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 Copyright
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Abstract and introduction
 Public supply
 Irrigation
 Self-supplied industrial water...
 Thermoelectric power
 Consumptive use
 Summary of all uses
 Trends in water use, 1950-70
 Selected references


FGS



Estimated use of water in Florida, 1970 ( FGS: Information circular 83 )
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 Material Information
Title: Estimated use of water in Florida, 1970 ( FGS: Information circular 83 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Information circular 83 )
Physical Description: 31 p. : illus., maps. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Pride, R. W
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Natural Resources, Division of Interior Resources, Bureau of Geology
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1973
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Water consumption -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Water-supply -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by R. W. Pride.
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 30-31.
General Note: "Prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Bureau of Geology ... Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District, Southwest Florida Water Management District, and other state, local, and federal agencies."
Funding: Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000847709
notis - AEE3848
lccn - 74622738
System ID: UF00001143:00001

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Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Abstract and introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Public supply
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Irrigation
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Self-supplied industrial water...
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Thermoelectric power
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Consumptive use
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Summary of all uses
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Trends in water use, 1950-70
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Selected references
        Page 30
        Page 31
Full Text






FLRD GEOLIOWC( ICA SURflViEWY~


COPYRIGHT NOTICE
[year of publication as printed] Florida Geological Survey [source text]


The Florida Geological Survey holds all rights to the source text of
this electronic resource on behalf of the State of Florida. The
Florida Geological Survey shall be considered the copyright holder
for the text of this publication.

Under the Statutes of the State of Florida (FS 257.05; 257.105, and
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The Florida Geological Survey reserves all rights to its publications.
All uses, excluding those made under "fair use" provisions of U.S.
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information and permissions.














STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Randolph Hodges, Executive Director




DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
R. 0. Vernon, Director




BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
C. W. Hendry, Jr., Chief



Information Circular No. 83


ESTIMATED USE OF WATER IN FLORIDA, 1970




By
R. W..Pride




Prepared by the
U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY, FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT
SOUTHWEST FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT
and other state, local, and federal agencies


Tallahassee, Florida
1973









F63S~iM
roi





F3









CONTENTS

Page
Abstract ................... .. ................. .. ........... 1
Introduction . . . .................... ........... . 1
Previous investigations .......................... .............. 3
Present investigation ........... . . . .......... . 3
Acknowledgments .. ...... .... .. .. . ............ 4
Terminology ... ..... ...... .. .... . ........... . 4
Public Supply ....... ...................... .... ........... . 5
Source and reliability of data ................ .................... 5
W ater withdrawn ............................................ 6
Consum ptive use ................................. ........... 6
Irrigation ................ .. ..... .......... .............. 8
Source and reliability of data ............. ......... ............. 8
W ater withdrawn ................. ..... .......... ........... 10
Consum ptive use ............................................ 12
Self-supplied industrial water, excluding thermoelectric power use .............. 16
Source and reliability of data ................................... 16
Water withdrawn ................ ..... .......... ............ 16
Consum ptive use ........... .................. ........... 16
Thermoelectric power ........................................... 20
Source and reliability of data ................... ................. 20
W ater withdrawn ............................ .. ............ 20
Consumptive use ............ ................ ................. 22
Rural supply .............. ...... ... ..... ................... 22
Domestic use ................. ... ............. ............ 23
Livestock ........... ............... ..... ..... ........... 25
Sum mary of all uses ............................................ 25
Trends in water use, 1950-70 .................. ................... 27
Selected references .................. ...... ...... ............. 30









ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page
1. Approximate Water Resources Council subareas in Florida delineated along county
boundaries ............................... .............. 2
2. Water withdrawn for public supplies by counties in Florida, 1970 ........... 9
3. Water withdrawn for irrigation (including conveyance losses) by counties in
Florida, 1970 ...... ..................................... 15
4. Self-supplied industrial fresh-water withdrawals (excluding thermoelectric power
use) by counties in Florida, 1970 .................................. 19
5. Water withdrawn for thermoelectric power by counties in Florida, 1970 ....... 23
6. Trends in population and withdrawals of water in Florida, 1950-70 .......... 29





TABLES

Table Page
1. Hydraulic equivalents ......................................... 5
2. Water used for public supplies, by counties in Water Resources Council subregions
in Florida, 1970 ............................................ 7
3. Irrigated crop acreage in Florida, 1970 ............................. 11
4. Annual rate of water application for selected crops, 1970 ................. 13
5. Water used for irrigation, by counties in Water Resources Council subregions in
Florida. 1970 .............. . . . . . . . . 13
6. Self-supplied water for industrial use, by counties in Water Resources Council
subregions in Florida, 1970 ..................................... 17
7. Water used for thermoelectric power, by counties in Water Resources Council
subregions in Florida, 1970 ..................................... 21
8. Water for rural usu oy Water Resources Council subregions in Florida, 1970 ..... 24
9. Summary of estimated water withdrawal and consumption by Water Resource
Council subregions in Florida, 1970 ......... .................. 26
10. Population and estimated water use in Florida, 1950-70 .................. 28








ESTIMATED USE OF WATER IN FLORIDA, 1970


By R. W. Pride


ABSTRACT

Estimates of water use in Florida for 1970 indicate that about 15,300 mgd
(million gallons per day) was withdrawn for all purposes, including public
supply, rural domestic and livestock, irrigation, and industrial (including
thermoelectric power). About 9,500 mgd of the total use was saline water
withdrawn from bays and estuaries. The remainder, or 5,800 mgd, was fresh
water, withdrawn in nearly equal quantities from surface and ground sources.
Most of the saline water was used for thermoelectric power generation. The
average per capital use of all water in 1970 was 2,250 gpd (gallons per day) an
increase from 332 gpd in 1950. Considering fresh water only, the average per
capital use was 849 gpd in 1970. The quantity of water consumed-that is, water
made unavailable for further possible withdrawal because of evaporation,
incorporation into products and crops, and other causes-was estimated to be
1,930 mgd in 1970, most of which was fresh water. The quantity consumed was
about one third of the total fresh water withdrawn from the source.
The largest use of fresh water in Florida in 1970 was for irrigation, 2,070
mgd. The counties in southern Florida, comprising Water Resources Council
subregion 0309, used 75 percent of all water used for irrigation. The second
largest use of fresh water was by industry, other than thermoelectric power
plants, which required 926 mgd of self-supplied water and 166 mgd from public
supply systems. The third largest use was for public supplies, 884 mgd.



INTRODUCTION

The basic amounts of water in Florida remain relatively unchanged while
population growth and urban and industrial development continue to put
increased demands on the available supply. For this reason it is important to
gather basic data showing quantitatively the present water requirements of the
various major users.
Periodic assessments of withdrawal from available water sources not only
show the changes in volume of water used but also indicate trends in use.
Planning for the future necessitates that estimates be made of future water
requirements based on assessments of past usage.
Water-use data include both the purpose for which the water is used and the
quantities used for each purpose; each type of use has a different effect on the







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


available supply and on the remaining supply. Water used for irrigation, for
example, is subject to pollution by pesticides and fertilizers, and a large part of
the water withdrawn is evaporated and transpired. Water used by industry
commonly picks up pollutants of various types depending on the product
produced, but. in general, only a small amount of water is consumed-that is,
removed more or less permanently from the local supply.
Water-use data for this report are presented by principal use and by source
for each of the 67 counties in Florida and by Water Resources Council
subregions or parts of subregions in Florida. See figure I for subregion
delineation. The major categories of water use for which data are given are for
public supply, rural domestic and livestock supply, irrigation, and self-supplied
industry, including thermoelectric power generation.
Nonwithdrawal uses, which include hydroelectric power generation,
navigation, water-based recreation, propagation of fish and wildlife, and dilution
and conveyance of sewage and other liquid and solid wastes are not tabulated in
this report.



0314'' 0 I 1 3 _
























Figure 1. Approximate Water Resources Council subareas in Florida delin-
eated along county boundaries
eated along county boundaries







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 83


PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS

Compilations of water-use data from readily available sources were started
on a -nationwide basis in 1950 by the U. S. Geological Survey. These
compilations have been continued at 5-year intervals, and the results for 1950,
1955, 1960, 1965, and 1970 are contained in reports by MacKichan (1951,
1957); MacKichan and Kammerer (1961); Murray (1968); and Murray and
Reeves (1972). These reports contain estimates of water use by categories for
each state but contain no information for smaller subareas, such as counties.
In 1956 the Florida Water Resources Study Commission compiled water-use
data by counties and by categories of use as part of their report to the Governor
of Florida and the 1957 Legislature. That report represents the earliest
documentation of water use on a county-by-county basis in Florida,
A water-use inventory of southwest Florida was made in 1962 by the
Florida Division of Water Resources and published in their report on land and
water resources (1966). Water-use data for northeast Florida for 1965 were
compiled by Snell and Anderson (1970) and were given also in the water and
related land resources report of the St. Johns River basin by the Florida
Department of Natural Resources (1970).
The 1965 water-use data for Florida were published in a map report, (Pride,
1970).
Additional water-use data on public supplies of selected municipalities for
1970 are given in a report by Healy (1972).




