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 Transmittal letter
 Table of Contents
 Abstract and introduction
 Hydrologic setting
 Ground water
 Summary
 Well numbers
 References


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Ground water in the Hallandale Area, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 77 )
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Title: Ground water in the Hallandale Area, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 77 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Information circular 77 )
Physical Description: 32 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bearden, H W
Publisher: The Bureau of Geology
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1972
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Groundwater -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by H. W. Bearden, prepared by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Hallandale.
Bibliography: Bibliography : p. 31-32.
Funding: Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
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Source Institution: University of Florida
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The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001048698
oclc - 03503361
notis - AFD1776
System ID: UF00001137:00001

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Department of Natural Resources staff
        Page ii
    Transmittal letter
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Abstract and introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Hydrologic setting
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 4
    Ground water
        Page 7
        Page 6
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Summary
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 27
    Well numbers
        Page 30
    References
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Copyright
            Copyright
Full Text




STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Randolph Hodges, Executive Director


DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
Robert O. Vernon, Director


BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 77





GROUND WATER IN THE
HALLANDALE AREA, FLORIDA


By
H. W. Bearden






Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
CITY OF HALLANDALE
and the
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES


TALLAHASSEE
1972












DEPARTMENT
OF
NATURAL RESOURCES




REUBIN O'D. ASKEW
Governor


RICHARD (DICK) STONE
Secretary of State




THOMAS D. O'MALLEY
Treasurer




FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN
Commissioner of Education


ROBERT L. SHEVIN
Attorney General




FRED O. DICKINSON, JR.
Comptroller




DOYLE CONNER
Commissioner of Agriculture


W. RANDOLPH HODGES
Executive Director









LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Bureau of Geology
Tallahassee
September 29, 1972



Honorable Reubin O'D. Askew, Chairman
Department of Natural Resources
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Governor Askew:

The water problems confronting Hallandale are similar to those of other
coastal cities of southeastern Florida which are undergoing rapid growth
with tremendous increase in water demand. The highly permeable Bis-
cayne aquifer underlying the Hallandale area is an excellent source of
water; however, the permeable nature of the Biscayne aquifer would per-
mit the intrusion of sea water, if fresh water levels were lowered exces-
sively, as well as the infiltration of urban or industrial contaminants, from
land surfaces and surface water bodies.

This study is to provide the hydrologic data necessary for proper water
resource development and planning in the Hallandale area.
Respectfully yours,



C. W. Hendry, Jr.
Bureau Chief
State Geologist
















































Completed manuscript received
February 1, 1972
Printed for the Florida Department of Natural Resources
Division of Interior Resources
Bureau of Geology
by News-Journal Corporation
Daytona Beach, Florida


Tallahassee
1972




iv









CONTENTS



Page
Abstract ............ ..................................... 1
Introduction ............. ....... .................. ............... 1
Purpose and scope ............................................... 2
Previous investigations ............................................. 2
Acknowledgements ................................... ............ 2
General features ................................... .............. 3
Climate ............ ....... ............................ .. 3
Hydrologic setting ................. ............................... 4
Biscayne aquifer ................................... .............. 5
Ground water .................. .............................. 6
Recharge and discharge ........................................... 7
Water-level fluctuations ................. ......................... .. 7
Hydraulic properties .............................................. 14
Quality of water ........ ... ............................ 17
Ground water ................................ .................... 17
Surface water ............. ......................... ............ 21
Sea-water intrusion ............................................... 21
Water use and supply ................... ............................. 27
Summary .................... .......... ........................ 27
Well numbers ............... .. ...................................... 30
References ........ .......... ................. .. .............. 31








ILLUSTRATIONS


Figure Page

1 Map showing locations of observation wells and line of geologic section.. 4
2 Geologic section of the Biscayne aquifer in Hallandale along line
A-A' in figure 1 ................................................ 5
3 Graphs showing water levels in wells G-1472 and G-1473 and
daily rainfall at Ft. Lauderdale, for 1970 ............................ 8
4 Graphs showing water level in well G-1473A and the pumpage
rate from Hallandale well field for March 13-19, 1971 ................. 9
5 Map showing potentiometric surface of the Biscayne aquifer,
November 3, 1969, during high water conditions .................... 10
6 Map showing potentiometric surface of the Biscayne aquifer,
May 15, 1970, during low water conditions ....................... 12
7 Graph showing monthly municipal pumpage at Hallandale and
monthly rainfall at Dania, for 1969-70 ............................. 13
8-11 Maps showing:
8 Potentiometric surface of the Biscayne aquifer, October 10, 1970,
during intermediate water conditions ............................. 14
9 Locations of supply wells of the city of Hallandale and
observation wells ...............................................16
10 Location of wells sampled for MBAS analysis ....................... 20
11 Chloride content of water from selected wells sampled in May 1969 .... 25
12 East-west section (B-B', fig. 1) through the Hallandale well-field
area showing the inland extent of salt-water intrusion, October
22, 1969, during moderately high water levels, and May 15,
1970, during low water levels .................................... 26
13 Graph showing population and monthly municipal pumpage
for 1952-70 and projected population and monthly pumpage
through 1980. ................................................. 28




TABLES

Table Page
1 Average monthly rainfall and average monthly temperature at Fort
Lauderdale, Florida, 1913-69 ......................................... 3
2 Chemical analyses of water from Hallandale supply wells 1, 5, and 6 ......... 18
3 U.S. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards ..................... 19
4 MBAS concentration in wells sampled in the Hallandale well field
area, January 22, 1970 ....................... ............. ..21
5A Chemical analyses of water from the borrow pit west of the
Hallandale well field ............................................... 22
5B Pesticide analyses of water from the borrow pit west of the Hallandale
well field ......................................... .............. 23








GROUND WATER-IN THE
HALLANDALE AREA, FLORIDA


By
H. W. Bearden
U. S. Geological Survey





ABSTRACT

Fresh ground water for all purposes in Hallandale is provided by the
highly permeable Biscayne aquifer. The aquifer is composed chiefly of
permeable limestone, sandstone, and sand that extends from land surface
to a depth of approximately 200 feet. The major source of recharge to the
aquifer is rain that falls on the area and infiltrates to the water table. The
aquifer is also being recharged by Snake Creek Canal during dry periods.
The configuration of the water table in Hallandale is greatly influenced
by the Intracoastal Waterway, the Oleta River, Snake Creek Canal, and
municipal pumping.
Large quantities of water are available from the Biscayne aquifer in
Hallandale. The aquifer is similar in character to the aquifer in the vicinity
of the well fields in the city of North Miami Beach, where transmissivity
ranges from 2.0 to 2.5 million gallons per day per foot.
The chemical quality of the grounr-water is generally good except in
areas of sea-water intrusion. The inland extent of this intrusion at the base
of the aquifer has been detected 0.3 mile east of the well field. The well
field is 2 miles west of the Intracoastal Waterway, the closest source of sea-
water intrusion. Developing new, additional supplies in the southwest part
of Hallandale would safeguard the aquifer against salt-water intrusion.




