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Title: Mineral industry of Florida 1971
Series Title: nformation circular (Florida. Bureau of Geology) ; no. 84
Physical Description: Book
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Publication Date: 1971
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Mineral industries -- Statistics -- Florida
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Funding: Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
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Source Institution: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Mineral industry of Florida 1971
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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        Page 12
        Page 13
        Copyright
            Copyright
Full Text







Preprint from the 1971


BUREAU


OF MINES MINERALS YEARBOOK


The Mineral Industry of Florida


UNITED STATES DEPARTMEri.OF THE INTERIOR









3F 6 3 l

) 0 i


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Rogers C. B. Morton, Secretary)
BUREAU OF MINES 0 Elburt F. Osborn, Director


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Offlo, Washington, D.O. 2040
Price 30 cents domestic postpald or 10 cents GPO Bookstore


This publication is a chapter from the current Bureau of
Mines Minerals Yearbook, comprising Volume I, Metals,
Minerals, and Fuels; Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic;
Volume III, Area Reports: Internallonal. Individual chapters
from all volumes and the separate volumes of the Year-
book are sold by the Superintendent of Documents, Wash-
Ington, D.C. 20402.










The Mineral Industry of Florida



This chapter has been prepared under a cooperative agreement between the Bureau of
Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and tile Florida Bureau of Geology.


By William F. Stowasser 1


The value of mineral production in
Florida was $348.7 million. This was anl
increase of $44 million or 15 percent more
Ihan in 1970. Cement, kyanite, imagnesia,
zircon, peat, and petroleCmill all showed sig-
nificant increases in production in 1971
over 1970 levels, Natural gas was produced
for tile first time in 1971. Other minerals
showed smaller increases with lime and
slaurolite reporting less output in terms of
quantity in 1971 than in 1970. although
value was somewhat higher.
For tile 78th consecutive year, Florida
produced more phosphate rock than any
other State. Florida again ranked first in
the production of fuller's earth and
zircon, second in tile production of tita-
inium concentrates, aind third in peal and
kyanile production. Staurolite was not pro-
(duced in any other Stale.


Florida and North Carolina supplied 83
percent of the domestic phosphate rock
market. Only Morocco exported more
phosphate rock to world markets than did
Florida. Florida increased exports 9 per-
cent over the 1970 level; this represented
89 percent of phosphate rock exports from
tile United States. Exports from Florida
moved through the ports of Tampa, Boca
Grande, and Jacksonville to 32 countries.
Japan and Canada each received over 2
million short tons arind over 1 million short
tons was shipped to Italy and West Ger-
lmanlly.
The production by Humble Oil and
Refinling Co. from the Jay field in the
northern Panhandle near the Alabama
border was limited to about 14,000 barrels
SP1hysical scientist, Division of Nonmetallic


Table 1.-Mineral production in Florida 1

1970 1971
Mineral
Quantity Value Quantity Value
(thousands) (thousands)
Cement:
Portland ................. thousand 876-pound barrels.. W W 11,581 $48,970
Masonry............ .. thousand 280-pound barrels.. W W 1,288 4,877
Clays .......... ... ........ .. thousand short tons.. 872 $12,661 2 998 212,834
Lime -...... ........ ............. ..... do.... 167 2,810 159 2,958
Natural ga. ----------- ............. million cubic feeoot. .. 903 270
Peat .................. ... ....... thousand short tons.. 46 804 57 412
Petroleum (crude)... .......... thousand 42-gallon barrels.. 2,999 W 5,847 W
Sand and gravel. --..... .. .. ..thousand short tons.. 12,482 12,264 28,228 18,886
Stone .......-.- .... ...... ..... ...... ...... ..do.--.. 48.089 '61,302 42,816 64,882
Value of items that cannot be disclosed: Koalin (1971), kyanlte
concentrates, magnesium compounds, natural gas liquids,
phosphate rock, staurollto, stone (dimension) (1970), tita-
alum concentrates, tdrconium concentrates, and values in-
dicated byfxmbol W..------------------------------.......................... XX 210,711 XX 190,242
Total ................. ........................ XX 800,042 XX 8483,781
Total 1987 constant dollar .......................... XX 268,888 XX e 298,688
P Preliminary. W Withhold to avoid disclosing Inidvidual company confidential data; included with
"Value of items that cannot be disclosed." XX Not applicable.
I Production as measured by mine shipments, sales, or marketable production (including consumption by
producers).
SExcludes kaolin; included with "Value of Items that cannot be disclosed."
I Excludes dimension limestone; Included with "Value of items that cannot be disclosed."







MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1971


Table 2.-Value of mineral production In Florida, by county i
(Thousands)


County


Alachua ..--------------------------.....
Bay ---.---..--...-- ----------.....
Bradford...-------------....------...-..----....---
Brevard ---------- ------------
Broward ----------------------------
Calhoun ----------- ------------
Charlotte ----------------------------
Citrum --.----------... ..........
Clay ..----------.. ..................
Collier.. -----............----... ----
d .......--------------------.............
Duval ................--------------.......
Escambia----------------------------
Franklin ..--------------------------
Gadsden.---------..---------..-...-

Gilndisto ---------------------------
Gilehrto......---...................



Hernando -------------------..-....
Hillsborough -- -
Jackson... ............
Leon..........------...--...............
Levy --- -----------------------
Maner .-..---- -.....----.-.---..--..
Manatee....
Marion ..............---------------.------.....
Monroe...........................----------------------
Okalos ..--------------....................--
Orange .-..........................---------------
Palm Beach .--..--............-...-
Pinella-------..........................----
Polk ..............---------------------------...
Putnam ..--....------------.... ---...
Santa Rosa---------------.--- ----
St Lucie.......----------..----------.....
Sumter..........--------------------.............------.
Suwannee -....--...---..---..............
Taor................-----------.-----------.------......
Vounta .......---------......-----.......--
Waton -ui-----------------------------
UT dky trbu----------- ----------.------
Walton ......--....................
Trindistributed .... ....


