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 Title Page
 Abstract
 Contents
 General introduction
 Acknowledgments and history
 Physical features and location
 Results of investigation
 Method of evaluation
 References cited
 Appendix


FGS



Ceramic clay investigations in Alachua, Clay, and Putnam Counties, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 46 )
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 Material Information
Title: Ceramic clay investigations in Alachua, Clay, and Putnam Counties, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 46 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Information circular 46 )
Physical Description: v, 41 p. : illus., maps. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hickman, Robert C
Hamlin, Howard P ( Howard Phillips ), 1913-
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1964
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Clay -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Clay -- Testing   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Robert C. Hickman and Howard P. Hamlin.
General Note: "References cited": p. 18.
Funding: Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001692704
oclc - 01535000
notis - AJA4778
lccn - a 65000796
System ID: UF00001106:00001

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Abstract
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    General introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Acknowledgments and history
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Physical features and location
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Results of investigation
        Page 8
        Page 7
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Method of evaluation
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    References cited
        Page 18
    Appendix
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Copyright
            Main
Full Text






STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert O. Vernon, Director







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 46


CERAMIC CLAY INVESTIGATIONS
IN
ALACHUA, CLAY, AND PUTNAM COUNTIES, FLORIDA


By
Robert C. Hickman and Howard P. Hamlin




TALLAHASSEE
1964





-c401E


AGRI-
CM*lWRAk
OBRARY





































Completed manuscript received
March 4, 1964
Printed by the Florida Geological Survey
Tallahassee

ii
















ABSTRACT


An investigation was initiated and completed in the field of ceramic
clay materials, endeavoring to develop supplies of suitable clay re-
sources in that area studied. The investigation included locations
in Alachua, Clay, and Putnam counties, Florida. Holes were drilled
along highways with power augers. In Alachua County, 10 holes were
drilled. Of the samples tested, one sample (118) showed excellent bloat-
ing qualities. Drilling was not sufficient to determine overall quality
and extent of the ore body. The other samples were too sandy for potential
commercial use. Of the 59 holes drilled in Clay County, three samples
had bloating qualities (36, 42, 53), and four samples were suitable for
the manufacture of common brick (19, 22, 24, 33). Hole 53 was found
suitable also for sewer pipe and decorative brick. In Putnam County,
54 holes were drilled. None of the samples tested were suitable for
ceramic clay products.


-- II ~'IIP~'~


















CONTENTS


Page
Abstract .. ..... . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. iii
General introduction ..... . . . . ............. 1
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . 2
Acknowledgments .... ......................... 2
History . . . . . . . .. .. 2
Physical features and location . . . . 5
Results of investigation .................. 7
Description of deposits . . . 7 *
Alachua County .. . . 7. *
Clay County . . . ....................... 8
Putnam County . . . . .. ..... 10
Method of evaluation . . . ... .. . . 12
General testing procedures ...................... 12
Lightweight aggregate testing ........... ........ 14
Clay size ................. ..... ................. 16
Firing character ............................. 16
References cited . . . ... . . . ... 18
Appendix ..................................... 19
Drill hole logs ....................................... 21
Sample test results ............................... 31
A. S. T. M. specifications for clay products . . 41


ILLUSTRATIONS


Figure
1 Areas of clay investigation in Florida. . . 3
2 Drill hole locations, Gainesville area, Alachua
County, Florida ........................... 6
3 Drill hole locations, Black Creek area, Clay County,
Florida . . . . . . . 9
4 Drill hole locations, Palatka area, Putnam County,
Florida ................... .......... 11

Table
1 Criteria used in evaluating lightweight aggregate clays.. 15




















































































































































i'












CERAMIC CLAY INVESTIGATIONS


IN

ALACHUA, CLAY, AND PUTNAM COUNTIES, FLORIDA



By
Robert C. Hickman and Howard P. Hamlin2



GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Exploratory field work on the Florida clays by the U. S. Bureau of
Mines was done during April, May, and June 1958, in three areas in the
northeast portion of the state (fig. 1). The primary purpose of this work
was to obtain samples for testing the bloating and other ceramic qualities
of the clays. The clays were fired to determine their suitability for the
manufacture of lightweight aggregate brick, tile, hollow blocks and add-
itional structural products.

The drilling was done along highway rights-of-way, using a 4-inch
auger-type drill, with hole spacings of approximately Y mile. Most of
the roads along which the drilling was done was first investigated with
a hand auger. No full exposures of the clay were found in this pre-
liminary work. Old clay pits which were examined were overgrown with
vegetation and partially filled with slump and water. Estimates of the
thickness of the clay by people residing near the abandoned workings
varied too widely to have any factual value.


Supervising Mine Examination and Exploration Engineers, Bureau. of Mines,
Region V, Knoxville, Tenn.

2Supervising Ceramic Engineer, Bureau of Mines, Region V, Norris, Tenn.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


A 3-man crew consisted of a driller, helper, and a sampler. The
clay, being plastic in nature, adhered to the auger flights, and was re-
moved by hand for samples.

Samples were sent to the Norris Metallurgy Research Laboratory
for testing.

The results of the drilling along highway rights-of-way are not
conclusive as they give only the quality and thickness of the clay at a
particular drill site. Also, it should be kept in mind that many clays which
are noncommercial as they rest in the ground may be of definite com-
mercial concern following beneficiation or upgrading. For this reason
many drill logs and test results of noncommercial clay are included in
the appendix.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The U. S. Bureau of Mines wishes to express its appreciation to the
Florida State Road Department and the Commissioners of Alachua, Clay,
and Putnam counties for their kindness and cooperation in granting per-
mission to drill along the state and county highway rights-of-way. The
Florida Geological Survey edited the manuscript and provided basic data
on geology, obtained permission to drill, and published the report.

HISTORY

More than 50 abandoned brick plants, or former locations of plants,
may be found throughout Florida. Bell (1924) notes 17 brick and tile
plants in operation during the 1920's. Eleven of these plants were located
in West Florida, and the remainder in peninsular Florida. Within the area
tested by the Bureau of Mines in Clay County, four plants were formerly
operated. One plant, which is still standing, is located in the community
of Doctors Inlet. Two plants formerly operated in the vicinity of. Middle-
burg, and one plant at Russell. In Putnam County, two plants were form-
erly located within the area tested. One was the Utica Tile and Brick
Company at Rice Creek Station, and the other the old Herman Brown
Plant,situated on Rice Creek about 3 miles south of Rice Creek Station.


The brick industry in Florida has not attained notable success,
chiefly because of the limited sources of suitable raw material, as well
as several economic factors. Several plants produced first-grade brick,





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


A 3-man crew consisted of a driller, helper, and a sampler. The
clay, being plastic in nature, adhered to the auger flights, and was re-
moved by hand for samples.

Samples were sent to the Norris Metallurgy Research Laboratory
for testing.

The results of the drilling along highway rights-of-way are not
conclusive as they give only the quality and thickness of the clay at a
particular drill site. Also, it should be kept in mind that many clays which
are noncommercial as they rest in the ground may be of definite com-
mercial concern following beneficiation or upgrading. For this reason
many drill logs and test results of noncommercial clay are included in
the appendix.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The U. S. Bureau of Mines wishes to express its appreciation to the
Florida State Road Department and the Commissioners of Alachua, Clay,
and Putnam counties for their kindness and cooperation in granting per-
mission to drill along the state and county highway rights-of-way. The
Florida Geological Survey edited the manuscript and provided basic data
on geology, obtained permission to drill, and published the report.

HISTORY

More than 50 abandoned brick plants, or former locations of plants,
may be found throughout Florida. Bell (1924) notes 17 brick and tile
plants in operation during the 1920's. Eleven of these plants were located
in West Florida, and the remainder in peninsular Florida. Within the area
tested by the Bureau of Mines in Clay County, four plants were formerly
operated. One plant, which is still standing, is located in the community
of Doctors Inlet. Two plants formerly operated in the vicinity of. Middle-
burg, and one plant at Russell. In Putnam County, two plants were form-
erly located within the area tested. One was the Utica Tile and Brick
Company at Rice Creek Station, and the other the old Herman Brown
Plant,situated on Rice Creek about 3 miles south of Rice Creek Station.