INTRODUCTION

The water problems confronting Hallandale are similar to those of
other coastal cities of southeastern Florida, which are undergoing mush-
rooming growth and rapid increases in water demand. The highly perme-
able Biscayne aquifer underlying the Hallandale area is an excellent
source of water. However, the permeable nature of the Biscayne aquifer





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


would permit the inland intrustion of sea water, if fresh-water levels were
lowered excessively, as well as the infiltration of urban or industrial con-
taminants from land surfaces and surface-water bodies. The present water
supply is adequate, but additional supplies will be required to meet future
demands. Recognizing the need for hydrologic data to aid in solving their
water problems, the city of Hallandale requested, in 1969, that the U.S.
Geological Survey study the water resources of the Hallandale area.

PURPOSE AND SCOPE

The purpose of this report is to present a summary of the shallow ground-
water resources of the Hallandale area to provide information for future
development of water supplies and to aid in safeguarding water supplies
from contamination by sea water and by man-made wastes. This informa-
tion was obtained by determining the following: (1) the availability and
chemical quality of water in the Biscayne aquifer, (2) the general direction
of ground water movement, (3) the occurrence and extent of sea-water
intrusion, and (4) the chemical quality of water in borrow pits in the area.
This report was prepared by the U;S. Geological Survey in cooperation
with the city of Hallandale and as a part of the statewide program with the
Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of Natural Resources. The field-
work and report preparation were under the immediate supervision of C.
B. Sherwood, Project Engineer and T. J. Buchanan, Subdistrict Chief, Mi-
ami, Florida, and under the general supervision of C. S. Conover, district
chief, Tallahassee, Florida, all of the U.S. Geological Survey.


PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS

General information on the hydrology and geology of the area has been
published in reports by Cooke and Mossom (1929), Parker and Cooke
(1944), Cooke and Parker (1945), and Parker and others (1955). Addi-
tional information on the area is included in reports from investigations in
Broward County and North Dade County by Sherwood (1959), Leach
and Sherwood (1963), Tarver (1964), Sherwood and Grantham (1965),
Grantham and Sherwood (1968), and McCoy and Hardee (1970). The
present report is the first to supply detailed information of the ground-
water resources of the Hallandale area.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Special appreciation is expressed to Mr. R. F. Williams, City Manager
of Hallandale, and all the Hallandale officials for their cooperation during







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 77


the investigation; to Mr. Ralph Diseca, and Mr. John Layne, past and
present water-treatment-plant superintendents, for information about the
Hallandale water supply; to the residents of Hallandale who furnished in-
formation about their wells; and to the consulting firm of Ross, Saar-
inen, Boulton, and Wilder for its assistance in providing information on
the city's water-supply system.


GENERAL FEATURES

The area of study is the city of Hallandale, an area of about 4 square
miles in southeastern Florida. Hallandale is bounded by the ocean on the
east, highly urbanized Dade and Broward County areas on the south and
west, respectively, and the city of Hollywood on the north. The Intracoastal
Waterway divides Hallandale's beach area from the rest of the city.
Hallandale's population increased 133 percent from 10,480 in 1960 to
24,440 in 1970. Many of the new residents are housed in high-rise apart-
ments and condominiums. Many of the permanent residents in Hallandale
are retirees.
Tourism accounts for a major part of the economy. Hallandale's ideal
location, excellent beaches, access to major attractions in southeastern
Florida make it an ideal resort for many winter visitors.


CLIMATE

The climate of Hallandale is subtropical and characterized by long warm,
humid summers and mild winters. The average monthly temperature at
Table 1. Average monthly rainfall and average monthly temperature at Fort
Lauderdale, Florida, 1913-69. '
Fort Lauderdale Fort Lauderdale
Month Rainfall (Inches) Temperature (OF.)
January 2.20 67.8
February 2.06 68.4
March 2.84 70.7
April 4.19 74.3
May 5.29 77.5
June 7.42 80.4
July 5.96 81.8
August 6.88 82.6
September 8.98 81.5
October 8.39 77.9
November 3.18 72.6
December 2.90 69.0
Yearly Average 60.29 75.4
Record from U.S. Weather Service's Climatological Data.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Fort Lauderdale, 8 miles north of Hallandale, 1913-69, ranged from 67.80 F.
in January to 82.60 F. in August. The average annual temperature for that
period was 75.4 F. The average annual rainfall at Fort Lauderdale for the
period was 60.3 inches, of which 71 percent fell during May-October, as
shown in table 1.


HYDROLOGIC SETTING

The Hallandale area is on the coastal ridge that separates the ocean from
the Everglades. The ridge is about 6 miles wide and nearly everywhere is
very low and flat. The ridge crests about 2 miles inland, and Hallandale's
western boundary is about 3 miles inland. The land surface in Hallandale
ranges in altitude from 5 to 10 feet and averages about 7 feet.
No major canals are within the area, and, consequently, surface drainage
is slight. Mosc of the drainage is underground, to the ocean, and to the
Oleta River and Snake Creek Canal south of the area.


Figure 1. Locations of observation wells and line of geologic section.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 77


BISCAYNE AQUIFER

The Hallandale area, all the coastal areas, and most of the Everglades in
Broward County are underlain by the Biscayne aquifer (Schroeder and
others, 1958). Fresh water supplies for all purposes in the Hallandale area
are derived from the Biscayne aquifer. The aquifer extends from land sur-
face to a depth of about 200 feet in the area and is underlain by massive
beds of marine sediments and marl of low permeability. These beds extend
to a depth of about 900 feet and separate the Biscayne aquifer from the
deep Floridan aquifer.
The Biscayne aquifer is composed chiefly of permeable beds of lime-
stone, sandstone, and sand that range in age from late Miocene through
Pleistocene (Tarver, 1964, p. 7). In Hallandale, the aquifer is composed of
the following marine Pleistocene formations (in sequence from oldest to
youngest), Anastasia Formation, Miami Oolite, and Pamlico Sand.
Four test wells, G-1432, G-1433, G-1434, and G-1435, were drilled on
an east-west-line in Hallandale, as shown in figure 1. The wells range in
depth from 110 to 204 feet. The logs from these wells were used to con-
struct a geologic section of the aquifer, as shown in figure 2.


