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 Copyright
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Hydrogeology of Florida
 Top of artesian aquifer
 Artisian water
 Zones of high transmissivity or...
 Development of data for permit...
 Deep-well injection in Florida
 Industrial waste injection
 Treated municipal sewage injec...
 Use of cavernous areas of the subsurface...
 Selected bibliography
 Appendix I: Chemical analyses of...


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The beneficial uses of zones of high transmissivities in the Florida subsurface for water storage and waste disposal ( F...
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 Material Information
Title: The beneficial uses of zones of high transmissivities in the Florida subsurface for water storage and waste disposal ( FGS: Information circular 70 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Information circular 70 )
Physical Description: iii, 39 p. : illus. (part fold.) maps (1 fold.) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Vernon, Robert O ( Robert Orion ), 1912-
Florida -- Bureau of Geology
Publisher: State of Florida, Bureau of Geology
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1970
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Water -- Storage -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sewage disposal -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by R. O. Vernon.
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 35-36.
Funding: Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000850736
notis - AEE7007
lccn - 75637368
System ID: UF00001130:00001

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Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Hydrogeology of Florida
        Page 4
        Page 3
        Page 5
    Top of artesian aquifer
        Page 6
        Page 5
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Artisian water
        Page 9
    Zones of high transmissivity or the "Boulder Zone"
        Page 10
        10a
        Page 11
        Page 12
        12a
        Page 14
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Development of data for permitting
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 22
    Deep-well injection in Florida
        Page 25
        Page 24
    Industrial waste injection
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Treated municipal sewage injection
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Use of cavernous areas of the subsurface as a water reservoir
        Page 34
        Page 33
    Selected bibliography
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Appendix I: Chemical analyses of formation waters incountered in the peninsula utilities injection well
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
Full Text






FLRD GEOLOSk ( IC SUfRiW


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STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Randolph Hodges, Executive Director



DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
J.V. Sollohub, Director



BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
Robert O. Vernon, Chief



Information Circular No. 70


THE BENEFICIAL USES OF ZONES OF HIGH
TRANSMISSIVITIES IN THE FLORIDA SUBSURFACE FOR
WATER STORAGE AND WASTE DISPOSAL



By
R.O. Vernon


Prepared by
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES


TALLAHASSEE
1970






5'5-7.5-7

F6 3 6

no.70






























Completed manuscript received
August 20, 1970
Printed by the
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Division of Interior Resources
Bureau of Geology
Tallahassee











CONTENTS


Page
Introduction .. ............... ............... 1


Hydrogeology of Florida ..........
Top of artesian aquifer ...........
Artesian water ...............
General ...............
Geochemistry ............
Zones of high transmissivity or the "Boulder
Development of data for permitting .
Deep well injection in Florida . .
Brine disposal wells .........
Industrial waste injection . . .
Treated municipal sewage injection .
Use of cavernous areas of the subsurfa
Bibliography ................
Appendix .................


.......,,..,,
.............
.............



.............
.............
--one", . ... .



...........,.



ce as a water reservoir .
.............
.. .. .. ... .. ..


ILLUSTRATIONS


Figure
1 Bathymetry of Florida


Page
.............................. 2


2 Typical injection well construction . . . .
3 Top of artesian aquifer ........ ...........
4 Top of distal end of artesian aquifer . . . .
5 The equipotential surface and quality of waters in the upper part
aquifer .......... ..............
6 Zones of high transmissivity . . ... .
7 Belle Glades log and data ....................
8 Coral Gables log and data . . . . .
9 Temperature survey .......................
10 Calcium against CO ..................... ..
11 Electrolyte concentration and solubility . . .
12 Calcite as a function of sodium chloride . . .
13 Generalized cross-sections of geohydrology ... ...
14 Correlation of stratigraphic section in South Florida .......
15 Typical lake control well ........... .........



TABLE I


Table
1


4
6
7
... ... 6

of the Floridan
. 8
S. Facing page 10
......... 12
. Facing page 12
........ 14
. . . 17
. . . 17
......... 18
. . 20
. Facing page 24
. . 32


Summary of hydrogeological data . . . ..... ...... 27








THE BENEFICIAL USE OF ZONES OF HIGH
TRANSMISSIVITIES IN THE FLORIDA SUBSURFACE FOR
WATER STORAGE AND WASTE DISPOSAL 1
By
Robert O. Vernon
INTRODUCTION
Urban sprawl, and all its attendant problems, is here. In Florida, this has been
intensified by a special problem the coastal zone a land of high-intensity
urbanization localized where the sea and our citizens interact. Florida is blessed
by a long coastline of beautiful beaches, indented by estuaries, lagoons and
spring-fed rivers. Rocky and sandy islands invite habitation. A large and varied
fauna and flora make recreation an avocation and work a pleasure.
Accompanying these people are all the sustaining, and satellite industries that
find the climate, labor, and commodity markets, cheap water transportation,
and natural resources to be attractive. Projections of population growth indicate
that by the year 2000 a megalopolis will stretch down the Atlantic Seaboard
from Georgia to encompass the Keys and extend northward along the Gulf to
Alabama. This city will be fenced by the sea on one side and by the water
management works, necessary to provide the water supply for this complex, on
the other. What can we do about increasing the amount of water available for
this population and disposing of the resultant wastes???
Rarely has there been tendered a more favorable opportunity for a project of
coordinated planning and development that will provide public access to beaches
and multiple use of the coastal lands. Florida, as a peninsula swept by ocean
breezes, having a largely indigenous water supply and only the beginning of the
pollution of its estuarine and coastal waters can cope with air, water and coastal
dissipation and pollution, if we have a beginning at meeting these resource needs,
including the provision of a constant water supply and the limiting of pollution.
The answer to both problems of water supply and waste disposal would appear
to lie underground, where the porous limestones, interbedded with impervious
fine-grained sediments, are saturated with ground-waters that circulate through
these aquifers to empty to the ocean and gulf along the continental slopes, as
shown in figure 1.
The injection of liquid wastes into the subsurface has proved to be both safe
and economical and is gaining wide acceptance. (See the Interstate Oil Compact -
Research Committee Report "Subsurface Disposal of Industrial Wastes," 1968)
The most important requirement for a successful completion and operation of
injection facilities is to have the benefit of "clergy" the well must be built from
a cooperative programming by professional engineers, geologists, and
economists, under rigid specifications. The construction must be by a competent
well driller, under professional supervision. A strong recommendation is also
made that the services of recognized logging and cementing companies be
utilized.
These data in much of this paper have been released as open file reports prepared by
Robert Vernon and by Dr. JJ. Garcia Bengochea of Black Crow and Eidsness, Gainesville,
Florida. This is the first formal publication.













Generalized Section /
showing
Geologic relationships
of sediments s kp n

A 300Feaea
o to

ones of hi tranmissivities
//OKALE


Figure 1. Bathrymetry of Florida.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 70


Disposal wells have .been used in the oil industry for years: In Florida two
brine disposal wells have been operated for 26 years with no salt-water pollution
or inversion of hydrologic quality having resulted. In the past five years two
waste injection wells have been used without incident, one disposing of 1%
acetic acid, the other an acid chemical waste.
It is estimated that more than 6500 lake-control and drainage wells are
currently functioning in the karst area of Florida. Vernon and Garcia (1968)
indicated:
"For a well-injection system to function properly and safely:
1.) The subsurface reservoir must be permeable and able to receive liquids under
safe injection pressures for unlimited periods of time. The beds of the Floridan
aquifer are exposed to the sea along the continental slope, and these reservoirs
serve as landfalls to the ocean.
2.) Sediments must separate usable water in the reservoirs from any unusable
water ground water in Florida is extremely salty below the Floridan aquifer
and no restrictive bed is required at the base of the aquifer but some are present.
3.) The liquids injected must not clog the pores of the rock by sedimentation or
react adversely with the rock and its water. Buffer zones can be used.
4.) Monitoring must be an integral part of any waste-injection system."
Many .factors influence the feasibility of constructing and operating an
injection well and whether for water storage or waste disposal, the regulatory
agencies rank high, as would the cost of construction of a well versus the more
conventional methods of storage and of disposal, erosion of equipment, cost of
pre-treatment required, and the operational costs. In analyses of these generally,
well injection is much cheaper than the usual methods of treatment and disposal,
and expensive land is not covered by water-storage. A well, typical of those
constructed to use zones of high transmissivity and protect the usable water
resources, is shown in figure 2. Many of these wells can be constructed for less
than the cost of one mile of sewerage line.
HYDROGEOLOGY OF FLORIDA
The source of much of Florida's water supply for municipal, industrial,
agricultural, and private uses is the Floridan aquifer, a hydrologic system
sometimes referred to as "the principal artesian aquifer," The term applies to all
those permeable sediments, largely limestone and dolostone, of whatever age,
that respond as a hydrologic unit, or as a series of interconnected units to the
predominant artesian pressure of the State. These sediments are present
throughout all of Florida and parts of Alabama, Georgia and South Carolina.
The aquifer is exposed to ocean waters along the slopes of the Atlantic and Gulf,
and the artesian water occurs as a bubble that depresses the salt water which is
present uniformly in the Florida subsurface.





