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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Storm descriptions
 Description of the flood
 Flood frequences
 Flood profiles
 Flood damage
 References


FGS



Flood of September 20-23, 1969, in the Gadsden County area, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 79 )
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 Material Information
Title: Flood of September 20-23, 1969, in the Gadsden County area, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 79 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Information circular 79 )
Physical Description: v, 37 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bridges, W. C
Davis, D. R
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Publisher: Bureau of Geology
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1972
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Flood, 1969 -- Gadsden County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by W. C. Bridges and D. R. Davis.
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 37.
General Note: Prepared by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Dept. of Transportation and Florida Bureau of Geology.
Funding: Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001048696
oclc - 02012098
notis - AFD1774
System ID: UF00001139:00001

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Abstract
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Storm descriptions
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Description of the flood
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Flood frequences
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Flood profiles
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Flood damage
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    References
        Copyright
            Copyright
        Page 37
Full Text



STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Randolph Hodges, Executive Director



DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
Robert O. Vernon, Director



BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
C. W. Hendry, Jr., Chief



Information Circular No. 79



FLOOD OF SEPTEMBER 20-23, 1969
IN THE
GADSDEN COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


By
W. C. Bridges
and .
D. R. Davis



Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
and the
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA
1972
















































Completed manuscript received
February 1, 1972
Printed for the Florida Department of Natural Resources
Division of Interior Resources
Bureau of Geology
by Douglas Printing Company
Jacksonville, Florida
Tallahassee
1972

ii







CONTENTS


Page


Abstract --------------------------------------------------- 1

Introduction ------------------------------------------------- 2
Acknowledgments ---------------------------------------- 5


Storm description -- ------------------------------ 5
Synoptic discussion ----- --------------------- ----- 6
Radar observations ---- ------- ---- ---------- ----- 9
Depth-area duration --------------------------------------- 14


Description of the flood ------------------------ 17
Flood stages and discharges ------------------------------------ 17


Flood frequencies -5----------------------------------------- 25


Flood profiles ------------------------------------------ 27


Flood damage ----------------------------------------------- 34


References --------------------------------------------------- 37















iii






ILLUSTRATIONS

re Page
1. Total-storm rainfall map for September 20-23, 1969--------- 8
2. Map showing locations of road closures resulting
from September 1969 flood -------------------------------- 4
3. Surface-weather map for 7:00 a.m., September 21, 1969,
showing a tropical depression on the Florida gulf coast- ------ 7
4. Upper air 500-millibar constant pressure chart for
7:00 am., September 21, 1969---------------------------- 8
5. Photograph of radar scope at 5:50 a.m., September 20,
showing large precipitation area from 60 nautical
miles north-northeast to 150 nautical miles south
of Apalachicola. Range setting 250 nautical miles.
Range marker 50 nautical mile intervals. No
attenuation. Antenna elevation angle % degree--------------- 10
6. Photograph of radar scope at 2:30 p.m., September 20,
showing spiral lines with apparent center of curvature
about 80 nautical miles southwest of center of scope.
Range setting 250 nautical miles. Range markers 50
nautical mile intervals. No attenuation. Antenna
elevation angle % degree ----------------------------- 11
7. Photograph of the radar scope at 6:39 a.m., September
21. The bright rain area located approximately 58
nautical miles at about 24 degrees to the right of the
top of the scope was located over a recording rain
gage at Quincy, Florida. Rainfall intensity at this
time was in excess of 6 inches per hour. Range setting
250 nautical miles. Range markers 50 nautical mile
intervals. No attenuation. Antenna elevation angle
% degree..- ---------------------------------- 12
8. Photograph of the radar scope at 9:12 p.m., September
22, showing two well-developed rain bands or lines
converging on an area over the Ochlockonee River basin.
Range setting 250 nautical miles. Range markers 50
nautical mile intervals. No attenuation. Antenna
elevation angle % degree------------------------------- 13
9. Cumulative rainfall and selected rainfall-station
totals for September 20-23, 1969.--------- ---------------- 16
10. Map showing location of flood-measurement sites------------ 19
11. Discharge hydrograph for selected gaging stations in
the Ochlockonee River basin, September 20-30, 1969.---------- 21








12. Culverts at Rocky Comfort Creek (sta. 23) --------------- 23
18. Lake Talquin inflow, outflow, and storage .. .------------. 24
14. Relation of peak discharges to regionalized flood-
frequency curves-storm of September 20-23, 1969--------- 26
15. Flood profile of Little River---------------------------- 28
16. Flood profile of Quincy Creek---- --------------------- 29
17. Flood profile of Telogia Creek .----- ------------------- 30
18. Culvert on State Highway 268 at Quincy Creek---------- 31
19. Ochlockonee River at State Highway 20, 3,000 feet
downstream from Jackson Bluff Dam-------------------- 32
20. Mobile homes, at Bell's Trailer Park, U.S. Highway 20
west of Tallahassee ----------- ------------------- 33
21. Road washout at North Lake Drive between Old
Bainbridge Road and Lake Jackson ---------------------- 34
22. Salem Branch at State Highway 159 near Havana --------- 35
23. Little River at U.S. Highway 90-------------- ----------- 36



TABLES

Table Page
1. Rain gages and total rainfall, in inches, for
September 20-23, 1969, in the tri-state area of
Florida, Georgia, and Alabama shown in figure 1 --------- 15
2. Maximum rainfall intensities at gage 7, Quincy,
September 20-23, 1969 ------------------------------- 18
3. Summary of flood stages and discharges -----.------------- 20









FLOOD OF SEPTEMBER 20-23, 1969
IN THE
GADSDEN COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA

By
W. C. Bridges1 and D. R. Davis2

ABSTRACT
The center of low pressure of a tropical disturbance which
moved northward in the Gulf of Mexico, reached land between
Panama City and Port St. Joe, Florida, on September 20, 1969. This
system was nearly stationary for 48 hours producing heavy rainfall
in the Quincy-Havana area, 70-80 miles northeast of the center.
Rainfall associated with the tropical disturbance exceeded 20
inches over a part of Gadsden County, Florida, during September 20
through 23, 1969, and the maximum rainfall of record occurred at
Quincy with 10.87 inches during a 6-hour period on September 21.
The 48-hour maximum of 17.71 inches exceeded the 1 in 100-year
probability of 16 inches for a 7-day period.
The previous maximum rainfall of record at Quincy (more than
12 inches) was on September 14-15, 1924. The characteristics of this
historical storm were similar in path and effect to the September
1969 tropical disturbance.
Peak runoff from a 1.4-square mile area near Midway, Florida,
was 1,540 cfs (cubic feet per second) per square mile. A peak dis-
charge of 45,600 cfs on September 22 at the gaging station on the
Little River near Quincy exceeded the previous peak of 25,400 cfs
which occurred on December 4, 1964. The peak discharge of 89,400
cfs at Ochlockonee River near Bloxham exceeded the April 1948
peak of 50,200 cfs, which was the previous maximum of record, by
1.8 times. Many flood-measurement sites had peak discharges in
excess of that of a 50-year flood.
Nearly $200,000 was spent on emergency repairs to roads. An
additional $520,000 in contractual work was required to replace four
bridges that were destroyed. Agricultural losses were estimated at
$1,000,000.