WEST EAST
A A'


SEA
LEVEL


Figure 2. Geologic section of the Biscayne aquifer in Hallandale along line A-A' in
figure 1.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


The Pamlico Sand, which blankets most of the Hallandale area, is gen-
erally 20 to 50 feet thick (fig. 2). The Pamlico Sand is a late Pleistocene
terrace deposit of marine origin. Parker and Cooke (1945) extended the
range of the Pamlico Sand from North Carolina into Florida and defined
it to include all the marine Pleistocene deposits younger than the Anastasia
Formation. The Pamlico Sand is chiefly a quartz sand ranging in color
from light gray or white to red and gray-black, depending on the amount
of incorporated iron oxide or carbonaceous material (Schroeder and others,
1958 p. 24). The sand ranges from very fine to coarse and where coarse,
yields small amounts of fresh water to wells.
The Miami Oolite was named by Sanford (1909, p. 211-214) and rede-
fined by Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 204-207) to include all the oolitic
limestone of southern Florida. Where it exists, the Miami Oolite underlies
the Pamlico Sand at depths from sea level to not more than 20 feet below
sea level. Oolite was penetrated during the drilling of the test wells, and the
approximate extent of the formation in the geologic section A-A' is shown
in figure 2. The Miami Oolite is typically a white to yellowish soft chalky
oolitic limestone containing varying amounts of sand. Where the oolite
occurs in thick continuous layers, it is a good source of water, but, be-
cause it is thin and discontinuous in most areas, very little water is obtained
from it.
The Anastasia Formation of Pleistocene age underlies the Pamlico Sand
and Miami Oolite. It is the major source of fresh water and represents the
chief component of the Biscayne aquifer in the Hallandale area. The for-
mation is composed of coquina, sand, calcareous sand, limestone, and
sandy limestone. The limestone and sandy limestone beds are very per-
meable and will yield large amounts of water. The limestone beds vary in
depth and are discontinuous vertically and horizontally (fig. 2).


GROUND WATER

Ground water is the subsurface water in the zone of saturation, the
zone in which all voids, large and small, are (ideally) filled with water under
pressures greater than atmospheric. The subsurface formations containing
water, and from which water is available for use, are called aquifers (Mein-
zer, 19-23, p. 38-39). Water may occur in aquifers under either artesian or
nonartesian conditions. Where the upper surface of the water is free to
rise and fall in a permeable stratum it is said to be under nonartesian con-
ditions, and the surface is called the water table. Water confined under
pressure is said to be under artesian conditions.
The water table is an undulating surface conforming generally to the
topography. The watertable is in contact with the atmosphere and is
marked approximately by the level at which water stands in wells. The water






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Fort Lauderdale, 8 miles north of Hallandale, 1913-69, ranged from 67.80 F.
in January to 82.60 F. in August. The average annual temperature for that
period was 75.4 F. The average annual rainfall at Fort Lauderdale for the
period was 60.3 inches, of which 71 percent fell during May-October, as
shown in table 1.


HYDROLOGIC SETTING

The Hallandale area is on the coastal ridge that separates the ocean from
the Everglades. The ridge is about 6 miles wide and nearly everywhere is
very low and flat. The ridge crests about 2 miles inland, and Hallandale's
western boundary is about 3 miles inland. The land surface in Hallandale
ranges in altitude from 5 to 10 feet and averages about 7 feet.
No major canals are within the area, and, consequently, surface drainage
is slight. Mosc of the drainage is underground, to the ocean, and to the
Oleta River and Snake Creek Canal south of the area.


Figure 1. Locations of observation wells and line of geologic section.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 77


table fluctuates in response to recharge or discharge, and ground water
moves downgradient from areas of recharge, where levels are high, to
areas of discharge, where levels are low. The water table can be mapped
(contoured) by determining the altitude of the water table in a network
of wells. Water-table maps show the shape and slope of the water table and
the general direction of ground-water movement.
In general the Biscayne aquifer is nonartesian, but in the Hallandale area
it is partly confined by discontinuous layers of less permeable materials.


RECHARGE AND DISCHARGE

Although the major source of fresh-water recharge to the Biscayne
aquifer in Hallandale is rainfall, less than half the annual rainfall infil-
trates to the water table. The remainder is evaporated, used by plants, or
runs off into canals and the ocean. Water that reaches the water table is
discharged from the aquifer by evapotranspiration, by outflow to the ca-
nals and the ocean, and by pumping from wells. Discharge by evapotrans-
piration and ground-water outflow represent major losses from the
aquifer. They are greatest when water levels in the aquifer are high. Dis-
charge by pumping from wells represents a small loss; is greatest during
the dry season when water levels in the aquifer are low. An average of
3.36 mgd (million gallons per day) was pumped from the Hallandale
municipal wells in 1970.
There is little surface-water recharge to the Biscayne aquifer in the Hal-
landale area except from the Snake Creek Canal during the dry season,
when the water in Snake Creek Canal is maintained at higher levels than
the adjacent ground-water levels. Then, the direction of ground-water flow
is from Snake Creek Canal north to Hallandale. During the rainy season
ground water flows south to the Oleta River and Snake Creek Canal and
east to the Intracoastal Waterway.


WATER-LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS

Water-level fluctuations in the Biscayne aquifer in Hallandale are
caused by variations in the amount of recharge and discharge. Rapid short-
term fluctuations are the result of recharge by rainfall and discharge by
pumping. Gradual changes in water levels are the result of the interplay of
evapotranspiration and normal ground-water outflow, on the one hand,
and of recharge in fluctuating amount on the other. Variations in rain-
fall are the major cause of water-level fluctuation in wells in Hallandale
that tap the Biscayne.
Hydrographs for well G-1472 and G-1473 and a bar graph of daily






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


The Pamlico Sand, which blankets most of the Hallandale area, is gen-
erally 20 to 50 feet thick (fig. 2). The Pamlico Sand is a late Pleistocene
terrace deposit of marine origin. Parker and Cooke (1945) extended the
range of the Pamlico Sand from North Carolina into Florida and defined
it to include all the marine Pleistocene deposits younger than the Anastasia
Formation. The Pamlico Sand is chiefly a quartz sand ranging in color
from light gray or white to red and gray-black, depending on the amount
of incorporated iron oxide or carbonaceous material (Schroeder and others,
1958 p. 24). The sand ranges from very fine to coarse and where coarse,
yields small amounts of fresh water to wells.
The Miami Oolite was named by Sanford (1909, p. 211-214) and rede-
fined by Cooke and Mossom (1929, p. 204-207) to include all the oolitic
limestone of southern Florida. Where it exists, the Miami Oolite underlies
the Pamlico Sand at depths from sea level to not more than 20 feet below
sea level. Oolite was penetrated during the drilling of the test wells, and the
approximate extent of the formation in the geologic section A-A' is shown
in figure 2. The Miami Oolite is typically a white to yellowish soft chalky
oolitic limestone containing varying amounts of sand. Where the oolite
occurs in thick continuous layers, it is a good source of water, but, be-
cause it is thin and discontinuous in most areas, very little water is obtained
from it.
The Anastasia Formation of Pleistocene age underlies the Pamlico Sand
and Miami Oolite. It is the major source of fresh water and represents the
chief component of the Biscayne aquifer in the Hallandale area. The for-
mation is composed of coquina, sand, calcareous sand, limestone, and
sandy limestone. The limestone and sandy limestone beds are very per-
meable and will yield large amounts of water. The limestone beds vary in
depth and are discontinuous vertically and horizontally (fig. 2).


