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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Sources of water
 Chemical analyses
 Purpose, scope, and definition...
 Northwestern Florida
 Northern, Northeastern, and North-Central...
 Central Florida
 Southern and Southeastern coastal...
 Alphabetical list of cities
 References


FGS



Public water supplies of selected municipalities in Florida, 1970 ( FGS: Information circular 81 )
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 Material Information
Title: Public water supplies of selected municipalities in Florida, 1970 ( FGS: Information circular 81 )
Series Title: Florida. Bureau of Geology. Information circular, no. 81
Physical Description: iv, 213 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Healy, Henry G
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Publisher: Bureau of Geology
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1972
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Water-supply -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 209-213.
General Note: "Prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Bureau of Geology ... Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District, Southwest Florida Water Management District, and other State, local, and Federal agencies."
Funding: Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
Statement of Responsibility: by Henry G. Healy.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000843094
notis - AED9080
lccn - 73621411
System ID: UF00001141:00001
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Abstract
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Sources of water
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 5
        Page 8
    Chemical analyses
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 8
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Purpose, scope, and definition of terms
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Northwestern Florida
        Page 20
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    Northern, Northeastern, and North-Central Florida
        Page 44
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    Central Florida
        Page 74
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    Southern and Southeastern coastal Florida
        Page 135
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    Alphabetical list of cities
        Page 205
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    References
        Page 209
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        Copyright
            Main
Full Text





STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Randolph Hodges, Executive Director




DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
R. O. Vernon, Director




BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
C. W. Hendry, Jr.,Chief




Information Circular No. 81




PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES OF SELECTED
MUNICIPALITIES IN FLORIDA, 1970



By
Henry G. Healy



Prepared by the
U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES,
CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT,
SOUTHWEST FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT
and other state, local, and federal agencies


TALLAHASSEE
1972














































Completed manuscript received
August 25, 1972
Printed by the
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Division of Interior Resources
Bureau of Geology
Tallahassee





ii







CONTENTS

Page

Abstract ......................................... 1
Introduction .................................... 2
Sources of water ................... ............... 5
Chemical analyses ................... .............. 8
Purpose and scope ................................. 17
Definition of terms ............................... 17
Acknowledgments .... ......................... 20
Northwestern Florida ............... .............. 20
Northern, northeastern, and north-central Florida ................ 44
Central Florida ................. .................74
Southern and southeastern Florida . . . ..... ..... ..135
Alphabetical list of cities ............................ 205
References .................. ..................209

ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure

1 Population of Florida, 1900-70, and total yearly water use (pumpage) of
selected municipalities in Florida, 1956, 1965, and 1970 . . 3
2 Sources of water supply for municipal use . . . . 6
3 Municipalities in northwestern Florida for which water-use data are given 21
4 Total yearly pumpage, Panama City . . . . ... 35
5 Distribution systems of Bay County Water System, Panama City area .. 36
6 Total yearly pumpage, city of Pensacola . . . ... 38
7 Areas supplied water by the city of Pensacola and the Peoples Water Company,
Warrington ................................39
8 Distribution system of St. Joe Paper Company, Port St. Joe ........ 41
9 Municipalities in northern, northeastern, and north-central Florida for which
water-use data are given ...... ..... ...... ........45
10 Areas supplied water by the city of Jacksonville . . ... 54
11 Total yearly pumpage, city of Jacksonville . . . .... 55
12 Areas supplied water by the city of St. Augustine . . ... 69
13 Total yearly pumpage, city of Tallahassee . . . ..... 72
14 Municipalities in central Florida for which water-use data are given . 75
15 Total yearly pumpage, city of Cocoa . . . .. .. 84
16 Total yearly pumpage, Dade City ............. . .86
17 Total yearly pumpage, city of Lakeland ................. ..98
18 Areas supplied water by the city of Melbourne . . ... .105
19 Total yearly pumpage, city of Orlando . . . ... .113
20 Total yearly pumpage, city of Tampa . . . .... ..124
21 Areas supplied water by the city of Vero Beach . . . .128
22 Total yearly pumpage, city of Winter Park . . . ... ..134
23 Municipalities in southern and southeastern coastal Florida for which water-use
data are given ................................136












24 Areas supplied water by individual and composite water systems, Broward
County ................. ............... 155
25 Well fields, treatment plants, and service areas of public- and private
water-supply systems in the Ft. Myers.area . . . ... .157
26 Municipalities served by the City of Miami water-supply system . .173
27 Total yearly pumpage, city of Miami . . . ... ..174
28 Total yearly pumpage, city of Stuart ................. ..199

TABLES

Table

1 Summary of sources of public supply for 138 Florida municipalities, 1970 7
2 Summary of surface-water sources and Florida municipalities supplied, 1970 9
3 Pumpage in 1970 by 20 Florida municipalities ...... . 10
4 Major chemical constituents in water-their sources, concentrations, and effects
upon usability of water for public supply in Florida, 1970 ........ 11







PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES OF SELECTED
MUNICIPALITIES IN FLORIDA, 1970

By
Henry G. Healy

ABSTRACT

Water used in 1970 by the 138 municipalities in this report, 726 million
gallons per day, represents 83 percent of the total public supply of the State of
Florida and serves 64 percent of the State's population. Of the 138
municipalities, 119 use ground water and 19 use surface water, either wholly or
partly. The ground-water supply constitutes 87 percent, 635 million gallons per
day, of the total demand of the 138 municipalities and surface water, 13
percent, or 91 million gallons per day.
The 20 largest cities in the State, with an aggregate population of 2.93
million, 43 percent of the State's population, use 519 million gallons per day, 59
percent of the State's total water supply.
The principal sources of ground water used by tile 138 cities and the amounts,
in million gallons per day, are: the Biscayne aquifer, 305; the Floridan aquifer,
277; the sand-and-gravel aquifer, 21; and the shallow sand aquifer, 20. Other,
minor, aquifers yielded 10 million gallons per day. Most of the surface-water
supply, 55 million gallons per day, was diverted from rivers. Lakes supplied 31
and a reservoir 4 million gallons per day. An infiltration gallery and
desalinization plant together supplied 3 million gallons per day. Of the rivers,
Hillsborough River supplied the most, 45 mgd to Tampa. The Myakka-Hatchee
River, the least, 0.25 mgd to North Port Charlotte.
The areas where rapid growth of population and economic activity will have
the greatest impact on water-resources are the Sarasota-Naples area, Tampa-St.
Petersburg area, southeastern coastal area, Orlando area, Jacksonville-Fernandina
area, Pensacola area, and the Tallahassee area. In most of these, water for
municipal supplies is currently adequate.
Per capital use of water in the 138 municipalities ranged from 40 to 390
gallons per day and averaged 167.
Of the 162 chemical analyses listed in the report, 148 represent water quality
during 1967-72 and 14 before 1967. The analyses represent both raw and
treated water, virtually all from ground-water sources. Most of the analyses were
made by the Geological Survey. Ground-water supplies are typically hard to very
hard except in extreme northwestern Florida, where water from the
sand-and-gravel aquifer is very soft.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


INTRODUCTION

This report summarizes municipal use of water in 138 selected municipalities
in Florida as of December 1970 and includes the following: 1) Tabulation of
data on water-use for each listed municipality; 2) tabulation of chemical analyses
of water for each listed municipality; and 3) graphs of pumpage, included when
available. Also included are selected recent references relating to geology,
hydrology, and water resources of those areas in which the municipalities are
located.
Since World War II, particularly during the last decade, the demand for fresh
water for municipal use in Florida has increased sharply. This steadily increasing
demand directly reflects the rapid population growth in the State. Although
supplies have generally been adequate for the increased demand, shortages of
fresh water will inevitably occur and may become critical in some areas with
possible attendant deterioration in quality of the water. Such deterioration will
impose a limit on the amount of water available, and new sources or type of
treatment will be required. To lessen the effect of future shortages, the present
supplies require careful water management and a knowledge of the amount of
water used as well as the amount and character of the water available.
Figure 1 shows the rate at which population and water use have increased.
The areas where rapid growth of both population and economic activity will
have the greatest impact on water resources are: 1) the lower Gulf coastal area,
Sarasota to Naples, a rapidly developing vast vacation-retirement complex; 2) the
Tampa-St. Petersburg area, whose population increased from 456,000 in 1960 to
557,000 in 1970; 3) the southeastern coastal area in Martin, Palm Beach,
Broward, and Dade Counties, extending from Stuart to well below Miami, an
area whose population was 1,514,031 in 1960 and 2,264,680 in 1970 (Florida
Department of Commerce, 1971, p. 8-13); 4) the Orlando area, where the
impact of Disney World is being felt; 5) the industrialized
Jacksonville-Fernandina area; 6) the Pensacola area; and 7) the Tallahassee area.
At present (1972), water supply in most of the these areas is adequate. However,
prolonged dry periods can cause shortages and critical conditions, as in the Dade
County area in the spring and early summer of 1971.
This report has been divided into four sections: 1) northwestern Florida; 2)
northern, northeastern, and north central Florida; 3) central Florida; and 4)
southern and southeastern coastal Florida. This presentation parallels that of the
biennial ground-water-level report for 1969-70 (Healy, 1972). Data for
individual municipalities are presented alphabetically under each section, and an
index of cities is included for ready reference to the tabulated water-use data.
(See appendix.)









INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81


I I I I I I ^



- 0 Population of Florldo

O Projected Population
Population of Florido,1971 edition, Flo. Dept. Comm. /
A Totol Yearly Pumpoge
I. Inventory of Public Woter Supplies in Florldo, O
1956, Flo. St. Bd. of Heollh.
2. U.S. Geol. Survey, 1965, Woter Use Ooto.
3.U.S.Geol.Survy, 1970, Woter Use Doto. 0 /

0 I







2.

0



0
i.
0
0
0


0 0 0
I00


1920 1930 1940 1950


1960 1970 1980 1990


Figure 1. Population of Florida, 1900-70 and total yearly water use
(pumpage) of selected municipalities in Florida, 1956, 1965, and 1970.


400








300 "
z
0
-J






200 z

-J


w
0




ILO
100 Z
0
too
(J


1900


Q ACn


, i I I I II I


01






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Of the cities listed in this report, 10 are in the 8 SMSA (Standard
Metropolitan Statistical Areas): Ft. Lauderdale; Hollywood; Jacksonville; Miami;
Orlando; Pensacola; Tallahassee; Tampa; St. Petersburg; and West Palm Beach. A
SMSA is defined by the Bureau of the Budget as a county or group of counties
that contain at least one city of 50,000 inhabitants or more or twin cities with a
combined population of at least 50,000 (Schneider, 1968, p. 3).
Data from this report, in conjunction with the biennial ground-water-level
report for 1969-70. will augment the usefulness of water-level data by allowing
the complete portrayal of the effects that water use has upon the hydrology,
particularly in those areas in the State where pumpage, primarily from
ground-water resources is increasing at a large rate.
Included in this report are water-use data, sewage data, and chemical analyses
of water. A record of daily sewage discharge is included for all municipalities
having treatment plants and where sewage records were available. Whenever
appropriate, a short statement on water-related problems or quality of water is
included for each municipality. Generally, yearly pumpage and per capital use
closely correlate; occasionally, however, the year's pumpage is not proportional
either to population or to daily pumpage and seems to be anomalous for the
population served. In most of these anomalies, per capital use seems high.
The amount of sewage discharged when compared to pumpage for municipal
water demand, affords a measure of the consumptive use of water for a
particular public-supply system. Generally, daily sewage is somewhat less than
daily pumpage, about 75 percent on the average. When this percentage differs
significantly, in most cases it differs because of poor records or difficulty in
establishing the relation between water pumped and water returned as sewage, or
because of varying conditions such as the existence of private wells or use of
septic tanks, for example. In many municipalities, water for public supply is also
used for industry in differing amounts and the water so used may be returned as
effluent other than through the municipal waste-treatment plant. The sewage
data also include the location of the sewage discharge.
Conspicuous examples of municipalities whose per capital use is unusually high
or whose daily discharge of sewage and daily pumpage do not correlate closely
include the following:

i. Per capital use high:
1. Diversion of municipal supply for agricultural-industrial use; example,
Homestead.
2. Estimated or incomplete pumpage record; example, Milton.
II. Daily sewage discharge does not coincide with daily pumpage.
1. Large percentage of septic tanks in operation;,example, Vero Beach.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81


2. Municipal pumpage supplied to industry and industrial effluent not
connected to municipal sewerage system; example, Jacksonville.
3. Ground-water seepage entering sewer lines; example, Daytona Beach, Ft.
Myers.
4. Other areas supplied by municipal system, and the sewage tabulated is
given only for the city supplying water; example, Cocoa, Ft. Lauderdale,
Miami.
5. Consumptive use is appreciable.

The total population of Florida as of December 1970 was 6,789,443. The
total population served by the 138 municipalities given in this report is
4,317,794 or 64 percent of the total population of the State. The population in
the municipalities for which data are included in this report represent a large
segment of the State's population and include all areas where population is
highly concentrated. Per capital use ranges from 40 gpd at Lehigh Acres, Lee
County, to 390 gpd at Leesburg, Lake County. Area per capital use for the 138
municipalities included herein is 167 gpd, as compared with 130 gpd based on
total Statewide daily municipal water use of 883 mgd and a population of
6,789,443.

SOURCES OF WATER

Ground water supplies 87 percent and surface water 13 percent of the total
water used by the 138 municipalities. On a Statewide basis, ground water
supplies 90 percent of municipal water.
Ground-water supplies for municipal use are derived mainly from five
principal aquifers: The Floridan aquifer in central and north Florida; the
Biscayne aquifer in the southeast and lower east coastal area; and the
sand-and-gravel aquifer in the extreme northwest part of the State, the shallow
sand aquifer in south and east coastal Florida, and the Hawthorn-Tampa and
Hawthorn aquifers in southwest Florida (fig. 2).
The Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in north-central, north,
south-central, and most of northwest Florida (Klein, 1971). Total pumpage from
the Floridan in 1970 by municipalities included herein was 277 mgd (million
gallons per day) or 101,277 mgy (million gallons per year), or 44 percent of the
total ground water pumped for use by the 138 municipalities (table 1).
The Biscayne aquifer, which furnished 48 percent of water for these
municipalities, is the chief source of water for most of the cities along the
populous lower east coast. The Biscayne, one of the most highly productive
aquifers in the world, underlies about 3,500 square miles of Broward, Dade, and
Palm Beach Counties. Pumpage from the Biscayne aquifer totaled 305 mgd, or
111,332 mgy in 1970 (table 1).







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


SM


G E 0 I G I


s J

;i:
10 ,






EXPLANATION

SOURCES OF MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLY-/ o

O FLORIDAN AQUIFER
0 BISCAYNE AQUIFER
0D SAND-AND-GRAVEL AQUIFER
0 HAWTHORN-TAMPA AQUIFER
ED SHALLOW SAND AQUIFER
(Includes Pleistocene sand-ond-shell aquifer,
Tamiomi formation, and non-artesian aquifer)


Surface water, see table 2.
j/ See toble I.


Figure 2. Sources of water supply for municipal use.


0 s 40 50 _"








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81


Table l.--Summary of sources of public water supply

1970

Pumpage (million gallons)
Source (per year) (per day)


for 138 Florida municipalities,



Percentage Percentage of
of source total use


Ground water (aquifers)

Biscayne 111,332 305 48.1 42.0

Key Largo limestone 579 2 .2 .2

Floridan 101,277 177 43.7 38.2

Sand-and-gravel 7,496 21 3.2 2.8

Shallow sand 7,384 20 3.2 2.8

Hawthorn and Tampa 2,260 6 1.0 .9

Hawthorn 1,346 4 .6 .5


Total ground water 231,674 635 100.0 87.4


Surface water

Rivers 20,212 55 60.3 7.6

Lakes 11,414 31 34.0 43

Reservoirs 1,566 4 4.7 .6

Infiltration gallery 342 1 1.0 .1


Total surface water 33,534 91 100.0 12.6


State total, 1970,

all sources:

138 municipalities

all municipalities


265,208

322,477


726

883






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81


2. Municipal pumpage supplied to industry and industrial effluent not
connected to municipal sewerage system; example, Jacksonville.
3. Ground-water seepage entering sewer lines; example, Daytona Beach, Ft.
Myers.
4. Other areas supplied by municipal system, and the sewage tabulated is
given only for the city supplying water; example, Cocoa, Ft. Lauderdale,
Miami.
5. Consumptive use is appreciable.

