


Ridgdill & Son Construction Inc.
P. 0. Box 447
Clewiston, FL 33440



E R. Jahna Industries Inc.
P.O. Drawer 168
Lecanto, FL 32661

Florida Crushed Stone Co.
Box 317
Leesburg, FL 32748


Florida Mining & Material Corp.
605 Broad Street
Brooksville, FL 33512

Florida Rock Industries Inc.
P.O. Box 4667
Jacksonville, FL 32201

Oman Construction Co., Inc.
P.O. Box 3038
Springhill, FL 33526

W. L. Cobb Construction Co.
Box 3038
Springhill, FL 33526



Chapman Contracting Co.
7910 Orient Road
Tampa, FL 33619

Leisey Shell Pit Inc.
3820 Gulf City Road
Ruskin, FL 33570

Shell Materials Inc.
P.O. Box 11554
Tampa, FL 33680



Henry Fischer & Sons, Inc.
P.O. Box 68
Sebastian, FL 32958


Ridgdill Quarry



HERNANDO


Mills Quarry


Brooksville Gay Quarry


Broco Quarry


Brooksville Diamond Hill
Quarry


Aripeka Quarry



Aripeka Quarry



HILLSBOROUGH

Tampa Bay Pit



1) Leisey Pit
2) Cockroach Bay Shell
Pit

1) 19th Ave. Quarry
2) Shell Materials Pit


43S 34E 14


23S 21E 1


21S
21S
22S
22S


18E
19E
18E
19E


36
Multiple
1
Multiple


21S 18E Multiple



21S 19E 20



23S 17E Multiple



23S 17E 19


32S 18E 1



32S 18E 16
31S 18E 15


31S 19E Multiple
32S 19E 6


INDIAN RIVER


Fischer Pit


N/A






INFORI


Name & Address of Operation


Limestone (Crushed and




Dolomite Inc.
Box 548
Marianna, FL 32446

Green Valley Lime Co., Inc.
P.O. Box 681
Marianna, FL 32446

Marianna Lime Products Inc.
Box 1505
Marianna, FL 32446


NATION CIRCULAR NO. 102

Mine, Quarry, Pit
or Operation T


R S


Broken) and Shell, cont'd.


JACKSON


Rock Creek Quarry



Sink Creek Quarry



Marianna Quarry


3N 9W Multiple



3N 9W 19



5N 10W 29


LEE


Charlotte Rock Industries
P.O. Box 1428
Cape Coral, FL 33910


Florida Rock Industries Inc.
P.O. Box 4667
Jacksonville, FL 32216

Fugate Construction Co.
137 Texas Avenue
Ft. Myers, FL 33901

Harper Brothers Inc.
5351 Six Mile Cypress Parkway
Ft. Myers, FL 33912

Harper Brothers Inc.
Route 39, Box 821
Ft. Myers, FL 33908

J. L. Kelley Rock Co. Inc
Box 353
La Belle, FL 33953




Boutwell Construction Co., Inc.
5979 SE Mary Camp Road
Ocala, FL 32672


Connell & Schultz Inc.
Box 24
Inverness, FL 32650


Burnt Stove Road Pit



Fort Myers Quarry



Fugate No. 1 Quarry



1) Alico Quarry
2) Colonial Dolomite
Quarry

Alico Road Quarry



12 026 Quarry


43S 22E 24


46S



N/A



N/A
N/A


25E 12


46S 26E 2



43S 27E Multiple


LEVY


Pansey Britt Mine



Williston Quarry


12S 19E 31



12S 19E 31


__






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Name & Address of Operation


Mine, Quarry, Pit
or Operation


T R S


Limestone (Crushed and Broken) and Shell, cont'd.