INTRODUCTION
A small tropical disturbance moved northward from the Gulf
of Mexico on September 20, 1969, and became quasi-stationary for
about 48 hours in the coastal area between Port St. Joe and Panama
City, Florida. Rainfall associated with the disturbance was in excess
of 20 inches over an area bounded by the towns of Attapulgus, Geor-
gia and Quincy and Havana, Florida.
Areas affected most by the storm were the Little River basin
(southern part of Decatur County, Georgia, and Gadsden County,
Florida) and part of the Ochlockonee River basin in Florida (Leon,
Gadsden, Liberty, and Wakulla counties). This area is generally en-
closed by the 10-inch isoyhet in figure 1, the total-storm rainfall
map for September 20-23.
Rainfall intensities, at the Quincy National Weather Service
Office, located just outside the area of maximum rainfall, for 2-,
6-, 12-, 24-, 48-, and 72-hour periods and the storm total, exceeded
the 1 in 100-year probabilities of occurrence. Most of the rain fell on
September 21, with 10.87 inches recorded during the 6-hour period
ending at 11:10 a.m.
Although no lives were lost, the cost and inconvenience to the
public owing to widespread road closures were substantial. The
Florida Department of Transportation noted 51 sites where the
roads were closed due to high water or to the washout of bridges or
culverts. These sites are shown in figure 2.
Traffic was virtually at a standstill in Gadsden County on Sep-
tember 21 and 22. U.S. Highway 90, the main artery through the
county, was closed from September 21 until September 23, when one
lane was opened. Most of the traffic in the county was moving, with
only minor inconveniences, by early September 23.
This report documents the magnitude and extent of flooding
for September 20-23, 1969. It provides information for public and
private agencies that are concerned with flooding, with planning of
land development, and with road design and construction. The
report describes flood damage, rainfall intensities, and storm char-
acterization. It gives peak discharges at selected sites and flood pro-
1Hydraulic engineer, Dept. of Interior, Geological Survey, Water Re-
sources Division.
2Meteorologist, Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, National Weather Service.




































Figure 1.-Total-storm rainfall map for September 20-28, 1969.







































EXPLANATION
SL|N o V r Water over the road
LE N -- CO Culvert washed out
Bridge approach out
0 10 Miles

Figure 2.-Map showing locations of road closures resulting from September
1969 flood.






files of selected reaches of three streams, and makes comparisons
with previous flood peaks.
The report was prepared under the general supervision of C. S.
Conover, District Chief, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological
Survey, as part of the cooperative program with the Florida Depart-
ment of Transportation.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The hydrologic data in this report were collected by the U.S.
Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of
Transportation, the Florida Bureau of Geology, and the Florida
Power Corporation. Rainfall and related weather and radar data
were collected by the National Weather Service.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the cooperation of the
Florida Department of Transportation in furnishing damage esti-
mates to roads and bridges and highwater marks for flood profiles;
the assistance of Robert L. Smith, meteorologist in charge of the
National Weather Service Radar Station at Apalachicola, Florida,
in the interpretation of the radar photographic records of the
storm; and the assistance provided by J. F. Bailey, hydraulic specia-
list, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C., in the collection and
computation of peak discharge data and preparation of the report.

STORM DESCRIPTION
Rainfall intensities of 5 to 6 inches in 24 hours are not uncom-
mon throughout the gulf coastal area. Rains of 10 inches or more in
24 hours are rare, and the chance of having as much as 10 to 15
inches in 24 hours is 1 in 100 years (Hershfield, 1961, p. 105).
Excessive rainfall along the gulf coast may be associated with
any one of numerous weather systems. Well-developed thunder-
storms occasionally produce heavy precipitation. Cold fronts moving
into the southeast frequently become quasi-stationary along the
northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico and may produce rain for 2,
3, or more days; the total rainfall accumulation may be several
inches. Extra-tropical lows may develop over Texas or the western
Gulf in the spring and move eastward across the northern Gulf pro-
ducing copious rains over the coastal areas of Louisiana, Mississippi,
Alabama, and Florida.
The heaviest rains, however, are generally associated with






cyclonic (low pressure) systems of tropical origin. The storms
include:
(a) hurricanes with winds of 74 mph (miles per hour) or higher;
(b) tropical storms having closed isobars about a low-pressure cen-
ter with a distinct counter-clockwise circulation and winds of 39 to
73 mph;
(c) tropical depressions having closed isobars about a low-pressure
center, a counter-clockwise wind circulation with winds to 39 mph;
and
(d) tropical disturbances with low-pressure centers that are low
enough for a closed isobar and a poorly defined wind circulation.


SYNOPTIC DISCUSSION
The heavy rain of September 20-23, 1969 was associated with a
tropical cyclone that was marginal between a tropical depression
and a tropical disturbance. At times the central pressure was low
enough for a closed isobar; at other times it was not. The circula-
tion was counter-clockwise, but winds were light both at the sur-
face and aloft.
The synoptic situation was similar to that associated with the
previous record rainfall (1922-70) for the Quincy area which oc-
curred September 14-15, 1924 (U.S. Weather Bureau). The tropical
storm of September 1924 dumped over 12 inches of rain on Gadsden
County within a 24-hour period causing flooding and extensive crop
damage (U.S. Weather Bureau, September 1924, p. 39). The char-
acteristics of the September 1924 storm were similar in path and
effect to the September 1969 storm.
The first indication of the September 1969 tropical depression
was on the surface-weather chart of September 19, when a ship
report indicated the presence of a low-pressure area at about lat.
25.30N. and long. 86.40W., about 150 miles west-northwest of Key
West, Florida. The surface-weather analysis at 1:00 a.m. Septem-
ber 20, placed a low with a closed isobar about a central pressure of
29.70 inches of mercury centered at lat. 25.00N. and long. 88.40W.
This low-pressure system moved northward during the day and
reached land between Panama City and Port St. Joe, Florida, by
4:00 a.m. September 21. Figure 3 shows the surface-weather map
for 7:00 a.m. September 21 with the low center positioned on the
gulf coast.
A large high-pressure area at the surface (fig. 3) and weak




































Figure 3.--Surface-weather map for 7:00 a.m. September 21, 1969, showing a
tropical depression on the Florida gulf coast. (Redrawn from U.S.
Dept. of Commerce, Daily Weather Maps, Weekly Series, September
15-21, 1969.)