The total population of Florida as of December 1970 was 6,789,443. The
total population served by the 138 municipalities given in this report is
4,317,794 or 64 percent of the total population of the State. The population in
the municipalities for which data are included in this report represent a large
segment of the State's population and include all areas where population is
highly concentrated. Per capital use ranges from 40 gpd at Lehigh Acres, Lee
County, to 390 gpd at Leesburg, Lake County. Area per capital use for the 138
municipalities included herein is 167 gpd, as compared with 130 gpd based on
total Statewide daily municipal water use of 883 mgd and a population of
6,789,443.

SOURCES OF WATER

Ground water supplies 87 percent and surface water 13 percent of the total
water used by the 138 municipalities. On a Statewide basis, ground water
supplies 90 percent of municipal water.
Ground-water supplies for municipal use are derived mainly from five
principal aquifers: The Floridan aquifer in central and north Florida; the
Biscayne aquifer in the southeast and lower east coastal area; and the
sand-and-gravel aquifer in the extreme northwest part of the State, the shallow
sand aquifer in south and east coastal Florida, and the Hawthorn-Tampa and
Hawthorn aquifers in southwest Florida (fig. 2).
The Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in north-central, north,
south-central, and most of northwest Florida (Klein, 1971). Total pumpage from
the Floridan in 1970 by municipalities included herein was 277 mgd (million
gallons per day) or 101,277 mgy (million gallons per year), or 44 percent of the
total ground water pumped for use by the 138 municipalities (table 1).
The Biscayne aquifer, which furnished 48 percent of water for these
municipalities, is the chief source of water for most of the cities along the
populous lower east coast. The Biscayne, one of the most highly productive
aquifers in the world, underlies about 3,500 square miles of Broward, Dade, and
Palm Beach Counties. Pumpage from the Biscayne aquifer totaled 305 mgd, or
111,332 mgy in 1970 (table 1).







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


The sand-and-gravel aquifer in northwest Florida yields large supplies of water
to municipalities. This aquifer underlies an area of 1,900 square miles in
Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties and most of Okaloosa County. Pumpage in
1970 totaled 21 mgd, or 7,496 mgy (table 1).
The shallow sand aquifer supplied 7,384 mgy to municipal use. The
Hawthorn, Hawthorn-Tampa aquifers supplied 3,606 mgy.
The Key Largo limestone supplied 2 mgd, or 579 mgy of salty water from
wells to the Stock Island Desalinization Plant for conversion to fresh water for
public supply to the city bf Key West.
Surface-water supplies for municipal use are diverted from rivers, lakes, and
reservoirs (table 2). St. Augustine is supplied partly by an infiltration gallery.
Pumpage of surface water from all sources in 1970 was 91 mgd, or 33,534
mgy. Rivers contribute 55 mgd, or 20,212 mgy of the water used for public
supply, lakes 30 mgd, or 11,414 mgy, and the remaining sources (reservoirs and
infiltration gallery) 5 mgd or 1,908 mgy (table 1).
Fifteen municipalities are supplied wholly from surface-water sources, and
fcur are supplied from both surface-and-ground-water sources. Partial
surface-water supplies range from 30 percent of the total supply (Ft. Myers) to
92 percent of the total supply (Port Charlotte) (table 2).
Table 3 lists 20 municipalities that in 1970 had the highest pumpage for
municipal water use in the State. These municipalities pump 189,276 mgy, or 71
percent of the total pumpage for public supply of the municipalities reported,
and 59 percent of the public supply of all municipalities in the State. The public
supply of the cities listed on table 3 serves 67 percent of the population of the
municipalities listed in this report and 43 percent of the total State population.

CHEMICAL ANALYSES

The most recent analyses available, usually for 1970, for both ground water
and surface water are presented in this report. Some analyses made before 1970
are listed when a 1970 analysis is not available. The analyses show chemical
quality and physical characteristics of water from aquifers, lakes, streams, and a
reservoir. If an analysis earlier than 1970 is available and the source was
identified, an analysis was made of water from the same source in 1970. Both
analyses are included for comparison. Analyses of chemical constituents are
given in milligrams per liter. For the physical constituents, the units are generally
indicated as shown on each analyses. Table 4 summarizes the types of chemical
and physical analyses and their sources and significance with respect to public
water supply. A complete treatment of the occurrence, interpretation, and
distribution of chemical constituents in water is given in Water Supply Paper
1473 (Hem, 1970).








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81





Table 2.-Summary of surface water sources and Florida municipalities
supplied, 1970.


1
Source


Deer Point Reservoir

Chipola River

Quincy Creek

Hillsborough River

Lake Washington

Manatee River

Braden River

Lake Sirena

Shell Creek

Lake Okeechobee


11. Caloosahatchee River



12. Lake Mangonia and
Clear Lake

13. Myakka-Hatchee River

14. Fordham Waterway

15. Infiltration gallery


Municipality


Panama City

Port St. Joe

Quincy

Tampa

Melbourne2

Palmetto

Bradenton

Lake Placid

Punta Gorda

Belle Glade

Clewiston

Okeechobee

Pahokee

Ft. Myers


Per
Sup

1

1



1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1


Ft. Myers (suburban) 100

West Palm Beach 3 100
West Palm Beach 100


No. Port Charlotte

Port Charlotte

St. Augustine


2Numeral refers to figure 2.
3Includes Eau Gallie
Includes Palm Beach and South Palm Beach


cent Total pumpage
plied mgy

00 1,566

00 163

90 430

00 16,265

00 2,818

00 203

00 1,229

00 219

00 365

00 988

.00 728

.00 222

.00 230

30 377


595

6,209


93

492

342

33,534









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Table 3.-Pumpage in 1970 by 20 Florida


Municipality S

Miami

Tampa

Jacksonville

Ft. Lauderdale

Orlando

St. Petersburg

North Miami Beach

Pensacola

West Palm Beach

Cocoa

Lakeland

Pompano Beach

Hollywood

Tallahassee

Gainesville

Boca Raton

Daytona Beach

Winter Park

North Miami

Melbourne

Total


sourcee

GW

SW

GW

GW

GW

GW

GW

GW

SW

GW

GW

GW

GW

GW

GW

GW

GW

GW

GW

SW


Pumpage (million gallons)
Per year Per day


55,879

16,265

15,522

14,867

11,825

10,205

6,530

6,313

5,430

5,596

5,237

5,116

4,975

4,393

3,975

3,945

3,498

3,454

3,442

S2818

189,285


153

45

43

41

32

28

18

17

15

15

14

14

14

12

11

11

10

9

9

8

519


Municipalities

Population Per Capita Use
Served (gallons per day)

789,444 174

307,444 116

190,000 132

186,715 218

175,000 185

250,000 130

95,000 188

125,000 140

57,380 259

100,000 153

81,500 175

50,000 280

100,000 136

77,700 155

,4 70,000 155

35,000 309

56,606 170

53,809 175

55,000 171

63,464 121

2,918,818







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


The sand-and-gravel aquifer in northwest Florida yields large supplies of water
to municipalities. This aquifer underlies an area of 1,900 square miles in
Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties and most of Okaloosa County. Pumpage in
1970 totaled 21 mgd, or 7,496 mgy (table 1).
The shallow sand aquifer supplied 7,384 mgy to municipal use. The
Hawthorn, Hawthorn-Tampa aquifers supplied 3,606 mgy.
The Key Largo limestone supplied 2 mgd, or 579 mgy of salty water from
wells to the Stock Island Desalinization Plant for conversion to fresh water for
public supply to the city bf Key West.
Surface-water supplies for municipal use are diverted from rivers, lakes, and
reservoirs (table 2). St. Augustine is supplied partly by an infiltration gallery.
Pumpage of surface water from all sources in 1970 was 91 mgd, or 33,534
mgy. Rivers contribute 55 mgd, or 20,212 mgy of the water used for public
supply, lakes 30 mgd, or 11,414 mgy, and the remaining sources (reservoirs and
infiltration gallery) 5 mgd or 1,908 mgy (table 1).
Fifteen municipalities are supplied wholly from surface-water sources, and
fcur are supplied from both surface-and-ground-water sources. Partial
surface-water supplies range from 30 percent of the total supply (Ft. Myers) to
92 percent of the total supply (Port Charlotte) (table 2).
Table 3 lists 20 municipalities that in 1970 had the highest pumpage for
municipal water use in the State. These municipalities pump 189,276 mgy, or 71
percent of the total pumpage for public supply of the municipalities reported,
and 59 percent of the public supply of all municipalities in the State. The public
supply of the cities listed on table 3 serves 67 percent of the population of the
municipalities listed in this report and 43 percent of the total State population.

CHEMICAL ANALYSES

The most recent analyses available, usually for 1970, for both ground water
and surface water are presented in this report. Some analyses made before 1970
are listed when a 1970 analysis is not available. The analyses show chemical
quality and physical characteristics of water from aquifers, lakes, streams, and a
reservoir. If an analysis earlier than 1970 is available and the source was
identified, an analysis was made of water from the same source in 1970. Both
analyses are included for comparison. Analyses of chemical constituents are
given in milligrams per liter. For the physical constituents, the units are generally
indicated as shown on each analyses. Table 4 summarizes the types of chemical
and physical analyses and their sources and significance with respect to public
water supply. A complete treatment of the occurrence, interpretation, and
distribution of chemical constituents in water is given in Water Supply Paper
1473 (Hem, 1970).







Table 4.-Major chemical constituents in water--their sources, concentrations, and effects upon usability
of water for public supply in Florida, 1970.
(Footnotes are at end of table)


Chemical constituent


Safe 1


Range in chemical org


Effect upon usability


or physical property standards ,physical properties Sources of water

Silica (Si02) -Present in almost all rocks Scale formed in pipes
0.1-48 and soil. Generally dis- and boilers. Effective-
solves in concentrations of ness of water softeners
1 to 50 mgl. In alkaline reduced.
waters concentration may be
as high as 100 mgl.


Calcium (Ca) and Ca Mg Present in almost all rocks. Hardness and scale-form-
Magnesium (Mg) 0.9-430 .3-100 Particularly abundant in ing properties are char-
limestone, dolomitE and acteristic. Soap lather-
gypsum. Readily dissolves ing difficult. Mg is an
from these rocks,usually in. indicator of contamina-
high concentrations. High tion of fresh water by
in river water that drains sea water.
humid areas.


Sodium (Na) and Na K Present in almost all rocks. High concentrations give
Potassium (K) 1.8-200 0.2-18 Particularly abundant in salty taste to water.
sedimentary rocks,from Low to medium concentra-
which Na readily dissolves, tions do not adversely
but K more slowly. Concen- affect usefulness of
tration of Na much higher water for purposes other
than K in natural waters. than steam generation
and irrigation.









Table 4.--Major chemical constituents in water-their sources, concentrations, and effects
of water for public supply in Florida, 1970.
(Footnotes are at end of table)


upon usability


Chemical constituent Safe 1 Range in chemical or2 Effect upon usability
or physical property standards physical properties Sources of water

Bicarbonate (HCO3) 3-372 Action of carbon dioxide Decmposes under heat
in water on carbonate and pressure to form
rocks,such as limestone scale and carbon dioxide
and dolomite. (corrosive). Causes
carbonate water hardness
in combination with
calcium and magnesium.


Chloride (Cl) 0-250 2.6-360 Dissolved from rocks and Imparts salty taste
soil. Important sources to water. If present
include evaporites, oceans, in large amounts,
.d and brines, increases corrosive-
ness of water.


Fluoride (F) Depends on 0.1-2.20 Present in most igneous Reduces tooth decay.
annual averages and sedimentary rocks. Excessive, fluoride
of maximum daily causes mottling or
air temperature permanent discoloration
of teeth. Effect of
fluoride depends on
concentration, age of
individual, susceptibil-
ity of individual and
quantity of water con-
sumed.




Table 4.--Major chemical constituents in water--their sources, concentrations, and effects upon usability
of water for public supply in Florida, 1970.
(Footnotes are at end of table)


Chemical constituent


Safe 1


Range in chemical or2


Effect upon usability


or physical property standards physical properties Sources of water

Nitrate (NO3) 0-45 0.1-9.3 Leaching of irrigated soil. Indicates localized
Decaying vegetable matter, contamination if con-
animal wastes. centtations in water
are higher than aver-
age. Concentrations
45 mgl can cause dis-
ease of infants (meth-
emoglobinemia) with
sometimes fatal results.


Iron (Fe) 0-0.3 0.1-9.3 Dissolved from all rocks and Oxidizes and precipi-
Iron and soils. May also g- into states as a reddish-
manganese solution from iron .)ipes, brown sediment in
pumps, and other iron water exposed to air.
implements. High concentrations in
water stain enamels,
porcelain and restrict
water's use in many
water-using industries.


Hardness as CaCO -- 3-1,860 Present in almost all rocks. Forms scale in boilers,
Particularly abundant in pipes, heating coils.
limestone, dolomite, and Prevents or retards
gypsum. Readily dissolves soap from lathering.
from these rocks usually in Hardness scale: soft,
high concentrations. Also 60 mgl; moderately
may result from high con- hard, 61-120 mgl; hard
centrations of metallic ions 121-180 mgl; and very
i.e. Cu, K, Na. hard, 180 mgl.







Table 4.-Major chemical constituents in water-their sources, concentrations, and effects upon usability
of water for public supply in Florida, 1970,
(Footnotes are at end of table)


Chemical constituent


Range in chemical or2


Effect upon usability


or physical property standards physical properties Sources of water

Dissolved solids 0-500 20-1,320 Mineral content and organic Water with concentra-
(residue at 180* C) content of water. Dissolved tions higher than 500
from rocks and soil. mgl is unsuitable for
many purposes.

Specific conductivity -18-2,200 Depends upon the concentra- Varies with tempera-
(micromhos at 25" C) tions and kind of minerals ture, concentration,
dissolved from rocks and and degree of ioniza-
soils. tion of constituents.
May be used to deter-
mine the extent to
which ground and sur-
face water are con-
taminated by sea water.

Hydrogen ion -- 57-8.6 Carbonate, bicarbonate, Water with low pH
hydroxide, phosphate, generally more cor-
silicate and borate raise rosive than water with
the pH. Acids, acid-gen- high pH. Strongly
rating salts and free alkaline water may be
carbon dioxide lower the corrosive. Neutral
pH. water has a pH of 7.0;
acid water pH<7.0,
alkaline water pH >
7.0.


Safe 1







Table 4.-Major chemical constituents in water--their sources, concentrations, and effects upon usability
of water for public supply in Florida, 1970.
(Footnotes are at end of table)


Chemical constituent
or physical property


Safe
standards


Range in chemical or2
physical properties


Sources


Effect upon usability
of water


Temperature of water re-
flects air temperature and
temperature of soils and
rock formations through
which it moves. Generally,
temperature of surface
water more closely cor-
relates to air temperature
than to temperature of
ground water.


Temperature to a large
degree determines the
purpose for which
water might be used.
Temperatures fluctuate
seasonally with
greater fluctuations
occurring in shallow
aquifers and streams.
Water at moderate
depths usually has
temperatures that
fluctuate through a
narrower range than
that of water at
shallow depths.