PRESENT INVESTIGATION

This report was prepared to document the results of the 1970 water-use
survey made by the U. S. Geological Survey as part of the Statewide cooperative
program with the Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of Natural Resources,
and as part of programs with the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control
District, the Southwest Florida Water Management District, and with other state,
local, and federal agencies.
The report presents estimates, based on data from many sources, of the
amount of water diverted and consumed in Florida, by categories of water use.
Water use is reported by counties and by Water Resources Council subregions
for the following categories: public supplies, rural domestic and livestock,
irrigation, and self-supplied industrial (including thermoelectric power produc-
tion). (Thermoelectric power is electrical energy generated in steam-electric
plants including those that use nuclear fuel.) Source of the water (ground and
surface) is given as determined by the Geological Survey.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The assistance of municipal water department officials; county agricultural
agents; plant, institutional, and utility managers; and officials of county, state,
and federal agencies in furnishing data pertinent to this report is gratefully
acknowledged. Sincere appreciation is expressed to George Baragona of the
Florida Department of Natural Resources for assistance in coordinating the data
obtained from many sources. The assistance of Professor Dalton S. Harrison of
the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences at the University of Florida in
furnishing information on irrigated crop acreage during 1970 is also acknowl-
edged with thanks.
Many individuals in the field offices of the U. S. Geological Survey in
Florida participated in the county-by-county inventories to obtain the
information on which to base these estimates of water use. Special thanks are
given C. A. Pascale of the Tallahassee Subdistrict, A. F. Robertson of the Tampa
Subdistrict, J. E. Hull of the Miami Subdistrict, and the late L. J. Crain of the
Ocala Subdistrict for their assistance in directing the data collection and
coordinating the results obtained in their areas of operation.
The investigation was made and the report prepared under the general
supervision of C. S. Conover, District Chief, Florida District.


TERMINOLOGY

When the term "water use" appears in this report, withdrawal use (the
amount of water withdrawn from its source) is implied; this is equivalent to
"intake" or "water diversion," as used in industry and agriculture, respectively.
Water diverted from a source for agriculture is generally more than delivered or
conveyed to the crop because of "conveyance losses" and may be more or less
than the optimum amount required by a crop. If the water is reused it will do
the work of a greater quantity of water; the amount of this greater quantity,
which is commonly called the "gross water use," is not evaluated in this report.
If, however, the water is returned to a stream, lake, aquifer, or other source and
then withdrawn anew, the summation of successive withdrawals gives the total
withdrawal use.
The terms "water consumed," "consumptive use," or "consumption," as
used in this report, refer to that part of the water withdrawn that is no longer
available because it has evaporated, has been incorporated into products and
crops, consumed by man or livestock, or otherwise removed from the water
environment. Water that is discharged into salt water bodies after being used and
is not recoverable from a practical standpoint is not classed as consumed. Water
with more than one thousand parts per million dissolved solids is classed as
"saline" irrespective of the nature of the minerals present.








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 83 5

Water obtained from a water utility that serves the public is classed as a
"public supply"; if a public supply is either not available or not used, the water
is "self-supplied." Water used by individual families and by small communities
not served by a water utility is classed as "rural." The term "nonwithdrawal
uses" refers to water used within recognized stream channels. Some non-
withdrawal uses are navigation, sport fishing, fresh-water discharge into estuaries
to maintain proper salinity, and the disposition and dilution of waste water.
Water-use data are reported as the average quantities used daily as derived
from the annual use. The average use is generally expressed in million gallons per
day; for irrigation, the amount is also given in units of 1,000 acre-feet per year.
An acre-foot of water is the amount required to cover an acre (43,560 square
feet) to a depth of 1 foot (43,560 square feet or 325,851 gallons). One million
gallons per day is 3.07 acre-feet per day. One thousand acre-feet per year is
nearly equal to a flow of a million gallons per day for a year (1,000 acre-feet per
year equals 0.89 mgd). Common equivalents of these units are given in table 1.


Table 1. Hydraulic equivalents. (Equivalent values, to three significant figures,
are on the same horizontal line)

Million Billion Thousand Million
gallons gallons Thousand Thousand gallons cubic
per day per day acre-feet cubic feet per meters
(mgd) (bgd) per year per second minute per day
1.0 0.001 1.12 0.00155 0.694 0.00379
1,000 1.0 1,120 1.55 694 3.79
.893 .000893 1.0 .00138 .620 .00338
646 .646 724 1.0 449 2.45
1.44 .00144 1.61 .00223 1.0 .00545
264 .264 296 .409 184 1.0




PUBLIC SUPPLY

SOURCE AND RELIABILITY OF DATA

Estimates of water used for public supply in 1970 were obtained from
information furnished by the Bureau of Sanitary Engineering, Florida
Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, and by personal communica-
tion with water department officials of most municipalities served by public
water supply systems.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Most municipalities maintain a record of water pumped from the source or
delivered to customers. For such systems the data used in this report are
considered to be reliable. A few utility companies keep no pumpage records. For
these systems the amount of water used during 1970 was estimated on the basis
of the number of customers served.


WATER WITHDRAWN

Water withdrawals in Florida for public supplies in 1970 were estimated to
be 884 mgd. of which 759 mgd was from ground-water sources and 125 mgd was
from surface-water sources. Population served by public water supplies was
estimated to be 5,420,000. Estimates indicate that 166 mgd of water from
public supplies was used by industrial and commercial establishments, of which
46 mgd was for air conditioning. See table 2 and figure 2 for county-by-county
withdrawals for public supply in 1970.
The average per capital use was 163 gpd, considering the total water
withdrawn by public supply systems including that used for industry and
commerce. Considering only the public supply water for domestic use, the
average per capital use was 132 gpd. In Bay County, where the gross per capital
use was 982 gpd, about 33 mgd of water from public supply systems was used
for industry and commerce. The average per capital use of public supply water
for only domestic use in Bay County was 134 gpd.


CONSUMPTIVE USE

Water consumed is approximately the difference between intake at the
waterworks and effluent from the sewage plant, if there are no large leaks into
or out of the sewers, no industries discharging self-supplied water to the
sewers, nor extensive use of septic tanks in areas served from the public water
supply. Only a few cities measure the effluent from the sewage plant. Thus
estimates of consumption were based mostly on knowledge of the local
situation.
Public supply water consumed in Florida during 1970 was estimated at
235 mgd, about 27 percent of the total amount withdrawn.










INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 83


Table 2. Water used for public supplies, by counties in WRC Subregions in

Florida, 1970


Population served Water withdrawn Water delivered Water

Ground Surface All Indust. and commer. uses Domestic On"-
water water water Ground Surface All Per Air condi- Except All use and sumed
County (thou- (thou. (thou- water water water capital ioning air cond. uses losses
sands) sands) sand) (mgd) (mgd) (mgd) (gpd) (mgd) (mgd) (mgd) (mgd) (mgd)


2.6 2.6 0.5 0.5 192 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.2
8.9 8.9 2.0 2.0 225 0.1 .5 .6 1.4 .5
11.5 11.5 2.5 2.5 217 .1 .6 .7 1.8 .7


204.0 204.0 a/1.2
12.7 12.7 1.6
345.3 345.3 67.8
2.8 2.8 .3
42,2 42.2 10.0
28.4 28.4 3,9
290.0 290.0 c/65.8
14.0 14.0 2.7
10,0 7.0 17.0 1.4
58.9 58.9 6.3
142.3 142.3 19.2


- a/11.2 b/130 -
- 1.6 126 -
- 67.8 197 5.0
- .3 107 -
- 10.0 237 .1
- 3.9 137 -
- c/65.8 b/140 -
2.7 193 -
1.1 2.5 147 -
6.3 107 .1
19.2 135 .1


26.5 5.3
.2 .2 1.4 .5
10.0 15.0 52.8 13.6
.3 .1
1.9 2.0 8.0 5.0
1.2 1.2 2.7 .4
5.0 5.0 45.5 12.0
2.7 1.4
.1 .1 2.4 .1
.6 .7 5.6 1.9
3.7 3.8 15.4 4.5


