<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Abstract
 Description of area
 Geology
 Climate
 Significance of water quality
 Surface water
 Data collection
 Ground water
 Geologic formations
 Aquifer hydrology
 Summary
 References
 Figures


FGS



Interim report on the water resources of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties, Florida ( FGS: Information circula...
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PDF VIEWER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001096/00001
 Material Information
Title: Interim report on the water resources of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 36 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Information circular 36 )
Physical Description: vi, 92 p. : ill., maps (part fold. in pocket) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Clark, William E
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey, Division of Geology
Place of Publication: Tallahassee <Fla.>
Publication Date: 1962
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Groundwater -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Water-supply -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by William E. Clark ... <et al.>.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 91-92).
General Note: "Prepared by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey."
Funding: Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001692701
oclc - 01534668
notis - AJA4775
lccn - a 63007209
System ID: UF00001096:00001

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

UF00001096 ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Abstract
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Description of area
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Geology
        Page 9
    Climate
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Significance of water quality
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 14
    Surface water
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 17
    Data collection
        Page 20
        Page 19
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Ground water
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 58
    Geologic formations
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 61
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Aquifer hydrology
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 72
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Summary
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    References
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Figures
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Copyright
            Main
Full Text


STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert 0. Vernon, Director




INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36





INTERIM REPORT ON THE WATER RESOURCES

OF

ALACHUA, BRADFORD, CLAY, AND UNION COUNTIES, FLORIDA


By
William E. Clark, Rufus H. Musgrove,
Clarence G. Menke, and Joseph W. Cagle, Jr.
U. S. Geological Survey





Prepared by the
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
in cooperation with the
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY




TALLAHASSEE
1962






F6,36.



CULTURALRY
LIBRARY


Completed manuscript received
March 12, 1962
Printed by the Florida Geological Survey
Tallahassee













CONTENTS


Page


Abstract... ........ ...... ..... .. .. .... ... ..


Introduction .......... ..

Purpose of the report ..

Previous investigations.

Acknowledgments ....

Description of the area .

Geography ... .

Geology ..........

Climate .............

Temperature . .

Rainfall ...........

Evaporation ........

Significance of water quality

Surface water..........

Data collection ..

Characteristics ......

Lakes..........

Lakes in the Etoi

Lakes in the Sant

Lakes in the Oral


Lakes in the Blac


. . . .


ia Creek basin .

a Fe River basin .

ge Creek basin .

:k Creek basin .


St. Johns River .. . .. . .....

Santa Fe River basin . . .

Black Creek basin . . . .

Orange Creek basin . . .

Ground water.....................

Methods of investigation ....... ....

Well-numbering system . . ..

Existing wells ...............

Test wells ..................

Observation well program . ...

Geologic formations . . . .

General stratigraphy and structure. ..

Eocene Series ...............

Lake City Limestone ....... .

Avon Park Limestone........

Ocala Group ..............

Oligocene Series ..............


..............

. ............

............*.








~












~r


...
000

. .
...

. .


..........

. ft... V


. 4
...


. .


n


t
n









Miocene Series ......................... ..... .. 67
Hawthorn Formation ........................... .. 67
Choctawhatchee Formation (of former usage) .. . .... 68
Pliocene Series ....... ..................... ..... 69
Caloosahatchee Formation ........................ 69
Citronelle Formation ................*.,.,... .*.. 69
Alachua Formation ............. ............. 70
Pleistocene Series .................. .............. 71
Pleistocene and Recent Series. ........................ 71
Aquifer hydrology .................... ............. .. 72
Upper aquifers ............ .. .. ....... ......... 72
Water-table aquifer ................ .... ........ 73
Water-table map ......................... 73
Quality .................................. 74
Utilization ...... ................ ......... 76
Secondary artesian aquifers .......... ..... ...... 76
Floridan aquifer ............................ ...... 76
Piezometric surface ................... ........ 78
Fluctuations of the piezometric surface ...... ..... ..80
Area of artesian flow ...... ...... .. ......... 82
Recharge .................... ................ 83
Discharge ........... ........... ..... 84
Natural .................................. 84
Wells .................................... 85
Quality ............................ .. .... 86
Summary ....................... ......... .......... 86
References ............ ...... ........... .......... .... 91




ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure
1 Location of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties ...... 7

2 Rainfall at Gainesville for the period 1900-58 .......... .. 11
3 Average monthly rainfall and computed lake evaporation at
Gainesville for the period 1954-58 .. ...... ..... ... 14
4 Five general characteristic types of water quality occurring
within the study area ......... ................... 16
5 Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties, showing the
major streams ... ..... .. . . .......... 18






6 Duration and type of surface-water data, Sfite numbers refer
to location plotting on basin maps, figures 8, 20, 30, and 35 20
7 Stage-duration curves for Kingsley Lake, Orange Lake, and
Johnson Lake; January 1947 to December 1957... ........ 24
8 The Etonia Creek basin .. ...................... 25
9 Stage graphs of lakes in the Etonia Creek basin ....... .. 26
10 Profile of lake elevations in the upper Etonia Creek basin,
October 1, 1958 ................................ 27
11 Stage graph of Pebble Lake near Keystone Heights, Florida .. 29
12 Stage graph of Johnson Lake near Keystone Heights, Florida .. 30
13 Graph showing chemical quality of water in the Etonia Creek
basin ..................... ... ............. In pocket
14 Stage graphs of lakes in the Santa Fe River basin .. . 32
15 Stage graphs of lakes in the Orange Creek basin ........... 34
16 Stage graph of Kingsley Lake at Camp Blanding, Florida ..... 35
17 Lines of equal depth of Kingsley Lake. Depth of water in feet
referred to average lake elevation of 176.3 feet msl. See
figure 18 for cross section along line D-A ............... .. 36
18 Cross section of Kingsley Lake along D-A; see contour map,
figure 17. Note that the depth scale is exaggerated 50 times
greater tha the distance scale ........................ 37

19 Graphs showing the chemical quality of water from streams in
southeastern Clay County . . . .... . In pocket
20 The Santa Fe River basin ......................... 40
21 Flow hydrographs of the Santa Fe River . . . ..... 41
22 Comparative monthly flows for three stations on the Santa Fe
River ................ ........... ......... .. 43
23 Flow-duration curves for the Santa Fe River . . .... 44
24 Temperature of Santa Fe River and New River ............. 46
25 Graphs showing the chemical quality of water from the Santa Fe
River and tributaries .................................In pocket
26 Graphs showing the chemical quality of water from the New
River and tributaries ..... .................... .In pocket
27 Graphs showing the chemical quality of water from Olustee
Creek and tributaries ............................In pocket
28 Graphs showing the color, specific conductance, dissolved
solids, and sum of determined constituents in the Santa Fe
River at Worthington ..... ...... .................. 48





29 Graphs showing the color, specific conductance, dissolved'
solids, and sum of mineral constituents t il he New Rtiver
near Lake Butler ................. ........... 49
30 The Black Creek basin ............... ........ ..... 50
31 Flow-duration curves for two stations in the Black Creek ...... 51
32 Flow hydrograph for South Fork Black Creek near Penney Farms,
Florida ......... .. . . .... . . 52
33 Graph showing the chemical quality of water from North Fork
Black Creek and tributaries .............. ..... .In pocket
34 Graph showing the chemical quality of water from South Fork
Black Creek and tributaries ................ ....n pocket
35 The Orange Creek basin ........................... 54
36 Flow hydrograph for the lower Orange Creek basin .......... 55
37 Flow-duration curve for Orange Creek at Orange Springs, Florida 56
38 Graph showing the chemical quality of water from the Orange
Creekbasin ................ .... ...............In pocket
39 Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties showing the
locations of wells ................... ........... 60
40 Generalized geologic map of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and
Union counties, Florida ................ ......... 62
41 Geologic sections A-A' and D-D'. ................... .In pocket
42 Geologic sections B-B' and C-C'...... ............ ..In pocket
43 Map of the Keystone Heights area showing generalized contours
onthewater table ...................... ......... 74
44 Map of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties showing
contours on the piezometric surface in the Floridan aquifer ..... 79
45 Hydrographs showing water levels in Alachua County well
936-236-1, Union County well 007-222-1, and Clay County
well 006-14 9-1 ... . . .. ....... . . 81
4C Clay County showing the approximate area in which wells
tapping the Floridan aquifer will flow ........... ... 82

Table
I Departure from average rainfall at Gainesville (in inches).. 12
2 Range in the chemical quality and the flow of water in the
Santa Fe River basin ..................... ...... 47
3 Geologic formations and their water-bearing properties in
Alachuo, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties, Florida ...... .. 64
4 Chemical analyses of water from wells topping the water-table
aquifer .................................. 75
5 Chemical analyses of water from wells tapping secondary
artesian aquifers ........... .... ... ............. 77
6 Chemical analyses of water from wells tapping the Floridan aquifer 87










INTERIM REPORT ON THE WATER RESOURCES
OF
ALACHUA, BRADFORD, CLAY, AND UNION COUNTIES, FLORIDA


By
William E. Clark, Rufus H. Musgrove,
Clarence G. Menke, and Joseph W. Cagle, Jr.



ABSTRACT

The period of deficient rainfall from 1954 to 1957 caused low water
levels in northeastern Florida that focused attention on the need for an
investigation to learn why some lakes were receding at alarming rates
while others were not. In order that the study be as complete as possible
a 4-year comprehensive water-resources investigation that covered the
four-county area was undertaken in 1957 by the U. S. Geological Survey
in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey. The area of investi-
gation included Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties, and covered
2,023 square miles. This area had a population density of 51 persons per
square mile.

The climate of the area is subtropical. Average monthly tempera-
tures range from the fifties to the eighties, with the extreme temperatures
occasionally dropping to slightly below 200F and rising to 1000F. On
the average, 280 frost-free days can be expected annually. The area's
rainfall averages 52 inches per year. However, the annual rainfall has
been as low as 32 inches and as high as 73 inches.

Lakes make up an important part of the area's water resources.
There are over 50 lakes, varying in size from 10 to 16,500 acres, that
cover about 90 square miles, or over 4 percent of the total land area.
The lakes offer excellent facilities for swimming, boating, fishing, and
other allied recreational activities. Data presently available show that






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


the low lake levels will not be a permanent condition, although possibly
a recurring event. A major cause of the receding lake levels was a
deficient rainfall during the 3-year period, 1954-56, of 22.66 inches.
During this period lakes lost water to surface outflow, evaporation,
or to the underground aquifers at rates that exceeded the rates of re-
plenishment.

Streamflow in the area occurs in five principal basins: the St. Johns
River basin, the Etonia Creek basin, the Santa Fe River basin, the Black
Creek basin, and the Orange Creek basin. The St. Johns River is the
collecting channel for flow from Etonia Creek, Black Creek, and Orange
Creek, and empties into the Atlantic Ocean. It is a large river offering
good facilities for both commercial and sport fishing and navigation.
The Etonia Creek has only intermittent flow in the upper reaches. It
serves to take off flood waters from a chain of lakes in southwestern
Clay County.

Flow in the Santa Fe River basin varies considerably from the
headwater streams, where the flow is mostly from direct runoff and low
nearby areas, to the middle and lower reaches, where there is a tre-
mendously high rate of ground-water inflow. The average annual runoff
from the upper tributary streams is about 8 inches, and over 19 inches
from the entire basin above the Fort White aging station. The pickup
in streamflow between High Springs and Fort White is 85 inches per
year,or over 1H times the average rainfall on the basin.

The Black Creek basin is well dissected with stream channels that
afford drainage for the major part of Clay County. Although small, many
of the tributary streams have perennial flows that offer water supplies
ample for many uses. The basin covers 474 square miles and has an
average annual runoff of about 14 inches, or slightly over 25 percent
of the average annual rainfall. During a year of low yield, 1955, the
runoff was estimated to be 5 inches.


Flow in the upper Orange Creek basin, in southeastern Alachua
County, generally goes into storage in Newnans, Orange, and Lochloosa
lakes. The area of the basin above the outlets of Orange and Lochloosa
lakes is 323 square miles, of which about 45 square miles or 14 percent
of the area, is covered by lakes.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


Significant water-quality data have been collected. At present
more of the data pertain to surface waters than to ground waters. The
data strongly suggest relationship between the quality of the water
and local environmental conditions.

The dissolved solids of surface waters in the upper Etonia Creek
basin range from about 20 to 79 ppm (parts per million), but most waters
are nearer the lower value. Usually, colored organic matter is present
only in small amounts.

Elsewhere, dissolved solids are usually higher. Surface waters
in the Santa Fe River basin usually are highly colored by dissolved
organic matter. Dissolved solids in this basin ranged from near 40 to
300 ppm. Fifty percent or more of the dissolved solids were organic
matter about half the time.

The area is underlain by a series of limestones and dolomites to
depths of several thousand feet. The upper several hundred feet of
these beds include the Lake City Limestone and Avon Park Limestone
of Eocene Age which are at relatively great depths. The Ocala Group,
the uppermost Eocene unit, is exposed in southern and western Alachua
County. In the extreme southwest corner of Alachua County the Ocala
Group is covered by about 45 feet of Pliocene sands and clays but in
other parts of the area it is overlain by relatively thick beds of clay,
sandy clay, and limestone of the Hawthorn Formation of Miocene Age
and deposits of Late Miocene or Pliocene Age. The Miocene and Plio-
cene deposits are in turn overlain by a series of higher terrace deposits
of Pleistocene Age which form most of the land surface in Bradford
and Union counties and cover extensive areas in central Alachua and
western Clay counties. The Pleistocene sands and clays generally
are 40 feet or less in thickness, but in places the sands thicken to as
much as 140 feet. Pleistocene and Recent terrace sands cover older
beds at depths ranging up to about 80 feet in Clay County.

Two major sources of ground-water supplies in these counties
are the upper aquifers and the Floridan aquifer. The upper aquifers
are above the Floridan and are present everywhere except in southern
and western Alachua County.

The upper aquifers are composed of a water-table aquifer and
secondary artesian aquifers. The water-table aquifer consists of shallow
sand or clayey sand of Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Pleistocene
and Recent Age. These sands are recharged locally by precipitation.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The secondary artesian aquifers, which are sandwiched between the
water-table aquifer and the Floridan aquifer, consist of limestone layers
of the Hawthorn Formation, and probably limestone layers and shell
beds of the Choctawhatchee Formation (of former usage) and Caloosa-
hatchee Formation. These upper aquifers usually supply sufficient
water for domestic and stock uses.

The source of the largest supplies of ground water is the Floridan
aquifer, which consists of limestones of Eocene Age and limestones of
the Hawthorn Formation. In the area west of a line running through
Gainesville in a southeast-northwest direction, water in the Floridan
aquifer is under water-table conditions, and in the area east of this
line water is under artesian conditions. The piezometric surface of
the Floridan aquifer is high near the junction of the Alachua, Bradford,
Clay, and Union County lines indicating a recharge area. In addition,
in southern and western Alachua County where the Floridan aquifer is
exposed at the surface, large amounts of water percolate to the Floridan
aquifer. The principal area of artesian flow from the Floridan aquifer
includes most of northeastern Clay County and the low areas along the
St. Johns River, Black Creek, and Little Black Creek. Probably only a
small fraction of the potential of the aquifer for producing water is
being used.

The concentration of mineral matter of water from the water-table
aquifer ranged from 24 to 183 ppm. The color of this water was as much
as 18 units on platinum-cobalt scale. Deeper ground waters are usually
more mineralized. The mineral matter in these waters ranges from 99 to
361 ppm. Concentrations of dissolved matter vary with depth and lo-
cation, but the water was seldom colored to any significant degree.
Measurements showed the dissolved solids to be almost 100 percent
mineral matter. Most of the mineral matter in water from the secondary
artesian and Floridan aquifers was calcium bicarbonate.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


INTRODUCTION

PURPOSE OF THE REPORT

During the period 1954-57, many lakes in Alachua, Bradford, Clay,
and Union counties receded at rates that were alarming to the residents,
and to levels that left boathouses and docks high and dry. This focused
attention on the need for an investigation to learn why this happened
and what, if anything, could be done about it. Inasmuch as little was
known of the hydrology of this area, it was decided that a comprehensive
water-resources investigation of the four-county area would be made.

The investigation of the water resources of the area was started
in July 1957 by the Water Resources Division of the U. S. Geological
Survey at the request of and in cooperation with the Florida Geological
Survey. The program was designed to obtain, over a 4-year period, facts
on the occurrence, quality, and quantity of surface water and ground
water. The information to be collected during the investigation would
serve two major purposes: (1) It would provide an inventory of the water
resources, and (2) it would provide a sound basis for a plan to develop
and utilize the water resources of the area.
The purpose of this report is to summarize the basic data collected
before and during the first 2 years of investigation and to interpret these
data. The report contains a general explanation of the source, occur-
rence, availability, and chemical characteristics of the water and points
to the interrelationship of surface water and ground water.

The investigation is under the general supervision of M. I. Rora-
baugh, district engineer, Ground Water Branch; A. O. Patterson, district
engineer, Surface Water Branch; and J. W. Geurin, district chemist,
Quality of Water Branch, of the U. S. Geological Survey.


PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS

No detailed investigations of the water resources of Alachua,
Bradford, Clay, and Union counties have been made prior to this investi-
gation. However, the Surface Water Branch of the U. S. Geological
Survey has been collecting records of streamflow at various points in
the area since 1927. These records have been published annually in a
series of water-supply papers. In addition, a low-flow study of streams





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


was made by the U. S. Geological Survey in April and May 1956. A
report on this study is being prepared at this time (1960).