1 U. S. Public Health Service, 1962, Drinking water standards, 1962: U. S. Public Health Serv. Pub. 956, 61 p.

2 Ranges based on analyses listed in this report.


Temperature (C)


A
0i


I


0r


__ __







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


The objective in including in this report analyses of raw and.treated water
used for public supply is to establish a bench mark of chemical and physical data
for comparison with future analyses. Such comparison will indicate any changes
in the source waters from which the public supply is obtained. The State Board
of Health, concerned with the quality of raw water (for epidemiology) and of
treated water (for effectiveness of treatment processed), analyzes both raw and
treated water. The quality of raw water, of course, reflects conditions in the
hydrologic environment.
A total of 162 analyses is presented. Of the total, 148 analyses represent
water quality during 1967-72; the remaining 14 represent water quality before
1967. Raw water was analyzed in most cases. Analyses of treated water are also
included when available. Occasionally, an analysis of water sampled before 1967
is included; some indicate water-quality between the times of analyses. The
distribution of analyses used is as follows: U.S. Geological Survey 98; private
laboratories 28; Florida State Board of Health 13; Municipal water-treatment
plants 21, and the U.S. Navy 2.
Generally, the ground water is typically hard to very hard except in extreme
northwest Florida, where water from the sand-and-gravel aquifer is very soft, low
in bicarbonate and dissolved solids but corrosive (because of dissolved carbon
dioxide) to the extent that lime is used to stabilize the water to be used for
public supply.
Of the water used for public supply from the Floridan aquifer, 71 percent is
hard to very hard, 25 percent is moderately hard, and about 1 percent is soft.
Water used for public supply from the Biscayne aquifer is a very hard high
bicarbonate water, as is water from the Hawthorn, Hawthorn-Tampa, Tamiami,
and shallow sand nonartesian aquifers.






a
Durfor and Becker (1964, p. 27) use the following classification for hardness range:
Hardness range
(mg/I of CaCO2) Description

060 ................................. Soft.
61-120 .............................. Moderately hard.
121-180 .............................. Hard.
More than 180 .......................... Very hard.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81


PURPOSE AND SCOPE

This report is an outgrowth of the 1970 water-use survey made by the U.S.
Geological Survey as part of the Statewide cooperative program with the Bureau
of Geology, Florida Department of Natural Resources, and as part of programs
with the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District, the Southwest
Florida Water Management District, and with other State, local, and federal
agencies.
Information on water use in Florida in 1970 was collected as part of the
national survey of water use and will be published in: 1) U.S. Geological Survey
Circular on "Water use in the United States, 1970"; 2) Bureau of Geology,
Florida Department of Natural Resources Information Circular, "Public water
supplies for selected municipalities in Florida, 1970."
This report, which includes water-use information for 1970, represents an
updating of water- use information in Florida for 1965 presented in Bureau of
Geology, Florida Department of Natural Resources Map Series 36, "Estimated
water use in Florida, 1965."
The data presented were collected by personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey,
May 1970-January 1971. The inventory was implemented by personal contact
with the Florida Board of Health, Bureau of-Sanitary Engineering, and with
water-plant superintendents, water managers, and local city officials in
municipalities throughout the State. In addition to use of ground water for
source of supply, criteria for the selection of the 138 individual towns and cities
used in the report include: county seats; cities of 5,000 population; and, cities
using water for municipal use derived in whole or in part from surface-water
sources.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Most of the terms that appear in the tables that follow are self-explanatory or
are obvious and need no definition. A few of the terms may not be clear, and for
these a description is included below. The terms defined are: "Drainage basin,"
"Water-treatment," and "Type and number of services."
Drainage Basin. The State has been divided into 29 major drainage basins
(Kenner and others, 1967). The primary numerical designations of the drainage
basins are the same as those of the Index of River Basin Maps of the United
States issued by the Inter-Agency Committee on Water Resources and also used
by the Office of Water Data Coordination for the nationwide system. Basin
designations consist of the basin name plus a numeral. The basin code numbers
provide a basic system of cataloging and processing the accumulating large
volume of hydrologic information for electronic data storage and retrieval. The






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


basin designations and code numbers conform, with minor exceptions, to the
nationwide system instituted by the Office of Water Data Coordination, U.S.
Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. In this report, only major drainage basins
are included. The coding, name designation, and drainage areas of 46 major and
minor drainage basins in Florida are described and discussed by Kenner, Pride,
and Conover (1967).
Water Treatment. -- Water- and sewage-treatment processes generally do not
differ in principle. The only difference lies in the degree of pollution of the
influent water with which the processes must contend and the required quality
of the resulting effluent.
Generally, water treatment processes are interrelated and are presented in this
report either as generalized treatment processes, i.e., primary, secondary,
tertiary, or as individual processes, as reported by water- and sewage-treatment
plant operators, i.e., sedimentation, stabilization.
Because water-treatment personnel of many municipalities have reported
sewage treatment as primary, secondary, and tertiary, a brief generalized
description of these processes are given. Primary treatment includes plain
sedimentation, which is the removal by gravitational settling of suspended
particles heavier than water. Settling occurs in basins or tanks. Chemical
coagulation and digestion is also part of the primary treatment. Secondary
treatment includes filtration by either high- or low-rate trickling filters,
sedimentation or settling, activated sludge, and digestion. Tertiary treatment
includes the use of oxidation ponds for purification of settled sewage by storage
under climatic conditions that favor growth of algae.
Water-treatment processes are generally classified into 11 basic mechanical
and chemical processes (Fair and Geyer, 1954). The 11 processes and the
corresponding treatment, as reported herein, are described as follows:
Gas exchange. Gases are precipitated from water or taken into solution by
water by exposure of the water to the air or to atmospheres of special gases
under various pressures.
Treatment: aeration, chlorination, carbonation treatment.
Screening. Process by which floating and suspended matter are removed
from the water by straining through screens or racks. Generally materials are
removed from screens or reduced to smaller particles.
Treatment: communition.
Sedimentation. Process by which the transporting and scouring powers of
water are controlled to the extent that suspended solids in transport are
deposited from the water by gravity when the rate of flow is reduced.
Treatment: grit chambers, settling, sedimentation.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81


Flotation. Process by which substances in suspension are brought to the
surface by flotation agents, such as fine air bubbles or chemical compounds.
Treatment: diffused air, skimming.
Chemical coagulation. Process by which dissolved substances are thrown out
of solution.
Treatment: flocculation, softening.
Ion exchange. Process by which ions in water are exchanged for
complementary ions of a solid exchange medium (zeolites).
Treatment: softening.
Physical adsorption and contact. Process by which adsorptive and other
physical interfacial forces combine to remove substances from solution
concentrating them at the interface occasionally as precipitates.
Treatment: filtration, taste, and odor control.
Biological flocculation and precipitation. Primarily sewage treatment process
by which putrescible substances are partly stabilized by living organisms under
aerobid conditions. Stabilization involves the transfer to the interface of the
slime of living organisms finely divided and dissolved putrescible matter.
Treatment: filtration, activated sludge, contact stabilization, aeration,
biofiltration, digestion, septic tanks, oxidation, polishing ponds.
Filtration. Process in which suspended matter is transferred from water or
sewage to granular material, i.e., sand, coke, coal, etc. by continued action of
straining, sedimentation, and interfacial contact.
Treatment: filtration, clarification, septic tanks.
Disinfection. Process by which living potentially infectious organisms are
killed.
Treatment: chlorination, algae control, incineration, drying of sludge by air or
heat for disposal.
Chemical stabilization. Process in which chemicals are added for the purpose
of converting objectionable substances into unobjectionable forms without their
removal from the water.
Treatment: chlorination, pH control, recarbonation, anti-precipitation and
corrosion control, softening, stabilization.



Abbreviations. Some abbreviations appear throughout the tabular material in citing quanti-
ties of water. They are: gpd, gallons per day; mg, million gallons; mgd, million gallons per
day; mgy, million gallons per year.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Type and number of services. The figures shown under type and number of
services represent the number of water-service meters in use at the time of the
inventory. Type and number of services are reported as "undifferentiated" when
the number of service meters used for domestic and commercial water use is not
known.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Grateful acknowledgment is made to Mr. J.B. Miller, Administrator, Water
Supply Section, Bureau of Sanitary Engineering, Florida Department of Health
and Rehabilitative Services, for his help and cooperation in supplying records on
water use and chemical quality, to municipal waterworks officials for supplying
and verifying records of water use and other information on their water- and
sewage-treatment plants and to the personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey,
Water Resources Division, particularly Messrs. J.E. Hull, A. F. Robertson, C.A.
Pascale, and the late LJ. Crain, for their assistance and cooperation in
participating in the extensive inventory of data from municipalities throughout
the State. The report was prepared under the general supervision of C.S.
Conover, district chief, Florida District.

NORTHWESTERN FLORIDA

The northwestern Florida section includes the Florida panhandle, extending
from the Apalachicola River westward to the Florida-Alabama boundary (fig. 3).
The principal sources of, ground water for municipal supplies are the
sand-and-gravel aquifer in Escambia, Santa Rosa, and Okaloosa Counties and the
northwest part of Walton County and the Floridan aquifer in the rest of the
section. During 1970, 7,496 million gallons was withdrawn for municipal water
supply from the sand-and-gravel aquifer, and 3,253 million gallons was
withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer. Surface-water supplies for municipal use
totalled 1,729 million gallons. The three most populous areas, Fort Walton
Beach, Panama City, and Pensacola, used 8,891 million gallons, or 72 percent, of
the total amount of water supplied by municipal systems in this section.





A L A B A M A


JACKSON


*MARIANNA


LOCATION OF
AREA


, ,, o MILES


Figure 3. Municipalities in northwestern Florida for which water-use data are given.


I
0



I


zQ


00
I

t->


I I_~_









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


APALACHICOLA

COUNTY: Franklin POPULATION SERVED:
DRAINAGE BASIN: 11E Apalachicola River


3,000


OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; twp wells 432 feet deep

NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 950, undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY: 1.15 mgd
PUMPAGE YEAR- 130 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.35 mg PER CAPITAL USE- 117 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tanks and ground storage, 0.3 mg
TREATMENT: Aeration, chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.38 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, secondary, chlorination

HASTE DISCHARGED TO: Cool Springs-Scipio Creek

REMARKS: Plant capacity more than sufficient to meet daily water require-
ments. No plans made to expand water or sewage systems. Av-
erage daily pumpage increased 75 percent from 0.20 mgd in 1956 to 0.35
mgd in 1970.


CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except-as indicated) Water:


Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Well 1


Silica (Si0O)
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO )
Hitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3
Carbonate (CO3)


24
76
64
68
8.0
332
164
115


466


COLLECTION DATE : 12-3-70


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as &C03
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance (micromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


188
279
12


1,170

716
22
0


__









INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81





BLOUNTSTOWN


COUNTY: Calhoun POPULATION SERVED: 2,700
DRAINAGE BASIN: 11E Apalachicola River

OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; two wells 450 feet deep;
yield 500 gpm each
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 930, undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY: 1.44 mgd
PUMPAGE YEAR- 59 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.16 mg PER CAPITAL USE- 60 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tanks and ground storage 0.25 mg
TREATMENT: Chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly; chemical/irregularly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.2 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, secondary, chlorination

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Sutton Creek, Old River, Apalachicola River

REMARKS: Water is of good quality,
Plant capacity adequate to meet water needs. No expansion of facilities
planned.





CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Well 2


Silica (SiO2)
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO3)
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3


15
25
13
36
5.2
166
29
32


COLLECTION DATE : 11-17-70


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as CaCO3
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance omicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


0




398

230
22
0
8.0








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


BONIFAY

COUNTY: Holmes POPULATION SERVED: 2,200
DRAINAGE BASIN: 12A Choctawhatchee River

OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; two wells

NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 1, commercial; 652, undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 1.0 mgd
PUMPAGE YEAR- 82. mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.22 mg PER CAPITAL USE- 100 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tank 0.15 mg
TREATMENT: Chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.12 mgd by plant
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, chlorination

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Bay Branch Creek by plant; ground by septic tanks

REMARKS: Many residents use septic tanks. Average daily pumpage increased
from 0.08 mgd in 1956 to .0.22 mgd in 1970.


CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Well 3


Silica (SiO)
Calcium (Ca4
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO )
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3


9.1
41
2.1
1.9
.3
134
5.8
3.0


111


COLLECTION DATE : 11-17-70


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as CaC03
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance mmicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 180C)
Temperature (oC)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


1




224

130

0
7.4








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81 2







BRISTOL

COUNTY: Liberty POPULATION SERVED: 1,600
DRAINAGE BASIN: 11E Apalachicola River

OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; one main well and one
standby well; yields, main well 100 gpm, standby well 160 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 20, commercial; 400, undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 0.20 mgd
PUMPAGE YEAR- 58 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.16 mg PER CAPITAL USE-100 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated and pressure tanks 0.08 mg
TREATMENT: Chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly; chemical/irregularly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: Individual septic tanks
SEWAGE TREATMENT: None

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Ground

REMARKS: Before 1940, city residents were supplied from individual wells.
From 1940 through 1950, a privately owned water-supply system served the
city. In 1950, the municipal system started with one well. A standby
well was drilled in 1962 and produced good water for 2 years when the
quality of water reportedly deteriorated owing to hydrogen sulfide. Av-
erage daily pumpage increased from 0.02 mgd in 1956 to 0.16 mgd in 1970.


CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Standby Well


Silica (SiO )
Calcium (CaJ
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO )
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3


17
32
9.7
4.7
1.8
142
7.0


COLLECTION DATE : 10-15-70


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as CaCO3
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Smicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


.32


245

145
23
0
8.0









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY






CHATTAHOOCHEE

COUNTY: Gadsden POPULATION SERVED:
DRAINAGE BASIN: 11E Apalachicola River


2,878


OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; two wells 200 and 239
feet deep.
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 1,000, domestic; 100, commercial; 0.005 percent,
air con itioning. RATED PLANT CAPACITY: 0.5 mgd
PUMPAGE a/ YEAR- 111 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.30 mg PER CAPITAL USE-105 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tank and covered reservoir, 0.3 mg
TREATMENT: Aeration, chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly; chemical/irregularly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.21 mgd, (plant capacity 0.5 mgd)
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, secondary (activated sludge), chlorination

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Mosquito Creek

REMARKS: Before 1937, city water was supplied by the Florida State Hospi-
tal. A city well was drilled in 1937 and another in 1957. From 1937 to
1955, the hospital supply well was used by the city only in emergency.
About 30 percent (33 mgy) of the total municipal pumpage is used by com-
merce and industry.



CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological
SAMPLING POINT: Well 2


Silica (SiO2)
Calcium (CaJ
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO )
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3


8.3
2.7
.5
154
.6
2.6


Survey COLLECTION DATE : 7-29-70


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as CaCO3
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Smicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (oC)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


127


a Highest month June, 11.9 mg; lowest month, February 7.4 mg


1

.12


252

143
26
0
7.8








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81 27




CHIPLEY

COUNTY: Washington POPULATION SERVED: 4,000
DRAINAGE BASIN: 12A Choctawhatchee River

OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; two wells, 139 and 200
feet deep.
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 1,100, undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY: 1.25 mgd
PUMPAGE YEAR- 273 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.75 mg PER CAPITAL USE- 187 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tank 0.08 mg
TREATMENT: Chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly; chemical/irregularly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.25 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, chlorination

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Alligator Creek

REMARKS: The ground water is of excellent quality; no supply problems.
Expansion of water supply and sewerage systems planned. Primary disposal
plant has capacity of 0.3 mgd; secondary treatment plant ready for opera-
tion in 1971.




CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except-as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Well 2


Silica (SiO )
Calcium (Cai
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO )
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3.