Florida Lime & Dolomite Co.,
Inc.
P.O. Box 246
Gulf Hammock, FL 32678

Florida Rock Industries Inc.
P.O. Box4667
Jacksonville, FL 32201

Levy County Road Department
P.O. Box 336
Bronson, FL 32621


V. E. Whitehurst & Sons
Rt. 1, Box 125
Williston, FL 32696


Gulf Hammock Quarry




Gulf Hammock Quarry



Levy County Quarries


1) Raleigh Quarry
2) Whitehurst Pit


14S 16E 21




14S 16E Multiple


N/A



N/A
12S


19E Multiple


MANATEE


Quality Aggregates Inc.
P.O. Box 2719
Sarasota, FL 33578


Phase IV Shell Mine


35S 19E Multiple


MARION


Boutwell Construction Co., Inc.
5979 SE Mary Camp Road
Ocala, FL 32672

G. P. Turner Construction Inc.
8001 NW C 25A
Ocala, FL 32671

Marion County Hwy. Dept.
3330 SE Maricamp Rd.
Ocala, FL 32670


M. J. Stavola Industries
P.O. Box 187
Anthony, FL 32617

Monroe Road Co.
Box 417
Belleview, FL 32620

Ocala Limerock Corp.
P.O. Box 1060
Ocala, FL 32670


Mine Two (Bellview
Mine)


Britt Quarry


17S 22E 1


N/A


Canal Pit


Stavola Quarry



No. 8 Quarry



1) Cummer Mine
2) Zuber Mine


16S 22E 15



14S 22E L9



15S 20E 19


N/A
14S


21E 14





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


Name & Address of Operation


Mine, Quarry, Pit
or Operation


T R S


Limestone (Crushed and Broken) and Shell, cont'd.


Ocala Pavers Inc.
4910 N 35th St.
Silver Springs, FL 32688

Southern Materials Corp.
P.O. Box 218
Ocala, FL 32670


Pedro Pit


Lowell Quarry



MONROE


17S 22E 24



13S 21E 23


A. J. Capeletti Inc.
P.O. Box 4944
Hialeah, FL 33014


Charley Toppino & Sons Inc.
Box 787
Key West, Fl 33040

Tarmac Florida Inc.
P.O. Box 2035
Hialeah, FL 33012



Bell Engineering Service Co.
7755 Jog Rd., Rt. 3
Lake Worth, FL 33460

Griffin Brothers Co. Inc.
10450 W. State Road 84
Davie, FL 33324

Loxahatchee Enterprises Inc
2000 South Congress Ave.
Delray Beach, FL 33445


Monroe Quarry No. 1



1) Big Pine Key Quarry
2) Cudjoe Key Quarry
3) Rockland Key Quarry

1) Cudjoe Key Quarry
2) Rockland Key Quarry
3) Big Pine Key Quarry

PALM BEACH

Bell Farms Pit



Rock Quarry No. 2



Delray Beach Quarry


60S 40E 29


N/A
N/A
67S


26E 21


66S 28E
67S 26E
66S 29E


29
Multiple
25


45S 42E 15



47S 37E 22



47S 41E 29


PASCO


Belcher Mine, Inc.
P.O. Box 86
State Rd. 595
Aripeka, FL 33502


International Minerals &
Chemical Corp.
Box 867
Bartow, FL 33830

Zephyr Rock & Lime Inc.
P.O. Box 697
Zephyrhills, FL 33599


Belcher Quarry


Morell Quarry




Z-Rock Quarry


24S 16E Multiple


25S 22E Multiple




26S 22E Multiple






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Name & Address of Operation


Mine, Quarry, Pit
or Operation


T R S


Limestone (Crushed and Broken) and Shell, cont'd.