wind circulation aloft (fig. 4) covered most of the eastern half of
the nation. With the blocking action of the high at the surface and
no pronounced wind pattern aloft to keep the system moving, the
tropical depression stalled near the coast where it remained for
about 48 hours.
The dynamics of a tropical depression blocked by a shallow
dome of cooler air are favorable for heavy precipitation. The coun-
ter-clockwise circulation around the low-pressure center transported
warm, moist, and unstable tropical air inland. Orographic lifting and
forced upslope motion of the warm moist air over the cooler denser

7








































500-MILLIBAR HEIGHT CONTOURS \
AT 7:00. A.M., E.S. T.
i7'' I;,' 0 :' "' a

Figure 4.-Upper air 500-millibar constant pressure chart for 7:00 a.m., Sep-
tember 21, 1969. (Reproduced from U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Daily
Weather Maps, Weekly Series. September 15-21, 1969.







air of the high-pressure dome, in addition to the instability of the
tropical air, was sufficient to produce torrential rains most of the
time that the low remained over the Panama City-Port St. Joe area.
By September 23, the high-pressure system along the eastern sea-
board weakened, and the low filled until it was discernable only as a
weak inverted trough.
During the 48 hours the storm was stationary, heavy rain fell
on the Ochlockonee River basin and on the lower Apalachicola River
basin. Map analysis indicated periods when the storm weakened
followed by periods of re-intensification. This was reflected in the
variability of intensity of rainfall throughout the life of the storm.


RADAR OBSERVATIONS
The precipitation area associated with this tropical depression
was under constant surveillance by the National Weather Service's
radar located at Apalachicola, Florida. The radar is classed as
Weather Search Radar-57. It has a range of 250 nautical miles1.
Photographs were made every 5 minutes during the storm. Because
the radar station was near the storm path excellent picture coverage
was obtained.
Radar detection of a large area of precipitation in the Gulf of
Mexico was made late on September 19. The precipitation reached
the Florida coast at 1:00 a.m., September 20. Figure 5 is a pho-
tograph of the radar scope at 5:50 a.m., September 20. This figure
shows an area of precipitation from 60 nautical miles north-north-
east to 150 nautical miles south of Apalachicola that varies from
50-150 nautical miles in width with nearly 100 percent coverage to
the south of Apalachicola. The heaviest precipitation was over the
Gulf.
As the area of precipitation progressed northward, it tended
to orient into lines or bands. Two bands were prominent at 9:25
a.m. One was 8-10 nautical miles wide, extending from 20 nautical
miles northwest to 75 nautical miles southeast of Apalachicola, and
the second band extended 125 nautical miles offshore. Cells (heavy
rain centers) appeared to be moving north or northwest along the
bands while the whole precipitation area moved slowly northward.

1All references to miles in this report are to statute miles except where
designated as nautical miles. One nautical mile equals approximately 6,076
feet.









































Figure 5.-Photograph of radar scope at 5:50 a.m., September 20, showing
large precipitation area from 60 nautical miles north-northeast to
150 nautical miles south of Apalachicola. Range setting 250 nauti-
cal miles. Range marker 50 nautical mile intervals. No attenuation.
Antenna elevation angle 1/ degree.

By noon, the bands were nearly spiral with the center of curvature
about 95 miles southwest of Apalachicola.
Rainfall began at Havana early on September 20 and increased
noticeably in intensity by 2:00 p.m. Destined to be in the area of
maximum rainfall, Havana and Quincy are shown (fig. 6) on the
northeastern edge of the precipitation area on the 2:30 p.m. radar

10









































Figure 6.-Photograph of radar scope at 2:30 a.m., September 20, showing
spiral lines with apparent center of curvature about 80 nautical
miles southwest of center of scope. Range setting 250 nautical
miles. Range markers 50 nautical mile intervals. No. attenuation.
Antenna elevation angle % degree.

picture. The center of curvature is shown about 80 nautical miles
southwest of the radar station (center of the scope). The intensity
of rainfall is indicated by the brightness of the cells in the bands.
Moderate to heavy rain was falling over most of the lower Apalachi-
cola and Ochlockonee river basins at the time this photograph was
taken. The rain continued during most of the remainder of the day.
After the center of the tropical depression reached the coast on

11







































Figure 7.-Photograph of the radar scope at 6:39 a.m., September 21. The
bright rain area located approximately 58 nautical miles at about
24 degrees to the right of the top of the scope was located over a
recording rain gage at Quincy, Florida. Rainfall intensity at this
time was in excess of 6 inches per hour. Range setting 250 nautical
miles. Range markers 50 nautical mile intervals. No attenuation.
Antenna elevation angle 1/2 degree.

the morning of September 21, radar pictures indicated a tendency
for the heavier precipitation to be oriented in northwest-southeast
or north-south lines with the heaviest precipitation area virtually
stationary over Gadsden and neighboring counties in Florida and
south Georgia. Individual cells moved along the lines converging on
the Gadsden County area while the lines moved little. At times, 2
or 3 lines appeared to radiate out of a point centered over or near

12










































Figure 8.-Photograph of the radar scope at 9:12 p.m., September 22 showing
2 well-developed rain bands or lines covering on an area over the
Ochlockonee River basin. Range setting 250 nautical miles. Range
markers 50 nautical mile intervals. No attenuation. Antenna eleva-
tion angle degree.


a small area in north Gadsden County and the south part of Grady
and Decatur counties in Georgia.
The two recording rain gages (7 and 8, fig. 1) nearest the cen-
ter of maximum rainfall were located approximately 12 miles south-
west, near Quincy. Figure 7 shows the precipitation pattern at 6:39
a.m., September 21, shortly after the start of rainfall that exceeded

13







6 inches per hour at Quincy. The recording gages showed very
heavy rainfall continued for nearly 3 hours. At times during the
day on September 21, the heights of the radar echoes exceeded the
40,000-foot level.
Precipitation bands continued to converge on the Ochlockonee
River basin with individual cells in the bands moving up to the
Ochlockonee River basin where they become stationary. Figure 8 is
a photograph of the radar scope taken at 9:12 p.m. on September
21. Through that night and the following morning, the precipitation
patterns were similar to that shown in figure 8. The precipitation
lines slowly disintegrated into non-orientated cells during the after-
noon of September 22 and regrouped again into well-defined lines
after 5:30 p.m. By early morning on September 23 the precipitation
area began to show signs of eastward movement, and by 9:00 a.m.
the lines broke up into individual cells which moved rapidly out to
the east and northeast.