Measurements of artesian pressure in several wells in northeastern
Clay County are given in a series of water-level reports that have been
published as water-supply papers. The geology and ground water of the
four counties are mentioned in a report by Matson and Sanford (1913).
Sellards and Gunter (1913), in a report on the artesian water supply,
gave descriptions of wells, water-level measurements, and a few chemi-
cal analyses of water. A report by Stringfield (1936) includes locations
and descriptions of 63 wells in the four counties, and a piezometric map
of the principal artesian aquifer in the Florida Peninsula. Some of the
larger springs in the counties are discussed in a report by Ferguson, and
others (1947). A report by Cooper and others (1953) includes a general
discussion of the water resources of these four counties. White (1958)
relates water resources to landforms of the peninsula and makes brief
references to Alachua County. The most comprehensive geological
reports are those of Cooke and Mossom (1929) and Cooke (1945), both
entitled "Geology of Florida," which describe the formations that crop
out in the four counties and give details of their occurrence. A geological
map of the surface formations accompanies each report. Pirkle (1956)
has contributed papers on the geology and physiography of Alachua
County. A report by Vernon (1951) contains structural maps that include
Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties. A map by Vernon (1951),
revised from the earlier geological map by Cooke (1945), shows the
outcrop of the surface formations. A report entitled "Stratigraphy and
Zonation of the Ocala Group" by Puri (1957), describes the Ocala Group
and its fossils at several quarry exposures in Alachua County and shows
subsurface sections that extend across parts of the four-county area.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The writers wish to express their appreciation to the citizens of
Alachuo, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties for supplying data and
permitting the sampling and measuring of their wells and to the well
drillers for furnishing drilling cuttings, water-level data, and other
helpful information. Thanks are due the U.S. Soil Conservation Service
for its assistance in drilling shallow test wells and to Dr. E. C. Pirkle
of the University of Florida who furnished valuable geologic information.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA

GEOGRAPHY

Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties are grouped together
in the northern part of peninsular Florida (fig. 1). The area is in the
vicinity of latitude 29050' N., longitude 82010' W. It is 50 miles long
and 65 miles wide. The east edge of the area is 20 miles from the
Atlantic Ocean and the southwest corner is 30 miles from the Gulf of
Mexico.

Trade, manufacturing, mining, agricultural, and governmental
operations are the main sources of income. Revenue associated with
recreational activities is increasing as the potential of the area is
recognized. Although no water is consumed by recreational activity,


Figure 1. Location of Alachua, Bradford, Clay and Union counties.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


more of the lakes are being used for this purpose as the economy of the
area expands. At present, the operations of municipalities, mining,
and agriculture require the largest quantities of water in the area.

The four counties cover an area of 2,023 square miles and had a
population of 103,800 in 1957. The area and population density of the
counties are: Alachua, 892 square miles, 77 persons per square mile;
Clay, 598 square miles, 26 persons per square mile; Bradford, 293 square
miles, 41 persons per square mile; and Union, 240 square miles, 33
persons per square mile. The four counties combined have 51 persons
per square mile as compared to that of the entire State of 76 persons
per square mile. (Population figures from data by Bureau of' Business
and Economic Research, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida.)

About 20 hurricanes of varying intensities have affected the area
since 1900. Most of the hurricanes have entered the area from a southerly
or westerly direction; however, some have entered from the east.

The area is within the topographic division of the State known as
the Central Highlands, except eastern Clay County which is in the
Coastal Lowlands (Cooke, 1945, p. 8, 10, 11). The most striking topo-
graphic features of this area are: the Trail Ridge, extending through the
area in a north-south direction; the high swampy plains in the north-
western part of the area; the rolling, sloping lands in the eastern part of
the area, which are well dissected by stream channels; and the lower,
slightly rolling plains in southwestern Alachua County which are devoid
of stream channels but dotted with sinks and limerock pits.

Trail Ridge extends from the lake region in the vicinity of Keystone
Heights northward along the Bradford-Clay County line. The ridge is
a series of hills with the highest (elevation 250 feet) being just south
of Kingsley Lake. From the highest point, the land slopes in a southerly
direction and fans out into a wide area of sand hills, dotted with lakes,
in the vicinity of Keystone Heights. Farther south, in Putnam County,
the land is flat with many shallow lakes.

North from Kingsley Lake, the ridge is narrow and generally is less
than a mile across the crest. It slopes slightly downward to an elevation
of about 200 feet above sea level at the Baker County line.

East of the Trail Ridge, in Clay County, for 20 to 25 miles the
land slopes steeply toward the St. Johns River. The land along the
St. Johns River in this area generally is less than 10 feet above sea





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


level. Many well-defined channels drain directly from the east side
of the ridge. Some of the headwater tributaries to North Fork Black
Creek have channel slopes of 50 feet per mile.

The west side of the ridge slopes steeply, as much as 100 feet
per mile, to a swampy plain. The elevation of the swampy plain varies
from 125 to 145 feet above sea level. It extends over Bradford and
Union counties and several streams originate in this area. No well-
defined stream channels drain the west side of the ridge.

In southwestern Alachua County the land is fairly flat with gently
rolling hills. This area is dotted with small ponds and pits that were
made by the mining of limestone. A significant feature of this area is
the absence of stream channels.


GEOLOGY

The geology of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties is
typical of that of many parts of the Gulf Coastal Plain of the south-
eastern United States. Poorly consolidated sedimentary deposits of
sand, clay, gravel, limestone, and dolomite of Pleistocene and Recent
Age, Pleistocene Age, Pliocene and Miocene Age, and Eocene Age
underlie the area to a depth of several hundreds of feet. These deposits
form a terrain that is a series of marine terraces or plains; a hill and
valley, or hill and lake topography; and a limestone plain. These sedi-
ments grade downward into several thousand feet of harder rocks of
Eocene and Paleocene Age that are underlain by rocks composed mostly
of limestones, dolomites, and dolomitic limestones of Cretaceous Age.
The rocks of Cretaceous Age are underlain by a series of sedimentary,
metamorphic, and igneous basement rocks of Paleozoic and pre-Paleozoic
Age. The rocks of pre-Paleozoic Age lie at such great depth that they
are seldom penetrated by wells in Florida.

Although oil test wells in the four counties have been drilled into
the rocks of Paleozoic Age, the deepest formation penetrated by water
wells is the Lake City Limestone of Eocene Age. Rocks older than the
Lake City Limestone contain highly mineralized water.

The Ocala uplift, an anticlinal fold in beds of Tertiary Age, is
the principal structural feature in the four counties. Southwestern Alachua
County is on the crest of the uplift, and the beds of Tertiary Age in the
remainder of the area dip regionally to the north and northeast.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


level. Many well-defined channels drain directly from the east side
of the ridge. Some of the headwater tributaries to North Fork Black
Creek have channel slopes of 50 feet per mile.

The west side of the ridge slopes steeply, as much as 100 feet
per mile, to a swampy plain. The elevation of the swampy plain varies
from 125 to 145 feet above sea level. It extends over Bradford and
Union counties and several streams originate in this area. No well-
defined stream channels drain the west side of the ridge.

In southwestern Alachua County the land is fairly flat with gently
rolling hills. This area is dotted with small ponds and pits that were
made by the mining of limestone. A significant feature of this area is
the absence of stream channels.


GEOLOGY

The geology of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties is
typical of that of many parts of the Gulf Coastal Plain of the south-
eastern United States. Poorly consolidated sedimentary deposits of
sand, clay, gravel, limestone, and dolomite of Pleistocene and Recent
Age, Pleistocene Age, Pliocene and Miocene Age, and Eocene Age
underlie the area to a depth of several hundreds of feet. These deposits
form a terrain that is a series of marine terraces or plains; a hill and
valley, or hill and lake topography; and a limestone plain. These sedi-
ments grade downward into several thousand feet of harder rocks of
Eocene and Paleocene Age that are underlain by rocks composed mostly
of limestones, dolomites, and dolomitic limestones of Cretaceous Age.
The rocks of Cretaceous Age are underlain by a series of sedimentary,
metamorphic, and igneous basement rocks of Paleozoic and pre-Paleozoic
Age. The rocks of pre-Paleozoic Age lie at such great depth that they
are seldom penetrated by wells in Florida.

Although oil test wells in the four counties have been drilled into
the rocks of Paleozoic Age, the deepest formation penetrated by water
wells is the Lake City Limestone of Eocene Age. Rocks older than the
Lake City Limestone contain highly mineralized water.

The Ocala uplift, an anticlinal fold in beds of Tertiary Age, is
the principal structural feature in the four counties. Southwestern Alachua
County is on the crest of the uplift, and the beds of Tertiary Age in the
remainder of the area dip regionally to the north and northeast.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


CLIMATE

TEMPERATURE

According to the records of the U. S. Weather Bureau, the average
annual temperature at Gainesville was 700F. The average monthly
temperature ranged from 590F in January to 810F in August. Only rarely
has the temperature reached 100F and only occasionally has the lowest
dropped into the teens. On the average, 280 frost-free days can be
expected annually.


RAINFALL

Precipitation occurs in the area almost entirely as rainfall and
is quite varied in both annual amounts and seasonal distribution. The
total annual rainfall at Gainesville has ranged from 32.79 to 73.30
inches. In an average year the dry season is from late October through
May, with the driest month being November. Monthly total rainfall
varied from zero during some of the dry months to a maximum of 19.9
inches during the "rainy season," June through September. On the
average the area receives over half of its annual rainfall during the
4-month period, June through September.

An outstanding aspect of the rainfall regime is the rather abrupt
start of the rainy season; the June average rainfall is about double
that of May. In the fall the rainy season at times extends into October,
but usually the latter part of October is dry. Figure 2 shows the varia-
tions in yearly amounts, the monthly minimums, the monthly averages,
and the monthly maximums at Gainesville for the period 1900-58.

The area's rainfall occurs in two general types: (1) summer rain-
fall which is mostly shower and thundershower activity; and (2) winter
and early spring rainfall which is more the widespread general type
that results from the interaction between the warm moist tropical air
masses and the colder air masses from the northern interior of the con-
tinent. Most of the rain in the summer is derived from local showers and
thundershowers. It is not uncommon for the area to have 100 thunder-
showers per year. Although these thundershowers are usually of short
duration, relatively large amounts of rain can fall in a short time. Total
rainfalls in excess of 6 inches have been observed at some points during
a 6-hour period.



















AT GAINESVILLE


7C



*60
w

E
(50
iJi









20






10



0


AVERAGE 51.O ICHm$





























Figure 2. Rainfall at Gainesville for the period 1900-58.


24

22

20

18

w


14
2



o 10



C5


--~~l-~~.r-- --~---r-~-.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Because most of the summer showers are local in type, large
differences in monthly and annual totals occur at different points in
the area. To a large extent, however, these differences disappear
when a comparison is made on the basis of long-term average; the maxi-
mum difference in the long-term average at three stations, Raiford,
Federal Point, and Gainesville, is less than 3 inches. The average
annual rainfall in the area is 52.0 inches.

Extreme variations in annual rainfall totals may occur in consec-
utive years the year 1953 ranks among the wettest since 1900, whereas
1954 ranks among the driest of record. (Dry periods are those defined
as having below average rainfall and wet periods are those having above
average rainfall.) Periods of several wet years or dry years also can
occur in succession. The period 1944-49 is the wettest of record in
the area, while 1954-56 ranks among the driest. Table 1 shows the
total departure from average rainfall for several periods of extreme
conditions at Gainesville.


Table 1. Departure from Average Rainfall at Gainesville (in inches)

Period Dry periods Wet periods

1906-11 (6 years) -44.01
1914-18 (5 years) .33.72
1928-30 (3 years) + 18.24
1931-34 (4 years) -25.20
1944-49 (6 years) + 45.87
1954-56 (3 years) -22.66



EVAPORATION

Evaporation is defined as the process by which water is changed
from the liquid state into the gaseous state through the transfer of heat
energy. An understanding of the rates of evaporation is essential to
problems concerning water resources. Yet of all factors involved in
the hydrologic cycle, probably there is less known about the amounts
and rates of evaporation than about the values of any other element.

Evaporation has been termed a loss. In a broad sense this is
not true, because a loss from one state in the hydrologic cycle is a





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


gain to another. And even though the state of water is changed by evapo-
ration, the water is not destroyed but will eventually return to the earth
as rainfall. On the other hand, in budgeting water over a given period
of time in an individual lake or reservoir, evaporation logically represents
a loss.

Evaporation is a significant factor to consider in the design and
construction of a storage reservoir for recreational or conservational
purposes. The total quantity of water lost by evaporation from a reser-
voir is proportional to the surface area of the water. Thus, all other
factors being equal, the amount taken by evaporation from a reservoir
of 100 acres would be twice the amount taken from one of 50 acres.
More water could be conserved, over a given period of time, in a narrow,
deep reservoir than in a wide, shallow reservoir, the two containing the
same volume of water.

Most of the records of evaporation are collected by the U. S.
Weather Bureau from class A land pans. For a number of reasons, the
yearly evaporation from a pan of this type is greater than that from a
natural water body. Results of experiments to determine the "pan co-
efficient" (that is, the ratio of evaporation from a natural water body
to that from a pan) indicate seasonal as well as geographical variations
in the coefficients. Evaporation computations show that the coefficients
vary from 0.69 for February to 0.91. for July and August (Kohler, 1934,
p. 128).

The monthly coefficients given by Kohler were applied to the
average pan evaporation figures from records for the period 1954-58
collected by the U. S. Weather Bureau at Gainesville. Average monthly
evaporation computed for that period is shown in figure 3, with the
average rainfall at Gainesville. The computed lake evaporation was
24 percent greater than the amount of water supplied by rainfall for that
period. This situation points toward the unbalanced hydrologic condi-
tions that resulted in a drought and subsequent low lake levels during
the period 1954-58.

Closely associated with evaporation is the process of transpira-
tion. This is the process by which plants take water from the soil, use
it in plant growth, and then transpire it to the atmosphere in the form of
water vapor. The amount of water taken from a reservoir or lake by
the process of transpiration would increase if vegetation were permitted
to flourish in and around the water body. Under natural conditions it is
difficult to separate the amounts taken by evaporation and transpiration
and they are frequently treated as one loss called evapotranspiration.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


J F M A M J J A S O N D


Figure 3. Average monthly
for the period 1954-58.


rainfall and computed lake evaporation at Gainesville


SIGNIFICANCE OF WATER QUALITY

The geology, topography, climate, land cover, and man's activities
in an area all influence the quality of the waters.

The mineral composition, solubility, and rate of solution of min-
erals in the water determine the chemical composition of the dissolved
materials in water. The occurrence, area extent, and permeability
properties of the formations determine the general path and rate of water
movement and they must be known for an adequate appraisal of the
quality of the ground waters.

Variations in the path and movement of water can bring about
changes in the quality of water of an area. Swamps cover the high
plateaus in Bradford and Union counties and many flood plains of streams
throughout the area. The water standing in these areas, in contact
with the vegetation, picks up larger amounts of organic color than does
the water in areas that have well-defined surface drainage. In streams





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


that receive part or most of their flow as ground-water inflow, the more
highly mineralized ground waters cause an increase in concentration
and sometimes a change in the composition of the waters of the stream.
Runoff following rainfall results in lower concentrations of mineral
matter in the streams but may result in higher organic color than is
normally present.

The quality of the waters of an area reflects the effect of several
factors. Typical quality-of-water characteristics are discussed below.

Chemical and physical qualities of the water studied resulted from
earth materials that were either transported, dissolved, or suspended
in the water, and the water temperature.

Certain materials occur naturally in water in amounts large enough
to affect the use for many purposes. The values determined most fre-
quently in defining these materials include the following: specific
conductance at 250C, residue on evaporation at 1800C, mineral constit-
uents, color intensity, and pH. Organic matter is calculated.

Specific conductance is a rapid, simple measurement that permits
an investigator to approximate the concentration of dissolved mineral
matter. Residue on evaporation at 1800C is a measure of the dissolved
matter. Mineral matter is the sum of the determined inorganic sub-
stances particularly calcium, magnesium, carbonate, bicarbonate,
sulfate, sodium, potassium, silica, nitrate,fluoride, and iron. Organic
matter can be approximated by subtracting the mineral matter concentration
from the sum of the determined constituents. Color intensity is due to
dissolved organic substances and is determined by direct comparison
with standard colors. The pH of natural water is a measure of the ef-
fective hydrogen-ion concentration.

Water-quality data are significant in evaluating any water body
for utilization, whatever the intended use. Usually information on the
kinds of materials present, the amount, form and variation in the amount,
is needed for adequate evaluation. Dissolved constituents and properties
of water are often useful in tracing the general paths of water movement
and may be useful in indicating areas where rainfall recharges directly
to an aquifer. Water-quality data may be used to indicate what change
in quality may be expected to result from withdrawal or use for waste
disposal.

Rain water falling upon the area has a lower dissolved-solids
content than any of the waters of the area. The specific conductance






16 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


of rain water probably is 10 micromhos or less, indicating a dissolved-
solids content of less than 5 ppm. A large percentage of the 5 ppm is
sodium, chloride, and atmospheric gases. Water analysis diagram 1 on
figure 4 represents the specific conductance of rain water.


The dissolved-solids content of surface water in southwestern
Clay County was in the general range from 20 to 70 ppm. Organic matter
was barely detectable. Water analysis diagrams 2a and 2b in figure 4
represent the specific conductance and mineral matter in the water. The


Fluoride




Silica




Chloride


I. Rainwater
2a. Surface waters of
Cloy County


southwest


2b. Water from shallow water table
aquifer of southwestern Cloy County
3. Swamp water
S 4. Water from Floridan aquifer
N

Constituents in ports per million,
specific conductoaoe in micromhos.


2et


2b


- 360




- 320




- 280




- 240




- 200




- 160




- 120




- 0




-40




-0


Figure 4. Five
the study area.


general characteristic types of water quality occurring within


iEY "
Sulfate o Q
LII
LL s


Sodium
plus
Potassium



Magnesium


Calcium


LEGEND





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


diagrams also represent chemical composition of most water stored in
sand deposits under water-table conditions (for definition of water-table,
see p. 72).