8.1
37
1.9
1.8
.2
120
.2
3.2
.1
.0
.01


COLLECTION DATE : 11-18-70


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as aaC03
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance (micromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (oC)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


2

.07


203

114
21.5
0
7.5








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY





CRESTVIEW


COUNTY: Okaloosa
DRAINAGE BASIN: 12C Yellow River


POPULATION SERVED:


OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; three wells 604 to 920
feet deep; yield 500 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 2,600, undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 2.0 mgd
PUMPAGE YEAR- 400 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 1.1 mg PER CAPITAL USE- 110 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tanks, 0.8 mg
TREATMENT: Chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.4 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, secondary (trickling filter), chlorination

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Trammel Creek to Yellow River

REMARKS: Supply system adequate; no immediate expansion is planned. Ac-
cording to a recent investigation by the U. S. Geological Survey, abun-
dant water of excellent quality available for future development. Aver-
age daily pumpage increased from 0.57 mgd in 1956 to 1.1 mgd in 1970.
Foster and Pascale (1971)-



CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except-as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological
SAMPLING POINT: Well 1


Silica (SiO)
Calcium (CaJ
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO )
Nitrite (N02)
Hardness as CaCO3
Carbonate (CO3)


15
26
10
4.7
1.7
115
7.2
6.0
.2
.0
.01
106
6


Survey COLLECTION DATE : 12-16-70


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as CaC03
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance (micromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


a List of selected references is on p. 211


10,000


235

150
22
0
8.5








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81 29





DE FUNIAK SPRINGS

COUNTY: Walton POPULATION SERVED: 6,850
DRAINAGE BASIN: 12B Coastal area between Choctawhatchee and Yellow Rivers

OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Peoples Water Supply Co.
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; three wells 450 to 621
feet deep; yield 250 to 650 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 2,107 domestic; 165 commercial; 28 industrial
RATED PLANT CAPACITY: 1.4 mgd
PUMPAGE / YEAR- 228.4 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.6 mg PER CAPITAL USE- 91 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Ground and elevated tank, 0.38 mg
TREATMENT: Chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.37 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, secondary (trickling filter), secondary,
chlorination
WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Sandy Creek

REMARKS: Plant expansion is not planned, as capacity is twice average daily
use.






CHEMICAL ANALYSIS milligramss per liter, except as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Supply well

Silica (Si0O) 9.6
Calcium (Ca4 20
Magnesium (Mg) 6.3
Sodium (Na) 2.2
Potassium (K) .7
Bicarbonate (HCO3) 88
Sulfate (SO4) 4.0
Chloride (Cl) 3.0
Fluoride (F) 1.7
Nitrate (NO3) 2.3
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3 76


COLLECTION DATE: 10-28-70


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO 4
Alkalinity as CaCO3
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Smicromhos
at 25 C) 154
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C) 95
Temperature (0C) 21.5
Color (Pt-Co units) 0
pH (units) 8.1


a Highest month April, 25.4 mg; lowest month February, 15.8 mg.










) BUREAU OF GEOLOGY





FT. WALTON BEACH

COUNTY: Okaloosa POPULATION SERVED: 19,949
DRAINAGE BASIN: 12B Coastal area between Choctawhatchee and Yellow Rivers

OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; nine wells, 613 to 850
feet deep; yield 300 to 760 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 7,315; undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 4.1 mgd
PUMPAGE YEAR- 1,012 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 2.8 mg PER CAPITAL USE-140 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: 0.7 mg
TREATMENT: Chlorination, aeration
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 2.0 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, secondary (trickling filter), secondary
settling, chlorination
WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Santa Rosa Sound

REMARKS: Since 1950, the city has drilled one new well about every 2
years to meet demand. A new supply well is planned in 1971. A recent
investigation by the U. S. Geological Survey showed that abundant ground
water of excellent chemical quality is available. Pumpage increased from
0.55 mg in 1956 to 2.8 mg in 1970. Foster and Pascale (1971).



CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except-as indicated) Water: Raw

ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey COLLECTION DATE: 12-17-70
SAMPLING POINT: Well 1


Silica (SiO)1
Calcium (Cai
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO )
Nitrite (NO)
Hardness as CaCO3


13
10
5.8
132
8.8
248
8.0
100


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as CaCO3
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Smicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 180C)
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


0
203
2.4


720

426
24
0
8.1








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81 31






MARIANNA

COUNTY: Jackson POPULATION SERVED: 7,200
DRAINAGE BASIN: 11E Apalachicola River

OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: North Florida Water Co.
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; four wells 309 to 561
feet deep.
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 5, commercial; 2,198, undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY: 2.0 mgd
PUMPAGE a/ YEAR- 394 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 1.1 mg PER CAPITAL USE- 150 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tank and ground storage 0.22 mg
TREATMENT: Chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.55 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, secondary, chlorination

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Chipola River

REMARKS: Average daily pumpage increased from 0.70 mg in 1965 to 1.1 mg
in 1970.






CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S..Geological
SAMPLING POINT: Well 5


Silica (SiO2)
Calcium (Cal
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO3)
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3


16
4.3
92
1.7
234
9.4
45


Survey COLLECTION DATE : 11-9-70


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as CaCO3
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Smicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


a Highest month September, 37 mg; lowest month April, 28 mg.


0




515

298
21
0
8.1








32 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY





MILTON

COUNTY: Santa Rosa POPULATION SERVED:
DRAINAGE BASIN: 12D Blackwater River


5,400


OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, sand-and-gravel aquifer; three wells, 180
to 186 feet deep; yields'400 to 750 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 2,674, undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 2.3 mgd
PUMPAGE YEAR- 310. mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.85 mg PER CAPITAL USE- 157 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tanks, 0.35 mg
TREATMENT: Chlorination, stabilization
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 1.2 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, secondary (trickling filter), digestion, pre-
and post-chlorination (2.2 mg capacity)
WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Blackwater River

REMARKS: No ground-water problems exist in the Milton area,and no expansion
of system is planned. Average daily pumpage increased from 0.25 mgd in
1956 to 0.85 mgd in 1970. Barraclough and Marsh (1962), Marsh (1966),
Musgrove and others (1965, 1966).




CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Well 1


Silica (Si0 )
Calcium (CaJ
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO )
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3


.0
.01
3


COLLECTION DATE : 12-17-70


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as aCO3
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance (micromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


1
2
.02


18

20
24
0
5.7








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81


NICEVILLE

COUNTY: Okaloosa POPULATION SERVEDa/ 6,770
DRAINAGE BASIN: 12B Coastal Area between Choctawhatchee and Yellow Rivers

OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; two wells, about 460 feet
deep; yield (one well) 726 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 1,345, undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 1.4 mgd
PUMPAGE YEAR- 250 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.7 mg PER CAPITAL USE- 103 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tanks, 0.4 mg
TREATMENT: Chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.4 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, secondary (trickling filter), secondary set-
tling, chlorination
WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Boggy Bayou to Choctawhatchee Bay

REMARKS: The water is of excellent quality. No water problems exist,and
no plans are being made to expand the system. Average daily pumpage in-
creased from 0.25 mgd in 1956 to 0.70 mgd in 1970. Fosterand Pascale (1971).





CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Well 1


Silica (SiO2)
Calcium (Cai
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO 3)
Sulfate (S04)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO )
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3


14
24
15
8.2
2.5
162
7.2
2.0
.3
.0
.01
122


COLLECTION DATE : 12-18-70


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as CaCO3
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Smicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 180oC)
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


a System also serves 81 customers outside city


279

168
24
0
8.3







4 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY






PANAMA CITY

COUNTY: Bay POPULATION SERVED: 30,916
DRAINAGE BASIN: 11F Coastal area between Apalachicola and Choctawhatchee
Rivers
OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Bay County Water System
SOURCE OF WATER: Surface water Deer Point Lake Reservoir

NUMLBR & T'YPE OF SERVICES: 8,864, domestic; 1,155, commercial
RATED PLANT CAPACITY:
PUMPAGE: YEAR- 1,566 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 4.3 mg PER CAPITAL USE- 139 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: 1.7 mg
TREATMENT: Chlorination, coagulation, softening, filtration, stabilization
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly
SEWAGE DISCHARCE: 3.9 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, secondary (trickling filter)

WASTE DISChARGED TO: St. Andrews Bay; Watson Bayou to St. Andrews

REMARKS: Before May 1967, the city's water supply was furnished by a
municipal system from wells tapping the Floridan aquifer. Average daily
uset increased from 2.7 mgd in 1956 to 4.3 mgd in 1970. Figure 4 shows the
amountt of water supplied to Panama City, 1945-70. Figure 5 shows the mu-
nicipalities supplied with water through Bay County Water System's conduit.
Foster (1972), Toler and others (1964), Toler and Shampine (1965).


CHDEMCAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except -as indicated):

ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey COLLECTION DATE: 1-13-71
SAMPLING POINT: Williams Bayou Pumping Station (treated water)


Silica (SiO2)
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO )
Nitrite (NO )
Eardness as CaCO3


3.4
8.2
1.7
4.3
.5
30
.8
7.5
.0
.3
.02
28


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as aCO3
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Amicronhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (OC)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


82

62
13.9
5
7.7





































Figure 4. Total yearly pumpage, Panama City.







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


-N-



0 5 MILES




EXPLANATION

A
Sewoge-treoment plant

Conduit

S
Water- onolysis-sompling site


Reservoir
Reservoir


Figure 5. Distribution systems of Bay County Water System, Panama City area.


<-








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81


PENSACOLA

COUNTY: Escambia POPULATION SERVED: 125,000
DRAINAGE BASIN: 12E Escambia River
OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, sand-and-gravel aquifer; 22 wells, 234 to
300 feet deep; yield, 1500 to 2,000 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 42,875, undifferentiated; 5 percent air cond.
RATED PLANT CAPACITY:
PUMPAGEa/YEAR-6313 mg(fig.6) AVERAGE DAILY-17.3 mg.PER CAPITAL USE-140 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tanks, 1.0 mg
TREATMENT: Aeration, chlorination, pH control
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/weekly; chemical/intermittent
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 7.8 mgd, (5 sewage treatment plants)
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, secondary (trickling filter and activated
sludge)
WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Escambia Bay, Pensacola Bay, Bayou Marcus Creek,
Eightmile Creek, Thompson Bayou. (fig. 7).
REMARKS: Water low in dissolved solids and of excellent chemical quality.
Supply adequate to meet foreseeable demand. A U.S. Geological Survey in-
vestigation, begun in 1970, is concerned with the occurrence of iron and
carbon dioxide in the ground water from the sand-and-gravel aquifer. Av-
erage daily pumpage increased from 9.9 mgd in 1956 to 17.3 mgd in 1970.
For others served, see figure 7. Barraclough and Marsh (1962), Marsh (1966),
Musgrove and others (1961, 1965, 1966), Trapp (1971).

CHEMICAL ANALYSES (milligrams per liter, except as indicated)
TYPE OF WATER: RAW (R) TREATED (T)
ANALYSIS BY: (R) U.S. Geological Survey (T) Florida State Board of Health
COLLECTION DATE: (R) 12-15-70 (T) 3-30-65
SAMPLING POINT: (R) West Plaht Well (I and Cervantes Streets)
(T) Tap at Main Plant


Raw Treated


Raw Treated


Silica (SiO ) 8.8
Calcium (Ca3 1.4
Magnesium (Mg) 1.5
Sodium (Na) 6.3
Potassium (K) .4
Bicarbonate (HCC3) 3
Sulfate (SO ) .0
Chloride (Ci) 8.5
Fluoride (F) .0
Nitrate (NO ) 13
Nitrite (NO ) .01
Hardness as CaCO 10
Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO 7
Alkalinity as CaCO32
Strontium (Sr) .03
Specific conduct-
ance (micromhos
at 25*C) 59
Tot. Dissolved Solids
at 1030C


7
*2.9


*12
10
14
1.3


Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 180C) 4
Temperature (C) 2
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)
Odor
pH (laboratory)
pHs
Stability Index (2pHs-pH)
Saturation Index (pH-pHs)
ABS (detergent)


6
2
0 5
6.0
None
7.5
9.7
11.5
-1.8
.0


Appearance
Interpretation Highly
*20 Iron (Fe)
10 Bicarbonate, as CaCO
Carbon Dioxide, as C 3
Carbonate, as CaCO3
Hydroxide, as CaCO3
Tot. Hardness (Verserate), as
CaCO3
531 *Calculated values


Clear
corrosive
.08


a Highest month May, 724 mg; lowest month February, 380 mg.








38 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY



0












I-






-,
(4.4





_____o b


SNO11V9 30 SNOI-l11W '39Vdwnd







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81


0 3 MILES
11W1


* Supply well
S Water-analysis-sampling site
[3 Served by Pensacola
E Served by Worrington
A2 Sewage-treatment plant
I. Moin 4. Lincoln Rood
2. Northeast 5. Scenic Hills
3.Montcloir
O Elevated storage tank
Delimited urban compact
area boundary


Figure 7. Areas supplied water by the city of Pensacola and the Peoples-Water Company, Warrington.







40 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY




PORT ST. JOE

COUNTY: Gulf POPULATION SERVED: 4,500
DRAINAGE BASIN: 11F Coastal area between Apalachicola and Choctawhatchee
Rivers
OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: St. Joe Paper Company
SOURCE OF WATER: Surface water, Chipola River (fig. 8)

NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 1,290, undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 1.0 mgd
PUMPAGEa' YEAR- 163 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.4 mg PER CAPITAL USE-99 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: 0.4 mg
TREATMENT: Flocculation, softening, stabilization, filtration, chlorination
IIPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/daily; chemical/daily
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.1 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, chlorination

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: St. Joseph Bay

REMARKS: Average daily pumpage increased from 0.36 mgd in 1956 to 0.4 mgd
in 1970. Treatment includes taste and odor control.






CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except as indicated) Water: Raw

ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey COLLECTION DATE-: 1-12-71
SAMPLING POINT: Tributary canal for water supply to city an Port St. Joe
Paper Company.
Silica (S1O ) 5.8 Noncarbonate hard-
Calcium (CaJ 7.0 ness as CaCO 1
Magnesium (Mg) 12 Alkalinity as CaCO3 21
Sodium (Na) 4.2 Strontium (Sr) .03
Potassium (K) 1.5 Specific conduct-
Bicarbonate (HCO3) 26 ance Smicromhos
Sulfate (SO4) 2.4 at 25 C) 74
Chloride (Cl) 4.5 Dissolved solid (resi-
Fluoride (F) .0 due at 1800C) 41
Nitrate (NO.) 1.3 Temperature (0C) 25.6
Nitrite (NO) .02 Color (Pt-Co units) 10
Hardness as CaCO3 23 pH (units) 7.3


a Pumpage is for 1969.
February, 10.5 mg.


Highest month January, 16.6 mg, lowest month








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81 41















hLHOUN CO. --
GULF CO.


0 5 10 MILES



EXPLANATION


Sewage-treatment plant

SConduit

S=I Pumping station

SWater- analysis-sampling site


Figure 8. Distribution system of St. Joe Paper Company, Port St. Joe.








42 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY






VALPARAISO

COUNTY: Okaloosa POPULATION SERVED: 6,000
DRAINAGE BASIN: 12B Coastal area between Choctawhatchee and Yellow
Rivers
OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; three wells about 540
feet deep; yield 400 to 800 gpm,
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 76, commercial; 1,056, undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY: 2.4 mgd
PUMPAGE YEAR-255 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.7 mg PER CAPITAL USE- 117 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tanks, 0.2 mg
TREATMENT: Chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.50 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, secondary (trickling filter), secondary set-
tling, chlorination
WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Tom Boggy Bayou

REMARKS: No expansion of water system is planned. Average daily pumpage in-
creased from 0.08 mgd in 1956 to 0.7 mgd in 1970. Fosterand Pascale (1971).


CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except -as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological
SAMPLING POINT: Well 2


Silica (SiO )
Calcium (CaJ
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Ma)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (C1)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO3)
Nitrite (NOP
Hardness as CaCO3


2.6
173
8.8
8.0
.2
.0
.01
45


Survey COLLECTION DATE: 12-18-70


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO 3
Alkalinity as aCO3 142
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Smicromhos
at 25 C) 304
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 180C) 184
Temperature (0C) 24
Color (Pt-Co units) 0
pH (units) 8.:









INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81 43




WARRINGTON

COUNTY: Escambia POPULATION SERVED: 24,750
DRAINAGE BASIN: 12E Escambia River; 12F Perdido River

OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Peoples Water Co.
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, sand-and-gravel aquifer; six wells, 226
to 286 feet deep; yield about 270 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 7,091, undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY: 6.4 mgd
PUMPAGE A/ YEAR- 873 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 2.4 mg PER CAPITAL USE- 96 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tanks, 0.2 mg
TREATMENT: Chlorination and stabilization
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bactpriological/near daily; chemical/irregularly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: Septic tanks. h
SEWAGE TREATMENT:

WASTE DISCHARGED TO:

REMARKS: Water of excellent quality. No expansion of either the water
supply or sewage-treatment system is planned. Average daily pumpage
increased from 2.13 mgd in 1956 to 2.4 mgd in 1970. Barraclough and Marsh
(1962), Marsh (1966), Musgrove and others (1961, 1965, 1966), Trapp (1971).




CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological
SAMPLING POINT: Well 4


Silica (SiO )
Calcium (CaJ
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (S04)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO3)
Nitrite (NO7)
Hardness as CaCO3


10
1.1
.4
.7
.5
3
.0
6.5
.0
2.8
.01
4


Survey COLLECTION DATE : 12-14-70


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as CaC03
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance mmicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


a Highest month May, 101 mg; lowest month November, 44 mg
b About 2 percent of the residents discharge domestic sewage to the West
Pensacola Utilities Sewage System.






44 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

NORTHERN, NORTHEASTERN, AND
NORTH-CENTRAL FLORIDA

The northern, northeastern, and north-central Florida section extends from
the Apalachicola River eastward to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Georgia line
southward to the latitude of Gainesville (fig. 9).
The principal sources of ground-water supply for municipal use in this section
is the Floridan aquifer, except in coastal St. John's and Flagler counties, where
the sand aquifer supplies water to St. Augustine and beach communities. During
1970, a total of 28,629.29 million gallons was withdrawn for municipal supplies
from the Floridan aquifer, and 408.04 million gallons was withdrawn from the
nonartesian and shallow-sand aquifers and 342.04 million gallons from an
infiltration gallery at St. Augustine. The most populous area, the
Jacksonville-Fernandina Beach area, pumped 16,132.40 million gallons, or 53.8
percent of the total water supplied by municipal systems.












G E 0


I A


4 ACLP4. JACK *I ONVILL J AC H
WA- U COLUMBIA H
L EWAK wovLLA A J SUWANNEE *s c--y
Y= UNION
-__ TAYL0R I U o / LAKE CR LS C AY 30*
FRANK LIN C L IAFAYETYTE R a usT
LAFAYETTE AGUSTINU
RADFORD s T
,/ JOHNS
OF ARA A L A C H U AN
ILCRI PUTNAM
0..,o I X I E IS P U T N A M .\
I Im PALATKA
0 40 MILES CROSS Cityl _j3

raNSON0' FLAGLER

LEVY 00
-- __I,-. U L []


Figure 9. Municipalities in northern, northeastern, and north-central Florida for which
water-use data are given.


R G









5 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY




BRONSON

COUNTY: Levy POPULATION SERVED: 812
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09H Coastal area between Withlacoochee and Suwannee
Rivers
OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; one well

NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 200, undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY: 0.7 mgd
PUMPAGe/ YEAR- 29.2 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.08 mg PER CAPITAL USE-98 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: 0.01 mg
TREATMENT: Chlorination, aeration
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly; chemical/irregularly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: Septic tanks
SEWAGE TREATMENT: None

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Ground

REMARKS: Water supply derived from the Floridan aquifer,which is generally
less than 50 feet below the surface. Supply abundant and of excellent
quality.


CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: Orlando Laboratories
SAMPLING POINT: Well


Silica (SiO0)
Calcium (Ca4
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO3)
Nitrite (NO0)
Hardness as CaCO3
Iron (Fe)
Phosphate (PO4)


4.0
72
4.4


235
0
0


COLLECTION DATE : 3-5-70


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as 2aC03
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Amicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


a Highest month May, 3.9 mg; lowest month October, 2.0 mg.


200

7
7.0








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81



BUNNELL


COUNTY: Flagler
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09E St. Johns River


OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM:
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water,
deep; yield 150 to 250 gpm


POPULATION SERVED:


1,554


Municipal
non-artesian aquifer; three wells, 115 feet


NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 450, domestic; 50, commercial
RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 0.6 mgd
PUMPAGE-' YEAR- 66 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.18 mg PER CAPITAL USE-116 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tank, .08 mg
TREATMENT: Chlorination, filtration, softening, pH control
TYPE/FREQUENCi OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly; chemical/daily;
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: Septic tanks. spectographic/daily
SEWAGE TREATMENT: None

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Ground

REMARKS: Aquifers are both nonartesian and artesian. The nonartesian
aquifer extends from land surface to at least 150 feet. It includes de-
posits of Miocene-Holocene age.





CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S.
SAMPLING POINT: --

Silica (SiO0)
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO3)
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3


Geological Survey COLLECTION DATE: 8-4-71


112
7.9
53
1.5
348
8.8
100
.1
.1
.00
313


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as CaCO3
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Smicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


a Highest month July, 6 mg; lowest month January, 4 mg.


28
285
.72


847

514
22
10
7.8








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


CRAWFORDVILLE

COUNTY: Wakulla POPULATION SERVED: 100
DRAINAGE BASIN: 11B Coastal area between Aucilla and Ochlockonee Rivers

OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: City of Crawfordville Water Users Fund
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; one well 156 feet deep;
yield 71 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 25, domestic; 11, commercial
RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 0.02 tgd
PUMPAGE/ YEAR- 4.0 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.01 mg PER CAPITAL USE-110 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Pressure tank, 1,000 gallons


TREATMENT: None
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF
SEWAGE DISCHARGE:
SEWAGE TREATMENT:


ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/annually; chemical/irregularly
Individual septic tanks
None


WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Ground

REMARKS: Present supply well drilled 1949. Most residents served by pri-
vately owned wells. A new water system is under construction.






CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Well


Silica (SiO )
Calcium (CaJ
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO )
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3


9.3
45
3.3
3.7
.6
150
9.6
6.0


COLLECTION DATE: i.


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as CaCO3
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Smicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


-25-71


270

164
22
0
8.3


a Highest month May, 0.52 mg; lowest month January, 0.26 mg.








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81


CROSS CITY

COUNTY: Dixie POPULATION SERVED: 2,000
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09K Coastal area between Suwannee and Aucilla Rivers

OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; two wells, 105 and 144
feet deep, yield 400 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 840, domestic; 1, commercial
RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 0.75 mgd
PUMPAGE YEAR- 153 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.42 mg PER CAPITAL USE-210 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: 0.15 mg
TREATMENT: Aeration, 'filtration, chlorination, stabilization
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly; chemical/monthly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.02 mgd (plant); most residents use septic tanks
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, secondary (activated sludge), secondary settling,
chlorination
WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Drainage ditch tributary to unnamed creek (plant);
ground (septic tanks)
REMARKS: Average daily pumpage increased from 0.22 mgd in 1956 to 0.42 mgd
in 1970.






CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except as indicated) Water: Raw

ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey COLLECTION DATE: 12-17-70
SAMPLING POINT: Well


Silica (SiO )
Calcium (Cal
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO )
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3


3.8
85
9.8
11
1.5
304
8.0
14


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as CaCO3
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Smicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


4
249
.09


510

340
23
0
8.1









) BUREAU OF GEOLOGY





FERNANDINA BEACH

COUNTY: Nassau POPULATION SERVED: 6,844
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09C St. Marys River and Coastal Area

OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Florida Public Utilities Co
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; seven wells, 731 to
1,205 feet deep
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 2,226, domestic; 213, commercial
RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 7.0 md
PUMPAGE-' YEAR- 610 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 1.7 mg PER CAPITAL USE-250 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tank, .08 mg
TREATMENT: Aeration, chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/semimonthly; chemical/periodic
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.5 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Amelia River

REMARKS: As in coastal areas, salt-water encroachment is a potential prob-
lem. Average daily pumpage increased from 0.75 mgd in 1956 to 1.7 mgd
in 1970. Levo (1961a, 1961b, 1966).





CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except as indicated) Water: Raw
(1) Fla. Board of Health
ANALYSIS BY:(2) U.S. Geological Survey COLLECTION DATE: (1) 4-10-59
SAMPLING POINT: (1) Well 1; (2) Well N-24A (2) 6-17-71


Silica (SiO )
Calcium (Ca8
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO )
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3
Iron (Fe)


AUrlL LL


36 Noncarbonate hard-
69 66 ness as CaCO
34 36 Alkalinity as CaCO3
28 Strontium (Sr)
3.2 Specific conduct-
192 190 ance Smicromhos
134 170 at 25 C)
29 35 Dissolved solid (resi-
.65 .7 due at 180C) 464
.1 Temperature (oC)
.00 Color (Pt-Co units) 5
316 314 pH (units) 7,
.0


158
156
.87


710

491

5
.3 7.3


a Highest month 72 mg; lowest month 42 mg.








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81


GAINESVILLE

COUNTY: Alachua POPULATION SERVED: 70,000
DRAINAGE DASIN: 09E St. Johns River
OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; 14 wells, 365-750
feet deep; total yield 45,500 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 15,733 undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY: 15 mgd; 2 plants
PUMPAGEa/ YEAR-3,975 mg AVERAGE DAILY-10.9 mg PER CAPITAL USE-155 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Two elevated tanks, 1.50 mg
*TREATMENT: Aeration, chlorination, fluoridation, coagulation, filtration
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Chemical/monthly; bacteriological/weekly
SEWAGE DISCiiAKGE: 6.3 mgd (3 plants)
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Plant 1, trickling filter; plant 2, extended aeration

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Paynes Prairie

REMARKS: *Treatment also includes softening and stabilization. Abundant
supplies of water are available from the Floridan aquifer. Average daily
pumpage increased from 3.6 mgd in 1956 to 10.9 mgd in 1970. Clark and
others (1962, 1964a, 1964b).




CHEMICAL ANALYSES (milligrams per liter, except as indicated)


TYPE OF WATER: RAW (R) TREATED
ANALYSIS BY: (R) U. S. Geological Survey
COLLECTION DATE: (R) 6-6-71
SAMPLING POINT: (R) Well 4
(T) Not reported
Raw Treated


Silica (SiO ) 19
Calcium (Ca3 82
Magnesium (Mg) 15
Sodium (Na) 8.0
Potassium (K) 1.1
Bicarbonate (HCO3)250
Sulfate (SO ) 58
Chloride (C;) 13
Fluoride (F) .4
Nitrate (NO ) 1.1
Nitrite (NO2) .01
Hardness as CaCO 262
Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO 62
Alkalinity as 8aC02200
Strontium (Sr) .86
Specific conduct-
ance (micromhos
at 250C) 525


(T)
(T) Black Laboratories, Inc.
(T) 11-20-67


Raw Treated


Dissolved solid (resi-
44 due at 1800C) 335
42 Temperature (*C) 24.5
Color (Pt-Co units) 5
pH (units) 7.4
pHs
40 Iron (Fe)
21 Carbon Dioxide as CaCO
.95 Carbonate Hardness as CaCO3
Phenolphthalin Alkalinity
as CaCO3
86(total) Methyl Orange Alkalinity
as CaCO3
30


141


7.7
8.4
.05
5
56

2

56


a Pumpage is for 1969. Highest month October, 400 mg; lowest month
December, 280 mg; city supplies water to University of Florida.

















COUNTY: Clay
DRAINAGE BASIN:


BUREAU OF GEOLOGY







GREEN COVE SPRINGS

POPULATION SERVED: 3,857
09E St. Johns River


OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; three wells, 605 to 800
feet deep
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 1,500, domestic; 200, commercial
RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 1.8 mgd
PUMPAGE YEAR- 141.0 mg AVERAGE DAILY- .39 mg PER CAPITAL USE-100 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Two elevated tanks, 0.13 mg
TREATMENT: Chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: Septic tanks
SEWAGE TREATMENT: None

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: St. Johns River

REMARKS: Average daily pumpage decreased from 0.42 mgd in 1956 to 0.39 mgd
in 1970. Clark and others (1962, 1964a, 1964b).






CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except-as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: --


Silica (SiO,)
Calcium (CaY
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO3)
Nitrite (NO,)
Eardness as CaCO3


12
4.0
1.6
101
20
5.0
.2
.0
.00
96


COLLECTION DATE: 9-24-71


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO 13
Alkalinity as aaCO3 83
Strontium (Sr) .7(
Specific conduct-
ance (micromhos
at 25C) 215
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C) 127
Temperature (0C) 24
Color (Pt-Co units) 0
pH (units) 6.2







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81




JACKSONVILLE


COUNTY: Duval
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09E St. Johns River


POPULATION SERVED: 190,000


OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; 66 deep wells 750-1400 ft
deep, 6 shallow less than 200 ft deep; yield (deep wells) 5,000-17,450 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 62,000 domestic; 7,000, commercial
RATED PLANT CAPACITY: 110.0 mgd
PUMPAGEa/ YEAR-15,521.8 mg AVERAGE DAILY-44.0 mg PER CAPITAL USE- 132 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tanks, 3.9 mg
TREATMENT: Aeration and chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/daily; chemical/quarterly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 25 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, aeration, activated sludge, incineration

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: St. Johns River

REMARKS: City is acquiring privately owned peripheral distribution systems.
As of January 13, 1971, city had acquired 16 systems. Average daily
pumpage increased from 28 mgd in 1950 to 44 mgd in 1970. Total yearly
pumpage, 1921-1970 is shown on figure 11. Leve (1966, 1968b),Leve and
Goolsby (1966, 1967, 1969).



CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except-as indicated) Water: Raw


(1) Fla State Bd of Health
ANALYSIS BY US. Geological Survey COLLECTION DA


Silica (SiO )
Calcium (Cai
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO3)
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3
Hydrogen Sulfide
(H2S) b/


(1)
67
27


E (1) 1-31-41
(2) 6-17-71


-15; (2) Well D-50 (old C-15)
(2)
-(- Noncarbonate hard-
65 ness as CaCO
26 Alkalinity as caC03
11 Strontium (Sr)
1.8 Specific conduct-
160 ance (micromhos
146 at 250C)
13 Dissolved solid (resi-
.7 due at 1800C)
.2 Temperature (0C)
.00 Color (Pt-Co units)
273 pH (units)


(1)


(2)
142
131
3.7


555

384 368

0
7.5


a Highest month May, 1,615 mg; lowest month February, 1,042 mg; city
supplies water to several subdivisions (fig. 10).
b Hydrogen sulfide present, but concentration not determined


(1) Well C-






54 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY













./ MAYPORT








J& K ONVILLE
BEACH
0 3 MILES
LL31



EXPLANATION

O
Elevated storage tonk


Areas served by Jacksonville municipal supply


Ground storage tank

es
Water- analysis sampling site


Fire 10. Areas supplied water by the city of Jacksonville.






I,w Vw


>0 14,000
0
-j
-I
9 12,000
0
( 0,
2 10,000

-JAA


K7


6,000

4,0

2,000
1925 1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970


Figure 11. Total yearly pumpage, city of Jacksonville.


4
0.
0.