GROUND WATER

Ground water is the subsurface water in the zone of saturation, the
zone in which all voids, large and small, are (ideally) filled with water under
pressures greater than atmospheric. The subsurface formations containing
water, and from which water is available for use, are called aquifers (Mein-
zer, 19-23, p. 38-39). Water may occur in aquifers under either artesian or
nonartesian conditions. Where the upper surface of the water is free to
rise and fall in a permeable stratum it is said to be under nonartesian con-
ditions, and the surface is called the water table. Water confined under
pressure is said to be under artesian conditions.
The water table is an undulating surface conforming generally to the
topography. The watertable is in contact with the atmosphere and is
marked approximately by the level at which water stands in wells. The water






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


04C-


2 -
0 -


JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC

Figure 3. Water levels in wells G-1472 and G-1473 and daily rainfall at Fort Laud-
erdale, for 1970.


rainfall at Fort Lauderdale for 1970 are shown in figure 3. Rapid rises in
water levels shown in these graphs are caused by recharge from rainfall,
and show immediate response of the aquifer to such recharge. Water-level
recessions are gradual and are caused by evapotranspiration and ground-
water outflow.
Well G-1472, about 20 feet deep, is 0.4 mile directly east of the well
field (fig. 1). The water-level in the well is not influenced by well-field with-
drawal and, hence, is representative of the regional water table.
Well G-1473 is a test well drilled 130 feet deep in the well field for sam-
pling to determine the quality of water below the depth of the municipal
wells, which range from 65 to 100 feet deep. Water-level fluctuations and
response to rainfall in this well are similar to those of well G-1472. Although
well G-1473 is in the center of the well field and well G-1472 is 0.4 mile
east of the well field, there is no marked difference in the hydrograph of
the two, other than the slightly lower levels in well G-1473. To observe
water levels in the zone from which the municipal wells are pumped,-an


LAFO SURFACE 11o FEET \A G-1473
4-

3-

2-


I I I I I I I








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 77 9



observation well, G-1473A, was drilled 5 feet north of well G-1473 to a

depth of 96 feet. A hydrograph of well G-1473A and the daily pumping

rate from the well field March 13-19, 1971, are shown in figure 4. The


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10 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY

hydrograph shows only minute changes in water levels in the aquifer when
changes in withdrawal rates from the well field were substantial, indicat-
ing that well field pumping has little effect on the water table and also that
the aquifer is highly permeable and will transmit large volumes of water.
A study of the configuration and fluctuation of the water table in Hal-
landale was made from water levels measured periodically in a network of
wells shown in figure 1. Water-levels measured in these wells during high
and low water levels in the aquifer were used to prepare water-table con-












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INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 77


tour maps. The shape of the water table, the hydraulic gradients, and the
general direction of ground-water movement can be determined from the
contours. The direction ground water moves is generally downgradient,
perpendicular to the contour lines.
Figure 5 shows the configuration of the water table on November 3,
1969, when levels were the highest, seasonally. Rainfall at Fort Lauderdale
in October was 15.68 inches and exceeded the average monthly rainfall,
as shown in table 1, by 8.23 inches. Therefore, water levels in the aquifer
were the highest of record. The absence of a depression in water levels
in the well field indicates that pumping was affecting the configuration of
the water table very little at the time. The general direction of ground-
water outflow was to the ocean, Oleta River, and Snake Creek Canal.
Figure 6 shows the configuration of the water table on May 15, 1970,
when water levels were low. No rainfall was recorded in the vicinity of
Hallandale during May prior to the measurement, and less than the average
monthly rainfall, shown in table 1, occurred at Fort Lauderdale during
March and April. Therefore, water levels in the aquifer were extremely
low. Although slight, the effects of municipal pumpage on the configuration
of the water table during low-water conditions are more evident than dur-
ing high-water conditions (fig. 5). Water levels in the well field were less
than 0.2 foot lower than in the rest of the city. Water levels were less than
0.8 foot above mean sea level between the well field and the ocean. During
low-water periods good management of the municipal water supply is
especially important in helping to maintain fresh-water levels above sea
level east of the well field and prevent sea-water intrusion. When fresh-
water levels are lowered excessively, sea water tends to move inland into
the aquifer. The contours in figure 6 indicate that the aquifer, especially
in the southwest part of the city, is being recharged by Snake Creek Canal
during low-water periods. Snake Creek Canal is approximately 2.0 miles
south of the southwest corner of Hallandale.
Municipal pumpage in Hallandale is generally highest during the tourist
season, which occurs during the months of little rainfall, as shown in figure
7. The increase in pumpage is owing primarily to an increase in the de-
mand for municipally supplied water for domestic purposes and lawn
sprinkling.
Figure 8 shows the configuration of the water table on October 19, 1970,
when levels were intermediate. The contours in figure 8 seem to reveal
virtually the same flow pattern as figures 5 and 6. Gradients in all three
contour maps (figs. 5, 6 and 8) are nearly flat throughout the city and slope
gently east of U.S. Highway 1. Municipal pumpage seems to have very
little effect on the water table. The higher gradients in the western and
southwestern parts of Hallandale during low-water conditions (fig. 6) indi-
cate that the well field is being recharged by ground-water inflow from







12 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Snake Creek Canal during the dry season. When the water level in the aqui-
fer is high (fig. 5), water levels in Snake Creek Canal are regulated to aid
in lowering water levels in the Hallandale area.











0









y _4-









Ia / I I.












-------- -J -- i -- a-----------
Q3


i t

































J 'F M A M J J A S 0 N D J F M A M J J A S 0 N D
1969 1970
Figure 7. Monthly municipal pumpage at Hallandale and monthly rainfall at Dania, for 1969-70.


16


14


12


Co
0
z
_j8


6
-r


4


2


140


120 "
z
-J
100 g
CD
Z
0
80 "
-j

60 u


40 D


20







BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


3
-o

0;
t-


0"
os

4-1
0"
r-1



0
0
0'





o.
3)












bZ
Z
0
0,




cO
Y
ic
ff
(U
^3
f-ii



U
3,






"S



CLe


HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES


Knowledge of the hydraulic properties of the Biscayne aquifer in Hal-

landale is essential to evaluate the ground-water potential of the area and to

plan properly the expansion of municipal supplies. The principal proper-

ties of an aquifer are its capacities to transmit and store water, properties

which are generally expressed as transmissivity and the storage coefficient.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 77