The intensely colored swamp water, 500 color units or more,
contained about 140 ppm organic matter. The concentration of mineral
matter was less than 50 ppm and was predominantly sodium and chloride.
Acidity of swamp water was high as indicated by a pH value of 3.8 units.
Water analysis diagram 3 in figure 4 is typical of the mineral matter in
swamp waters.

The mineral matter in the water from the limestone aquifers ranged
from 79 to 361 ppm. Sodium chloride content of this water approached
that of surface waters of the area; calcium plus alkalinity as carbonate
and calcium plus sulfate were predominant. Color intensity were 20 units
or less. Water analysis diagram 4 in figure 4 represents the general
chemical composition of mineral matter in water yielded by limestones.

Mixtures of two or more types of water undoubtedly occur at some
places in the area, although the available data are inadequate to define
specific areas.


SURFACE WATER

Surface water occurs in Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union coun-
ties in several sources, including lakes and streams. Some of the largest
lakes are Newnans, Lochloosa, Orange, Santa Fe, Geneva, Sand Hill,
Sampson, and Kingsley. The largest group of lakes is in the upper
Etonia Creek basin. However, each of the other basins in the area
has several large lakes. Most of the lakes are suitable for boating,
fishing, swimming, and allied recreational activities. Many of the area's
lakes are potential sources of supply for industrial and municipal uses.

The major streams in the area are: the St. Johns River, the Santa
Fe River, Black Creek, and Orange Creek. These streams are shown on
figure 5. The St. Johns River, which empties into the Atlantic Ocean
east of Jacksonville, is the largest river that flows through the area.
It forms the eastern boundary of Clay County and receives water drained
from a large portion of the area. The Santa Fe River and its tributaries
drain Bradford and Union counties and a part of Alachua County. It
flows westward to the Suwannee River which empties into the Gulf of
Mexico. Black Creek drains most of Clay County and empties into the
St. Johns River. Orange Creek takes water from a chain of lakes in





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


J F M A M J J A S O N D


Figure 3. Average monthly
for the period 1954-58.


rainfall and computed lake evaporation at Gainesville


SIGNIFICANCE OF WATER QUALITY

The geology, topography, climate, land cover, and man's activities
in an area all influence the quality of the waters.

The mineral composition, solubility, and rate of solution of min-
erals in the water determine the chemical composition of the dissolved
materials in water. The occurrence, area extent, and permeability
properties of the formations determine the general path and rate of water
movement and they must be known for an adequate appraisal of the
quality of the ground waters.

Variations in the path and movement of water can bring about
changes in the quality of water of an area. Swamps cover the high
plateaus in Bradford and Union counties and many flood plains of streams
throughout the area. The water standing in these areas, in contact
with the vegetation, picks up larger amounts of organic color than does
the water in areas that have well-defined surface drainage. In streams





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 5. Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties showing the major streams.

in Alachua County and empties into the Oklawaha River, which, in turn,
empties into the St. Johns River.

Etonia Creek, in Putnam County, was not considered one of the
major streams. Flow from the upper part of this creek is intermittent.
The upper part of Etonia Creek takes the overflow from a chain of lakes
in southwestern Clay County and the water eventually flows to the
St. Johns River.

There is an area of some 400 square miles in southwestern Alachua
County from which there is no surface drainage. The absence of surface
streams logically indicates a downward percolation of the rain that
falls on this area. The land in southwestern Alachua County is charac-
terized by limestone sinks and open-pit mines.

The rivers and lakes in the area are valuable assets most of the
time but occasionally they become liabilities. There have been times





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO.36


when floods have menaced some areas. For example, homes were flooded
around Brooklyn Lake and Lake Geneva in 1948. At the other extreme,
periods of drought conditions have occurred, as in 1954-57, and some
lakes have become unsuitable for many purposes because of low lake
levels. Most rural areas along streams are sparsely settled; conse-
quently, flooding by streams has caused only minor damage.


DATA COLLECTION

Information about surface water consists of records of flow, water-
surface elevations, and chemical analyses. Continuous records of flow,
periodic and occasional records of flow, and records of crest stages
are being collected on streams. At present (1959) streamflow data
are being collected at 26 sites in or adjacent to the area. Measure-
ments of streamflow are being made during periods of low and high
flows at sites other than the continuous-record sites. In addition to
information collected at established sites, much information is collected
throughout the area to determine flow patterns, define drainage areas, and
study the relation between surface-water and ground-water levels. Stage
records are being collected on 14 lakes in or adjacent to the area. Fig-
ure 6 gives the type and duration of data available on the occurrence of
surface water at the locations listed.


CHARACTERISTICS

The characteristics of the surface water in any area must be known
in order that the most beneficial use of the water will be realized. To
gain this knowledge takes considerable time, The stages of lakes and
streams, the rates of flow of streams, and the quality of the water are
continuously changing. The flow of streams and heights of lakes must
be measured over a period of time so that seasonal and long-time trends
may be determined.

In this section of the report, characteristics of the lakes and
streams that were studied will be discussed.

LAKES

There are more than 50 lakes in the four counties that vary in size
from 10 to 16,500 acres. There are many smaller lakes and ponds. The
largest lakes are Orange Lake, Newnans Lake, Lochloosa Lake, Santa Fe





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


diagrams also represent chemical composition of most water stored in
sand deposits under water-table conditions (for definition of water-table,
see p. 72).

The intensely colored swamp water, 500 color units or more,
contained about 140 ppm organic matter. The concentration of mineral
matter was less than 50 ppm and was predominantly sodium and chloride.
Acidity of swamp water was high as indicated by a pH value of 3.8 units.
Water analysis diagram 3 in figure 4 is typical of the mineral matter in
swamp waters.

The mineral matter in the water from the limestone aquifers ranged
from 79 to 361 ppm. Sodium chloride content of this water approached
that of surface waters of the area; calcium plus alkalinity as carbonate
and calcium plus sulfate were predominant. Color intensity were 20 units
or less. Water analysis diagram 4 in figure 4 represents the general
chemical composition of mineral matter in water yielded by limestones.

Mixtures of two or more types of water undoubtedly occur at some
places in the area, although the available data are inadequate to define
specific areas.


SURFACE WATER

Surface water occurs in Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union coun-
ties in several sources, including lakes and streams. Some of the largest
lakes are Newnans, Lochloosa, Orange, Santa Fe, Geneva, Sand Hill,
Sampson, and Kingsley. The largest group of lakes is in the upper
Etonia Creek basin. However, each of the other basins in the area
has several large lakes. Most of the lakes are suitable for boating,
fishing, swimming, and allied recreational activities. Many of the area's
lakes are potential sources of supply for industrial and municipal uses.

The major streams in the area are: the St. Johns River, the Santa
Fe River, Black Creek, and Orange Creek. These streams are shown on
figure 5. The St. Johns River, which empties into the Atlantic Ocean
east of Jacksonville, is the largest river that flows through the area.
It forms the eastern boundary of Clay County and receives water drained
from a large portion of the area. The Santa Fe River and its tributaries
drain Bradford and Union counties and a part of Alachua County. It
flows westward to the Suwannee River which empties into the Gulf of
Mexico. Black Creek drains most of Clay County and empties into the
St. Johns River. Orange Creek takes water from a chain of lakes in












Ws loaction .i


1 e Ceek ner Penney Ferls. Fia.

SBlue Pond near Kestone Heights, Fla.
Brooklyn Lake
3 near KeIytone Heights, i.a.

4 Bull Creek near Middleburg, Fll.

5 Butler Creek near Lake Butler, Fla.

6 Ceaps Canal near Rochelle, Fla.
Clarkie Creek
7 never Green Cove Spring, Fla.

I Cross Creek near Island Grove, Fla.

9 Deep Creek near Rodin. Fl.

10 ttonia Creek near Florahame, Fls.

11 Olen Springs near Gainesvlle, PFr.
r Creek at State Road IS----- -
12 near Oreen Cove 8pring, Pea. *
areen Cove Springs
13 at reen Cove rgriisg. la

14 Green Creek near Penney Fares Fla.

15 Hatchat Creek near OGinesville, Fla. *
Hellbronn Springs 6 1I. N.W.
1i of Starke. Fle.-

17 Hotoun Creek near OGinesville Pla.
KIngtley Lake
18 at CIIp Blandin, Fla..

19 Iake Butler at Lake Butler, Fla.

20 lake Geneva at Keystone Heights, Fla.

81 Lake Orandin near Interlachen, Fla.
Lake Johnson
22 near Keutone HIhts. I all

23 l6. SlpDi on neor Starke, Flat.in mops, fi,


Figure 6. Duration and type of surface-water data. Site numbers refer to location plotting on basin maps, figures 8,20,30,and35.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO.36


when floods have menaced some areas. For example, homes were flooded
around Brooklyn Lake and Lake Geneva in 1948. At the other extreme,
periods of drought conditions have occurred, as in 1954-57, and some
lakes have become unsuitable for many purposes because of low lake
levels. Most rural areas along streams are sparsely settled; conse-
quently, flooding by streams has caused only minor damage.


DATA COLLECTION

Information about surface water consists of records of flow, water-
surface elevations, and chemical analyses. Continuous records of flow,
periodic and occasional records of flow, and records of crest stages
are being collected on streams. At present (1959) streamflow data
are being collected at 26 sites in or adjacent to the area. Measure-
ments of streamflow are being made during periods of low and high
flows at sites other than the continuous-record sites. In addition to
information collected at established sites, much information is collected
throughout the area to determine flow patterns, define drainage areas, and
study the relation between surface-water and ground-water levels. Stage
records are being collected on 14 lakes in or adjacent to the area. Fig-
ure 6 gives the type and duration of data available on the occurrence of
surface water at the locations listed.


CHARACTERISTICS

The characteristics of the surface water in any area must be known
in order that the most beneficial use of the water will be realized. To
gain this knowledge takes considerable time, The stages of lakes and
streams, the rates of flow of streams, and the quality of the water are
continuously changing. The flow of streams and heights of lakes must
be measured over a period of time so that seasonal and long-time trends
may be determined.

In this section of the report, characteristics of the lakes and
streams that were studied will be discussed.

LAKES

There are more than 50 lakes in the four counties that vary in size
from 10 to 16,500 acres. There are many smaller lakes and ponds. The
largest lakes are Orange Lake, Newnans Lake, Lochloosa Lake, Santa Fe










Site v e i n I IIi 1 Im t 11W
No. Name and location i i

Little Hatchet Creek
24 near Ga.inoville, Fla.
Little Orange Creek
25 near Orange Springs, Fla.

26 Lochloosa Creek at Grove Park, Fla.

27 Lochloosa Creel; near Hawthorne, Flo.

23 tochloosa Lake at Lochloosa, Fla.
Lochloosa Lake Outlet
29 near Lochloosa Fla.

30 Magnesia Springs near Hawthorne, Fla. *
Magnolia Lake
31 near Keystone Heights, Fla.
Magnolia Lake Outlet
32 near Keystone Heights, Fla.

33 Newnana Lake near naineaville, Fla.

34 New River near Lake Butler, Fla.

35 New River near Ratford, Fla.
North Fork Black Creek
36 near Highlands. Fla.
North Fork Black Creek
37 near Middleburg, Fla.
North Fork Black Creek
38 at State Road 16, Fla. ,

39 Olustee Creek at Providence, Fla.

40 Orange Creek at Orange Springs, Fla.

41 Orange Lake at Orange Lake, Fla.

42 Orange Lake Outlet near Citra, Fla. a

43 Ortega Creek.near Jacksonville, Fla.

44 Pebble Lake nonr Keystone Heights. Fla.

45 Poe Springs near High Springs, FIn. *
Prairie Creek at State Road 20
46 near ai.neaville. Fla.


Figure 6. (Continued)


hi








MM am...n- g r mm m 'g 61 0 m V iV
M: e.. W,. se 1 r. e. l i


4 7 n Fi var Styve near cana White a.
4S Sampnta River net ampron, Fla,
land Hill IAke
.4 near Keyrto ne Hligh Sprin Fl
Santa Fe lAke
50 near gAytone Uesihte. ria.

I1 Santa pe River near Fort White. vie.
52 Santa Fe River near rehaem, Fia.

53 Onnta Fe River near High Springs, Fia.
Santa Fe River at State Road 235
54 at Brooker Plie.
Santa Fe River at State Road 241

Santa hF River at U, S. HigRway 301
-fifi -near Hacoton. -ie._ _-
Santa Fe River at Worthington ,. I
South Fork Black Creek

near Pennev Parsnd Fla.
South P ark Slack Creek

60 Swift Creek near Lake Butler, Fa._ e

01 Wadesboro Spring near Orange Park, Fla.

63 Water Oak Creek near Starke, Fla. g0
Worthington spring
63 at Worthington Fla
64 Yellow Water Creek

s Yellow Water Creek near Maxville, Fla.


BIB BI Daily Stage and fw d flo record Periodic flow measureenta Oocasional flow Measurement

.llllllllll l stage record ,Crest stage record


Figure 6. (Continued)






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


Lake, Lake Geneva, Kingsley Lake, and Sampson Lake. The combined
area of all the lakes in the four counties is about 90 square miles, more
than 4 percent of the total land area.

The lakes exhibit widely varying characteristics. Kingsley Lake,
the highest lake in the area, stands at an average elevation of 176 feet
above sea level; whereas Orange Lake, the lowest lake in the area,"
stands at an average elevation of 57 feet above sea level. Santa Fe
Lake stands 40 feet above Lake Geneva, although the lakes are only
1Y2 miles apart.

Some of the lakes are formed in coarse sand deposits (lakes in
southwestern Clay County); others like Orange and Lochloosa lakes in
Alachua County have bottoms and shorelines formed by relatively im-
pervious muck and other organic materials which overlie deposits of
clays and limestones. Lakes in southwestern Clay County generally
have steep, wooded, sandy banks with surrounding high ground as much
as 70 feet above the lake surfaces. Lakes in the Santa Fe River and
Orange Creek basins generally have low, marshy banks.

The ranges in stages of the lakes in the area vary widely. Kingsley
Lake at Camp Blanding has a range of only 3.5 feet, whereas the stage
of Brooklyn Lake at Keystone Heights fluctuates through a range of
about 20 feet. The topographic and geologic features of the surrounding
and underlying formations have a definite influence on the levels of these
lakes. Kingsley Lake, for example, has a large ground-water inflow
while others are dependent upon flow from surface streams. Still others
have sinkholes penetrating their bottoms, or their bottoms are formed
of coarse sandy material through which there is an exchange of water
with underlying aquifers. The stage-duration curves of Kingsley Lake,
Orange Lake, and Johnson Lake, given in figure 7, show the percent
of time that the lakes were at or above various stages during the 11-year
period, 1947-57.

The relatively stable levels of some lakes can be attributed to a
combination of two factors: (1) a large, dependable source of replenish-
ment such as surface-water or ground-water inflow, or both; and (2) an
outflow channel of sufficient conveyance to carry off flood waters.

The most important characteristic of many lakes is the range
through which the water surface fluctuates because the utility of most
lakes is directly related to the lake level. On some lakes that fluctuate
through a large range in stage, control structures would be beneficial.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

STAGE DURATION


ITT-
-ITB ----- ----- ---- ------ --- ---- --- --- ---



174










ORANGE LAKE













JOHNSON LAKE



/Z^z



__ __ __ -- -- -- -- -- --


100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30
PERCENT OF TIME
Figure 7. Stage-duration curves for Kingsley Lake, Orange
Lake, January 1947 to December 1957.


20 10 0


Lake, and Johnson






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


They could be operated to reduce high water and to increase low water
stages.

At present (1959), records are being collected to determine ele-
vations and fluctuations in stage of 14 lakes in the area. Lakes are
discussed as they occur in the following river basins: the Etonia Creek
basin, the Santa Fe River basin, the Orange Creek basin, and the Black
Creek basin.


Lakes in the Etonia Creek Basin


The lakes in this basin are located in the upper (western) part
of the basin in a band extending from the southwest corner of Clay
County southward into western Putnam County (fig. 8). The upper basin
begins on the southern slope of Trail Ridge and is essentially free of
marshy areas except for an area around Hall Lake and Smith Lake. The
two largest lakes in the basin are Sand Hill Lake, which has a surface
of 1,250 acres (at elevation about 130 feet, from topographic map dated


Figure 8. The Etonia Creek basin.


Loctfon of fdfo-collaction lts;, nurmbar
S refen to bar graph, figure 6
Son location mop, figure 5






26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

1949), and Lake Geneva, which has a surface area of 1,630 acres (at
elevation 108 feet, from topographic map dated 1949). Brooklyn Lake
has a surface area of 640 acres (at elevation about 115 feet, from topo.
graphic map dated 1949). The lakes in the part of this basin that is in
Clay County are in deposits of coarse sand and clay at relatively high
elevations.

Stage graphs for Blue Pond, Sand Hill, Magnolia, Brooklyn, Geneva,
and Grandin lakes are shown in figure 9.


BLUE POND
175 .
It/
174

173

172
33 i
SAND HILL LAKE
132

131


125
MAGNOLIA LAKE
124 -

957 1958
1957 1958


BROOKLYN LAKE









LAKE GENEVA







LAKE GRANDIN



1957 1958


Figure 9. Stage graphs of lakes in the Etonia Creek basin.