The brick industry in Florida has not attained notable success,
chiefly because of the limited sources of suitable raw material, as well
as several economic factors. Several plants produced first-grade brick,






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 46


GEORGIA


N Q DVaa 40 Daytona Beach
De Land
19 301 441

50 Orlando Z
S Tampa Bartow

St. Petersburg 1 60
17

70

0 50 100 o Lake 441
Scale, miles be


MN iami
Note: Figures denote route numbers


Figure 1. Areas of clay investigation in Florida.


(







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


some of which were used in an extension of the Capitol building in Talla-
hassee. Brick made in West Florida was accepted by the Federal
architect for use in the city of Apalachicola post office building, Apala-
chicola, Florida.

The rapid increase in the population of Florida in the past decade
has stimulated the building trades immensely, creating a market for
lightweight aggregate and brick, especially throughout the peninsular
portion of the state. Multiple floor structures and other large buildings
use large quantities of brick. Low cost housing units use much concrete
block construction. Brick, concrete block, stone, and wood are used in
middle and higher priced homes.

The volume of building brick used annually in peninsular Florida
has been estimated by Greaves-Walker (1949) at 75 million. These
brick are all shipped in from plants located in the adjoining states.

The Taylor Brick and Tile Company is the only commercial producer
of brick in the state at present. The plant is located at Barth inEscambia
County, which is the extreme western county of Florida, bordering
Alabama. The State of Florida operates a small brick plant at the
Apalachee Correctional Institute in Gadsden County. The entire output
of this plant is used by the state government.

A small brick plant is currently under construction at Plant City,
Hillsborough County, Florida, and the Florida Brick Company is currently
producing a sand-lime brick near Havana, Gadsden County, Florida.

No estimates of lightweight aggregate markets in Florida have been
made in this study. The U. S. Bureau of Mines has been interested only
in the investigation of possible sources of suitable clay to encourage
establishment and expansion of the lightweight aggregate and structural
clay products industries.

The lightweight aggregate plant of the Florida Solite Company, a
subsidiary of the Southern Aggregates Company of Richmond, Virginia,
is the only operation of this kind in Florida. The plant is located at
Russell, Clay County, adjacent to the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad.

A test plant located in Polk County, near Bartow, sought to use the
slimes from the phosphate mining industry as a raw material. However,
this plant ceased operation in 1960.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 46


PHYSICAL FEATURES AND LOCATION

The area tested along State Highway 26 west of Gainesville in
Alachua County (fig. 2) is of rolling relief with numerous sinksdeveloped
in the limestone of the Hawthorn Formation. Most of the acreage is under
cultivation, chiefly as grazing land, and interspersed with relativelysmall
stands of slash pine. Hogtown Creek, flowing southward toward Lake
Kanapaha, is the principal stream. The surface water drains directly
into the sinks over most of the midwestern portion of Alachua County.

Gainesville, a city of 29,701 in 1960 is the county seat of Alachua
County. From Gainesville the most direct route to Jacksonville, 70
miles distant, is via State Highway 24 and U. S. Highways 301 and 90
(fig. 1). The Seaboard Air Line Railroad closely parallels these routes.
Gainesville is served by both the Atlantic Coast Line and the Seaboard
Air Line railroads (fig. 2).

The area of Clay County in which the investigations were made, is
drained by Black Creek and its tributaries, which flow in an easterly
direction to the St. Johns River (fig. 3). The land immediately adjacent
to Black Creek is mostly low and swampy. The land to the north and south
from Black Creek rises to elevations of 90 feet. Possibly 25 percent of the
area tested for clay is under cultivation in small truck farms, and 75
percent is swamp and slash pine stands. The communities of Doctors
Inlet and Middleburg are located to the north of Black Creek. Each of
these communities has a population of about 600. Russell, with a pop-
ulation of about 150, lies to the south of Black Creek and within the
area tested. This area lies within a radius of 25 miles from Jacksonville
(fig. 3). U. S. Highway 17 and State Highway 21 are the main connecting
roads to Jacksonville. Secondary State Highways 220, 224, and 209
traverse the area together with a network of unsurfaced country roads.
The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad serves the area.

The Palatka, Putnam County, area is of low relief. It is drained
by Rice Creek, and its tributaries which flow eastward into the St. Johns
River (fig. 4). Rice Creek Swamp and scattered smaller swamps cover
about 40 percent of the area investigated. Very little acreage is under
cultivation. Vegetation is primarily brush and slash pine.

The Palatka area is within 50 miles of Jacksonville (fig. 4). U. S.
Highway 17 is the main highway from Palatka to Jacksonville. State
Highways 100 and 309 traverse the area. The area is served by both the




































.'I'iur' '. Prill holi lo~i lions. (liini'svillt, IrIa A\lliwhuia. C'oMunLy, IfloridlL.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 46


Atlantic Coast Line Railroad and the Georgia Southern and Florida
Railroad.

The average annual rainfall of Alachua, Clay, and Putnam counties
is about 54 inches. The winters are mild. Killing frosts occur annually,
but no freezes occur which interfere with mining operations.

RESULTS OF INVESTIGATION

DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITS

In Alachua County, the surface deposits are chiefly sands and clays
of marine and non-marine origin of Pleistocene Age. These are underlain
by the Hawthorn formation of Miocene Age. The Hawthorn consists chiefly
of a sandy phosphatic limestone, dolomitic limestone, clay, sandy clay
and shell.

The clay deposits examined in Clay and Putnam counties lie adjacent
to and west of the St. Johns River. They are sediments of marine and
estuarine origin.

In Clay County, the sediments in the vicinity of Doctors Inlet,
Middleburg and Russell are in general of Pleistocene Age, underlain by
sediments of Miocene Age. There is a wide variation in the character
of both these sediments, which consist of sand, clayey sand, sandy
clay, clay marl, limestone and shell beds. The older materials reflect
a more marine environment of deposition than do the younger materials.
Thin beds of pebbles are present on the western edge of the area in the
vicinity of Middleburg. The water table is between 5 and 10 feet below
ground surface. The clays are usually red or brown above the water
table, and gray, green, blue, and black below the water table.

In Putnam County, the deposit examined is of Pleistocene Age, and
is made up of sand, clayey sand, sandy clay, and clay.

ALACHUA COUNTY

Drilling in Alachua County was confined to the right-of-way of
State Highway 26, west of Gainesville (fig. 2). Ten holes totaling 272
feet were drilled, starting with hole 114 located approximately 1-2 miles
west of the city limits, and ending with hole 123, which was drilled
4-Y2 miles farther west.

Clay measures were penetrated in every hole, with the exception of
hole 115 which was sand throughout the 30 feet drilled. The clay thick-
ness varied from 2 to 20 feet, under overburden which varied from 0 to 23






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


feet in thickness. Three of the 4 samples (holes 117, 122, and 123) sub-
mitted for testing contained an excessive amount of quartz sand. Only
one hole (118) showed commercial potential. This hole showed excellent
bloating qualities at 19000F. This hole passed through 2 feet of sand,
2 feet of soft limestone, 12 feet of dark buff clay, and bottomed in soft
limestone at 23 feet.

Preliminary work was done in the eastern part of the county by hand
auger examination of cuts and old abandoned clay pits. All exposures
found were extremely sandy. The material in the sides of the old pits of
the brick plant formerly operated at Campville contained an excessive
quartz sand percentage.

Drill logs for all 10 holes drilled and the detailed results of laboratory
tests made on four of the clay samples are given in the appendix.

CLAY COUNTY

Drilling was done both to the north and to the south of Black Creek.
(fig. 3).