DEPTH-AREA DURATION
This storm occurred in an area having an unusually large num-
ber of rain gages. Those which collected 2 inches or more during
the storm are listed in table 1 in descending order of inches of rain
caught. Most of the gages were the official National Weather Service
types. Of these, 2 were recording tipping-bucket gages, 2 were
recording-weighing gages, 1 a Fischer-Porter recording gage, and
32 were the standard 8-inch gages. The latter is a compound, 10 to
1, can-gage with a capacity of 25 inches. Four standard gages that
were in the center of maximum rainfall received 20 inches or more.
Three of these were owned by the Englehart Chemical and Mineral
Company and were located at company mines.
Twelve of the rain gages listed are owned by the Florida Divi-
sion of Forestry. Of these, four were of the compound type with a
7-inch capacity. The others were a plastic tube-type with a 5-inch
capacity. The accuracy of the plastic gage is questionable, especially
for periods of intense rain. The Division reported that some of their
rainfall reports were in excess of gage capacity. Havana tower gage
4 did overflow. The U.S. Geological Survey's gage (17) is a Stevens
Type QA continuous recorder, with a capacity of 25 inches.
The maximum rainfall of 23.40 inches was measured at the Na-
tional Weather Service's Agricultural Weather Reporting Station
located on State Highway 12 near the west edge of Havana. (See










Table 1.-Rain gages and total rainfall, in inches, for September 20-23, 1969, in
the tri-state area of Florida, Georgia, and Alabama shown in figure 1.


Gage No.
(fig. 1)


Name and Location


Havana, Fla.
La Camelia mine, 7 miles NNE, Quincy, Fla.
Attapulgus mine, 1 mile S. Attapulgus, Ga.
Havana Tower, 3 miles W, Havana, Fla.
Lock N mine, 5 miles NNE, Havana, Fla.
Quincy Tower, 4 miles W, Quincy, Fla.
Quincy, 3 miles SSW, Fla.
Tobacco Station, Quincy, Fla.
Hosford Tower, 3 miles E, Hosford, Fla.
Wewahitchka, Fla.
East Bay Tower, 14 miles S, Sumatra, Fla.
Attapulgus Exp. Sta., 1 mile NW, Attapulgus, Ga.
Tallahassee WB, 5 miles SW, Tallahassee, Fla.
Cape San Bias, S, Port St. Joe, Fla.
Tallahassee Tower, 3 miles SE, Tallahassee, Fla.
Woodruff Dam, Chattahoochee, Fla.
Otter Camp, 5 miles S, Bloxham, Fla.
Rosedale Tower, 3 miles S, Chattahoochee, Fla.
Bristol Tower, 3 miles E, Bristol, Fla.
Crawfordville, Fla.
Tall Timbers, N side Lake lamonia, Fla.
Blountstown, Fla.
Colquitt, 2 miles E, Ga.
Bainbridge, Ga.
Donalsonville, Ga.
St. James Tower, 3 miles S, Panacea, Fla.
Cairo, 2 miles NW, Ga.
Sanborn Tower, Sanborn, Fla.
Apalachicola, Fla.
St. Marks. Fla.
Panama City, Fla.
Wacissa, Fla.
Newport Tower, Wakulla, Fla.
Blakely, Ga.
Headland, Ala.
Camilla, Ga.
Carrabelle, Fla.
Greenwood, Fla.
Fountain, 3 miles SSE, Fla.
Thomasville, 4 miles SE, Ga.
Monticello, 3 miles W, Fla.
Chipley, 3 miles E, Fla.
Caryville, Fla.
Moultrie, 2 miles ESE, Ga.
Perry, Fla.
Dothan, Ala.
Quitman, Ga.
Geneva, Ala.
Valdosta, 4 miles NW, Ga,
Madison, Fla.


Gage Type Ownership Rain-
Gage fall


Standard 8 in.
do.
do.
7-in. Capacity
Standard 8 in.
7-in. Capacity
Tipping Bucket
Weighing
5-in. Capacity
Standard 8-in.
5-in Capacity
Standard 8-in.
Weighing
5-in. Capacity
7-in. Capacity
Fischer & Porter
Stevens
5-in. Capacity
7-in. Capacity
5-in. Capacity
Standard 8-in.
do.
do.
do.
do.
5-in. Capacity
Standard 8 in.
do.
Tipping Bucket
Standard 8 in.
do
5-in. Capacity
do.
Standard 8 in.
do.
do.
do.
do
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do
do.
do.
do.


NOAA-NWS
EC and M
do.
FDF
EC and M
FDF
NOAA-NWS
do.
FDF
NOAA-NWS
FDF
Univ. Ga.
NOAA-NWS
FDF
do.
NOAA-NWS
USGS
FDF
do.
do.
NOAA-NWS
do.
do.
do.
do.
FDF
NOAA-NWS
do.
do.
do.
do.
FDF
do.
NOAA-NWS
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.


23.4
22.5
22.0
221.9
20.0
19.8
18.8
18.3
18.1
17.4
15.8
15.0
13.8
13.8
12.9
12.0
11.7
11.4
11.3
11.0
310.4
10.4
9.1
9.0
8.7
8.2
8.2
8.1
7.8
6.7
6.5
6.3
6.0
5.9
5.9
5.6
5.4
4.9
4.8
4.7
4.6
4.0
3.8
3.7
3.5
3.2
2.8
2.7
2.4
2.1


'NOAA, National Weather Service (NOAA-NWS), Englehart Chemical and Mineral (EC and
M), Florida Division of Forestry (FDF), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).
"Gage overflowed-total does not include overflow.
3Average of four gages.


fig. 1, gage 1.) The 20-inch isohyet enclosed an area of about 160

square miles in which the average precipitation was about 22 inches.

The 15-inch isohyet enclosed an area of about 2,000 square miles

and the average of all the rain gages within this area was 19.8

inches. Rainfall amounts and area depths are probably biased to the

low side due to the intensity of rainfall and the limited capacity of
some of the gages.

Figure 9 shows accumulated rainfall-curves for Havana, Quin-


c




















I I I I I I I I 1111111111

24- EXPLANATION


(SELECTED RAINFALL-STATION TOTALS) -- _
2. Locomelio mine
3- Attopulgus mine
4. Havan tower, Florida Forest Service 5
5. Lock Nmine --
6. Quncy tower, Florida Forest Service /
9. Hostord tower,Florido Forest Srvice /
n 10. Wewohitch o / -
S10



- 16 -


-z




4-
t r 6, AGE 3. LL,.L S.SEE_.--- --

0 -2- -- --


I /

u f I /







Figure 9.--CumuativDoil cumulirainfall total tor Hl-stationo




o ber 2023, 1969. o o
o 0 o 0 o o o o o o o o 0
HB N( a O N 0O I* U> (M 1 O
September 20 September 21 September 22 Sept. 23


Figure 9.-Cumulative rainfall and selected rainfall-station totals for Septem-
ber 20-23, 1969.








Table 2.-Maximum rainfall intensities at gage 7, Quincy, September 20-23,1969.