WRC Subreg. 0307
Baker
Nassau
Subreg. Total
WRC Subreg. 0308
Brevard
Clay
Duval
Flagler
Lake
Marion
Orange
Putnam
St. Johns
Scminiole
Volusia
Subreg. Total
WRC Subreg, 0309
Broward
Collier
Dade
Glades
Ilindry
Ilighlands
Indian River
Lee
Martin
Monroe
Okeechobee
Osceola
Palmn Beach
Polk
St. Lucie
Subreg. Total
WRC Subreg. 0310
Charlotte
Cirtus
DeSoto
Ilardeec
Hernando
I llshbo oughl
Levy
Manatee
Pasco
Pincilas
Sarasoli
Sumtert
Subreg. Tolal
WRC Subreg. 0311
Alachua
Bradford
Columbia
Dixie
Gilchrist
IlainilIon
Lafayette
Madison
Suwallliee
Union
Subteg. Total


1,150.6 7.0 1.157,6 190.2 1.1 191.3 166 5.3 22.7 28.0 163.3 44.8

550.0 550.0 102.0 1.0 103.0 188 5.0 5.3 10.3 92.7 20.0
26.0 3.5 29.5 5.0 .9 5.9 200 .3 .3 .6 5.3 1.4
1.384.0 1,384.0 d/212.1 d/212.1 b/149 10.0 11.2 21.2 185.7 42.0
1.5 2.9 4.4 .1 C/ e/.l b/63 .2 .1
1.8 4.7 6,5 .2 1.2 1.4 215 .7 .7 .7 .4
20.8 2.6 23.4 4.1 .6 4.7 201 .9 .9 3.8 4.4
21.0 21.0 3.1 3.1 148 .3 .3 2.8 .8
65.5 26.0 91.5 6.7 1.6 8.3 91 1.6 1.6 6.7 2.5
12.0 12.0 1.6 1.6 133 .1 .1 1.5 .4
f/48.9 f/15.0 63.9 g/ 1.6 h/1.6 b/106 .3 .4 .7 6.1 1.4
7.6 7.6 i/.6 i/.6 b/66 .1 .1 .4 .2
14.5 14.5 2.7 2.7 186 .1 .1 2.6 .6
165.5 94.5 260.0 34.9 20.4 55.3 213 4.0 12.0 16.0 39.3 28.0
170.0 170.0 27.7 27.7 163 4.2 4.2 23.5 11.0
34.0 34.0 4.3 4.3 127 .2 .2 4.1 1.0
2,515.5 156.8 2.672.3 404.5 27.9 432.4 162 19.6 37.4 57.0 375.4 114.2

2.0 14.0 16,0 j/0.4 2.2 j/2.6 b/169 0.1 0.1 2.6 0.1
2.5 2.5 .2 .2 80 .05 .05 .2 .1
6.0 6.0 .5 .5 83 .5 .2
6.5 6.5 .7 .- .7 108 .7 .3
5.0 5.0 .6 .6 120 .1 .1 .5 .1
65.0 305.0 370.0 k/35.2 44.6 k/79.8 b/140 0.2 3.9 4.1 47.7 11.8
7.4 7.4 .9 .9 122 .9 .3
3.5 61.3 64.8 .3 9.6 9.9 153 .6 1.4 2.0 7.9 .3
24.3 24.3 2.0 2.0 82 .4 .4 1.6 1.2
413.0 413.0 1/32.0 1/32.0 b/145 6.0 6.0 12.0 48.0 24.0
101.2 3.1 104.3 in/I 1.0 .3 m/I 1.3 b/107 1.0 1.1 2.1 9.1 .5
4.8 4.8 .8 .8 166 .8 .2
641.2 383.4 1.024.6 84.6 56.7 141.3 138 7.8 13.0 20.8 120.5 39.1

79.1 79.1 22,3 22.3 282 10.5 10.5 11.8 12.2
5.8 5.8 .7 .7 121 .1 .1 .6 .4
16.6 16.6 1.7 1.7 102 .1 .3 .4 1.3 .4
2.0 2.0 .4 .4 200 .4 .1
1.2 1.2 .1 .1 117 .1 .1
4.3 4.3 .5 .5 116 .2 .2 .3 .2
.9 .9 .1 .1 1 11 .1 .1
6.4 6.4 .6 .6 94 .1 .1 .5 .1
7.8 7- 8 .6 .6 77 .1 .1 .5 .2
1.6 1.6 .1 .1 62 .1 .1
125,7 1257 27.1 27.1 216 10.6 .8 11.4 15.7 13.9

continued









8 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Table 2. Water used for public supplies, by counties in WRC subregions in
Florida, 1970

Population eamrd Watr withdrawn Water dtetltd Wate
Cuo r Surfac Al Indust. and commer. vM Domstlc con
wat water water Ground Surface Al Per Air condl- Except All ue and med
Cmun (thou- (hou- (thou. water water water caplta toning ar cond. uses IouM
mda) sam) sada) (mgd) (ind) (mg) (gpd) (mid) (mnd) (mid) (mgd) (m1d)


WRC Subreg. 0312
Franklin
Gadsden
Jefferwon
Leon
Liberty
Taylor
Wakulla
Subreg. Total
WRC Subses. 0313
Calhoun
Gult
Jackson
Subreg. Total
WRC Subres. 0314
Bay
Escambia
Holmes
Okalousa
Santa Ros
Walton
Washington
Subreg. Total
State Total


4.0 4.0 0.5 0.5 125 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.1
7.9 9.1 17.0 .8 1.2 1.0 118 .6 .6 1.4 .6
2.7 2.7 .4 ,.4 148 .1 .1 .3 .2
77.7 77.7 12.0 12.0 154 1.2 3,8 5.0 7.0 4.0
1.6 1.6 .2 j.2 125 .2 .1
10.4 10.4 1.2 1.2 114 .6 .6 .6 .3
2.4 2.4 .2 .2 83 .2 .1
106.7 9.1 115.8 15.3 1.2 16.5 142 1.2 5.2 6.4 10.1 5.4

3.2 3.2 .2 .2 62 .2 .1
1.5 4.5 6.0 .1 .4 .5 83 .02 .03 .05 .4 .2
15.0 15.0 1.6 1.6 107 .2 .2 1.4 A
19.7 4.5 24.2 1.9 ,4 2.3 95 .02 .23 .3 2.0 .7

7.9 30.9 38.8 .7 37.4 38.1 982 .6 32.3 32.9 5.2 4.8
158.4 158.4 20.3 20.3 128 .9 4.7 5.6 14.7 8.1
3.0 3.0 .3 .3 100 .3 .1
60.8 60.8 7.9 7.9 130 .1 2.3 2.4 5.5 2.0
14.8 14.8 2.4 2.4 162 .6 .6 1.8 .6
9.2 9.2 .7 .7 76 .1 .1 .6 .3
3.8 3.8 .4 .4 105 .4 .1
257.9 30.9 288.8 32.7 37.4 70.1 243 1.6 40.0 41.6 28.5 16.0
4.828.8 591.7 5,420.5 758.8 124.7 883.5 163 46.2 120.0 166.2 717.3 234.8


a/ Does not include 15.3 mgd imported from Orange County.
b/ Net use m County.
c/ Includes 15.3 mgd exported to Brevard County.
d/ Includes 5.2 mgd exported to Monroe County.
el Does not include 0.1 mgd imported from City of Okeechobee in Okeechobee County.
f/ Prorated using average per capital for each source.
g/ 5.2 mgd imported from Dade County.
h/ Does not include 5.2 mgd of ground water imported from Dade County.
i/ Includes 0.1 mgd exported to Glades County.
]/ Does not include 0.1 mgd imported from Sarasota County.
kW Includes 28.0 mgd exported to Pinellas County.
Ii Does not include 28.0 mgd imported from Hillsborough County.
m/ Includes 0 1 mgd exported to Charlotte County.



IRRIGATION


SOURCE AND RELIABILITY OF DATA


Estimates of water used for crop irrigation during 1970 were made by
Survey hydrologists from information obtained by personal communication
with local (county) and State representatives of agricultural agencies, and from
some grove owners and/or farmers. The county agricultural agent, the county
SCS (Soil Conservation Service) director, or the county ASCS (Agricultural
Stabilization and Conservation Service) director was usually interviewed to
obtain estimates of irrigated acreage and depth of water applied for each crop ,
irrigated in a county.








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 83


Figure 2. Water withdrawn for public supplies by counties in Florida, 1970


Total crop acreage in each county, as taken from the 1970 annual report
by Florida ASCS and the 1970 Florida Agricultural Statistics summary reports
by the Florida Department of Agriculture, was used as a guideline for
estimating the irrigated crop acreage. The percentage of the total crop acreage
that was irrigated in 1970 varied by crop and by locale. As an example, sugar
cane in four counties adjacent to Lake Okeechobee was 100 percent irrigated.
On the other hand, only a small percentage of field crops, such as corn grown
in northern Florida, was irrigated.
Estimates of irrigated crop acreage, as determined for this report, were
coordinated with estimates by other Federal and State agencies. Representa-
tives of the following agencies participated in the review and verification of
estimates of irrigated crop acreage: U. S. Soil Conservation Service, U. S.
Corps of Engineers, Florida Department of Natural Resources, Institute of








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Food and Agricultural Sciences at the University of Florida, Central and
Southern Florida Flood Control District, and Southwest Florida Water
Management District. The Division of Interior Resources, Florida Department
of Natural Resources, was the principal coordinating agency and gave
significant assistance in reviewing and verifying the irrigation acreage on the
basis of independent estimates made as part of their water and related
land-resource assessments of river basins.
Although precise records of water use for irrigation were not available for
most of the State, the estimates given herein are probably valid because
information from all reliable sources was coordinated.