Fifty-nine holes were drilled in Clay County totaling 1,738 feet.
Lithologies penetrated consisted of sand, clayey and limey sand, sandy
clay, clay, and limestone. Quartz pebbles, up to "pea-size", were found
in calcareous mud in the most westerly hole. Each sample represented
the entire thickness of the clay stratum present in each hole.

Twelve holes were drilled along State Highway 21. Samples from
holes 19, 22, and 24 (fig. 3) were suitable for the manufacture of common
brick. In the intermediate holes between holes 19 and 22, hole 20 was
drilled through 23 feet of clayey sand, and hole 21 encountered 28 feet of
sand. Between holes 22 and 24, hole 23 showed sand, sandy clay,
and clayey sand throughout its depth of 33 feet. In hole 3, which is also
between holes 22 and 24, there were 17 feet of sand overburden, 3 feet of
sandy blue-green clay, and 7 feet of blue-green clay.

Thirteen holes were drilled along State Highway 209 to the south of
Black Creek; and two holes were drilled along a county road running
northwest from Russell (fig. 3). The samples from hole 53 were found
favorable for the manufacture of sewer pipe and decorator brick and for
lightweight aggregate when fired between 20000 and 21000F.

Holes 50, 51, 52, and 53 are less than a mile to the south of the
Florida Solite Corporation plant site. Hole 50 encountered 12 feet of
green clay under 17 feet of sand and clayey sand overburden. Hole 51
passed through 16 feet of brown sand, 2 feet of green clay, and encountered







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 46


Atlantic Coast Line Railroad and the Georgia Southern and Florida
Railroad.

The average annual rainfall of Alachua, Clay, and Putnam counties
is about 54 inches. The winters are mild. Killing frosts occur annually,
but no freezes occur which interfere with mining operations.

RESULTS OF INVESTIGATION

DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITS

In Alachua County, the surface deposits are chiefly sands and clays
of marine and non-marine origin of Pleistocene Age. These are underlain
by the Hawthorn formation of Miocene Age. The Hawthorn consists chiefly
of a sandy phosphatic limestone, dolomitic limestone, clay, sandy clay
and shell.

The clay deposits examined in Clay and Putnam counties lie adjacent
to and west of the St. Johns River. They are sediments of marine and
estuarine origin.

In Clay County, the sediments in the vicinity of Doctors Inlet,
Middleburg and Russell are in general of Pleistocene Age, underlain by
sediments of Miocene Age. There is a wide variation in the character
of both these sediments, which consist of sand, clayey sand, sandy
clay, clay marl, limestone and shell beds. The older materials reflect
a more marine environment of deposition than do the younger materials.
Thin beds of pebbles are present on the western edge of the area in the
vicinity of Middleburg. The water table is between 5 and 10 feet below
ground surface. The clays are usually red or brown above the water
table, and gray, green, blue, and black below the water table.

In Putnam County, the deposit examined is of Pleistocene Age, and
is made up of sand, clayey sand, sandy clay, and clay.

ALACHUA COUNTY

Drilling in Alachua County was confined to the right-of-way of
State Highway 26, west of Gainesville (fig. 2). Ten holes totaling 272
feet were drilled, starting with hole 114 located approximately 1-2 miles
west of the city limits, and ending with hole 123, which was drilled
4-Y2 miles farther west.

Clay measures were penetrated in every hole, with the exception of
hole 115 which was sand throughout the 30 feet drilled. The clay thick-
ness varied from 2 to 20 feet, under overburden which varied from 0 to 23







R. 24 E. R. 25 E.
To Jacksonville /
3 24 19 20 21 22



26 25 30o 29 28 25 27
, -l. J=-- i I24! I ,


iL18 1 16 15 14
13 L 0
17 5
------ --- -
S23
23 I 24 19 20 21 1 22

Primary roads
SSecondary roads
0 Drill holes
24 Section numbers
1 0 1 2
Scale, miles






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


brown clay from 18 feet to 30 feet. Hole 52 penetrated 18 feet of green
clay under 12 feet of sand overburden. Hole 53 penetrated 2 feet of sand
overburden, a mottled brown-green clay from 2 feet to 11 feet, gray-green
sandy clay from 11 to 14 feet, and gray-green clay from 14 to 30 feet
where the hole was bottomed.

Fifteen holes were drilled along State Highway 220. Hole 33 may
be suited for the manufacture of common brick and hole 42 suited for the
manufacture of common brick and lightweight aggregate. Hole 33 pene-
trated a brown clay from the surface to a depth of 12 feet and a brown
and gray clayey sand from 12 to 30 feet. Hole 42 penetrated 3 feet of
black organic sand underlain by 7 feet of green sandy clay, which in
turn was underlain by 10 feet of green and gray clay containing shale
fragments.

Two holes were drilled along State Highway 224, but the clay was
too high in quartz sand for commercial use. These holes were located
about one-fourth mile from the pits of the abandoned brick plant at Doctors
Inlet.

Fifteen holes were drilled along the county network of roads. A
sample from hole 36 is suitable for the manufacture of lightweight aggre-
gate. The strength of the fired material is fair, and the bloating is good
at 2200F. Hole 36 passed through 3 feet of sand overburden, 17 feet of
brown and gray clay, and 10 feet of gray-blue clay.

Drill hole logs for all 59 holes drilled and the detailed results of
the laboratory tests made on twelve of the clay samples are listed in
the appendix.

PUTNAM COUNTY

The areas explored for clay in Putnam County lie north and west of
Palatka in Range 26-27 East, Township 8-9 South on the west side of
the St. Johns River (fig. 4). A total of 1,626 feet of hole was drilled
which represented 54 holes. All the clay recovered from the drill holes
was tested.

Eleven holes were drilled along State Highway 209, which closely
parallels the west bank of the St. Johns River (fig. 4). A clay formation
was encountered in holes 68, 69, 71, 72, and 80; but the clay stratum was
too thin and the overburden too thick to have any commercial significance.

Four holes were drilled along State Highway 216, a cut-off road
connecting U. S. Highway 17 with State Highway 100. The former Herjman
Brown Brick Plant is reported to have been situated in this general vicin-
ity, but the site was not located. None of the four holes drilled encountered
clay.




R.25E. -- R. 26E. R. 27 E.




-4 c
'I To Jacksonville 3 I / ~ --1"
Sj l/ 29 28 I




----- ----- ----- ----
I 31
I L .. .. .-. .- 7 9 1 -



I +
1, 1 I0 -32 -33 1 4 35 69

s.r"" [" le r ^' a'^ r-3 ii r !' y"" ~62 ------- t i--1 -

1f 5 I ^ 4 6 5 4 3 4




S---------------- -- --- i
S109 6 Ro4e 20S 1 8
3 1 15 2 14 67 75L 76 77 78 7 80 _1 1 0



I 8- 27 15 7 Drill7 hes
I,- t I





I 30 86.82 -- Section numbers
D 1 .24 1 p 1. 20 1 21. 2 ........ C



S8 Scale, milesGEND
1 6 1052


0 34.. 1 .. .
36 i o 35 _0
he Scale, miles I

0,, ,"" 5 03 4 1"e o i1 ~ ,


J--






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The drilling along State Highway 100 started approximately one half
mile west of the junction with U. S. Highway 17 and continued westward
to Woodburn, a distance of 5-2 miles. All 12 holes passed through sand
and clayey sand. None of the firing tests on these holes proved clay of
commercial purity.

Thirteen holes were drilled along State Highway 309. Of these,
three were south of the point where State Highway 309 crosses State
Highway 100 and 10 were north of its crossing. The three holes south
of State Highway 100 penetrated sand throughout their entire depths.
Hole 111, drilled to the north of State Highway 100, penetrated 7 feet of
clay beneath 10 feet of overburden, but the clay submitted for testing
was found too siliceous for commercial use. The other holes to the
north showed only sand and clayey sand of no value.