Total -------------... ------................ 800,042 843,781
W Withheld to avoid disclosing Individual company confidential data Included with "Undistributed."
The following counties are not listed because no production was reported Baker Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie,
inagler, Hardee, Highlands, Holmes Indian River, Jefferson, Lafayette, Liberty, Madlson Martin, Nassau,
Okeechobee. Osceola. Pasco, St. John's, Sarasota, Seminole, Union, Wakulla, and Washington.
Includes value of petroleum and natural gas from Escambla County.
Includes value of natural gas (1970), natural las liquids (1970), and counties indicated by symbol W.
Data may not add to totals shown because ofindependent rounding.

Table 3.-Indicators of Florida business activity


1970 1971 P Uthange1
...... .... .. p e rc e n t
Employment and labor force, annual average!
Total nonagricultural employment-..--------......--..-....----thousands_. 2,1 ,.1 2,208.7 +2.6
Manufacturing -----...----.............------------.......------------...------.. do.. 821.0 810.0 -1.8
Mining ............................................ do...---- 88 9.2 +7.0
Construction --------------------------------------.... ....... .do. 1718 1i.8 -8.2
Other .-- ---------------------------------.....---do.... 1,060.1 1,717.2 +4.1
Poisonal income:
Total --------- ----.............. ...._ ...........mimllUions..t $18,646 $18,646 +22.1
PeCon r capital ----....... ...................... .... $8,884 $81547 +0.4
Construction activity:
Housitn units authorized --------------...-... ........----..---... 18 198 17 944 +8.8
Value otnonresidential construction-----------------.... ...... mllo. 88.0 $819.0 +81.6
rm market receipts--------------------------..........................--.........-----do.... $1 2.4 NA NA
xporttrade........................------------------------------------. ..do.- $111. $1,1818 +1.4
Import tradeU& ......-..... .............. .... 988.0 ,11788, + 1.4
0 Preliminary. NA Not available.
Includes transportation and public utilities; services; wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and
real estate; and government.
Sources: employment and Earnings; Highlights of U.8, Exports and Imports; Survey of Current Builnesal
US. Bureau of Mines.


1970
$1,885
W
W
11,930
4
W
1,941
W

85.184
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
20,041
W
1,487
W
W
W
W
2.682
816
W
W
W
W
140.698
W
W
2.444
W
W
W
W
W
81,968


1971 Minerals produced in 1971 in order of value
$1,598 Stone.
94 ad and gravel
W Natural gas liquds
W Stone, sand and gravel.
13,827 Stone, alrconium concentrates, sand and
gravel.
W Sand and gravel.
W Band and gravel, stone.
2,274 Stonej elay phosphate roek.
W Ilmenite, sd and gravel, staurolite, clays,
kyanite,
W Petroleum, stone, natural gas.
55,022 Cement, stone, sand and gravel.
W and and gravel, clays.
4 Peat, sand and gravel.
11,808 Clays.
W Phosphate rock,
W Magnesium compounds, lime,
W Phosphate rock,
W Petroleum, sand and gravel, natural gas,
W stone, lime.
W Cement, stone, sand and gravel, peat.
W Stone, sand and gravel,
1,000 Sand and gravel.
W Stone, petroleum, natural gas.
409 Sand and gravel,
W Stone.
2.6884 Stone, clays, sand and gravel, phosphate
rock.
W Stone.
W Sand and gravel,
W nd aand Rravel, peat.
1,088 Stone, Sand and gravel.
W B0o.
150,726 Phosphate rock sand and gravel, peat.
W Sand and gravel, clay, peat.
t W Petroleum, natural gan.
1,189 Sand and gravel, stone, peat.
W Stone, lime, peat.
W Stone.
W Do.
W Sand and gravel.
101,816


---- -I







THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA


01945 amIS 195 1.60 196B 1970
1945 1960 1956 1960 1965 1970


Figure 1.-Value of phosphate rock, stone, and
in Florida.


total value of mineral production


Table 4,-Worktime and injury experience in the mineral industries

Average Man- Man- Number of Injury rates per
men Days day hours Injuries million man-hours
Year and Industry working active worked worked
daily (thou- (thou- Fatal Non- Fre- Severity
sands) sands) fatal quency
1970s
Peat ................... 88 247 9 78 .. 1 18.66 96
Metal_.....-.............=. 149 868 68 427
Nonetal......- .... ------ 8,628 809 1,090 8,720 1 48 6.05 852
Band and gravel--.......... 466 264 118 1 102 87 88.69 618
Stone__ ... ........... 2,462 289 712 6,266 8 121 19.79 8,460
Total .................... 6,88 299 1,982 16,687 4 202 12.42 1,790
19711 P
Metal ....-----... 146 864 68 422 -.
Nonmietal I .. ........., 8,626 814 1,106 8,862 i 78 8.9i 1,422
an ad graveL............ 560 248 140 1,284 .. 87 28.81 1,804
Stone................ -- ..... 2,840 807 871 7,688 6 188 22.48 6,777
Total.......... .....-. 7,670 807 2,169 18,102 7 278 15.74 8,198
Preliminary.
Data may not add to totals shown because of Independent rounding.
Beginning In 1971 data concerning peat operations are Included In the nonmetals Industry.