WATER WITHDRAWN

Estimates of water used for irrigation are reported as the amounts
diverted from the source and include that applied to the crop plus conveyance
loss, if any. Depth of water applied to each crop was estimated by
determining the number of applications during 1970 and the average depth
per application. Depth of application was estimated in inches and then
converted to feet in order to compute acre-feet of water applied during the
year. In some areas where irrigation water was conveyed by open ditch from
the source to the point of application, the conveyance loss due to seepage was
added to the water applied to estimate the total water withdrawn. Most of the
reported conveyance loss was in southern Florida.
Wat9r use for irrigation, as reported by the U. S. Geological Survey, is
estimated as the amount withdrawn from the source during a specific year or
other period. The SCS and other agricultural agencies usually report water use
for irrigation based on optimum use for crop requirements from the
Blaney-Criddle method. On a long-term average the results obtained by the
different approaches should be reasonably consistent, though water withdrawn
usually exceeds optimum use, especially in Florida where water is generally
plentiful.
County estimates of the quantities of water used for irrigation were much
higher in the southern part of the State than elsewhere, both for acres
irrigated and for the depth of water applied. The total irrigated crop acreage,
tabulated by counties and Water Resources Council subregions, is given in
table 3. Of the total acres irrigated in 1970, about 1,134,000, or 71 percent
were in WRC subregion 0309, which includes the southernmost counties.
Citrus was the major irrigated crop, accounting for 40 percent of the total
irrigated acreage.
The rate of water use (water applied in feet per year) was also greater in
southern Florida than elsewhere. The range in application rates for the major
irrigated crops in those counties where irrigation was practiced in 1970 is'
shown in table 4.











INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 83


Table 3. Irrigated crop acreage in Florida, 1970


&top (trigated cets)
Truck Supr Toita
Otus (egetables) Paturenecan Other (a crops)


Witt Subrgion
kid County
Subreg. 0307
Baket
Nassau
Subreg. total
Subreg. 0308
Brevard
Clay
Duval
plaglet
Lake
Marion
Orange _
Putnam
St, Johns
Seminole
Volusia
Subreg, total
Subteg, 0309
litoward
Collier
Dade
Glades
Hendry
Highlands
Indian River
Lee
Martin
Monroe
Okeechobee
Osceola
Paint Beach
Polk
St. Lucle
Subteg. total
Subreg. 0310
Charlotte
Citrus
DeSoto
Hardee
lernando
IHillsborougli
Levy
Manatee
Pasco
Pinellas
Satasota
Sustler
Subteg. total
Subreg. 0311
Alachuaa
Btadl'ord
Columbia
Dixie
Gilchrist
Hamillton
Lafayette
Madison
Suwannee
Union
Subreg. total


200
400
0
5,600
8,000
4.000
6,000
5,500
17,000
4,000
1,000
51,700

10,000
12,000
29,300
1,500
11,000
1,400
2,100
7,000
1,900
0
3.500
0
88,000
1,000
350


16,400
3,000
0
2,400
2,500
600
1,000
0
2,000
200
0
28,100

0
5,000
4.100
35,000
30,000
35,000
20,000
6,000
10,000
0
40,000
5,000
127,000
500
17,500


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
12,000
48.500
0
0
0
2,000
0
0
0
116.500
0
0


0
0
a/1,400
0
0
a/700
0
b/700
0
400
c/I1,700
4,900

a/14,000
a/2,000
d/8,800
0
0
a/600
0
a/3,000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


24,600
3,400
1,400
8,230
46,500
13,700
39,000
11,200
19,000
10,600
4,700
182,330

29,000
24,000
47,700
50,500
116,500
74,000
72,100
23,000
54,900
0
46,000
20,000
351,500
129.500
94.850


422,000 169,050 335,100 179,000 28.400 1,133,550

6.000 3,000 7.000 0 a/I,200 17,200
3,000 900 0 0 0 3,900
16,000 3,200 30.000 0 0 49,200
25,500 4.500 14,000 0 0 44,000
1,050 270 0 0 0 1.320
37,500 7.700 1.000 0 a/800 47,000
0 500 400 0 a/300 1,200
10,000 5,000 13,000 0 a/900 28,900
10,800 1.000 2,600 0 0 14,400
3,000 0 0 0 0 3,000
1,800 2,100 12,000 0 a/1.200 17.100
0 4,650 1,000 0 0 5,650
114,650 32,820 81.000 0 4,400 232.870

0 6,000 500 0 el 1.000 7.500
0 230 0 0 c/70 300
0 0 320 0 e/120 440
0 0 0 0 f/180 180
0 430 160 0 a/50 640
0 50 50 0 g/1,780 1,880
0 100 0 0 h/l,400 1,500
0 0 0 0 i/3.380 3,380
0 0 140 0 j/7,730 7.870
0 0 0 0 e/250 250
0 6.810 1,170 0 15.960 23.940


continued


8,000
0
0
230
36,000
8,400
32,000
5,000
0
6,000
2,000
97,630

5,000
5,000
5,506
2,000
27,000
37,000
50,000
7,000
41,000
0
2,500
15,000
20,000
128,000
77,000










BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Table 3. Irrigated crop acreage in Florida, 1970

CMUp (r arm)s)
WRC Suamoa Tack Sugr Total
d Comant Oats (ptabeo) FPntanr can* Other (Aa scop.)


Subreg. 0312
Franklin
Gadsden
Jefferson
Leon
Liberty
Taylor
Wakulla
Subreg. total
Subet. 0313
Calhoun
Gulf
Jackson
Subreg total
Subreg. 0314
Bay
EcEambia
Holmes
Okaioosa
Santa Rosa
Walton
Washlngton
Subreg. total
Florida total


0 0 0 0 0 0
0 700 0 0 k/2,720 3,420
0 0 0 0 1/1,240 1,240
0 10 0 0 m/70 80
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 n/240 240
0 0 0 0 o/20 20
0 710 0 0 4,290 5,000

0 0 0 0 p/240 240
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 q/1,750 1,750
0 0 0 0 1,990 1,990

0 0 0 0 r/700 700
0 160 0 0 0 160
0 0 0 0 s/100 100
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 t/780 780
0 0 0 0 u/13,560 13.560
0 0 0 0 0/100 100
0 160 0 0 15.240 15,400
634.280 261.250 445,370 179,000 75,180 1,595,080


a/ Not identified.
b/ 500 acres of flowers; 200 acres of ferns.
cl 1.400 acres of ferns; 300 acres not identified.
di Fruit other than citrus.
el Tobacco.
Uf 130 acres of tobacco; 50 acres of watermelons.
g/ t .380 acres of tobacco; 300 acres of corn; 100 acres of watermelons.
hi 800 acres of tobacco; 600 acres of watermelons.
I/ 1,500 acres of corn; 1,050 acres of tobacco; 830 acres of peaches.
V 4.620 acres of corn; 2.480 acres of tobacco; 590 acres of soybeans; 40 acres of watermelons.
k/ 2.560 acres of tobacco; 160 acres of corn.
1/ 500 acres of watermelons; 450 acres of nurseries; 230 acres of corn; 60 acres of tobacco.
mi 50 acres of nurseries; 20 acres of tobacco.
n/ 170 acres of tobacco; 50 acres of corn; 20 acres of pine seedlings.
o/ Watermelons.
pi 160 acres of gladiolus; 80 acres of corn.
qj 1.550 acres of corn; 200 acres of gladiolus.
ri 410 acres of corn; 120 acres of soybeans; 80 acres of rye; 40 acres of wheat.
s% 60 acres of tobacco; 40 acres of corn.
t/ 730 acres of corn and beans.
u/ 7.870 acres of corn; 5.690 acres of soybeans.

Water-use for irrigation in Florida in 1970 was nearly 2,319,000 acre-feet
or 2,070 million gallons per day (table 5 and figure 3). Subregion 0309 used
75 percent of the total irrigation water in 1970. Palm Beach County, which
irrigated 351,500 acres of citrus, truckfarms, pasture, and sugar cane, used
459,000 acre feet of irrigation water and was the largest county user of irrigation
water.



CONSUMPTIVE USE


No measurements of consumptive use of irrigation water were made by
the Geological Survey. Estimates given in this report were computed by











INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 83 13



Table 4. Annual rate of water application for selected crops, 1970.