-- ------ ON- m s a


I,


F%


Inzz


01


~









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY




JACKSONVILLE BEACH


COUNTY: Duval
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09E St. Johns River


POPULATION SERVED:


OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; 6 wells, 800 to 975 feet
deep. Three wells are in use.
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 4,000, domestic; 5 percent air conditioning
RATED PLANT CAPACITY: 5.98 mgd
PUMPAGEA/ YEAR- 730 mg AVERAGE'DAILY- 2.0 mg PER CAPITAL USE-150 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tanks, 0.45 mg
TREATMENT: Aeration, chlorination, softening
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly; chemical/annually
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 1.8 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Contact stabilization

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Intracoastal Waterway

REMARKS: Average daily pumpage increased from 1.3 mgd in 1956 to 2.0 mgd
in 1970. Leve (1966, 1968b),Leve and Goolsby (1966, 1967, 1969).


CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Well D-343


Silica (SiO2)
Calcium (Cai
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO )
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3


26
54
30
26
1.9
176
103
46


COLLECTION DATE : 6-17-71


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as &aCO3
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance (micromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


a Highest month May, 79 mg; lowest month October, 53 mg.


12,600


117
144
2.2


600

396

0
8.0








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81



JASPER


COUNTY: Hamilton
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09J Suwannee River


POPULATION SERVED: 3,034


OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; three wells, 345 to 740
feet deep; yields 200 to 600 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 870, domestic; 138, commercial; 1 percent air
conditioning RATED PLANT CAPACITY: 1.001 mgd
PUMPAGEC/ YEAR- 161 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.44 mg PER CAPITAL USE-142 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tanks and reservoir, 0.40 mg
TREATMENT: Chlorination, softening, coagulation, filtration
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.30 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, secondary (activated sludge), secondary settling,
chlorination
WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Aeration ponds that overflow to Sugar Creek during
high water.
REMARKS: First well completed in 1916, second in 1932, and another in 1966.
Most serious problem is inadequate distribution mains and maximum pumping
rate of only 700 gpm; water shortages become critical during peak demands.
Another problem is high concentration of dissolved solids in the water.
No water-resource investigation has been made in Hamilton County. Aver-
age daily pumpage increased from 0.20 mgd in 1956 to 0.44 mgd in 1970.


CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except'as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Well 3


Silica (SiO0)
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO3)
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3
Carbonate (CO3)


27
129
71
8.0
1.6
204
440
10


COLLECTION DATE : 1-26-71


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as CaC03
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Smicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


a Highest month October, 15 mg; lowest month December, 12 mg.
water to adjacent areas and subdivisions.


City supplies


435
180
1.1


1,200

804
22
0
8.5








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY





LAKE BUTLER


COUNTY: Union
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09J Suwannee River


POPULATION SERVED: 1,598


OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; two wells, 357 and 402
feet deep
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 325, domestic; 250, undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 1.37 mad
PUMPAGE YEAR- 37 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.1 mg PER CAPITAL USE-68 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tank, 0.10 mg
TREATMENT: Chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Chemical/irregularly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: Contact stabilization
SEWAGE TREATMENT: 0.3 (estimated)

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Richard Creek to New River

REMARKS: Clark and others (1962, 1964a, 1964b).


CHLEMICAL. ANALYSIS milligramss per liter, except as indic~a~_te4Waer


Raw


ANALYSIS BY: Florida State Bd of Health COLLECTION DATE: 5-1-61
SAMPLING POINT: --


Silica (SiO )
Calcium (CaJ 41
Magnesium (Mg) 18
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3) 192
Sulfate (SO4) <10
Chloride (Cl) 15
Fluoride (F) .25
Nitrate (NO3)
Nitrite (NON )
Bardness as CaCO, 178
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Trace


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as CaC03
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Smicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (oC)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)
Iron (Fe)


229

5
7.5








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81




LAKE CITY


COUNTY: Columbia
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09J Suwannee River


POPULATION SERVED:


OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Cround water, Floridan aquifer; five wells 250 to 500
feet deep; yields 400 to 900 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 3,974, undifferentiated; 5 percent air condi-
tioning RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 4.9 mgd
PUMPAGEa' YEAR- 625 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 1.72 mg PER CAPITAL USE-104 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: 3 storage tanks, 1.25 mg
TREATMENT: Chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 1.2 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, secondary (trickling filter), secondary settling,
chlorination
WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Big Lake

REMARKS: System in operation since 1905. Additional wells were drilled in
1942, 1951, and 1957. No water-supply problems exist. Average daily
pumpage increased from about 1.0 mgd in 1956 to 1.7 mgd in 1970. Meyer
(1962).




CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S.
SAMPLING POINT: We

Silica (SiO0)
Calcium (CaJ
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HC03)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO3)
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3


Geological Survey COLLECTION DATE:
ill 2 at Water Treatment Plant


19
38
13
7.4
.9
180
1.6
10
.1
1.2
.06
149


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as CaCO3
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance nmicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


12-17-70


315

210
22
0
8.2


a Highest month May, 69 mg; lowest month February, 32 mg. City supplies
water to Lake City Junior College and Aero Corp.


16,600








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY





LIVE OAK


COUNTY: Suwannee
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09J Suwannee River


POPULATION SERVED: 7,000


OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; three wells 300 to
1,145 feet deep
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 2,300, undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 2.74 mgd
PUMPAGE YEAR- 219 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.60 mg PER CAPITAL USE-86 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tanks and ground storage, 0.73 mg
TREATMENT: Aeration, chlorination, filtration
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly; chemical/monthly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.43 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, secondary (trickling filter), chlorination

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Basin at plant

REMARKS: At present growth rate, no water-supply problems are expected
in the foreseeable future. Average daily pumpage increased from about
0.50 mgd in 1956 to 0.60 mgd in 1970.





CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except-as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Well 5


Silica (SiO )
Calcium (Ca4
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO )
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3


8.0
56


.2
188
4.8
2.0
.2
2.0
.01,
157 I


COLLECTION DATE: 12-3-70


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as caCO3
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance mmicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (oC)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


3
154
.07


313

180
21
0
8.1








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81 61




MACCLENNY

COUNTY: Baker POPULATION SERVED: 2,648
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09C St. Marys River and Coastal Area

OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; two supply wells, 595
and 704 feet deep, one standby well 455 feet deep; yields 200-900 gpm.
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 175, commercial; 2,130, undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY:
PUMPAGE YEAR- 109.5 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.30 mg PER CAPITAL USE-113 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tank, 0.06 mg
TREATMENT: Softening, chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.1 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary settling, sludge digestion and drying, oxidation

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Turkey Creek to South Prong St. Marys River

REMARKS: Daily pumpage increased from 0.13 mgd in 1950 to about 0.30 mgd
in 1970. Leve (1968a),Pride (1958).






CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Well B-13

Silica (SiO2) 19
Calcium (CaJ 36
Magnesium (Mg) 14
Sodium (Na) 11
Potassium (K) 1.3
Bicarbonate (HCO3) 152
Sulfate (SO4) 24
Chloride (Cl) 12
Fluoride (F) .5
Nitrate (NO ) .2
Nitrite (NO2) .00
Hardness as CaCO3 149


COLLECTION DATE: 6-17-71


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO 24
Alkalinity as CaCO3 125
Strontium (Sr) .9(
Specific conduct-
ance (micromhos
at 250C) 330
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C) 198
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units) 0
pH (units) 7.3








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY




MADISON


COUNTY: Madison
DRAINAGE BASIN: 11A Aucilla River


POPULATION SERVED: 5,000


OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; three wells, main well
yields 1,600 gpm; two standby wells yield 500 gpm each
NUMBEE & TYPE OF SERVICES: 0.01 percent, air conditioning; 1,535, undifferen-
tiated RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 3.2 mgd
PUMPAGEU / YEAR- 197 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.54 mg PER CAPITAL USE-108 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tanks, 0.22 mg
TREATMENT: Chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/bimonthly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.28 mgd (50 percent of residents use septic tanks)
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, secondary (trickling filter), secondary settling,
chlorination
WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Unnamed pond (plant), ground (septic tanks)

REMARKS: No water-supply problems anticipated at present rate of growth.
Average daily pumpage increased from 0.37 mgd in 1956 to 0.54 mgd in 1970.






CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except-as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological
SAMPLING POINT: Well


Silica (SiO0)
Calcium (CaJ
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO3)
Nitrite (NOs)
Hardness as CaCO3


9.8
46
7.6
2.9
.5
172
1.2
7.0
.0
.0
.01


Survey COLLECTION DATE : 12


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as aCO3
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Smicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 180C)
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


a Highest month October, 20 mg; lowest month February, 14 mg.


--18-70


6
141


290

201
22
0
7.9








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81



MAYO


COUNTY: Lafayette
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09J Suwannee River


POPULATION SERVED: 900


OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; two wells, supply well
yields 340 gpm, standby well yields 200 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 1 percent, air conditioning; 281, undifferen-
tiated. RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 0.20 mgd
PUMPAGEA/ YEAR- 39.1 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.11 mg PER CAPITAL USE-119 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tank, 0.18 mg
TREATMENT: Aeration, chlorination, stabilization
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly; chemical/irregularly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: Individual septic tanks
SEWAGE TREATMENT: None.

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Ground

REMARKS: Private system acquired by city before 1939 consisted of a 120-ft
well drilled before 1910 and a 240-ft well drilled before 1920. These
wells were abandoned. The present supply well was drilled in 1969, and
the standby well in 1939. Water from the main well is of good quality;
water from the standby well is high in "sulfur" (hydrogen sulfide) and
iron. The city does not plan to expand the system. Average daily
pumpage increased from 0.06 mgd in 1956 to 0.11 mgd in 1970.

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Standby Well


Silica (SiO2)
Calcium (Cai
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (S04)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO )
Nitrite (NOP)
Hardness as CaCO3


6.1
21
6.6
3.1
.3
86
8.4
5.0
.1
4.0
.01
80


a Highest months June, August, 0.15
0.08 mg.


COLLECTION DATE: 1-26-71


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO 9
Alkalinity as CaC03 71
Strontium (Sr) .05
Specific conduct-
ance imicromhos
at 25 C) 181
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 180C) 116
Temperature (0C) 22
Color (Pt-Co units) 0
pH (units) 8.2


mg; lowest months December, January,








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY




MONTICELLO


COUNTY: Jefferson
DRAINAGE BASIN: 11A Aucilla River


POPULATION SERVED: 2,700


DW P OF SPPY OR YTEM distribution system, city; wells and pumps,
OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Florida Power Corp.
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground.water, Floridan aquifer; three wells, about 350 feet
deep; main well yields 800 gpm, two standby wells yield 350 gpm each.
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 970 undifferentiated
R- 970 undiff ANT CAPACITY: 0.80 mgd

PUMPAGE-/ YEAR- 132 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.36 daily PER CAPITAL USE-134 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tank, 0.15 mg
TREATMENT: Chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Chemical/monthly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.18 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, secondary (trickling filter), chlorination

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Wolf Creek, Aucilla River

REMARKS: The city water supply started in 1906,when the Florida Power Corp
under the terms of a 99-year contract drilled a 400-ft well to furnish
water to the city. Additional wells were drilled in 1926, 1927, and a
350-ft well in 1954. The two older wells are used as standby. No water
problems exist. Water is of good quality and does not require treatment.
Excessive iron in water has been reported. There are no plans for expan-
sion of water supply and sewerage systems. Average daily pumpage in-
creased from 0.30 mgd in 1956 to 0.36 mgd in 1970.
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey COLLECTION DATE:
SAMPLING POINT: Well at city barn, Monticello


12-1-70


Silica (SiO2)
Calcium (CaJ
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO )
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3


13
46
6.7
3.2
.4
168
1.6
6.0
.0
.0
.01
143


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as CaCO3
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Smicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


a Highest month May, 17 mg; lowest month January, 7 mg.


5
138
.14


290

174
21
0
7.9








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81



PALATKA


COUNTY: Putnam
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09E St. Johns River


POPULATION SERVED: 12,000


OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; four wells, about 400 feet
deep; yield 40 to 60 gpm flowing
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 380, commercial; 3,420, domestic
a/ RATED PLANT CAPACITY: 3.5 mgd
PUMPAGE-/ YEAR-807 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 2.21 mg PER CAPITAL USE- 184 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: 1.3 mg
TREATMENT: Aeration, chlorination, filtration, stabilization, flouridation
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly; chemical/annually
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.06 mgd (plant capacity 2.5 mgd)
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: St. Johns River

REMARKS: Emergency source of water available from the spring-fed Ravine
Gardens reservoir. Aeration process reduces current plant capacity to
about 0.06 mgd. A secondary sewage-treatment plant is planned. Average
daily pumpage increased from 1.35 mRd in 1956 to 2.21 mgd in 1970.
Bermes and others (1963), Leve (1958), Snell and Anderson (1970).


CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter. except as indicated) Water:


Raw


ANALYSIS BY: Florida State
SAMPLING POINT: Well 5


Silica (SiO2)
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO )
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3
Hydrogen Sulfide
(H2S)


Bd of Health COLLECTION DATE : 11-7-67


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity'as aaCO3
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance (micromhos
at 250C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


270


Trace


a Highest month May, 81 mg; lowest month February, 51 mg; city supplies
water to Junior College, College Park, and Rolling Hills.


531-

5
7.5


,Ra









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


PERRY

COUNTY: Taylor POPULATION SERVED: 9,580
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09K Coastal area between Aucilla and Suwannee Rivers

OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; three wells, 80 to 500
feet deep; yields 450, 750 and 1,000 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 2,650, undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 1.50 mgd
PUMPAGE a YEAR- 396.5 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 1.08 mg PER CAPITAL USE- 112 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tanks, underground tanks, 0.33 mg
TREATMENT: Aeration, chlorination, filtration
TYPE/FREQUENgY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly; chemical/irregularly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 1.02 mgd (plant capacity 3.0 mgd)
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, secondary (trickling filter), secondary settling,
chlorination
WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Pimple and Spring Creeks

REMARKS: Water is slightly colored and very hard. Capacity of the system
limited by low filtration rate in the treatment plant. A new sewage-
treatment plant will be built within the next few years. Average daily
pumpage increased from 0.61 mgd in 1956 to 1.08 mgd in 1970.




CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Well 3


Silica (SiO)
Calcium (CaJ
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (804)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO )
Nitrite (NO?)
Hardness as CaCO3


7.4
52
13
4.1
1.0
220
6.4
20
.3
.6
.01
183


COLLECTION DATE : 1-26-71


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as 2aC03 1
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Smicromhos
at 25 C) 3
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C) 2
Temperature (C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


a City supplies water to subdivisions adjacent to city boundary. Highest
month June, 47 mg; lowest month February, 26 mg.


0
87


74

20
22
0
8.4








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81 67





QUINCY

COUNTY: Gadsden POPULATION SERVED: 10,100
DRAINAGE BASIN: 11C Ochlockonee River

OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Surface water (Quincy Creek), 90 percent; ground water
(Floridan aquifer) 10 percent; three wells, only one in use; yield 325 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 2,770, undifferentiated
a/ RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 1.5 mgd
PUMPAGE YEAR- 478 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 1.3 mg PER CAPITAL USE- 130 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tanks, concrete and steel reservoirs; 1.60 mg
TREATMENT: Aeration, chlorination, pH control; coagulation, filtration
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly; chemical/irregularly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE.: 0.93 mgd (plant capacity 1.5 mgd)
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, secondary (trickle filter), activated sludge,
chlorination
WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Quincy Creek

REMARKS: Average daily pumpage increased from 0.70 mgd in 1956 to 1.3 mgd
in 1970.






CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except-as indicated) Water: Raw

ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey COLLECTION DATE : 8-6-70
SAMPLING POINT: Raw water plant (surface water)


Silica (SiO2)
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (S04)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO )
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3


6.0
4.4
1.3
3.2
.6
16
.2
5.9
.2
.3
.01
17


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as CaCO3
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Smicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


4

.05


48

38
26.8
5
6.6


a Highest month, 52 mg; lowest month, 31 mg; city supplies water to
several contiguous areas.









68 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


ST. AUGUSTINE

COUNTY: St. Johns P~RILATION SERVED: 12,352
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09F Coastal area between St. Johns River and Turkey Creek

OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water ("shallow sand aquifer") 50 percent, surface
water (infiltration gallery) 50 percent. Two well fields.
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 5,200, undifferentiated
a/ RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 5.0 mgd
PUMPAGE- YEAR- 684.1 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 1.90 mg PER CAPITAL USE-152 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Three elevated tanks, one ground storage tank, 1.6 mg
TREATMENTS/
TYPE/FREQUhNCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/daily; chemical/periodic
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.36 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: San Sebastian River

REMARKS/ Well field southwest of city, in service 1927. Fourteen wells, 90
feet deep and tapping coquina, are in use. Well field northwest of city,
in service,1954. Includes 6 wells about 55 feet deep. Infiltration gal-
lery, in service 1963; periodically supplements yield from wells. Water
from gallery has high carbonate hardness. Algal blooms have occurred dur-
ing low water. System seems adequate for immediate future. Average daily
pumpage increased from 1.50 mgd in 1956 to 1.90 mgd in 1970; filter system
limits treatment-plant capacity to about 4 mgd.


CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per lit

ANALYSIS BPOYI S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING PO;a&


:er, except as indicated) Water:
COLLECTION DATE: 8-5-71


Silica (SiO2)
Calcium (Cai
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO3)
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3


23
116
63
200
5.8
168
332
360


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as CaC03
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Smicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


556


a Highest month August, 69 mg; lowest month February, 43 mg; city supplies
water to beach communities through the Anastasia Sanitary District.
(See fig. 12).
b Treatment consists of chlorination, softening, coagulation, flocculation,
filtration, carbonation, taste and odor control, algae control
c References: Bermes and others (1963), Tarver (1958)


418
138
6.2


2,010

1,320
24
5
7.2


~






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81


Figure 12. Areas supplied water by the city of St. Augustine.









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY





STARKE


COUNTY: Bradford
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09J Suwannee River


POPULATION SERVED: 5,500


OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; three wells, 503 to
580 feet deep
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 2,000, undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY: 3.0 mgd
PUMPAGE YEAR- 245 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.6 mg PER CAPITAL USE-120 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tanks 0.25 mg
TREATMENT: Softening, chlorination, stabilization
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Chemical/intermittent
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.6 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Secondary, chlorination

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Alligator Creek to Rowell Lake

REMARKS: The water-supply system, completed in 1960, is adequate to meet
foreseeable demand. Average daily pumpage increased from 0.42 mgd in
1956 to 0.60 mgd in 1970. Clark and others (1962, 1963, 1964a, 1964b).





CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except-as indicated) Water: Raw

ANALYSIS BY: Florida State Bd of Health COLLECTION DATE : 3-15-68
SAMPLING POINT: -


Silica (SiO )
Calcium (Cai
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO3)
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3
Iron (Fe)


50
19


226
410


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as caCO3
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Smicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


206


21






241

5
7.2








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81 71




TALLAHASSEE

COUNTY: Leon POPULATION SERVED: 77,700
DRAINAGE BASIN: 11B Coastal area between Aucilla and Ochlockonee Rivers

OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; 13 wells 250 to 450 feet
deep; yields 1,500 to 3,400 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: One percent, air conditioning; 23,134 undifferen-
tiated RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 33.6 mgd
PUMPAGE- YEAR-4,393.34 mg AVERAGE DAILY-12.0 mg PER CAPITAL USE-155 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Three elevated tanks, 1.5 mg
TREATMENT: Chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/weekly; chemical/irregularly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 8.1 mgd (4 plants)
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, secondary (high rate trickling filter, activated
sludge), secondary settling, chlorination
WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Lake Munsen (2 plants); irrigation (1 plant); and
lagoon (1 plant)
REMARKS: The capacity of the water-supply system is adequate to meet future
demand; no expansion is planned.beyond completion of two additional wells
in 1971. Average daily pumpage increased from 5.59 mgd in 1956 to 12.04
mgd in 1970. Total yearly pumpage, 1933-1970, is shown on figure 13.
Hendry and Sproul (1966).



CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except-as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Well 3


Silica (SiO2)
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO3)
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3


14
42
10
2.9
.4
170
3.2
6.0
.0
.0
.01
146


a Highest month May, 519 mg;
water to Woodville.


COLLECTION DATE : 12-31-70


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as caC03
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance omicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


lowest month December, 295 mg; city supplies


7
139
.12


290

171
21
0
7.8







































Figure 13. Total yearly pumpage, city of Tallahassee.


4600

4200

3800

3400

3000

2600

2200

1800


600

200








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81




TRENTON


COUNTY: Gilchrist
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09J Suwannee River


POPULATION SERVED: 1,200


OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; three wells; two, 92 and
98 feet deep, yield 250 gpm; one, deeper,.yields 320 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 63, commercial; 321, domestic
RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 0.40 mgd
PUMPAGE YEAR- 54.8 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.15 mg PER CAPITAL USE- 120 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tank, 0.08 mg
TREATMENT: None
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly; chemical/irregularly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.08 mg
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Aeration, secondary

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Lagoons

REMARKS: Water supply adequate for foreseeable needs. Average daily pump-
age increased from 0.10 mgd in 1956 to 0.15 mgd in 1970. Floridan aquifer
generally less than 50 feet below land surface. Permeability of aquifer
is high. Pumpage from the aquifer in Gilchrist County estimated at 3 mgd.




CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: --


Silica (SiO2)
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO,)
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3
Carbonate (C03)


5.7
70
4.0
3.8
.2
218
5.6
10


COLLECTION DATE : 1-11-71


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO 6
Alkalinity as aaC03 185
Strontium (Sr) .08
Specific conduct-
ance (micromhos
at 25 C) 376
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C) 224
Temperature (0C) 20
Color (Pt-Co units) 0
pH (units) 8.5





74 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

CENTRAL FLORIDA

The central Florida section includes 17 counties and covers 14,300 square
miles. The extent of this section and locations of municipalities for which
water-use data are given are shown on figure 14.
The principal sources of municipal ground-water supplies are the Floridan
aquifer, the shallow-sand aquifer, and the Pleistocene-Miocene aquifer.
Surface-water supplies are pumped from the Hillsborough River and Lake
Washington. During 1970, 67,665.81 million gallons was pumped from the
Floridan aquifer and 2,245.06 million gallons from the shallow-sand aquifer.
Surface water sources, rivers and lakes, supplied 19,083.20 million gallons or
21.7 percent of the water used for municipal supply.














BEACH


MAR ION

gOCALA


S310 MILES


EOLA


P O L K
MBARTOW *LAKE WALES


LAROO








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY




AUBURNDALE


COUNTY: Polk
DRAINAGE BASIN: 10D Peace River


POPULATION SERVED: 14,000


OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; five wells, of which two
are on standby, 155 to 633 feet deep; yield of one well is 1,140 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 4,000, undifferentiated
PM / RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 5.0 mgd
PUMPAGE YEAR- 510 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 1.4 mg PER CAPITAL USE-100 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tanks and ground storage, 0.46 mg
TREATMENT: Aeration, chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly; chemical/annually
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.3 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Trickling filter

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Lake Hancock

REMARKS: Average daily pumpage increased from 0.75 mgd in 1956 to 1.4 mgd
in 1970. Stewart (1966)






CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except-as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Water Plant Well


Silica (SiO2)
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO )
Nitrite (N02)
Hardness as CaCO3


13
32
6.5
6.8
.8
124
4.4
9.0


COLLECTION DATE: 8-5-71


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as caC03
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance (micromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


a City supplies water to adjacent areas.


5
102
.08


226

138
26
0
6.7







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81




BARTOW


COUNTY: Polk
DRAINAGE BASIN: 10D Peace River


POPULATION SERVED: 15,000


OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; 10 wells, 285 to 765
feet deep; yield 350 to 2,300 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 3,801, domestic; 565, commercial
a RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 4.1 mgd
PUMPAGE-a YEAR-865.00 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 2.37 mg PER CAPITAL USE- 158 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated storage and ground storage, 0.9 mg
TREATMENT: Aeration, chlorination, filtration
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/3 times month; chemical/irregular
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 1.03 mgd (plant capacity 2.25 mgd)
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, secondary filtration, chlorination

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Peace River

REMARKS: Excessive hydrogen sulfide in water. Declining water levels
necessitated lowering of pumps in several wells. Present plans include
adding a 250,000-gallon elevated storage tank and increasing the capacity
of the water-treatment plant. Average daily pumpage increased from 1.04
mgd in 1958 to 2.37 mgd in 1970. Stewart (1966).



CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except-as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Well 1


Silica (SiO)
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO )
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3


16
97
25
10
1.2
180
200
13


COLLECTION DATE : 8-4-71


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as 2aC03
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Smicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (oC)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


a Highest month May, 122 mg; lowest month January, 52 mg. City supplies
water to airport subdivision ard other areas adjacent to city.


201
148
2.7


673

473
25
0
7.0








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


BRANDON

COUNTY: Hillsborough POPULATION SERVED: 10,000
DRAINAGE BASIN: 10H Hillsborough River and coastal area north of Alafia
River
OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Brandon Water and Sewer Co
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; 8 wells

NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 2,600, domestic; 219, commercial
RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 5.5 mgd
PUMPAGE/ YEAR- 415.09 mgAVERAGE DAILY- 1.14 mg PER CAPITAL USE-114 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: 0.1 mg
TREATMENT: Chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly; chemical/-
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.16 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Secondary

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Drainfields

REMARKS: Average daily pumpage increased from 0.01 mgd in 1956 to 1.14 mgd
in 1970. Menke and others (1961).


CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except-as indicated) Water:


Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Well 2


Silica (SiO )
Calcium (CaJ
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (S04)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO3)
1itrite (NO0)
Hardness as CaCO3


12
62
5.0
5.8
.5
134
52
11
.2
9.3
.01
176


COLLECTION DATE: 6-


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as &aCO3
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Smicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (oC)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


-22-71


360

224
25.5
5
6.7


a Highest month May, 69 mg; lowest month January, 21 mg; city also supplies
water to Seffner, Valrico, Temple Terrace







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81




BROOKSVILLE

COUNTY: Hernando POPULATION SERVED: 5,000
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09G Withlacoochee River


79


OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; three wells, 251 to 757
feet deep, yield of one well, 220 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 1,343, domestic; 355, commercial
RATED PLANT CAPACITY: 2.5 mgd
PUMPAGE a/ YEAR- 202.15 mgAVERAGE DAILY- 0.55 mg PER CAPITAL USE-110 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tank and ground storage, 0.625 mg
TREATMENT: Aeration, chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/month; chemical/every 5 years
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.14 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Extended aeration, trickling filter

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Man-made lake

REMARKS: Average daily pumpage increased from 0.28 mgd in 1956 to 0.55 mgd
in 1970. Cherry and others (1970), Wetterhall (1964).


CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except-as indicated) Water:


Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Well 2


Silica (SiO2)
Calcium (CaS
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (S04)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO3)
Nitrite (NOs
Hardness as CaCO3


5.4
.3
228
11
9.0
.2
.9
.00
193


COLLECTION DATE: 9


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as aC03
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Smicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (oC)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


a Highest month July, 1.44 mg; lowest month, January 1.00 mg.


-1-71


389

226

0
6.5









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


BUSBNELL

COUNTY: Sumter POPULATION SERVED: 700
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09G Withlacoochee River

OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; two wells, 580 and
693 feet deep.
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 331, undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY: 1.00 mgd
PUMPAGEa' YEAR- 44 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.12 mg PER CAPITAL USE-172 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated storage and ground storage 0.09 mg
TREATMENT: Aeration, chlorination

TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly


SEWAGE DISCHARGE:
SEWAGE TREATMENT:


Septic Tanks
None


WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Ground

REMARKS: Main problem is prevention of aquifer pollution from surface
sources. Pollution is aggravated by high water table, septic tanks, and
relatively shallow depth at which the top of the aquifer lies. Average
daily pumpage increased from about 0.07 mgd in 1956 to 0.12 mgd in 1970.




CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except as indicated) Water: Treated


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Composite


Silica (SiO)
Calcium (CaJ
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO )
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO )
Nitrite (NO)
Hardness as CaCO3
Noncarbonate hardness
as CaCO3
Alkalinity as CaCO3


COLLECTION DATE:


14 Strontium (Sr)
67 Specific conductance
9.0 (micromhos at 250C)
5.7 Dissolved solids (resi-
1.0 due at 1800C)
172 Temperature
40 Color
10 pH
.5 Carbonate
.0
.01
206


a Highest months April and May, 7.3 mg; lowest months December, January.
City also supplies water to areas adjacent to city.


1-6-71


.86

428

258
23
0
8.6
12








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81



CASSELBERRY


COUNTY: Seminole
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09E St. Johns River


POPULATION SERVED: 9,450


OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal and So. Seminole Utilities Co
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; 3 wells, 265 to 500
feet deep; yield 600 to 750 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 2,700, undifferentiated
a,/ RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 2.8 mgd
PUMPAGE- YEAR- 358 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.98 mg PER CAPITAL USE-104 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: 0.26 mg
TREATMENT: Aeration, chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Chemical/irregularly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.5 mgd (plant capacity 0.9 mg)
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Aeration, trickling filter, chlorination, polishing pond

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Gee Creek

REMARKS: Major problems are the danger of upward migration of saline water
from the lower part to the upper part of the aquifer, as water in the
upper part of the aquifer is withdrawn. Average daily pumpage from
0.17 mgd in 1956 to 0.98 mgd in 1970. Stringfield (1934), Barraclough
(1962).



CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except-as indicated) Water: Raw

ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey COLLECTION DATE: 2-25-71
SAMPLING POINT:


Silica (SiO)
Calcium (CaJ
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (804)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO )
Nitrite (NO)
Hardness as CaCO3


11
42
12
5.4
1.0
188
4.0
10
.2
.8
.01
155


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as 2aC03
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance mmicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (oC)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


a Highest month May, 48 mg; lowest month March, 18 mg; also supply water
to Howell Park.


1
154
.09









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


CLEARWATER

COUNTY: Pinellas POPULATION SERVED: 52.,047
DRAINAGE BASIN: 10J Coastal area between Hillsborough River and Withla-
coochee River
OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal and Pinellas County Water System
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; 19 wells, 157 to 360
feet deep; yield 200 to 600 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 23,815, undifferentiated
A/ RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 14 mgd
PUMPAGE YEAR- 966 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 2.60 mg PER CAPITAL USE/173 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tanks and ground storage, 3.0 mg
TREATMENT: Aeration, chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly; chemical/yearly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 7.1 mg (three plants)
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Activated sludge

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Tampa Bay and Gulf of Mexico


REMARKS: Heath and Smith (1954).







CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except as indicated) Water:


Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Well 18


Silica (Si0O)
Calcium (Cal
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO 3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO3)
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3


17
62
6.3
23
1.0
170
4.4
63
.4
2.2
.00
181


COLLECTION DATE : 9-1-71


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO 41
Alkalinity as CaCO3 139
Strontium (Sr) .19
Specific conduct-
ance Smicromhos
at 25 C) 485
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C) 314
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units) 5
pH (units) 6.9


a Highest month May, 149 mg; lowest month February, 58 mg; city purchased
an additional 2,320.6 mg from Pinellas County Water System. City also
supplies water to some areas adjacent to city.

b Computed on basis of combined pumpage of municipal supply system and
Pinellas County Water System.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81


COCOA

COUNTY: Brevard POPULATION SERVED: 100,000
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09E St. Johns River
OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; 22 wells of which 18
are in use
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 21,025, undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY: 40 mgd
PUMPAGE a/YEAR-5,595.6 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 15.3 mg PER CAPITAL USE-153 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: 15.8 mg
TREATMENT: Aeration, chlorination, softening
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/biweekly; chemical/hourly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 1.2 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary, trickling filter, chlorination, sludge thick-
ening and digestion
WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Indian River

REMARKS b All city wells except 1 tap the Floridan aquifer; 1 well taps
the shallow aquifer. Chloride content of water from Floridan ranges from
30-560 mg/l. Chloride in water from shallow aquifer about 20 mg/l. Major
problem is chloride buildup in the well field. Monitor well is sampled
regularly. Outlook shows cause for concern if chloride content continues
to increase at present rate. Modifying pumping rates and durations may
slow the rise in chloride. Avg. daily pumpage increased from 5.59 mgd in
1957 to 15.32 mgd in 1970. Yearly pumpage is shown on figure 15.
CHEMICAL ANALYSES (milligrams per liter, except as indicated)
TYPE OF WATER: RAW (R) TREATED (T)
ANALYSIS BY: (R) U.S. Geological Survey (T)-1 City of Cocoa
COLLECTION DATE: (R) 4-30-70 (T) 9-71
SAMPLING POINT: (R) Well 14
(T) --


Raw TreaLed


Raw Treated


Silica (SiO ) 23
Calcium (Ca3 87
Magnesium (Mg) 11
Sodium (Na) 30
Potassium (K) 1.9
Bicarbonate (HCCO)200
Sulfate (SO ) 80
Chloride (Ci) 39
Fluoride (F) 0.2
Nitrate (NO,) 1.7
Nitrite (NO )
Hardness as CaCO 264
Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO 86
Alkalinity as CaCO3
Strontium (Sr) 1.2
Specific conduct-
ance (micromhos
at 25C) 622


Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (OC)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)
Carbonate (CO )
Calcium Hardness as Cat


0.86


90(total)

34
56


381
25
10
8.3
8
O3


5
8.6

56


a Highest month May, 597 mg; lowest
month November, 389 mg; city also
supplies water to Cape Kennedy,
Cocoa Beach, Merritt Island, Rock-
ledge.

b Lichtler and others (1964), Lichtler
and Joyner (1966), Lichtler and
others (1968), U.S. Geological Sur-
vey (1970).
c Source of analysis, Florida State
Board of Health.








8000


7000-


6000
z
-J



0 4000 I
o

3J 000
J


J 2000 |


a. 1000 -



1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980


Figure 15. Total yearly pumpage, city of Cocoa.








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81 85




DADE CITY

COUNTY: Pasco POPULATION SERVED: 8,500
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09G Withlacoochee River

OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aqnLfer; 4 wells, 116 to 200 feet
deep; yield, 500 to 850 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 2,250, domestic; 150, commercial
RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 4. mgd
PUMPAGE-' YEAR- 310.5 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.85 mg PER CAPITAL USE-100 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tank and standpipe, 0.43 mg
TREATMENT: None
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.40 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Primary and secondary

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Canals to Withlacoochee River

REMARKS: Average daily pumpage has increased from 0.68 mgd in 1957 to
0.85 mgd in 1970. Total yearly pumpage is shown on figure 16. Cherry
and others (1970).





CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except -as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Well 1


Silica (Si0O) 9.
Calcium (CaJ 44
Magnesium (Mg) 4
Sodium (Na) 6.
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3) 144
Sulfate (SO4) 14
Chloride (Cl) 8
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO ) 3,
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3 130


.0

.7
.0
.4


.0
.0
.6
.01


COLLECTION DATE : 8-11-71


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity- as aaCO3
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Smicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (oC)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


a Highest month May, 41 mg; lowest month February, 20 mg; city supplies
water to areas adjacent to city.


12
118
.22


276

164
23.5
0
7.1





































1965 1970


Fiurxe 16. Total yearly pumpage, Dade City.


350






300






250


200


1960







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81 87




DAYTONA BEACH

COUNTY: Volusia POPULATION SERVED: 56,606
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09F Coastal area between St. Johns River and Turkey Creek

OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; 16 wells, 160 to 485 feet
deep. Yield 250 to 1,500 gpm.
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 16,850, undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY: 10.8 mgd
pUMPAGEal YEAR-3,498 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 9.58 mg PER CAPITAL USE-170 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tanks and ground storage, 5.7 mg
TREATMENT: Aeration, chlorination, softening, coagulation, filtration,
fluoridation
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly; chemical/daily


SEWAGE DISCHARGE:
SEWAGE TREATMENT:


11 mg-s
Contact stabilization, digestion


WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Halifax River

REMARKS: Salt-water encroachment in the 1950's caused abandonment of the
three original easternmost well fields. Three well fields currently in
operation include: Highway 92 west well field (5 wells); Airport well
field (7 wells) and Tuscawilla Park well field (4 wells). Two additional
wells are planned west of U. S. Highway 1-95. Average daily pumpage in-
creased from 5.00 mgd in 1956 to 9.58 mgd in 1970. Knochenmus and Beard
(1971), Snell and Anderson (1970), Wyrick (1960).

CHEMICAL ANALYSES (milligrams per liter, except as indicated)
TYPE OF WATER: RAW (R) TREATED (T)
ANALYSIS BY: (R) U. S. Geological Survey (T) Fla. State Board of Health
COLLECTION DATE: (R) 6-9-71 (T) 3-4-69
SAMPLING POINT: (R) Well 44
(T) Tap at sink in laboratory


Silica (Si02)
Hardness as CaCO3
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Iron (Fe)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO3)
Nitrite (NO )


18
296
105
8.0
24
1.2
352
.4
.21
41


.3 ABS
1.1
.01


RAW
Noncarbonate hardness as CaCO3
Alkalinity as CaCO3
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conductance (micromhos
at 250C)
Dissolved solids (residue at
1800C)
Temperature (oC)
Color
pH


a Highest month May, 366 mg; lowest month February, 192 mg.
plies water to South Daytona, Daytona Beach Shores.


City also sup-


b Sewage discharge exceeds pumpage because of ground-water seepage


650

399
22.5
30
7.5
.48









88 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY





DAYTONA BEACH CHEMICAL ANALYSES (continued)


TREATED

Calcium (Ca) 18
Magnesium (Mg) 7
Bicarbonate (HCO3) 61
Sulfate (SO ) <10
Chloride (CI) 67
Chlorine, combined C12
Iron (Fe), Ferrous, total .06
Hydroxide as CaCO 0
Bicarbonate as CaCO3 44
Carbonate as CaCO3 6
Iron (Fe), Total field determ. .1
Total Hardness as CaCO3 76
Noncarbonate Hardness as CaCO3 26
Alkalinity as CaCO3 50
Total dissolved solids at 1030C 177
Saturation Index +0.4
Color 5
pH 9.0
pHs 8.6
Stability Index (2 pHs-pH) 8.2
Appearance Index Clear
Odor None








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81




DE LAND


COUNTY: Volusia
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09E St. Johns River


POPULATION SERVED: 16,691


OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; 7 wells, 275 to 511
feet deep, yield (2 wells) 1,950 and 2,000 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 6,000 undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY: 12 mgd
PUMPAGEa/ YEAR-895.82 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 2.45 mg PER CAPITAL USE-147 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tanks, 0.900 mg
TREATMENT: Chlorination, softening, stabilization
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/weekly; chemical/intermittently
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.85 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Activated sludge

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: St. Johns River

REMARKS: Main problem involves selection of sites where wells will yield
good quality water in an area undergoing salt-water encroachment and
where water high in iron is common, particularly in eastern DeLand. Av-
erage daily pumpage increased from 1.60 mgd in 1956 to 2.45 mgd in 1970.
Wyrick (1960), Snell and Anderson (1910), Knochenmus and Beard (1971).



CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except-as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Well 4


Silica (SiO2)
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO,)
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3
Iron (Fe) dissolved


80
49
7.0
11
1.8
170
14
26
.2
.5
.01
151
.03


a Highest month May, 106 mg;
to areas adjacent to city.


COLLECTION DATE: 6-8-71


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as aaCO3
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance (micromhos
at 250C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


lowest month, 55 mg; city also supplies water


12
139
.21


338

274
23
5
7.2
















COUNTY: Pinellas
DRAINAGE BASIN: 10J
Rivers


BUREAU OF GEOLOGY




DUNEDIN

POPULATION SERVED: 17,639
Coastal area between Hillsborough and Withlacoochee


OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; 14 wells, 96 to 332 feet
deep; yield 500 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 6,000, undifferentiated
P RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 6.15 mgd
PUMPAGE- YEAR-908.82 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 2.40 mg PER CAPITAL USE-130 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE:
TREATMENT: Chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly; chemical/yearly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 1.32 mg (capacity of 2 plants, 2.05 mg)
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Secondary, activated sludge

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: St. Joseph Sound (Gulf of Mexico)

REMARKS: Wells subject to salt-water encroachment if overpumped. Average
daily pumpage increased from 0.85 mgd in 1956 to 2.40 mgd in 1970.
Heath and Smith (1954).





CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except-as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Well 13


Silica (SiO5)
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO3)
Nitrite (NO2)
Hardness as CaCO3


3.9
214


COLLECTION DATE:


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as caC03
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance (micromhos
at 250C)
Dissolved solid (resi
due at 1800C)
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


a Highest month May, 125 mg; lowest month March, 59 mg.


9-1-71



60
176
.29


646
L-
378

0
6.5








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81




EUSTIS


COUNTY: Lake
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09E St. Johns River


POPULATION SERVED: 9,122


OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; 6 wells, 265 to 1,003
feet deep; yield of 2 wells, 1,200 and 1,600 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 3,800, undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 8.8 mgd
PUMPAGEa/ YEAR- 714 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 1.96 mg PER CAPITAL USE-215 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tanks and ground storage, 0.81 mg
TREATMENT: Aeration, chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.61 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Secondary, highrate trickling filter

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Trout Lake

REMARKS: With recent incorporation of subdivisions into the city, the muni-
cipal water system has acquired local private water systems. Average daily
pumpage increased from 0.90 mgd in 1956 to 1.96 mgd in 1970. Knochenmus
(1971).




CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Well 1

Silica (SiO ) 11
Calcium (Cal 22
Magnesium (Mg) 7.6
Sodium (Na) 4.8
Potassium (K) .8
Bicarbonate (HCO3) 100
Sulfate (S04) 4.4
Chloride (Cl) 7.5
Fluoride (F) .2
Nitrate (NO ) .2
Nitrite (NO2) .00
Hardness as CaCO3 87
Iron (Fe) dissolved .02


COLLECTION DATE: 6-7-71


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as CaC03
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance omicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (oC)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


a High May, 86 mg; Low February 39 mg; city also serves Three-Lake and
Lake Louise subdivisions and areas adjacent to city.


190

110
24
0
7.2








92 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY







GULFPORT

COUNTY: Pinellas POPULATION SERVED: 9,730
DRAINAGE BASIN: 10J Coastal area between Hillsborough River and Withlacoo-
chee River
OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer

NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 4,526, undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY: --
PUMPAGEal YEAR-250.2 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.69 mg PER CAPITAL USE- 72 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE:b/
TREATMENT: Chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS:b/
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 1.4 mgd, average
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Contact stabilization

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: St. Petersburg sewage system southwest treatment plant,
Boca Ciega Bay
REMARKS: Heath and Smith (1954).

a High,May, 24 mg; low,January, 19 mg; water is purchased from
St. Petersburg.
b See under St. Petersburg.









INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 81 93





HAINES CITY

COUNTY: Polk POPULATION SERVED: 13,000
DRAINAGE BASIN: 10D Peace River, 10B Lake Okeechobee and Everglades

OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; five wells, 490 to 810 ft.
deep; yield 900 to 1,763 gpm
NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 2,938, undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 4.3 md
PUMPAGEa/ YEAR-553.69 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 1.52 mg PER CAPITAL USE-117 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated storage and ground storage, 1.3 mg
TREATMENT: Aeration, chlorination
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly; chemical/original
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.75 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Aeration, trickling filter

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Lake Marion

REMARKS: Water system, consisting of one well and small storage tank,
acquired by city in 1920 from the Florida Utilities Company. No plans
to expand existing plant. Average daily pumpage increased from 0.96
mgd in 1956 to 1.52 mgd in 1970. Stewart (1966).




CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except -as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S.
SAMPLING POINT: -

Silica (SiO )
Calcium (Cai
Magnesium (Mg)
Sodium (Na)
Potassium (K)
Bicarbonate (HCO3)
Sulfate (SO4)
Chloride (Cl)
Fluoride (F)
Nitrate (NO3)
Nitrite (NO)
Hardness as CaCO3


Geological Survey COLLECTION DATE:


13
49
6.3
11
1.3
194
.8
13
.2
2.2
.05


a Highest month May, 75 mg; lowest
plies water to some adjacent area


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO0
Alkalinity as CaCO3
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Smicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (oC)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


8-5-71


339

194
25

6.6


month February, 32 mg; city also sup-









BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


HOLLY HILL

COUNTY: Volusia POPULATION SERVED: 8,191
DRAINAGE BASIN: 09F Coastal area between St. Johns River and Turkey
Creek
OWNERSHIP OF SUPPLY OR SYSTEM: Municipal
SOURCE OF WATER: Ground water, Floridan aquifer; 5 wells, 200 feet deep

NUMBER & TYPE OF SERVICES: 3,043, undifferentiated
RATED PLANT CAPACITY : 1.1 gd
PUMPAGE YEAR-264.96 mg AVERAGE DAILY- 0.73 mg PER CAPITAL USE- 90 gpd
FINISHED-WATER STORAGE: Elevated tanks, ground storage, 0.38 mg
TREATMENTb/ Aeration, chlorination, softening, coagulation, filtration
TYPE/FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS: Bacteriological/monthly; chemical/daily
SEWAGE DISCHARGE: 0.5 mgd
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Aeration and activated sludge

WASTE DISCHARGED TO: Halifax River

REMARKS: Well field is 0.3 mile from the Halifax River, a tidal lagoon. To
meet the increasing demand, a new well field and water-treatment plant
are planned for construction on the site of the present waste treatment
plant, 0.5 mile west of the well field and 0.8 mile west of the river.
The main problem is salt-water encroachment. Withdrawals are carefully
monitored to prevent the spread of encroachment. Average daily pumpage
increased 83 percent,from 0.40 mgd in 1956 to 0.73 mgd in 1970. Wyrick
(1960), Snell and Anderson (1970), Knochenmus and Beard (1971).
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (milligrams per liter, except*as indicated) Water: Raw


ANALYSIS BY: U. S. Geological Survey
SAMPLING POINT: Well 1

Silica (SiO0) 22
Calcium (Ca4 103
Magnesium (Mg) 15
Sodium (Na) 41
Potassium (K) 1.6
Bicarbonate (HCO3) 346
Sulfate (SO4) 4.4
Chloride (Cl) 85
Fluoride (F) .4
Nitrate (NO ) 1.6
Nitrite (NO2) .01
Hardness as CaCO3 319
Iron (Fe) dissolved .04


COLLECTION DATE : 6-7-71


Noncarbonate hard-
ness as CaCO
Alkalinity as CaC03
Strontium (Sr)
Specific conduct-
ance Smicromhos
at 25 C)
Dissolved solid (resi-
due at 1800C)
Temperature (0C)
Color (Pt-Co units)
pH (units)


a Highest month March, 24 mg; lowest month, February, 19 mg.
b Treatment also includes flocculation, carbonation, pH control


775

484
22.5
30
7.7