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


TYPICAL WELL
for
DISPOSAL of TREATED WASTES
SPlug for water level measurement


Gement
Inert Fluid or
SDiesel Oil for ocid wastes
1 Con be used for monitoring
Tubing (Stainless steel or Plastic)


Figure 2. Typical injection well construction.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 70


Disposal wells have .been used in the oil industry for years: In Florida two
brine disposal wells have been operated for 26 years with no salt-water pollution
or inversion of hydrologic quality having resulted. In the past five years two
waste injection wells have been used without incident, one disposing of 1%
acetic acid, the other an acid chemical waste.
It is estimated that more than 6500 lake-control and drainage wells are
currently functioning in the karst area of Florida. Vernon and Garcia (1968)
indicated:
"For a well-injection system to function properly and safely:
1.) The subsurface reservoir must be permeable and able to receive liquids under
safe injection pressures for unlimited periods of time. The beds of the Floridan
aquifer are exposed to the sea along the continental slope, and these reservoirs
serve as landfalls to the ocean.
2.) Sediments must separate usable water in the reservoirs from any unusable
water ground water in Florida is extremely salty below the Floridan aquifer
and no restrictive bed is required at the base of the aquifer but some are present.
3.) The liquids injected must not clog the pores of the rock by sedimentation or
react adversely with the rock and its water. Buffer zones can be used.
4.) Monitoring must be an integral part of any waste-injection system."
Many .factors influence the feasibility of constructing and operating an
injection well and whether for water storage or waste disposal, the regulatory
agencies rank high, as would the cost of construction of a well versus the more
conventional methods of storage and of disposal, erosion of equipment, cost of
pre-treatment required, and the operational costs. In analyses of these generally,
well injection is much cheaper than the usual methods of treatment and disposal,
and expensive land is not covered by water-storage. A well, typical of those
constructed to use zones of high transmissivity and protect the usable water
resources, is shown in figure 2. Many of these wells can be constructed for less
than the cost of one mile of sewerage line.
HYDROGEOLOGY OF FLORIDA
The source of much of Florida's water supply for municipal, industrial,
agricultural, and private uses is the Floridan aquifer, a hydrologic system
sometimes referred to as "the principal artesian aquifer," The term applies to all
those permeable sediments, largely limestone and dolostone, of whatever age,
that respond as a hydrologic unit, or as a series of interconnected units to the
predominant artesian pressure of the State. These sediments are present
throughout all of Florida and parts of Alabama, Georgia and South Carolina.
The aquifer is exposed to ocean waters along the slopes of the Atlantic and Gulf,
and the artesian water occurs as a bubble that depresses the salt water which is
present uniformly in the Florida subsurface.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 70


Overlying the Floridan aquifer, except where it is exposed, and confining its
water under pressure, is the Floridan aquiclude, a section of variable plastic
sediments consisting of shell marls, sands, gravel, and clay-sized carbonates, all of
which have in common a relatively low vertical permeability. The aquiclude not
only caps the artesian aquifer but it also forms the base of shallow ground water
(including the Biscayne aquifer, the principal source of water in the southeastern
Florida Peninsula) and isolates the artesian aquifer so that it gains no water in
the area and loses water only by upward seepage.
The Floridan aquiclude is widely distributed over Florida, but it is thin to
absent in the western peninsula and northeastern panhandle. Near West Palm
Beach it is more than 900 feet thick and at Pensacola it exceeds 1000 feet.
Figure 3 shows the approximate top of the Floridan aquifer throughout Florida.
The interval from the ground surface to the top of the aquifer consists of the
Floridan aquiclude, secondary artesian aquifers, and shallow water-table
aquifers. In effect, it is essentially the interval that must be cased to eliminate
caving formations and the mixing of waters up the hole above the Floridan
aquifer.
TOP OF ARTESIAN AQUIFER
In an attempt to map the top of the artesian aquifer more exactly, an effort
was made to identify the aquifer in a number of wells over Florida and the top
of the artesian aquifer has been defined more exactly ,(fig. 3) than previously. In
the areas of flow, the top of the aquifer is placed at the depth to which the well
has penetrated when the first flow of water appeared at the ground surface,
generally adjusted to conform to the top of the section of carbonate that formed
the aquifer. In areas of non-flow, the top of the aquifer was placed at the
penetration of the lowest head of water, when more than one head was
encountered. This was also generally coextensive with the top of the carbonate
section.
As mapped, the top of the aquifer varies considerably in elevation, ranging
from sea level along the western part of the peninsula and northern panhandle to
about 1000 feet sub-sea along the panhandle and distal peninsular Gulf sides of
Florida. Some of the local relief is controlled by geologic structures. A deep
depression along the central peninsular part of the area is associated with a fault
block mapped by Vernon (1955) and Lichtler (1960). It has depressed the top
of the aquifer as much as 100 feet along the Atlantic Ocean, parallel to the
coastline in southeast Florida, as shown in figures 3 and 4.
A deep basin that traverses the State at the latitude of Lake Okeechobee and
more or less bounds a ridge of low transmissivities that contains fairly potable
water to the south, may help to explain the incongruities of the performance'of






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


ATLAN TIC


GULF
G U L F

of

M EXICO 0

-10



EXPLANATION
Contours drawn along points
of equal elevation on the top
of the artesian aquifer-MSL
Contour interval-100 feet
- AS Fault


0OCE A


Figure 3. Top of Artesian Aquifer.

the aquifer in these areas, i.e., highly mineralized water below the lake and fairly
fresh water channeled into the buried limestone ridge at Everglades City. A ridge
along the top of the aquifer, bounded by the 800 foot contour, extends down
the east-center of the peninsula and corresponds in the most part to a ridge in
the equipotential surface, figure 5. Wells drilled (at Pennekamp State Park,
Royal Palm Park, and Grossman's Hammock) along this ridge produce large
yields of water of low chlorides (less than 3000 ppm). The Pennekamp well,
located on Key Largo, after free flow from 1965-1970, has freshened, from
2600 to about 2100 mg/1. This would indicate the freshening from salty water
used in drilling and also reflects the spread of the cone toward recharge and the
capture of fresher water.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 70


Overlying the Floridan aquifer, except where it is exposed, and confining its
water under pressure, is the Floridan aquiclude, a section of variable plastic
sediments consisting of shell marls, sands, gravel, and clay-sized carbonates, all of
which have in common a relatively low vertical permeability. The aquiclude not
only caps the artesian aquifer but it also forms the base of shallow ground water
(including the Biscayne aquifer, the principal source of water in the southeastern
Florida Peninsula) and isolates the artesian aquifer so that it gains no water in
the area and loses water only by upward seepage.
The Floridan aquiclude is widely distributed over Florida, but it is thin to
absent in the western peninsula and northeastern panhandle. Near West Palm
Beach it is more than 900 feet thick and at Pensacola it exceeds 1000 feet.
Figure 3 shows the approximate top of the Floridan aquifer throughout Florida.
The interval from the ground surface to the top of the aquifer consists of the
Floridan aquiclude, secondary artesian aquifers, and shallow water-table
aquifers. In effect, it is essentially the interval that must be cased to eliminate
caving formations and the mixing of waters up the hole above the Floridan
aquifer.
TOP OF ARTESIAN AQUIFER
In an attempt to map the top of the artesian aquifer more exactly, an effort
was made to identify the aquifer in a number of wells over Florida and the top
of the artesian aquifer has been defined more exactly ,(fig. 3) than previously. In
the areas of flow, the top of the aquifer is placed at the depth to which the well
has penetrated when the first flow of water appeared at the ground surface,
generally adjusted to conform to the top of the section of carbonate that formed
the aquifer. In areas of non-flow, the top of the aquifer was placed at the
penetration of the lowest head of water, when more than one head was
encountered. This was also generally coextensive with the top of the carbonate
section.
As mapped, the top of the aquifer varies considerably in elevation, ranging
from sea level along the western part of the peninsula and northern panhandle to
about 1000 feet sub-sea along the panhandle and distal peninsular Gulf sides of
Florida. Some of the local relief is controlled by geologic structures. A deep
depression along the central peninsular part of the area is associated with a fault
block mapped by Vernon (1955) and Lichtler (1960). It has depressed the top
of the aquifer as much as 100 feet along the Atlantic Ocean, parallel to the
coastline in southeast Florida, as shown in figures 3 and 4.
A deep basin that traverses the State at the latitude of Lake Okeechobee and
more or less bounds a ridge of low transmissivities that contains fairly potable
water to the south, may help to explain the incongruities of the performance'of







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 70 7


w-Contours drawn along points of
> equal elevation on the top
S of the artesian aquifer-MSL


Figure 4. Top of distal end of artesian aquifer.








BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Gulf





or


The equipotential surface and the
geochemistry of water in the
Floridan aquifer .
Symbols,
Height to which water will
7-50- rise in wells penetrating the
X.Floridan artesian aquifer(seFigure3)
Contour interval: 10feet
_.5M-Boundaries of the range of
.-Sa chlorides
-(-'epths Flowigpm)
,- Chlorides Ippml


Figure 5. The equipotentialsurface and quality of waters in the upper part of the
Floridan aquifer.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 70


ARTESIAN WATER
GENERAL
Recharge can occur most readily to the Floridan aquifer where the aquifer is
exposed at or near the land surface at elevations above the level of the water in
the aquifer. Large amounts of water also enter the aquifer where it is in contact
with unconsolidated sediments that are saturated with water, or where sinkholes
bypass the covering impervious layer.
The water that enters the aquifer is cOnfined by an impervious layer, creating
a water system under pressure. The equipotential surface, figure 5, represents the
height, in reference to mean sea level, to which water would rise in wells that
penetrated the aquifer in south Florida in 1961 (Healy, 1962). Modifications of
Healy's. equipotential surface were made to conform to the pressures
encountered in wells recently constructed in the extreme distal end of Peninsula
Florida.
The artesian pressure varies with response to the withdrawal of water from the
system, pressures placed upon it by tides, earthquakes and the atmosphere, the
amount of recharge, and several other minor factors. The primeval equipotential
surface is probably present in south Florida along the elongated ridge that
coincides with the length of the peninsula. Because most of the Floridan aquifer
in panhandle and south Florida is remote from recharge areas, the aquifer in
those areas does not respond to rainfall quickly, water moves slowly through the
aquifer, there is little use of the water and the discharge is largely a result of
seepage upward through the aquiclude, and into the adjacent oceans.
GEOCHEMISTRY
The artesian aquifer underlies all of Florida. Some of the water contained
therein is not potable and figure 5 shows the general distribution of the chloride
content of the water contained in the upper part of the aquifer in southern
Florida, (Shampine 1965). The chloride content of ground water in the artesian
aquifer is used as an index to the amount of sea water mixed with the fresh
water. The water in the aquifer on the distal ends of both the panhandle and the
peninsula exceed the tolerances for drinking water. Sea water normally contains
up to 21,000 mg/1 chloride, and public water supplies should not exceed 250
mg/1.
Large supplies of low quality water are available in south Florida from the
Floridan aquifer and especially from the zones of high transmissivity near the
base of the aquifer. Little use is made of this water in the area because of the
availability of water of better quality in shallow aquifers and because of the
relatively poor quality of the deep artesian water.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