North and South
Crop Central Florida Florida
(feet) (feet)


Citrus 0.4 1.3 0.7 2.0

Truck (vegetables) .2 1.7 1.0 2.4

Pasture .2 1.3 .7 2.6

Sugar Cane 1.1 2.3

Corn .3- .9

Soybeans .3 .7

Tobacco .4- 1.0


Table 5. Water used for irrigation, by counties in WRC subregions in Florida,

1970.

Total water withdrawn Total water withdrawn

S A ,re / ee+ CConvey-. Con- Con- Con-
AIncreI ee sup- m 6m D vey. sump-
IOs tive us ance tive
Acres Surface Ground Other All (Ac-ft (Ac-ft Surface Ground Other All loss use
County trrigteed water water water water per yt) per yr water water water water (mgd) (mgd)


WRC Subreg. 0307
Baker 0
Nassau 0
Subreg. total 0
WRC Subreg. 0308
trevard 24,600
Clay 3,400
Duval 1.400
Flagler 8,230
Lake 46,500
Marion 13,700
Orange 39.000
Putilam 11,200
St. Johns 19.000
Seminole 10,600
Volusia 4.700
Subreg. total 182.330
WRC Subreg, 0309
Uioward 29,000
Collier 24,000
Dade 47,700
Glades 50,500
Ilendrty 116,500
Illghlands 74,000
Indian River 72.100
Lee 23,000
Martin 54,900
Munroc 0
Okeechobcc 46.000
Oseeola 20,000
Palm IBeach 351,500
Polk 129,500
St. Lucle 94,850
Subteg. total 1.133,550


53,600 s/31,500
4,590 -
4,100 -
200 10,100 -
8,600 15,000 -
1.230 6,440 -
10.000 12,500 -
2,300 8,550 -
24,800 -
2,970 3,850 -
320 7.780 -B


25.620 151,310 a/31.500

44,600 33,600 -
500 52,700 -
50,200
5,800 46,000 -
248.000 28,000 -
39,700 25,100 -
38,000 109,100 -
9,000 30,600 -
83,900 17,300 -
6,600 32,400 -
6,000 9,000 -
321,000 138,000 -
19,400 174,800 10
145,000 29,000 -


967,500 775,800 10


b/53,600
4,590
4,100
10,300
23,600
7,670
22,500
10,850
24,800
6,820
8.100


- 38,000
3,400
3,100
7,200
400 18,000
5,800
17,000
8,100
17,000
820 4,500
5.700


b/176,930 1.220 127,800

78,200 20,000 35,000
53.200 13.200 32.000
50,200 30,000
51,800 4,700 30,000
276,000 25,100 IS0,000
64,800 5,900 41.000
147,100 96,000
39,600 500 23.000
101,200 9,200 55.000

39,000 3,600 23,000
15,000 1,500 11,200
459,000 41,700 250,000
194,210 145,000
174.000 15,800 95.000


47.9a/28.1 b/47.9
4.1 4.1 -
3 7' 3.7 -
9.0 9.2 -
13.4 21.1 0.4
5.7 6.8 -
11.2 20.1
7.6 9.7 -
22.1 22.1
3.4 6.1 .7
6.9 7.2 -


23.0 135,0a/28


39.8
.4
-
5.2
221.4
35.4
33.9
8.0
74.9

5.9
5.4
286.6
17.3
129,5


1,743,310 141,200 1.016.200 863.7


30.0
47.1
44.8
41.1
25.0
22.4
97.4
27.3
15.4
28.9
8.0
123.2
156.1
25.9


.1 b/158.0 1.1 114.1

- 69.8 17.9 31.3
- 47.5 11.8 28.6
- 44.8 26.8
- 46.3 4.2 26.8
- ?46.4 22.4 133.9
- 57.8 5.3 36.6
- 131.3 85.7
- 35.3 .4 20.5
- 90.3 8.2 49.1
- 34.8 3.2 20.5
13.4 1.3 10.0
- 409.8 37.2 223.2
.01 173.4 129.5
- 155.4 14.1 84.8


692.6 .1 1,556.3 126.0 907,3

continued


---


---- ---------: --- ---- ---- ---------- ----











14 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY



Table 5. Water used for irrigation, by counties in WRC subregions in Florida,

1970.


Total water witdnawn Total water withdrawn
(million gallons per day) (Ac-ft per year)
Convey- Con- Con- Con-
ance sump- vey. sump-
loss tive use ance ive
Acse Surface Ground Other All (Ac-ft (Ac-ft Surface Ground Other All loss use
County rim ted water water water water per yr) per y) water water water water (mgd) (mpd)


WRC Sabreg. 0
Charlotte
Citrus
DeSoto
Hankee
Hlernando
Hilltborough
Levy
Manatee
Pco
PmellUa
Sarasota
Sumrnter
Subreg. total
WRC Subreg. 0
Alachua
Bradford
Columbia

Cdchnst
Hamilton
Lwaiyette
M'dison
Suwannee
Unton
Submre total
WRC Subreg. Q
Franklin
Gadshden
Jlefervon
Leon
Liberty
raylor
Wakulla
Subreg. total
WRC Subreg. 0
Calhoun
Gulf
JIakson
Subreg. total.
WRC Subtre 0
Bay
Escmbia
Holnes,
Okaooum
Santa Row
Walton
Washington
Subrcg. zut.l
State Ta.tal


II


10
17.200
33.900
49.200
44,000
1.320
47.000
1.200
28300
14.400
3.000
17OO0
5.650


800
0so


20
5.700


so
5200
--


31.600
5.450
72.400
70.000
1.850
71.900
440
55.400
10.700
4,450
30.600
5.160


32,400
5,500
72.400
70,000
1,870
77,600
440
55.400
10,700
4.500
33.200
5,160


21.000
4,100
50,000
50,000
1,400
54,000
330
38.800
8.000
3.200
22.000
3.900


0.7
.04


.02
5.1


.04
2.3
_


28.2
4.9
64.7
62.5
1.7
64.2
.4
49.5
9.6
4.0
27.3
4.6


28.9
4.94
64.7
62.5
1.72
69.3
.4
49.5
9.6
4.04
29.6
4.6


232,870 9220 359.950 369170 26,730 8.20 321.6 329.8 229.1
I31
7.500 750 3,000 3,750 200 200 .7 2.7 3.4 2.5
300 75 75 150 100 .07 .07 .14 .1
440 250 250 190 .2 .2 .2
180 40 60 100 70 .04 .05 .09 .1
640 200 200 150 .2 .2 .1
1.380 180 540 720 540 .2 .5 .7 .5
1.500 260 1.020 1.280 960 .2 .9 1.1 .9
3.380 110 1.770 1,880 1,440 .1 1.6 1.7 1.3
7.870 4.56060 4560 3,400 4.1 4.1 3.0
25 10 25 0 125 90 .02 .09 .11 .1
23.940 1,440 11.575 13,015 9.740 1.33 10.41 11.7 8.8
312
0 -
3.420 2.300 600 2,900 2,200 2.1 0.5 2.6 2.0
1240 50 470 520 400 .04 .4 .44 .4
so 10 50 60 40 .01 .04 .05 .0
0 -
240 110 110 80 .1 .1 .1
20 5 5 5 .0
5.000 2.365 1.230 3,595 2,725 2.15 1.04 3.2 2.5
313
240 30 150 180 140 .03 .13 0 3 .1.16 .1
0 .0
1.750 20 730 750 560 .02 .7 .72 .5
1.990 50 880 930 700 .05 .83 .9 .6
314
700 300 300 220 .3 .3 .2
160 110 110 80 .1 .1 .1
100 50 50 40 .04 .04 0
0 -
780 200 200 150 .2 .2 .1
13.560 11.300 11.300 8.500 10.1 10.1 7.6
100 25 25 20 .02 .02 0
15.400 11.985 11985 9,010 10.76 10.76 8.0
1.595.080 1.006.195 1.312,730 a/31,510 b/2,318,935 142,420 1.422.905 898.43 1,172.24 28.11 2.070.66127.1 1.270.4


a1 27.000 ac.ft of aline ground water and 4.500 ac-fl of saline surface water for marsh flooding for mosquito control.
bi I-reh water only.



multiplying the amount of water applied to the crop by a consumptive-use

coefficient developed by the U. S. Soil Conservation Service. Table 2 of

Technical Release No. 21 "Irrigation Water Requirements" by the Soil

Conservation Service, shows consumptive-use crop coefficients for the normal

growing season for several crops. Consumptive-use coefficients, as applied in

this report, ranged from 0.60 to 0.75. The total consumptive use of irrigation

water in Florida was estimated to be 1,423,000 acre-feet in 1970. The

difference between the total water withdrawn, 2,319,000 acre-feet, and the

amount consumed, 1,423,000 acre-feet, is 896,000 acre-feet, which returned

to the source and was available for reuse.