1975





MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1971


of oil and 14 million cubic feet of natural
gas per day. This was the maximum
capacity of the separation and treatment
plant which removes hydrogen sulfide from
oil and gas and converts it to elemental
sulfur. By mid-1972 production will
increase to 26,000 barrels of oil, 26 million
cubic feet of natural gas, and 170 tons of
sulfur each day.
Total production from the Jay field is
estimated to increase to 60,000 to 70,000
barrels of oil daily in 1972.
Legislation and Government Programs.
-The Environmental Protection Agency
awarded a research and development grant
to Harfluor, Inc. of Tampa to develop the
"Hartig Pond Closing System" to recover
phosphates and fluorine from phosphate
plant waste effluent water. The grant of
approximately $500,000 would ascertain if
the process could successfully recover an
estimated 275,000 tons per year of fluorine
from phosphate chemical plants.
The Bureau of Mines Tuscaloosa Metal-
lurgy Research Laboratory, Tuscaloosa,
Ala.. worked to develop economic methods
of beneficiating low-grade (47 to 62 per-
cent BPL) pebble-concretionary Florida
phosphate ore.
The State of Florida enacted a severance
tax on the extraction of "solid minerals."
The law is designed to encourage conserva-
tion and land reclamation with tax credits


to promote this work. The law specifies a
3 percent tax during 1971-1973, 4 percent
during 1974-1975, and 5 percent after June
30, 1975.
In July the Florida Attorney General
filed suit in U.S. District Court, Washing-
ton, D.C., charging that the Secretary of
the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture,
the Director of the Bureau of Land Man-
agement, and the Chief of the Forest Serv-
ice had committed "unconstitutional and
illegal action" by approving phosphate
prospecting permits in the Osceola
National Forest. The court was asked to
issue an injunction to prevent the issuance
of permits to mine in the forests and to
order Federal agencies to undertake thor-
ough ecological and economic studies
on the effect of phosphate mining in the
Osceola National Forest.
Secretary Morton placed a 1-year mora-
torium on oil drilling in the Ocala
National Forest.
The State of Florida enacted a 5-percent
corporate income tax on income in excess
of $5,000 per year.
A three-judge Federal Court ruled that
Florida's oil spill prevention and pollution
control law was unconstitutional. The
court contended that the State law
intrudes into maritime matters which the
U.S. Constitution reserves as exclusive Fed-
eral domain.


REVIEW BY MINERAL COMMODITIES


NONMETALS
Nonmetals represented 92 percent of the
value of the State's total mineral produc-
tion in 1971. The principal nonmetals pro-
duced were. in decreasing order of value,
phosphate rock. stone, cement. sand and
gravel. and clays.
Cement.-Shipments of portland cement
and masonry cement increased compared
with 1970. Portland and masonry cement
was produced in four plants. The average
mill value of portland and masonry
cement was $4.23 and $3.80 per barrel,
respectively. The yearend stocks of port-
land cement totaled 571,759 barrels. Nine-
ty-two percent of portland cement ship-
ments were Type I (general use) and Type
II (moderate heat). The remainder was
Type III (high early strength) and water-
proof cement.


Portland and masonry cement consump-
tion in the State was 20.9 million barrels
and 2.0 million barrels respectively. The
distribution pattern of portland cement
from the State's plants was as follows: 52
percent in ready-mix concrete, 17 percent
in concrete products, 17 percent in building
materials, 12 percent to contractors, and
the balance to miscellaneous applications.
The raw materials from which portland
cement was manufactured were limestone,
clay and shale, sand, gypsum, slag, and
iron-bearing materials. The plants burned
natural gas and fuel oil and used 291.3
million kilowatt hours of electrical energy.
Medusa Cement Co., Divison of Medusa
Corp., acquired the Penn-Dixie Corp. dis-
tribution terminals at Jacksonville and
Orlando, Fla. General Portland Cement
Co. completed new facilities at their
Tampa plant to receive and use aragonite





THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA


which is dredged from ocean deposits in
the Bahamas and barged to the plant. The
kilns at the company's Dade County plant
were modified to increase production 20
percent.
Clays.-Clay production and value
increased over 1970 levels.
Fuller's earth production increased 3
percent in quantity and its value increased
5 percent over those of 1970. This was the
14th consecutive year that Florida's fuller's
earth production was the highest in the
Nation. Three companies operated four
mines in Gadsden County and one com-
pany operated a mine in Marion County.
Fuller's earth was used for fillers, absorb-
ers, insecticides and fungicides, drilling
mud, filter aids, and other purposes.
Kaolin production increased but value
declined compared with that of 1970.
Kaolin was produced in Putnam County
for manufacturing whiteware, pottery, and
wall tile.
Production of common clay for inaniuifac-
turing cement, lightweight aggregate, and
building bricks increased a significant 31
percent and its value increased 32 percent.
Four companies in Citrus, Clay, Escambia,
and Gadsden Counties produced cornmon
.clay.
Gypsum--t-ffrp6rted crude gypsum was
processed into various building products at
two plants in Duval County and one in
Hillsborough County. The three plants
used nine kettles, one rotary kiln, and one
Holoflite unit to calcine gypsum and four
board machines to manufacture gypsum
products.
A total of 518,000 short tons of calcined
gypsum was produced, an increase of 18
percent over 1970 production. The value
of the production was approximately $5.8
million, an 11-percent increase over 1970
value.
Crude gypsum was imported from mines
in Nova Scotia, Canada.
Kyanite.-The kyanite-sillimanite recov-
ered from a heavy minerals separation plant
represents approximately-2-percent of the
national production. The production from
the Trail Ridge Plant of E. I. duPont- de
Nemours & Co. increased 53 percent in 1971;
vatue-was-62-percent greater. The mixture
was marketed to refractory manufacturers.
Lime.-Quicklime and lime hydrate sold
or used totaled 159,000 short tons and was