Drilling along U. S. Highway 17 started at the community of Bostwick
and ended 1 mile north of Palatka. Of the 14 holes completed, only hole
74 showed clay of appreciable thickness. This hole penetrated % foot of
black sand overburden, brown clay from Y to 5 feet, green clay from 5
to 13 feet, brown clay from 13 to 20 feet, and gray clayey sand from 20
to the bottom at 30 feet. This hole is located near the old clay pits of
the Utica Tile and Brick Company. The samples tested from this hole
were too siliceous for commercial use.

Preliminary work was done in the Lake George area in the southern
part of the county and around Interlachen and Grandin in the northwest
part of the county. The county operates "clay" pits in both of these
areas. These sediments are clayey sands with the sand content far too
high for use in the manufacture of structural clay products.

Drill logs for the 54 holes drilled in Putnam County and the detailed
results of the laboratory tests made on four of the clay samples are given
in the appendix.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

GENERAL TESTING PROCEDURES

The wide variety of ceramic products made by different processes,
together with the many non-ceramic uses, places clays and shales in a
class of major source materials. Aside from the basic physical proper-
ties and chemical compounds that clays must contain, the extent of clay
beneficiation and availability of materials for blending purposes must
be considered when evaluating clays for possible commercial utilization







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 46


in any particular locality or for any particular product. Many clays are
used just as they come from the deposit; others must be beneficiated
or refined to remove objectionable impurities. For each use the clay
must possess certain properties; and what is considered a critical pro-
perty in a clay for one product may be wholly unimportant in another.
To test each sample for all uses would be impractical and, fortunately,
unnecessary for preliminary appraisals. The testing is exploratory and
gives clay type, properties, and possible uses. Such preliminary evalua-
tions are valuable in that they indicate the potential use of the clay
and whether the material warrants further test work.

A 2-pound representative sample of the material as received is
dried at 2300F and ground so that 100 percent passes 20 mesh. One
hundred grams of the dried clay is mixed with water (measured) to form
a plastic mass. The working properties of the clay are noted, and small
test specimens (approximately 1-Y" x 2-"2 x 1/4") are fabricated using
a steel mold or die. The test specimens are marked for shrinkage, dried
at 1500F for 12 hours and at 2300F for an additional 12 hours. Six of
the dried specimens are placed in a laboratory kiln and the temperature
raised slowly to prevent disintegration when the mechanically and
chemically combined water is released. Approximately 3 hours are
required for the kiln to reach 18000F. Test specimens are removed from
the kiln at 18000, 20000, 21000, 22000, 23000, and 24000F, after a
15-minute "soak" at each indicated temperature. About 4 hours are
required to cover the range of 18000 to 24000F, and these temperatures
cover the range encountered in most ceramic firing and are adequate for
general appraisals.

The method described for making the test specimen is essentially
the "soft mud process" and, in comparison with the "stiff mud process"
normally used in commercial production, the quantity of water used for
achieving plasticity is higher. Firing shrinkages also are higher since
the clay is not de-aired, and the pressure used in forming is much less.

From the general testing procedure, the following data are accumu-
lated: workability, plasticity, pH and soluble salt determinations, water
of plasticity, drying and firing shrinkage, color (fired and unfired), percent
absorption, drying characteristics (warping), -(fired) apparel
absorption, drying characteristics (warping or cracking), (fired) apparent
specific gravity, hardness, etc.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


On the basis of these data, clays can be evaluated for the following
ceramic and non-ceramic uses:

Ceramic Non Ceramic

White ware Fillers for plastic
Structural products Paint, paper, rubber, etc.
Refractory products Abrasives
Artware or pottery Oil Clarifiers
Lightweight aggregate Foundry molds
Drill muds
Pigments

The various methods and procedures used in testing clays for these
uses are described ir detail by Klinefelter (1957). Additional information
on testing clays for ceramic uses is given by Calver (1961).

A. S. T. M. designations, specifications and tests related to structur-
al clay products are given in the appendix.

LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE TESTING

Lightweight aggregate can be produced from clays by either the rotary
kiln or sintering method. The properties of the clays determine the method
of processing. For the rotary kiln process, the clay should dry readily
without undue disintegration and show good expansion when heated
rapidly. For the sintering process, the clay should vitrify at about 2200F
with slight expansion, and the particles should have a slightly glazed
exterior.

The tests for bloating clays and shales are relatively simple and
consist of subjecting the material to heat treatments within the range of
commercial working temperatures. Five pounds of the clay are dried
overnight at 2300F, crushed with a roll crusher or jaw crusher (set at
j inch), and a screen analysis made of the crushed material. With a
laboratory kiln heated to 18000F, 20 grams of the clay (-% +4 inch size)
is placed on a refractory slab or boat, inserted in the kiln for 15 minutes,
and then removed. This process is repeated at 19000, 20000, 21000,
22000, 23000, 24000F, or until the clay becomes very sticky and begins
to melt.

The expanded aggregate is tested for weight, percent absorption,
and examined for general structure and appearance. During the firing
of the clay, the temperature at which sticking or melting occurs is noted.

Although the general testing procedure will give useful data in
appraising clays for lightweight aggregates, the final evaluation is based






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 46


on data obtained from quick-firing tests designated to approximate com-
mercial operating conditions. Table 1 gives the criteria for evaluating
lightweight aggregate clays, describing their unfired and fired properties
for both the rotary kiln and sintering processes.



TABLE 1. Criteria used in evaluating lightweight aggregate clays


Rotary kiln process


Sintering process


Unfired properties


Drying
characteristics



Dry strength




Crushing
characteristics


Fired properties

Firing range

Bloating range

Weight


Expansion


% Absorption


Dry readily and show
only slight disinte-
gration when bloating
test is made
Strength must be
sufficient for proper
sizing when crushed
for kiln feed
-8 mesh material should
not exceed 20%, see ad-
ditional discussion


1800-22000F

Minimum 1000F
2000 preferred
75-45 lb/ft3


Gradual weight
decrease through
bloating range
0-18.0
at best bloating temp.


Not critical
water used to pelletize
before firing


Not critical


Not critical
except where particles
tend to be thin and platy


Vitreous and glazed
between 2200-23000F



After clay is sintered
weight 75-45 lb/ft3
Slight


0-6.0


Color Light reds to It. grays
preferred although
color not too critical


Light red-gray pre-
ferred although color
not too critical


This must be determined
by concrete performance
test


Strength






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


CLAY SIZE

Size, shape, and thickness of the particles of the feed are of con-
siderable importance in rotary kiln processing because they influence
the behavior of the material as it passes through the kiln and the pro-
perties of the expanded aggregate. As a general rule, if the kiln feed
contains an excess of 10 percent 8 mesh particles, sticking will occur
because the "fines" will overfire and become viscous, since the heat
penetrates the smaller sizes much faster than it does the coarser material.
Excessive "fines" in soft clays are not a serious problem because they
can be removed by screening and stockpiled until they are moist enough
to compact sufficiently for reuse. The "fines" from harder materials
do not compact naturally, and they must often be discarded as waste
material- If the screen analysis of a sample shows excessive "fines"
(above 20 percent), a further study of the crushing characteristics should
be made to see if different crushing techniques will decrease the percent-
age of this fine material.

The influence of particle thickness on the expanding character-
istics of a bloating material can best be explained by the bloating process.
Where a particle expands under heat treatment, the exterior becomes
pyroplastic, or melted, enough to entrap the gases generated by the
decomposition of the various compounds on the interior. Thin particles
tend to heat all the way through, and the gas-producing compounds are
decomposed before the exterior becomes pyroplastic enough to entrap
the gases that produce the expansion.

While it is possible to establish the proper retention time required
to expand a given material by the preliminary testing procedure, a rotary-
kiln test is essential to show the effect of particle shape on the pro-
cessing characteristics.

The crushing characteristics of clays that are to be sintered are
not critical because the clay is mixed with coal or coke and pelletized
before processing.