ZONES OF HIGH TRANSMISSIVITY OR THE
"BOULDER ZONE"
Several cavernous sections, their locations and vertical distribution known
from well logs throughout Florida, are mapped on figure 6, but in this paper an
exceptional interest has been developed in the zone of high transmissivity that is
generally present below 1200 feet throughout peninsular Florida.
The information developed from numerous wells drilled in the search for oil
and gas indicates that the artesian system of Florida consists of fresh and
brackish waters that rest upon and have depressed a dynamic, responsive body of
heavily mineralized salty water. An enormously cavernous area with broadly
developed transmissivities appears to have been formed approximately along the
contact of the two bodies of water. These caverns are formed in dense dolostone
that appears to be an effective aquiclude that restricts the vertical movement of
water between the lower part (the "Boulder Zone") and the upper part of the
Floridan aquifer. Well drillers report the free fall of bits of up to 90 feet, "lost
circulation," cavities, and boulders. Cave-debris, and fragments dislodged into
the caves in drilling, cause difficult drilling and the zone has become known as
the "Boulder Zone."
From information available in the files of the Bureau of Geology, Florida
Department of Natural Resources, this zone appears to respond as a part of the
Floridan aquifer. It is best developed along the Atlantic Coast, but has been
penetrated particularly in oil and water wells throughout south Florida, figure 6.
Cavernous zones have been penetrated in more than 1500 wells throughout
Florida, and cavernous areas vary in depth from 50 to more than 5530 feet, but
these zones are present generally in eastern and southern Florida below 1200
feet. (See figures 5 and 6.)
The well penetrations at these depths enter a zone of dense dolostone that is
cut by cavities generally less than 8 feet high. Little is known about the
horizontal distribution of these caves. While extremely large transmissivities are
suspected (in the order of several million gallons per day per foot), no pumping
tests are available. The water quality and pressure heads present throughout the
full thickness of the Floridan aquifer are revealed in some detail by two wells,
one drilled at Coral Gables for Peninsula Utilities Company and one drilled at
Belle Glade for the Sugar Cane Grower's Cooperative, both under the control of
Black, Crow and Eidsness Laboratories, Gainesville, and constructed in
cooperation with the State Board of Health and the Bureau of Geology, Florida
Department of Natural Resources. These wells provide the most definitive aid
segregated data on the base of the Floridan aquifer. Black, Crow and Eidsness
Laboratories Project Report No. 386-65R, December 1965, (p. 3) and No.






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697lostcirculation waterow losing25%ret. retumslostue 300'-2085' no returns
in original hole ,lostcirc, "excessive porosIty
NOTE: 130 83 eno cavtes 133'-1670' noreturns
For well locations,names,logs and detailed data 1'80-698'noret. 16 '
see Bureau of Geology files. I,0 410i, 775'-90 et. 1619'-2700 no circ.
lost circ. 751907n e 56'.19 89',noret. 8291covity

Driller reported"crevice" 5l3'-605'boulders
somewhere between 1787.1845' 1'510 boulders i
243 covity 65-201: 19 9 return
398-boulders / lostro le s l l0 o 'l7 r u
419,losing return 42l'-182 l '-174l-1
425,cvity 20O 1956-2000
INDEX TO WELLS IN SOUTH FLORIDA 1115Oboulders /16-65 o 879'-1005'2noreturn
1 1800-4416,no ret. 11332lost ret. 3 2208'-2390'noret. 43143'noret. 5 2012 lost ret. 6 3077boulders .110o s o \2086'-2251boulders
1783prt.re 2390'-2420boulders 4560,prt.ret 232bulders bouders o 2251-2545,boulders
2172' 2764-3175 noret. 2845'noret. 17 s / 2 noreturn
boulders 3175 5489:noret. 3129 lbouers I 860 boulders 02-277'22 o
1 u 4215,no ret. 1864ne10-20
S 9:(ost ret. 972-1326boulders,
4 l''siloagcavs 1 740,ostret. 9 248 10 ost circ. 3185 12309 206L4204 3 0'ost circ 1 4823049:boulders,2825:noret.
os? ret. 1995 2325' I 33051 248' ders 3360 boulder zone 384. remained 375\no /return
1 Idogcaiys. 2086'l 29258 33 _11 ers 31 W 4610 circ. ost return 2700 lost ret. 302 5 2864-299bouldersrn
3,; builders 322261007 2958' bouldezone 3115'regained 29247 n ost1
333" 296(4-39.~- 0-4ns 144ib 1 -2ost cavireturn
icrlog cv es 2285 2494,ostlf ret. 50bd23-30 hole 24 36-3620pcov. 25 2199 2 1292-1812' 55 12927 boulderzone
irolog ies 276-53 lost 1 losreturn 2o70circ.,1 cviti
allensiog co.reu2647 418 30 4010, no return 22 3 329 boulret r
20lO~. -"1 3013e- llde 2359'r2449t
'cutders 300-- Ulde r- boulder zone 3115' regained -- 2925,Iostret. -3105 'boulde *16 272'.33



2763 3020'-5120' 0 Coale
Microlog cavities 1 9 21 es
lostreturn 28 1440 -2618'
'C well bridged 3036'-3190tMicrolog cvities
:Cost return

6 '3
319 boldes 180 boldes 12 '0


ZONES OF HIGH TRANSMISSIVITIES
AS PENETRATED BY WELLS


028 -, 26


Figure 6. Zones of high transmissivity.


CsP-

68i'S
~n44'
pC5-


24






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 70


498-70-53, February, 1970 records several zones of pressure, generally contained
in porous limestone separated by dense dolostones, as shown in figures 7 and 8.
The company's "Engineering Report on drilling and testing of a deep Disposal
Well for Peninsula Utilities Corporation, Coral Gables, Florida" (Project
498-70-53, dated February, 1970) records the gamma ray, electric log, geologic
log, flow, caliper, and the temperature, specific gravity and chloride
concentrations in at least three aquifers separated by aquicludes. A zone of high
transmissivity was entered at about 2920 feet.
Observed drops in pressure at Belle Glades in the zones: 1105-1420,
1610-1900, and 1900-1945, of 20, 18, and 14 pounds per square inch
correspond to increases in salinity chloridess) and represents the adjustment of
the hydrostatic head to the increased density of the column of water in the well
bore. These differentials, when adjustment is made to give an equivalent head in
feet of fresh water, indicate a gradient toward the ground surface throughout the
geologic column, and the development of a large cone of depression in the upper
part of the aquifer could cause the ultimate movement of water from the base
toward the ground surface, unless 1.) the large part of the water needed to
maintain the flow of the wells is obtained through the spread of the cone of
depression up-gradient to intersect less mineralized water, 2.) the horizontal
permeability is large in respect to the vertical permeability, and 3.) there is an
effective aquiclude that separates the upper part of the aquifer from the lower
part.
A similar gradient to the surface exists in the subsurface at Coral Gables (fig.
8) to a depth of 1840 feet, but below this point the specific gravity of the water
approaches that of the ocean and the pressures are static, except when fresh
water is injected and displaces the salt water to create a gradient toward the
surface developed from the injected body of fresh water.
Only a limited amount of information is available on the Floridan aquifer in
the distal part of the peninsula, since ground-water use and studies have been
limited to shallow sources and to areas where the artesian water is potable.
This is particularly true of zones of high transmissivities along the base of the
aquifer ( the "Boulder Zone"), which may range in depth from 1200 to more
than 5500 feet. However, the Floridan aquifer is known to be composed of a
thick section of carbonates (limestones and dolostones), which vary in
transmissivity, generally decreasing upward from the cavernous, extremely
permeable lower part. The zones of permeability are separated by zones of
dense, impermeable rock although an irregular permeability may be present
along fractures and in favorable geologic facies within these aquicludes.
If the data developed from the two deep wells in south Florida by Black,
Crow and Eidsness Laboratories and the Bureau of Geology, and summarized in








FLOW


Ft~~clmv
----PAOLUUV


Pimive 7. Belle Glades log and dats






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HIlA K, (,HO(W ANL) LIDNtIIb, INC..
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Blue Shading Indicates Water Bearing Formations


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HUMBLE OIL and REFINING COMPANY
GULF COAST REALTIES CORPORATION
COLLIER COUNTY


WELL SECTION


WATER IN


TUBING-CASING ANNULUS""'
FILLED WITH INHIBITED SALT
WATER AND MAINTAINED AT
A POSITIVE PRESSURE OF
500 PSI TO INSURE IMMEDIATE
INDICATION SHOULD ANY
LEAKS DEVELOP IN THE
SYSTEM.- --_


WELL DESIGN


--131 CASING








13| CASING SEAT at 1023'


-SQUEEZE PERF.at 2830'
-4"TUBING SETON PKR.
at 2909
- PERFORATIONS FOR SALT
: WATER DISPOSAL 2960'TO
- 3020
-CEMENT RETAINERat3200'
r-SQUEEZE PERF.at 3300'


-CUT OFF 4" CASING at 4000'



9 "CASING SEAT at 5750'