Rainfall
Rainfall Duration (inches)
5 minutes 0.62
10 minutes 1.17
15 minutes 1.61
20 minutes 1.98
30 minutes 2.50
45 minutes 3.24
60 minutes 3.76
2 hours 6.23
3 hours 7.90
6 hours 10.87
12 hours 12.07
24 hours 15.06
48 hours 17.71
72 hours 18.84
Storm Total 18.85 inches
Storm Duration 72 hours and 16 minutes
Rain Began 4:10 a.m., Sept. 20
Rain Ended 4:26 a.m.. Sept. 23



cy, and Tallahassee; and total rainfall for other selected stations.
The Havana curve was estimated from the daily rainfall reports
and from the Quincy curve.

There were no recording gages in the maximum rainfall center,
that area receiving 20 inches of rainfall or more (fig. 1). Rainfall
intensities for the area between Quincy and Havana, however, were
probably similar to those recorded by tipping-bucket gage 7 at the
National Weather Service Office located 3 miles southwest of Quin-
cy. Although that gage overflowed for a few minutes, a quantity
adjustment was made using the record from the adjacent gage 8.

Rainfall intensities for the. Quincy area are shown in table 2
which presents the maximum amounts of rainfall recorded for
designated time intervals. The intensities for 2-, 6-, 12-, 24-, 48-,
and 72-hour periods, and for the storm total, exceeded the 1 in 100-
year probability of receiving such rainfall amounts (Hershfield, 1961
and Miller, 1964). The 2-day maximum of 17.71 inches exceeded by
1.71 inches the 1 in 100-year probability of a rainfall of 16 inches
for a 7-day period for Quincy (Miller, 1964).

The maximum 6-hour rainfall at Quincy (gage 7) was recorded
between 2 and 8 hours after the storm center reached land on the
morning of September 21. The center of maximum precipitation was
60-65 miles to the east of where the center of low pressure made
landfall and some 50 miles inland.





DESCRIPTION OF THE FLOOD
FLOOD STAGES AND DISCHARGES
The damaging floods that occurred in September 1969 were
mainly confined to the Little River basin and the lower Ochlockonee
River basin (south of U.S. Highway 27, fig. 2). Areas affected were
the southern part of Decatur and Grady counties, Georgia, and all
or parts of Gadsden, Leon, Liberty, Wakulla, Franklin, Bay, and
Gulf counties, Florida (fig. 10).
Current-meter measurements of peak discharge were not ob-
tained at the sites shown in figure 10 because the flood peak was of
short duration, because it occurred during the night, or because
the gaging station was inaccessible due to flooded roads and wash-
outs. In cases where water-stage recorders malfunctioned or were
damaged by the flood, high-water marks and direct readings on
nonrecording gages were used to determine flood peaks.
Indirect measurements of peak discharge were made at 15
sites--3 regular gaging stations and 12 miscellaneous sites. Indirect
measurement techniques used included: slope-area method; con-
tracted-opening method; flow-through culvert method; and over
road-embankment method. Indirect measurements based on field
surveys of high-water profiles, channel geometry, and geometry of
the bridge or culvert were computed in accordance with established
methods of the Geological Survey.
Maximum stages and discharges at 19 continuous-recording
and crest-stage partial-record stations, the maximum contents for
Lake Talquin, and peak discharges for 13 ungaged sites are sum-
marized in table 3. These sites are located on the map in figure 10.
Flood peaks at selected stations on several streams in the
Ochlockonee River basin during September 20-30 were generally of
short duration (fig. 11). Most of the streams peaked on the 22d
and receded to base flow in 48 to 72 hours. Small streams such as
Rocky Comfort Creek (sta. 23) peaked on the 21st and receded to
base flow in 12 to 18 hours.
Figure 11 shows that the peak for Ochlockonee River near
Havana (sta. 8, fig. 10) was relatively low compared to peaks of
nearby streams. Ths total rainfall decreased rapidly in the up-
stream part of this 1,140 square-mile basin and the peak discharge
was only 17,000 cfs or 14.9 cfs per square mile. Most of the flooding
on the lower Ochlockonee River was downstream from station 8 and
was the result of runoff from Little River and from small tributaries
around Lake Talquin.
Gaging station 13, Little River near Quincy, was located near




































Figure 10.-Map showing location of flood-measurement sites.





Table 8,-Summary of flood stages and discharges


Maximum flood previously known


Maximum during September 1989 flood

Discharge


Sta. No, Permanent
(fig, 10) Sta, No,


Stream and place of
determination


Drainage
area
(sq ml)


Period
of
Record


Gate
height
Date (ft)


Discharge
(eta) Day


agei
height
(ft)


Recurrence
Cfs per interval
sq mi (yr)


Ochlockonee River basin and coastal area
Sopchoppy River near Arran, Fla.
Sopchoppy River near Sopchoppy, Fla.
Ochlookonee River near Thomasvllle, Ga.
1Uarnetts Creek near Thomasville, Ga.
Wolf Creek near Whigham, Ga.
Tired Creek near Cairo, Ga.
Ochlookonee River tributary near Havana, Fla.
Ochlockonee River near Havana, Fla.
Midway Branch near Midway, Fla.
Attapulgus Creek at Jamleson, Fla,
Swamp Creek at Jamieson, Fla.
Wlllacoochee Creek tributary near Quincy, Fla.
Little River near Quincy, Fla.
Quincy Creek near Quincy, Fla.
Hollman Branch near Quincy, Fla.
South Prong Tanyard Branch near Quincy, Fla.
Tanyard Branch near Quincy, Fla.
Hubbert Branch near Quincy, Fla.
Winkley Branch near Quincy, Fla.
Little River near Littman, Fla.
Hurricane Creek near Havana, Fla.
Little River near Midway, Fla.
Rocky Comfort Creek near Quincy, Fla.
Lake Talquin near Bloxham, Fla.
Ochlockonee River near Bloxham, Fla.
Telogia Creek near Greensboro, Fla.
Telogla Creek near Bristol, Fla.
New River at Vilas, Fla.
New River near Wilma, Fla.
New River near Sumatra, Fla.
Apalachicola River basin
Flat Creek near Chattahoochee, Fla.
Chipola River near Alths, Fla.


Coastal area between Apalachicola River
and Choctawhatchee River
88 8598. Sandy Creek near Panama City, Fla.