FIRING CHARACTER

For rotary kiln processing, a long range is desirable between the
temperature at which the clay begins to expand and the sticking temper-
ature. Good bloating clays will have a bloating range of 1500F or more.
Clays with less than 1000F bloating range are not suitable for lightweight
aggregate if the rotary kiln method of production is to be used.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 46 17


The weights of the expanded aggregate at the various temperatures
are indicative of the uniformity of expansion. Good aggregate clays will
show a gradual decrease in weight as the temperature increases; and, as
a general rule, clays that show abrupt weight changes are not amenable
to the rotary-kiln method of processing.

The laboratory testing and evaluating of clays for lightweight aggre-
gate has proved to be of great value for rotary-kiln processing. The
tests for sintering properties are less accurate, and in most cases the
true evaluation can only be accomplished by making small-scale sintering
tests.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


REFERENCES CITED

A. S. T. M. Standards, American Society for Testing Materials, Part 3,
Philadelphia, Pa.

Bell, Olin G.
1924 A preliminary report on the clays of Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey 15th Ann. Rept.

Calver, James L.
1961 (and Hamlin, H. P. and Wood, R. S.) Analyses of clay,
shale, and related materials northern counties: Virginia
Division of Mineral Resources, Rept. 2.

Greaves-Walker, A. F.
1949 (and Turner, P. P., and Hagerman, R. S.) The development
of a structural clay product industry using Florida clays:
Florida Eng. and Ind. Exp. Station, Univ. of Florida,
Bull. 30.

Hagerman, R. S. (see Gretwes-Walker, A. F.)

Hamlin, H. P. (see Calver, James L.; Klinefelter, T. A.)

Klinefelter, T. A.
1957 (and Hamlin, H. P.) Syllabus of clay testing: U. S. Bureau
of Mines Bull. 565.

Turner, P. P. (see Greaves-Walker, A. F.)


Wood, R. S. (see Calver, James L.)














APPENDIX

DRILL HOLE LOGS

SAMPLE TEST RESULTS

A. S. T. M. SPECIFICATIONS FOR CLAY PRODUCTS










INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 46


DRILL HOLE LOGS

CLAY COUNTY

Hole No. Depth, feet Description
1 0- 3 Black organic sand
3-23 Gray clayey sand
23-30 Light brown clayey sand
2 0-10 Brownish gray clayey sand
10-13 Gray and brown clay, some sandy layers
13-17 Gray clay
3 0-17 Black organic sand
17-20 Sandy blue-green clay
20-27 Blue-green clay
4 0- 3 Brown sand
3- 7 Light brown clayey sand
7-10 Brown sandy clay
10-17 Blue-gray sandy clay
5 0- 3 Brown sand
3-10 Gray and brownish-red clayey sand
10-40 Gray clayey sand
6 0-10 Sandy clay
10-13 Blue-gray clay
13-17 Very soft limestone
7 0- 2 Black organic sand
2-23 Gray clay (soupy)
23-30 Sand
8 0- 3 Black organic sand
3-10 Sandy clay
10-16 Clayey sand
16-19 Light blue limey clay
19-20 Limestone

9 0-37 Sand
10 0- 7 Clayey sand
7-27 Clayey sand
27-30 Blue limey sandy clay
11 0- 3 Sand
3-11 Sandy clay
11-23 Gray clayey sand
23-30 Bluish-gray limey clay
12 0- 6 Sand
6-30 Clayey sand
13 0-17 Sand
17-24 Sandy clay
24-30 Grayish-blue limey clay
14 0- 3 Sand
3-10 Grayish-brown clay
10-17 Clayey sand
17-20 Limey clay to limestone






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


CLAY COUNTY


Hole No. Depth, feet
15 0- 1
1- 9
9-20
16 0-13
13-30
17 0-4
4-24
24-44
18 0- 7
7-33
19 0- 1
1-14
14-30
20 0-23
21 0-28
22 0- 3
3-13
13-21
21-30
23 0- 3
3- 7
7-16
16-33
24 0- 7
7-13
13-20
25 0-30
30-40
26 0- 2
2- 7
7-13
13-23
23-30
27 0-29
29-30
28 0- 5
5-10
10-13
13-27
27-30


Description
Sand
Gray-brown clay
Clayey sand with limestone chips
Sand
Calcaroous mud with quartz pebbles
Clayey sand
Soft yellow limey clay
Yellow and gray sand
Sand and sandy clay
Reddish brown olayoy sand
Brown sand
Brown clay
Gray sand
Clayey sand
Sand
Brown clay
Gray sandy clay
Gray olay
Gray sand
Sand
Sandy olay
Clayey sand
Sandy clay
Brown olay
Green clay with shell fragments
Gray sandy olay
Sand
Blue-groon olay
Sand
Brown clayey sand
Gray sand
Gray blue clayey sand
Blue sandy clay with shell fragments
Sand
Blue-gray sandy clay
Sand
Clayey sand
Sandy clay
Gray clay with shell fragments
Gray sandy olay







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 46


CLAY COUNTY


Hole No. Depth, feet
29 0-13
13-16
16-30
30 0- 3
8-20
20-21
21-30
31 0-30
32 0- 2
2- 7
7-10
10-16
16-24
24-30
33 0-12
12-30
34 0- 3
3- 5
5- 9
9-16
16-30
35 0- 1
1-10
10-27
36 0- 3
3-20
20-30
37 0-30
38 0- 2
2- 6
6-13
13-16
16-30
39 0- 7
7-12
12-28
28-30
40 0- 7
7-17
17-24
24-28
28-30


Description
Clayey sand
Gray clay
Gray clayey sand
Sand
Brown and gray clayoy sand
Gray clay
Gray clayey sand
Clayey sand
Sand
Brown sandy clay
Gray green clay
Gray sandy clay
Gray clay
Gray sand
Brown clay
Brown and gray clayey sand
Sand
Brown clay
Brown sandy clay
Clayey sand
Light brown sand


Brown sand
Brown clay
Gray brown clay with


shell fragments


Sand
Brown and gray clay
Gray-blue clay
Sand
Sand
Brown sandy clay
Gray clayey sand
Gray sandy clay
Gray clay
Sand
Brown clayey sand
Brown sand
Gray sandy clay
Brown sand
Brown sandy clay
Brown sand and sandy clay
Light gray clay
Brown-gray clayey sand






24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


CLAY COUNTY




Hole No. Depth, feet Description
41 0- 1 Sand
1-13 Brown and gray sandy clay
13-30 Brown sand
42 0- 3 Black organic sand
3-10 Green sandy clay
10-30 Green and gray clay with
shell fragments
43 0- 3 Road fill
3-17 Brown and blue-green clay
17-20 Brown sand
20-29 Blue-gray clay
29-30 Blue-gray sandy clay
44 0- 2 Brown sand
2-14 Reddish-brown clayey sand
14-29 Brown sand
45 0-17 Sand
17-18 Brown clay
18-30 Black clayey sand
46 0- 3 Black organic sand
3- 6 Brown clayey sand
6-30 Gray sand-shell fragments
23-30 feet
47 0- 3 Black organic sand
3- 7 Sand
7-14 Blue-green clay
14-30 Gray calcareous mud with shell
fragments
48 0- 7 Sand
7-12 Brown clayey sand
12-20 Gray clay
20-30 Dark gray clayey sand
49 0-11 Sand
11-30 Gray clayey sand
50 0- 3 Sand
3-17 Brown and gray clayey sand
17-29 Green clay
29-30 Gray sand
51 0-16 Brown sand
16-18 Green clay
18-30 Brown clay
52 0-12 Sand
12-30 Green clay