Transmissivity (T) is the quantity of water that will flow through a verti-
cal section of the aquifer 1 foot wide and extending the full saturated
height, under unit hydraulic gradient, at the prevailing temperature of
water (Theis, 1938, p. 892). The storage coefficient (S) is defined as the
volume of water released from or taken into storage per unit surface area
of the aquifer per unit change in the component of head normal to that
surface. The most commonly used method for determining these proper-
ties is an aquifer test, in which a well penetrating the aquifer is pumped
at a known rate and the resultant lowering of the water level in nearby non-
pumped wells is observed.
Aquifer tests were made at the sites of wells in the Hallandale well field
because they were the only large-volume wells available. Locations of sup-
ply wells and observation wells used in the aquifer test are shown in figure
9. Supply wells 1, 2 and 3 are 8-inch wells, 100 feet deep, cased to a depth
of 85 feet, and screened and gravel packed from 85 to 100 feet. Supply
wells 4, 5, and 6 are 12-inch wells, 65 feet deep, cased to a depth of 50
feet, with 15 feet of open hole. Observation well G-1473A is a 3-inch well,
96 feet deep, and cased to a depth of 93 feet, with 3 feet of open hole.
Observation wells G-1400, G-1401 and G-1404 are 14-inch wells, 16
feet deep, cased to a depth of 14 feet, with a 2-foot sandpoint.
An aquifer test was made on June 3, 1971, when the water level in the
aquifer was low. Before the test, supply wells 3, 4, and 6 were pumped for
about 5 hours at 2,700 gpm (gallons per minute). Then all pumping was
stopped for 3 hours, and the water-level recovery was observed in obser-
vation wells G-1400, G-1401, G-1404, and .G-1473A (fig. 9). Water levels
recovered 0.01 foot in all the observation wells during the 3-hour period.
At the end of the 3-hour period, when all pumping was stopped, supply
wells 2, 3, and 4 were pumped at a rate (total) of 2,400 gpm for 7 hours.
Water-level drawdowns were measured in well G-1473A, which is 61 feet
from supply well 2, 57 feet from well 3, and 133 feet from well 4, by a con-
tinuous recording gage. Water levels were also measured during the test in
the other observation wells shown in figure 9 to help determine the areal
extent of the effects of pumping. Drawdowns of 0.05 foot were measured
in wells G-1473A and G-1401 and 0.06 foot in wells G-1400 and G-1404.
The water level in an observation well 0.22 mile southwest of the well field
(well G-1192, fig. 1) declined 0.01 foot, and the level in a well 0.18 mile
northwest of the well field (well G-1397, fig. 1) declined 0.04 foot.
The drawdowns were too small to permit computation of transmissivity
and coefficient of storage by standard methods. The data indicated only
that the aquifer is highly permeable and similar in character to the aquifer
in the area of Norwood and Sunny Isles well fields of the city of North
Miami Beach. Aquifer tests in that area by Leach and Sherwood (1963)
indicated transmissivities ranging from 2.0 to 2.5 mgd per foot and
storage coefficients ranging from 0.1 to 0.2.











3 _-153 ___2 0 I____ 10-1401
8-52 -G-1404*
NO.5= &O.eI-olOA .4 e.,-ls NO, 3' TORAGE
TANKS
SLUDGE PIT


NO6 G-1473
I S-1533
| NO.2
S-1534








WATER PLANT

N.W. 2nd STREET
N.W. 2nd STREET


0-1400011


Figure 9. Locations of supply wells of the city of Hallandale and observation wells.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 77


QUALITY OF WATER

GROUND WATER

The chemical quality of ground water in Hallandale, as in most of
Broward County, is generally good. The quality varies somewhat be-
cause it is dependent upon constituents in the recharge water from canals
draining inland areas and the composition of the aquifer materials.
Samples for water quality analysis were taken from municipal supply
wells 1 (S-1531), 5 (S-1532), and 6 (S-1533) (fig. 9). Wells 5 and 6 are 65
feet deep, and well 1 is 100 feet deep. The chemical analyses of samples
from these wells are shown in table 2. The quality is generally good on the
basis of U.S. Public Health Service standards, as shown in table 3. The
water is very hard, has high concentrations of iron and high color, but
can be treated to meet standards recommended by the U.S. Public Health
Service with little difficulty. The analyses show that only small amounts of
detergents were in the water. Problems have arisen, however, because
occasionally the concentration of detergents has been high, especially in
well 5.
Iron in excessive amounts is a highly objectionable constituent in water
intended for domestic use because of its appreciable effect on taste. It is
also objectionable both in domestic use and in some industrial uses be-
cause it tends to leave a brownish stain. The U.S. Public Health Service
recommends that water for public supply should not exceed 0.3 mg/1 (mil-
ligrams per liter) iron. When used for lawn irrigation, water containing
iron in excess of 0.3 mg/1 may cause staining of buildings, sidewalks,
and trees. The samples collected October 22, 1971, were also analyzed for
iron content. Water from supply well No. 1 had the highest concentration,
0.5 mg/1 (table 2). However, iron is substantially removed from the water
by aeration and filtration at the Hallandale treatment plant.
Hardness is a term applied to the soap-neutralizing power of a water
(McKee and Wolf, 1963, p. 195). It is attributable principally to calcium
and magnesium and is expressed as an equivalent amount of calcium
carbonate (CaCO3). The calcium and magnesium are dissolved from lime-
stone and shells in the aquifer. Hard water has no apparent harmful effects
on man and is probably harmless. Water whose calcium carbonate con-
centration is in excess of 120 mg/1 is considered hard. The calcium car-
bonate concentration of water from Hallandale's municipal wells ranged
from 194 mg/1 in well 6 to 279 mg/1 in well 1. Hardness in water is ob-
jectionable because it consumes soap in laundry operations and forms
incrustations in pipes, boilers, and plumbing fixtures.
'Detergents in water are determined by the-MBAS (methyl blue active
substances) method, a method whereby all the active synthetic materials
in a sample are measured by the total activated methyl blue and expressed














Station


Supply Well No. 1




Supply Well No. 5




Supply Well No. 6


Date
of'
Collectlon


10-20-70
2- 9.71
5-14.71
10.22-71

10-20-70
2- 9-71
5-14-71
10-22-71

10-20-70
2- 9-71
5-14-71
10-22-71


Table 2, C(liemliic analyss of raw vwaler from Ifllalnddle supply wells 5, midl O.
(Cl.hemical analhyeIr/', i millllgiramv per liter, exceIpt p/l and Color)
SI I I I I I


570
620
600
550


555 8.3
600 7.9
600 8.2
600 7,9

454 8.5
600 7.9
590 8.2
600 7.9


6.0
5.8
5.3
5,4

5.6
6.0
5.7
5.4

5.2
6.0
5.6
5.4


0.00




.00




.10


99
106
104
96

86
104
104
98

72
104
104
98


0.86
.98
1.00
.86

.81
.94
1.00
.84

.79
.92
1.00
.85


2,1
4.1
3,4
0,4

5.0
3.9
.3.6
4.0

4.0
4.2
4.0
4.0


284
304
296
272

252
312
296
284

184
308
296
284


40
30
29
26

38
23
25
28


26
28
32
30

29.
28
29
32

27
29
31
30


2.2
5.1
5.0
4.0

2.5
5.9
8,4


3.6
7.2
9.9
6.4


Hiinclncsss
!-11IllCln '8


e2 I

g v
.SC


- jI -


260
279
271
254


213 229
256 276
243 276
233 261

164 194
253 272
243 274
233 261


Dissolved
Solids



t ow


348
364
374
328

334
356
370
334

272
356
358
354


341
352
349
319

321
346
346
331

268
346
351
334


0.07
.05
.05
.02

.05
.07
.03
.07

.06
.07
.04
.02


L I I -1__ ~~I I I I I I I I _I I I-I-- I .I I


~- -1


--


r --- 1--~







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 77


in milligrams per liter (MBAS-mg/1). Difficulties caused by detergents
in domestic water include foaming, turbidity, interference with coagula-
tion, and production of taste and odor. The MBAS concentrations in the
samples analyzed (table 2) ranged from 0.05 to 0.07 mg/1 and do not ex-
ceed the limit of 0.5 mg/1 recommended by the U.S. Public Health Ser-
vice. However, as much as 3.22 mg/1 MBAS has occurred several times
in water from wells, but for only a few days at a time. The major problem
arising from the high detergent levels has been the difficulty in treating the
water.
Studies were made to determine the source of detergents. Water from
nine private wells in the vicinity of the well field was tested for detergents,
as shown in figure 10. Six of the samples contained no MBAS, and the
other three contained only 0.01 mg/l, as shown in table 4.
The sludge from the treatment process at the Hallandale water plant is
dumped into a pit about 10 feet deep in the center of the well field (fig. 10).

