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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Acknowledgment
 Summary of water withdrawal
 Sources and quality of water...
 Water production and use
 Surface water supplies
 Future water production
 References


FGS



Production and utilization of water in the metropolitan area of Jacksonville, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 58 )
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 Material Information
Title: Production and utilization of water in the metropolitan area of Jacksonville, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 58 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Information circular 58 )
Physical Description: iv, 37 p. : illus., charts, maps. ;
Language: English
Creator: Leve, Gilbert W ( Gilbert Warren ), 1928-
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1969
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Groundwater -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Water-supply -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Water-supply -- Florida -- Jacksonville   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by G. W. Leve and D. A. Goolsby.
General Note: "Prepared by United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Jacksonville, Duval County and the Division of Geology, Florida Board of Conservation."
General Note: "References": p. 37.
Funding: Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
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Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001054082
oclc - 01748942
notis - AFD7465
System ID: UF00001118:00001

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Abstract
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Acknowledgment
        Page 3
    Summary of water withdrawal
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Sources and quality of water supplies
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        14a
        Page 17
        Page 15
    Water production and use
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 15
        Page 27
        Page 28
        28a
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Surface water supplies
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 30
    Future water production
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    References
        Page 37
        Copyright
            Main
Full Text





STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION




DIVISION OF GEOLOGY
Robert O. Vernon, Director






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 58






PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION OF WATER
IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA


By
G. W. Leve and D. A. Goolsby
U. S. Geological Survey





Prepared by
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
CITY OF JACKSONVILLE,
DUVAL COUNTY
and the
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY
FLORIDA BOARD OF CONSERVATION


TALLAHASSEE
1969


























































Completed manuscript received
October 17, 1968
Printed by the Florida Board of Conservation
Division of Geology
Tallahassee


ii








CONTENTS


Abstract .
Introduction .
Purpose and scope .
Acknowledgments .
Summary of water withdrawal .
Geographic setting .
Sources and quality of water supplies .
Surface-water supplies .
Ground-water supplies .
Surficial sand aquifer .
Limestone, shell and sand aquifer .
Floridan aquifer .
Water production and use .
Public-water supplies .
Jacksonville municipal supply .
Other municipal supplies .
Privately or corporately owned water utilities
Military water systems .
Private supplies .
Industrial and commercial supplies .


Lakes and ponds supplied by wells and uncontrolled flowing wells
Surface water supplies .
Generation of electric power .
Variations in the withdrawal and use of water .
Future water production. .
References ..


ILLUSTRATIONS


Page
. 1


1 Map of Florida showing the location of the area covered by this report 6
2 Generalized geologic section and the aquifers in the Jacksonville area 7
3 Map of Florida showing the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in feet
above sea level, July 1961 .. 14
4 Map showing the hardness of water from the Floridan aquifer in the Jacksonville
area ... .. Facing 14
5 Map of the Jacksonville area showing the location of the municipal, privately or
corporately owned utilities, and military water systems and the major public
supply wells Facing 14
6 Map showing the City of Jacksonville municipal water-distribution system and
the municipal water wells 16
7 Map of Jacksonville area showing location of major industrial and commercial
wells, wells supplying lakes and ponds and electric generating stations Facing 28
8 Graphs showing the total monthly production from Jacksonville municipal wells
and the total monthly temperature at Jacksonville .. .. .32
9 Graphs showing past withdrawals and projections of future water withdrawals by
municipal and nonmunicipal water utilities in the Jacksonville area 33


2
. 3
. 3
S .
. 4
S 5
S 5
7
9
11
S 13
S 15
S 15
S 15
S 19
S 19
S 20
S 23
S 24
S 28
S 30
S 30
30
S 34
S .37




Page


.
.






TABLES
Tables Page
1 Summary of water withdrawal in the Jacksonville area in 1966 5
2 Chemical analyses of ground water and surface water in the JacIsonville area 8
3 U.S. Public Health Service drinking-water standards .. 9
4 Suggested water quality for industrial uses 10
5 Suggested water quality tolerance for boiler feed water .. 11
6 Water quality characteristics and their significance .. 12
7 Pumping and storage facilities of the Jacksonville municipal water utility, 1966 17
8 Water withdrawals by the Jacksonville municipal water utility in 1966 18
9 Municipal v.ater-supply facilities, number of metered connections and average
daily pumpage at Jacksonville Beach, Neptune Beach, and Atlantic Beach in 1966 19
10 Major nonmunicipal water utilities in the Jacksonville area in 1966 21
11 Wells, water-storage facilities, average daily pumpage, and use of water at U.S.
Naval Stations in the Jacksonville area in 1966 .. 23
12 Major commercial and industrial water systems in the Jacksonville area in 1966 25
13 Lakes and ponds in the Jacksonville area that are supplied with water from
artesian wells in 1966 29
14 Electric generating stations in the Jacksonville area and water used for cooling
in 1966 ... 30








PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION OF WATER
IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA
By
G. W. Leve and D. A. Goolsby
U. S. Geological Survey
ABSTRACT
Large quantities of water are available both from numerous surface streams
and from underground aquifers in the Jacksonville area; however, the water in
most of the surface streams is brackish at least part of the year and is used for
limited industrial purposes. The potable water supplies in the area are obtained
from wells drilled into one of three aquifers: surficial sand beds; limestone, shell
and sand beds between 50 to 150 feet below the surface; and limestone and
dolomite beds more than 300 to 600 feet below the surface and about 1,600
feet thick which comprise the Floridan aquifer.
The water in the surficial sand aquifer is commonly high in iron content and is
subject to local contamination from septic tanks and from polluted or brackish
surface streams. It is used primarily for lawn sprinkling. The limestone, shell and
sand aquifer contains water suitable for domestic and-most industrial uses;
however, it is hard and locally may be high in iron content. The Floridan aquifer
is the principal source of potable water in the area. The water in the aquifer
ranges in hardness from less than 150 ppm (parts per million) to about 400 ppm
as CaCO3 and is suitable for domestic and most industrial uses.
The major source of surface water in the Jacksonville area is the St. Johns
River; however, the chloride content ranges from less than 100 ppm to more
than 10,000 ppm at the Main Street Bridge at Jacksonville. Because of its
extreme variability in quality, its use is generally limited to cooling water for
electric power generation.
The city of Jacksonville municipal water utility pumped an average of about
36 mgd (million gallons per day) in 1966 from 47 wells drilled into the Floridan
aquifer. The municipal utilities of Jacksonville Beach, Neptune Beach, and
Atlantic Beach pumped a total average of about 3 mgd in 1966 from 11 wells in
the Floridan aquifer.
Eighty-nine large, privately and corporately owned water utilities in the area
produced a total average of about 22 mgd in 1966 from 105 wells in the
Floridan aquifer. Two large naval bases produced a total average of about 5.5
mgd in 1966 from 8 wells in the Floridan aquifer.
Between 55,000 and 65,000 homes in the area are supplied water for all or a
part of their domestic needs from small diameter wells. These private wells
yielded an estimated 10 to 25 mgd from the limestone, shell and sand aquifer
and about 5 mgd from the Floridan aquifer in 1966.
One hundred and fifty major industries and commercial buildings inventoried
during this investigation withdrew a total average of 67 mgd from wells in the
Floridan aquifer in 1966. It is estimated that other industries and commercial





DIVISION OF GEOLOGY


establishments that were not inventoried pumped an additional 5 mgd from
wells in the Floridan aquifer.
Wells drilled into the Floridan aquifer are used to supply water to surface
lakes and ponds. In 1966 these wells yielded an average of about 8 mgd to
maintain 12 surface lakes and ponds. About 20 percent of all wells inventoried
during this and previous investigations continuously yielded water for no gainful
use. The amount of water flowing from these "wild" wells was estimated to be
about 10 mgd.
Five municipal and industrial electric generating plants with a total capacity
of 947,600 kilowatts used about 863 mgd of water from the St. Johns River and
its tributary streams for cooling in 1966.
The city of Jacksonville water utility increased withdrawals of water from 6.5
mgd in 1921 to about 36 mgd in 1966. The average water withdrawals by all of
the municipal and privately and corporately owned water utilities in the area
increased from 27 mgd in 1947 to 60 mgd in 1966. Between 1950 and 1966
increased population and commercial and industrial development in the
suburban areas caused the privately and corporately owned water utilities to
increase water withdrawals at a much faster rate than the city of Jacksonville
water utility.
At the present rate of increase in water withdrawals, the city of Jacksonville
water utility will pump between 10 and 25 percent more water in 1980 than at
present, and the total pumpage of all of the municipal and privately and
corporately owned utilities in the area will be between 25 and 40 percent greater
in 1980 than at present.
The commercial and industrial water systems are also expected to increase
withdrawals in the future, but the rate of increase will depend on expansion of
activities, on changes in pattern and amounts of use of water and on the number
and types of industries that locate in the area.

INTRODUCTION
All potable water supplies in the Jacksonville metropolitan area and the
eastern part of Duval County are obtained from wells. The surface streams in the
area capable of supplying dependable quantities of water are affected by ocean
tides and contain brackish water all or part of the time; however, abundant fresh
water is available from the underground aquifers. This fresh ground water is one
of the most important natural resources of the area and has been a prime factor
in its economic and population growth.
The ground-water supply has met most of the needs of the population and
industry in the area. However, there has been a constant increase in the
withdrawals of water from the aquifers to meet the demands of expanding
industry and increasing population. As a result, there has been a general decline
in the water levels throughout the Jacksonville area with some slight increases in
the salt content of the water in some localized areas (Leve, 1966).