POLK


West Coast Mining & Silica Inc.
P.O. Box 17237
Tampa. FL 33682



Florida Rock Industries Inc.
P.O. Box 4667
Jacksonville, FL 32201


Englewood Trucking Co.
500 N. Indiana Avenue
Englewood, FL 33533

Fleet Rental Inc.
700 Hall Road
Nakomis, FL 33555

Macasphalt Inc.
P.O. Box 2579
Sarasota, FL 33578

Morrison Trucking Co.
Box 3145
Venice. FL 33595

Quality Aggregates Inc.
P.O. Box 2719
Sarasota, FL 33580


1) Polk County Quarry
2) West Coast Pit


N/A
26S


22E Multiple


ST. LUCIE


Ft. Pierce Quarry



SARASOTA

Laurel Road Pit



Sarasota Quarry



Newburn Road Pit



Highway 775 Pit



Brown Road Quarry


37S 38E Multiple


38S 19E Multiple



36S 17E 5



36S 18E 12


N/A


36S 19E 7


SUMTER


Agri-Timber. Inc.
4801 River Road
Dade City. FL 33525

Amcar
P.O Drawer 217
Sumterville, FL 33585

Dixie Lime & Stone Co.
Drawer 217
Sumterville, FL 33585


Agri-Timber Hi-Cal
Quarry


Coleman No. 2 Quarry



Sumterville Quarry


N/A


20S 22E 12


20S 22E
20S 23E


Multiple






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102

Mine, Quarry, Pit
Name & Address of Operation or Operation T


Limestone (Crushed and

Florida Crushed Stone Co.
Box 317
Leesburg, FL 32748

Ocala Limerock Corp.
P.O. Box 1060
Ocala, FL 32670

St. Catherine Rock Co.
P.O. Box 103
Nobleton, FL 33554


Anderson Mining Corp.
P.O. Box 38
Old Town, FL 32680

Hatch Enterprises Inc.
Box 238
Branford, FL 32008

Urban Mining, Inc.
P.O. Box 627
Lake City, FL 32055


Anderson Contracting Co.
P.O. Drawer 38
Old Town, FL 32680

Cabbage Grove Mining Co., Inc.
P.O. Box 997
Perry, FL 32347

Dolime Minerals Co.
P.O. Box 997
Perry, FL 32347

Florida Crushed Stone
Box 719
Perry, FL 32347

Limerock Industries Inc.
Drawer 790
Chiefland, FL 32626


Broken) and Shell, cont'd.

Center Hill Quarry



Mabel Quarry



St. Catherine Quarry


SUWANNEE

Lanier Quarry



Hatch Quarry



SR 252 Quarry


TAYLOR

Ten Mile Quarry



Perry Quarry



Perry Quarry



Jefferson-Taylor Quarry



Cabbage Grove Quarry


21S 23E 16



22S 23E Multiple



22S 21E Multiple


6S 14E Multiple



6S 14E 16



N/A


8S 10E 21



4S 4E 3



4S 4E 13



3S 4E 32
4S 4E Multiple


3S 4E 34


77


R S





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Name & Address of Operation


Mine. Quarry, Pit
or Operation


T R S


MAGNESIUM-BRINES

GULF


Basic Magnesia Inc.
845 Hanna Building
Cleveland. OH 44115


Port St. Joe Plant


PEAT

CLAY


R & R Peat Farms. Inc.
P.O. Box 420
Keystone Heights, FL 32656

Stricklin Peat, Inc.
Rt. I. Box 577
Keystone Heights, FL 32656



L. C. Morris, Inc.
P.O. Box 500
74400 N.W. 102nd Avenue'
Hialeah, FL 33014



Superior Peat & Soil
P.O. Box 1688
4242 W. George Boulevard
Sebring, FL 33870


8S 24E 16


N/A


DADE


N/A


HIGHLANDS


35S 29S 9


Tu-Co Peat
3320 Tubbs Road
Sebring, FL 33870



Fertic Soils
P.O. Box 922
7911 Williams Rd.
Seffner, FL 33584


35S 29S 21


HILLSBOROUGH


28S 20E 20


Earth Stover
16328 Indian Mound Road
Tampa, FL 33618


27S 18E 26



28S 21E 28


F. E. Stearns Peat
Rt. 1, Box 542D
Dover, FL 33527


78






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


r'ame & Address of Operation


Mine, Quarry, Pit
or Operation


T R S


PFeat, cont'd.



Anderson Organic Inc.
Rt. 2, Box 138
Winter Garden, FL 32787

C & C Peat
P.O. Box 443
SMinneola, FL 32755

Florida Potting Soils, Inc.
P.O. Box 7008
Orlando, FL 32854

Hillary Peat
Rt. 1, Box 345
Groveland, FL 32736

E. R. Jahna Industries
102 E. Tillman Avenue
Lake Wales, FL 33853



Anderson Organic Inc.
Rt. 2, Box 138
Winter Garden, FL 32787

Pasco Products Company, Inc.
P.O. Box 628
Greenville, FL 32331



Reliable Peat
P.O. Box 217
Winter Garden, FL 32787



Atlas Peat & Soil
9621 S.R. 7
P.O. Box 867
Boynton Beach, FL 33435


LAKE


Clermont West Mine


22S 26E Multiple



21S 25E 11



18S 28E 25



22S 24E 8



22S 25E 22


MADISON


1S 5E 35



1N 6E 24


ORANGE


22S 27E 22


PALM BEACH


45S 43E Multiple


POLK


Andy's Plant Aids
1840 W. Fairbanks
P.O. Box 3296
Lakeland, FL 33802


Clubhouse Road Pit


29S 24E 9






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Name & Address of Operation


Mine, Quarry, Pit
or Operation


T R S


Peat, cont'd.