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 83


S 1 0 G I a


EXPLANATION
AROUND WATER
SURFACE MATER (3 OD
Dillimona L 0 circle

Sj Diometer of circle


NOTE: Small circles l*1 designate \ithdrawak less than 5 mgd. r


Figure 3. Water withdrawn for irrigation (including conveyance losses) by
counties in Florida, 1970







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


SELF-SUPPLIED INDUSTRIAL WATER, EXCLUDING
THERMOELECTRIC POWER USE


SOURCE AND RELIABILITY OF DATA

Estimates of self-supplied industrial water (which excludes that obtained
from public supplies) in Florida in 1970 were obtained by personal
communication with officials of industrial plants and institutions in Florida
that supply their own water. Most of the self-supplied industrial use of water
in Florida, excluding thermoelectric power use, was for mining phosphate,
processing pulp and paper products, mining limerock, processing chemicals,
manufacturing or processing other miscellaneous products, and institutional
use, including air conditioning.
Estimates of self-supplied industrial water use were coordinated with
estimates by the Florida Department of Natural Resources, made as part of
their water and related land-resource assessments of river basins. Results given
herein are considered to be valid.


WATER WITHDRAWN

Self-supplied industrial water withdrawn in Florida in 1970 was estimated
to be 926 mgd of fresh water and 132 mgd of saline water. Of the fresh water
used, 735 mgd or nearly 80 percent of the total, was ground water, and the
remainder was surface water. Most of the self-supplied industrial saline water
was used in Hillsborough County (table 6 and figure 4).
The largest industrial use of fresh water was 318 mgd for phosphate
mining and processing, most of which was in Polk and Hillsborough Counties.
Pulp and paper processing required 237 mgd, the second largest industrial
use of fresh water. All the pulp and paper processing plants are in the
northern part of the State.
Processing of chemical products required 97 mgd of fresh water, and
processing of citrus products required 86 mgd of fresh water. Water
withdrawn for limerock mining was estimated to be 29 mgd. All other
self-supplied industrial users of fresh water required nearly 158 mgd.


CONSUMPTIVE USE

About 163 mgd, or about 18 percent, of the total fresh water self
supplied by industry was consumed. Although most of the water withdrawn
was returned to a source for possible reuse, the water quality may have been












INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 83


Table 6. Self-supplied water for industrial use, by counties in WRC subregions
in Florida, 1970.


Water withdrawn Fresh-water use by major classifications
(million gallons per day) (million pllons pe day)
Water Pulp and Chemical
Con- Pho- paper Ctnu Lime- products
Ground water Surface water Ground and Surface sumed phate procea proce- rock proces-
County Fresh Saline Fresh Saline Fresh Saline fresh mining Ing ing mining fng Other
WRC Subreg. 0307


Baker
Nassau
Subreg. total
WRC Subreg. 0308
Brevard
Clay
Duval
Flagler
Lake
Marion
Orange
Putnam
St. Johns
Seminole
Volusia
Subreg. Total
WRC Subreg. 0309
Broward
Collier
Dade
Glades
Hendry
Highlands
Indian River
Lee
Martin
Monroe
Okeechobee
Osceola
Palm Beach
Polk
St. Lucie
Subreg. total
WRC Subreg. 0310
Charlotte
Citrus
DeSoto
Hardee
Hernando
Hillsborough
Levy
Manatee
Pasco
Pinellas
Sarasota
Sumter
Subreg. total
WRC Subreg. 0311
Alachua
Bradford
Columbia
Dixie
Gilchrist
Hamilton
Lafayette
Madison
Suwannee
Union-
Subreg. total


50.0 2.0 50.0 2.0 2.5 50.0 -
50.0 2.0 50.0 2.0 2.5 50.0 -

.4 .4 .2 .2 .2
1.5 1.5 .2 1.5
60.9 20.0 60.9 20.0 4.0 19.0 11.4 30.5
2.0 2.0 -
19.4 19.4 .5 14.1 5.3
2.1 0.1 2.2 .1 1.5 .7
7.0 7.0 .5 7.0 -
15.5 16.0 5.0 31.3 5.0 1.2 31.5 -

.5 .5 5 .2 .5
.5 .5 .3 .5
107.8 16.1 27.0 123.9 27.0 7.2 50.5 22.8 11.4 39.2

2.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 3.0
.5 .5 .1 .5
7.7 2.7 10.4 4.1 10.4
.4 .4 .2 .4
.1 .2 3 .3
.1 .1 .1 .1 -
.5 .5 .1 .5 -
.3 0.4 4.0 4.3 0.4 .2 4.0 .3
.5 .5 .2 .5

.2 .2 .1 .2
.1 .1 .1 1 .1
26.6 1.8 28.4 7.3 28.4
236.0 71.0 307.0 48.0 271.0 28.6 7.4
1.2 1.2 1.0 .6 .6
276.2 .4 80.7 356.9 .4 62.5 271.0 29.8 4.0 52.1

0.1 0.1 0.1 .1
.2 .2 .1 .1 .1
.7 .7 .2 .2 .5 -
.1 .1 .1 .1
.6 .6 .5 .3 .1 .2
40.0 86.4 11.9 51.9 86.4 5.2 45.9 2.8 3.2

3.0 3.0 .5 3.0
30.0 30.0 23.0 30.0 -
2.0 2.0 1.6 .4 1.6
7.6 0.8 7.6 .8 .3 .1 7.5
18.5 18.5 .5 18.5 -
102.8 86.4 11.9 .8 114.7 87.2 32.1 45.9 33.9 18.6 3.5 12.8

1.4 1.4 .3 1.4
1.4 1.4 1.4 -
.- -
.9 .9 .3 .9

18.4 18.4 6.1 18.4


7.1 7.1 .3 6.3 .6
.6 .6 .3 .6
29.8 29.8 7.3 1.4 6.3 18.4 3.7

continued








18 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Table 6. Self-supplied water for industrial use, by counties in WRC subregions
in Florida, 1970.


Water withdrawn
(million pflona per day)


Fresh-water us by major clasuiications
(million gallons per day)


Water Pulp and Chemical
Con. Phos- paper Catru Uime- products
Ground water Surface water Ground and Surface srmed phate process process. rck process.
County Fresh Saline Fresh Saline Freh Saline fresh mining ing ing mining ing Other


)J./ D.i. I 3.- -
.7 .4 1.1 .- I.
834 3.0 86.4 7.6 53.7 32.7


10.0 36.0 15.8 55.0 15.8 9.1 55.0 -
1.2 1.2 1,.2
20.2 36.0 15.8 56.2 15.8 9.3 55.0 1.2

2.0 .05 2.05 .5 2.0 .05
47.8 0.1 42.1 90.7 .1 27.1 26.2 -- 54.3 10.2

4.7 -4.7 1.6 4.7
10.3 10.3 5.2 9.5 .8
2 1.2 .2 1.2

6.O0 .1 42.95 108.95 .1 34.6 28.2 63.8 16.15
736.2 86.9 190.6 45.6 926.8 132.5 163.1 318.3 237.4 86.5 28.9 97.1 158.6


changed to an extent that reuse for the purpose withdrawn was not feasible
without treatment. Chemical, bacteriological, or thermal pollution may

increase with each withdrawal, and the quality of the resulting water may
become a more important factor than the quantity of water in determining its
suitability for reuse. Information regarding the quality of the water returned
to a source was not available.


WRC Subreg. 0312
Franklin
Gadsdlen
Je ttersn

Lihcrtv

Wakulla
Suhreg. ltoil
WRC Subreg. 0313

(.ialt
JuaksN
Suhieg. toll
WRC Subreg. 0314
Bay
Escainhia
Hiulnera
Okaiima
Santa Ros
Walton
Wahinglon
Sublehg. toral
Siate Total








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 83


L SA *

a,, .,- .. ....t -. "




^G^ 1 -' 1- -
I AA
















EXPLANATION At,i ,,
.,t. 1,"\ o J t I *

SURFACE WATER Q0 GU WAE I"

Million l I Ilons pDfy W .. f .. i


10olitef of circle < ,, I *


0 11




N)TI: Siall circles to) designale -w tintawal I-s ll ihan 5 1n1d. *


Figure 4. Self-supplied industrial fresh-water (excluding thermoelectric power
use) withdrawals by counties, in Florida, 1970
D!me 1ctI I0~








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


THERMOELECTRIC POWER


SOURCE AND RELIABILITY OF DATA

Estimates of water use for condenser cooling and of electrical power
generated at thermoelectric power plants were obtained by personal communi-
cation with power company officials or with plant superintendents. This water
was self-supplied, and the estimates of water use were based on pumping
records or power production records. These estimates are considered to be
reliable.