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 58


PURPOSE AND SCOPE

Previous to this report there was little comprehensive information on the
location of all of the various systems in the Jacksonville area or the amount of
water being. withdrawn. Such information is needed before hydrologic
conditions in the area, such as the relationship between withdrawals of ground
water and declining water levels in the area can be analyzed. In addition, the
information can be used as a basis for estimating future water requirements for
the area.
This report lists and describes the major water supply systems in Jacksonville
and adjacent parts of Duval County and includes estimates of the amount of
water withdrawn for various uses in 1966. The report also includes projections
of future water requirements for the area based on previous and present (1966)
water withdrawals. This information should aid local and state officials,
consultants, and planners to implement measures to properly develop and
conserve water supplies to insure adequate fresh water supplies for the future.
The study was made by the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division,
under the supervision of C. S. Conover, district chief, in cooperation with the
city of Jacksonville, Duval County, and the Division of Geology, Florida Board
of Conservation as part of an over-all study to appraise the water resources in the
area.
Except for the municipal utilities and a few large non-municipal utilities and
military and industrial water systems, the amounts of water withdrawn are
estimated. These estimated amounts are based on:
(1) Reported production by water-plant operators, engineers and
owners of the various water systems. (2) Water requirements of the
various industries and commercial establishments. (3) Number and
types of accounts serviced by various water utilities. (4) Number
and types of wells that supply these utilities and private water
systems. Field checks were made on many of the water systems to
determine plant capacity and the actual yield from individual wells.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This investigation was greatly facilitated through the cooperation of many
engineers and plant operators of industrial, municipal, military and private water
systems in the area. Detailed information on Jacksonville municipal pumpage,
distribution and use of water was obtained from the City Electric and Water
Engineering Department. Mr. T. B. Prince, Water Utility Manager, Mr. Cyrus
Washburn, Manager of Engineering and Chief Engineer, Mr. C. A. Blissitt,
Engineer, Mr. D. C. Hendrickson, Associate Engineer, Mr. R. E. Elder, Assistant
Engineer, and Mr. J. H. Bowden, General Supervisor all gave of their time to help
compile this information.
Information on water withdrawal for the generation of electric power was
obtained from Mr. T. W. Bostwick, Engineer Manager, and Mr. R. L. Thompson,
Production Manager, City Electric Department, and various members of their
staff.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 58


PURPOSE AND SCOPE

Previous to this report there was little comprehensive information on the
location of all of the various systems in the Jacksonville area or the amount of
water being. withdrawn. Such information is needed before hydrologic
conditions in the area, such as the relationship between withdrawals of ground
water and declining water levels in the area can be analyzed. In addition, the
information can be used as a basis for estimating future water requirements for
the area.
This report lists and describes the major water supply systems in Jacksonville
and adjacent parts of Duval County and includes estimates of the amount of
water withdrawn for various uses in 1966. The report also includes projections
of future water requirements for the area based on previous and present (1966)
water withdrawals. This information should aid local and state officials,
consultants, and planners to implement measures to properly develop and
conserve water supplies to insure adequate fresh water supplies for the future.
The study was made by the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division,
under the supervision of C. S. Conover, district chief, in cooperation with the
city of Jacksonville, Duval County, and the Division of Geology, Florida Board
of Conservation as part of an over-all study to appraise the water resources in the
area.
Except for the municipal utilities and a few large non-municipal utilities and
military and industrial water systems, the amounts of water withdrawn are
estimated. These estimated amounts are based on:
(1) Reported production by water-plant operators, engineers and
owners of the various water systems. (2) Water requirements of the
various industries and commercial establishments. (3) Number and
types of accounts serviced by various water utilities. (4) Number
and types of wells that supply these utilities and private water
systems. Field checks were made on many of the water systems to
determine plant capacity and the actual yield from individual wells.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This investigation was greatly facilitated through the cooperation of many
engineers and plant operators of industrial, municipal, military and private water
systems in the area. Detailed information on Jacksonville municipal pumpage,
distribution and use of water was obtained from the City Electric and Water
Engineering Department. Mr. T. B. Prince, Water Utility Manager, Mr. Cyrus
Washburn, Manager of Engineering and Chief Engineer, Mr. C. A. Blissitt,
Engineer, Mr. D. C. Hendrickson, Associate Engineer, Mr. R. E. Elder, Assistant
Engineer, and Mr. J. H. Bowden, General Supervisor all gave of their time to help
compile this information.
Information on water withdrawal for the generation of electric power was
obtained from Mr. T. W. Bostwick, Engineer Manager, and Mr. R. L. Thompson,
Production Manager, City Electric Department, and various members of their
staff.





4 DIVISION OF GEOLOGY
Information on withdrawal and use of water at the Naval Air Station,
Jacksonville, was provided by Claude T. Madrin, Director of Utilities, Division of
Public Works.
Much valuable data on industrial and private water systems was obtained with
the help of Mr. T. B. Ard, Sanitary Engineer, City Health Department, Mr. T. J.
Rousie Jr., Chief Sanitary Engineer, Duval County Health Department, and Mr.
J. B. Miller, Director of Division of Water Supply, Mr. E. D. Hayes, Sanitary
Engineer, and Mr. Nick Maestro, Acting Director, Division of Industrial Waste,
Florida State Board of Health.
Background data on industrial trends and population growth in the area was
obtained from Mr. R. L Kuroski, Planner, Jacksonville-Duval Area Planning
Board and Mr. W. O. Parker, Research Director, Jacksonville Area Chamber of
Commerce.
Appreciation is expressed for the support and cooperation of the following
well drillers who aided by either furnishing file data or general information on
different water systems: Duval Drilling Company; Earl Floyd and Son; Gray Well
& Pump Company Inc.; Partridge Well Drilling Company; Ricketts Well & Pump
Company; Riverview Pump & Well Inc.; O. E. Smith's Sons; and Trout Well
Drilling Service.
SUMMARY OF WATER WITHDRAWAL
A summary of the water withdrawal in the Jacksonville area in 1966 is listed
in table 1. The estimated withdrawals by utilities and private industrial and
commercial water systems are believed to be conservative because many of the
reported production figures were found to be lower than actual production
when they were field checked. All of the water systems in the area were not
canvassed during this investigation so that the actual quantities of water
withdrawn are somewhat greater than the quantities shown in table 1. However,
the table summarizes the relative quantities of water withdrawn from the two
major aquifer systems and the streams for various uses in the Jacksonville area.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING
This report describes water use in a 625 square mile area in the eastern part of
Duval County, which includes all of the corporate limits of Jacksonville before
1967 and the nearby coastal towns of Atlantic Beach, Neptune Beach, and
Jacksonville Beach, figure 1.
Most of the area is a relatively flat plain less than 25 feet above sea.level.
Between the St. Johns River and the coastline a series of long narrow sand ridges
parallel the coastline and form the "coastal ridge." The coastal ridge is generally
40 to 60 feet above sea level but a few small hills on the ridge are more than 80
feet above sea level.
Surface drainage is poorly developed and many marshes and swamps occur
along the stream courses. East of the coastal ridge, sluggish brackish water
streams drain into tidal lagoons and into the intracoastal waterway. West of the






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 58 5
TABLE 1. SUMMARY OF WATER WITHDRAWAL
IN THE JACKSONVILLE AREA IN 1966.

SUPPLIER SOURCE OF WATER
Limestone, shell Floridan Surface
and sand aquifer aquifer streams
(mgd) (mgd) (mgd)

1. Jacksonville municipal water utility 36
2. Other municipal utilities 3
3. Non-municipal utilities 22
4. Private domestic systems 10-25 5
5. Military water systems 6
6. Industrial and commercial water
systems 72
7. Supplemental supplies for
surface lakes and ponds 8
8. Wild wells 10
9. Generating electric power 863


ridge the streams drain into the St. Johns River. As most of the major streams in
the area are about at sea level and are directly connected to the ocean, the flow
and quality of water are largely controlled by ocean tides. For example, the St.
Johns River flows into the ocean during outgoing tides; but during incoming
tides, the flow reverses and ocean water enters the river and moves upstream.
Before 1967 Jacksonville occupied about a 39 square mile area in central
Duval County, which is in the northeastern part of Florida; however, much of
the population and industry were located in adjacent unincorporated suburbs
and nearby coastal towns within the county. In 1967 the city of Jacksonville
annexed the entire county except the town of Baldwin in the western part of the
county and the coastal towns of Atlantic Beach, Neptune Beach, and
Jacksonville Beach.

SOURCES AND QUALITY OF WATER SUPPLIES
SURFACE WATER SUPPLIES
The principal surface streams in the Jacksonville area are the St. Johns River
and its tributaries. These streams are tidal estuaries, and they contain highly
mineralized ocean water at least part of the time. The chloride content of the St.
Johns River ranges from less than 100 ppm to more than 10,000 ppm where it
runs through downtown Jacksonville. The median value is about 2,200 ppm
(written commun., Anderson and Goolsby, 1967).






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 58 5
TABLE 1. SUMMARY OF WATER WITHDRAWAL
IN THE JACKSONVILLE AREA IN 1966.

SUPPLIER SOURCE OF WATER
Limestone, shell Floridan Surface
and sand aquifer aquifer streams
(mgd) (mgd) (mgd)

1. Jacksonville municipal water utility 36
2. Other municipal utilities 3
3. Non-municipal utilities 22
4. Private domestic systems 10-25 5
5. Military water systems 6
6. Industrial and commercial water
systems 72
7. Supplemental supplies for
surface lakes and ponds 8
8. Wild wells 10
9. Generating electric power 863


ridge the streams drain into the St. Johns River. As most of the major streams in
the area are about at sea level and are directly connected to the ocean, the flow
and quality of water are largely controlled by ocean tides. For example, the St.
Johns River flows into the ocean during outgoing tides; but during incoming
tides, the flow reverses and ocean water enters the river and moves upstream.
Before 1967 Jacksonville occupied about a 39 square mile area in central
Duval County, which is in the northeastern part of Florida; however, much of
the population and industry were located in adjacent unincorporated suburbs
and nearby coastal towns within the county. In 1967 the city of Jacksonville
annexed the entire county except the town of Baldwin in the western part of the
county and the coastal towns of Atlantic Beach, Neptune Beach, and
Jacksonville Beach.

SOURCES AND QUALITY OF WATER SUPPLIES
SURFACE WATER SUPPLIES
The principal surface streams in the Jacksonville area are the St. Johns River
and its tributaries. These streams are tidal estuaries, and they contain highly
mineralized ocean water at least part of the time. The chloride content of the St.
Johns River ranges from less than 100 ppm to more than 10,000 ppm where it
runs through downtown Jacksonville. The median value is about 2,200 ppm
(written commun., Anderson and Goolsby, 1967).





6 DIVISION OF GEOLOGY


'Locotion of
area


0 2 4 6 MILES
L I I


Figure 1. Map of Florida showing the location of the area covered by this report.
During most of the year the St. Johns River is a good source of cooling water.
From November through April the river water temperature is less than 750F.,
which is cooler than water from wells 500 to 800 feet deep. Water from wells
greater than 1,000 feet deep has a temperature of about 81F., and river waters
cooler except for the months of June through the middle of September.
The St. Johns River and its tributaries are not utilized as a source of potable
water supplies or for most industrial or commercial supplies; however, large







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 58 7

quantities of water from the St. Johns River are circulated through condensers
of steam turbines in electric generating stations.