Six lakes, Blue Pond, Sand Hill, Magnolia, Brooklyn, Keystone,
and Geneva, form the upper Etonia Creek chain of lakes. Surface flow
through the chain is intermittent with flow from Brooklyn Lake occurring
only during periods of high lake levels. The three upper lakes in this
chain Blue Pond, Sand Hill, and Magnolia have a more nearly con-
stant balance between their rates of replenishment and their rate of
depletion than do the lakes downstream; because of this condition surface
flow from these lakes persists for longer periods duringdeficlent rainfall,
Surface flow from Magnolia Lake occurs above a lake stage ofabout
123 feet above sea level. Brooklyn Lake has a larger range in stage


z
w





I





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


than does Lake Geneva. The elevation of Brooklyn Lake falls below
that of Lake Geneva during periods of extremely low lake stages even
though Brooklyn Lake is upstream from Lake Geneva in the chain of
lakes (fig. 10). The greatest differences in lake surface elevations
in this chain of lakes occur above Brooklyn Lake. The difference in
elevation between Blue Pond and Brooklyn lakes is sometimes as much
as 75 feet. A profile of lake elevations in the upper Etonia Creek chain
of lakes on October 1, 1958, is given in figure 10.










180


170o





z 160 ,
Ww


,,, \ 5













too
I_ \
150




110 --r _______ __________--_____ _____
\








0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CHANNEL DISTANCE, IN MILES

Figure 10. Profile of lake elevations in the upper Etonia Creek basin, Oc.
tober 1, 1958.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Johnson and Pebble lakes in the Gold Head Branch State Park
are landlocked lakes; that is, they have no surface-water outlets. These
lakes depend on local surface drainage, ground-water inflow, and rainfall
directly on the lakes to supply water to the lakes. Johnson Lake is the
larger, with a surface area of 470 acres (at elevation about 95 feet,
from topographic mop dated 1949). Pebble Lake has a surface area of
about 6 acres and is 400 feet east of Johnson Lake. The stage graph
of Pebble Lake is given in figure 11. During low stages much of the
bottom of Johnson Lake is exposed and the lake is divided into several
sections. The stage graph of Johnson Lake given in figure 12 is of the
westernmost section and does not represent the level of the entire lake
during periods of extremely low stage. This section of the lake re-
ceives flow from Gold Head Branch which enters from the north, and
at low stages it is connected to the main section of the lake by a narrow
channel. The stationary stage of Johnson Lake since August 1957
was caused by an earth dam in the narrow connecting channel just east
of the point of inflow. The stage of the main section of the lake east
of Gold Head Branch State Park was lower during the period August
1957 to December 1958 than the stage graph indicates. A stage-duration
curve for Johnson Lake is given in figure 7. This graph shows the
percent of total time that the lake stage stood at or above the indicated
elevations during the 11 years, 1947- 57.

Several lakes inthe upper Etonia Creek basin exhibit characteristics
of having sinkholes. However, no sinkholes have been found. A lake
having an open sinkhole that is taking water generally has a large range
in stage if the piezometric pressure has a large range or if the piezometric
surface remains below the lake surface. The large range in stage of a
"sinkhole" lake is due partly to the fact that the open sinkhole is taking
water at all times if the lake level is above the piezometric surface or
water table. This is in contrast to a lake that has no sinkhole but dis-
charges its flood waters only through a surface outlet and the loss of
water through its outlet stops when the lake level falls below the lowest
point on its rim. It is possible for a lake to have an extremely porous
bottom that allows water to seep out at relatively high rates, thereby
causing the same effect as an open sinkhole. The extremely low stages
of Brooklyn Lake, Johnson Lake, White Sand Lake, and several other
lakes in the vicinity of Keystone Heights (1954-57) probably can be
attributed to seepage into porous material underlying the lakes and
evaporational losses exceeding the amount of replenishment during
periods of deficient rainfall. A study to determine lake depths will be
includedin the continuing investigation of the lakes in this area.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36 29





16I







12



110



08



06



04



02


m
1-

98



S96



94



92



90



88



86


84


PEBBLE LAKE NEAR KEYSTONE HEIGHTS, FLA
















1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958


Figure 11. Stage graph of Pebble Ldke near Keystone Heights, Florida


IC


w



zn
z I(

w

LJI





30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

106


104

102 JOHNSON LAKE NEAR KEYSTONE -EGHTS, FLA.


U-1 10-


96
SXse
f
96


94
tU
,- 94
tI,
z
0-
4
>Ur92
co
I15


____j~-~iI_


90 1945 19 I 1947 I 19 1 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 195"



Figure 12. Stage graph of Johnson Lake near Keystone Heights, Florida.


Deficient rainfall during the period 1954-56 caused many lakes in
the Keystone Heights area to recede to extremely low levels. However,
there is evidence that these lakes had been lower during prior years.
Rainfall records reveal three periods of drought conditions during the
years 1900 to 1944 (table 1). Rainfall at Gainesville for the years
1906-11 was 44.01 inches below normal, which was almost twice the
total deficiency for the period 1954-56; the total deficiency for the period
1914-18 was 33.72 inches, which was 1Y2 times the 1954-56 deficiency.
The years 1931-34 were deficient in total rainfall by 25.20 inches. The
length of stage records is insufficient to determine the lag in time be-
tween a period of above normal rainfall and the recovery of a lake from
an extremely low stage. However, this time lag is greater for a lake
that depends on ground-water inflow than it is for a lake that has a
large surface-water inflow. Further evidence of low lake levels in this
vicinity during prior years is the occurrence of stumps of pine trees in
the southern edge of Lake Geneva. These stumps measured as much as
9 inches in diameter and were found standing in water 1 foot deep when
the lake surface was at elevation 99.9 feet. This elevation is near the
lowest stage for the period 1957-58 (fig. 8).





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


Excepting Smith Lake, the Etonia Creek basin lakes contained no
visible suspended material. The lake waters sampled were low in dis-
solved solids, 20-70 ppm, and were only slightly colored by organic
matter. A small range of variation in both these characteristics was
observed. These characteristics appear to bear no relation to stage;
however, this is probably because variations in dissolved mineral and
organic matter are small and occur slowly. A longer period of obser-
vation would be required to determine if the concentrations of dissolved
matter are related to stage. Water quality and locations of data col-
lection sites are summarized in figure 13.

Temperatures of lake waters that were measured ranged from 540F
in Crystal Lake (December 20, 1957) to 880F in Brooklyn Lake (Novem-
ber 25, 1957). Temperatures in each lake are likely to undergo seasonal
fluctuations that correspond to seasonal variations in air temperature.
The seasonal range in temperatures would decrease with depth.

Except for Smith and Hall lakes water movement through the lakes
apparently is effective in preventing an increase in dissolved materials
that would result from evaporation. This effect may be masked by heavy
rainfall.

The surface water in the upper Etonia Creek basin was suitable for
most uses and would require minimum treatment.


Lakes in the Santa Fe River Basin

Most of the lakes in the Santa Fe River basin have outlets to the
Santa Fe River or its tributaries. Santa Fe Lake is the headwaters of
the Santa Fe River. Other lakes that have surface outlets directly to
the main stem of the Santa Fe River are Lake Altho, Hampton Lake, and
Sampson Lake. Lake Butler discharges to New River. Swift Creek Pond
is the headwaters of Swift Creek. The main outlet of South Prong Pond
is to the South Prong St. Marys River; however, flood waters from this
lake spill over the southwestern edge of the lake to Olustee Creek.
Stage graphs for Santa Fe Lake, Lake Sampson, and Lake Butler are
shown in figure 14, and the locations of these lakes are shown in fig-
ure 20.
Santa Fe Lake, including Little Santa Fe Lake, is the largest
of the lakes in this basin with a surface area of 5,150 acres (at elevation
141 feet, from topographic map dated 1949). During periods of extremely
high lake levels, water flows from the south end of the lake to Lochloosa





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


141



140



139


SANTA FE LAKE










Si i i i i i i I I I I I I i i I I I




LAKE SAMPSON




















LAKE BUTLER






I I I I I I I I I I I I II II II
1957 1958



Figure 14. Stage graphs of lakes in the Santa Fe River basin.


138

134



133



132



131



130

132



131



130





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


Creek by way of Santa Fe Bayou and Lake Boullar. The outlet channel
to the Santa Fe River becomes partly clogged with debris at times during
periods of high water, which increases flooding around the shore of the
lake. A canalized channel connects Little Lake Santa Fe and Lake Altho
to the west.

Sampson Lake with a surface area of 2,070 acres (at elevation
about 133 feet, from topographic map dated 1949) is located west of
Starke and is the largest lake lying wholly within Bradford County. It
receives drainage from Alligator Creek through Lake Rowell to the east
and from Lake Crosby to the northeast through a low marshy area. Flow
from the lake is by way of the Sampson River to the Santa Fe River, with
some water flowing into a drainage well that is located in the north-
western edge of the lake.

The other lake in this basin for which a stage graph is given in
figure 14 is Lake Butler. It receives local drainage from a low wooded
area to the north. Flow from the lake enters Butler Creek which flows
into New River. The only recreational or residential development on the
lake is along the southern shore where the limits of the town of Lake
Butler extend to the lakeshore.


Lakes in the Orange Creek Basin

The largest lakes in this basin are Newnans Lake, Orange Lake,
and Lochloosa Lake and with their connecting channels they form the
drainage system for the upper three-fourths of the Orange Creek basin.
Stage graphs of these lakes are shown in figure 15 and their locations
are shown in figure 35.

The main inflow to Newnans Lake is from Hatchet Creek which
drains an area of 57 square miles above State Highway 26. The surface
flow from Newnans Lake reaches Orange Lake by way of Prairie Creek,
Camps Canal, and River Styx. Prior to the digging of Camps Canal,
Newnans Lake and Orange Lake were not connected by a well-defined
channel. Prairie Creek flowed from Newnans Lake into a sinkhole in
Payne's Prairie prior to digging of the canal and River Styx was the main
tributary to Orange Lake. At the time Camps Canal was dug, a dike was
thrown up across the east end of Payne's Prairie, diverting the flow of
Prairie Creek into River Styx.

Lochloosa Lake receives drainage from Lochloosa Creek and
several small tributaries. The lake also receives ground-water inflow







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


-70- --- EW A LAKE EAR GAINESVLLE, FLA--


68
__kA A


66



64 1945 1 946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958



62









3mANG LAKE AT LMOOSA, FLA---

9-
54


52 -_ __9-
1942I 1943 1944 15 1946 1947 1948 1949 -1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958


62 ___ -- --- |---


601 __ --- __---


58




-ORANGE LAKE AT ORANGE LAKE, FLA.- -
54


52 -- 19 14 -- -- W -- -9 -



1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958


Figure 15. Stage graphs of lakes in the Orange Creek basin.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


as evidenced by springs located:;along the northeastern shore of the lake.
Water flows from Lochloosa Lake to Orange Lake through Cross Creek.
Both Lochloosa Lake and Orange Lake have outlets to Orange Creek.

Orange Lake not only discharges water through its surface outlet
but it also loses water into a sinkhole when the water level in the under-
lying aquifer is below the lake level. This sinkhole is in the south-
western edge of the lake near the town of Orange Lake. Water was>
flowing into the sink duringthe period of low lake levels of 1956-57.
At that time a sandbag and earth dam was constructed around the sink-
hole in an attempt to isolate it from the lake and retard the loss of water
from the lake. This dam was inundated early in 1958 at a lake elevation
of about 57 feet. The stage-duration curve for Orange Lake in figure 6
shows the percent of total time that the lake level stood at or above the
indicated elevations during the 11-year period, 1947-57. For information
on quality of water in lakes in the Orange Creek basin, see pages 56-58.


Lakes in the Black Creek Basin

Kingsley Lake, the largest lake in this basin, has a surface area
of 1,630 acres. This lake has the very desirable characteristic of a
narrow range in stage (fig. 16). There was only 3.5 feet between the
highest and lowest stages during the period from June 1945 to December
1958. Other lakes in the vicinity had ranges in stage up to 20 feet
during the same period. This relatively stable stage can be attributed
to a steady flow of ground water into the lake from the sandy formation
surrounding the lake and to the fact that the lake has a surface outlet
to the North Fork Black Creek.




SI I I I


176


174
z
Ur


AI. I .II I I A if I I I I(


KINGSLEY LAKE AT CAMP BLENDING, FLA. '
-1
1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958


Figure 16. Stage graph of Kingsley Lake at Camp Blanding, Florida.


4


I






36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Kingsley Lake very probably was formed as the result of a sinkhole.
The bottom has the characteristic shape (fig. 17) that is likely to form
when sandy material slumps into a hole. One part of the lake has an
85-foot hole. However, if this lake was formed as the result of a sink-
hole, it is reasonable to assume that the bottom of the hole is now
partly sealed from the Floridan aquifer. Based on present knowledge,
it is unlikely that water is being lost or gained through the bottom of
this 85-foot hole to the Floridan aquifer.


The accompanying cross section and depth contour
figures 17 and 18, are based on a depth survey made with


map, given in
a sonic depth


KINGSLEY LAKE


NOTE- Cross section along
given in figure 18.
1000 2000 3000 4000


Figure 17. Lines of equal depth of
referred to overage lake elevation of
section along line D-A.


Kingsley Lake.
176.3 feet, msl.


Depth of water in feet
See figure 18 for cross


7000






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


GROSS SECT/ON


OF KINGSLEY LAKE


above mIl (Average 1945-58)


DISTANCE, IN THOUSANDS OF FEET
0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 I 0
I 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10


Figure 18. Cross section of Kingsley Lake along line
figure 17. Note that the depth scale is exaggerated 50
distance scale.


D-A; see contour map,
times greater than the


recorder. Similar studies of other lakes are planned as part of the con-
tinuing investigation to help determine the types and characteristics
of the lakes in this region.

No records have been kept on the other lakes in this basin in the
headwaters of the South Fork Black Creek and in the Camp Blanding
Military Reservation.

For information on quality of water in lakes in the Black Creek
basin, see pages 52-53.

This section of the report gives a general description of the basins
and streamflow characteristics of the area. The average, maximum, and
minimum yields of water from each basin given herein are intended to
give a generalized picture of the availability of surface water.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Streamflow in the area occurs in four principal basins -the St.Johns
River basin, the Santa Fe River basin, the Black Creek basin, and the
Orange Creek basin. The fifth basin in the area the upper Etonia
Creek basin is minor in terms of streamflow. The Santa Fe River basin
includes the major portion of Union and Bradford counties and part of
northern Alachua County. The Black Creek basin includes most of
Clay County and a small area of southern Duval County. The upper
Orange Creek basin includes three large lakes Newnans, Orange, and
Lochlooso and their tributaries and connecting channels in Alachua
County. Orange Creek begins below the outlet of Orange and Lochloosa
lakes and empties into the Oklawaha River in the vicinity of Orange
Springs in Marion County.

Surface-water flow between the lakes in the upper Etonia Creek
basin, in southwestern Clay County, is intermittent and only at extremely
high lake stages does any water flow out of the area into Etonia Creek.


ST. JOHNS RIVER

The St. Johns River flows in a northerly direction for a distance
of 250 miles from its origin in Indian River County to Jacksonville,
then eastward 25 miles into the Atlantic Ocean. It is the largest and
longest river lying wholly within the State. The stream valley is from
I to 3 miles wide in the vicinity of Clay County.

The slope of the river is exceedingly flat. The maximum fall,
during floods, is only 27 feet, or 0.1 foot per mile average, from the
origin to the Atlantic Ocean. The river is affected by Atlantic Ocean
tides as far upstream as Lake George, 120 miles from the mouth, and
farther during periods of low river stages and high tides. The tide range
at Jacksonville is about 2.0 feet and is only slightly less at Green Cove
Springs in Clay County.

The St. Johns River forms the eastern boundary of Clay County.
The town of Green Cove Springs, located on the west side of the river,
is 50 miles upstream from the mouth. The river in this vicinity is the
collecting channel for flow leaving the four-county area by way of Black
Creek, Etonia Creek, and several smaller creeks.

The flow of the St. Johns River at Green Cove Springs is esti-
mated to be 4) billion gallons per day. At DeLand, 85 miles upstream,
the average flow is 2 billion gallons per day. Although not a common





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


occurrence, a reverse flow that is, flow in an upstream direction of
approximately 2 billion gallons per day has been computed at DeLand.
The flow at Jacksonville reverses direction with each change of tide.

The main use of the St. Johns River is for navigation. A channel
depth of 12 feet is maintained as far upstream as Lake Monroe at Sanford.
There is a U. S. Naval Station on the river at Green Cove Springs. The
river is used also for commercial fishing, recreational activities, and
waste disposal.

The quality of water in the St. Johns River was indicated by a
specific conductance of 850 micromhos measured at Green Cove Springs
on December 18, 1957. This specific conductance indicates a dissolved-
solids content of about 500 ppm. Dissolved solids apparently consist
primarily of sodium chloride and calcium and magnesium bicarbonates.

A few miscellaneous measurements of water quality have been
made on the small tributary streams draining directly into the St. Johns
River. Dissolved solids are estimated to range from 30 to 140 ppm and
color intensity from 50 to more than 100 units in these streams. The
water-quality data available indicate that most streams are sustained
by local shallow ground water that is under water-table conditions. The
water quality of these small streams shows a similarity to that of Greens
Creek, a tributary to South Fork Black Creek, except for dissolved-solids
content. Water-quality data are summarized in figure 19. Water temper-
atures generally ranged from near 500F during colder months to more
than 800F during the warmer months.