WATER WITHDRAWN

Because large quantities of water are required for condenser cooling, most
thermoelectric power plants in Florida are located on the coast and use saline
or brackish water withdrawn from bays or estuaries. However, some plants are
located inland and draw water from large rivers or lakes; Only a small amount
of ground water is used for cooling and for other purposes at the plants
(boiler feed, domestic use at plant, and sprinkling of plant grounds). Most of
the water is used in a flow-through operation with no recycling. Some of the
small generating plants located on fresh water bodies in the interior of the
State probably recycle some of their cooling water and use cooling ponds or
towers to remove part of the absorbed heat. However, quantitative informa-
tion regarding recycling was not obtained as a part of this inventory.
The data given in table 7 for water withdrawn for thermoelectric power
production during 1970 in Florida totaled 11,100 mgd. About 9,300 mgd, or
84 percent, was saline surface water; 1,700 mgd, or 15 percent, was fresh
surface water; and the remaining 1 percent was ground water. The most
significant ground-water use was 50 mgd of saline water reported for Monroe
County. Figure 5 shows the areal distribution of water use for thermoelectric
power production.
Power produced during 1970 by thermoelectric plants in Florida was
reported for this inventory to be 57.3 billion kilowatt hours. (Preliminary
figures released by the Federal Power Commission in 1971 show that 55.4
billion kilowatt hours was produced by thermoelectric plants in Florida in
1970.) An average of 70 gallons of water was required per kilowatt hour of
power produced.











INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 83


Table 7. Water used for thermoelectric power,by counties in WRC Subregions

in Florida, 1970


Coolinl wateW Other water Ae
Seotmpplied Sef applied W ons d A
Ground water Public Surface Ground Pubpj -e
(mid) Supply(mid) (mid) Supply ad_
Fqmsh Saine Presh Saline (mid) Freh FrSh (mid) FPre SUaine (KWIIx IO*)


County
WRC Subreg. 0307
Baker
Nassau
Subreg. Total
WRC Subreg. 0308
Bravard
Clay
Duval
Fligler
Lake
Marion
Orange
Putnam
St. Johns
Seminole
Volusia
Subreg. Total
WRC Subreg. 0309
Broward
Collier
Dade
Glades
Hendry
Highlands
Indian River
Lee
Martin
Monroe
Okeechobee
Osceola
Palm Beach
Polk
St. Lucle
Subreg. Total
WRC Subreg. 0310
Charlotte
Citrus
DeSoto
Hardee
Hoernando
Hillsborough
Levy
Manatee
Pasco
Pinellas
Sarasota
Sumter
Subrog, Total
WRC Subreg., 0311
Alachua
Bradford
Columbia
Dixie
Gilchrist
Hamilton
Lafayette
Madison
,JSuwanne
Union
Subreg. Total


- 6.




- 6.5
- _-
6.5


: : : 0.2 (a).
,2 (a)

0.09 0.06 0.2 10.0 5,572

0.3 .2 7,5 4,183


0.1 ,5 231
= = .05 .65 364


.01 .04 3.15 1,750
.09 .06 .36 .14 4.7 17.5 12,100

0.3 .2 15.9 8,925

0.04 0.09 .1 10.3 5,788


.02 .4 245
.1 .3 177
.04 .06 .1 4.4 2,465

50.0 .2 .2 .5 308
.- .- -. -; s1
Small
.5 .2 .2 7.4 4,166
.4 (1.4 (672
.02 .02 .4 202
50.0 1.22 .08 .57 2.7 39,2 22.948


0.02 .02 6.5 3,650

= b/ -. 8

0.05 1.2 .5 12.0 6770


43 -
43 -

1,077 0,3

767 =



1:8
123'


406 -
657 1,844 .3

S1,678 0,1

1,183


226 -
72 ,1
552 -



1.6
564 -
illO =
150 -
336 4,199 1.8


112



1,899 -



954 -


2,965 -


.3 7.1 4,020


.8 25.6 14,448

.8 406
.2 24





1.5 832

2.5 1,262


continued


- .6


- .05 .02 1.8

- 1.0 -
.2 -







1,0 .2 -
- -O J- -


--- -- --


I










BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Table 7. Water used for thermoelectric power, by counties in WRC subregions
in Florida, 1970.
Cooling waker Other water
Self suppUed Self supplied Water consumed Averae
(md) annual
Ground water Pubic Surface Ground Public gene
(mid) Supply(nd) (ngd) Supply __tion
Comuy Fresh Saline Fresh Saline (mgd) Fresh Fresh (mgd) Fresh Saline (KWH x 106)


WRC Subreg. 0312
Franklin
Gadsden
Je!ferson

Lher-y
Taylor
Wakulla
Subreg. Total
WRC Subreg. 0313
Calhoun

Jackson
Subreg Total
WRC Subreg. 0314
Bay
Escambia
Holmes
Okaluosa
Santa Rosa
Walton
Washington
Subreg. Total
State Total


160 0.3 1.4 693
160 .3 1.4 705



144 1.4 .9 415
144 1.4 .9 415

274 .1 .3 3.5 1,962
205 15 .8 6.4 3,420
-
I

-

205 289 .9 6.7 3.5 5,382
1.675 9.340 10.9 50.1 2.3 1.0 2.5 19.7 86.0 57,260


ai Annual generation by two plants serving industries not reported.
Ib Small amount (about 50 gpd) at plant.
c; Small amount for drinking, baths, etc. at plant.




CONSUMPTIVE USE


In spite of the large quantities of water used in thermoelectric power
production, little water is consumed. In 1970, the amount of fresh water
consumed by thermoelectric power plants in Florida was estimated at 20 mgd,
and the saline water at 86 mgd, both small in comparison with the water
circulated through the plants.




RURAL SUPPLY


The quantity of water withdrawn for rural domestic and livestock supply
in Florida is relatively small compared with other uses, and, therefore, no
county-by-county estimates were made for 1970. Only regional (WRC
Subregions) estimates were made by using per capital rates for population and
livestock (table 8). Population estimates were from the U. S. Bureau of Census
(1970) and livestock and poultry estimates were from the U. S. Department of
Agriculture (1971).








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 83


Figure 5. Water
1970


withdrawn for thermoelectric power by counties in Florida,


DOMESTIC USE


Rural domestic use was estimated to be 120 gallons per day per person in
1970 (117 gpd in 1965). The population served by rural supply in 1970 was
considered, in this report, to be the difference between the total population
(6,789,400) and the population served by all public supply systems
(5,410,500), or about 1,379,000 persons. The total rural domestic use in
1970, as shown in table 8, was estimated to be 165 million gallons per day of
ground water, of which 80 percent, or 130 mgd, was estimated to be
consumed.


A L A S A A

I .e/ C C 0"" *^ ?! 7 7 ^ -- A" *^ C I
Aj = ^ ~ I-, "- ** *C ^ *
1-^f a,*
I "e-4T k 1T


EXPLANATION

0
FRESH WATER


SALINE WATER


Milton qollons pw day

o oo Diauoete of CuCcle ,a SLAs


NOTE: Nearly all waler is from 'urface wourcc.s.












Table 8. Water for rural use by Water Resources Council subregions in Florida, 1970


Livestock use
Withdrawn


Domestic and Livestock use


Withdrawn


WRC subregion

in Florida
0307
0308
0309
0310
0311
0312
0313
0314


With-
drawn
ground
water
(mgd)
2.2
53.0
23.0
48.0
9.0
8.0
3.3
18.5


Con-


Con.


sumed Surface
water
(mgd) (mgd)
1.5 0.1
41.0 .9
18.0 5.5
38.0 2.4
7.5 1.0
6.5 .8
2.5 .7
15.0 .6


Ground
water
(mgd)
0.4
3.5
5.2
5.4
1.7
.5
.2
1.1


All
water
(mgd)
0.5
4.4
10.7
7.8
2.7
1.3
.9
1.7


sumed Surface
water
(mgd) (mgd)
0.5 0.1
4.4 .9
10.7 5.5
7.8 2.4
2.7 1.0
1.3 .8
.9 .7
1.7 .6


Ground
water
(mgd)
2.6
56.5
28.2
53.4
10.7
8.5
3.5
19.6


All
water
(mgd)
2.7
57.4
33.7
55.8
11.7
9.3
4.2
20.2


Con-

sumed
0
(mgd)
2.0
45.4
28.7
45.8
10.2
7.8
.3.4
16.7


Foidattl 150 100 1. 80 3. 00 1. 8. 9. 6.


Domestic use


183.0 195.0 160.0


Florida total 165.0 130.0 12.0


18.0 30.0 30.0 12.0









INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 83


LIVESTOCK

Estimates of water use by livestock in 1970 in Florida were computed as
follows:

Number of Use per head Total
Livestock head (gpd) (mgd)
Cattle 1,864,000 15 28.0
Sheep 5,600 2 -
Hogs 374,000 3 1.1
Chickens 17,099,100 .04 .7
Total (rounded) 30


Based on information obtained by the more detailed inventory of rural
water use in 1965, it was estimated that 18 mgd of water for livestock was
ground water, and 12 mgd was surface water in 1970. The total amount used
for livestock was considered to be consumed.