48.2
07.9
550
104
b 19
b 0o
1.84
b1,140
1.88
95.6
58.0
1.26
287
6.16
8.09
2.29
4.91
4.68
1.64
* 292
8.81
806
9.46
1,720
1,720
28.1
126
28.2
81.7
157


1964-69
1961-69
1987.69
1951-09
1948, 1951-69
1948-69
1926.69



1950-69






198665-69
1964-69
1980-69
1926-69
1965-69
1950-69
1961-69
1964.69
1966-69


2
3
4
5
6
8 6
7
9
10
11
12
t0 183
0 14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
26
26
27
28
29
80
81
32


Dec. 4, 1964
Dec. 5, 1964
Apr. 2, 1948
Dec, 5, 1964
Dec. 4, 1964
Apr. 1, 1948
Apr, 4, 1948



Dec. 4, 1964






Dec. .5, 1964
Dec. 4, 1964
Sept. 24. 1982
Apr. 5,1948
Apr. '27, 1965
Dec. 5, 1964
Oct. 16, 1964
Sept. 20, 1966
Dec. 7, 1964


58.88
88.78
'29.1
'20,4
10.02
416.8
85,08



20,81






88.27
41.00
70.90
28.50
98.86
11.11
5.86
46.82
24.68


4,740
4,880
72,000
17,700
28,100
55,900



25,400






27,800
2,140
f96,820
r50,200
4,410
8,280
675
2,720
8,620


56633
80.60
8.67
10,86
7,56
8.80
80.00



'24.65






'86.25
'42.5
71.60
'29.2
'99.9
416.65
S8.78
50.67
27.88


3270 .
8271.
8275.
3277.
3279.
8280.
8288.59
8290.
8292.6
8298.52
8294.04
3294.81
3295.
3295.16
3295.88
8296.46
8295.48
8295.53
8295.56
8295.65
8295.82
8296.
8297.
8299.
8800.
8800.5
8801.
8802.
3808,
8804.
3586.
8590.


b 25 1961-69 Oct. 15, 1964


17.06 2,260 21 18.24


2,350
3,440
872
680
1,800
2,940
1,700
17,000
2,180
22,200
18,800
642
45,600
4,840
1,050
1,480
2,480
2,860
1,000
* 47,400
7,450
49,200
7,610
'105,800
89,400
12,000
20,600
2,670
8,790
6,670


48,8
85,1
1,6
6.5
68.4
49.0
1,270
14.9
1,540
282
856
510
192
786
840
646
495
504
610
167
896
161
804
52.0
427
1i8
111
108
42.5


4
4
1.1
1.2
8
4

(0)
e 2.28
d 2.56
"(c)
a 2.99




(c)
d 2.89
(c)


d 2.26
d 1.49
8
46
8


SFrom floodmark
h Approximately
o Not defined


d Ratio of peak discharge to 60-year storm
SIncludes Hurricane Creek
SContents, are feet



'Exceeded by undetermined peak discharge on Sept. 80, 1957, which
was caused by failure of earth embankment of Jackson Bluff dam.


24.9 1961-69
781 1921-27,
1929-81,
1948-69


Apr. 26, 1965 11.48 8,990 21 *18.6
Sept. 20, 1926 8.56 25.000 21 14.88


8,450 889 d 1.70
8,100 4.0 1.8



1,180 47.2 e 1.18




























River near Bloxhom (Sto.25)


.Little River near Quincy (Sto. 13)


.Telogio Creek near Bristol (Sto.27)



Rocky Comfort Creek near Quincy(Sta.23)


Ochlockonee River near Hovona(Sto.


20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
September 1969



Figure 11.-Discharge hydrograph for selected gaging stations in the Och-
lockonee River basin, September 20-30, 1969.


21







the center of greatest rainfall. At this station the stage rose 21 feet
between 6 a.m. September 21 and 6 a.m. September 22, and rainfall
during the same period was 13 inches at the recording gage 3 miles
south-southwest of Quincy. The peak discharge of 45,600 cfs oc-
curred about 7 anm. September 22. This discharge was 2.99 times
greater than that of a 50-year flood and 1.8 times greater than the
19-year record peak discharge of 25,400 cfs which occurred in De-
cember 1964 (table 3).
Runoff for the flood was 9.7 inches or approximately 61 per-
cent of the total rainfall on the basin.
At the Little River gage (sta. 13), on State Highway 12, the
left bank (looking downstream) is steep and the highway enters a
deep cut approximately 300 feet east of the bridge. The rain satu-
rated the pipe clay banks causing both banks to slide and piled clay,
trees, and telephone poles across the highway, blocking it for about
a week. The sparse development along the relatively narrow Little
River valley limited damage mostly to bridges and highway em-
bankments.
At Rocky Comfort Creek near Quincy (sta. 23) the peak dis-
charge was 7,610 cfs. Runoff from the 9.46 square-mile drainage
area was 14.0 inches which was 74 percent of the 18.8 inches of
rainfall.
The drainage structure at Rocky Comfort Creek station con-
sists of four 8-foot x 10-foot box culverts. Near the time of the
flood peak the culverts were undermined and the center section (fig.
12) settled approximately 3 feet. The road was breached around
both wingwalls leaving 10-foot openings on each side.
About 8 miles downstream, at the next road crossing at State
Highway 267, two sets of arch culverts were washed out and col-
lapsed due to the head on the road fill and culverts.
Lake Talquin is the reservoir formed by Jackson Bluff Dam on
the Ochlockonee River and is used primarily for hydropower. Its
area is 6,890 acres (10.7 square miles) at elevation 60.0 feet.
As rain spread over the Ochlockonee River basin, Lake Talquin
began to rise. By midnight September 20, after 3.17 inches of rain
had accumulated at the Quincy weather station (gage 7), the lake
elevation had increased 0.3 foot. Between midnight September 20
and 7 pnm. September 22, the lake level rose from 68.30 feet to 71.60
feet or 0.70 foot above the previous maximum recorded on Septem-
ber 24, 1932.
The contributing drainage area to the lake is 1,720 square


























Figure 12.-Culverts at Rocky Comfort Creek (sta. 23).


miles. The inflow was gaged at station 8 (fig. 10), Ochlockonee River
near Havana, 1,140 square miles; station 13, Little River near
Quincy, 237 square miles; and station 23, Rocky Comfort Creek
near Quincy, 9.46 square miles. The inflow from the ungaged 334
square-mile area was estimated on the basis of runoff from Rocky
Comfort Creek and Little River and verified by a comparison of
total runoff values. Storm runoff from Rocky Comfort Creek and
Little River drainage basins were 74 and 61 percent, respectively,
compared to 64 percent runoff from the ungaged area.
Figure 13 is a graph of Lake Talquin inflow and outflow, in cfs,
and storage, in acre-feet, for September 20-30, 1969. The inflow
graph (solid line) represents the combined flow past station 23
(Rocky Comfort Creek), station 13 (Little River), station 8 (Och-
lockonee River), and the estimated flow of the ungaged area. It was
not adjusted for time lag. The storage graph (dotted line) repre-
sents storage in Lake Talquin as measured at station 24 and the
outflow graph (dashed line) represents the flow below Lake Talquin
at station 25 (Ochlockonee River).
The initial inflow increase, as shown in figure 13, resulted from
runoff from Rocky Comfort Creek and other small tributaries that


























o 8\

z 70- \



Wo I


U o I

50-
cn 40
z
30
0
20 STORAGE



S 10 \

O .- ---.