Table 3. U.S. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards


Characteristic
PHYSICAL
Color
Taste
Threshold odor number
Turbidity
CHEMICAL
Alkyl benzene sulfonate
Arsenic
Barium
Cadmium
Chloride
Chromium hexavalentt)
Copper
Carbon chloroform extract"
Cyanide
Fluoridef
Iron
Lead
Manganese
Nitrate
Phenols
Selenium
Silver
Sulfate
Total dissolved solids
Zinc


Limit Not to
Be Exceeded

15 units
Unobjectionable
3
5 units
mg/1
0.5
0.01


250


1
0.2
0.01
0.7-1.2
0.3
0.05
0.05
45
0.001


Cause for Rejection


mg/1

0.05
1.0


0.05


0.2
14.24


0.01
0.05


250
500
5


'Organic contaminants.
fThe concentration of fluoride should be between 0.6
the listed and average maximum daily air temperatures.


and 1.7 mg/1, depending on






































Figure 10. Location of wells sampled for MBAS analysis.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 77


Table 4. MBAS concentration in wells sampled in the Hallandale well field area,
January 22, 1970.
Well No.. Depth (ft.) MBAS (mg/1)
G-1428 28.0 0.00
G-1430 75.0 .01
G-1478 .00
G-1479 40.0 .00
G-1480 .00
G-1481 22.0 .01
G-1482 .00
G-1483 25.2 .01
G-1484 .00


A 20-foot test well, G-1501, 2 feet north of the pit, penetrates the first
layer of limestone below the bottom of the pit. Water from the well was
analyzed for MBAS to determine whether the pit was a source of contam-
ination. The concentration of MBAS was extremely low (0.01 mg/1).


SURFACE WATER

There are several small lakes in Hallandale and a large borrow pit (fig.
1) 0.25 mile west of the well field. The chemical quality of the water in the
lakes and the pit is generally good.
Because the borrow pit is operational, the water standing in it was sam-
pled regularly and the water analyzed for major chemical constituents and
several trace constituents useful in detecting possible man-made contami-
nants. Results of the analysis are shown in table 5. The water is similar in
character to other surface water in the area, except for a high turbidity of
788 JTU (Jackson turbidity units). Traces of constituents such as nitrate,
phosphate, and phenols, shown in the analysis are well within the limits rec-
ommended by the U. S. Public Health Service for public water supply.


SEA-WATER INTRUSION

Sea water can enter the Biscayne aquifer by 1) direct intrusion into the
coastal parts of the aquifer and above uncontrolled canals and 2) upward
movement of sea water that infiltrated the beds below the Biscayne aquifer
during Pleistocene interglacial stages (McCoy 1970 p. 33). In the Hallandale
area, direct intrusion is the more common. The movement of sea water
into the Biscayne aquifer is governed by the height of the fresh-water levels
above mean sea level. Because sea water is slightly heavier than fresh
water, it moves inland in the aquifer in a wedge shape until balanced by
sufficient fresh-water head. The greatest inland extent occurs at thebase of












Iate
ofl
Collection


Tabl SA. (Clmiilcl iinlyus of wltur from ihe borrow pit west of the JInllnlmdluo well-fluld.
(C:l/mcal naUillysiev, in /mclli/grems per liter, except pll ucl color)


S-


fJJ at !


2l

0


-e


2-14-69 380 7.9 25 5 788 3,3 0.00 0.00 56 4.0 17 5.2 172 22 28 0.3 1.2
2- 9-71 525 8,3 19 0 55 4.9 ,01 .00 82, 4.6 1,2 17 5.9 168 87 23 2,0 2.0
9-28-71 480 6.5 30 0 50 5.6 .00 .00 70 4.9 1.1 18 5,2 154 82 24 0.2 2.1
2- 4-72 551 8.1 10 30 .7.3 .03 84 5.5 1,3 19 5.7 184 90 24 0,3 0.0

Hardness
as Dissolved -
Caco-, Solids -S
Date S g S. 3 -5
of 4 I S 0 .
Collection I g z 1 l 4 .


2-14-69
2- 9-71
9-28.71
2- 4.72


156
220

230


227
330

352


222
319
289
328


0.00
.00


0.00
,03
.01
.05


0.02
.00
.001
.005


0.00
.00
.01
.00


0.00
.00
.00
.00


0.03

.00


0.02
.03
.06
.06


U.09
0.17
4.2
0.3


0.03
.02
.02
.02


0.001


.0.01

.10


0.03
.00
.02
.01


0.06
.08
.05
.01





Table 5B. Pesticide analyses of water from the borrow pit west of the Hallandale well field.
(Chemical analyses, in micrograms per liter, except organic carbon, in milligrams per liter)

S.0
----- a, a"
Date a "" *.a .

Time .Q W 0 u O q 2 2
2-9-71
0915 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0,00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2 -
7-27-71
0750 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .0, .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 7 -
2-4-72
160oo .00 .o00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .04 14 0.00 0.00 0.00 .0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00








,..
-.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


the aquifer. Consequently, when fresh-water levels in the aquifer are high,
the sea water is held near the coast, but, when fresh-water levels in the
aquifer are low, the sea water moves inland into the aquifer.
According to the Ghyben-Herzberg principle (Brown, 1925, p. 16-17),
if a specific gravity of 1.025 is assumed for sea water, each foot of fresh
water above mean sea level should indicate 40 feet of fresh water below
mean sea level. The basic premise of the Ghyben-Herzberg principle is that
the position of the interface between fresh water and salt water in a coastal
aquifer is governed by a hydrostatic equilibrium between fresh water and
the more dense sea water. However, Kohout (1960, p. 2133-2141) showed
that the salt-water front in the Biscayne aquifer along the coast in the
Miami area, is dynamically stable at a position seaward of that computed
according to the Ghyben-Herzberg principle.
The extent of sea-water intrusion into the aquifer was determined by
analyzing water samples from pumping wells for chloride content, because
about 91 percent of the dissolved constituents in sea water are chloride
salts. Figure 11 shows the chloride content of water in private, municipal,
and U.S. Geological Survey wells in the Hallandale area as of May 1969.
The high chloride content in water from wells east of West Dixie Highway
is owing to sea-water intrusion. The high chloride content of water from
well G-892 (7,000 mg/1) is owing to sea-water intrusion from the salty
Oleta River.
Contamination of fresh-water supplies in Hallandale by sea-water intru-
sion has been a long-standing threat. The well field is 2.0 miles west of the
Intracoastal Waterway, the closest source of contamination. Four salinity
test wells, G-1432, G-1433, G-1434, and G-1435, were drilled in a line (fig.
1) between the Intracoastal Waterway and the well field to monitor the salt
front. The wells were drilled deep enough to intercept the salt-water-
fresh-water interface. Information from the drilling of these wells was
used in constructing an east-west section through Hallandale. This sec-
tion, as shown in figure 12, shows the salt front during low and moder-
ately high water levels. The toe of the salt front is located between well
G-1434, 0.45 mile east of the well field, and well G-1435, 0.2 mile east of
the well field.
Because water levels in the aquifer in the vicinity of the well field were as
low as 0.8 foot above sea level (fig. 6) and the toe of the salt front (fig. 12)
was estimated to be 0.3 mile east of the well field, any new well-field would
be less liable to salt-water intrusion if it were west of the present site. Large
withdrawals of fresh water from the aquifer and subsequent lowering of the
fresh-water head could cause the salt front to move farther inland.