valued at nearly $3.0 million. Compared
with 1970 figures, the quantity decreased 5
percent but value increased 5 percent.
Basic Magnesia, Inc., Gulf County;
Chemical Lime, Inc., Hernando County;
and Dixie Lime and Stone Co., Sumter
County produced lime for paper and pulp
industries, recovery of magnesia from sea
water, construction, waste neutralization,
water treatment, and other chemical proc-
esses. Florida lime consumption was
approximately double its production.
Magnesia.-The Basic Magnesia, Inc.,
plant, Port St. Joe, Gulf County, produced
both caustic calcined magnesia and refrac-
tory magnesia from sea water. The design
capacity of the plant is 60,000 net tons
per year. Production increased 46 percent
from 1970 levels and value increased 24
percent. This was a significant improve-
ment over the decline of shipments and
value of magnesia in 1970.
Perlite.-From ore mined in Colorado
and New Mexico, four companies produced
17,547 short tons of expanded perlite com-
pared with 14,390 short tons in 1970. Of
the production nearly 17,000 short tons
valued at $909,000 were sold or used. Sales
and value increased 16 and 6 percent,
respectively, over 1970 levels. Plants were
located in Dade, Duval, Escambia, and
Indian River Counties.
The expanded perlite was principally
used in plaster aggregates, formed prod-
ucts, and concrete aggregates with minor
quantities consumed filling masonry cavities
and conditioning soil.
Phosphate Rock.-Production of marketa-
ble phosphate rock, including production
from the one producing plant in North
Carolina, increased over 1970 levels. Phos-
phate rock was the major part of the min-
eral production and value of all minerals
produced in the State.
It is necessary to conceal the production
from a single operation in North Carolina
and therefore it is combined with Florida's
data. The combined marketable production
from both States was 32.2 million short
tons valued at $168 million. This repre-
sents approximately 83 percent of the total
national production. This was a 3 percent
increase above the 31.3 million tons pro-
duced in 1970 and 6-percent increase in
value. Marketable production sold or used
totaled 33.2 million tons valued at $174.1
million a 6.6-percent increase from the 31.1






MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1971


million tons sold or used and a 10-percent
increase in value from that of 1970.
Agricultural applications consumed 20.9
million tons or 63 percent of the total.
These included ordinary superphosphate,
triple superphosphate, wet-process phos-
phoric acid. direct application to the soil,
animal feed supplements, and fertilizer
filler.
Electric furnace operations to produce
elemental phosphorus and phosphoric acid
for industrial applications consumed
approximately I percent of the total phos-
phate rock.
Production of crude dry ore in Florida
and North Carolina was 118.1 million
short tons and the PaOt content was 16.6
million short tons.
Land pebble phosphate rock was pro-
duced by 10 companies from 17 open-pit
mines in three Florida counties.
Soft phosphate rock was produced by
five companies operating six open-pit
mines in three counties in Florida. Total
soft rock sold or used was 20,000 short
tons reporting 4,000 short tons of PaOs and
valued at $141,000. Applications were
direct soil fertilization and animal feed
supplements.
American Cyanamid Co. and Kerr-
McG;ec Corp. formed a partnership to
mine and process phosphate rock. Accord-
ing to the published agreement. American
Cyanamid Co. will continue to operate the
mine and plant under the new company
name. Brewster Phosphates, and retain 70
percent of the production. The new com-
pany will. in the future, mine the exten-
sive ore reserves that were held by Kerr-
McGee near the Haynsworth mine,
Bradley. Fla.
American Cyanamid closed its fertilizer
plant at Bradley in April 1971 and
arranged to have Freeport Minerals Corp.
produce phosphoric acid from rock pro.
duced by Brewster Phosphates. One-half of
the capacity. 600,000 short tons per
year of equivalent PsO2 as phosphoric acid,
of the Freeport Minerals Corp., Uncle
.Sam. La.. plant was made available for
this purpose.
Brewster Phosphates purchased Mon-
santo Co's diammonium phosphate plant at
Luling. La. Monsanto Co. will continue to
operate the plant.


CF Industries, Inc., Chicago, Ill.,
acquired Central Phosphates, Inc., Plant
City, a fertilizer manufacturing firm. CF
Industries, Inc., a cooperative organization,
was formerly Central Farmers Fertilizer
Co., manufacturers and distributors of
chemical fertilizers.
Cities Service Co. started construction on
a $4 million superphosphate plant at its
Tampa facility that was scheduled for
completion in 1972. A $8 million phos-
phoric acid concentration plant with prov-
sions for recovery of hydrofluosilicic acid
was scheduled for completion in 1972. The
State of Florida filed a $20 million damage
suit against Cities Service Co. after a slime
pond dam failed on December 3, 1971.
The waste slimes, estimated to vary from 1
to 2 billion gallons, spilled into Whidden
Creek and flowed into the Peace River.
The fish kill and damage to the environ-
ment of the stream was significant. The
Polk County Circuit Court questioned the
stability of other Cities Service Co. dams
and suspended their mining operations
until the Court was assured that the slime
pond dams would not fail. The injunction
was lifted on January 28, 1972.
In August 1971, Mobil Chemical Co.
started operating a new mine and benefi-
ciation plant near Nichols that is designed
to produce 1.5 million short tons per year
of marketable rock.
International Minerals & Chemical Corp.
closed its Achan washing plant.
In 1971, Agrico Chemical Co., a division
of Continental Oil Co., shut down two of
its three electric furnaces at Pierce, Fla.
Farmland Industries completed a new
225,000-short-ton-per-year PaOa equivalent
phosphoric acid plant near Bartow, Fla.
Sand and Gravel.-Sand and gravel pro-
duction was 23.2 million tons valued at
$18.8 million. The 1971 production and
value were significantly higher than the
1970 production of 12.5 million tons
valued at $12.3 million reflecting the
effects of increased survey coverage and

increased construction activity. Charlotte,
Dade, Polk, St. Lucie, and Lake Counties
accounted for 78 percent of the total sand
and gravel output. Ninety-one percent of
the production was hauled by trucks and
the remaining 9 percent was transported
by rail. The sand and gravel was princi-
pahy consumed by construction industries.







THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA


A new plant, constructed near Plant
City, Fla., to produce glass sand, started
operating in 1971. Designed to operate at
125 tons per hour, the Edgar Plastic
Kaolin Co. wet process plant utilizes a
dredge, cyclones to deslime, scrubbers,
flotation when necessary, classification, and
a rotary dryer in the flowsheet.
Staurolite.-This complex silicate of iron
and aluminum is recovered rom the
ilmenite production at the Highland and
Trail Ridge plants of E. I. duPont de
N'emours -&.Co., Clay County. Commercial
quantities of staurolite are not produced
in other States. Production declined 4 per-
cent from 1970 levels and the value
increased 2 percent.
Stone.-Crushed limestone production
was 40.5 million tons and was valued at
$59.3 million. Tonnage and value increased
1 and 8 percent, respectively, over 1970
levels. Limestone was produced from 65
quarries in 15 counties compared with 90
quarries in 16 counties in 1970. Dade, Her-
nando, and Broward Counties were, in the


order noted, the leading limestone-produc-
ing counties in the State, supplying 70 per-
cent of the total tonnage and value. Nine
companies operated 10 quarries and their
combined production represented 40 per-
cent of the State's production and 38 per-
cent of the total value.
Seventy-nine percent of the crushed
limestone was hauled by truck, 15 percent
by rail, 0.6 percent was transported on
water, and 5.4 percent of the total was
moved by an unspecified method.
Oystershells were processed in three
counties for road-base material and a
minor quantity was sold for poultry grit.
The production and value of oyster shells
were 1.2 million tons and $2.6 million. This
was a decrease of 48 percent in tonnage
and 38 percent in value below 1970 levels.
One company in Manatee County pro-
duced dimension stone for decorative pur-
poses.
Shands & Baker, Inc. started construction
on a new crushed limestone plant south of
Fort Myers. The plant will produce 500


Table 5.-Sand and gravel sold or used by producers, by county
(T'housand short tons and thousand dollars)
1970 1971
County
Number Quantity Value Number Quantity Value
of mines of mines
Bay-...- .... .... ... ------ 2 W W 8 87 $94
Broward .. ----.--. ------ 744 $627 2 W W
Calhoun-........-...---.......----. 1 4 4 2 W W
Escambla.-..---..-- ------------- -5 56 611 421 5 685 842
Jackson --------.---------------... 1 17 17 1 W W
Lake..,... -------- ..-.. ------ 65 1,806 1,487 6 1,848 1,600
Orange--...- ---.--------..-..-- 7 W W 1 248 181
Palm Beach -----..-------------------- 1 60 80 1 62 81
Polk --....--..---------- -- ..... 9 8,255 8,423 12 8,187 8,665
Putnam-....-.................... ---------- ------- 4 488 574 4 W W
Undistributed .- -. ---......... 25 6,648 5,722 19 17,221 12,975
Total .. .... .... 68 12,482 12,254 66 28,228 18,886
W Withheld to avoid disclosing individual company confidential data; included with "Undistributed."
Includes Brevard, Charlotte, Clay Dade, Franklin Gadsden (1970) dlades (1970), Hendry, Hillsborough,
Leon, Marion, Okaloosa (1970), Pinellas, Putnam (1971), St. Lucle, Voluala (1970), and Walton Counties.
I Data may not add to totals shown because of independent rounding.

Table 6.-Sand and gravel sold or used by producers, by use
(Thousand short tons and thousand dollars)


Building sand .. ............ ...........................
Paving sand- -.-- -...----..- ---------... ---------.
Paving gravel .........-.......................-.......-
Other sand and gravel .................................


1970
Quantity Value
8,288 $7,700
471 266
2 15
8,721 4,278


1971
Quantity Value
8,687 $8,764
1,276 1,280
499 775
12,767 8,018


Total sand and gravel ............................ 12,482 12,254 28,228 18,886
SIncludes gla, molding (1970), blast, engine, filtration, chemical (1970), fill, railroad ballast (1971), and
other sands, and structural, fill (1970), and miscellaneous gravel (1971).
2 Data may not add to totals shown because of Independent rounding.


- ~-~-







MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1971


Table 7.-Crushed limestone sold or used by producers, by county
(Thousand short tons and thousand dollars)
1970 1971
County
Number of Quantity Value Number of Quantity Value
quarries quarries
Alachua .--.-------------------------- 4 1,744 $1,885 4 1,817 $1,596
Broward .--------.----------- ----- 16 6,924 11,803 16 6,989 10,661
Collier...----..--....-- ..-- ....--- 6 1,679 2,502 3 W W
Dade ------..-----.---..-----..... 14 11,184 18,856 12 18,596 18,570
Hernando -...-- --..--...--.....--.. 6 7,719 18,023 5 7,657 12,480
Levy ................-----------------------............----------. 2 249 166 2 115 W
Marion -..--------------------- ----- 10 924 2,121 5 844 W
Monroe ...-------.--.----------------............ 2 917 615 1 W W
Palm Beach ...----.---- ..-.-- .-------...------... 2 W W 5 788 1,007
Sumter ---..---------...--..-.--.-----------...... 8 2,604 2,456 8 8,817 8,782
Undistributed I -----------.-------.......-...---- 25 6,816 8,810 9 5,441 11,222
Total 2 ---------------------... ..........-. 90 40,210 55,176 65 40,468 59,819
W Withheld to avoid disclosing individual company confidential data- included with "Undistributed."
Includes Brevard (1971), Charlotte (1970), Citrus, Lee, St. Lucie (1970), Suwannee, and Taylor Counties.
and counties indicated by symbol W.
Data may not add to totals shown because of independent rounding.