Figure 14. Correlation of stratigraphic section in South Florida.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 70


figures 7 and 8, can be considered to be representative of the aquifer throughout
southern Florida, a thick section of carbonates forms at least three general zones
of !permeability that may be poorly connected. At the base is a zone of
extremely high transmissivity, filled by highly saline waters (up to 19,300 mg/1
chlorides) and separated by denser sediments from a zone of moderately high
transmissivity containing water of 1000 mg/1 or less. Many cavities in the lower
part of the aquifer produce copious flows of salt water, or may be made to
receive large volumes of injected fluids.
The mechanics of the formation of these zones of high permeability have been
the source of much speculation.
F.A. Kohout (1965) postulated a cyclic flow of cold sea water into the
artesian aquifer from oceanic deeps that, by mixing with fresher water and being
heated by earth temperatures, creates a heat convection cell, providing the
energy to return the flow to the sea. Kohout cited a number of temperature
inversions taken from oil well logs as proof of this hypothesis. Unfortunately
these proved to be cement logs and the higher temperature excursions represent
a plot of the heat of crystallization that locally has been superimposed upon the
normal temperature gradient. An accurate temperature survey was made in the
Sunoco-Felda Field using the Sun Oil Company No. 32-3 Red Cattle Company
well after several years of temperature stabilization. The record is reproduced as
figure 9, and in September, 1969 the ground water from 900 to 2100 feet had a
temperature gradient of one degree for each 122 feet. From 2100 feet to 3300
feet, through the "Boulder Zone", the gradient is only one degree for each 480
feet, the reverse of that reported by Kohout. A most interesting thermal gradient
exists along the Atlantic Coast and the presence of "cool wells" have been
known for many years. Instead of the normal temperature excursions of about
10 F. increase per 100 feet of depth, the gradient decreases about 10 F. for each
250 feet and in the Coral Gables well (fig.8) a sharp temperature inversion (1 F.
in 24 feet) occurs at about 2800 feet, where a large cave was penetrated and
where the formation water is essentially the same as sea water. These cold wells
are thought to reflect the loss of heat in the aquifer to cold water of the adjacent
deep oceanic waters (see Black, Crow & Eidsness, Inc., p.4-5). Since no head
exists at that depth, no flow and exchange of water with the ocean would be
expected. Cooler temperatures are to be expected in zones of large solutional
caverns where larger volumes of water and increased velocities of flow are
present, when compared to zones of lower transmissivities.
A more reasonable explanation of the origin of such zones involves hydraulic
scour along the interfaces of fluids that contain differing concentrations of
electrolytes in an artesian system. The greatest differential would occur along
tie base of the aquifer where fresh water and brines mix, but can be expected to
occur along any interface where large differences in transmissivities lie adjacent.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


FAHRENHEIT


loin


Feet


Sin 480


-- qN,T |S,T I


Figure 9. Temperature survey.


I000




I-
w
w
UL
tUJ.


I I I


I I I I






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 70


In an aquifer composed primarily of limestone with minor amounts of
dolostone and some gypsum, Back (1963), Hanshaw, et al (1965) and Back, et al
(1966) found water taken from depths of several hundred feet to be
undersaturated within a large part of the aquifer. This indicates that solution can
occur throughout much of the aquifer, several hundred feet below the water
table, to form caverns and solution channels.
In a series of wells, samples across recharge-discharge areas, the writers cited
above found that the total dissolved solids, sulphates, and Mg:Ca ratios increased
away from recharge areas, and may become supersaturated with respect to some
solid phases. The degree of saturation was related to the length of flow path and
duration of residence time in the aquifer. Ground-water velocities were reported
to be about eight meters per year.
These studies did not incorporate suggestions made by Vernon (1947, 1951)
that the effect by artesian water upon soluble aquifers is expressed in a greater
flushing action and increased porosity, not only in recharge areas where rapid
solution occurs along the water table, but throughout the aquifer and into
discharge areas where porosity is expected to increase toward the ground
surface. Dr. A. P. Black (Personal Communication, 1950) reported the recovery
of free oxygen, carbon dioxide, and sulphur dioxide 'from artesian water at
Jacksonville. This suggested that in discharge areas the lowering of pressure and
the cooling of water, by upwelling, releases gases from solution and causes the
undersaturation of dissolved solids and permits added solution and diagenesis.
The localization of this solution was projected as a mechanization for the
formation of natural wells and deep sinkholes (Vernon, 1951, p. 44) and may
help to explain the dolomitization of carbonate sediments located over the areas
of structural uplift and relief.
In an excellent paper, Runnells (1969) presented a number of solubility
curves. Three of these, compiled by Runnells from several works, include a plot
of calcium ion against CO2 pressures, a theoretical plot of added electrolytes and
solubility of calcite as a function of sodium chloride. These are reproduced as
figures 10,11, and 12. From a study of the geochemistry of solids and fluids in
various systems, Runnels concluded that dissolution and precipation of a mineral
will occur in nature as a result of the mixing of formation fluids whenever the
solubility of the mineral is a non-linear function of added salts. Although
emphasizing the content of salts as the variable of greatest interest in his studies
of water he noted (1969, p. 1198):
"...mixing of water in which other parameters differ may also be
important. For example, mixing of water of different temperature,
pressure, pH, content of dissolved organic, partial pressure of gases

























Figure 10. Calcium against CO2.


15


10
X


E
E


10







E


tD


"64--



CCoc






Concentration of added electrolyte


Figure 11. Electrolyte concentration and solubility.






CaCO -
200o


E 150-



o*
8

0





0


NaCI-H2O-CO,


20
grams


0 Frear and Johnston, 1929
A Shternina and Frolova,1945
in (in Linke and Seidell,1958)
1O v Ellis, 1963
Concentration Icorrespond,- o
ing to total ionic strength of 25 C, Poo 0.97bar,
sea water 0_2 0


30
NaCI / 1000


40
grams


H20


Figure 12. Calcite as a function of sodium chloride.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 70


(Mischungskorroslon), and so on, may also cause changes in the state of
saturation. Only if the solubility of a mineral is a straight line function
of a given independent parameter will mixing result in a water which
remains at equilibrium with the adjacent solids."
One obvious result of mixing along the base of Florida's carbonate system
could be the depostion of the more insoluble minerals (dolomite and quartz) and
the removal of the more soluble ones (gypsum, calcite, and aragonite). The
mixing of artesian-derived calcium-bicarbonate water with brine-derived calcium
sulfate water favors the precipation of gypsum because of the common ion and
could explain the impregnation of porsity by gypsum commonly present at the
base of the aquifer.
Depending upon the chemical composition, and the degree of concentration
of the variables in the waters that are mixed along the interfaces of artesian
waters circulating downward, particular that created as the artesian water
depresses the salt water, as envisioned in the generalized section of figure 13, an
infinite number of mixed systems could be created in which precipation will
occur in solutions supersaturated as to the solid phase and dissolution occurs in
undersaturated solutions.
Vernon (AIME Preprint, 1969, p. 8) suggested such a system in the Floridan
aquifer, and Runnells (1969, p. 1196) in commenting on this reported presence
of high transmissivities and dolomite along the contact of fresh and saltier water,
stated:
"This is precisely the natural situation which would be predicted
from a consideration of the mixing of sodium chloride waters in the
presence of limestone and probably dolomite".
Dissolution or precipitation of a mineral should occur whenever waters that
traverse the rock are mixed and result in. the mixed liquid becoming
undersaturated or oversaturated as to the rock. Runnells' solubility curves
illustrate that erosion or deposition is possible only when the solubility curve
plots as non-linear function. In figure 11 for instance, a mixture of waters A & B
will cause precipitates within the area at C and a mixture of waters D & E will
result in dissolution of the matrix where the mixed fluids plot within the arc at
F.
Florida receives recharge into an extensive artesian system that rests upon
salty water close to sea water in quality but up to 10 times as salty as sea water
in zones of deep penetration. A mixed zone separates the brines from the fresher
water. The base of the aquifer is commonly marked by the total elimination of
porosity in the aquifer with impregnating gypsum. Persistent zones of high
transmissivities lie within the mixed water zone. Large cave systems, showing







REC H A R G E


-N. .-~ -~' -


UNDERSATURATION


SATURATION


BRINES


OCEAN


NGS



til
0


GYPSUM DEPOSITED


Figure 13. Generalized cross-section of Geohydrology.


GULF




SPRINGS


)issolution







INFORMATION CIRCULAR 21
dolomite crystal growth upon the cave debris and along the walls, suggest that
Runnells' hypothesis may be fully effective, with the cavities representing the
cycle of dissolution or undersaturation and the dolomite and gypsum
representing the cycle of deposition and supersaturation. A sample of cave-debris
dolomite was analyzed by Dr. Bruce Hanshaw of the U.S.G.S. and he reported
(letter January 20, 1970) as follows,
"We have examined the stable carbon isotope composition of
calcite-dolomite pairs from well cuttings which you provided us.
Interestingly, we find that the calcite "C13 composition is always that
of normal marine limestone. However, to our surprise, the AC1 of the
associated dolomite is invariably depleted in the heavy stable isotope of
carbon and this indicates that the dolomite did not form in a marine
environment. We believe that this dolomite is not forming today but
that it has formed under the effect of some type of ground water,
perhaps saline (?) in the geologic past. Our findings are in agreement
with the ideas you expressed in the AIME papers concerning
dolomitization in the Boulder Zone."
The distribution of several zones of high transmissivities, the shape, and
vertical range of the cavities reflect an origin of dissolution rather than
temperature control. The zones of mixing, and associated dissolution, would also
reflect the location of several such zones in the section, some as deep as a 15
foot cavity from 4285-4300 feet in the Coastal-Williams well in Dade County
and some above the present water table, such as in Orlando and in Ocala. The
varying elevations in cave systems reflect possible changes in the level of the
ocean upon the land, and the subsequent adjustment of ground-water to these
changes.
Field and laboratory data suggest that, where the recharging water having
varying concentrations of ions traverses alternating zones of rock, several zones
of dissolution and precipitation could occur throughout the carbonate system.
Only an artesian head is necessary for the needed circulation.
The calcium-magnesium ratios, determined from waters taken by flow
through the drill stem, when drilling the Peninsula utilities well, when plotted
against depth show a straight-line plot of about .55 from about 1500 to a depth
of 1800 feet. Marked migrations to a ratio of about .3 occurs at the top of the
Floridan aquifer and across the contact of essentially fresh or salty water at
1800 feet.
It is suggested that a system such as shown in figure 13 has existed several
times in the geologic past and now exists in Florida. For instance, in the area of
active karst (Zone A), the fluids would be undersaturated for most solid phases,