SANTA FE RIVER BASIN

Few river basins in Florida are more complex than the Santa Fe
River basin; few offer a more interesting study in the field of hydrology
or, indeed, offer a better supply of water than does the Santa Fe River
basin. The Santa Fe River basin is shown in figure 20. The flow
characteristics of this basin vary widely from the upper part to the lower
part of the basin. The flow characteristics change abruptly in the vicin-
ity of O'leno State Park, about 6 miles north of High Springs. Here the
entire river disappears into the ground and reappears about 3 miles away.
Below the point where it reappears, streamflow increases rapidly as the
river flows through a channel worn into limestone. The discharge hydro-
graphs of two stations on the Santa Fe River for the water year 1958,
given in figure 21, show the variations in flow in the upper and the lower


















'1


rn
Lnon


;0
PT A4 ? IL I n-
U 0


so Lot STARE 0


1100
Udff ground
NWH Jr

H am







11
0' L L..0f.uI'II'.6I'.-
L I 61P10 of .,.61110


Figure 20. The Santa Fe River basin.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36 41


SANTA FE RIVER
2200 y___


1400 NEAR FT WHITE











Figure 21. Flow hydrographs of the Santa Fe River.


part of the basin. Almost all the pickup in flow in the lower basin is
Boo

AT WORT-GTO- -^

OCT. NOV DEC. JAN FEB. MAR. APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SIEP
WATER YEAR 1958


Figure 21. Flow hydrographs of the Santa Fe River.


part of the basin. Almost all the pickup in flow in the lower basin is
from ground water. Few tributary streams feed the lower river except
those that flow from springs, such as Ichatucknee Springs neat Hildreth.
Much of the lower part of the basin (downstream from the point where
the river flows underground) does not contribute surface flow to the
main stream.

The Santa Fe River, above the point where it enters the ground
in O'leno State Park, presents a different pattern of runoff than it does
below the point. Here lakes, ponds, and swampy areas dot the water-
shed. The upper part of the river is fed by tributaries that drain almost
the entire area of Bradford and Union counties and the northern part
of Alachua County. Much of the streamflow in the upper part of the
basin occurs as direct runoff from lakes, lowland areas, and as overland
flow. The distinction between surface water and ground water is some-
what more clearly defined in the upper part of the basin than it is in
the lower part of the basin. Small headwater streams cease flowing
during extended periods of deficient rainfall. Differences in the stream-
flow characteristics of the lower and upper parts of the basin can be
seen from the discharge hydrographs shown in figure 21. The flow near
Fort White has a much higher base and does not reflect local rainfall as
rapidly as does the flow at Worthington.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The three major streams comprising the upper part of the Santa Fe
River basin are Olustee Creek, New River, and the Santa Fe River.
The flow from the basin above O'leno State Park comes from these
streams in the relative magnitude of 50 percent from the Santa Fe River,
30 percent from New River, and 20 percent from Olustee Creek. The
average unit runoff of the Santa Fe River at Worthington, with a drainage
area of 630 square miles, for the 8-year period, 1951-58, is 0.43 cfs
(cubic feet per second) per square mile; and at New River near Lake
Butler, with a drainage area of 212 square miles, the average unit runoff
for the same period was 0.46 cfs per square mile.
The streamflow within the Santa Fe River basin, as in other basins
in the State, varies from time to time and from area to area within the
basin. The time distribution of flow roughly parallels the time distri-
bution of rainfall. Figure 22 shows the monthly average, maximum, and
minimum flows for three stations on the Santa Fe River and indicates
the seasonal distribution of runoff. The monthly average flows shown
in this figure indicate that the period of highest runoff can be expected
during August, September, and October. Also, high runoff can be ex-
pected from early spring rains during February, March, and April. In
general, the lowest runoff occurs during May and June. However, maxi-
mum flows do not follow average patterns; for example, at Worthington
the maximum monthly flow of record occurred in June.

Two outstanding features of this basin are the widely varying
runoff from area to area and the high base flow in the lower basin.
Figure 22, showing flow at Worthington and Fort White, gives a comparison
of the runoff from the upper basin and that from the lower basin. Rates of
flow for several points in the basin have been converted to inches per
year, which can be compared with the average annual rainfall of about
51 inches on the basin. In the lower basin the section of the river
between High Springs and Fort White has an average annual runoff of
84.7 inches which is more than 1li times the annual rainfall on the area
and is the highest runoff from any area of like size in the State. In
the upper part of the basin the yearly runoff is slightly over half the
statewide average runoff that has been estimated to be 14 inches per
year (Patterson, 1955). The average annual runoff at the Worthington
gaging station is 8.4 inches per year; the High Springs gaging station
is 10.5 inches per year; and the Fort White gaging station is 19.4 inches
per year, based on 27 years of record.
These figures of runoff, of course, are an average for the entire
basin above the station. The runoff at Fort White reflects large ground-
water inflow that enters the stream between High Springs and Fort White.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


SANTA FE RIVER


J F M A M J J A SON D
NEAR FT WHITE


J F M A M J J A S N D
NEAR HIGH SPRINGS


Figure 22. Comparative monthly flows for three stations on the Santa Fe River.



The area of 130 square miles between these two towns has an average

runoff of 84.7 inches per year. Poe Springs, located on the bank of

the stream about 3 miles west of High Springs, is one of several points

of high ground-water inflow that contribute to this high runoff. The
average flow of this spring, as determined from five discharge measure-
ments made from 1917 to 1946, is 70.4 cfs (45.5 mgd [million gallons

per day]).


The curves in figure 23, showing the duration of daily discharge
at the Worthington, High Springs, and Fort White gaging stations forthe


460O

4400

4200

4000

38OO
3600



3400

3200

a 3000

2600

2600

S2400

2200

3 20O0



1600
u




1400

1200

1000







44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


indicated periods, show wide variations in streamflow characteristics.
The duration curve with the least slope has the least variation in stream-
flow. These curves show flows that can be expected for selected per-
centages of time and they show flow characteristics for each station's
range in discharge.


The graphs show with reasonable accuracy the magnitude of the
flow that can be expected at these stations. For example, a flow of at
least 0.8 cfs per square mile, or 864 cfs (558 mgd) occurred at Fort
White during 90 percent of the time represented. In a strict sense
these flow-duration curves apply only to the period indicated; however,
since this is a reasonably long period, they can be used as probability

oo00

FLOW-DURATION CURVES FOR SANTA FE RIVER




S10 FT. WHITE
Z L e Drainage area, 1,080 sq. mi.
< Average flow, 1,545 cft
SPeriod of record, 1928, 29, 33-58











to WORTHINGTON
Drainage area, 650 sq. mi.
Average flow, 392 cfs
-Period of record, O932- 58





ILl
_____ WORTHINGTO~


SDrrainaa araraa, 950 s.. mi.
Avragrag lo lo, 734 c
SPrirod of record, 1932 58--




.00
Period of record, 1932- 58 -- --


__t ----- -----


0 10 20 30


40 50 60
PERCENT OF TIME


70 80 90 100


Figure 23. Flow-duration curves for the Santo Fe River.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


curves to estimate the percent of time in a period of equal length in
the future that the specified discharge will be equalled or exceeded.

Suspended vegetal material was visible in most of the basin
streams. No quantitative determinations of suspended material were
made.

The water temperatures ranged from 400 to 830F in the Santa Fe
River at Worthington and 390 to 85OF in New River near Lake Butler.
Daily temperature measurements are shown in figure 24.

Headwaters and flood plains of the streams in the Santa Fe River
basin are swampy. Consequently, almost without exception the waters
throughout the basin are very highly colored by dissolved organic matter.
The intensity of the color produced by the dissolved organic matter
derived from these swamps is not always in proportion to the weight of
the organic matter present. Organic matter in the streams was esti-
mated to have ranged from 7 to 70 ppm and color intensity from 94 to 360
units.

Generally, within these swamps proper, the waters are highly
colored, 500 units or more, and have mineral content near 40 ppm. Mineral
content is predominantly sodium chloride. Occasionally ground water
under water-table conditions is colored in this general area. The color
may be related to the swamp areas or to the presence of peat and muck
intermixed with the sand deposits.

High concentrations of iron are related to organic color in the
waters. Iron concentrations present are actually higher than shown in
table 2 because some iron precipitated prior to analysis. Usually high
iron content and high organic matter were present in the same areas in
the basin.

Swamp water in this area is characteristically acidic in nature,
as indicated by low pH values. Five determinations show no alkalinity
in carbonate and bicarbonate form.

Within the basin the amount of mineral matter varies. Upward
movement of ground water from the deeper artesian aquifer is the source
of the more highly mineralized water. This is indicated by higher mineral
content and increased relative amounts of calcium, magnesium, and
alkalinity in bicarbonate form as the water moves progressively down-
stream.
















































g .0 ~d
-cl a 0 L% C
C, 24 a 1 -9
-01 In


Figure 24. Temperature of Santa Fe River and New River.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36 47

Samples for chemical analysis were collected once daily at stations
on the Santa Fe River at Worthington and on New River near Lake Butler.
Specific conductance was determined on each sample to estimate the
amount of dissolved solids and to show day-to-day variation. A composite
sample was made of equal volumes of water from each sample for a
period of approximately 10 consecutive days. The composite sample
was analyzed for concentration of the following constituents: silica,
iron, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, alkalinity, sulfate, chlo-
ride, fluoride, and nitrate. Therefore, constituent values represent a
10-day average at these two stations. Other locations were sampled
at less frequent intervals.

The specific conductance measured at the Santa Fe River at
Worthington station varies inversely with streamflow. The dissolved
solids follow the same trend of variation. Usually the amount of organic
matter varies directly with streamflow.

The range of variation in flow, specific conductance, dissolved
solids, ratio of sum of determined constituents, sum of determined
constituents, organic matter, color, and iron, July 15, 1957 to Septem-
ber 30, 1958, during the period of water-quality records for the daily
sampling stations on the Santa Fe River at Worthington and on New
River at Lake Butler are presented in table 2.

Table 2. Range in the Chemical Quality and the Flow of Water
in the Santa Fe River Basin

Santa Fe River New River near
at Worthington Units Lake Butler
Flow 28 -2,190 cfs 3.2 1,300
Specific conductance at 25 C 58 147 micromhos 61 239
Dissolved solids (residue on
evaporation at 180 C 87 137 ppm 90 160
Ratio of sum of determined
constituents to specific
conductance .51 .74 ppm/micromhos .57- .71
Sum of determined
constituents 37 107 ppm 39 146
Organic matter 7 70 ppm 17 78
Intensity of color due to Platinum-
presence of organic matter 95 340 cobalt scale 90 450
Iron .11 .57 ppm .09 .71





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figures 25, 26, 27, 28, and 29 show seasonal trends and magnitude
of dissolved constituents at various locations in the Santa Fe River
basin during the period of study.

The use of most surface waters within this basin may be consider-
ably limited because of treatment necessary to remove the organic matter.
Treatment for iron removal nearly always would be desirable. For agri-
cultural purposes neither characteristic is significant, but for domestic
and most industrial uses they are significant.

BLACK CREEK BASIN

Clay County is, indeed, fortunate to have a river basin, such as
the Black Creek basin, with so many miles of streams. Although small,
many of the tributary streams have perennial flows that offer water
supplies for many uses. Minimum flows at several points in this basin
are ample, without storage, for many purposes. The basin has a total
drainage area of 474 square miles and hundreds of miles of stream
channels. Figure 30 shows that almost the entire county is well dissected


Figure 28. Graphs showing the color, specific conductance, dissolved solids,
and sum of determined constituents in the Santa Fe River at Worthington.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


.s i~ i -ii
Figure 29. Graphs showing the color, specific conductance, dissolved solids,
and sum of determined constituents in the New River near Lake Butler.

with streams. Almost every square mile area of the county has access
to a stream channel. The topography of a great part of the area lends
itself well to the construction of small storage reservoirs. Storage
reservoirs that could be constructed in this basin would be beneficial
as recreational facilities and as conservational measures.

Black Creek is a tributary to the St. Johns River. The St. Johns
River and its tributaries drain practically all of Clay County. North
Fork Black Creek and South Fork Black Creek are the major tributaries
of Black Creek. These two forks join near the town of Middleburg to
form Black Creek. Ates Creek, Greens Creek, Bull Creek, and many
smaller streams are tributaries of South Fork Black Creek. Yellow
Water Creek drains water from an area in Duval and northern Clay counties
and flows into North Fork Black Creek.





au FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


%-.w PUTNM ca
I e locetlin mapN filut. t
Lee*#" LoetM of del-collcllcll 6l"e; number
Sotrefe to ber gleph, figure
Figure 30. The Black Creek basin.

Runoff from the Black Creek basin is estimated to average 13.6
inches per year, or slightly over 25 percent of the average annual rainfall,
but this ranges greatly from year to year. During 1948, which was a wet
year, runoff from the basin was estimated to be 32 inches; whereas in
1955, a dry year, the runoff was estimated to be 5 inches.

The flow of perennial streams during periods of no rainfall is
derived from water that has entered the ground elsewhere in the basin,
then reaches the stream by way of underground movement. Antecedent
rainfall conditions exert a major influence on runoff during periods of no






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


rainfall. High intensity rainfalls of short duration produce high rates
of direct runoff and little water goes into ground-water storage. In
contrast, when low intensity rainfall occurs over a longer period of
time, such as those in the fall and early spring, greater amounts of
water infiltrate into the ground and hold the ground-water level up and,
thereby, contribute to higher rates of sustained streamflow.

Minimum flow oftentimes is the controlling factor in determining
the suitability of a stream for any specified use. Under some circum-
stances, where the minimum streamflow is below the minimum specified
requirements, the deficiency can be overcome by a storage reservoir.
The duration of minimum flow is an important factor when storage is
needed to overcome a streamflow deficiency. A low-flow study is not
within the scope of this report, but the results of such study will be
given in a later report.

The flow-duration curves for North Fork Black Creek near Middle-
burg and South Fork Black Creek near Penney Farms are given in
figure 31. These curves show the percent of time that any indicated rate
of discharge was equalled or exceeded during the period 1940-58. A flow-
duration curve does not indicate the sequence of flows that have occurred
but does indicate the frequency distribution of mean daily discharges.


0 10 20 30 40 50 60
PERCENT OF TIME


Figure 31. Flow-duration curves for two stations in the Black Creek.


1,000





100










10
IO




I.O


ORANGE CREEK AT ORANGE SPRINGS
Average flow, 159 cfs
Period of record, 1943-52, 56-57


80 90 100






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Streamflow anywhere in the basin changes from day to day, from
month to month, and from year to year. The hydrograph in figure 32,
shows the discharge of South Fork Black Creek near Penney Farms for
the 1958 water year and indicates the seasonal fluctuations in the flow
of that stream. The minimum daily discharge of South Fork Black Creek
near Penney Farms during the period 1940-58 was 10 cfs (6.5 mgd),
whereas the maximum discharge during the same period was 13,900 cfs
(9,000 mgd), and the average discharge was 148 cfs (96 mgd). The
minimum daily discharge of North Fork Black Creek near Middleburg
during the period 1932-58 was 3.7 cfs (2.4 mgd), the maximum discharge
during the same period was 10,400 cfs (6,720 mgd), and the average
was 166 cfs (107 mgd).

Figures 33 and 34 show graphically the chemical quality of water
at locations in North Fork Black Creek basin.

Suspended vegetal material was visible in most of the basin
streams but no quantitative determinations were made.

Water-temperature measurements at several locations indicate
temperature of the streams ranges from the low fifties to the eighties
but only a few measurements were made.

Available data indicate lower concentration of dissolved organic
and mineral matter in South Fork Black Creek than in North Fork Black


,=.0


SOUTH FOA sLACu CREEK NEAR PENNEY FARMS
am,




S.. ..- --- __ __--_


OCT NO DEC. JAK FEB MAR APR. MAY. JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT.
WATER YEAR 1958

Figure 32. Flow hydrograph for South Fork Black Creek near Penney Farms,
Florida.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


Creek. Concentrations of dissolved matter in the South Fork ranged
from 45 to 86 ppm and ranged from 71 to 124 ppm in the North Fork.
Each range is based upon eight periodic measurements. Major tribu-
taries of South Fork Black Creek are Ates, Greens, and Bull creeks.
Concentrations of dissolved matter in each creek ranged between 20 and
75 ppm and did not differ from each other by more than 25 ppm at any
particular time. Concentrations were about equal to those above for
the entire creek except downstream from the confluence of North Fork
Black Creek and Boggy Branch. Flow from Boggy Branch occasionally
causes a sharp rise in the concentration of dissolved matter that was
readily recognized in the downstream reach of North Fork Black Creek.

Data collected in April 1956 during a period of deficient rainfall
indicate chemical quality similar to that during a period of near normal
rainfall in 1957-58. The only significant difference was the relative
amount of each constituent to the concentration of dissolved matter in
North Fork Black Creek near Camp Blanding.

Generally,the natural waters in the basin contain low concentrations
of dissolved matter, and color ranges from 30 to 360 units. Concentrations
tended to increase progressively downstream, color usually more than
concentration of mineral matter. In general, concentration of dissolved
matter varied more in the Black Creek area than in either the upper
Etonia or Orange Creek basins but less than in the Santa Fe River basin.

Color removal will almost always be necessary for most uses.
Although waters in the Black Creek basin are less intensely colored
than in the Santa Fe River basin, costs of removing color would be
about equal. Iron content generally is less than in the Santa Fe River
basin, but removal of iron would be desirable most of the time for many
uses. Little or no treatment for many uses except in areas of evident
cultural influences would be required to alter the concentration of
mineral matter in most surface water of the Black Creek basin.


ORANGE CREEK BASIN

Most of the streams in the Orange Creek basin are tributaries to
Newnans, Orange, and Lochloosa lakes. The drainage area of the basin
above the outlets of Orange and Lochloosa lakes is 323 square miles,
of which about 45 square miles, 14 percent, is the total water-surface
area of the three largest lakes. A map showing the basin and data col-
lection site is given in figure 35.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 35. The Orange Creek basin.


The stage graphs given in figure 15 show that Newnans Lake
responds to changes in inflow and outflow more rapidly than does either
Orange Lake or Lochloosa Lake. This is due, at least in part, to a
faster time of concentration of runoff from the area draining into Newnans
Lake and also to the existence of an outlet with sufficient conveyance
to drain the water off faster. Results of discharge measurements show
that the rate of flow into Newnans Lake from Hatchet Creek varies from
0.5 to 2,000 cfs, whereas the rate of flow into Lochloosa Lake from
Lochloosa Creek varies from no flow to over 750 cfs. Lochloosa Lake






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


receives an average of about 20,000 acre-feet per year from Lochloosa
Creek. This is equivalent to about 3 feet of water in the lake. Orange
Lake receives flow from Newnans Lake and is connected to Lochloosa
Lake by Cross Creek.