Greenleaf Products, Inc.
P.O. Box 312
Haines City, FL 33844


Peace River Peat
P.O. Box 1192
1470 Hwy. 17S.
Bartow. FL 33830


Frostproof


27S 27E 19.



31S 28E 23


PUTNAM


R & R Peat Farms, Inc.
P.O. Box 420
Keystone Heights, FL 32656

Traxler Peat
P.O. Box 448
Florahome, FL 32635



American Peat Co.
Rt. 1, Box 38
(Hwy. 466, 3.9 miles E. of
Oxford)
Oxford, FL 32684

Verfite Co.
P.O. Box 11385
621? N. 56th Street
Tampa, FL 33680


Florahome Mine


9S 24E 5



9S 24S Multiple


SUMTER


Cherry Lake





Verlite Mine


18S 23E Multiple





22S 22E 34


Occidental Chemical Co.
P.O. Box 1185
Houston, TX 77001



C. F. Industries, Inc.
P.O. Box 1549
Wauchula. FL 33873

Gardinier Inc.
P.O. Box 3269
Tampa, FL 33601


PHOSPHATE ROCK

HAMILTON

1) Suwannee River
Mine
2) Swift Creek Mine


HARDEE


Hardee Phosphate
Complex


Ft. Meade Mine


15,16E
16E
15E


Multiple
Multiple
Multiple


33S 24E Multiple



32S 25E Multiple


80






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


Name & Address of Operation


Mine, Quarry, Pit
or Operation


T R S


Phosphate Rock, cont'd.



Amax Chemical Corp.
402 S. Kentucky Avenue
Suite 600 Lakeland, FL 33801

American Cyanamid Co.
(Brewster Phosphates)
Berdan Ave.
Wayne, New Jersey 07470



Beker Phosphate Corp.
P.O. Box 9034
Bradenton, FL 33506

W.R. Grace & Company
Box 471
Bartow, FL 33830



Agrico Chemical Co.
Box 1110
Mulberry, FL 33860


American Cyanamid Co.
(Brewster Phosphates)
Berdan Ave.
Wayne, New Jersey 07470

Estech General Chemical Co.
Box 208
Bartow, FL 33830

Gardinier Inc.
P.O. Box 3269
Tampa, FL 33601

.5 International Minerals &
Chemical Corp.
Box 867
Bartow, FL 33830


Mobil Oil Corp.
Box 311
Nichols, FL 33863


HILLSBOROUGH


Big Four Mine



Lonesome Mine


31,32S 32,22E Multiple



31S 22E Multiple


MANATEE


Wingate Creek Mine



Four Corners Mine


34,35S 21,22E Multiple



33S 21E Multiple .


POLK


1) Ft. Green Mine

2) Saddle Creek Mine
3) Payne Creek Mine

Haynsworth Mine




1) Silver City Mine
2) Watson Mine


Ft. Meade Mine



1) Clear Springs Mine
2) Kingsford Mine

3) Noralyn Mine


1) Ft. Meade Mine
2) Nichols Mine


32 33S
23W
28S 25E
32S 23,24E


Multiple
Multiple


31S 32E Multiple




31S 24E Multiple
31,32S 25,26E Multiple


32S 25E Multiple


30S
31S
30S
30S
31S


25E
22E
23E
24S
24S


Multiple
Multiple
Multiple
Multiple
Multiple


31S 25E Multiple
30S 23E Multiple






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Name & Address of Operation


Mine, Quarry, Pit
or Operation


T R S


Phosphate Rock, cont'd.