I I I! I

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
September 1969



Figure 13.-Lake Talquin inflow, outflow, and storage.






surround Lake Talquin. This concentration of inflow is reflected by
an increase in storage and outflow. The inflow graph shows a second
peak which was the result of the flood runoff from the Little and
Ochlockonee Rivers. Usable contents in the lake increased from
67,800 acre-feet, at midnight September 20, to a maximum of
105,300 acre-feet, at 7 p.m. September 22.
Gaging station 25 on the Ochlockonee River at State Highway
20 (3,000 feet below Jackson Bluff Dam) gages the outflow from
Lake Talquin. The peak discharge of 89,400 cfs at this station, which
occurred at 5 a.m. September 23, was 2.19 times greater than that of
a 50-year flood.
The Ochlockonee River overflowed State Highway 20 just west
of the main channel bridge and kept the road closed to traffic for
approximately 48 hours September 22-23, 1969. At peak flow the
road-overflow section was approximately 4,800 feet wide and carried
approximately 20 percent of the discharge.
On September 30, 1957, a portion of the earth embankment of
Jackson Bluff Dam failed thereby releasing much of the water
stored in Lake Talquin. Although the peak discharge was not de-
termined, the flood crest at the gaging station at State Highway 20
was 3.44 feet higher than that of the more recent September 23,
1969, flood.
At gaging station 27, on Telogia Creek, the peak discharge on
September 22, 1969, was 20,600 cfs or 1.49 times greater than that
of a 50-year flood and 2.5 times greater than the previous maximum
of 8,280 cfs in December 1964. Runoff resulting from the September
1969 flood was 10.4 inches, which was about 65 percent of the total
rainfall on the basin.
The highest peak discharge per unit of drainage area during
the September 1969 flood occurred on Midway Branch where the
peak runoff was 1,540 cfs per square mile from a 1.38 square-mile
area. See station 9 (fig. 10 and table 3).


FLOOD FREQUENCIES

The recurrence interval, applied to flood events, is the number
of years, on the average, during which a given flood peak will be
exceeded once (Dalrymple, 1960, p. 5). It is inversely related to the
chance of a specific flood peak being exceeded in any one year. For
instance, a flood having 1 chance in 50 of being exceeded in any one











0





U0 2 3 o10

o 1
30







gld
)- *5


EXPLANATION
o 03

Numbers refer to flood measurement
sites in figure 10 and table 3.




0.1
I 10 100 1000 10,000
DRAINAGE AREA, SQUARE MILES


Figure 14,-Relation of peak discharges to regionalized flood-frequency curves-storm of September
20-23, 1909. Flood-frequency curves adapted from Barnes and Golden (1966).


B~Zi?~yly~~~.~~9,crrCll'~'n~':Clni'n~l; 1., ".J'.:';""""''.~,: i .:. C'::iLjiiS.O:. i~:;~zl;n**.cu~.rr*r...-.i~lu-.i..l..
-----~-`-----I-IIllr-- rllll iii ili I--







year is said to have a recurrence interval of 50 years and is com-
monly referred to as the 50-year flood.
Barnes and Golden (1966, p. 7-13) present a method for de-
termining the magnitude of floods of selected frequencies. Their
regionalized method is applicable to drainage areas of greater than
10 square miles.
In figure 14 peak discharges of September 1969 are compared
to the 10-, 25-, and 50-year flood-frequency curves. Many of the
peak discharges were in excess of the 50-year flood and are consid-
ered to be rare occurrences. The enveloping curve shown in figure
14 may be derived from the equation:
Q = 2,800 A0.52
where Q is the peak discharge in cfs and A is the drainage area in
square miles.
All of the flood-measurement sites (stations 1-31, fig. 14 and
table 3) are in the same flood-frequency region and hydrologic area,
as defined by Barnes and Golden (1966, plate 1), except for Flat
Creek near Chattahoochee (sta. 31). However, a comparison of the
unit runoff of available peaks for Flat Creek near Chattahoochee
(sta. 31) and Telogia Creek near Greensboro (sta. 26) indicates
that Flat Creek does belong in the same flood-frequency region
and hydrologic area as stations 1-30. Chipola River near Altha (sta.
32) and Sandy Creek near Panama City (sta. 33) are in a different
region and area and therefore are not plotted in figure 14.


FLOOD PROFILES

Profiles of the flood crest of September 1969, along selected
reaches of Little River, Quincy Creek, and Telogia Creek are pre-
sented in figures 15-17. The approximate channel profiles, which
were constructed from the contour crossings taken from topo-
graphic maps, are also shown.
The upstream end of the Little River profile shown in figure 15
begins at the State Highway 159 crossing of Attapulgus Creek
(the main headwater tributary of the Little River) and ends at
Lake Talquin. Although the head loss at State Highway 159 was
1.5 feet, only minor damage occurred to the grassed shoulders of
the highway embankment. The right (west) bridge end showed
considerable scour as did the main channel below the bridge. At
State Highway 12, only minor damage occurred to the shoulders







ELEVATION, FEET ABOVE MEAN SEA LEVEL


STATE HIGHWAY 159


SWAMP CREEK


WILLACOOCHEE CREEK


STATE HIGHWAY 12


QUINCY CREEK

U.S. HIGHWAY 90


/ PROPOSED INTERSTATE HIGHWAY 10
SEABOARD COASTLINE RAILROAD

STATE HIGHWAY 268


-o



3
00

03


TALQUIN AT JACKSON BLUFF DAM


Figure 15.-Flood profile of Little River.


7

I
N I







FEET ABOVE MEAN SEA LEVEL


STATE HIGHWAY 268,0

-^ "


/
/
/


/


STATE HIGHWAY 267

HOLMAN BRANCH
STATE HIGHWAY 65


STATE HIGHWAY 12


SEWAGE DISPOSAL PLANT


TANYARD BRANCH


HUBBERT BRANCH


on




CD
0 0


3.0


WINKLEY BRANCH


.- f LITTLE RIVER


Figure 16.-Flood profile of Quincy Creek.


29


/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/


m- Y V


ELEVATION,






I III II I I- I


0


300-
ui
6j


150-


lOO-


50 L ______ '_ I I
60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20
RIVER, MILES UPSTREAM FROM MOUTH

Figure 17.-Flood profile of Telogia Creek.


UNUJXIS UJd 13~J 31oign3 JO SCONVSnOH1':3D19VH3SI(]


EXPLANATION

Floodmork elevation
Floodwater profile
--o-- Contour crossing stream
(from topographic mop)







o
(M


250k-


200--





































Figure 18.-Culvert on State Highway 268 at Quincy Creek.






