4i




0 1"0 '
HALLANDALE BEACH BLVD. 0




SJ60 I




)WARD COUNTY
ADE COUNTY
EXPLANATION z
PRIVATE OR CITY- OWNED WELLS -
40-4
~~' --, A TEST WELLS JS
w( CHLORIDE CONTENT,
G 7 009 0 40 MILLIGRAMS PER LITER 5
10092 DEPTH, FEET




Figure 11. Chloride content of water from selected wells sampled in May 1969.











WEST
WELL DIXIE INTRACOASTAL
FIELD HIGHWAY U.S I WATERWAY
LAKE
G-1435 l-1434 G-1433 G-1432 VILLA

SMAY 15,1970 .... ||| .. ....i





........... ............. ........
... Ne .iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
: .................ii~~~l3,,iiiijij iiiji~~ii~iiiii
................ : .......... I ............i t~ i l
..... .. .. ... ... .. ..... .. .. .. ...
~ : '" ::::................ ..........iii
............. .............. ...........
!:iliiiiiii........................ii


BORROW
PIT


50'


SEA .
LEVEL

50-


100-


150-


20-


Figure 12. East-west section (B-B', fig. 1) through the Hallandale well-field area showing the inland extent of salt-water intrusion,
October 22, 1969, during moderately high water levels, and May 15, 1970, during low water levels.


CO


. =0


-

0


0 IMILE


!


--






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 77


WATER USE AND SUPPLY

Water for public, domestic, irrigation, and industrial use in Hallandale
is supplied by wells tapping the Biscayne aquifer. In the city, municipal
pumpage constitutes by far the greatest withdrawal. It includes all public,
most of the domestic and industrial, and some irrigation use. A few small
industries and some private homes are self-supplied, but the pumpage for
these is insignificant. Numerous private wells (1- to 2-inch diameter), used
for watering lawns, tap the 20- to 30-foot zone.
Hallandale's municipal supply is obtained from six wells (fig. 9) that have
a combined design capacity of 8.6 mgd. The city's water-treatment plant
has a design capacity of 7.2 mgd. Therefore, at present (1971), the ca-
pacity of the water-treatment plant limits the quantity of water that can be
delivered to the city's mains. Supply well 7, (fig. 1) in the northwest part of
Hallandale, has a design capacity of 3 mgd (2,100 gpm). It is not yet opera-
tional. Supply wells 1, 2, and 3 are 8 inches in diameter and 100 feet deep.
They are cased to 85 feet and are screened and gravel packed from 85 to
100 feet. The average yield from each of these wells is 1,600 gpm. Supply
wells 4, 5, and 6 are 12 inches in diameter, 65 feet deep, and are cased to a
depth of 50 feet and open-hole from 50 to 65 feet. The average yield from
each of these wells is 1,100 gpm. Supply well 7 is 88 feet deep, cased to a
depth of 70 feet, and open-hole below 70 feet.
On the average in 1970, 3.36 mgd was pumped from the Hallandale well
field, and the peak day pumpage was approximately 7.2 mg, the capacity
of the treatment plant. During dry periods when water levels in the aquifer
are low, yield from the wells decreases. Generally, the wells are pumped the
most in December May, as these months include both the tourist and dry
seasons.
Expanding the capacity of both the well field and water-treatment plant
would provide additional water to meet the demands of the near future.
For example, if population and water demand increase beyond 1970 at the
same rate that they increased from 1961 to 1970, the population will be
40,000 and the monthly pumpage will be 198 mg (6.5 mgd) at the end of
1980, as shown in figure 13. The 6.5 mgd would be 193 percent of the cur-
rent average daily pumpage, and, of course, the peak daily pumpage dur-
ing the tourist and dry season would greatly exceed 7.2 mg.



SUMMARY

The city of Hallandale has an area of about 4 square miles bordering the
ocean in southeastern Florida and in 1970 had a population of more than
24,000. Water for all purposes in Hallandale is provided by the highly per-







IQ







00






-J
>

C
o
Zj 0
0.)
C)C
CLC
C)
p0

0,


Figure 13. Population and monthly municipal pumpage for 1952-70 and projected population and monthly pumpage through 1980.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 77


meable Biscayne aquifer, which is an excellent source ofwater. However, the
permeable nature of the aquifer also permits the inland intrusion of sea
water and the infiltration of urban and industrial contaminants. The aqui-
fer is composed chiefly of permeable limestone, sandstone, and sand that
extends from land surface to a depth of approximately 200 feet. The major
source of recharge to the aquifer is rain that infiltrates to the water table.
Consequently water levels in the aquifer are high during periods of high
rainfall and low during periods of little rainfall.
The configuration of the water table is greatly influenced by the Intra-
coastal Waterway, the Oleta River, Snake Creek Canal, and municipal
pumping. The water-level data indicate that the effect from municipal
pumping is relatively small. The water-level gradient is gentle; east of the
ridge area it is seaward, to the southeast it is toward the Oleta River, and
to the southwest it is toward Snake Creek Canal.
Gradients west of the ridge area are nearly flat. During low-water pe-
riods, the well field is being recharged by inflow from Snake Creek Canal.
During high-water periods, water levels in Snake Creek Canal are regulated
to aid in lowering water levels in the Hallandale area.
Pumping-test data indicate that large quantities of water are available
from the Biscayne aquifer in the area. The test data indicate that the aqui-
fer is similar in character to the aquifer in the vicinity of the well fields in
the city of North Miami Beach, where the transmissivity of the aquifer
ranges from 2.0 to 2.5 mgd per ft.
The chemical quality of the ground water is generally good. The water is
relatively hard, and the iron content is high.
Sea-water contamination of fresh-water supplies in Hallandale has been
a long standing threat. The well field is 2.0 miles west of the Intracoastal
Waterway, which is connected to the ocean. The salt front has moved in-
land, by direct intrusion of sea water, to 0.3 miles east of the well field.
Fresh-water levels maintained a reasonable distance above sea level would
help to keep the salt water from moving farther inland into the aquifer.
During low-water periods, the fresh-water level has been less than 0.8 foot
above sea level in the vicinity of the well field. During critical dry periods,
good management of the fresh water supplies is important in helping to
keep salt water from moving farther inland.
Providing an adequate municipal supply and safeguarding this supply
against salt-water intrusion and man-made contaminants are major water
problems confronting Hallandale. Developing new, additional supplies in
the southwest part of Hallandale would safeguard against salt-water in-
trusion and would utilize the recharge from Snake Creek Canal during
low-water periods. Drilling a series of test wells in the southwest part of
the city would allow a determination of the aquifer's potential for yield
and the quality of ground water as well as the location of the salt front.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 77