U.S.S. Agrichemicals
P.O. Box 867
Ft. Meade, FL 33841

W.R. Grace & Company
Box 471
Bartow, FL 33830


Rockland Mine



Hookers Prairie Mine


31S 24E Multiple



31S 23E Multiple


PHOSPHATE ROCK -COLLODIAL

CITRUS


Howard Phosphate Co.
P.O. Box 13800
Orlando, FL 32809

Manko Co.
P.O. Box 577
Ocala, FL 32670

The EH Kellogg Co.
P.O. Box 218
Hemando, FL 32642



Lancala Phosphate Co.
P.O. Box 766
High Springs. FL 32643


Howard Phosphate
Mine


Section 5 Phosphate
Mine


Kellogg Phosphate Mine


18S 19E 35



17,18S 18,19E Multiple



17S 17E 34


MARION


Minehead Plant


SAND

BAY


Fla. Asphalt Paving Co.
P.O. Box 1310
Panama City, FL 32401

Gulf Asphalt Corp.
P.O. Box 2462
Panama City, FL 32401

Pitts Sand Co.
Rt. 4, Box 850
Panama City, FL 32401

Sykas Concrete Pipe Co.
P.O. Box 1400
Panama City, FL 32402


Register Mine


Bay Mine


Lynnhaven Mine



Calloway Mine


2S 13W 13



2S 13W 14



3S 14W 12



4S 13W 14


82






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


Name & Address of Operation


Mine, Quarry, Pit
or Operation


T R S


Sand, cont'd.


BREVARD


Melbourne Sand & Supply
7298 Waelti Drive
Melbourne, FL 32935


Florida Commercial
Development
P.O. Box 5147
Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33310

Frank Newth LTD.
Box 8302
Coral Springs, FL 33065

Hardrives Company
,300 West State Rd. No. 84
Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33315

Pompano Silica Sand Company
1951 N. Powerline Road
Pompano Beach, FL 33060

101 Sand & Fill Inc.
P.O. Box 4175
RR #2 Lyons R&D Wilburn St.
Margate, FL 33063


Melbourne Mine



BROWARD

Prospect Mine




Margate Mine



State Rd. 84 Mine


Tsiotis Mine



101 Mine


26S 36E 12


49S 42E 7




48S 42E 21



50 42E 30



48S 42E 28


N/A


Blountstown Sand Co.
Rt. 1 Mason Road
Blountstown, FL 32424


CALHOUN

1) Overholt Mine
2) N/A


CLAY


Florida Rock Industries Inc.
P.O. Box 4667
Jacksonville, FL 32201


Gold Head Mine


8S 23E 15


DADE


A.J. Capeletti, Inc.
P.O. Box 4944
Hialeah, FL 33014


Broward No. 1 Mine


51S 41E 29


N/A
1N


8W 27


83






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Name & Address of Operation


Mine, Quarry, Pit
or Operation


T R S


Sand, cont'd.


Arnold Sand & Gravel Co.
1717 Eagle Drive
Cantonment, FL 32533

Campbell Sand & Gravel Co.
Rt. 3. Box 22
Century, FL 32535


Clark Sand Co.
Box 4267
Pensacola, FL 32507


Red Sand & Gravel Co.
Rt. 1
Flomaton AL 36441

Site Construction Developers
2628 Hillcrest Avenue
Pensacola, FL 32506



Capital Asphalt
P.O. Box 5767
Tallahassee, FL 32314

Gadsden Sand Co.
P.O. Box 446
Quincy. FL 32351

Radcliff Materials, Inc.
P.O. Box 1685
Mobile, AL 36601



E.R. Jahna Industries Inc.
First & East Tillman
Lake Wales. FL 33853

Florida Rock Industries, Inc.
P.O. Box 4667
Jacksonville, FL 32201


Revelle Sand Plant
P.O. Box 153C Rt. 2
Caryville, FL 32427


ESCAMBIA

Century Mine



Century Mine



Pensacola Mine



1) Century Mine
2) Sunday Rd. Mine


Pensacola Mine


N/A


5N 30W 4



2S 30W Multiple


N/A
6N


N/A


30W 33


GADSDEN


Quincy Mine


Chattahoochee River
Plant


1N 2W 21



N/A



3N 6W 5


GLADES


Ortona Sand Mine



Caloosa Mine



HOLMES

Caryville Plant


42S 30E 23



42S 30E Multiple


5N 16W 16


84






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


Name & Address of Operation


Mine, Quarry, Pit
or Operation


T R S


Sand, cont'd.