Flow in the lower basin, below the outlets of Orange Lake and
Lochloosa Lake is partly outflow from the lakes. Since a large part
of the flow in the lower basin comes from the upper basin, any regula-
tion of storage in the lakes would be reflected in the flow in the lower
basin. The combined outflow from Orange Lake and Lochloosa Lake was
subtracted from the flow of Orange Creek at Orange Springs to determine
the flow from the intervening drainage area of 108 square miles. The
graph given in figure 36 shows the flow that would have occurred at
Orange Springs had there been no outflow from Orange Lake and Loch-
loosa Lake. The minimum monthly flow given in the graph in figure 36
was 5.0 cfs (3.2 mgd). The period October 1955 to September 1957


represents a period of no flow from Orange and Lochloosa lakes.


The


200-

ORBANDE $EEK
Sfrom tbItr *mvmning d"inog wor of IOB **=- mnilk betlen the
_______ _____M O Oraon ad Lohoo a d Or Sig._______ _______
140







0,

-1

1,,, 1 7 IB4B 150 1 1 1,S2 1[ ,53 1 ,954 1 ,955 1958 1T


Figure 36. Flow hydrograph for the lower Orange Creek basin.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


average unit runoff from the 108 square miles immediately above Orange
Springs was 0.59 cfs per square mile for the period 1947-52 and it is
approximately equal to the unit runoff from the entire basin during
that period.

Records reveal considerable variation in the flow of Orange Creek
at Orange Springs. The daily discharge for the periods 1943-52, 1956,
1957, at Orange Springs has varied from 2 cfs to a maximum of 1,290 cfs.
However, based on the flow-duration curve given in figure 37, the flow
was not less than 75 cfs during 50 percent of the time.

Upward flow from artesian aquifers, seepage from the watern-table
aquifers, and drainage from marshes influence the quality of water in
the basin. Marshy areas adjoin the northern edge of Newnans Lake
where the creek empties into the lake, adjacent to both banks of Camps
Canal, and in small areas near the northern and eastern edges of Loch-
loosa Lake. In addition, large areas in the central part of the basin
are covered by prairie lakes.


0 10 20 30 40 50 60
PERCENT OF TIME


70 80 90 100


Figure 37. Flow-duration curve for Orange Creek at Orange Springs, Florida






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


Suspended sediment was not visible in the streams in the basin.
The quality characteristics of the streams and lakes varied at different
locations within the basin; data collection points are shown anddata
are summarized in figure 38. Hatchet Creek had concentrations of dis-
solved mineral matter about equal to that in most waters in the upper
Etonia Creek basin, about 30 ppm; it contains colored organic matter
in significant but usually not in large amounts, about 15-65 units.

Newnans Lake receives water from Hatchet Creek and marshes.
The large lake-surface area and shallow depth are conducive to rela-
tively high rates of evaporation. The two major influences upon water
quality of Newnans Lake are high rates of evaporation and high rates of
direct surface inflow. Evaporation concentrates and direct inflow dilutes
the dissolved solids content. Direct inflow has the opposite effect
upon color. Although the range in color intensity was not defined it
may range up to 100 or more units during periods of high direct inflow.
On April 23, 1956, water from Newnans Lake contained 116 ppm of
mineral matter and color of 35 units; the next day inflow to Newnans
Lake from Hatchet Creek contained 23 ppm of mineral matter and color
of 50 units. Mineral matter ranged approximately from 45-29 ppm and
color from 65-50 units during the period from July 1957 to October 1958.

Chemical character of water in Orange Lake varies in proportion
to the amount and source of inflow. Two main sources are apparent,
direct surface inflow and ground-water inflow.

Chemical quality of water in Lochloosa Lake appears less af-
fected by direct surface inflow. Lochloosa Lake water had 84 ppm of
mineral matter. The higher concentration was due mainly to calcium
and magnesium bicarbonates, indicating the presence of water from
subterranean sources.

Water flowing into Orange Creek contains nearly the same amount
of color as waters in the upper areas of the basin. The concentration
of mineral matter increased progressively downstream from the head-
waters through Orange Lake, then between Orange Lake and the Oklawaha
River was diluted by large quantities of inflow and the concentration is
near that of the headwaters.

Water temperatures on record from Newnans Lake ranged from
560 to 880F. This temperature range was greater than any observed
elsewhere in the basin. On October 7, 1958, at different places within





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Newnans Lake the surface and near-bottom temperatures were observed
to range between 560 and 710F, indicating stratification. Surface tem-
peratures on October 7, 1958 were consistently lower than those near
the bottom. This contrasts with the approximately uniform temperature
of 75F within Lochloosa Lake on October 7, 1958.

Waters in the Orange Creek basin generally will require more treat-
ment before use than waters in the Etonia Creek basin. For most uses,
the water will require treatment to remove color. Other treatment required
would vary locally within the basin.


GROUND WATER

Ground water is the subsurface water that is in the zone of satu-
ration the zone in which all pore spaces are completely filled with
water. The zone of saturation is the reservoir from which all water
from springs and wells is derived. The term "aquifer" is defined as a
rock layer or group of layers, in the zone of saturation, that is permeable
enough to transmit usable quantities of water to wells or springs.

Ground water is one of the most valuable natural resources in
Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties. In fact, almost all the
rural homes, farms, ranches, industries, and cities depend upon ground
water for their water supply. The almost universal use of ground water
is doubtlessly related to the fact that it can be pumped from wells at
the site where it is to be used and to the fact that the quality of ground
water is relatively constant.

The purpose of this section is to present information that will be
helpful in utilizing the ground-water resources of these counties. Fol-
lowing a brief explanation of the methods used in the investigation, the
lithologic and minera!ogic character of each geologic formation is des-
cribed in this section. Then each aquifer and its hydrology are described.


METHODS OF INVESTIGATION

An essential part of the ground-water study was the collection of
data from existing wells and from test wells.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


WELL-NUMBERING SYSTEM

For the purpose of identifying wells, numbers were assigned by
dividing the four counties into 1-minute quadrangles of latitude and
longitude and numbering, consecutively starting with 1, the wells in
each 1-minute quadrangle. The well number is composed of the last
three digits of the line of latitude south of the well, followed by the
last three digits of the line of longitude east of the well, followed by
the number of the well in the quadrangle. For example, Alachua County
well 943-207-1 is the well numbered 1 in the quadrangle bounded on the
south by latitude 29043' and on the east by longitude 82007'. Wells
referred to in the text by well number may be located on figure 39.


EXISTING WELLS

The following data on existing wells were collected and studied:
drillers' logs, use of wells, yield of wells, dimensions of casings,
depth to water, and water temperature. Water samples were also col-
lected for chemical analysis. Figure 39 shows the locations of wells
that were inventoried.

In addition, the elevations of a few of these wells were determined.


TEST WELLS

Much of the investigation has been devoted to drilling 2 deep test
wells and 43 shallow test wells, and analyzing the data from these wells.
The locations of the test wells are shown in figure 39. Geologic samples,
water samples, records of water levels, and drilling speeds were col-
lected at various depths during the drilling of Alachua County well
936-236-1, and Union County well 007-222-1. These wells were drilled
to depths of 251 and 724 feet, respectively. After drilling the wells
they were pumped and electric logs were run. During the augering of
the shallow test wells, which were as much as 50 feet in depth, only
geologic samples were collected.


The elevations of many of the test wells were determined.








U


It].:,
Off


f.. ......... I .









i 1 i i h 1
-~ ~ el "L- t4


f r i4hf l '~ ,


---.- --- -W -
by.? ~~-, .-^--^ --^-^-^^K, .---

-Z IEM IW a

L I I


I A . ..C L. .

46


EXPLANATION

SWe"l t el
M .5hikw eI Oell

1 ,





. . i i i I I


'i


1~ r1------r -.-


VTr


if,


Figure 39. Alahu, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties showing the locations of wells
Figure 39. Alachua, Bradford, Clay, bnd Union counties showing the locations of wells.


IMINE


LI


ISr


L ---


-N'--





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


OBSERVATION WELL PROGRAM

Water levels were measured periodically in a selected number of
existing wells and in most of the test wells. On a few of the key wells,
recording gages were installed in order to obtain a continuous record of
water-level fluctuations. Moreover, the ground-water temperature was
measured periodically in most of the test wells.


GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS1

GENERAL STRATIGRAPHY AND STRUCTURE

Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties are underlain by
several hundred feet of unconsolidated and semiconsolidated marine
and nonmarine deposits of sand, clay, gravel, limestone, dolomite, and
dolomitic limestone. The Lake City Limestone of Eocene Age and
younger formations contain fresh water, but several thousand feet of
older rocks of Tertiary and Cretaceous Age lie beneath the Lake City
Limestone and contain highly mineralized water. Only the fresh water-
bearing formations are discussed in this report.

The Eocene Series comprises the Lake City Limestone, Avon
Park Limestone, and the Ocala Group; the Oligocene Series is repre-
sented by the Suwannee Limestone; the Miocene Series comprises the
Hawthorn and the Choctawhatchee Formations; the Pliocene Series
comprises the Caloosahatchee, Citronelle, and Alachua Formations;
the Pleistocene Series is made up of higher terrace deposits; and the
Pleistocene and Recent Series is made up of several lower marine and
estuarine terrace deposits. Except for the Inglis, Williston, and Crystal
River Formations, which compose the Ocala Group and are undifferen-
tiated in this report, erosional unconformities separate each series and
each formation of each series.


The stratigraphic nomenclature used in this report conforms to the usage by
Cooke (1945) with revisions by Vernon (1951) except that the Ocala Limestone
is referred to as the Ocala Group. The Ocala Group, and its subdivisions, as
described by Puri (1953) has been adopted by the Florida Geological Survey.
The Federal Geological Survey regards the Ocala as two formations, the Ocala
Limestone and Inglis Limestone.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Newnans Lake the surface and near-bottom temperatures were observed
to range between 560 and 710F, indicating stratification. Surface tem-
peratures on October 7, 1958 were consistently lower than those near
the bottom. This contrasts with the approximately uniform temperature
of 75F within Lochloosa Lake on October 7, 1958.

Waters in the Orange Creek basin generally will require more treat-
ment before use than waters in the Etonia Creek basin. For most uses,
the water will require treatment to remove color. Other treatment required
would vary locally within the basin.


GROUND WATER

Ground water is the subsurface water that is in the zone of satu-
ration the zone in which all pore spaces are completely filled with
water. The zone of saturation is the reservoir from which all water
from springs and wells is derived. The term "aquifer" is defined as a
rock layer or group of layers, in the zone of saturation, that is permeable
enough to transmit usable quantities of water to wells or springs.

Ground water is one of the most valuable natural resources in
Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties. In fact, almost all the
rural homes, farms, ranches, industries, and cities depend upon ground
water for their water supply. The almost universal use of ground water
is doubtlessly related to the fact that it can be pumped from wells at
the site where it is to be used and to the fact that the quality of ground
water is relatively constant.

The purpose of this section is to present information that will be
helpful in utilizing the ground-water resources of these counties. Fol-
lowing a brief explanation of the methods used in the investigation, the
lithologic and minera!ogic character of each geologic formation is des-
cribed in this section. Then each aquifer and its hydrology are described.


METHODS OF INVESTIGATION

An essential part of the ground-water study was the collection of
data from existing wells and from test wells.






62 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

A generalized geologic mop (fig. 40) shows the surface distri.
bution of the various formations. The oldest exposed rocks are lir.estone:
of the Ocola Group, which crop out in southern and western Alachu
County. The Hawthorn, Choctawhatchee (of former usage), and Citronelli
Formations and deposits of Pleistocene, and Pleistocene and Recer
Age are at the surface in other parts of the four-county area.

The principal geologic structure of the area is the Ocala uplifi
an anticlinal fold whose crest transverses southwestern Alachua County
The folding has uparched beds of Tertiary Age and has brought lime
stones of the Ocala Group along the crest of the uplift to the surface
or close to the surface. The main axis of the uplift passes severe


Figure 40. Generalized geologic
counties.


map of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Uni





INFORMATION CIRCULARINO 036 63

miles west of Alachua County, and in general, parallels the north-south
axis of the Florida Peninsula. The formations dip away from the Ocala
uplift to the north and northeast. Cross sections A-A', B-B', C-C', and
D-D' (fig. 41,42) extend across parts of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and
Union counties in directions generally parallel and perpendicular to
tothe axis of the Ocala uplift.

The geologic formations and their water-bearing properties are
given in table 3. The formations are grouped according to their geologic
age and are described from oldest to youngest that is, from the Lake
City Limestone to the Pleistocene and Recent deposits.


EOCENE SERIES


Lake City Limestone

The Lake City Limestone, which has been penetrated by only a
few wells, is at relatively great depths in Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and
Union counties. It probably is the oldest formation from which supplies
of fresh ground water can be obtained. The Lake City overlies the
Oldsmar Limestone of Early Eocene Age.

The lithologic character and thickness of the Lake City Limestone
could not be determined accurately from the available data. In general,
however, it consists of beds of limestones and dolomites which are
several hundred feet thick.

In these four counties, the Lake City Limestone, which forms
the lowermost part of the Floridan aquifer, is under both water-table
and artesian conditions. Like the overlying formations which make up
the Floridan, it should be a source of large quantities of water.


Avon Park Limestone

The Avon Park Limestone, which overlies the Lake City Lime-
stone, is in the subsurface throughout the four counties. The formation
is predominantly tan to brown. It is composed of finely crystalline to
porous dolomite or dolomitic limestone, and in some places it contains
thin beds of cream-colored limestone. Generally the rocks are hard and





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


OBSERVATION WELL PROGRAM

Water levels were measured periodically in a selected number of
existing wells and in most of the test wells. On a few of the key wells,
recording gages were installed in order to obtain a continuous record of
water-level fluctuations. Moreover, the ground-water temperature was
measured periodically in most of the test wells.


GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS1

GENERAL STRATIGRAPHY AND STRUCTURE

Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties are underlain by
several hundred feet of unconsolidated and semiconsolidated marine
and nonmarine deposits of sand, clay, gravel, limestone, dolomite, and
dolomitic limestone. The Lake City Limestone of Eocene Age and
younger formations contain fresh water, but several thousand feet of
older rocks of Tertiary and Cretaceous Age lie beneath the Lake City
Limestone and contain highly mineralized water. Only the fresh water-
bearing formations are discussed in this report.

The Eocene Series comprises the Lake City Limestone, Avon
Park Limestone, and the Ocala Group; the Oligocene Series is repre-
sented by the Suwannee Limestone; the Miocene Series comprises the
Hawthorn and the Choctawhatchee Formations; the Pliocene Series
comprises the Caloosahatchee, Citronelle, and Alachua Formations;
the Pleistocene Series is made up of higher terrace deposits; and the
Pleistocene and Recent Series is made up of several lower marine and
estuarine terrace deposits. Except for the Inglis, Williston, and Crystal
River Formations, which compose the Ocala Group and are undifferen-
tiated in this report, erosional unconformities separate each series and
each formation of each series.


The stratigraphic nomenclature used in this report conforms to the usage by
Cooke (1945) with revisions by Vernon (1951) except that the Ocala Limestone
is referred to as the Ocala Group. The Ocala Group, and its subdivisions, as
described by Puri (1953) has been adopted by the Florida Geological Survey.
The Federal Geological Survey regards the Ocala as two formations, the Ocala
Limestone and Inglis Limestone.







Table 3, Geologic Formesleon and Their Wolf.Bearing Properties in Alachua, todflord, Clay, and Union Counlili, Florid


Estimated masium
thickness
system Serels Group Formation (s... Us.).. Phystcel chsractrtLetica .-- Water .SuDnlv
several lower marine Send, dark-gray to black, Yields water to shallow walls
Recent and nd estuarine locally contains clay
Pleistocene racee deposit 80 lenses
Quaternary ..... .. ..
LQgher terrace Sand, fine to medium-gralned, Yields water to shallow walls
Pleistocene deposits 140 clayey; varicolored clay
and sandy clay


Alachua Formation 45 Sand, clay, and phosphate Not reliable source of vwter
Pliocene
Citronelle Formation 90 Sand, gravel, clay, and Ylilds water to shallow vells
kaolin

loosahatchee 507 Harl, shell, and sand Probably artesian, May be source
ormation of vater to shallow vwlls

hoccawkatchee 40 Sand and clay; limestone and Probably artesian. Hay be source
Formation (of marl, cream-colored to yellow, of water to shallow wills
former usage) fossiliferous
Tertry Mocene Clay and sandy clay, inter- Limestones in the lover part of the formation
bedded limestone, sand, and are a part of the Floridan aquifer and yield
avthorn Formation 230 grains and pebbles of large quantities of water under artesian
phosphate pressure. Limestonea higher in the formation
also yield water to wells.

uwannee 7 Some Suwannee Liuestone boulders have been identified in western Alachua County but it has
Oligoeene Limestone not been determined if the boulders are in place. The Suvannee my also occur locally in
eastern Alachua County, probably as a residual material.

Inglis, Williston, Limestone, mostly coquina, Main part of Floridan aquifer: Permeability
Ocala nd Crystal River 260 white to cream-colored, generally very high; yields large quantities
Pormations,un- porous of water to domestic, industrial, public
differentiated supply, and irrigation wells. Water in the
Limestone, dolomite, and line tone of the Ocala group, Avon Park
Eocene Avon Park Limestone 300? dolomitic limestone; tan to l to e, and Lake City stone s under
brown, porous ater-table and artesian conditions. Many
wells take water from the Ocala, a lesser
number take water from the Avon Park, and a
Lake City Limestone ? Limestone, dolomite, and few take water from the Lake City.
Sdolomitic limestone


-n
I-r

0
















m





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


dense but in places they are soft. The Avon Park is thinnest beneath
the Ocala uplift in southwestern Alachua County where it is structurally
high and nearest the surface. In Alachua County wells 936-236-1, 2Y2
miles south of Newberry, and 938-236-3, at Newberry, the Avon Park
Limestone has a thickness of 95 and 110 feet, respectively. The thick-
ness, northeast of the Ocala uplift, probably ranges from about 200 to
300 feet. The cross sections (fig. 41, 42) show wells that have pene-
trated as much as 170 feet of the formation.