SUMMARY OF ALL USES

Table 9 summarizes by WRC subregion the estimated water withdrawal
and consumption in Florida for 1970. Of the several uses, the major category
of use of the total amount withdrawn was for electric power production. Of
the 15,300 mgd total withdrawn from all sources, nearly 11,100, or 72
percent, was used for electric power production. However, 9,390 mgd of the
11,100 mgd was saline water used in the flow-through operation for condenser
cooling. Less than 1 percent of the saline water used in this operation was
consumed.
The largest use of fresh water was for irrigation. The counties in southern
Florida, constituting WRC subregion 0309, used 1,560 mgd or 75 percent of
the total 2,100 mgd used in Florida during 1970.
Industry, other than thermoelectric power plants, required 926 mgd of
fresh water and 132 mgd of saline water, both self-supplied. An additional
166 mgd from public supply systems was estimated for industrial use.
As shown in table 9, the total fresh water used in 1970 was obtained in
nearly equal quantities from surface-water and ground-water sources, 2,900
mgd and 2,860 mgd, respectively.
Considering both fresh and saline water, about 2,250 gpd per capital was
used to meet all water requirements of Florida during 1970. Considering only
fresh water, the water requirements were 849 gpd per capital.










Table 9. Summary of estimated water withdrawal and consumption by Water Resources Council subregions in Florida,
1970

Total water withdrawn (mgd)

Sources of water withdrawn
Thermo-
WRC Total electric Total
sub- popula- Rural power Self- Ground Surface water
region tion Public domestic (electric supplied Total con-
in (thou- sup- and live- Irriga- utility) industrial with- sumed
Florida sands) plies stock action use use drawals fresh saline fresh saline (mgd)
0307 29.8 3 3 0 43 52 101 56 0 0 45 5


191
432
141
27


186
1,556
330
12


2,500
4,588
2,965
180
160
145
495


151 3,085
357 6,967
202 3,694
30 261
86 275
72 224
109 705


489
1,404
563
86
108
27
130


701
1,314
80
175
167
181
286


1,872
4,199
2,965
0
0
16
289


234
1,155
372
43
25
15
85


6,789.5 884 195 2,099 11,076 1,059 15,313 2,864 159


1,598.2
2,856.1
1,425.5
201.6
181.4
52.1
444.8


0308
0309
0310
0311
0312
0313
0314
Florida
total


2,904 9,386 1,934






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 83


The estimated total water consumed by all uses in 1970 was 1,930 mgd,
most of which was fresh water. About one third of all the fresh water
withdrawn from the source was consumed.


TRENDS IN WATER USE, 1950-70

Trends in population and water withdrawn for major uses in Florida for
1950 to 1970 are shown in table 10 and figure 6.
Estimates for 1950, 1955, and 1960 are given in reports by MacKichan
(1951, 1957) and by Mackichan and Kammerer (1961). Estimates of water
use in 1956 are given in a report by the Florida Water Resources Study
Commission (1956). The 1965 estimates are from county-by-county inven-
tories made by the Florida District for the national report by Murray (1968)
and given by Pride (1970). The 1970 estimates are given in this report.
Population estimates are from the U. S. Bureau of Census (1950, 1960, 1970)
and the Florida Development Commission (1955, 1956, 1965).
Figure 6 shows that public supply use has increased uniformly at the
same general rate as population growth. The trend of water use for irrigation
has also increased but is not as uniform as the trend for public supply use.
The dashed line in figure 6 shows the trend of water use for irrigation from
1950 to 1970. The solid line connects the estimated water use for irrigation at
5-year intervals and for 1956. The estimate of use for irrigation in 1970 is
considered to be more reliable than that for any previous year. The 1965
estimate is now considered to be too high, both in irrigated acres and in
withdrawal rates. The dashed line is, thus, a more representative estimate of
water use for irrigation than the individual estimates shown. The downward
trend from 1965 to 1970, indicated by the solid line, is considered to be
incorrect, and water use for irrigation probably increased from 1965 to 1970.
Industrial water use, as shown in figure 6, includes water used for the
production of thermoelectric power and for other industries that supply their
own water. Both fresh and saline water is included. Saline water accounted for
3,360 mgd of the total industrial water use in 1960, 6,260 mgd of the total in
1965, and 9,540 mgd of the total use in 1970. Before 1960, the relative
quantities of fresh and saline water for industrial use was not reported.
The average per capital use of all water increased from 332 gpd in 1950 to
about 2,250 gpd in 1965 and 1970. Considering fresh water only, the average
per capital use increased from 590 gpd in 1955 (the first year for which
records are available on the differentiation between fresh and saline water) to
759 gpd in 1960, and 1,180 gpd in 1965, and decreased to 849 gpd in 1970.
Although the total use of water continues to increase sharply, the per
capital use of fresh water seems to be somewhat stabilized or even reduced
from 1965 to 1970. However, as previously mentioned, the estimates of water













Table 10. Population and estimated water use in Florida, 1950-70

Per
capital
Total water withdrawn (mgd) c
use
Industrial uses All uses (gpd)
Total Total
popula- Rural Thermo- water
Years on domestic electric All Fresh con.
Included (thou- Public and Iri- power Other industrial ,All water All sumed
in inventory sands) supplies livestock nation production industry uses Fresh Saline water only water (mgd)


1950
1955
1956
1960
1965
1970


2,771
3,670
3,941
4,951
5,805
6,789


170 55
319 38
390 (a)
530 110
710 142
884 195


410
510
1,182
660
3,200
2,099


(a)
(a)
(a)
4,800
8,100
11,076


(a)
(a)
(a)
1,020
961
1,059


286
1,945
2,227
5,820
9,061
12,135


(a)
2,167
(a)
3,760
6,852
5,768


(a)
645
(a)
3,360
6,261
9,545


921
2,812
3,799
7,120
13,113
15,313


(a)
590
(a)
759
1,180
849


332
766
964
1,438
2,259
2,255


(a)
(a)
(a)
1,210
1,639
1,934


(a) Data not available.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 83


Figure 6. Trends in population and withdrawals of water in Florida, 1950-70







30 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

used for irrigation made in 1965 now seem to be considerably too high, which
would account for part of the apparent reduction in per capital use from 1965
to 1970.
The greatest increase in use from 1950 to 1970 was for saline water used
for condenser cooling in thermoelectric power production.


SELECTED REFERENCES

Florida Department of Natural Resources, 1970, Report on water and related
land resources availability and use in the St. Johns River basin and
adjoining coastal area.
Florida Development Commission, 1965, Population of Florida.
'-Florida Division of Water Resources, 1966, Report on land and water
resources needs and availability in the Florida west coast tributaries area.
Florida Water Resources Study Commission, 1956, Florida's water re-
sources: Report to the Governor of Florida and the 1957 legislature.
Healy, H. G., 1972, Public water supplies of selected municipalities in Florida,
1970: Florida Bureau of Geology Inf. Circ. (in preparation).
MacKichan, K.A., 1951, Estimated use of water in the United States,
1950: U.S. Geol. Survey Circ. 115.
1957 Estimated use of water in the United States,
1955: U. S. Geol. Survey Circ. 398.
MacKichan, K. A. and Kammerer, J. C., 1961, Estimated use of water in the
United States, 1960: U. S. Geol. Survey Circ. 456.
Murray, C. R., 1968, Estimated use of water in the United States, 1965: U. S.
Geol. Survey Circ. 556.
tL- Murray, C. R. and Reeves, E. B., 1972, Estimated use of water in the United
States in 1970: U. S. Geol. Survey Circ. 676.
Pride, R. W., Estimated water use in Florida, 1965: Florida Bureau of Geol.
Map Series 36.
Snell, L. J. and Anderson, Warren, 1970, Water resources of northeast
Florida: Florida Bureau of Geol. Rept. of Inv. 54.
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1967, Irrigation water requirements, Soil Conserva-
tion Service, Technical Release 21.
1970, Florida Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation
Service, Ann. Rept.
1971, Livestock and poultry inventory, January 1: Statis-
tical Reporting Service, Crop Reporting Board, Ann. Rept.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 83 31

U. S. Dept. of Commerce, 1971, 1970 Census of Population, Number of
Inhabitants, Florida.
U. S. Federal Power Commission, 1971, Production of electric energy by
electric utilities by states and type of plant-1970 (preliminary) with
comparative 1969 data: Florida Power Commission News Release, March
18, 1971.
'University of Florida, 1969, DARE Report: Institute of Food and Agricul-
tural Sciences, Publ. 7.
1971, The DARE Report-1971: Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, Publ. 10.
Water Resources Council, 1970, Water resources regions and subregions for the
national assessment of water and related land resources.