West Florida Sand Co.
Route 3, Box 208 G
Bonifay, FL 32425


A.B. Williams Co.
P.O. Box 269
Marianna, FL 32446


Dog Lake Estates Mine


JACKSON

Williams Mine


4N 15W 5


3N 10W 29


LAKE


E.R. Jahna Industries Inc.
First & East Tillman
Lake Wales, FL 33853

Eustis Sand Company
P.O. Box 861
Mt. Dora, FL 32757

Florida Crushed Stone Co.
Box 317
Leesburg, FL 32748

Florida Rock Industries, Inc.
P.O. Box 4667
Jacksonville, FL 32201


Silver Sand Co. of Clermont Inc.
Rt. 1, Box USI
Clermont, FL 32711

Standard Sand & Silica Co.
P.O. Box 35
Davenport, FL 33837


Clermont West Mine
2) Clermont Mine
3) Independent Mine


Eustis Mine



1) Tulley Mine
2) 474 Mine


1) Lake Sand Plant
2) Orange-Clermont
Mine
3) Astatula Mine


Center Mine



Wallace Mine


22S 25E Multiple
22S 26E Multiple
24S 25E 22

18S 27E 25



22S 36E 34
24S 25E 13


24S
24S

20S


26E
26E

26E


19
Multiple

Multiple


23S 26E Multiple



24S 28E 9


LEON


Johnson Sand Co.
129 Campground Pond Road
Tallahassee, FL 32304

Roberts Sand Co. Inc.
P.O. Box 6229
Tallahassee, FL 32302


Johnson Mine



Norfleet Mine


1N 2W 34



1N 2W 35






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Name & Address of Operation


Mine, Quarry, Pit
or Operation


T R S


Sand. cont'd.


MANATEE


Quality Aggregates. Inc.
P.O. Box 2719
Sarasota, FL 32578


Phase IV Shell Pit


35S 19E 31


MARION


Florida Rock Industries Inc.
P.O. Box4667
Jacksonville. FL 32201

G. P. Turner Construction Inc.
8001 N.W. C. 25W
Ocala. FL 32671

Marion County Highway Dept.
3330 S.E. Maricamp Road
Ocala, FL 32670

Ocala Limerock Corp.
Box 1060
Ocala. FL 32670

Ocala Pavers Inc.
4910 N. 35th Street
Silver Springs, FL 32688

Southern Materials Corp.
P.O. Box 218
Ocala. FL 32670

Standard Sand & Silica Co.
P.O. Box 35
Davenport, FL 33837


Marion Sand Mine


Britt Mine



Canal Pit


17S 26E Multiple


N/A


16S 22E 15


Cummar Mine



Pedro Pit



Lowell Quarry


Lynne Mine


N/A



N/A


13S 21E Multiple



15S 24E 3


ORANGE


County of Orange Hwy. Dept.
11 W. Kaley
Orlando. FL 32813


Own Crews Mine


PASCO


Zephyr Rock & Lime, Inc.
P.O. Box 4175
Zaphyrhills, FL 33599


Z-Rock Quarry


26S 22E Multiple


N/A






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


Name & Address of Operation


Mine, Quarry, Pit
or Operation


T R S


Sand, cont'd.


POLK


E.R. Jahna Industries Inc
First & East Tillman
Lake Wales, FL 33853


Florida Mining & Materials Corp.
P.O. Box 338
Polk City, FL 33868

Florida Rock Industries Inc.
P.O. Box 4667
Jacksonville, FL 32201

Gall Silica Mining Co., Inc.
Box 987
Lake Wales, FL 33853

Standard Sand & Silica Co.
P.O. Box 35
Davenport, FL 33837



Florida Rock Industries, Inc.
P.O. Box 4667
Jacksonville, FL 32201

The Feldspar Corp.
P.O. Box 8
Edgar, FL 32049


1) Loughman Mine
2) Haines City Mine


Devane No. 2 Mine



Sandland Mine


1) 03 Mine
2) 04 Mine


1) Davenport Mine
2) Joshua Mine
3) Polk City Mine


PUTNAM


Keuka Mine



Edgar Mine


26S 27E
27S 27E
28S 27E


11
35
Multiple


24S 25E 33



30S 28E Multiple


30S 28E
29S 28E


Multiple


26S 27E 26
26S 26E 35
26S 25E 26



10S 24E 29



10S 25E 23


ST. LUCIE


Ben Stewart Trucking
Route 1, Box 2075
Ft. Pierce, FL 33450


Ft. Pierce Sand & Material Inc.
Rt. 4, Box 27
Ft. Pierce, FL 33450

General Development Corp.
1111 S. Bayshore Drive
Miami, FL 33450

Glen Blackburn Trucking Inc.
Route 4, Box 157 A
Ft. Pierce, FL 33450


North Mine


1) North Mine
2) South Midway Road
Mine

St. Lucie County Mine



1) Airport Mine
2) Morlan Mine
3) Rails Mine


34S 40E 8


N/A
N/A


N/A



N/A
35S
N/A


40S 36


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BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Name & Address of Operation