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 46


PUTNAM COUNTY




Hole No. Depth, feet Description
53 0- 2 Brown sand
2-11 Brown-green clay
11-14 Gray-green sandy clay
14-30 Gray-green clay
54 0- 3 Sand
3-16 Brown and gray sandy clay
16-20 Light brown clayey sand
20-30 Light brown sand
55 0-10 Sand
10-23 Light gray clayey sand
23-30 Dark green clay
56 0- 8 Buff sand
8-10 Gray sandy clay
10-19 Gray clay
19-30 Brown sand
57 0- 3 Sand
3-20 Brown sandy clay
20-30 Light brown clayey sand
58 0-30 Brown sand
59 0- 3 Sand
3- 4 Brownish yellow clay
4- 5 Brown clayey sand
5-17 Brown sand
17-30 Blue-gray clayey sand

PUTNAM COUNTY


Hole No. Depth, feet Description
60 0- 3 Gray mottled sand
3-13 Brown mottled sand
13-16 Gray sand (wet)
16-30 Black organic sand (mud)
61 0-23 Gray clayey sand
23-30 Gray sandy clay
62 0- 7 Black sand (organic)
7-20 Brown sand
20-30 Red sand
63 0- 3 Black sand (organic)
3-30 Brown sand






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


PUTNAM COUNTY



Hole No. Depth, feet Description
64 0- 3 Brown sand
3- 8 Buff sand
8-16 Black sand organico)
16-30 Red sand
65 0- 7 Buff sand
7-20 Brown sand (wet at 10')
20-30 Red sand
66 0- 7 Buff sand
7-20 Brown sand (wet)
20-30 Red sand
67 0- 3 Black sand (organic)
3- 7 Buff sand
7-23 Gray sand (wet)
23-30 Buff sand (wet)
68 0-10 Black sand (organic)
10-13 Brown clay
13-17 Light green clay
17-30 Gray marl with shells
69 0-10 Dark brown sand
10-20 Brown mottled clayey sand
20-29 Green marl with shells
29-30 Green clay
70 0-17 Brown sand (wet)
17-20 Gray sand
20-30 Gray clayey sand with shells
71 0- 6 Dark brown sand
6-17 Brown olayoy sand
17-20 Gray marl
20-22 Gray clay
22-30 Gray clayey sand with shells
72 0-17 Brown and buff sand
17-23 White sand
23-29 Dark brown olay
29-30 White sand
73 0-23 Gray, buff and brown sand
23-30 Gray olayey sand
74 0.0-0.5 Black sand (organic)
0.5-5 Brown olay
5-13 Green olay
13-20 Brown clay
20-30 Gray olayey sand






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 46


PUTNAM COUNTY


Hole No. Depth, feet Desoription
75 0-80 Brown sand
76 0-30 Brown sand
77 0-20 Gray and buff sand
20-23 Gray clayey sand
23-30 Gray sandy clay
78 0-23 Gray and brown sand
23-30 Gray sandy clay
79 0- 9 Gray, brown, and buff sand
9-27 Gray, clayey sand
27-30 Gray sandy clay
80 0-17 Brown sand
17-23 Light green clayey sand
23-30 Light green clay with shells
81 0-23 White, buff, brown sand
23-27 Dark gray clay
27-30 Dark gray sandy clay
82 0-30 Sand
83 0-30 Sand
84 0-17 Sand
17-27 Clayey sand
27-29 Black clayey muck (organic)
29-30 Brown sand
85 0-10 Sand
10-17 Light gray clayey sand
17-29 Brown sand
29-30 Black clayey muck with wood chips
86 0-30 Brown-light gray sand
87 0-30 White, brown, gray, and buff sand
88 0-80 Gray sand
89 0-30 Brown and gray sand
90 0-80 Gray, red, brown and tan sand
91 0-80 Gray sand
92 0-29 Gray and brown sand
29-30 Buff sand
93 0-30 Brown and gray sand
94 0-30 Brown, gray and white sand
95 0- 8 Black sand (organic)
3-17 Light brown clayey sand
17-23 Light gray clayey sand
23-30 Gray olayey sand






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


PUTNAM COUNTY

Hole No. nepth, feet Description
96 0-13 Brown and gray sandy clay
13-17 Gray clayey sand
17-27 Brown sand
27-30 White sand
97 0- 1 Yellow sand
1- 7 Brown mottled sandy clay
7-20 Gray clayey sand
20-30 Gray sand
98 0- 2 Gray sand
2- 3 Brown sandy clay
3-20 Brown clayey sand
20-29 Brown sand
29-30 Black clayey material (Peat?)
99 0- 7 Gray and brown sand
7-17 Green sandy clay
17-23 Gray clayey sand
23-29 Brown sand
29-30 Black clayey material (Peat?)

100 0- 5 Sand
5-12 Gray green sandy clay
12-20 Light gray clayey sand
20-30 Brown sand
101 0-20 Light gray clayey sand
20-30 White sand
102 0-20 Brown sand
20-30 White sand
103 0-30 Brown and gray sand
104 0-10 Brown and gray sand
10-30 Light brown and gray clayey sand
105 0- 3 Sand
3- 7 Brown sandy clay
7-23 Brown, gray, and buff clayey sand
25-30 Brown sand
106 0-33 Brown, buff, and gray sand
107 0-33 Gray and brown sand
108 0-30 Buff, orange, and white sand
109 0-30 Buff, gray, and brown sand
110 0-21 Sand
21-22 Clay
22-30 White sand






INFORMATION. CIRCULAR NO. 46


PUTNAM COUNTY


Hole No. Depth, feet Description
111 0-10 Gray sand
10-17 Gray clay
17-30 Gray mottled sand
112 0-30 Sand, black (organic) brown, gray
113 0-30 Buff, orange, and gray sand

ALACHUA COUNTY
114 0-23 Buff and brown sand
23-30 Sandy clay, brown and light green
115 0-30 Brown and buff sand
116 0-15 Brown and buff sand
15-30 Sandy clay, brown and light green
117 0- 7 Brown sand
7-23 Sandy clay, brown and dark buff
23-26 Soft limestone, buff
118 0- 2 Gray sand
2- 4 Soft limestone
4-16 Clay, dark buff
16-23 Soft limestone, light gray
119 0-13 Brown sand
13-23 Sandy clay, light green
120 0- 4 Brown and gray sand
4-10 Soft limestone, buff
10-30 Sandy clay, light green
121 0-17 Buff and gray sand
17-19 Clay, light green
19-30 Buff sand
122 0- 7 Brown and gray sand
7-27 Sandy clay, brown and light green
123 0-20 Sandy clay
20-23 Soft limestone, gray









INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 46


SAMPLE TEST RESULTS

Analyses
Hole No. 19

Type Unfired color
Clay Light red brown
Raw properties
Fairly long, plastic, smooth, requiring 26% water for plasticity, 6% drying
shrinkage, with no drying defects.
Fired properties
Slow fire


Temp. OF Color


1800
2000
2100
2200
2300

2400


Salmon
Salmon
Dark red
Red-brown
Dark red
brown
Dark red


Hardness

Fair hard
Hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard

Glazed


Bloating test
Negative


Percent Percent App.
shrinkage absorption Sp.r


8.5
8.5
10.5
10.5
12.0

9.5


10.8
13.3
7.1
6.7
4.6

4.2


2.43
2.58
2.39
2.38
2.31

2.01


Potential use
Common brick


Hole No. 22


Type Unfired color
Clay Gray-brown
Raw properties
Plastic, sticky, slightly gritty, requiring 23% water for plasticity, 7.5% drying
shrinkage, with no drying defects.
Fired properties
Slow fire


Temp. OF Color


1800
2000
2100

2200

2300

2400


Med. buff
Dk. buff
Lt. red
brown
Med. red
brown
Dk. red
brown
Dk. brown


Hardness

Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard

Fair hard

Fair hard

Hard


Percent Percent App.
shrinkage absorption Sp.Gr


6.0
7.5
10.0

10.0

11.0

11.0


15.6
13.3
12.0

11.8

11.0

10.1


2.66
2.60
2.61

2.62

2.53

2.59


Bloating test
Negative


Potential use
Common brick






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Hole No. 24
rType Unfired color
Clay Red gray
Raw properties
Longworking, plastic, sticky, requiring 30% water for plasticity, 8.5% drying
shrinkage, with no drying defects.
Fired properties
Slow fire