Table 8.-Crushed limestone sold or used by producers, by use

(Thousand short tons and thousand dollars)
1970 1971
Use ----- --
Quantity Value Quantity Value


Bituminous aggregate ..---------------------.-------------
Concrete aggregate ...-----------....--. ------..-------.
Dense graded road base stone ...............................
Other roadatone --------------------------------------....................
Unspecifled aggregate and roadstone ........--------.......
Agricultural purposes I ----------.-.......-------...--..
Cement and lime manufacture. --------------------------
Fill .................................................-
Railroad ballast ..---.---..--- ...... .-.............
Stone sand -. ..- --.--. -- ..-.. ...... .. ...
Other uses '.---------------..... .. -.-......---..- ... .


W
9,824
15,282
2,820
2,866
375
W
3,878
120
W
5,600


W
$16,802
20,898
4,214
2,788
1,853
W
2,651
165
W
7,806


2 721
9 275
15,552
1 ,562
2,911
502
3,761
999
W
2,678
501


$5.104
15,714
21,706
2,098
8,072
1,782
4,128
776
W
8,953
1,041


Total --------....--...........-----------------...----------.........----......... 40,210 55,176 40,468 59,819
W Withheld to avoid disclosing individual company confidential data; included with "Other uses."
I Data include stone used for macadam and surface treatment aggregate.
2 Data include agricultural limestone and stone used in poultry grit.
Data include stone used for railroad ballast and other filler; 1970 data also Include stone used in asphalt
filler, and chemical stone.
Data may not add to totals shown because of independent rounding.


tons per hour of washed and sized stone.
Reserves at this location were estimated to
be sufficient to permit operation for at
least 50 years.
Sulfur.--Oil and associated natural gas
from new fields in Escambia and Santa
Rosa Counties contain hydrogen sulfide
that is separated from the hydrocarbons
and converted to elemental sulfur. A total
of 4.059 long tons of sulfur were produced
and 3,861 long tons were sold. This is the
first sulfur recovered in the State of Flor-
ida. As additional plant modules are
brought on stream, sulfur recovery will
increase proportionately.
Vermiculite.-Exfoliated vermiculite was
produced at six plants in Dade, Duval,
Hillsborough, and Palm Beach Counties.


Compared with 1970, tonnage was lower
but value was greater.

METALS
Ferroalloys.-Two companies produced
ferrophosphorus as a byproduct of elemen-
tal phosphorus manufacture. The value of
ferroalloys is not included in the total
State mineral production value.
Rare-Earth Minerals.-Rare-earth miner-
als were not produced in the State during
this year, however, Titanium Enterprises
was constructing a mine and mill to
extract monazite from a heavy mineral
sand deposit near Green Cove Springs.
Titanium Concentrates.-Both shipments
and value of ilmenite concentrates






THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA


Table 9.-Oil and gas well drilling completions, by county

Proved field wells I Exploratory wells Total
County
Oil Gas Dry Oil Gas Dry Number Footage
of wells
Bradford........ .. .. 1 1 8,171
Charlotte ....... 2 2 26,482
Collier--.-------........ 2 8 86,181
Hendry ..---------. 5 .. 2 7 81,196
Jefferson -- -- --- 1 1 7,034
Lee-------------....1 -- -- -- -- 1 11,875
Okaloosa -- -- -- -- 1 1 15,008
Orange--------- .-- -- -- -- 1 1 7,119
Santa Rosa. 1 .- -- 1 2 82,479
Taylor-...-------- -- -- -- -- 1 1 7,036
Walton...------..-- -- -- -- -- 1 1 12,840
Total----- 8 18 21 289,821
1 Development wells as defined by American Petroleum Institute.
Source: American Petroleum Institute.


decreased 9 percent from 1970 levels,
reflecting a continuing reduction in
demand for titanium from the aerospace
industry.
American Cyanamid Co. and Union
Camp Corp. .formed a new company, Tita-\
nium Enterprises, to mine titanium and
other 1eavy minerals near Green Cove
Springs. The deposit is a typical ancient
beach and formation and will be mined
with conventional dredging equipment and
processed\with wet gravity, magnetic, and
high-tension .techniques to produce ilmen-
ite, rutile, leucoxene, zircon, and monazite.
Production was scheduled in 1972.
Zircon Concentrates.-Shipments of
zircon concentrates increased 14 percent
above .1970 levels. The value of the ship-
ments increased 7 percent over 1970. values,
but/was less than 1969 value. E.'I. duPont
dtie emours & Co. recovered these concen-
trats from ilmenite production at their
Highla hd-_d_-T-raiil Ridge plants, Clay
County.