Mine, Quarry, Pit
or Operation


T R S


Sand, cont'd.


Stewart Sand & Materials
202 Tumblinking Road
Ft. Pierce, FL 33450



Pace Sand & Gravel Inc.
P.O. Box 395
Century, FL 32535



General Developmemet Corp.
Tit S. Bayshore Drive
Miami, FL 33450

Macasphalt Inc.
P.O. Box 2579
Sarasota, FL 33578



Adams Sand Company Inc.
Mossy Head, FL 32434


Anderson Sand, Inc.
P.O. Box 243-AX
Caryville, FL 32427


Indian Hills Mine



SANTA ROSA

Robertson Mine


N/A


N/A


SARASOTA


Sarasota-County Mine



Newburn Mine


39S


22E Multiple


36E 18E 12


WALTON


Mossy Head Mine


WASHINGTON

Anderson Mine


3N 21W 21


30N 16W 11


SULFUR


SANTA ROSA


Exxon Co. USA
P.O. Box 4496
Houston, TX 77210


1) Blackjack Creek Field
Unit
2) Jayfield


4N 29W 23

5N 29W


T = Township R = Range
N/A = Information Not Available


S = Section


88





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


COMMODITIES BY COUNTY


County Commodity Page
Alachua Limestone 66
Bay Sand 82
Brevard Limestone 66
Sand 83
Broward Exfoliated Vermiculite 64
Expanded Perlite 64
Limestone 67
Sand 83
Calhoun Sand 83
Charlotte Limestone 68
Citrus Limestone 68
Phosphate Rock-Colloidal 82
Clay Clay-General 63
Heavy Minerals 65
Peat 78
Sand 83
Collier Limestone 69
Columbia Limestone 69
Dade Cement 62
Limestone 70
Peat 78
Sand 83
DeSoto Limestone 71
Duval Exfoliated Vermiculite 64
Expanded Perlite 64
Gypsum 65
Escambia Expanded Perlite 64
Sand 84
Gadsden Clay-Fuller's Earth 63
Clay-General 63
Sand 84
Glades Limestone 71
Sand 84
Gulf Lime 66
Magnesium Brines 78
Hamilton Gypsum 65
Phosphate Rock 80
Hardee Phosphate Rock 80
Hendry Limestone 71
Hernando Cement 62
Lime 66
Limestone 72





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Commodity


Highlands
Hillsborough





Holmes
Indian River

Jackson

Lake


Lee
Leon
Levy
Madison
Manatee



Marion




Monroe
Orange

Palm Beach

Pasco
Polk



Putnam


St. Lucie

Santa Rosa


Peat
Cement
Exfoliated Vermiculite
Gypsum
Limestone
Peat
Phosphate Rock
v Sand
Expanded Perlite
Limestone
Limestone
Sand
Clay-General
Peat
SSand
Limestone
Sand
Limestone
Peat
Cement
Limestone
Phosphate Rock
Sand
Clay-Fuller's Earth
Clay-General
Limestone
Phosphate Rock-Colloidal
Sand
Limestone
Peat
Sand
Limestone
Peat
Limestone
Limestone
Peat
Phosphate Rock
Sand
Clay-Kaolin
Peat
Sand
Limestone
Sand
Sand
Sulfur


County


Page


78
62
64
65
72
78
81
84.
65
72
73
85
63
79
85
73
85
73
79
62
74
81
86
63
64
74
82
86
75
79
86
75
79
75
76
79
81
87
63
80
87
76
87
88
88


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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 102


County


Commodity


Sarasota

Sumter


Suwannee
Taylor
Walton
Washington


Limestone
Sand
Lime
Limestone
Peat
Limestone
Limestone
Sand
Sand


Page


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