T'remp. OF Color


1800 t
2000
2100
2200

2300

2100

Bloating test
Slight


salmon
salmon
Med. red
Dk. red
brown
Dk. brown

Melted


Hardness

Fair hard
Hard
Very hard
Very hard

81. bloated
and glazed
Melted


Percent Percent App.
shrinkage absorption S.Gr


6.5
9.0
11.0
11.0

10.0


10.5
8.7
6.9
5.4

5.9


2.41
2.36
2.33
2.80

1.99


Potential use
Common brick


Hole No. 32


Clay
Raw properties
Longworking, plastic, smooth, requiring
ing shrinkage, with no drying defects.
Fired properties


Unfirod color
Medium red brown

35% water for plasticity, 10.0% dry-


Slow fire


Temp. OF Color


t100
2000
2100
2200

2300
24 00


Buff
Lt. salmon
Med. brown
Dk. red
brown
Gray brown
Dk. brown


Hardness

Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard
Hard

Hard
S1. glazed


Percent Percent App.
shrinkage absorption Sp.Gr


11.0
14.0
14.0
15.0

15.0
17.5


14.0
11.1
10.6
8.9

7.2
4.6


Bloating test
Negative


Potential use
None








INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 46


Hole No. 38


Unfired color


Clay Mediu
Raw properties
Longworking, plastic, smooth, requiring 35% water for
drying shrinkage, with no drying defects.
Fired properties


m red brown


plasticity, 10.0%


Temp. oF Color

1800 Salmon
2000 Salmon
2100 Med. red
2200 Dk. red
brown
2300 Very dk.
rod brown
2400 Black


Slow fire

Hardness

Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard
Fair hard

Hard

Hard


Percent Percent Ap
shrinkage absorption S .


6.5
7.5
8.5
8.5

8.5

10.0


12.6
11.3
10.0
9.3


2.44
2.43
2.41
2.40


7.9 2.21


2.46


Bloating test
Negative


Potential use
Common brick


Hole No. 35


Typ.e Unfired color
Clay Medium gray brown
Raw properties
Longworking plastic, smooth, requiring 36% water for plasticity, 9.0% drying
shrinkage, with no drying defects.
Fired properties
Slow fire


lemp. OF Color

1800 Salmon
2000 Salmon
2100 Med. red
2200 Dk. red


2300
2400


brown
Dk. brown
Glazed


Hardness

Hard
Very hard
Very hard
Very hard

Expanded
Expanded


Bloatina test
Poor


Percent Percent App.
shrinkage absorption S.Gr


13.5
14.0
14.0
15.5

15.5


11.5
7.0
6.1
4.1

8.7


2.47
2.40
2.42
2.38

2.02


Potential use
None






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Hole No. 80


tUnfiMretolor
Medium red gray


Raw ptoperttee
Longworking, plastic, smooth, requiring 30% water for
shrinkage, with no drying defeots.


plasticity, 0.0% drying


Fired roprtieAlo


Temp.a Color


Ml


Salmon Ha
Lt. red Ve
Med. red Ve
Very dk. red Ve
brown
Expanded and glazed
Expanded and glazed


Term. OF Bulk density


rd
ry hard
ry hard
ry hard


Percent Peroont Ap.
ishrinkae abaton 8B.ur.


18.5
18.5
16.0
10.0


11.0
5.4
8.4
3.5


Qu L t kIoe..
Percent
Lb. cu, ft. absor tion


No bloating
No bloating
Poor bloating
Fair bloating
Good bloating
Good bloating


Po wnU&tal Usn
Lightweight aggregate


Un1ted .o1or
Dark brown


Raw .mgpmrtine
Longworking, plastic, smooth, requiring 20% water for
ing shrinkage, with no drying defects.
Fired properties
slow .Ilr


Terma. F Qo lor


t800 Lt. salmon Hard
2000 Lt. red Very hard
2100 Med. red Very hard
2200 Dk. red brown Very hard
2300 Dk. brown Expanded
2400 Expanded and glazed
Bloatia teeat
Slight


Percent I
Srinkino
10.0 1
18.5
14.5
15.0
11.0


plasticity, 10% dry-


eroent Apv.
boorption 86,0r.
1.0 2.51
6.7 2.41
5.0 2,42
4.1 2.42
8.8 9.08


Potential use
Brick and lightweight
aggregate sinteredd)


Clay


t 1800
2000
2100
2200

23100


2.52
2.41
2.42
2.80


18 00
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300


1.48
1.29
1.08
1.06
0.72
0.70


92.2
80.4
67.8
66.0
44.9
43.6


17.1
17.1
20.5
16.9
20.2
8.8


Blootin tesat
Positive


Clay


Hole No. 42


Slo-_fire.


Hardnessa






INFORMATION! CIRULAR NO. 46


Hole No. 48


Unfirtd.Lol o~
CGny


handy olay


Uhtw Beer.tcle.
8hortworklng, gritty, fairly smoolh, requiring 60% wMater
drying shrinkage, with no drying defolos.

IlI I -W At x mrntAkm


Prutront Poriont. App,
sfhikgo hstorption S


17.S

20.0


20.8

22,2
43.9,
,),) 0
4 :iu


2. 02

2.60
2.09


MolLed
Melted
Molleod


Polintial ut1 !
None


Holo No. 53


Sandy olay
Rnw prmpe rt i c
Long, plafltic,
no drying defocts.

PIretd nrromprtels-


U nrir.(dl colorr
Grny-black

requiring 31% water for plnsticity, 10% drying ,hrinkng', with


Sl] afLirv


'Amli-o Qg l0or

1800 Cooon brown
2000 Coooa brown
2100 Dark brown
2200 Expandod
2800 1Nxpatndod
2400 Rxpandod


~rdc flo.

Hard
Vory hard
Stool hard


Percent Percent, App.
shrinkae bsorption St.r.


10.5
13.5
14.5


1; .4 2.52
9.0 2.4(6
1.3 2.10


Very It.
t lmon r
Mod. red


Crumbly hard

Crumbly hnrd


1800

2000
2100
2200
2300
2400


Ntgativ V


for plhRlsivity, 1 1.0%


T ef .' er






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Hole No. 58

Quick fire
Percent
Temp. oF Bulk density Lb. ou. ft. absorption Remarks

100 1.17 72.9 22.2 No bloating
1900 t.12 69.8 19.7 Poor bloating
2000 0.93 57.9 22.3 Fair bloating
2100 0.62 38.6 26.4 Fair bloating
2200 0.32 19.9 42.7 Good bloating
2300 0.29 18.1 55.3 Good bloating,
sticky

tl2MtLin-t test Potontial use
Pe1nitive Decorative brick, sewer
pipe, and lightweight
aggregate.
R marks
Preliminary tetst indicate that this clay could be used as decorative
brick if fired around 20000F. The shrinkage is rather high, but it does not
eliminate the material entirely as a source for brick. If fired to 21000F, the
ma:trial might be used in the manufacture of sower pipe provided the shrinkage
cn b*h reduced by additions of sand.

The m-aterial s ems to be more favorable for the manufacture of lightweight
:agrt-gate. The bloating range is fairly long and the material seems to be fairly
strong when bloated. When fired around 2000 to 21000F, the aggregate weight
compartrs favorably with commercial aggregates.

Hole No. 74

TJE Unfired color
Sandy layy Light gray-brown
Raw proportios
Short working, gritty, very sticky, requiring 36% water for plasticity, 10.5%
drying shrinkage, with no drying defects. The clay content was 20 30%.


Slow fire
Percent Percent App.
T O Color Hardness shrinkaRe absorption Sp.Gr.