GROUND-WATER SUPPLIES

As shown diagrammatically in figure 2, ground-water supplies in the
Jacksonville area are obtained mainly from three types of aquifers: surficial sand
beds; relatively thin limestone, shell and sand beds between 50 and 150 feet
below the surface; and thick limestone and dolomite beds below 300 to 600 feet
deep. The thick limestone and dolomite beds comprise the "Floridan Aquifer"
which is the principal source of potable water supplies in the area. The surficial
sand beds and the thin limestone, shell and sand beds are utilized primarily for
domestic supplies, some air conditioning, and for lawn sprinkling.
Chemical analysis of water from the three major aquifers in the Jacksonville
area and the St. Johns River are given in table 2. Tables 2, 3, 4 and 5 list the U.S.
Public Health Service drinking water standards, suggested water quality for

Age Stroait c Uthology Water Bearing Properties
HP ':i:: Surficial sand aquifer- supplies small amounts of water to small
PI diameter screened wells.
SLimestone, shell, and sand aquifer-supplies small to moderate
S- .amounts of water to small dame
200- E rock" wells for rural domestic
SRelatively impermeable and lawn sprinkling supplies.
Sa confining beds
400- -


I I I \







I I Iwells.
2-z



I I I
SPrincipal source of water
1000 supplies for municipal
o I private utility and industrial :
" wells.

w 0 I /
W I I
I 0I /
{ 1400 0
/ / / / Note: The strafigrophic nomenclature-
Q / / / / in this renort conforms to


Figure 2. Generalized geologic section and the aquifers m te Jacksonville area.









TABLE 2. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF GROUND WATER AND SURFACE WATER IN THE JACKSONVILLE AREA
(Reults in parts per million except for color, pH and specific conductance)









Surficil Sand Aquifer
USGS o w




Suical Sad Aquifa


301922N0812634.1 Prrte
303535N0820034.1 Pnjat



300857N0813444.2 Privt
302136N0814255.2 Prirat
3013400814754.1 iriate
301117N0813749.2 Prrte


30203340813945.1 City ofJaduokson C-10
301831N0813935,1 City of Jaukoavl C-35
301335N0813526.1 Priate
301617N0814217.1 City ofJatkonmle
301529N0813803.1 Lak Wood Utilitie


09-21-66 2.3 1.6 1.9 2.0 .16 12 .3 8 0 .0
0607-46 4.9 .24 7.6 3.6 .20 6.1 3.6 12 0 .0

Limaneso Sand and Shell Aquifar


052045 29 2.0
05-2765 18 2.8
11-03-66 19 -
03-1945 43 .31



0805-65 21 .17
080645 22 .09
09-2646 20 .19
09-27-66 19 .19
09-27-66 21 .07


15 14 1.3 328 0 .0
12 13 1.1 236 0 38
16 .19 66 1.2 213 0 .8
16 15 6.1 204 0 4.0

Floridn Aquier

29 3.6 11 2.1 164 0 176
27 3.6 11 2.0 166 137
33 4.2- 12 2.7 152 0 180
22 2.7 I 2.4 148 0 81
31 4.5 12 2.5 156 0 176

St. Johns River at Main Street Brdp


25 .1 .1
12 .2 33


.2 .0
.3 0.0
J .1
1.4 .0



.8 .0
.6 .0
.9 .0
.9 .1
.8 .1


48 12 6 105 5.2 5
71 34 24 118 5.8 5


268 0
232 38
174 0
162 0



313 178
273 137
302 178
196 74
307 179


533 7.3
472 7.9
349 7.8
353 7.8



642 7.9
566 L.0
642 7.
440 7.7
675 7.5


032465.00 StLJohuRiveratJs 110346. 4.6 .04 27 10 .5 71 2.6 40 0 34 136 .3 .2 306 109 76 618 6.9 120
022465.00 SLJohnRi vradtJas 11-1646 2.5 .05 225 633 3.7 5520 200 109 0 1320 9720 9 11 17700 3170 3080 30000 7.1 60


80 73 40
31 73 15



26 74 92
S 72 80
5 71 60
5 73 -



3 80 1270
3 85 1280
6 77 625
5 78 729
8 85 1187



-66 -
- 69 -






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 58 9
TABLE 3. U. S. PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE DRINKING WATER STANDARDS

Characteristic Limit Not to Cause for Rejection
Be Exceeded

Physical
Color 15 units
Taste Unobjectionable
Threshold odor number 3
Turbidity 5 units
Chemical mg/1 mg/1
Alkyl benzene sulfonate 0.5
Arsenic 0.01 0.05
Barium 1.0
Cadmium
Chloride 250
Chromium hexavalentt) 0.05
Copper 1
Carbon chloroform extract* 0.2
Cyanide 0.01 0.2
Fluoridet 0.7-1.2 14.24
Iron 0.3 0.05
Lead
Manganese 0.05
Nitrate 45
Phenols 0.001
Selenium 0.01
Silver 0.05
Sulfate 250
Total dissolved solids 500
Zinc 5
*Organic contaminants.
tThe concentration of fluoride should be between 0.6 and 1.7 mg/l, depending on the listed
and average maximum daily air temperatures.
industrial water, suggested water quality for boiler feed water, and water-quality
characteristics and their significance.

SURFICIAL SAND AQUIFER
The surficial sand aquifer is between 10 and 20 feet thick in the western and
central part of the area and between 20 and 60 feet thick under the coastal ridge
and along the coastline. The aquifer is recharged by local rain water or water
from nearby streams and marshes that has percolated downward.
Water from this aquifer is characterized by its low dissolved solids content.
The hardness is generally less than 60 ppm as CaCO3 and the total
dissolved.solids content less than 100 ppm. This water may be somewhat
corrosive to well casings and plumbing fixtures due to its slightly acidic character
and high carbon dioxide content. In some areas this aquifer contains water with
more than 1.5 ppm of iron and is subject to contamination from septic tanks
and polluted surface drainage. Except for iron, water from unpolluted wells in
this aquifer usually meets the USPHS drinking water standards.








TABLE 4. SUGGESTED WATER-QUALITY TOLERANCES8
(Allowable limits in puts per million)


Tur-
bidity


Industry or use
Air conditioning
Baking
Brewing:
Light beer


Dark beer
Cannin.:


Legumes 10
General 10
Carbonated beverages 2
Confectionary
Cooling 50
Food: General 10
Ice 5
Laundering -
Plastics, clear uncolored 2
Parer and pulp.:
Groundwood 50
Kraft pulp 25
Soda and sulflte 15
High-grade light papers 5
Rayon (viscose):
Pulp production 5


Manufacture
Tanning
Textiles: General
Dyeing
Wool scouring
Cotton bandage


Hardness Iron
Color as CaCO3 as Fe


Man-

g so


Total Alkalinity Odor Hydrogen
Solids as CaCO3 Taste sulfide


- 0.S 0.5 low
10 10 .2c .2 low


Other requirements


No corrosiveness, slime formation
.2 P.


10 .1c .1 500 75 low .2 P. NaCI less than 275 ppm


(pH 6.5 7.0)
10 .1c .1 1,000 150 low .2 P. NaCI less than 275 ppm
(pH 7.0 or more)


25-75
10 250


50

50

180
100
100
50


.3
20 10-10
5 2
5 5-2
7
5


.2c
.2c
.2
.2c
.Sc
.2c
.2c
.2c
.02c
1.0c
.2c
.1c
.1c


low
low
850 50-100 low
100 low
low
low
200 -


1 P.
1 P.
.2 P. organic color plus oxygen
consumed less than 10 ppm
.2 P. pH above 7.0 for hard candy
5 No corrosiveness, slime formation
P.
P. SO2 less than 10 ppm


No grit, corrosiveness


5 8 .05c .03 100 total 50;
hydroxide 8
55 .0 .0 -
0 50-135 .2c .2 total 135;
hydroxide 8
0 .25 .25 -
0 .250 .25 200
0 1.0c 1.0 -
5 .2c .2 -


- A203 less than 8 ppm, SiO2 less
than 25 ppm, Cu less than 5 ppm
pH 7.8 to 8.3


low


Constant composition. Residual
alumina less than 0.5 ppm


aMoore, E. W., Progress report of the committee on quality tolerances of water for industrial uses: Jour. New England Water Works Assoc.,
vol. 54, p. 271. 1940
bp Indicates that potable water, conforming to U.S.P.H.S. standards, is necessary.
elLmit kgWen appitie to both iron alone and the sum of Iron and ma2ngUnese.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 58 11
TABLE 5. SUGGESTED WATER-QUALITY TOLERANCE FOR BOILER FEED WATER'
(Allowable limits in parts per million)
Pressure (psi)
0-150 150-250 250-400 Over 400

Turbidity 20 10 5 1
Color 80 40 5 2
Oxygen consumed 15 10 4 3
Dissolved oxygen2 1.4 .14 .0 .0
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) 5 3 0 0
Total hardness as CaCOa 80 40 10 2
Sulfate-carbonate ratio (A.S.M.E.)
(Na2S04 : Na2CO3) 1:1 2:1 3:1 3:1
Aluminum oxide (A2O03) 5 .5 .05 .01
Silica (Si02) 40 20 5 1
Bicarbonate (HC03)2 50 30 5 0
Carbonate (COa) 200 100 40 20
Hydroxide (OH) 50 40 30 15
Total solids 3,000-500 2,500-500 1,500-100 50
pH value (minimum) 8.0. 8.4 9.0 9.6
1Moore, E. W., Progress report of the committee on quality tolerances of water for
industrial uses: Jour. New England Water Works Assoc., vol. 54, p. 263, 1940.
2Limits applicable only to feed water entering boiler, not original water supply.
Except when odor in live steam would be objectionable.
4Depends on design of boiler.

LIMESTONE, SHELL AND SAND AQUIFER
The limestone, shell and sand aquifer occurs in most parts of the area at the
base of the Pliocene or upper Miocene deposits at between 50 and 150 feet
below the surface. At places, it is absent or not sufficiently thick to supply
usable quantities of water; however, in most of the area, it ranges from between
10 to 40 feet thick and will yield an average of 20 gpm (gallons per minute) and
as much as 80 gpm to small diameter wells.
The aquifer is hydraulically connected to the surficial sand aquifer and is
recharged locally by downward percolation of water from this aquifer. At places,
some recharge also may occur by upward leakage of water from the underlying
Floridan aquifer. The water level in cased wells completed in this aquifer is a few
feet below the surface in most of the area. In some low areas immediately
adjacent to the St. Johns River and its tributaries the water level is above land
surface.
Water from the limestone, shell and sand aquifer is classified as hard to very
hard (see hardness, table 6) and contains from 150 to 400 ppm of dissolved
solids. The water is slightly alkaline, and the principal dissolved constituents are
calcium and bicarbonate. The iron content is highly variable from place to place,
ranging from a few hundredths to more than 2.5 ppm. Wells in some areas,
particularly southwest and northwest of Jacksonville, contain trace amounts of
hydrogen sulfide, giving the water an odor characteristic of "rotten eggs."
Except for slightly high fluoride in two wells and iron and hydrogen sulfide in
localized areas, water from this aquifer meets USPHS standards for drinking






12 DIVISION OF GEOLOGY
TABLE 6. WATER-QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS AND THEIR EFFECTS

Constituent Source and/or solubility Effects

Silica (SiO2) Most abundant element in Causes scale in boiler and deposits
earth's crust resistant to on turbine blades.
solution.