I 't


Figure 19.--Ochlockonee River at State Highway 20; 3,000 feet downstream
from Jackson Bluff Dam-Photo by Tallahassee Democrat.


although the road was under approximately 0.5 foot of water. No
damage to the bridge ends and no major scour took place in the
main channel other than a few blow-holes downstream from the
bridge.
Figure 15 shows a 3.9-foot head drop in the Little River at
U.S. Highway 90. This was a result of the west-bound lane of the
highway being about 4 feet higher than the older east-bound lane.
The west-bound lane was submerged to a depth of 6 inches. Consid-
erable damage occurred to the bridge ends and the embankment in
the area of the relief culvert.
The water was approximately 2 feet deep on the Seaboard
Coastline Railroad but damage was insignificant. At State Highway
268 the bridge and highway were submerged. Twelve hundred feet






4" 7 -
44


,-, iV..








m U- U U i




Figure 20.-Mobile homes at Bell's Trailer Park, U.S. Highway 20 west of
Tallahassee-Photo by Tallahassee Democrat.

east of the bridge and just east of the relief culvert the road fill
was breached leaving an opening 60 feet wide.
Quincy Creek flows around the north side of Quincy in an east-
erly direction to the Little River. The reach of the Quincy Creek
flood profile shown in figure 16 extends from State Highway 268,
northwest of Quincy, to the Little River. At State Highway 268
there was a 5.3-foot drop in the water surface, the road was
breached at the culvert, and the entire triple box culvert was under-
mined and settled approximately 3 feet (fig. 18).
State Highway 267 was overtopped by about 2 feet of water
but was not damaged. The head drop in Quincy Creek at State High-
way 65 was about 3 feet. The flood plain widens below the bridge
which accounts for the flatter slope downstream.
The Telogia Creek flood profile shown in figure 17 extends from






















Tii
?~~f


Figure 21.-Road washout at North Lake Drive between Old Bainbridge Road
and Lake Jackson-Photo by Tallahassee Democrat.
U.S. Highway 90 to State Highway 65. The break in profile up-
stream from State Highway 268 was due to a farm pond just
upstream. Although its earthen dam was not topped there was
considerable scour of the spillway around the right (west) end.
At State Highway 12 a grist mill was flooded and its concrete dam
was washed out. State Highway 274 was flooded to depth of about
0.7 foot and 850 feet in width.
The lower chords of the bridges at State Highway 20 and 65
were submerged, but the bridge decks and approaches remained
above water.
FLOOD DAMAGE
Although no loss of life resulted from the flood, several houses,
weekend cottages, and mobile homes were severely damaged-espe-
































Figure 22.-Salem Branch at State Highway 159 near Havana.

cially those along the Ochlockonee River valley below the Jackson
Bluff Dam. As shown in figure 19, only the roofs of several mobile
homes are visible in the lower left of the picture. Bell's Trailer Park
on U.S. Highway 90 between Tallahassee and Quincy was flooded
when a low area filled and the outlet was inadequate to remove the
excess water. Many mobile homes were removed but those pictured
in figure 20 were flooded to depths of 6 inches over floor level.
Roads, highways, and bridges received the greatest damage.
According to Charles Scruggs, maintenance engineer, the Florida
Department of Transportation spent $198,000 for emergency repair
work in Gadsden, Leon, and Liberty counties. Approximately 80
percent of the amount was used in Gadsden County. Emergency
work included repairing bridge ends and culverts, and backfilling
washed-out road fills. Contractual work to replace four bridges that
were destroyed amounted to $522,832. Three of the bridges were in

35
































Figure 23.-Little River at U.S. Highway 90-Photo by H. P. Goodling, Port-
land Cement Association.

Gadsden County and the other in Liberty County. Estimated dam-
age to streets in Quincy totaled $30,000.
Figures 21-23 show typical scenes of roads that were washed
out, culverts destroyed, and highways and bridges inundated.
Railroad damage was mostly confined to temporarily-submerged
tracks, land slides, and washed-out culverts along the Seaboard
Coastline Railroad. Mr. J. G. Jarriel, roadmaster for the railroad,
reported rail traffic at a standstill for approximately 36 hours due
to submerged tracks. A work-train required about 60 days to re-
store damaged and washed-out fills. No dollar estimate of damage
was obtained.
The Apalachicola and Northern Railroad had six washouts in
its 90 miles of track between Chattahoochee and Port St. Joe. The
major washout was at Big Creek near Hosford, in Liberty County
(fig. 2). A papermill in Port St. Joe, dependent on pulpwood hauled


~u-,






by the railroad, was shut down for about 10 days resulting in the
layoff of about 1,200 employees.

The Quincy Telephone Company reported approximately 2,000
telephones affected by the storm.
Agricultural losses in Gadsden County were estimated at $1,-
000,000. Of this amount, $659,000 were crop losses-mostly soy-
beans. Other losses included washed-out spillways or retaining
dams for farm ponds, irrigation reservoirs, and grist mill reservoirs
which were valued at approximately $350,000.

REFERENCES

Barnes, H. H., Jr.
1966 (and Golden, H. G.) Magnitude and frequency of floods in the United
States, Part 2-B: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1674, 409
p., pl. 1.
Dalrymple, Tate
1960 Flood-frequency analyses: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper
1543-A, 80 p.
Davis, D. R.
1971 (and Bridges, W. C.) A blocked minimal tropical depression becomes
a storm of rare occurence: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin-
istration Technical Memorandum NWS SR-59, 18 p.
Hershfield, David M.
1961 Rainfall frequency atlas of the United States: U.S. Weather Bur.,
Tech. Paper 40, 61 p.
Miller, John F.
1964 Two-to ten-day precipitation for return periods of 2 to 100 years in
the contiguous United States: U.S. Weather Bur., Tech. Paper 49,
29 p.
U.S. Weather Bureau
1922-70 Climatological data (Florida section): monthly and annual sum-
maries.










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by the railroad, was shut down for about 10 days resulting in the
layoff of about 1,200 employees.

The Quincy Telephone Company reported approximately 2,000
telephones affected by the storm.
Agricultural losses in Gadsden County were estimated at $1,-
000,000. Of this amount, $659,000 were crop losses-mostly soy-
beans. Other losses included washed-out spillways or retaining
dams for farm ponds, irrigation reservoirs, and grist mill reservoirs
which were valued at approximately $350,000.

REFERENCES

Barnes, H. H., Jr.
1966 (and Golden, H. G.) Magnitude and frequency of floods in the United
States, Part 2-B: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1674, 409
p., pl. 1.
Dalrymple, Tate
1960 Flood-frequency analyses: U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper
1543-A, 80 p.
Davis, D. R.
1971 (and Bridges, W. C.) A blocked minimal tropical depression becomes
a storm of rare occurence: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin-
istration Technical Memorandum NWS SR-59, 18 p.
Hershfield, David M.
1961 Rainfall frequency atlas of the United States: U.S. Weather Bur.,
Tech. Paper 40, 61 p.
Miller, John F.
1964 Two-to ten-day precipitation for return periods of 2 to 100 years in
the contiguous United States: U.S. Weather Bur., Tech. Paper 49,
29 p.
U.S. Weather Bureau
1922-70 Climatological data (Florida section): monthly and annual sum-
maries.