WATER USE AND SUPPLY

Water for public, domestic, irrigation, and industrial use in Hallandale
is supplied by wells tapping the Biscayne aquifer. In the city, municipal
pumpage constitutes by far the greatest withdrawal. It includes all public,
most of the domestic and industrial, and some irrigation use. A few small
industries and some private homes are self-supplied, but the pumpage for
these is insignificant. Numerous private wells (1- to 2-inch diameter), used
for watering lawns, tap the 20- to 30-foot zone.
Hallandale's municipal supply is obtained from six wells (fig. 9) that have
a combined design capacity of 8.6 mgd. The city's water-treatment plant
has a design capacity of 7.2 mgd. Therefore, at present (1971), the ca-
pacity of the water-treatment plant limits the quantity of water that can be
delivered to the city's mains. Supply well 7, (fig. 1) in the northwest part of
Hallandale, has a design capacity of 3 mgd (2,100 gpm). It is not yet opera-
tional. Supply wells 1, 2, and 3 are 8 inches in diameter and 100 feet deep.
They are cased to 85 feet and are screened and gravel packed from 85 to
100 feet. The average yield from each of these wells is 1,600 gpm. Supply
wells 4, 5, and 6 are 12 inches in diameter, 65 feet deep, and are cased to a
depth of 50 feet and open-hole from 50 to 65 feet. The average yield from
each of these wells is 1,100 gpm. Supply well 7 is 88 feet deep, cased to a
depth of 70 feet, and open-hole below 70 feet.
On the average in 1970, 3.36 mgd was pumped from the Hallandale well
field, and the peak day pumpage was approximately 7.2 mg, the capacity
of the treatment plant. During dry periods when water levels in the aquifer
are low, yield from the wells decreases. Generally, the wells are pumped the
most in December May, as these months include both the tourist and dry
seasons.
Expanding the capacity of both the well field and water-treatment plant
would provide additional water to meet the demands of the near future.
For example, if population and water demand increase beyond 1970 at the
same rate that they increased from 1961 to 1970, the population will be
40,000 and the monthly pumpage will be 198 mg (6.5 mgd) at the end of
1980, as shown in figure 13. The 6.5 mgd would be 193 percent of the cur-
rent average daily pumpage, and, of course, the peak daily pumpage dur-
ing the tourist and dry season would greatly exceed 7.2 mg.



SUMMARY

The city of Hallandale has an area of about 4 square miles bordering the
ocean in southeastern Florida and in 1970 had a population of more than
24,000. Water for all purposes in Hallandale is provided by the highly per-






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


WELL NUMBERS

In order to coordinate data from wells on a nationwide basis, the U.S.
Geological Survey has adopted a well-location number system, which locates
the well by a 16-digit number based on latitude and longitude. The consecu-
tive county wells numbers used in this report are referred to the nationwide
system, as follows:


Latitude-
County No. Longitude No.


Latitude-
County No. Longitude No.


255800N08008-52.
255907N0800923.1
255948N0800909.1
255925N0800924.1
255914N0800917.1
255921 N0800917.1
255919N0800912.1
255912N0800923.1
25,5917N0800932.l
255917N0800832.l
255916N0800845.1
255916N0800853.1
255916N0800904.1
255916N0800854.1
255918N0800918.1
255918N0800918.2
2559(5N0800924.1


1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1501
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537


255907N0800917.1
255903N0800931.1
255913N0800908.1
255910N0800912.1
255925N0800928.1
255921N0800922.1
255918N0800919.1
255917N0800917.1
255919N0800919.1
255918N0800920.1
255918N0800917.1
255919N0800917.1
255919N0800918.1
255940N0800929.1


892
1192
1241
1397
1400
1401
1404
1428
14:30
1432
14.3-3
14:34

1435
1472
1473
1473A
1478








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 77


REFERENCES

Brown, J. S.
1925 A study of coastal water, with special reference to Connecticut: U. S. Geol.
Survey Water-Supply Paper 537, 101 p.
Cooke, C. W., and Mossom, Stuart
1929 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey 20th Ann. Rept. p. 29-227, 29 pl.
geol. map.
Cooke, C. W., and Parker, G. G.
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29.
Grantham, R. G., and Sherwood, C. B.
1968 Chemical quality of waters of Broward County, Florida: Florida Div. Geology
Rept. Inv. 51, 52 p.
Kohout, F. A.
1960 Cyclic flow of salt water in the Biscayne aquifer of southeastern Florida: Jour.
Geophys. Research, v. 65, no. 7, p. 2133-2141.
Leach, S. D. and Sherwood, C. B.
1963 Hydrologic studies in the Snake Creek Canal area, Dade County, Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 24, 33 p.
McCoy, H. J., and Hardee, Jack
1970 Ground-water resources of the lower Hillsboro Canal area, southeastern Flor-
ida: Florida Dept. Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology, Rept. Inv. 55, 44 p.
McKee, J. E. and Wolf, H. W.
1963 Water quality criteria: California Water Quality Control Board Pub. 3-A, p.
391.
Meinzer, O. E.
1923 The occurrence of ground water in the United States, with a discussion of
principals: U. S. Geol. Survey Water Supply Paper 489, 321 p.
Parker, G. G., and Cooke, C. W.
1945 Late Cenozic geology of southern Florida, with discussion of the ground
water: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 27, 119 p.
Parker, G. G., Ferguson, G. E., Love, S. K. and others
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and ground water of the Miami area: U. S. Geol. Survey Water Supply Paper
1255, 965 p.
Sanford, Samuel, and Matson, G. C.
1909 The topography and geology of southern Florida: Florida Geol. Survey 2nd
Ann. Rept., p. 175-231.
Sherwood, C. B., Jr.
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Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 20, 40 p.
Sherwood, C. B., and Grantham, R. G.
1965 Water control vs. sea-water intrusion, Broward County, Florida: Florida
Geol. Survey Leaflet 5, 13, p.
Schroeder, M. C., Klein, Howard, and Hoy, N. D.
1958 Biscayne aquifer of Dade and Broward Counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Sur-
vey Rept. Inv. 17, 56 p.








32 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Tarver, G. R.
1964 Hydrology of the Biscayne aquifer in the Pompano Beach area, Broward
County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 36, 48 p.
Theis, C. V.
19:38 The significance and nature of the cone of depression in ground-water bodies:
Econ. Geology, v. 33, no. 8, p. 889-902.
U. S. Public Health Service
1962 Public Health Service drinking water standards: U. S. Dept. Health, Educa-
tion and Welfare, Public Health Service Pub. 956, 61 p.
U. S. Dept. of Commerce
Climatological Data: Florida Annual Summaries.













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