Iron (Fe) Very abundant element, readily Stains laundry and porcelain, bad
precipitates as hydroxide. taste.

Manganese (Mn) Less abundant than iron, Stains laundry and porcelain, bad
present in lower concentrations. taste.

Calcium (Ca) Dissolved from most rock, espe-
cially limestone and dolomite. Causes hardness, forms boiler
scale, helps maintain good soil
Magnesium (Mg) Dissolved from rocks, industrial structure and permeability.
wastes.

Sodium (Na) Dissolved from rocks, industrial Injurious to soils and crops, and
wastes. certain physiological conditions in
man.

Potassium (K) Abundant, but not very soluble Causes foaming in boilers,
in rocks and soils. stimulates plankton growth.

Bicarbonate (HCO3) Abundant and soluble from Causes foaming in boilers and
Carbonate (CO3) limestone, dolomite, and soils, embrittlement of boiler steel.

Sulfate (SO4) Sedimentary rocks, mine water, Excess: cathartic, taste.
and industrial wastes.

Chloride (Cl) Rocks, soils, industrial wastes, Unpleasant taste, increases
sewage, brines, sea water, corrosiveness.

Fluoride (F) Not very abundant, sparingly Over 1.5 ppm causes mottling of
soluble, seldom found in children's teeth, 0.88 to 1.5 ppm
industrial wastes except as aids in preventing tooth decay.
spillage, some sewage.

Nitrate (NO3) Rocks, soil, sewage, industrial High indicates pollution, causes
waste, normal decomposition, methemaglobanemia in infants.
bacteria.

Hardness as CaC03 Excessive soap consumption, scale
in pipes interferes in industrial
processes.
up to 60 ppm soft
60 to 120 ppm moderately hard
120 to 200 ppm hard
over 200 ppm very hard






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 58 13
water and is suitable for most industrial uses; however, softening and removal of
iron and hydrogen sulfide would be necessary for some industrial purposes.
Most small domestic water supplies are obtained from wells completed in this
aquifer in areas not serviced by municipal or private water utilities. It also
supplies water to wells for lawn sprinkling and for some industrial purposes such
as cooling condensers in water exchange units and for boiler make-up water.
FLORIDAN AQUIFER
The Floridan aquifer is the principal source of potable water supplies in the
Jacksonville area; accordingly, it has been studied in detail during this
investigation. The hydrologic and geologic characteristics of the aquifer are
described in detail in other reports (Leve and Goolsby, 1966) (Leve, 1966).
The Floridan aquifer extends throughout all of peninsular Florida and parts of
Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama. In the Jacksonville area, it is comprised
of limestone and dolomite formations of Eocene and Paleocene age. Water is
obtained from a series of relatively permeable zones that are separated by
relatively impermeable zones within the aquifer. The top of the aquifer in the
Jacksonville area is between 300 to 600 feet below sea level. Overlying beds of
relatively impermeable silty clay, marl and dolomite confine the water under
artesian pressure within the aquifer.
Only one deep test well in the area has completely penetrated the aquifer. In this
well the aquifer is about 1,600 feet thick, extending from about 500 feet to
2,100 feet below the surface. Within this interval, there are four separate fresh
water producing zones. Three of these zones are above 1,400 feet below land
surface and are the source of water for most of the deep wells in the area. The
fourth zone is between 1,900 and 2,050 feet below land surface and has only
been penetrated by the test well. Below 2,100 feet, the well penetrated relatively
impermeable limestone and gypsum beds containing highly mineralized water.
The aquifer is recharged by rainfall and by downward infiltration of water
from surface lakes and streams primarily in areas where it is exposed at the
surface or where the overlying confining beds are relatively thin or are breached
by sinkholes. Most of the recharge to the aquifer in northeast Florida occurs in
an area about 30 to 60 miles southwest of Jacksonville. Water moves laterally
away from the recharge area through the aquifer toward Jacksonville and other
areas in northeast Florida where it is discharged by springs, upward leakage
through the overlying confining beds and by wells.
Figure 3 is a map of Florida showing the generalized piezometric surface of
the Floridan aquifer. The piezometric surface is an imaginary surface of the
artesian pressure head in the aquifer as measured in tightly cased wells
completed in the aquifer. The relatively high piezometric surface in western
SPutnam and Clay counties and eastern Alachua and Bradford counties indicates
Sthe recharge area for the aquifer in northeast Florida, and the depression of the
piezometric surface within the 40-foot contour line in the vicinity of
Jacksonville indicates the effect of numerous discharging wells on the artesian
pressure.





DIVISION OF GEOLOGY


Figure 3. Map of Florida showing the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in feet
above sea level, July 1961.

The variability in quality of water from this aquifer is illustrated in figure 4.
This figure shows the hardness of water from wells in the greater Jacksonville
area. Wells west of the St. Johns River and south of Ortega River entrance yield
the best water. This water has a hardness contentsCas CaCO of 200 ppm or less.
Elsewhere in the county, the hardness ranges from 200 ppm to about 400 ppim.
The hardest water is produced from wells in southeastern Duval County and on








-W13"R4 2E50' R2E45 R6 40' R6 R2E35' R7 R2E30' 25' 81*22'30"
3c', ri d 30- 30'








17 AIAX, I
EXPLANATION 25 Z
T IS P

3w-- Line of equc! hardness c
(as CcCO3) in ffilligramr Per
ilte, of ,t, the Floridan Z, "


0 QI



r"A




IS' ~95 ~

25 JACKSONVILLE





ATLANTIL

)3- EP7 N
--- o ~--= cl--T~;7//T77~~ L~YYI VuBEACH




BEACH
T 2S





o ~00 ~ / DUIAl-NT
1-F \ Ti JOHNS UY



1500




I~o T. 3S


T.35OUVA COUNTY T .4S
T 4S It`







100 3 ILES ;~

0 1 2

30*07'30" 24 R25E I-L30*07'30..
91*5",3c"` R27E P29E R 29E R 29E 61W, V,"'


Figure 4. Map showing the hardness of water from the Floridan aquifer in the Jacksonville
area.






25 81t2230"
I i 30*30'


DUVAL COUNTY
CLAY COUNTY


An4D


0 I 2 3 MOLES
I-l I I


;24E R25E


Figure 5. Map of the Jacksonville area showing the location of the municipal, privately or
corporately owned utitilies, and military water systems and the major public supply wells.


EXPLANATION
S Public woter supply wtel.
. Municipal ater utility.
SPnvttely or corporately owned water
uhlity. Nuntb coresptond to
n r an table 10.
Wi Mtlilay atif system.


ST. JOHNS COUNTY


86122'30"


SR 4E R25E 50'


iC^f ---- ^ --[


\ I
u'-^





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 58


Ft. George Island. It is interesting to note that wells northeast of Jacksonville
yield slightly softer water than wells in many other parts of the area.
Water from only 3 of more than 60 wells sampled in Duval County exceeded
the USPHS drinking water standards for total dissolved solids. Water from one of
these wells also exceeded the recommended limit for sulfate. Two of these wells
were in extreme southeastern Duval County; the third was on Ft. George Island.
All wells had objectionable taste and odor due to hydrogen sulfide. The
hydrogen sulfide concentration ranges from 1.0 to 3.0 ppm. Fluoride is present
in concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 0.9 ppm. This is very near the optimum
concentration of 0.8 ppm recommended by the USPHS (1962) for similar
climatic areas. The dissolved iron content is less than 0.3 ppm.
Water from this aquifer used for public supplies is treated by aeration to
remove hydrogen sulfide, then chlorinated.
The suitability of water from the Floridan aquifer for industry depends on the
intended use. In some industrial uses, softening and removal of hydrogen sulfide
would be necessary. This water would also require treatment for use as boiler
feed water.
WATER PRODUCTION AND USE
Before 1884 water supplies in the Jacksonville area were obtained from
surface streams and from a few wells drilled into the surficial sand aquifer and
the limestone, shell and sand aquifer. In 1884 the city of Jacksonville drilled two
wells in the Floridan aquifer and obtained fresh artesian water for public
supplies. At present, all major water supplies in the area are obtained from wells
drilled into the Floridan aquifer. Numerous smaller water supplies are also
obtained from wells drilled into the limestone, shell and sand aquifer.

PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES
There are three categories of public water supply systems in the Jacksonville
area: municipally owned water utilities, privately or corporately owned water
utilities, and military water systems. All three furnish water for residential,
commercial, and industrial use. Figure 5 shows the distribution of the municipal,
privately or corporately owned, and military water systems in the area and the
location of the major public supply wells. As shown, Jacksonville, Jacksonville
Beach, Neptune Beach, and Atlantic Beach each have municipally owned water
systems that furnish water to customers both within the municipal limits and in
some adjacent areas outside of the municipal limits. Most of the areas outside of
the municipalities obtain water from more than 150 privately owned water
utilities. A number of the privately owned utilities supply water to only a few
private residences or commercial establishments and are not included on figure
5.

JACKSONVILLE MUNICIPAL SUPPLY
The largest water utility in the area is owned and operated by the city of
Jacksonville. Figure 6 shows the wells and the distribution system of the





DIVISION OF GEOLOGY


Figure 6. Map showing the City of Jacksonville municipal water-distribution system and the
municipal water wells.

Jacksonville municipal utility. As shown in the figure, water is presently
obtained from 47 wells which are located in seven well fields throughout the
city. At each well field the water is pumped from the wells into ground storage
reservoirs and then into the various distributionhnes. The pumping and storage
facilities at each of the well fields is shown in table 7.





TABLE 7. PUMPING AND STORAGE FACILITIES OF THE JACKSONVILLE MUNICIPAL WATER UTILITY, 1966.

Facilities Main Street McDuff Fairfax Lakeshore Norwood Hendricks River Oaks Total (rounded)


WELLS


, .~

i:

:



r .