The Avon Park Limestone, a part of the Floridan aquifer, is under
both water-table and artesian conditions and will yield supplies of ground
water adequate for industrial, irrigation, and public supply uses.


Ocala Group

Limestones of the Ocala Group have been subdivided and renamed
several times in recent years by different investigators. The most recent
classification is that of Puri (1957) of the Florida Geological Survey,
who divided the Ocala Group, from oldest to youngest, into the Inglis,
Williston, and Crystal River Formations. The formations that compose
the Ocala Group are undifferentiated in this report. The Ocala Group,
the oldest exposed rocks in the area, are at the surface in southern and
western Alachua County (fig. 40) but they dip beneath younger forma-
tions in other parts of Alachua and in Bradford, Clay, and Union counties.
The limestones of the Ocala Group lie on the Avon Park Limestone.

Where the limestones of the Ocala Group are exposed, the surface
is a limestone plain. In part of the area that is shown on figure 40 as
having the Ocala Group at the surface, the limestone actually is covered
in places by a veneer of residual sands and clays of the Hawthorn and
Alachua Formations and by sands that may be of Pleistocene, or Pleisto-
cene and Recent Age. A karst topography which includes such features
as filled and open sinks, sinkhole lakes, solution pipes, basins, and
prairies is typical of areas underlain by the Ocala Group.

As shown by well cuttings and by quarry exposures the upper
part of the Ocala Group is typically a soft, white to cream-colored co-
quina limestone. The Ocala Group, though it is in part a coquina through-
out its thickness, grades downward into alternating layers of hard and
soft limestone and dolomitic limestone. These limestones, which range





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


in color from cream-colored to brown, are granular and fossiliferous.
Younger materials consisting of sand, clay, and vertebrate fossil remains
have filled sinks, solution pipes, and depressions in the surface of the
Ocala Group. Boulders and irregular masses of chert or flint are common
near the top of the Ocala Group.

The Ocala Group is thinnest in southwestern Alachua County
along the eroded crest of the Ocala uplift. In Alachua County wells
936236-1, about 2% miles south of Newberry, and 938-236-3, at Newberry,
the Ocala Group is 85 and 125 feet thick, respectively. As shown by
the geologic sections (fig. 41, 42), northeast of the Ocala uplift, the
Ocala Group ranges in thickness from about 140 to 260 feet, but it is
generally about 200 feet thick.

Limestones of the Ocala Group, which are a part of the Floridan
aquifer, contain ground water under both water-*able and artesian condi-
tions. In the area west of a line that extends approximately southeast
from Gainesville to the Alachua County line and northwest from Gaines-
ville into the extreme western edge of Union County, water in the Ocala
Group is under water-table conditions, and in the area east of this line
water is under artesian conditions. Where the Ocala Group is exposed
or covered by only a veneer of sediments west of this line, the water
table is generally from 15 to 35 feet below the land surface. At some
places, however, the water table is at land surface and lakes and prairies
have formed.

The limestones of the Ocala Group in these four counties are one
of the most permeable zones in the Floridan aquifer. Cavities up to 3
feet in depth are common, and cavities as much as 40 feet in depth in
the limestone in western Alachua County have been reported by drillers.
Manydomestic, industrial, irrigation, and public supplies are drawn from
the Ocala Group.


OLIGOCENE SERIES

Some boulders of Suwannee Limestone have been identified in
western Alachua County, but it has not been determined if the boulders
are in place. The Suwannee also may occur locally in eastern Alachua
County, probably as a residual material.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


MIOCENE SERIES

Hawthorn Formation

The Hawthorn Formation, a marine deposit of Miocene Age, under-
lies all the four counties except southern and western Alachua County.
The formation terminates in Alachua County along a low, southwestward
facing escarpment above the plain formed by limestones of the Ocala
Group. A hill and valley terrain is formed where the Hawthorn crops
out in central, northern, and eastern Alachua County; southern Bradford
and Union counties; and southwestern Clay County. Isolated remnants
of the Hawthorn have filled sinks and formed low hills over the area thit
is shown on figure 40 as the Ocala Group. The Hawthorn overlies the
Ocala Group.

The Hawthorn Formation consists chiefly of thick clays and sandy
clays that range in color from green to yellow and from gray to blue.
Layers or lenses of white to gray limestone, sandy phosphatic lime-
stone, and phosphate are interbedded with the clays. Pebbles and grains
of phosphate having a tan, amber, brown, or black color are usually
disseminated throughout the formation, but the phosphate seems to be
concentrated at various levels. The Hawthorn is best exposed in open
sinks such as the Devil's Mill Hopper near Gainesville in Alachua
County, and in Brooks Sink near Brooker in Bradford County. In the
Devil's Mill Hopper at least 115 feet of Hawthorn sediments are exposed
(Cooke and Mossom, 1929, p. 129).

Although the Hawthorn Formation in Alachua County is only a
few feet thick along the edge of the escarpment, it is at least 180 feet
thick in the northeastern part of the county. In Alachua County north
of U. S. Highway 441 between Gainesville and Alachua, the thickness
of the Hawthorn ranges from about 80 to 130 feet, and north of U. S.
Highway 441 between Alachua and High Springs it is about 65 to 80
feet thick. Along cross section C-C' (fig. 42), between Gainesville and
the Bradford County line, the thickness ranges from 140 to 180 feet.
Within the city limits of Gainesville the thickness of the Hawthorn
ranges from about 70 to 160 feet. Near the junction of the New River
and the Santa Fe River in Union and Bradford counties, and near the
junction of Olustee Creek and the Santa Fe River in Union County,
the thickness is about 80 feet. North of the Santa Fe River in Union
County the formation is thicker, as shown by Union County test well
007-222-1 in northern Union County where 140 feet of Hawthorn was





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


logged. In southern Bradford County except for the extreme southeastern
part the Hawthorn ranges from about 100 to 130 feet in thickness. About
200 feet of Hawthorn was penetrated in Bradford County in well 956.206-6
at Starke and a thickness of about 180 to 299 feet is indicated by avail-
able data for northern Bradford County. As shown by geologic cross
section A-A' (fig. 41), the thickness ranges from about 170 to 230 feet
eastward from Starke across central Clay County. In southwestern
Clay County the Hawthorn, as indicated by scattered borings, ranges
from about 140 to 165 feet in thickness, and in northeastern Clay County
the Hawthorn is as much as 200 feet thick.

The water in the Hawthorn Formation is perched in Alachua and
Union counties west of a line running through Gainesville in a south-
east-northwest direction. That is, it is separated from the main water
table in the underlying Ocala Group by unsaturated rock. In the area
east of this line, limestones in the lower part of the Hawthorn are part
of the Floridan aquifer and the water in these limestones is under artesian
pressure. In this area, water in limestones in the upper part of the
Hawthorn Formation that are not part of the Floridan aquifer is also
under artesian conditions.


Choctawhatchee Formation (of former usage)

Beds of Late Miocene Age that crop out along the north and south
forks of Black Creek in north-central Clay County (fig. 40) are referred
to the Choctawhatchee Formation (of former usage) in this report. The
Choctawhatchee, which lies on the Hawthorn Formation, is apparently
continuous in central Clay County and in east-central and northeastern
Bradford County. However, it does not seem to be present in northwestern
Bradford County or in adjoining Union County. Pirkle (1956, p. 210)
states that shell-marl beds in Brooker Sink near Brooker in southwestern
Bradford County have been dated as being early Choctawhatchee in age
by the Florida Geological Survey. The Choctawhatchee may be present
at some places in eastern Alachua County.

The Choctawhatchee consists of sand and clay and yellow to
cream-colored, sandy to clayey, fossiliferous limestone and marl. Bev
cause of its abundant shell (mollusks) content, the name "shell marl"
has been applied to the formation. Along the geologic cross section
A-A' (fig. 41), extending from eastern Bradford County across central
Clay County, the formation is about 40 feet thick.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


Where present the limestone and shell beds in the Choctawhatchee
may provide an excellent, shallow artesian aquifer. Some domestic
and irrigation wells in Bradford and Clay counties draw water from this
formation.


PLIOCENE SERIES


Caloosahatchee Formation

Beds of "shell marl" of Pliocene Age in the vicinity of Green
Cove Springs in eastern Clay County, which lie on the Choctawhatchee
Formation (of former usage), have been assigned to the Caloosahatchee
Formation by the Florida Geological Survey in a lithologic description
of cuttings from Clay County well 958-139-1. Cooke (1945, p. 225)
reports exposures in adjoining Putnam County that have been referred to
the Caloosahatchee but he does not indicate that the formation is present
in Clay County. In this report the shell-marl beds are tentatively placed
in the Caloosahatchee Formation. In the log of Clay County well
958-139-1, near Green Cove Springs, the Caloosahatchee consists of
about 50 feet of sand and blue-gray marl with a large amount of shell
and shell fragments (predominantly mollusks). The Caloosahatchee,
where it is largely a shell deposit, should be a source of domestic and
irrigation supplies of ground water from shallow depths. Ground water
in the formation probably is under artesian conditions.


Citronelle Formation

The Citronelle Formation of Pliocene Age is exposed in south-
western Clay County, southeastern Bradford County, and in a small area
in eastern Alachua County (fig. 40). The outcrop of the Citronelle is
in a hill and lake topography. In Clay County, in that part of the outcrop
area generally north of the 29050' parallel, a part of the land surface that
is mapped as Citronelle is covered by sediments that are probably
Pleistocene in age. At the edge of its outcrop, the Citronelle either
terminates abruptly, or thins and disappears under the surface in a
short distance. The Citronelle lies on the Hawthorn Formation except
in west-central Clay County where it lies on the Choctawhatchee Forma-
tion (of former usage).





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The Citronelle is a nonfossiliferous, deltaic deposit that is com-
posed mostly of sand, gravel, and clayey sand. Where the sand is
exposed it is typically red or orange, but where it has not been exposed
it is white, buff or gray. Clay or kaolin that acts as a binder is dis-
seminated in the sand or occurs in beds. In the area mapped as Citronelle,
the Citronelle has a maximum thickness of about 90 feet. Outside the
area mapped as Citronelle, its thickness probably does not exceed 35
feet.

Ground water in the sands of the Citronelle Formation, as well,
as ground water in the covering Pleistocene deposits, is under water-
table conditions. The water table seems to be connected with the water
surfaces of the lakes and with the water table in the surrounding Haw-
thorn Formation, Pleistocene deposits, and Pleistocene and Recent
deposits. The Citronelle yields water to shallow wells.


Alachua Formation

The Alachua Formation of Pliocene Age is exposed in southwestern
Alachua County where it forms low, rolling, sand hills or ridges over
the crest of the Ocala uplift (fig. 40). The formation consists, in part
if not entirely, of terrestrial deposits which in some areas contains
some land vertebrate fossils. The vertebrates are mostly of Pliocene
Age, although they range in age from Early Miocene to Pleistocene.
The Alachua Formation, which is covered at places by thin sands that
may be of Pleistocene or Pleistocene and Recent Age, lies on the highly
eroded surface of the Ocala Group.

The Alachua Formation consists chiefly of white, buff, or gray
sand, and where it is exposed it has weathered to various shades of
red. Varicolored clays, sandy clays, clayey sands, and disseminated
grains and pebbles of phosphate are interbedded with the sands. Clays
and associated vertebrate fossils have accumulated in many of the
sinks and depressions in the underlying limestone. Limestone, flint,
and phosphate boulders are scattered throughout the formation. Boulders
and plates of hard rock phosphate have been quarried extensively in
the outcrop area. The Alachua has a maximum thickness of about 45
feet as shown by well logs and quarry exposures.

Ground water in the Alachua Formation is under water-table
conditions. Small supplies, adequate only for domestic use, are prob-
ably available from the formation.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


PLEISTOCENE SERIES

The marine, higher terrace deposits that are of Pleistocene Age
have a wider surface distribution in the four counties than any other
geologic formation. These deposits cover a large area in central Alachua
County, most of Bradford and Union counties, and a part of western
Clay County (fig. 40). In Alachua and Union counties these deposits
overlie the Hawthorn Formation; in Bradford County they overlie the
Hawthorn Formation and Choctawhatchee Formation (of former usage);
and in Clay County they overlie the Hawthorn, Choctawhatchee, and
Citronelle Formations. In Alachua County scattered unmapped sands
that may be of Pleistocene Age overlie the Ocala Group and the Alachua
Formation, and in Clay County these sands overlie the Citronelle
Formation.

The higher terrace deposits, except where the northern part of
Trail Ridge forms the eastern part of the Pleistocene outcrop in eastern
Bradford and western Clay County, consist of fine to medium grained
sands, clayey sands, varicolored clays, and sandy clay. These beds
are usually less than 40 feet thick. The Pleistocene sediments that
form Trail Ridge are chiefly dark gray to black sands, which seem to
be identical with the sand deposits that compose the younger deposits
of Pleistocene and Recent Age. The Pleistocene sands of Trail Ridge
are as much as about 140 feet in thickness.

Generally, ground water in the higher terrace deposits is under
water-table conditions. In some areas the ability of the sands to transmit
water may be low owing to the high clay content. The higher terrace
deposits yield waterto shallow, domestic wells.


PLEISTOCENE AND RECENT SERIES

Several lower marine and estuarine terrace deposits are of Pleisto-
ccne and Recent Age. These deposits are exposed over most of Clay
County where they overlie the Choctawhatchee (of former usage), Caloosa-
hatchee, and Citronelle Formations (fig. 40). In Alachua County unmap-
ped sands, which may be of Pleistocene and Recent Age, in places
cover the outcrop of the Ocala Group and the Alachua Formation.

The lower terrace deposits are composed chiefly of sands, but
locally they contain some clay lenses. The sands are dark gray to






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


black in color because of ferruginous materials, peat, and muck. These
sands probably do not exceed 80 feet in thickness. The ground water
in these deposits is under water-table conditions. These deposits
y;eld water to shallow, domestic wells.


AQUIFER HYDROLOGY

The source of ground water in Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union
counties is precipitation. Of the water that falls on earth part runs-
off over the surface of the ground into lakes and streams, part is returned
to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration, and the remainder
percolates into the ground and replenishes the ground-water reservoirs.
Water in these reservoirs moves more or less laterally to be discharged
into surface-water bodies, consumed by evaporation or transpiration, or
discharged from wells.

Ground water may occur under either water-table or artesian condi-
tions. Where it is unconfined, its surface is free to rise and fall and it
is said to be under water-table conditions. The water table is the upper
surface of the zone of saturation, except where that surface is formed
by a relatively impermeable material such as clay. Where ground water
is confined in a permeable material under hydrostatic pressure by a
relatively impermeable overlying material, it is said to be under artesian
conditions. The term "artesian" is applied to water that is under suf-
ficient pressure to rise above the base of the confining material. Thus,
artesian water does not necessarily rise above the land surface. Ground
water is divided in this report into that in aquifers above the Floridan
aquifer called the "upper aquifers" and that in the Floridan aquifer.

UPPER AQUIFERS

The upper aquifers in this report refer to those aquifers above
the Floridan aquifer. Ground water in the upper aquifers is under both
water-table and artesian conditions. The aquifer above the Floridan
in which water is under water-table conditions is referred to as the
water-table aquifer, and those aquifers above the Floridan in which
the water is under artesian conditions are referred to as secondary
artesian aquifers.






' INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


Water-Table Aquifer

The water-table aquifer, which is present over most of the four
counties, consists of shallow sand or clayey sand of Miocene, Pliocene,
Pleistocene, and Pleistocene and Recent Age. However, the sand and
clayey sand that overlie the Ocala Group in southern and western Alachua
County are not part of the water-table aquifer.

At some places the aquifer consists of a few feet of clayey sand
that yields only meager amounts of water; at other places the aquifer
consists of almost 140 feet of relatively permeable sand. Where drain-
age is poor or where the water-table aquifer consists of only a few feet
of sand, the water table is usually at or within a few feet of the land
surface. Where the land is well drained by streams or lakes and where
the water-table aquifer is thick and permeable, the water table may be
tens of feet below the land surface. Perhaps the water-table aquifer
is thickest, most permeable, and best drained in an area south of Kings-
ley Lake where the sands of the Citronelle Formation are exposed
(fig. 40).

Water-table map: The water-table map that is shown in figure 43
was prepared from data collected from shallow test wells. The elevations
of 14 of these wells were determined by the use of an engineers' level,
and the elevations of the remainder of the wells were estimated from
topographic maps. The contours were based on the elevations of the
water level in the water-table wells and on the elevations of the lake
surfaces. Topographic maps of the area were used to aid in defining
the position of the contours in areas where water-table elevations were
not obtained.

On the map, contour lines that is, lines connecting points of
equal elevation show the general configuration of the water table.
They show that in general the water table slopes to the southeast.
East of Sand Hill Lake the elevation of the water table is over 200
feet above sea level; west of Sand Hill Lake and Santa Fe Lake, it is
over 150 feet; in the vicinity of Lake Geneva, Lake Johnson, and Brooklyn
Lake, it is about 100 feet; and south of Lake Johnson and southeast
of Lake Geneva, it is less than 100 feet above sea level.