Is00 Dark buff Fairly hard 11.5 15.6 2.61
2000 Light red Fairly hard 11.5 14.5 2.61
2100 Medium red Fairly hard 11.5 14.1 2.61
2200 Red-brown Fairly hard 11.5 13.8 2.61
2300 Dk. red-brown Fairly hard 11.5 15.0 2.60
2-t00 Dark brown Hard 11.5 10.3 2.58


BHoating test
Negative


Potential use
None







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 46


Hole No. 96


Type Unfired color
Sandy olay Light red
Raw properties
Short working, fatty, gritty, requiring 20% water for plasticity, 2.5% drying
shrinkage, no drying defects. The olay content was 10 15%.

Fired properties
Slow fire


Temp. OF Color


Dark buff
Orange-red
Red
Dk. red-brown
Gray-pink
Gray-brown


Percent Percent App.
Hardness shrinkage absorption S.Gr


Soft crumbly
Soft crumbly
Soft crumbly
Soft crumbly
Soft crumbly
Soft crumbly


Bloating test
Negative


19.2
18.5
19.3
19.2
19.2
18.8


2.48
2.61
2.68
2.62
2.62
2.60


Potential use
None


Hole No. 99


Type Unfired color
Sandy olay Light gray-tan
Raw properties
Short working, sandy, not too plastic, requiring 22% water for plasticity, 1.0%
drying shrinkage, no drying defects. The clay content was approximately 10%.


Fired properties


Temp. OF Color

1800 Buff
2000 Dark buff
2100 Red
2200 Dk. red-brown
2800 Light gray
2400 Light gray

Bloating
Negative


Slow fire
Percent Percent App.
Hardness shrinkage absorption Sp.Gr.


Crumbly hard
Crumbly hard
Crumbly hard
Crumbly hard
Crumbly hard
Crumbly


1.0
1.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0


18.7
19.2
20.0
19.5
19.8
18.9


2.62
2.62
2.62
2.61
2.61
2.59


Potential use
N one


1800
2000
2100
2200
2800
2400






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Hole No. 111


Unfired oolor
Medium gray


Raw properties
Not too plastic, short, gritty and sandy, requiring 84%
8.5% drying shrinkage, no drying defects.
Fired properties
Slow fire


water for plasticity,


Temp. OF Color


Hardness


Percent Percent App.
shrinkage absorption S.r.


Buff
Dark buff
Red
Dark red
Dark red-brown
Gray-brown


Fairly hard
Fairly hard
Fairly hard
Fairly hard
Fairly hard
Fairly hard

Quick fire


Temp. F Bulk density


1800
1900
2000
2100
2 tOO
2200
2300


1.65
1.64
1.43
1.52
1.2S
1.39


Percent
Lb. cu. ft. absorption


102.8
102.2
89.1
94.7
79.7
86.6


11.1
11.8
12.5
10.9
15.9
12.1


Remarks

No bloating
No bloating
Slight bloating
Slight bloating
Slight bloating
Slight bloating


Bloating test
Slight
Remarks
Expansion not sufficient for aggregate.


Sandy clay


1800
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400


10.0
10.0
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.5


16.3
14.1
18.4
18.5
12.9
12.4


2.62
2.60
2.60
2.60
2.60
2.59


Potential use
None







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 46


Hole No. 117


Unfired oolor
Light tan


iaw properties
Not too plastic, sandy, short and sticky, requiring 34% water for plasticity,
8.5% drying shrinkage, no drying defects.

Fired properties
Slow fire


Temn. 0F Color


Lt. red
Mod. red
Dark red
Dk. red-brown
Gray brown
Gray brown


Hardness


Crumbly hard
Crumbly hard
Crumbly hard
Crumbly hard
Crumbly hard
Fairly hard


Bloating test
None


Percent Percent Ap
shrinkage absorption 8 r.


9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
10.0


16.4
17.3
16.6
16.9
16.4
15.0


2.57
2.57
2.58
2.59
2.59
2.58


Potential use
Negative


Hole No. 118


Clay, sandy


Unfired color
Light rod


Raw properties
Fairly plastic, sticky and slightly gritty, requiring 48%
drying shrinkage, slow drying necessary.


Fired properties


Temp. OF Color


water for plasticity, 10.0%


Slow fire
Percent Percent App.
Hardness shrinkage absorption SP


Red Hard
Dk. red-brown Hard
Bloated and Hard
melted
Bloated and melted
Bloated and melted
Bloated and melted


15.0
15.0


12.6
13.9


2.16
2.32


Size 4+4 mesh Quick fire, 15 minutes


TIomlD. oF Bulk density


1800
1900
2000

2100


1.20
0.78
0.64


Percent
Lb. ou. ft. absorption


74.8
45.5
89.9


17.5
28.9
25.8


Remarks

Slight bloating
Excellent bloating
Overbloated, slight
sticking


Melted fragile and sticky


Potential use
Lightweight aggregate


Clay, sandy


1800
2000
2100
2200
2800
2400


1800
2000
2100

2200
2300
2400


Bloating test
Positive





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Hole No. 19.2


Unfired color
Medium red brown


Raw properties
Not too plastic, short, very sticky and gritty, requiring
11.0% drying shrinkage, no drying defects.


47% water for plasticity,


Fired properties


Temp. OF Color


Orange red
Red
Dark red
Dk. brown red
Dark brown
Dark brown


Slow fire
Percent Percent App.
Hardness shrinkage absorption Sp.r.


Fairly hard
Fairly hard
Fairly hard
Hard
Hard
Hard


Bloating test
Negative


14.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
14.0


12.1
11.7
12.2
11.9
10.4
6.6


2.50
2.51
2.52
2.51
2.46
2.17


Potential use
None


Hole No. 123


Unfired color
Unknown


Clay, sandy


Raw properties
Not too plastic, short, sticky and sandy, requiring
drying shrinkage, no drying defects.


36% water for plasticity,


Fired properties


Temp. OF Color

1800 Light red
2000 Light red
2100 Medium red
2200 Dark red
2300 Dk. red brown
2400 Black brown


Slow fire
Percent Percent App.
Hardness shrinkage absorption Sp.Gr.


Fairly hard
Fairly hard
Fairly hard
Fairly hard
Hard
Hard


Bloating test
Negative


16.5
16.5
16.5
17.5
13.0
15.5


11.1
9.9
11.3
9.8
14.3
10.1


2.51
2.58
2.59
2.59
2.61
2.55


Potential use
None


Clay, sandy


1800
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 46


A.S.T.M. Specifications For Clay Products


Specifications number:


BRICK


concrete building brick
Building brick (made from clay and shale)
1Masonry units, glazed

STRUCTURAL TILE

Structural clay load bearing wall tile
Structural clay non-load bearing wall tile
Structural clay floor tile
Structural clay facing tile
Sampling and testing structural clay tile
Definitions relating to structural clay tile


CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS


Hollow load bearing concrete masonry units
Hollow non-load bearing concrete masonry units
Solid load bearing concrete masonry units
Concrete building units
Sampling and testing concrete masonry units

CONCRETE AND CONCRETE AGGREGATE

Lightweight aggregates for concrete

Test for unit weight of aggregate
Test for specific gravity of coarse aggregate
Test for specific gravity of fine aggregate

PIPE AND DRAIN TILE

brain tile
Clay sewer pipe


REFRACTORIES


Fire clay refractories
Test for pyrometric cone equivalent of refractory materials


C 55 -55
C 62 -58
C 126 61 T


-34 -57
-56- 57
-57-57
-212 60
- 112 60
- 43 -55



-90- 59
- 129 59
- 145 59
-55 -55
- 140- 56


C 331 59 T
Methods of:
C 29 60
C 127 59
C 128 59


Specifications number
C 4 59 T
C 13 57 T



Classification number
C 27 60
C 24 56










FLRD GEOLOSk ( IC SUfRiW


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