STATION LOADS
Max. pumping
rate (MGD)'

Peak pumping
rate (MGD)


Number
Pumping Capacity
-GPM
- GD

RESERVOIRS
Ground storage
capacity (MG)

Elevated storage
capacity (MG)


14,900
21.5




6


8,250
11.9




2.5


17,450
25.13




4



None




14.5



18.75


14.5


11,400
16.42




2.5



None


9.7 11.26


6,750
9.72


5,000
7.2


1.5 0.79



1.5 None


8.64


18.75 17.2 13.0 8.64


3.75


7,550
10.87




1.76



1.0




8.88


7.12 10.88 94


47

71,000
103




19 Z)



3.5 .




71 0


1.0 None







DIVISION OF GEOLOGY
TABLE 8. WATER WITHDRAWALS BY THE JACKSONVILLE MUNICIPAL
WATER UTILITY IN 1966.


Metered water connections


Inside city
Single commercial, industrial & business
Multi-commercial, industrial & business
Monthly services:
Commercial, industrial, residential & municipal
Single family residential
Multi-family residential
Automatic sprinkler service
Charitable institutions
Public & parochial
Municipal
TOTAL INSIDE CITY
Outside city
Single commercial, industrial & business
Multi-commercial, industrial & business
Monthly services:
Commercial, industrial, residential & municipal
Single family residential
Multi-family water service
Automatic sprinkler service
Charitable institutions
Public & parochial
TOTAL OUTSIDE CITY
TOTAL TO METERED ACCOUNTS
TOTAL UNMETERED WITHDRAWALS
TOTAL WITHDRAWALS


Total
yearly
Number withdrawals
(mg)


Daily
average
withdrawals
(mg)


4,090 2,229.8 6.100
524 216.8 .600


115
35,847
7,950
414
49
118
470
49,577


1,737.3
2,749.3
1,251.4
7.4
322.7
100.4
474.2
9,089.3


4.800
7.500
3.400
.020
.880
.280
1.300
24.880


713 307.8 .840
94 24.6 .070


3
13,366
457
50
6
19
14,708
64,285


.5
1,171.6
67.8
2.9
11.8
34.3
1,621.3
10,710.6
2,447.3
13,157.9


.001
3.200
.190
.010
.030
.100
4.441
29.321
6.700
36.000


As shown in the table, the total maximum pumping capacity from the wells is
101.45 mgd, and the storage capacity of the ground reservoirs is 19.05 mg. An
additional 3.5 mg of water is stored in five elevated storage tanks in the
distribution system (figure 6).
The amount of water produced by the Jacksonville municipal utility in 1966
is shown in table 8. As shown, the City produced a total of about 13.158 billions
of gallons or an average of about 36.0 mgd. It supplied water to 64,285 metered
water connections both inside and outside of the city, including 49,213
single-family residences.
The water is treated at each distribution station before and after it enters the
distribution lines. It is aerated to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) gas before it
enters the ground storage reservoir. After the water enters the distribution lines,







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 58 19
it is chlorinated to eliminate any bacteriological contamination from the
aeration tanks and the ground storage reservoirs.
OTHER MUNICIPAL SUPPLIES
Jacksonville Beach, Neptune Beach, and Atlantic Beach have separate
municipally owned and operated water supply systems in the area (figure 5).
Each of these municipalities produce water from two or more wells completed in
the Floridan aquifer. The water is pumped from these wells into ground storage
reservoirs and elevated storage tanks and then into distribution systems. All the
water is aerated and chlorinated and at Jacksonville Beach the water is softened
by zeolite before it enters the distribution system.
Table 9 shows the number of wells and water storage capacity at each of these
municipalities and number of metered connections and average daily pumpage in
1966. As shown in the table, in 1966 they produced a total average of about 3.0
mgd to supply 6,350 domestic, commercial, and industrial metered connections.
The estimated total population supplied by these municipal utilities was about
21,000 during that year.

TABLE 9. MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLY FACILITIES, NUMBER OF METERED
CONNECTIONS AND AVERAGE DAILY PUMPAGE AT JACKSONVILLE BEACH,
NEPTUNE BEACH, AND ATLANTIC BEACH IN 1966.

Number of Average
Number Ground Storage Elevated storage metered water daily
Municipality of wells capacity capacity connections pumpage
(mg) (mg) (mg)
Jacksonville Beach 6 1.4 0.45 3,700 1.9
Neptune Beach 3 .2 .3 1,250 .5
Atlantic Beach 2 .2 .1 1,400 .6
TOTAL 11 1.8 0.85 6,350 3.0


PRIVATELY OR CORPORATELY OWNED WATER UTILITIES
Many urban areas surrounding Jacksonville are supplied water by privately or
corporately owned utilities.
There are probably more than 150 nonmunicipal water-supply systems in the
area, but many supply water to only a few domestic or commercial services.
They each obtain water from one or more wells drilled into the Floridan aquifer.
All of the larger water utilities are operated according to Florida State Board of
Health standards; the water is treated before it is pumped into the distribution
systems, and there are adequate ground or elevated storage facilities. Some of
the smaller water systems have no water treatment or storage facilities, and the
water is pumped directly from the well into the distribution systems.





20 DIVISION OF GEOLOGY
Each of the nonmunicipal utilities supply water within specific areas such as
suburban housing developments, apartment houses, trailer parks, and shopping
centers. The larger utilities provide both water supplies and sewage disposal
service to these areas.
Table 10 lists the 89 largest, privately or corporately owned water utilities in
the Jacksonville area. The table also lists the number of production wells that
supply each utility, the approximate number of connections, and the estimated
average daily pumpage of each utility in 1966. The utilities that supply more
than 40 services (except apartments and trailer parks) and the production wells
that supply these utilities are located on the map in figure 5.
About 41,500 homes, commercial and industrial establishments are supplied
with water by the 89 nonmunicipal water utilities shown in table 10. The largest
utility supplies water to about 3,600 connections. Eleven utilities each supply
water to more than 1,000 connections, 52 utilities each supply water to between
about 100 and 1,000 connections, and 26 utilities each supply water to less than
100 connections. At least 60 other smaller water supply systems in the area, not
listed in the table, each supply water to a few homes or commercial
establishments.
The estimated average daily pumpage of the utilities listed on table 10 ranges
from about 0.002 to 4.0 mgd, and the total average daily pumpage is about 21.5
mgd. If all of the smaller water systems not listed on the table were included, it
is estimated that the total average daily pumpage from nonmunicipal water
utilities in the area would be about 22 mgd.

MILITARY WATER SYSTEMS
Two large naval bases in the area, U.S. Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, and
U.S. Naval Station, Mayport, each withdraw and distribute water for domestic,
cooling, irrigation, and various other uses. Both naval stations obtain water from
wells drilled into the Floridan aquifer. The water is treated and distributed in a
manner similar to that supplied by the municipal and large nonmunicipal utilities
in the area. It is pumped from the wells into aeration tanks and ground or
elevated storage reservoirs, and it is then chlorinated and pumped into the
various distribution lines. The location of these water systems and the
production wells that supply each system are shown on the map in figure 5.
The number of wells, water storage capacity, average daily pumpage, and
percentage use of water at each naval station in 1966 is listed in table 11. As
shown in the table, in 1966 the Naval Air Station at Jacksonville withdrew about
3.5 mgd from 6 wells in the Floridan aquifer, and the Naval Station at Mayport
withdrew about 2.0 mgd from 2 wells. About 40 to 50 percent of the water was
used for domestic supplies, 30 percent was used for cooling, 20 percent was used
for maintenance and repair, boiler feed, washing equipment, supplying ships, and
various other uses on the stations.
A number of wells at each naval station are not included in table 11 and are
not located in figure 5 because they are not part of the water systems; however,







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 58 2

TABLE 10. MAJOR NON-MUNICIPAL WATER UTILITIES
IN THE JACKSONVILLE AREA IN 1966.
Approximate Estimated daily
No. on Name or area No. of no. of average pumpage
figure 5 served wells connections (mgd)

1 Alderman Park 1 586 .274
2 Arlington Community 4 2,000 1.200
3 Arlington Hills 2 2,000 1.500
4 Arlington Manor 2 605 .146
5 Arlingwood 2 790 .175

6 Beachhaven 1 75 .080
7 Beechwood 1 165 .037
8 Beacon Hills & Harbor 1 200 .075
9 Beaucleric Gardens 1 82 .017
10 Brackridge 1 160 .070

11 Brookview (Arlington East) 1 800 .400
12 Cedar Forest 1 77 .015
13 Cedar Hills 3 3,600 4.000
15 Cedar Shores 1 175 .043

16 Center Park 1 150 .150
17 Clifton (Arlington Bluff) 1 212 .060
18 Edenfield Terrace 1 71 .016
19 Fleetwood 1 95 .034
20 Floradale 1 243 .090

21 Forrest Brook 1 130 .040
22 Ft. Carolyn Club Estates 1 570 .250
23 Glenlea Annex 1 44 .010
24 Greenfield Manor 1 120 .040
25 Grove Park 1 150 .048

26 Harbor View 1 443 .113
27 Highlands 2 1,660 1.000
28 Holiday Hills 1 500 .800
29 Holly Oaks Forrest 1 234 .080
30 Hyde Grove Acres 1 183 .070

31 Killarney Shores 1 70 .030
32 Lake Forrest 1 752 .200
33 Lake Lucina & St. Johns Utilities 1 2,400 1.000
34 Lake Shore 1 450 .150
35 Lakewood 1 1,276 1.000

36 Leon Terrace 1 112 .022
37 Lovegrove Acres 1 124 .042
38 Lynwood 1 150 .050
39 Magnolia Gardens 1 750 .275
40 Mandarin Terrace 1 121 .040
41 Milmar Manor 1 100 .040
42 Normandy 1 590 .136
43 Normandy Hills 1 90 .040
44 Normandy Village 1 1,000 .500
75 Oceanway Manor 1 143 .046

45 Oak Harbor 1 320 .090
46 Oak Hill 1 520 .250
47 Oak Hills Manor 1 980 .750
48 Ortega Hills 1 450 .140
49 Pablo Keys 1 77 .022








22 DIVISION OF GEOLOGY

TABLE 10. CONTINUED

Approximate Estimated daily
No. on Name or area No. of no. of average pumpage
figure 5 served wells connections (mgd)


50 Queen Acres 1 275 .070
51 Ribault Heights 2 411 .100
73 Ribault Hills 1 186 .070
52 Ridgeland Gardens 1 130 .070
53 Riverview 1 200 .50

54 Rodgers Construction Company 1 569 .250
55 Roosevelt Gardens 1 786 .300
56 Sandalwood 1 408 .100
57 San Cleric Estates (Brierwood) 1 100 .040
58 San Jose 2 2,000 1.000