BUREAU OP GEOLOGY


in Zone B the solid phases would be saturated in the fluids and in Zone C, where
relatively fresh waters rest upon relatively briny water, mixing of the two waters
creates undersaturation for some salts and supersaturation for others that vary in
quantity and place with the resulting dissolution and precipitation. Thus gypsum
is found to occupy the pores of the rock below the mixed zone according to the
kind and degree of inequilibrium. Dolomite is replacing calcite, which is removed
along the mixed zone to create the large transmissivities and to form dolostone
walls and cave debris and to build euhedral crystals of dolomite upon the
exposed faces of the cave and debris.
DEVELOPMENT OF DATA FOR PERMITTING
The regulation, installation and operation of a well-injection system requires
the development of data that will meet the administrative needs, permit the
geologic and hydrologic evaluation of the site and satisfy all professional and
engineering requirements. A feasibility study should be prepared by the
applicant to include:
1. A land-use plan with statement of any conflicting interest and
projections of growth and need.
2. The determination by the applicant, in concert with appropriate
State agencies, of the general characteristics of the hydrology and
geology at the proposed site and of the suitability of the wastes for
disposal.
3. An application to the Department of Air and Water Pollution
Control Commission for a permit to construct a test-well and to develop
parameters controlling the use of this well for .injection. A flow-sheet of
the plant operations should be included and the proposed plan should
be detailed and documented.
4. The drilling, testing, and evaluation of a test-well under the
supervision of a professional engineer and personnel of the Bureau of
Geology. Samples of the cores and cuttings and logs of the flow,
conductance, temperature, caliper and electric characteristics, prepared
by a service company or by the Bureau are required.
Following the evaluation of all the pertinent data submitted under the
feasibility study, and the approval of the project by the appropriate state
agencies, the applicant may:
1. Petition for use of the test well as an injection well based on the
information developed by the test well and he may also choose to use
the test well to monitor. Adequate sets of casings, seals, grouting and
protective monitoring devices must be shown.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 70


2. Establish specifications for a stand-by alternate injection-well,
located down gradient and constructed so that it can be used as a
deep-monitor to the injection zone.
3. Design wells for monitoring the injected fluids to include a deep
well and a well that terminates in any aquifer containing fresh water
(less than 5,000 mg/1 chlorides) that rests upon the injection zone. An
alternate method of monitoring the shallower aquifer can be developed
in the injection and stand-by wells through the use of casing to separate
the zones and permit the monitoring to be done in the annular space
between casings.
4. Suggest a scheduled method of recording and reporting the results
of quality monitoring of the injected fluids, the fluids recovered from
the deep-monitor and that from a shallow monitor. The quality
monitoring shall be accompanied by a record of the amounts of fluids
injected and by a system of pressure monitoring throughout the
injection works.
5. Should the injection well be used and then fail because of
structural damage or because there is no further need for its operation,
the well must be abandoned in accordance with specifications adopted
by the Department of Air and Water Pollution Control Commission,
with recommendations of the Bureau of Geology.
Florida has only two industrial water injection wells and its pollution
problems appear to be largely that of disposal of municipal wastes. If deep-well
injection is to be used to relieve the state's surface waters of this pollution, all
wastes should receive secondary waste treatment and in addition, advanced
waste treatment, when required by the pollution-control regulatory agency.
Periodic reviews of the injection-well system and procedures should be
directed to the adequacy of the subsurface to receive and to remove the
remaining nutrients, biotics, and virulent residues and to return the water to a
quality that meets the requirements for other uses. The review should also be
directed to the need for decreased or increased pre-treatment, prior to injection.
Deep wells, receiving injected treated wastes, should terminate in zones of
high transmissivities that are filled by saline or unusable waters. Such zones are
located in the base or below the Floridan aquifer and are reasonably separated
from useable waters by dense sediment with low or minimal vertical
transmissivities.
The fluids of the injection zone shall be compatible with the injected fluids or
they can be made so, by the use of a buffer zone.
For emphasis, I repeat that all injection facilities must be properly engineered
and designed to resist corrosive fluids and to transport the fluid under the
designed hydraulic pressures without failure. The well must be constructed with





24 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
the use of service companies and under the supervision of a professional engineer
and a certified geologist.
DEEP-WELL INJECTION IN FLORIDA
Only six deep wells have been constructed in Florida to dispose of wastes by
injection. Five of these; three oil brine disposal, one sewage, and one industrial;
use cavernous areas in the base of the Floridan aquifer. The sixth well injects an
industrial waste into the Floridan aquifer at Pensacola where the water is highly
saline.
BRINE DISPOSAL WELLS
In 1943 Humble Oil and Refining Company discovered the first oil in Florida
and developed the Sunniland Oil Field in Collier County. An immiscible mixture
of oil and brine occurs along the margins of the oil accumulation and most wells
produce some salt water- many produce more water than oil. The oil is
separated at the field from the brines which are stored in tanks temporarily.
Because these brines (analyzing in excess of 120,000 milligrams per liter
solids) could not be released to surface streams, the Department of Natural
Resources found, after public hearings (1943, 1969) that:
"I. Brine is produced with hydrocarbons from wells in the Sunniland
Field
2. Volumes being produced are large
3. Salt water should be disposed of in a manner that will not be
harmful to the area
4. The Humble Company owned several wells that could be used for
disposal of these brines to the subsurface
5. The water at depths between 2950-3220 is highly permeable and
contains water in excess of 19,900 parts per million of salinity."
Therefore, the Gulf Coast Utilities No. 1, No. 8, and No. 14 wells were
recompleted to develop injection wells that open to cavernous sections. A series
of casings had been cemented in the wells and the cavernous areas were isolated
by cement plugs placed above and below the zone, and the casings were
perforated opposite zones of high transmissvities. The annular spaces between
the casings (13 7/8", 9 5/8", 5 1/2, and 4") are monitored by means of water
levels and pressures to guard against casing failures, figure 14. The Gulf Coast
Realties Corporation No. 1, was operated as a salt-water disposal system for
many years and it was plugged when No. 14 and No. 8 were placed on stream.
This system has been in operation since discovery of the Sunniland Field in
1943, with no contamination of the State's freshwater resources. Because of the
high specific gravity of the brines, it is possible to siphon the fluids from the







BUREAU OP GEOLOGY


in Zone B the solid phases would be saturated in the fluids and in Zone C, where
relatively fresh waters rest upon relatively briny water, mixing of the two waters
creates undersaturation for some salts and supersaturation for others that vary in
quantity and place with the resulting dissolution and precipitation. Thus gypsum
is found to occupy the pores of the rock below the mixed zone according to the
kind and degree of inequilibrium. Dolomite is replacing calcite, which is removed
along the mixed zone to create the large transmissivities and to form dolostone
walls and cave debris and to build euhedral crystals of dolomite upon the
exposed faces of the cave and debris.
DEVELOPMENT OF DATA FOR PERMITTING
The regulation, installation and operation of a well-injection system requires
the development of data that will meet the administrative needs, permit the
geologic and hydrologic evaluation of the site and satisfy all professional and
engineering requirements. A feasibility study should be prepared by the
applicant to include:
1. A land-use plan with statement of any conflicting interest and
projections of growth and need.
2. The determination by the applicant, in concert with appropriate
State agencies, of the general characteristics of the hydrology and
geology at the proposed site and of the suitability of the wastes for
disposal.
3. An application to the Department of Air and Water Pollution
Control Commission for a permit to construct a test-well and to develop
parameters controlling the use of this well for .injection. A flow-sheet of
the plant operations should be included and the proposed plan should
be detailed and documented.
4. The drilling, testing, and evaluation of a test-well under the
supervision of a professional engineer and personnel of the Bureau of
Geology. Samples of the cores and cuttings and logs of the flow,
conductance, temperature, caliper and electric characteristics, prepared
by a service company or by the Bureau are required.
Following the evaluation of all the pertinent data submitted under the
feasibility study, and the approval of the project by the appropriate state
agencies, the applicant may:
1. Petition for use of the test well as an injection well based on the
information developed by the test well and he may also choose to use
the test well to monitor. Adequate sets of casings, seals, grouting and
protective monitoring devices must be shown.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 70


storage tanks into the wells, where the heavier water settles to the base of the
cavernous zones. About 170,000 barrels or about 7 million gallons of brines per
month are disposed of in this manner.
INDUSTRIAL WASTE INJECTION
Since 1953, the Chemstrand Company, north of Pensacola, Florida, has
manufactured nylon and the resultant wastes have been reduced through holding
pits, employing activated sludge and bio-oxidation, the final effluent being
discharged to the Escambia River. Because the ability of the River to absorb
these wastes was limiting production, the company sought a better and safer
method of disposal. The United States Geological Survey and the Bureau of
Geology were engaged in a study of the geohydrology of the area in 1961, and
had found that an excellent aquifer, filled with salty water (13,000 mg/1
chlorides) lay beneath the plant, and the aquifer was positioned between thick
clay beds that made effective vertical barriers. (See Marsh, 1966, p. 19).
Accordingly, the company was encouraged to consider the construction of an
injection well (1808 feet deep) and monitoring system (Shallow well 1140 feet,
and a deep well 1650 feet deep) in 1961. The first use of this system was in
July 1963, when 400 gpm of acid wastes, neutralized by ammonium-hydroxide,
were injected at about 350 psig of pressure. The original specific capacity of 1.3
gpm has been increased by dissolution of the limestone reservoir to the point
where the well now receives in excess of 1000 gpm at 200 psig.
Initially the wastes were neutralized to a pH of about 6.0, but in April of
1968, the State Board of Health permitted the temporary injection of the waste
without neutralization at a pH between 1.8 and 4.2. There have been no changes
in pressure or quality in the shallow monitoring well but the deep monitoring
well recorded significant increases in calcium and nitric acid.
Two monitor wells, a shallow and a deep well, were drilled to evaluate the
effects of injection, determine further geohydrological data and to prevent
pollution. In 1965 a second injection well was drilled to a depth of 1654 feet for
stand-by and monitoring. The shallow well was drilled to the base of the upper
aquifer, 100 feet from the injection well, where the greatest pressures and
greatest danger of breaking the top clay seal existed. The second monitor and
the injection well extends 1650 feet, into the reservior that receives the wastes,
and are 1300 feet from each other. In 1968 one of the deep monitoring wells
was abandoned because of corrosion of the well casing and it was plugged. It was
replaced by two deep wells each about 1500 feet deep, one being located two
miles north, the other one mile south of the injection site.
The injection well is cased with coated iron pipe, and fluids are introduced
through a stainless steel liner. The space between the liner and the casing is filled