MINERAL FUELS
Mineral fuels produced were natural gas,
crude petroleum, and peat.
Natural Gas.-Florida did not produce
hydrocarbons until 1943, when Humble
Oil and Refining Co. brought in the Sun-
niland field in Collier County in southern
Florida. Casing-head gas is extracted from
five fields in southern Florida. The gas,
which has a gas-oil ratio of 100 to 1,
is used to operate heater treaters and is
not of sufficient quantity to market com-
mercially. The Jay field in the northwest-
crn part of the State was discovered in


1970, and the National Petroleum Council
estimates 13 trillion cubic feet of gas
reserves. The 1971 marketed production of
natural gas from Florida was 903 million
cubic feet valued at $270,000 for an aver-
age wellhead value of 29.9 cents per thou-
sand cubic feet. The production and value
figures of State natural gas liquids are con-
cealed.
Peat.-Peat production increased from
46,000 short tons valued at $304,000 in
1970 to 57,000 short tons valued at
$412,000 in 1971. These were increases of
24 and 36 percent in production and
value, respectively. Ten operations pro-
duced humus, moss, and reed-sedge peat in
seven counties; however, two-thirds of the
production was from St. Lucie, Putnam,
and Orange Counties. The majority of
sales were in bulk form, with 60 percent
sold for packing flowers, plants, and
shrubs, 20 percent sold for general soil
improvement, and 20 percent sold for
earthworm culture and as an ingredient
for potting soils.
Petroleum.-Crude petroleum production
increased from approximately 3 million
barrels of oil in 1970 to 5,347,000 barrels
in 1971. Although this was a significant
increase of 78 percent, it is probable that
with current and planned surface facilities,
State production of crude oil will double
in 1972. This reflects the development of
the new field in the Panhandle of Florida.
The cumulative oil production during the
period 1943 through 1971 was approxi-
mately 24.7 million barrels. According
to the American Petroleum Institute,
Florida's petroleum reserves are estimated







10 MINERALS YI


at 204 million barrels. For comparison, the
Alaskan reserve estimate is 10 billion bar-
rels.
Eight proved field wells and IS explora-
tory dry wells were completed. The wells
totaled 239,821 feet.
Because of recent challenges to the 1945


EARBOOK, 1971


initial legislation and the regulatory code
developed from this and subsequent legis-
lation for the State's oil and gas industry,
the State has been working for the past 2
years to revise the rules and regulations.
The new code is expected to become effec-
tive early in 1972.


Table 10.-Crude oil production in 1971, by county
(Thousand 42-gallon barrels)
County Production Principal fields In 1971, in order of production
Collier ........... ............. 695 Sunniland, Lake Traflord.
Hendry.e.-..-.-...- 8...-.-.-.--. 3,787 Weat Sunoco-Felda, Sunoco-Felda,
Le .... .........................- 176 Lehigh Acres.
Santa Rosa & Escambia .............. 690 Jay,Mt. Carmel.
Total.--..------.--.. --..----- 5,847

Source: Florida Department of Natural Resources.

Table II.-Principal producers


Commodity and company
Cepment, portland and masonry:
General Portland Cement Co....
Lehigh Portland Cement Co.....-
Mauls Industries. Inc...........
Clayn:
Fuller's earth:
Drsser Industries. Inc ......
Engelhard Minerals &
Chemical Corp.
Floridin Co--......---....
Mid-Florida Mining ... ..
Kaolin:
Edgar Plastlc Kaolin Co....
Miscellaneous:
Appalachee Correctional
Institute.
Blekerstaff Clay Products
Co., Inc.
Florida Solite Co ...........
General Portland Cement
Co.
Gypsum, calcined:
Kaiser Gypsum Co.. Inc_......
National Gypeum Co ... ....
U.S. Gypsum Co...........-..
Limne: Primary:
Basic Magnesia, Inc ...........
Chemical Lime. Ine.............
Dixie Lime & Stone Co........
Magneiutm compounds:
Basic Magneia. Inc............
Posat:
M.LS. Industries.............
F. E. Stearns Peat..............
Truler Peat Co ...............


Address

Box 1528
Tampa, Fla. 88601
718 Hamilton St.
Allentown, Pa. 18105
100 Biscayne Blvd.
Miami, Fla. 881112

Box 6504
Houston, Tex. 77005
Menlo Park
Edison, N.J. 08817
Berkley Sprn1,
W. Va. 35411
Box 68-F
Lowell, Fla. 82668
Edgar, Fla. 82049............
Box 127
Chattahoochee, Fla. 82824
Box 1178
Columbus, Ga. 81902
Box 297
Green Cove Springs, Fla. 82048
Box 1528
Tampa, Fla. 883001
800 Lakeside Drive
Oakland, Calif. 94612
826 Delaware Ave.
Buffalo N.Y. 14202
101 S. Wacker Drive
Chicago, 111. 60600
Box 160
Port St. Joe, Fla. 82456
Box 260
Ocala, Fla. 82670
Box 910
Ocala, Fla. 82670
Box 160
Port St. Joe, Fla. 82456
Drawer 667
Stuart, Fla. 88494
Rt. 1 Box 847-I
Valrico, Fla. 88594
Box 86
Florahome, Fla. 8U686


Type of activity

2 plants.......
Plant.........
....do........


Open pit mine. -
2 open pit
mines.
Open pit mine..
.... do.,.......

.... do-........------
....do........
Open pit mine
and plant.
....do .......
Open pit mine..

Plant.........
... do........
....do........

....do........
....do........
....do_.......


County

Dade and
Hillsborough.
Dade.
Do.


Gadsden.
Do.
Do.
Marion.

Putnam.
Gadaden.
Escambla.
Clay.
Citrus.

Duval.
Hillsborough.
Duval.

Gulf.
Hernando.
Sumtor.


....do........ Gulf,

Bog........... St. Lucie.
Bog.......... Hillsborough.
Bog........... Putnam.







THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF FLORIDA


Table 11.-Principal producers-Continued


Commodity and company
Peat-Continued
Zellwood Peat Co...............
Perlite, expanded:
Airlite Processing Corp..........
Armstrong Cork Co-.............
Chemrock Corp................
W. R. Grace & Co-............-
Petroleum:
Humble Oil & Refining Co ......-
Sun Oil Company --------------
Phosphate rock:
Land-pebble:
Agrico Chemical Co --------
Borden, In....---------------
Brewster Phosphates -----....
Cities Service Co........----------
W. R. Grace & Co...------......
International Minerals &
Chemical Corp.
Mobil Oil Corp.,
Chemical Div.
Occidental Petroleum Corp.,
Suwannee River Phosphate
Div.
Swift Agric Chemical
Corp.
U.S.8. Agri-Chemicals, Inc. -
Phosphorus, elemental:
Agrico Chemical Co ............
Mobil Chemical Co.............------
Sand and gravel:
General Development Corp-----......

E. R. Jahna Industries, Inc...------
Orange Sand Company.---------
Seminole Rock Products, Inc.. -
Standard Sand & Silica Co......
Staurollte: E. I. du Pont de
Nemours & Co., Inc.
Stone:
Limestone crushed:
Dixie Lime & Stone
Company.
Florida Rock Products
Corp.
General Development Corp..
Houdaille-Duval-Wright
Co.
Maulo Industries, Inc----.......
Oystershell:
Bay Dredging & Construe-
tion Co.
Benton & Company, Inc.. .
Houdallle-Duval-Wright
Co.
Radcliff Materials, Inc......


Address


Box 555
Zellwood, Fla. 82798
Rt. 8 Box 417
Vero Beach, Fla. 82960
Box 851
Pensacola, Fla. 82502
End of Osage St.
Nashville, Tenn. 87208
62 Whittemore Ave.
Cambridge, Mass. 02140
Box 2024
Houston, Tex. 77001
Box 2880
Dallas, Tex. 75221

Box 8166
Tulsa, Okla. 74101
Box 790
Plant City, Fla. 88566
Wayne, N.J. 07470--.....---...
Box 8269
Tampa, Fla. 88601
Box 471
Bartow Fla. 88880
Box 867
Bartow. Fla. 88880
Box 811
Nichols, Fla. 88868
Box 800
White Springs, Fla. 82096
Box 208
Bartow, Fla. 88880
Box 867
Ft. Meade, Fla. 88841
5050 Poplar Ave.
Memphis, Tenn. 88117
Box 811
Nichols, Fla. 88868
1111 South Bayshore Dr.
Miami, Fla. 88181
First & East Tillman
Lake Wales, Fla. 88868
Box 4667
Jacksonville, Fla. 82204
8100 N.W. 14th St.
Miami, Fla. 88166
Box 85
Davenport, Fla. 88887
Du Pont Bldg., D-10084
Wilmington, Del. 19898

Box 910
Ocala, Fla. 82670
Box 4667
Jacksonville Fla. 82201
1111 South hayshore Dr.
Miami, Fla. 88166
Box 8088 Seminole Annex
Ft. Lauderdale, Fla. 88810
Box 2601
Hialeah, Fla. 88012
Box 1484
Tampa, Fla. 88601
Box 1847
St. PeterasbrK, Fla. 88781
Box 1688
Jacksonville, Fla. 82201
Box 1288
Mobile, Ala. 86601


Type of activity County


Bog...........

Plant.........
--- do .....--------
---....do ......-------
---....-do-------........-

Sunniland field.
Sunoco-Felda
field.

8 open pit
mines.
Open pit mie -
---.... do.--------
---....do-........
-....do-........
8 open pit
mines.
2 open pit
mines.
Open pit mine.


Orange.

Indian River.
Escambla.
Duval.
Dade.

Collier.
Collier and
Hendry.

Polk.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Hamilton.


2 open pit Polk.
mines.
--...-- do -------- Do.


8 electric
furnaces.
Electric
furnace.
8 open pit
mines.
Open pit mine-
--..- do .......-
--....do-........
Open pit mine.
Plant.........


Do.
Do.

Brevard,
Charlotte,
St. Lucie.
Lake and Polk.
Lake.
Dade.
Polk.
Clay.


5 quarries..... Jackson, Levy,
Marion,
Sumter.
2 quarries..... Hernando and
Suwannee.
8 quarries -..... Charlotte, St.
Lucie.
5 quarries -..... Alachua,
Broward,
Dade.
2 quarries-..... Broward and
Dade.
Dredge........ Hillaborough.
....do........ Pinellas.
---....- do --..---.... Duval.
....do.......---. Walton.






MINERALS YEARBOOK, 1971


Table 11.-Principal producern-Contilnued

Commodity and company Addirea Type of activity County
Ttantum eaneontrat e:
11. 1. du Pont de Nomoura & Du Pont Bld%. D=10084 2 dredge and Clay.
Co., lnc. Wilmington, Dol. 19898 plans.
Vermioautte etxfoitatd:
W. R. bnce & Company =.. ... 62 Whlttemore Ave. 4 plant ..- Dad@ Duval,
Cambridg@, Maa. 03140 Hllleborough,
Palm Beah.,
Vorltte Company ============== Box 11885 Plant=.==.... Hillaborough.
Tampa, Fla. 88610
Schmelsor Salo* Aocilation, 8519 Cantrall Road do .... Do.
aIn. Little Rock, Ark. 73807
Zieonium onoeontrate;
8. I. du Pont de Nomourv Du Pont Blda. D=10084 .do Clay.
& Co.. Inc. Wilmington, Dcl. 19898













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