59 San Jose Shores 1 67 .030
60 San Mageo 1 610 .160
61 San Souci 1 1,354 .700
62 Santa Monica 2 1,100 .400
63 Sherwood Forest 1 1,600 .500

64 Southside Estates 3 2,080 1.100
65 Springdale 2 733 .153
66 Thompson's Riverview 1 240 .080
67 Tidewater 1 161 .042
68 University Park 1 315 .150

69 Venetia Terrace 1 230 .100
70 Washington Heights 1 200 .075
71 Westgate (Rolling Hills) 1 395 .110
72 Westwood 1 70 .030
74 Isle of Palms (N.) 1 123 .040

NOT PLOTTED ON FIGURE 5
Acadie 1 351 .010
Allenby Apartments 1 108 .030
Biscane Terrace 1 25 .010
Bishop Homes 2 25 .010
Bon Air 1 10 .003
Cedar River Forest 2 33 .008
Duclay 1 30 .010
Fairmont 1 10 .003
Julington Hills 1 12 .003
Loretto Springs 1 10 .002
Maybrook 1 102 .030
170
Morningside-on-St. Johns 1 25 .010
Ortega Shores 1 15 .003
Pickwick Park 1 35 .015
Southwood 1 12 .003
1 TOTALS (rounded) 100 42,000 21.
2 apartments
Homes
trailers






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 58 23

TABLE 11. WELLS, WATER STORAGE FACILITIES,
AVERAGE DAILY PUMPAGE AND USE OF WATER AT U.S. NAVAL STATIONS
IN THE JACKSONVILLE AREA IN 1966.

Station Number Storage Average Water use
of wells capacity daily (percent)
Ground Elevated (mg) Domestic Cooling Irrigation Other

Naval Air Station, Jacksonville
Water Plant No.l 3 1.3 .25 1.40
Water Plant No.2 1 .3 .25 1.15
Water Plant No.3 1 .3 .65
Hospital 1 .2 .25 .30

TOTAL 6 2.1 .75 3.50 50 30 10 10

Naval Station,
Mayport 2 .05 .25 2.00 40 30 10 20





they are used irregularly for auxiliary supplies, fire protection and for irrigation.
These wells yielded an estimated 0.2 to 0.4 mgd so that the total amount of
water withdrawn by the naval stations in the area in 1966 was about 6.0 mgd.

PRIVATE SUPPLIES
Many parts of the Jacksonville area are not served by any water utility (figure
5), and water supplies are obtained from privately owned wells. There are about
150,000 private dwellings in the Jacksonville area (Jacksonville-Duval Area
Planning Board, 1967), and about 100,000 of these are served by municipal or
nonmunicipal water utilities. About 50,000 homes in the area obtain all of their
domestic supplies from privately owned wells.
In areas served by municipal or nonmunicipal water utilities, many homes
have privately owned wells to supplement the supplies from the water utilities.
Estimates made from field observations, drillers' records, and records from the
City Health Department indicate that there are between 5,000 and 10,000 wells
at private dwellings served by water utilities.
Most of the privately owned domestic wells are completed in the limestone,
shell and sand aquifer; however, about 2,000 to 3,000 are completed in the
Floridan aquifer. Wells in both aquifers are generally less than 2 inches in
diameter, and the water is pumped from the wells into pressure tanks by small
capacity jet pumps. Most of these domestic supplies are not treated except
locally where the water in the limestone, shell and sand aquifer has a relatively
high iron content.






24 DIVISION OF GEOLOGY
The average yield of these small diameter domestic wells in the limestone,
shell, and sand aquifer is between 200 and 400 gpd for household use; however,
some of the wells completed in the Floridan aquifer yield more than 10,000 gpd,
particularly during the spring and summer months when they are used for lawn
sprinkling and swimming pools. It is estimated that between 55,000 and 65,000
private domestic wells in the Jacksonville area produce a total of between 10.0
and 25.0 mgd from the limestone, shell and sand aquifer and about 5.0 mgd
from the Floridan aquifer.

INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL SUPPLIES
Many industries and commercial buildings in the Jacksonville area obtain all
of their water supplies from municipal or privately or corporately owned water
utilities; however, others obtain all or a part of their supplies from their own
wells. A few of these wells tap the limestone, shell and sand aquifer but most tap
the Floridan aquifer.
Drillers' records and inventories of wells made by the city of Jacksonville and
the Geological Survey indicate that there are between 500 and 1,000 industrial
and commercial wells completed in the Floridan aquifer throughout the
Jacksonville area. Many of these are small diameter wells that supply limited
amounts of water for washing, toilets, drinking, and swimming pools to stores,
motels, fishing camps, gasoline stations, and other small commercial buildings.
Some of these wells supply relatively large amounts of water to industries and
large commercial buildings for processing, cooling and heating, washing
equipment and materials, and various other uses.
During this investigation, an inventory was made of 150 major industries and
large commercial buildings that have their own water wells. Of the 150 industries
and commercial establishments that were inventoried, 76 withdrew at least 0.1
mgd from their own wells. The remainder obtained most of their supplies from
municipal or nonmunicipal utilities and withdrew less than 0.1 mgd from their
own wells.
Table 12 lists the 76 inventoried industrial and commercial water systems in
the area that produce at least 0.1 mgd. The table also lists the number of wells
supplying each system, the use of water, and the estimated average daily
pumpage of each system in 1966. The location of the wells that supply each
industry and commercial building listed in the table are shown by corresponding
numbers on the map in figure 7.
The 76 industrial and commercial water systems listed in the table withdrew
about 62 mgd from 165 wells in the Floridan aquifer in 1966. Two paper
manufacturers pumped about 26 mgd for the processing of wood pulp. Fifty
various other industries withdrew about 26 mgd primarily for cooling,
processing, and washing equipment and materials. About 2.4 mgd was
withdrawn by cemeteries and golf courses in the area for irrigation; however,
there was considerable seasonal variation in the amount of water pumped.
Considerably more water was withdrawn during the relatively dry winter and






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 58 25
TABLE 12. MAJOR COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL WATER SYSTEMS
IN THE JACKSONVILLE AREA IN 1966.

Number Average daily
Name of Water pumpage in 1966
(No. on figure 7) wells use (mg)

MANUFACTURE OF PAPER
1. Alton Box Works 5 cooling-20%
process-75%
boiler feed-5% 7.00
2. St. Regis Paper Co. 7 cooling-30%
process-65%
boiler feed-5% 19.00
TOTAL 26.00
MANUFACTURE OF CHEMICALS, PAINTS, & FERTILIZERS
3. Allied Petro 1 cooling-85%
Products boiler feed &
other-15% .10
4. American Norit 1 process & boiler feed .12
5. Apperson Chemical 1 cooling & boiler feed .10
6. Armour Agricultural 1 cooling-30%
Chem. process-60%
boiler feed-5% .60
7. Glidden Co. 7 cooling-90%
process-8%
boiler feed-2% 5.70
8. Jones Chemical 1 cooling & process .15
9. Liquid Carbonic 3 cooling & process 1.50
10. Nat. Cylinder Gas 1 cooling & other .40
11. Nelio Chemical 2 cooling-90%
(Union Bag-Camp) boiler feed-5%
other-5% 2.00
12. Reichold Chemical 1 cooling & process .30
13. Wilson & Toomer 3 cooling-50%
process-48%
boiler feed-2% 1.00
TOTAL 11.97
WIRE & METAL PRODUCTS
14. Buffalo Tank 1 cooling & process .30
15. C. I. Capps Co. 1 cooling .20
16. Container Wire Prod. 1 cooling & process .20
17. Fla. Machine & Foundry 1 cooling & process .30
18. Fla. Wire & Cable 1 cooling & process .20
19. Ivy Steel & Wire 2 cooling & process .90
TOTAL 2.10
BUILDING MATERIALS & CEMENT MANUFACTURE
20. Capitol Concrete 4 process & washing equip. .10
21. Houdaille-Duval-Wright 2 process & washing equip. .10
22. McCormick Concrete 2 process & washing equip. .10
23. Moore Dry Kiln 1 process & boiler feed .10
24. Southern Materials 5 process & washing equip. .20
25. U.S. Gypsum 2 cooling-2%
process-98% 1.50
TOTAL 2.10







DIVISION OF GEOLOGY


TABLE 12. CONTINUED


Name
(No. on figure 7)

DAIRY PRODUCTS
26. Alpine Dairy
27. Berriers Ice Cream
28. Holly Hill Dairy

29. Meadowbrook Dairy
30. Perrets Dairy
31. Southern Dairy (Sealtest)
32. Skinners Dairy
33. Superior Dairy


Number
of
wells


1
1
2

1
3
1
3
2


FOOD PACKAGING & PROCESSING
34. Gold Merit Packing 1
Company
35. Jones Chambliss 1
Meat Packing Co.
36. Lewis Crabmeat Co. 1
37. Mullis Poultry Co. 1
38. Painter Poultry Co. 2


ICE MAKING & COLD STORAGE
39. All Seasons Ice & Fuel
40. Atlantic Co.
41. City Products Corp.
42. Duval Ice & Coal Co.
43. Jacksonville Ice
& Cold Storage
44. Patternson Cold Storage
45. Public Quick Freezing
& Cold Storage Co.

LAUNDRIES
46. Duval Laundry
47. Independent Laundry



MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIES
48. Jacksonville Shipyards
49. Jacksonville Terminal
50. King Edward Cigar
Company
51. Seaboard Airline
52. Wooten Fibre


Water
use


Average daily
pumpage in 1966
(mg)


cooling & washing
cooling & washing
cooling-40%
washing-60%
cooling & washing
cooling, washing & irrigation
cooling & washing
cooling, washing & irrigation
cooling & washing
TOTAL


cooling & washing

cooling & washing

washing
cooling & washing
cooling & washing
TOTAL

cooling & process
cooling & process
cooling & process
cooling & process
cooling


1 cooling
1 cooling

TOTAL

1 washing
1 washing
TOTAL


cooling & washing
cooling & washing
cooling & irrigation

washing & other
process
TOTAL


.10
.30

.50
.20
.70
.30
.60
.30
3.00


.10
.10
.80
1.50

.10
1.40
.50
.50
1.50

1.10

.70
5.80


.10
.20
1.00





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 58


Ft. George Island. It is interesting to note that wells northeast of Jacksonville
yield slightly softer water than wells in many other parts of the area.
Water from only 3 of more than 60 wells sampled in Duval County exceeded
the USPHS drinking water standards for total dissolved solids. Water from one of
these wells also exceeded the recommended limit for sulfate. Two of these wells
were in extreme southeastern Duval County; the third was on Ft. George Island.
All wells had objectionable taste and odor due to hydrogen sulfide. The
hydrogen sulfide concentration ranges from 1.0 to 3.0 ppm. Fluoride is present
in concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 0.9 ppm. This is very near the optimum
concentration of 0.8 ppm recommended by the USPHS (1962) for similar
climatic areas. The dissolved iron content is less than 0.3 ppm.
Water from this aquifer used for public supplies is treated by aeration to
remove hydrogen sulfide, then chlorinated.
The suitability of water from the Floridan aquifer for industry depends on the
intended use. In some industrial uses, softening and removal of hydrogen sulfide
would be necessary. This water would also require treatment for use as boiler
feed water.
WATER PRODUCTION AND USE
Before 1884 water supplies in the Jacksonville area were obtained from
surface streams and from a few wells drilled into the surficial sand aquifer and
the limestone, shell and sand aquifer. In 1884 the city of Jacksonville drilled two
wells in the Floridan aquifer and obtained fresh artesian water for public
supplies. At present, all major water supplies in the area are obtained from wells
drilled into the Floridan aquifer. Numerous smaller water supplies are also
obtained from wells drilled into the limestone, shell and sand aquifer.

PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES
There are three categories of public water supply systems in the Jacksonville
area: municipally owned water utilities, privately or corporately owned water
utilities, and military water systems. All three furnish water for residential,
commercial, and industrial use. Figure 5 shows the distribution of the municipal,
privately or corporately owned, and military water systems in the area and the
location of the major public supply wells. As shown, Jacksonville, Jacksonville
Beach, Neptune Beach, and Atlantic Beach each have municipally owned water
systems that furnish water to customers both within the municipal limits and in
some adjacent areas outside of the municipal limits. Most of the areas outside of
the municipalities obtain water from more than 150 privately owned water
utilities. A number of the privately owned utilities supply water to only a few
private residences or commercial establishments and are not included on figure
5.

JACKSONVILLE MUNICIPAL SUPPLY
The largest water utility in the area is owned and operated by the city of
Jacksonville. Figure 6 shows the wells and the distribution system of the







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 58
TABLE 12. CONTINUED


Name
(No. on figure 7)


Number
of
wells


CEMETERIES & GOLF COURSES
53. Beaucleric C. C.
54. Brentwood Golf Course
55. Deerwood C. C.
56. Evergreen Cemetary
57. Greenlawn Cemetary
58. Jacksonville Beach
Golf Course
59. Oaklawn Cemetary
60. Pine Tree Golf C.
61. San Jose C.C.
62. Timuquana C. C.

COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS
63. Ambassador Hotel
64. Blvd. Center Industrial
Park
65. Floridan Hotel
66. Food Fair & Fields Stores
67. Kings Dept. Store
68. May-Cohens Dept. Store
69. Mayflower Hotel
70. Murry Hill Barnet Bank
71. Prudential Bldg.
72. Seminole Hotel


PUBLIC FACILITIES & SCHOOL
73. Duval County Schools
74. Imeson Airport
75. Jacksonville
Elec. Gen. Sta.
76. Jacksonville
University

TOTAL WELLS


Water
use


irrigation & swimming pool
irrigation
irrigation & other
irrigation
irrigation
irrigation

irrigation
irrigation
irrigation & swimming pool
irrigation & other
TOTAL


1 cooling & other
7 cooling

1 cooling & other
4 cooling & other
1 cooling
1 cooling & other
1 cooling & other
1 cooling
1 cooling & irrigation
1 cooling & other
TOTAL


25 irrigation
2 irrigation, washing & other
6 boiler, irrigation,
other
2 irrigation, domestic,
swimming pool, & other
TOTAL
165 Total 76 inventoried indus
Total 75 indus not listed
Total (Estimate) other indus
not listed
TOTAL


Average daily
pumpage in 1966
(mg)


.20
.30
.20
.40
.20
.20

.20
.30
.20
.20
2.40

.20

.60
.30
1.50
.50
.10
.40
.20
.10
.40
4.30

.50
.30

.20

.30
1.30
62.00
5.00


5.00
72.00





28 DIVISION OF GEOLOGY
spring months than during the summer and fall months when there was an
abundance of rainfall. Ten commercial water systems withdrew about 4.3 mgd
primarily for air conditioning during the summer months, and various schools
and public facilities withdrew about 1.3 mgd for irrigation, boiler feed, and
various other uses.
Seventy-four other industries and commercial buildings that were inventoried
during this investigation each pumped less than 0.1 mgd from their own wells
and are not listed in table 12. These smaller water systems were either used
infrequently for auxiliary supplies or for fire protection or only pumped limited
amounts of water for air conditioners, lawn sprinkling, or toilet facilities. It is
estimated that these 74 smaller industrial and commercial water systems pumped
a total of about 5 mgd from wells in the Floridan aquifer.
Although most of the industrial and commercial water supplies in the
Jacksonville area are withdrawn by the 150 water systems that were inventoried
during this investigation, the hundreds of smaller water systems that were not
inventoried also withdraw some water from the Floridan aquifer. Most of these
smaller systems have wells that are less than three inches in diameter and can
withdraw a maximum of about 0.5 mgd; however, many of these wells are either
not in use or yield less than 0.01 mgd for small air-conditioning units, lawn
sprinkling, or toilet facilities. Assuming that there are 500 such wells in the area
yielding an average of about 0.01 mgd, then the total average daily pumpage
from these smaller industrial and commercial water systems would be about 5
mgd. This would probably be the minimum amount of water withdrawn because
some of these systems are probably withdrawing more than 0.01 mgd, and there
may be as many as 1,000 wells yielding water from the aquifer.
LAKES AND PONDS SUPPLIED BY WELLS AND
UNCONTROLLED FLOWING WELLS
Relatively large quantities of water are available from wells completed in the
Floridan aquifer at most locations in the Jacksonville area by gravity flow (Leve,
1966). One use of this readily available supply of fresh water from the Floridan
aquifer is to supplement water in various lakes and ponds in the area. Water
flowing from wells helps maintain a constant level of fresh water in these lakes
and ponds so that they may be utilized for watering stock, irrigation, mosquito
control, recreation, or improvement of real estate by their scenic value. The
wells are allowed to flow continuously in some of the lakes and ponds, and the
excess water is drained off through surface streams. In other lakes and ponds,
the wells are allowed to flow only during dry periods when the surface water
levels become excessively low.
Figure 7 shows the location of the major wells in the area that are utilized to
supplement surface lakes and ponds. The type and use of each lake and pond,
the number of wells and the approximate average daily flow from these supply
wells are listed in table 13. As listed in the table, 13 wells produce about 7 ngd
from the Floridan aquifer to supplement the water in various lakes and ponds in








'1


EXPLANATION

S7 Commercal or Industrial well.
Number correspond to numba r
on table 12.
0 Well suppn surface lake or pond.
Number corremonds to number
an table 13.
Electric generating station. Number
corresponds to number on otble
14.


6O*


7**


25' 8122'30"
----1 30*30


S1I .OHNS COUNTY


1I


)t.~Ae .LNln


SMILES
f


0 1 1


I .


\\


I
u'I ~p


I




I

I


. .. .. .. I .
4 "t 3


Figure 7. Map of Jacksonville area showing location of major industrial and commercial
wells, wells supplying lakes and ponds and electric generating stations.


.R






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 58
TABLE 13. LAKES AND PONDS IN THE JACKSONVILLE
AREA THAT ARE SUPPLIED WITH WATER FROM ARTESIAN WELLS IN 1966.


Number
Number on of
figure 7 wells


Type of
surface
lake or
pond


1. 1 small lake on
private farm
2. 1 small lake on
private farm
3. 2 about 8 moats
and lake at
City Zoo
4. 1 fountains and
small lake at
City Zoo
5. 1 small lake in
residential area
6. 1 Lake Lucina
7. 1 Lake San Jose
8. 1 fountain and
scenic gardens
at private home
9. 1 Spanish pond
at Ft. Caroline
Nat. Monument
10. 1 pond at
private farm
11. 1 lake at
Jacksonville
Beach
12. 1 Lake Casa Linda
at Naval Air
Station


Use


Approximate
average daily
pumpage or
flow from wells
(mg)


stock, irrigation

stock, irrigation

scenic, recreation


scenic, recreation


scenic, recreation

scenic, recreation
scenic, recreation
scenic


scenic, mosquito
control

stock, irrigation

scenic, irrigation,
mosquito control

scenic


TOTAL (rounded)


the Jacksonville area.
About 20 percent of the wells completed in the Floridan aquifer that were
inventoried during this study were abandoned or not properly maintained and
water from the aquifer was continuously flowing at the surface from the casing
or broken or faulty well fittings. There is no gainful use of this water, and it
either sinks into the surrounding soil or is drained off through surface streams.
The amount of water that flows from each of these wells varies from less than
10 gpm from 2-inch diameter wells with faulty valves that cannot be closed to
more than 300 gpm from 4- to 6-inch diameter wells that have no fittings to stop
the flow of water from the wells. The total amount of water flowing from all of






DIVISION OF GEOLOGY


the uncontrolled wells that were inventoried during this study is estimated to be
about 10 mgd. However, there are undoubtedly many more uncontrolled wells
that were not located during this investigation, and the total flow of water from
all of these wells may be as much as 15 mgd.

SURFACE WATER SUPPLIES
GENERATION OF ELECTRIC POWER
All electric power in the area is generated by steam-driven turbines. The steam
is derived from water from the Floridan aquifer that is carefully processed to
remove most of the mineral content. Water from the St. Johns River is used to
cool and condense the steam so that it can be reused. The cooling water is taken
directly from the river through large intake pipes and circulated through cooling
condensers and then discharged back into the river. The temperature of the
water that is discharged back into the river is between 80 and 100F. warmer than
the intake water. In some of the electric generating stations, a portion of the
pumped river water is also used to cool bearings in the various generating
machinery.
Three municipally owned and two privately owned electric generating stations
exist in the Jacksonville area. Table 14 lists the approximate electric generating
capacity and the average amount of surface water used for cooling by each of
these stations. As listed in the table, the five plants have a total electric
generating capacity of about 947,600 kw, and they use about 863 mgd from the
river for cooling of condensers. The location of each of these generating stations
is shown on figure 7.

TABLE 14. ELECTRIC GENERATING STATIONS IN THE JACKSONVILLE AREA
AND WATER USED FOR COLLING IN 1966.