24 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
the use of service companies and under the supervision of a professional engineer
and a certified geologist.
DEEP-WELL INJECTION IN FLORIDA
Only six deep wells have been constructed in Florida to dispose of wastes by
injection. Five of these; three oil brine disposal, one sewage, and one industrial;
use cavernous areas in the base of the Floridan aquifer. The sixth well injects an
industrial waste into the Floridan aquifer at Pensacola where the water is highly
saline.
BRINE DISPOSAL WELLS
In 1943 Humble Oil and Refining Company discovered the first oil in Florida
and developed the Sunniland Oil Field in Collier County. An immiscible mixture
of oil and brine occurs along the margins of the oil accumulation and most wells
produce some salt water- many produce more water than oil. The oil is
separated at the field from the brines which are stored in tanks temporarily.
Because these brines (analyzing in excess of 120,000 milligrams per liter
solids) could not be released to surface streams, the Department of Natural
Resources found, after public hearings (1943, 1969) that:
"I. Brine is produced with hydrocarbons from wells in the Sunniland
Field
2. Volumes being produced are large
3. Salt water should be disposed of in a manner that will not be
harmful to the area
4. The Humble Company owned several wells that could be used for
disposal of these brines to the subsurface
5. The water at depths between 2950-3220 is highly permeable and
contains water in excess of 19,900 parts per million of salinity."
Therefore, the Gulf Coast Utilities No. 1, No. 8, and No. 14 wells were
recompleted to develop injection wells that open to cavernous sections. A series
of casings had been cemented in the wells and the cavernous areas were isolated
by cement plugs placed above and below the zone, and the casings were
perforated opposite zones of high transmissvities. The annular spaces between
the casings (13 7/8", 9 5/8", 5 1/2, and 4") are monitored by means of water
levels and pressures to guard against casing failures, figure 14. The Gulf Coast
Realties Corporation No. 1, was operated as a salt-water disposal system for
many years and it was plugged when No. 14 and No. 8 were placed on stream.
This system has been in operation since discovery of the Sunniland Field in
1943, with no contamination of the State's freshwater resources. Because of the
high specific gravity of the brines, it is possible to siphon the fluids from the





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 70


storage tanks into the wells, where the heavier water settles to the base of the
cavernous zones. About 170,000 barrels or about 7 million gallons of brines per
month are disposed of in this manner.
INDUSTRIAL WASTE INJECTION
Since 1953, the Chemstrand Company, north of Pensacola, Florida, has
manufactured nylon and the resultant wastes have been reduced through holding
pits, employing activated sludge and bio-oxidation, the final effluent being
discharged to the Escambia River. Because the ability of the River to absorb
these wastes was limiting production, the company sought a better and safer
method of disposal. The United States Geological Survey and the Bureau of
Geology were engaged in a study of the geohydrology of the area in 1961, and
had found that an excellent aquifer, filled with salty water (13,000 mg/1
chlorides) lay beneath the plant, and the aquifer was positioned between thick
clay beds that made effective vertical barriers. (See Marsh, 1966, p. 19).
Accordingly, the company was encouraged to consider the construction of an
injection well (1808 feet deep) and monitoring system (Shallow well 1140 feet,
and a deep well 1650 feet deep) in 1961. The first use of this system was in
July 1963, when 400 gpm of acid wastes, neutralized by ammonium-hydroxide,
were injected at about 350 psig of pressure. The original specific capacity of 1.3
gpm has been increased by dissolution of the limestone reservoir to the point
where the well now receives in excess of 1000 gpm at 200 psig.
Initially the wastes were neutralized to a pH of about 6.0, but in April of
1968, the State Board of Health permitted the temporary injection of the waste
without neutralization at a pH between 1.8 and 4.2. There have been no changes
in pressure or quality in the shallow monitoring well but the deep monitoring
well recorded significant increases in calcium and nitric acid.
Two monitor wells, a shallow and a deep well, were drilled to evaluate the
effects of injection, determine further geohydrological data and to prevent
pollution. In 1965 a second injection well was drilled to a depth of 1654 feet for
stand-by and monitoring. The shallow well was drilled to the base of the upper
aquifer, 100 feet from the injection well, where the greatest pressures and
greatest danger of breaking the top clay seal existed. The second monitor and
the injection well extends 1650 feet, into the reservior that receives the wastes,
and are 1300 feet from each other. In 1968 one of the deep monitoring wells
was abandoned because of corrosion of the well casing and it was plugged. It was
replaced by two deep wells each about 1500 feet deep, one being located two
miles north, the other one mile south of the injection site.
The injection well is cased with coated iron pipe, and fluids are introduced
through a stainless steel liner. The space between the liner and the casing is filled





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


by diesel oil. Pressure gauges are read daily of fluids placed in the annular space,
and at all wells. Specific quality controls of the wastes and of all wells are run
daily and total quality determinations are made monthly. Occasional
manipulation of the system by adding tracers and backflushing permits the
development of transmissivity and other formation factors, flow rates and
geochemical changes.
The movement of these wastes is expected to be downgradient to the south at
a slow rate. After five years of injection at a rate of about 2.3 mgd the injected
fluids have been calculated (U.S. Geological Survey, January 3, 1969) to lie
within 1.1 mile of the injection field. A study and analysis of the geochemistry
of the monitoring program is being prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey.
The second industrial injection well is located at a furfural plant at Belle
Glade, Florida and was engineered by Black, Crow and Eidsness, Inc. of
Gainesville, Florida with the assistance of the Bureau of Geology and State
Board of Health. The data relating to this well and those of the Coral Gables well
were obtained from daily and project reports prepared by the engineers and
from logs prepared by the Bureau (see also Vernon and Garcia Bengochea 1967
and Garcia Bengochea and Vernon, 1969).
Furfural is a chemical of many uses that is made by processing agricultural
residues such as corn cobs, grain hulls, and sugar cane bagasse.
Treatment and disposal of waste water from this industry is of prime
consideration in the location of a new plant. The waste water is stripping column
effluent. It is essentially a very dilute solution of acetic acid (approximately one
percent) in distilled water. It also contains minor amounts of other soluble
organic and insoluble materials (waxes and 200 mg/l of minute bagasse fibers).
The waste has a very low pH ( approximately 2.3), high temperature (210
degrees F) and high BOD (10,000 mg/1). The acetic acid causes both low pH and
high BOD.
Cost and feasibility studies were run by the engineers on lagooning to permit
anaerobic stabilization before percolation to the surrounding soil, and on a deep
well injection. These studies indicated deep well injection would cost slightly less
and the operating costs would be considerably less (approximately $15 per day
compared to $200 per day for the lagooning scheme). The overall aesthetics of
well injection were found to be superior to lagooning.
Drilling, water quality, and artesian flow indicated the presence of two
different ground-water bearing zones, completely separated within the
penetrated part of the Floridan aquifer, see table 1, and figure 7. The upper part
extended from 1045 to 1350 feet in depth. It had an artesian pressure of 18
pounds per square inch (psig) above ground level. Chlorides ranged from a low of
610 mg/1 at 1320 feet in depth to 1160 mg/l between 1045 and 1105 feet in
depth. The lower zone extended from 1610 to 1900 feet. It had an artesian





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 70


TABLE I

SUMMARY OF HYDROGEOLOGICAL DATA
(BLACK, CROW AND EIDNESS PROJECT REPORT)
Estimated Chlorides
Depth in Feet Artesian as Cl
From To Characteristic of Formation Flow-gpm mg/l
10 195 Sand, shell and marl None
195 662 Dense green marl (aquiclude) None
662 1,045 Limestone 200 1,020
1,045 1,105 Porous limestone 1,000 1,160
1,105 1,350 Very porous limestone 1,900 875
1,350 1,610 Dense limestone and dolostone
1,610 1,850 Very porous limestone and dolostone 6,000 2,200 to
1,850 2,067 Dolostone and limestone, cavernous 7,100


pressure of 16 psig above ground level. Chlorides were 2200 mg/1. A zone of high
transmissivity is present from 1900 to 2067 and flows of 6,000 gpm of 7,100
mg/1 water was encountered.
A capacity test was performed, pumping surface water into the well while
reading the required injection pressure. Pumping for 14 hours at the rate of 811
gallons per minute (gpm) brought the injection pressure to apparent equilibrium
at 118 psig. The flow rate was reduced to 550 gpm after 25 hours of pumping
and the injection pressure decreased to 79 psig.
One 6-inch monitoring well was drilled 75 feet south of the tested site. This
well was drilled to 1400 feet in depth. It was cased down to 647 feet with a
6-inch mild steel pipe. The purpose of this well is to monitor the water quality
of the upper Floridan artesian aquifer. This 1400-foot monitoring well is
referred to as the "shallow monitoring well" because the penetrated aquifer is
shallower than the injection aquifer.
During the progress of work the Bureau of Geology, Department of Natural
Resources, State of Florida, recommended the deepening of the waste disposal
well to the "Boulder Zone". It was estimated that the top of a cavernous zone
would be found at approxmiately 2000 feet in depth. This would reduce the
injection pressure and any possible clogging hazard. The well was deepened to
1939 feet and the top of the cavernous zone was entered at about 1850 feet in
depth. The flowing yield from the well increased to an estimated 6,500 gpm.
The chloride content increased to 7100 mg/l.






BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


A deep monitoring well was then drilled 1000 feet southeast of the waste
disposal well. This is the general downgradient direction of ground-water flow in
the area.
The deep monitoring well was drilled to 2067 feet with similar construction
to that of the waste disposal well. This permits the use of this well as a standby
in the event of interruption for maintenance or failure of the operation of the
waste disposal well.
Waste water is injected through an eight-inch stainless steel (SS304) liner.
Bottom of the liner is set at 1610 feet below top-of-casing level. The annular
space between liner and 12-inch casing is sealed with a combination SS-304 liner
hanger and teflon seal. This seal is located at 1482 feet below top-of-casing level.
The annular space above the seal is kept under pressure with inhibited water.
This water is circulated continuously in closed circuit. Any appreciable change in
pressure in this circuit will indicate a leak in the casing liner system. The quality
of the circulated water is also kept under surveillance.
A daily record is kept by the owner of the following:
1. Volume of injected waste.
2. Average injection pressure
3. Acetate ion content in the shallow monitoring well.
4. Acetate ion content in the deep monitoring well.
Waste disposal operations were started December 17, 1966, and it is estimated
that 280 million gallons of wastes have been injected to 1970. As expected,
acetates have been detected in the deep monitoring well but not in the shallow
one that is open to the Floridan aquifer.
Waste water from the furfural plant in Belle Glade, Florida, has been
successfully injected into brackish-water for the first 3-year season. This is a well
with an open hole between 1500 and 1940 feet in depth. Proper casing and
cementing have kept the waste below relatively fresh water aquifers. Injection
pressure ranges from 50 to 60 psig at the nominal injection of 500 gpm.
Data from two monitoring wells have indicated dilution and horizontal
displacement of the waste into the high-chloride waters of the aquifer. These
data also indicated the absence of any vertical upflow of waste to the upper
aquifers.
Continuous monitoring and periodic complete analyses of the system is
planned as necessary to protect the relatively fresher quality of the upper
aquifer.
The system described offers possibilities for injection of other or similar
wastes into the deep subsurface. It offers also possibilities for investigations and
research which should be undertaken before this type of waste disposal becomes
popularized in Florida.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 70


TREATED MUNICIPAL SEWAGE INJECTION
In early 1968, Black, Crow and Eidsness of Gainesville were asked by the
Peninsula Utilities Corporation to develop costs on methods of upgrading its
treatment of wastes and of disposing of the effluent. Water from Snapper Creek
canal was being used as dilutant and the system was being overloaded. Following
preliminary studies, the engineers contracted the Bureau of Geology for a
determination of the geology, stratigraphy and hydrology of the area and
requested an opinion of the possible use of the subsurface for injection of the
treated wastes.
Information developed in drilling the Coastal-State, Robinson-State, and
Coastal-Williams oil wells were used as controls to project indicated high
transmissivities into the Miami area. The Coastal-State lost returns at 2494 and
all returns between 2760 and 5530 feet. The Robinson-State lost circulation
between 1210 and 3662 and cavities were recorded at 2826-28, 2833-34, and
2547-48 and permeable zones correlate well with the Coastal-Williams, that lost
circulation at 2670 feet and gained salt-water flow at 3575. A cavity was
recorded between 4285-4300. On the basis of electric log data it was predicted
that a zone of "lost circulation" would be encountered at about 3000 feet in the
Peninsula well.
On the basis of these, and correlative data, Black, Crow and Eidsness prepared
and documented the preliminary specifications for an injection well. The test
well was approved by the State Board of Health and it was drilled in late 1969.
The well was thoroughly sampled chemically, physically, hydrologically and
geologically because of a need to develop more knowledge about the base of the
Floridan aquifer and other zones of high transmissivities, particularly as to
diagenesis and the balance of dissolution and saturation between the liquid
phases and the solid phases.
The following characteristic elements and factors relating to the information
of the zone of high transmissivity were developed:(fig.8)
1.) Samples of rock cutting, taken on interval of 5 feet, with that part
of the well below 900 feet being drilled by reverse-circulation for
controlled sampling.
2.)Small samples of water were taken at 5 foot intervals and gallon
samples at each 20 feet of penetration, by means of air lift of flow from
the drill stem when it was standing at the base of the well
3.) Temperature in Farenheit
4.) Specific gravities of the water at 20 foot intervals
5.) Chlorides at 20 foot intervals
6.) Conductance of the water in the wellbore
7.) Resistivity log





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


8.) Self Potential log
9.) Gamma-Ray log
10.) Cement-bonding log
11.) Caliper
12.) Velocity of flow, while pumping the well by air lift
13.) Alkalinity and pH
14.) Isotopes of solid phases through fresh and salt water interfaces and
at the base of the well.
The partial data resulting in the final completion are summarized in figure 8,
(Plate 4-2 of Black, Crow and Eidsness Report Project No. 498-70-50, February,
1970). This plate also shows the method of the construction of the well. The
Peninsula Utilities Corporation has built an improved sewage treatment plant
and is planning to inject sewage, treated to 90 percent.
The injection system is equipped with the most sophisticated monitoring
systems, as fully automatic as present technology permits and designed to shut
the system down during a failure.
Casings set at 545 and 1810 feet overlap and are cemented to isolate and
expose the Floridan aquifer and permit the monitoring of shallow (Floridan
aquifer) waters. A program of monitoring existing wells drilled to the Floridan
aquifer and to the Biscayne aquifer will also be undertaken.
The plant will operate a contact stabilization process to reduce the residual
BOD to less than 20 mg/1 and the well is scheduled to go on stream in October,
1970. The operator of the utility has installed analytical equipment to provide
continuous automatic monitoring on the flow, injection pressure, chloride
residual, pH, dissolved oxygen and the specific conductance of the injected
fluids. In addition a small flow of water from the annulus between the casings
that isolate the Floridan aquifer will be monitored continuously for
conductance. Any large change will indicate the failure of the casings or plugs.
Regular reports to the engineers and to the regulatory agencies are scheduled.
The Department of Air and Water Pollution Control Commission has been
given the responsibility of regulating all drainage and injection wells and the
policy regarding the use of these wells, as adopted by the Department on May
11, 1970, is reproduced as follows:
1. Drainage Wells Recharge of fresh water aquifers is desirable but
every effort should be; made to prevent contamination.
a. Injection to Prevent Salt Water Intrusion and Recharge of Fresh
Water Aquifers: Waters for such use should supply treatment following
sewage treatment of a high degree. Acceptability shall be contingent
upon the checking of such wastes for bacterial and viral content prior to
injection.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 70


b. Closed System Air Conditioning Cooling Waters: This type of
water is normally acceptable, provided bactericides or antifouling agents
are not used so as to cause contamination. With these conditions being
observed, such waters are acceptable for discharge to shallow aquifers.
c. Open System Air Conditioning Cooling Waters: To be evaluated on
an individual basis. If no additives are present in harmful quantities,
such waters may be disposed of to shallow aquifers.
d. Lake Level Control: Wells for lake level control should be planned
and evaluated on a basin or subbasin scope to include all pertinent
factors. Such wells should be part of the overall basin, or area, drainage
plan and should be engineered with proper catch basin, trash screens,
and adequate inlet structures (the Bureau of Geology favors
siphon-intakes, as shown in figure 15). The pollution potential of the
area to be drained should be evaluated as part of the overall
decision-making process. For example, in areas served by septic tanks a
considerable pollution load could be placed underground and wells
should not be permitted in such cases. Inlet structures should include
some type of filtration equipment to clarify the water prior to being
allowed to drain underground.
e. Drainage of Farm Lands: Drainage wells for such purposes should
be limited to those cases where necessity can be shown and the danger
of contaminating underground waters is slight. When permitted, inlet
structures should be required similar to those of lake level control.
f. Swimming Pool Drainage: Such drainage wells should be limited to
those which are cased either to a saline aquifer or to a point where
discharge cannot endanger water supply aquifers. Such wells should be
preceded by suitable inlet structures.
g. Disposal of Waste Waters: Drainage wells for such uses should be
severely limited and if possible other means of effluent disposal should
be found. Treatment should include clarification as final polishing. In
many sections of Florida, solution channels and cavities have developed
in the underlying limestone formations and these permit rapid
movement of water and entry into aquifers used for water supply or
into streams. Where such instances are found, disposal wells should be
eliminated in the proper manner.
2. Deep Disposal Wells:
Such wells normally terminate in the boulder zone or other deep
aquifers. It is imperative that there be an aquiclude to prevent vertical
movement upward from the disposal aquifer. The number of such wells
is limited and each had been permitted after prior study and installation
of a test well. Knowledge of Florida geological personnel as well as





BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


TYPICAL WELL
for
LAKE CONTROL ond DRAINAGE


Manhole




.m............ .....
-o. .. t. .. tlo ~ l o
r.o..-.o


Plug for water level measurements


li., ........
4:-::'----:::::::::---|--
::;r :;:^ :: II =
andirE Hl-.i
Illliilillllllilllli^^
*** *** ** *** ** **" "* *** I"** *** *? *** **


Figure 15. Typical lake control well.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 70


those of the USGS has been brought to bear on each of the wells
permitted. In brief, each case has been approached on a cautious,
individual basis. It is felt this type of program should be continued in this
same manner, following certain principals.
a. Each installation should be considered on its own merits.
b. Maximum treatment of waste waters should be required.
c. The geology and geography of the area should be studied.
d. A test well should be installed.
e. Results of the test well drilling should be evaluated.
f. Compatability of the aquifer and the waste waters should be studied.
g. If results to this point are satisfactory, a complete installation
should be engineered. This should include:
1.) Waste treatment facilities
2.) Disposal well design, including casings, seals, groutings, and other
pertinent aspects. An alternate, duplicate well should be provided.
3.) Test wells to be used to monitor disposal aquifer and upper aquifer.
4.) Disposal well casings.
5.) A system of regular reporting of the functioning of the system to
provide all pertinent information.
A program should be started as soon as possible to locate and eliminate
drainage wells which do not conform to these guidelines.
USE OF CAVERNOUS AREAS OF THE SUBSURFACE
AS A WATER RESERVOIR
There are only limited areas where water can be stored upon the flat terrain
of Florida, generally requiring a rectangle of levee-fences. In south Florida,
this storage is self defeating because the evaporation and seepage equal or
exceed the rainfall, However, the subsurface has an enormous unused storage
capacity. Highly permeable zones could be used to store bubbles of fresh
water during times of surface flooding by depressing the salt water contained
in the zone. Recovery could be by natural flow but storage injection will
require pumping. It is anticipated that the efficiency of such an operation
would increase with periodic use until complete recovery of stored water can
be made.
If wastes are also to be injected into zones of high transmissivities, perhaps
a detailed study would reveal the presence of several zones, stacked one above
the other in subsurface. In which case, the deepest zone with the lowest
quality of water and nearest the coast could be used for injections of wastes
and conversely the higher zones with better waters reserved for fresh storage.







34 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
It is interesting to note that it is possible throughout most of the southern
peninsula of Florida to produce water by artesian flow, with near potable
quality (1,000 3,000 mg/1 chlorides), to process this water through a
desalinization plant and then inject, through gravity flow, the saline residues
back into zones of high transmissivities lower in the Floridan aquifer, where
the water has a lower specific gravity than the residue, Where the specific
gravity of the brine is higher than the water of the subsurface, storage tanks
could be drained by syphoning,
In Israel (Weiner and Walman, 1962) the underground storage of water is
possible and necessary. An unlimited, supply could also be made available in
south Florida by constructing a series of large injection wells into which the
large part of any excess water could be pumped during wet seasons and
released during the dry.
Because of the submergence of highly valued land and the flat topography
in Florida, the storage of water underground provides many advantages over
that of surface storage. These include: 1.) decreased evaporation losses; 2.)
better use of land areas; 3.) little construction and maintenance costs; 4.) no
recovery (pumping) costs in artesian flow areas; 5.) no siltation of reservoirs;
6;) stable water quality and temperature; and 7.) no flooding.
The disadvantages include the loss of recreation, transportation and esthetic
potentials.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 70


those of the USGS has been brought to bear on each of the wells
permitted. In brief, each case has been approached on a cautious,
individual basis. It is felt this type of program should be continued in this
same manner, following certain principals.
a. Each installation should be considered on its own merits.
b. Maximum treatment of waste waters should be required.
c. The geology and geography of the area should be studied.
d. A test well should be installed.
e. Results of the test well drilling should be evaluated.
f. Compatability of the aquifer and the waste waters should be studied.
g. If results to this point are satisfactory, a complete installation
should be engineered. This should include:
1.) Waste treatment facilities
2.) Disposal well design, including casings, seals, groutings, and other
pertinent aspects. An alternate, duplicate well should be provided.
3.) Test wells to be used to monitor disposal aquifer and upper aquifer.
4.) Disposal well casings.
5.) A system of regular reporting of the functioning of the system to
provide all pertinent information.
A program should be started as soon as possible to locate and eliminate
drainage wells which do not conform to these guidelines.
USE OF CAVERNOUS AREAS OF THE SUBSURFACE
AS A WATER RESERVOIR
There are only limited areas where water can be stored upon the flat terrain
of Florida, generally requiring a rectangle of levee-fences. In south Florida,
this storage is self defeating because the evaporation and seepage equal or
exceed the rainfall, However, the subsurface has an enormous unused storage
capacity. Highly permeable zones could be used to store bubbles of fresh
water during times of surface flooding by depressing the salt water contained
in the zone. Recovery could be by natural flow but storage injection will
require pumping. It is anticipated that the efficiency of such an operation
would increase with periodic use until complete recovery of stored water can
be made.
If wastes are also to be injected into zones of high transmissivities, perhaps
a detailed study would reveal the presence of several zones, stacked one above
the other in subsurface. In which case, the deepest zone with the lowest
quality of water and nearest the coast could be used for injections of wastes
and conversely the higher zones with better waters reserved for fresh storage.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 70


SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Back, William (See Hanshaw, Bruce B.)

Bogli, Alfred
1964 "Mischungskorrosion ein Beitrag zum Verkarstungproblem," Erdkunde Vol.
18, p. 83-92.

Ferguson, G.E.
1947 (and Lingham, C.W., Love, S.K., and Vernon, R.O.) "Springs of Florida,"
Florida Geological Survey, Bull. 31, 196 pp.

Garcia-Bengochea, J.1. (see also Vernon)
1969 (and Vernon, R.O.) "Deep-well disposal of wastewaters in saline aquifers of
south Florida," Paper presented at the Am. Geophy. Union Meeting,
Washington, D.C., April.

Hanshaw, Bruce B.
1965 (and Back, William and Rubin, Meyer) Carbonate Equilibria and Radiocarbon
Distribution Related to Groundwater Flow in the Floridan Limestone Aquifer,
USA. U.S. Geological Survey, pp. 601-614.

Healy, Henry G.
1962 Piezometric Surface and Areas of Artesian Flow of the Artesain Aquifer in
Florida. July 6-17, 1961, Florida Geological Survey Map Series 4, November.

Howard, Alan D.
1966 "Verification of the 'Mischungskorrosion' Effect", Cave Notes, Vol. 8, No. 2,
pp. 9-16.

Kohout, F.A.
1965 "A hypothesis concerning cyclic flow of salt water related to geothermal
heating in the Floridan aquifer. Reprinted from transactions of The New
York Academy of Sciences, Ser. 11, Vol. No. 2, pp. 249-271.

Lichtler, William F.
1960 "Geology and Ground-Water Resources of Martin County, Florida," Florida
Geological Survey, R.I. 23, 149 pp.

Marsh, Owen T.
1966 "Geology of Escambia and Santa Rosa counties, Western Florida Panhandle,"
Florida Geological Survey, Bull. 46, 140 pp.

Rubin, Meyer (See Hanshaw, Bruce B.)

Runnells, Donald D.
1969 "Diagenesis, chemical sediments, and the mixing of natural waters," Journal of
Sedimentary Petrology, Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 1188-1201.







36 BUREAU OF GEOLOGY


Shampine, William J.
1965 "Chloride concentration in water from the upper part of the Floridan aquifei
in Florida," Florida Geological Survey, Map Series 12.

Vernon, Robert 0. (See also Garcia-Bengochea and Ferguson, et al)
1951 "Geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Florida", Florida Geological Survey,
Bull. 33, 256 pp.

1967 (and Garcia Bengochea, JJ.) "Deep Well Infection of Industrial Wastes in
South Florida", Presented to Am. W.W.A. and Florida Petro. Coun.,
November 1, 1967, Miami, Florida open file report.

1947 "Tertiary formations cropping out in Citrus and Levy Counties" in
Southeastern Geological Society [Guidebook] 5th Field Trip, West Central
Florida, Dec. 5-6, 1947, p. 35-54, [1947].







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO, 70























APPENDIX I

CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF FORMATION WATERS

ENCOUNTERED IN THE PENINSULA

UTILITIES INJECTION WELL








SNAPPER CREEK CANAL PLANT, CORAL GABLES, FLORIDA
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
WATER RESOURCES DIVISION
ANALYSES BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT
OF THE INTERIOR
(MILLIGRAMS PER LITER)


9-268 q


Depth................ ...................
Date of collection.................................
Silica (SiCo) ....................................
Iron(Fe) .......................................
Zinc(Zn) .......................................
Manganese(Mn) ................................
Copper (C) ......................................
Calcinm(Ca) ...................................
MagIesim (Mg)..................................
Sdlium (Na).....................................
Potassium (K)....................................
Strontium (Sr) ...................................
Bicarbonate (BCO) ...............................
Carbonate (CO) ................................
Sulfate (SO4) ....................................
Chloride(C) ..................................
Fluoridd (F) ........................ .............
Nitrate (NO) ................. ......................
Bromide(Br) ....................................
Iodide(D) ........................................
Dissolved solids
Calculated .....................................
Residue on evaporation at 180'C .....................
Hardness as CaC03 .................................
Noncarbonate hardness as CaCo ......................
Alkalinity as CaC03 .............................
Lithium (Li) ............................. ..........
Specific conductance (micromhos at 25.0 ..............
pH ........... .. .. ...... .... ........... ... ...
Color .....................................
Temp .........................................
Chromium (Cr)....................................


1,705' 1,765' 1,810 1,850 1,950'
9-969 9-969 9-9-69 99-69 9-10-69
11 10 10 8.5 6.1


171
218
1600
59

172

568
2950
1.1
0.0
8
.00

5690

1350
1210
141

9700
8.0
5
22.0


203
262
1940
71

168


276
415
3490
127

170


592 800
3650 6500
1.1 1.2
.1 .1


405
755
6880
252

162

1440
12600
1.3
.1


500
1200
9860
380

164

2280
18100
1.4
.2
64
.00


2,947
12-17-69
4.8
.36
.04
.02
.10
428
1300
10800
415
9.4
142

2660
19300
1.4

64
.00


6830 11700 22500 32500 35000


1610
1470
130

11600
7.9
5
22.2


2440
2300
139

19400
7.9
5
22.2


4170
4040
133

34500
7.8
5
21.7


6240
6110
135

47200
7.8
5
21.0


6430
6310
116
.17
50000
7.6
5
16.0
.00