Plant Amount of
Number on capacity cooling water
figure 7 Owner and location (kw) (mgd)


1. City of Jacksonville-Northside 275,600 216
(Began operation November 13, 1966)
2. City of Jacksonville-Kennedy 310,000 248
3. City of Jacksonville-Southside 320,000 317
4. St Regis Paper Company-Eastport 30,000 60
5. Alton Box Company 12,000 22
TOTAL 947,600 863

VARIATIONS IN THE WITHDRAWAL AND USE OF WATER
The amount of water that is withdrawn in the Jacksonville area is constantly
changing to meet the demands of the population and industry in the area.
Continuous records of pumpage of municipal water supply wells indicate hourly,
daily, weekly, and seasonal variations in the rate of withdrawal because of






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 58 31
variations in demand. For example, withdrawal of water from municipal wells is
greatest on weekdays and during the afternoon and evening hours when
domestic, commercial, and industrial water use is at a maximum. Withdrawal is
much less on weekends and during late evening and early morning hours when
domestic, commercial, and industrial use is at a minimum. However, these
hourly and daily variations are relatively small compared to seasonal variations
and long-term trends in the withdrawal and use of water in the area.
The use of water varies considerably because of seasonal changes in
temperature and rainfall. Much more water is used for lawn sprinkling, air
conditioning, swimming pools, and domestic consumption during warm, dry
periods than during cool, wet periods. Figure 8 shows the monthly and total
annual pumpage of water from the city of Jacksonville municipal wells, the
monthly and total annual precipitation and average monthly temperatures at
Jacksonville from 1962 to 1966. A comparison of the monthly pumpage and
temperature graphs on the figure shows that the withdrawal of water is much
greater during the relatively warm late spring and summer months than during
the relatively cool late fall and winter months. The highest monthly pumpage
was during May, 1962, and May, 1965, when the temperatures were high and the
rainfall was excessively low. The lowest monthly pumpage was during February,
1963, and February, 1964, when the average temperatures were low and the
rainfall was excessively high for these months. The difference between the
maximum and minimum monthly pumpage for each year shown on figure 8
ranged from 345 mg in 1966 to 840 mg in 1962.
A comparison of total annual rainfall and pumpage in figure 8 shows that
more water is produced during years of relatively low rainfall than during years
of relatively high rainfall. About 728 mg more water was pumped from
municipal wells in 1962 when the annual rainfall was only 43.9 inches than in
1964 when the annual rainfall was 65 inches, even though the 1964 potential
demand due to increased population and industrial growth was greater.
The average annual withdrawal of water in the Jacksonville area has
continuously increased over the past years to meet the demands created by
increased population and industrial growth. Figure 9 compares the volume of
water pumped from the Floridan aquifer by the city of Jacksonville municipal
utility from 1921 to 1966, the estimated total pumpage from the aquifer by all
of the municipal and nonmunicipal water utilities in the area from 1947 to
1966, and the population of Duval County from 1920 to 1966. The figure also
shows projections of future population and water withdrawal to 1980.
A comparison of the graphs in the figure show that withdrawal of water
generally increased in direct relation to the population. The withdrawal of water
by the city of Jacksonville municipal utility increased from 6.5 to 36 mgd during
the 45-year period of record, and the total withdrawal of water by all of the
municipal and non-municipal water utilities in the area increased from about 27
mgd to 60 mgd from 1947 to 1966.
The graphs show that the total withdrawals of water by all of the municipal





























2r
I


Figure 8. Graphs showing the total monthly production from Jacksonvillo municipal wells
and the total monthly temperature at JacksonvillU.













O ---- EXPLANATION $------600
o Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census '
0 Projections, University of Florida, Bureau of
70 Economic ond Business Research, ..,
Estimates, University of Florida, Bureau of '
Economic and Business Research. / '
-- Dashed where Inferred 0


3

50- -300






30-- 100


2C City of Jock onville / 00
P S Totol municipal \io

















Figure 9. Graphs showing past withdrawals and projections of future water withdrawals by
municipal and nonmunicipal water utilities in the Jacksonville area. W






DIVISION OF GEOLOGY


the uncontrolled wells that were inventoried during this study is estimated to be
about 10 mgd. However, there are undoubtedly many more uncontrolled wells
that were not located during this investigation, and the total flow of water from
all of these wells may be as much as 15 mgd.

SURFACE WATER SUPPLIES
GENERATION OF ELECTRIC POWER
All electric power in the area is generated by steam-driven turbines. The steam
is derived from water from the Floridan aquifer that is carefully processed to
remove most of the mineral content. Water from the St. Johns River is used to
cool and condense the steam so that it can be reused. The cooling water is taken
directly from the river through large intake pipes and circulated through cooling
condensers and then discharged back into the river. The temperature of the
water that is discharged back into the river is between 80 and 100F. warmer than
the intake water. In some of the electric generating stations, a portion of the
pumped river water is also used to cool bearings in the various generating
machinery.
Three municipally owned and two privately owned electric generating stations
exist in the Jacksonville area. Table 14 lists the approximate electric generating
capacity and the average amount of surface water used for cooling by each of
these stations. As listed in the table, the five plants have a total electric
generating capacity of about 947,600 kw, and they use about 863 mgd from the
river for cooling of condensers. The location of each of these generating stations
is shown on figure 7.

TABLE 14. ELECTRIC GENERATING STATIONS IN THE JACKSONVILLE AREA
AND WATER USED FOR COLLING IN 1966.

Plant Amount of
Number on capacity cooling water
figure 7 Owner and location (kw) (mgd)


1. City of Jacksonville-Northside 275,600 216
(Began operation November 13, 1966)
2. City of Jacksonville-Kennedy 310,000 248
3. City of Jacksonville-Southside 320,000 317
4. St Regis Paper Company-Eastport 30,000 60
5. Alton Box Company 12,000 22
TOTAL 947,600 863

VARIATIONS IN THE WITHDRAWAL AND USE OF WATER
The amount of water that is withdrawn in the Jacksonville area is constantly
changing to meet the demands of the population and industry in the area.
Continuous records of pumpage of municipal water supply wells indicate hourly,
daily, weekly, and seasonal variations in the rate of withdrawal because of






34 DIVISION OF GEOLOGY
and nonmunicipal water utilities has increased at a much faster rate than
withdrawal by the city of Jacksonville municipal water utility. This was caused
to some extent by slight declines in domestic and commercial water services with
the city; however, the principal reason was an increase in population and
commercial and industrial development in suburban areas which are primarily
served by nonmunicipal water utilities.
The increase in total pumpage of water by all of the numerous individual
domestic, industrial, and commercial water systems in the area is indicated by
the number of private wells drilled in the area each year. Records of drillers and
permits issued by the city of Jacksonville show that between 1,000 and 1,500
new wells were drilled each year between 1946 and 1966. Most of these were
small diameter wells drilled into the limestone, shell and sand aquifer to provide
relatively small quantities of water for domestic supplies. However, each year
between 100 and 150 wells are drilled into the limestone, shell and sand aquifer
and between 50 and 60 wells drilled into the Floridan aquifer to provide
relatively large quantities of water for new and expanding industries and
commercial establishments. The rate of increase in withdrawals by these
individual domestic, industrial, and commercial water systems over the past
years is probably similar to the rate of increase of withdrawal by the municipal
and nonmunicipal water utilities in the area.
FUTURE WATER PRODUCTION
According to estimates made by the University of Florida, Bureau of
Economic and Business Research (Beller, 1967; personal communication), there
will be about a 30-percent increase in the population in Duval County from
1966 to 1980. In addition, according to present trends, many of the industries in
the area will expand and new industries will move into the Jacksonville area. As
a result, there will be an increased demand for water from both municipal and
nonmunicipal water utilities and from military, private domestic, industrial and
commercial water systems. As a result, many of the existing wells will be
required to supply more water and new wells will be drilled for additional
supplies.
Projections of future water withdrawals of municipal and nonmunicipal water
utilities in the Jacksonville area to 1980 are shown in figure 9. As shown in the
figure, at the present rate of increase of pumpage, the amount of water that will
be pumped by the city of Jacksonville water utility in 1980 will be between 40
and 45 mgd, which is an increase of between 10 and 25 percent over the
pumpage in 1966. The total amount of water that will be pumped by all of the
municipal and nonmunicipal water utilities in the area in 1980 will be between
75 and 80 mgd, which is an increase of between 25 and 40 percent over
pumpage in 1966.
The projections in figure 9 show that the future water withdrawals of all of
the municipal and nonmunicipal water utilities in the area will increase at a
much faster rate than the city of Jacksonville municipal water utility. However,






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 58 35
the future withdrawals by the city municipal utility may vary considerably
depending upon any expansion of services in the future. For example, in 1967
the city municipal water utility served most of the area within the 1966
corporate limits of Jacksonville and most of the areas outside those corporate
limits were served by nonmunicipal utilities (figure 5). If the city municipal
water utility were expanded to supply water services to more areas that have
recently been annexed by the city (1967), the projected rate of future water
production by the city municipal water utility would be much higher than
shown in figure 9 and that of the other suppliers would be accordingly lower.
The rate of increase in future water withdrawals by private domestic and
commercial water systems will depend on the future expansion of municipal and
nonmunicipal water utilities. Many of the present private domestic and
commercial wells would be abandoned and fewer private wells would be drilled
in the future if municipal or nonmunicipal water utilities were expanded to
supply services in areas where all water supplies must presently be obtained from
private wells.
The rate of increase of pumpage by industrial water systems will depend
largely upon the number and types of industries that expand or move into the
Jacksonville area. Considerably more water will be withdrawn if large paper or
chemical manufacturing industries rather than other types of industries move
into the area.









INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 58 37
REFERENCES
Beller, R. E
1967 Projections of the population of Florida counties for July 1, 1970 and July 1,
1975: Bureau of Economic and Business Research, Univ. of Florida, Population
ser., Bull. 16.
Goolsby, D. A. (see Leve, G. W.)
Leve, G. W.
1966 Ground Water in Duval and Nassau Counties, Florida- Florio Geol. Survey Rept.
Inv. No. 43.
1966 (and Goolsby, D. A.) Drilling of Deep-Test-Monitor Well at Jacksonville: U. S.
GeoL Survey open-file report.
1967 (and Goolsby, D. A.) Test hole in an aquifer with many water-bearing zones at
Jacksonville, Florida: National Water Well Assmuation, Ground Water Journal,
V.5, no. 4.
1967 The Floridan Aquifer in Northeast Florida: National Water Well Association;
Ground Water Journal, V.6, no. 2.
U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare
1962 Public Health Service drinking water standards: U.S. Public Health Service Pub.
No. 956 (1963).










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