Ground water moves downgradient, just as water does in the land
surface, in a direction that is at right angles to the contours of the water





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 43. Map of the Keystone Heights area showing generalized contours
on the water table.


table. Thus, the approximate direction of ground-water movement can
be determined from the water-table contours (fig. 43). The contours
show that ground water in the Keystone Heights area is generally moving
to the southeast, and that locally it is moving toward Lake Johnson and
imith Lake from the north; that it is generally moving toward Lake
Brooklyn from the northwest; and that it is generally moving from Santa Fe
Lake toward Lake Geneva.

Quality: Chemical analyses of water from six wells are given in
table 4. The concentration of dissolved mineral matter in the water
from these wells was low and ranged from 24 to 183 ppm. The color











'Analyses by


Well


Table 4. Chemical Analyses of Water from Wells Tapping the Water-Table Aquifer

U.S. Geological Survey. Results are in parts per million, except specific conductance, pH, and color. See fig. 39 for locations of wells.


5%
a&

C6
J3
o.6


.Co

4

-4
:.


*o

a-'
s



* -.a44
,-. 5

~4e
0


Hardness
as
CaCOI




A I I
u I
-53


a






5u.


Alachua County


946-2261 17 17 10/3/58 72 6.8 0.14 10 2.4 6.2 19 1.5 14 0.2 0.1 65 35 20 110 6.5


Bradford County


956-208-1 17 17 9/29/58 75 9.9 4.2 1.8 1.8 16 0 10 26 0. 1 0.1 66 12 12 106 4.5 18


Union County


000-232-1 15 15 10/ 8/58 74 9.0 0.43 4.0 4.1 13 3 14 14 0.3 0.2 82 27 24 125 5.3 3


004-229-1 17 17 10/ 2/58 71 7.2 .12 1.2 .5 4.6 6 1,8 5.0 .2 .6 24 5 0, 28.4 6.0 2


005-222-1 35 35 10/ 2/58 70 9.3 .69 41 19 2.1 214 1.0 5.0 .5 .1 183 180 5 319 7.8 2


005-228-1 38 10/ 2/58 70 10 .11 19 8.1 4.4 92 .2 4.5 .3 9.2 101 81 6 169 7.3 0


1 Combined values of sodium plus potassium.


I


I I I I I I I I I I 1 I






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


intensity was also low. The color intensity of the water from one well
was 18, and the color intensity of the water from the remainder of the
wells was 5 or less. The concentration of iron from the water of some
of the wells may be objectionable to some users. Three of the water
samples had a concentration of iron of more than 0.3 ppm, the upper
limit suggested for drinking water (U.S. Public Health Service, 1961).

Utilization: The water-table aquifer is a source of small supplies
of water at shallow depth except in southern and western Alachua County
where the water-table aquifer is not present. Wells drawing water from
this aquifer are usually small in diameter, mostly 1% inches, and they
are used mostly for domestic or stock purposes.


Secondary Artesian Aquifers

Artesian aquifers in some areas are sandwiched between the water-
table aquifer and the Floridan aquifer. In some places the secondary
artesian aquifers consist of limestone beds of the Hawthorn Formation,
and in other places these aquifers probably consist of limestone and
shell beds of the Choctawhatchee (of former usage) and Caloosahatchee
Formations. These aquifers are sources of supplies of water at shallow
depth, and generally they are adequate for domestic use. In some places,
however, these aquifers may yield large supplies. In fact, an adequate
supply of water for irrigation purposes was withdrawn by wells in Brad-
ford County that tapped the limestone and shell beds of the Choctaw-
hItchee Formation.

Chemical analyses of water from two wells tapping secondary
artesian aquifers are given in table 5.


FLORIDAN AQUIFER

The most productive aquifer in the four counties is the Floridan
aquifer. The term "Floridan aquifer" was introduced by Parker (1955,
p. 189). This aquifer underlies most of the State and in this area consists
of formations of Eocene Age (Lake City Limestone, Avon Park Limestone,
and limestones of the Ocala Group) and-those permeable limestones in
the lower part of the Hawthorn Formation that are hydraulically con-
nected with the rest of the aquifer. This aquifer, which is several
hundred feet thick, is mostly soft porous limestone interspersed with






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


Table 5. Chemical Analyses of Water from Wells
Tapping Secondary Artesian Aquifers

(Results are in parts per million except specific conductance, pH, and color)

Well 940-218-6 957-200-1
Depth of casing, in feet 48 209
Depth of well, in feet 60 309
Date collected 10-8-58 10-1-58
Temperature, in OF 74 75
Silica (SiO2) 18 27
Iron (Fe) 1.8 072
Calcium (Ca) 39 33
Magnesium (Mg) 18 9.8
Sodium (Na) and potassium (K) (combined value) 6.4 5.5
Bicarbonate (HCO3) 211 155
Sulfate (SO4) 0.2 1.0
Chloride (CL) 8.0 4.2
Fluoride (F) 0.3 0.4
Nitrate (NO3) 0.1 0.2
Dissolved solids a 194 157
Hardness as CaCO3 172 123
Noncarbonate 0 0
Specific conductance (micromhos at 250C) 325 242
pH 7.5 7.5
Color 3 5

aValues reported are sums of determined constituents.


streaks of hard limestone. The limestones act essentially as a hydro-
logic unit. In southern and western Alachua County limestones of the
Ocala Group, a part of the Floridan aquifer, are exposed at the surface
(fig. 40), but in other parts of the four counties limestones composing
the Floridan aquifer are overlain by the Hawthorn Formation. Relatively
impermeable clays in the overlying Hawthorn Formation confine the
water under artesian pressure.

Water in the Floridan aquifer is under both water-table and artesian
conditions. In the area west of a line running through Gainesville in a
southeast-northwest direction, the water in the Floridan aquifer is under





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


water-table conditions; and in the area east of this line,'the water is
under artesian conditions. The line indicates approximately the places
where the water level in the aquifer is at the base of the confining bed.
As the water levels decline the line shifts to the east, and as the water
levels rise the line shifts to the west.

Piezometric Surface

A map showing contour lines on the piezometric surface of.the
Floridan aquifer represents the approximate height, in feet, of the static
water levels in tightly cased wells penetrating that aquifer. Thus, in
that part of the aquifer where the water is confined the contours indicate
the elevation to which water will rise in a tightly cased well; and in that
part of the aquifer where the water is not confined the contours indicate
the elevation of the water table. The surface represented by the contour
lines is knwn as the piezometric surface. The approximate position of
the piezometric surface in Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties
in December 1958 is represented by the contour lines in figure 44. This
map is preliminary and the positions of the contour lines over most of the
area are approximate because of the paucity of water-level information
and because the elevations established at some wells were estimated
from topographic maps. Where the contour lines are dashed, the positions
of the contours are inferred.

One of the outstanding features of the map depicting the piezometric
surface in peninsular Florida and the most outstanding feature of the
map of the piezometric surface in the four counties is the piezometric
high near the junction of the Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Putnam County
lines. North of the high, the surface forms a ridge 70 to 80 feet above
mean sea level. East of the ridge in Clay County the piezometric sur-
face slopes to an elevation of about 30 to 40 feet, and west of the ridge
the surface slopes to about 40 feet in western Union County. South of
the high in Alachua County the surface slopes to about 60 feet above
mean sea level near Orange Lake, and west of the high in Alachua
County, the surface slopes to almost 30 feet in western Alachua County
near the Santa Fe River. A local depression in the piezometric surface
at Gainesville is probably caused by heavy pumping, and a local de-
pression in the vicinity of Green Cove Springs is probably caused by
pumping and by springflow.





































Figure 44. Map of Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union counties showing con-
tours on the piezometric surface in the Floridan aquifer.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Fluctuations of the Piezometric Surface

Water levels in wells tapping the Floridan aquifer fluctuate almost
continuously. Some of the many causes of such fluctuations are variations
in barometric pressure, earthquakes, and changes in the rates of re-
charge and discharge. Of the many causes of fluctuations, the most
significant are changes in the rate of recharge and discharge. Fluc-
tuations caused by changes in the rates of recharge and discharge are
often obscured by fluctuations from other causes when only short periods
of record are available for study.

Changes in the rate of recharge and discharge to an aquifer are
reflected in rises or declines of the artesian pressure or water table.
a rise in the artesian pressure or water table indicates an increase
in the amount of water stored in an aquifer and a decline in the artesian
pressure or water table indicates a decrease in the amount of water
stored in an aquifer. Where artesian conditions exist, the capacity of
the aquifer to store additional water is relatively very small, being in
the order of several hundred or several thousand times smaller than
the capacity of an aquifer where water-table conditions exist. Thus,
a change in the position of the watertable in southern or western Alachua
County indicates a much larger change in ground-water storage than does
an equal change in the artesian pressure in other parts of the area.

The more significant interpretations of water-level fluctuations
usually require long periods .of records. A hydrograph of Clay County
well 006-149-1, near Middleburg, is shown in figure 45. The general
decline in artesian pressure during 1949-56 is due in part to a recession
from the high rate of recharge that doubtlessly occurred during 1944-49
when precipitation was above normal and in part to an increase in the
rate of ground-water withdrawals in eastern Clay and Duval counties.

Water-level measurements were begun in 1958 in several wells
tapping the Floridan aquifer in the four counties. Hydrographs of two
of these wells Alachua County well 936-236-1, 2Y2 miles south of
Newberry, and Union County well 007-222-1, about 8 miles north of
Lake Butler are shown in figure 45. In response to the above-normal
rainfall during the latter part of 1958 and the early part of 1959, the
water level in Alachua County well 936236-1, which taps an aquifer
that is under water-table conditions, rose nearly 2 feet in early 1959
while the water level in Union County well 007-222-1, which taps an
aquifer that is under artesian conditions, rose more than 5 feet.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


45



44



43



42



41



4n I I ILI I I I I


4Cl


Figure 45. Hydrographs showing water levels in Alachua County well 936-236-1,
Union County well 007-222-1, and Clay County well 006-149-1.


I I I I I I I I I I
Well 936-236-1;
2-miles south of Newberry,
IAlachua County


~ I1958 195 195 1959l IIiI


--. -) -




Well 006-149-1;
2 miles northeast of
Middleburg, Clay County


I I I 1 1 1 --


}

)

>


1958


1959


1958 1959


"" 0
"
(!)





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Area of Artesian Flow

Artesian wells will flow where the piezometric surface is higher
than the land surface. The approximate area of artesian flow in Clay
County from wells cased to the Floridan aquifer is shown in figure 46.
The area was determined by comparing elevation of the land surface
from topographic maps with the elevation of the piezometric surface
as shown in figure 44. Union County and a large part of Alachua and
Bradford counties have not been mapped topographically. Thus, areas
of artesian flow in these counties were not delineated. However, most
of the places where artesian wells will flow are probably in Clay County.


Figure 46. Cloy County showing the approximate area in which wells tapping
the Floridan aquifer will flow.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


black in color because of ferruginous materials, peat, and muck. These
sands probably do not exceed 80 feet in thickness. The ground water
in these deposits is under water-table conditions. These deposits
y;eld water to shallow, domestic wells.


AQUIFER HYDROLOGY

The source of ground water in Alachua, Bradford, Clay, and Union
counties is precipitation. Of the water that falls on earth part runs-
off over the surface of the ground into lakes and streams, part is returned
to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration, and the remainder
percolates into the ground and replenishes the ground-water reservoirs.
Water in these reservoirs moves more or less laterally to be discharged
into surface-water bodies, consumed by evaporation or transpiration, or
discharged from wells.

Ground water may occur under either water-table or artesian condi-
tions. Where it is unconfined, its surface is free to rise and fall and it
is said to be under water-table conditions. The water table is the upper
surface of the zone of saturation, except where that surface is formed
by a relatively impermeable material such as clay. Where ground water
is confined in a permeable material under hydrostatic pressure by a
relatively impermeable overlying material, it is said to be under artesian
conditions. The term "artesian" is applied to water that is under suf-
ficient pressure to rise above the base of the confining material. Thus,
artesian water does not necessarily rise above the land surface. Ground
water is divided in this report into that in aquifers above the Floridan
aquifer called the "upper aquifers" and that in the Floridan aquifer.

UPPER AQUIFERS

The upper aquifers in this report refer to those aquifers above
the Floridan aquifer. Ground water in the upper aquifers is under both
water-table and artesian conditions. The aquifer above the Floridan
in which water is under water-table conditions is referred to as the
water-table aquifer, and those aquifers above the Floridan in which
the water is under artesian conditions are referred to as secondary
artesian aquifers.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


There seems to be small areas in Alachua County, principally in river
valleys and depressions in the land surface, where artesian wells into
the Floridan aquifer might flow. Most of the wells in these areas prob-
ably flow intermittently depending on whether the piezometric surface
is high or low.

As may be seen from figure 46, the principal areas of artesian
flow are along the St. Johns River and in the low areas near Black
Creek and its tributaries. Most of northeastern Clay County, including
those low areas near Black Creek and Little Black Creek, is in the
area of flow. This area of flow extends along Black Creek up North
Fork Black Creek. It also extends along South Fork Black Creek and
along Greens Creek.


Recharge

In general, the source of ground water in the Floridan aquifer in
these counties is the precipitation on the area. Large amounts of water
enter the aquifer in the area of the piezometric high (fig. 44). A large
part of the water probably reaches the aquifer through breaches in the
clay confining beds of the Hawthorn Formation. Breaches in the clay
confining beds are indicated by the many sinkholes and lakes formed
by sinkholes dotting the area. These sinkholes form when materials
overlying limestone caverns collapse. As material washes into the
sinkholes, they become partially clogged and form lakes. Thus, the
amount of recharge entering the Floridan aquifer through these sink-
holes is limited by the number of sinkholes and by the permeability of
the material with which they are filled.

In areas outside of the piezometric high, however, surface water
flows directly into sinkholes that apparently have a free connection
with the underlying limestones of the Floridan aquifer. Near Gainesville,
Hogtown Creek flows into Hogtown Sink, and at one time Prairie Creek
flowed into Alachua Sink. In addition, a sinkhole in the southeastern
part of Orange Lake was observed to be taking water from Orange Lake.
Thus, large but unknown quantities of water can be observed recharging
the Floridan aquifer.

Not all the water moving into the Floridan aquifer, however, can
be observed. Where the water table or artesian pressure in upper aquifers
is higher than the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer, water






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


seeps downward through the confining beds into the Floridan aquifer.
The available data show that the water table is higher than the piezo-
metric surface in most of the area. In fact at some places, such as
near Kingsley Lake, the water table is as much as 100 feet higher than
the piezometric surface. Thus, millions of gallons of water a day probably
recharge the Floridan aquifer by seeping through the confining beds into
the aquifer.

In southern and western Alachua County the Floridan aquifer is
exposed at the surface or is covered only by permeable sands. The
absence of surface drainage in this area is evidence of the ease with
which rainfall percolates through the sand and porous limestones to
the water table. Though the amount of water entering the aquifer in
this area is not known, it doubtless averages at least in the tens of
millions of gallons per day. Indeed, the average rate of recharge to
the Floridan aquifer is probably higher than anywhere else in the four
counties, and the rate is probably one of the highest in the State.


Discharge

Of the hundreds of millions of gallons a day of water that enters
the Floridan aquifer in the four counties, only a part is discharged within
the area. A large part, moving in the direction of the hydraulic gradient,
is discharged outside these counties. The contours of the piezometric
surface (fig. 44) show that the piezometric surface is lower in all ad-
jacent counties except Putnam and possibly Columbia and Baker. Accord-
ingly, ground water is moving from the four counties into all adjacent
counties except Putnam and possibly Columbia and Baker.

That part of the ground water not leaving the area through the
aquifer escapes from the aquifer by other natural means as described
below, or is withdrawn from the aquifer by pumped or flowing wells.

Natural: Water from the Floridan aquifer is discharged naturally
within the four counties by leakage into the upper aquifers, flow from
springs,and flow into lakes and streams.

Water leaks upward into the upper aquifers where the piezometric
surface in the Floridan aquifer is higher than the water table or artesian
pressures in the upper aquifers. Upward leakage occurs in the low areas
of Clay County along the St. Johns River and in the valleys of Black






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 36


Creek and its tributaries. Though the amount of water that escapes
from the Fioridan aquifer in this manner is not known, the amount is
estimated to be comparatively small.

Water escapes from the Floridan aquifer through many springs in
the area. Poe Springs, which is near the town of High Springs, has the
largest flow of any spring in the area. The highest of five measurements
of discharge from this spring during the period 1917-1946 was56 mgd
and the lowest was 20 mgd (Ferguson, Lingham, Love, and Vernon,
1947, p. 49-57). Other springs in the area that seem to derive their flow
from the Floridan aquifer are Green Cove Springs and Wadesboro Springs
in Clay County. Several other springs in the area probably derive their
flow from the Floridan aquifer, but the total flow from known springs in
the area is only a small part of the discharge from the aquifer.

Water is discharged from the Floridan aquifer into lakes and
streams in the southern and western part of the area where the Floridan
aquifer is at or near land surface. In the southern part of Alachua County,
ground water is discharged into a few of the lakes that occupy depres-
sions in the Floridan aquifer. But probably a larger amount of the water
moves from the area to be discharged into streams that have cut into
the aquifer.

A large amount of water is discharged from the Floridan aquifer
into the Santa Fe River. The Santa Fe River, which flows for several
miles underground near High Springs, is fed by ground water during low
flows, but during rising river stages water moves from the river into the
Floridan aquifer and renters the river during falling river stages (Cooper,
Kenner, and Brown, 1953, p. 150-151, pls. 9.4, 9.5). Furthermore,
between the gaging stations near High Springs and Fort White, hundreds
of millions of gallons of water a day flow from the Floridan aquifer into
this short stretch of the river.

Wells: Water is withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer by wells in
the four counties for irrigation, industrial, public-supply, and domestic
purposes. In fact, most of the large water supplies are from the Floridan
aquifer. All city water supplies in the area for which information has
been collected are drawn from the Floridan aquifer. These supplies
include, those at High Springs, Newberry, Alachua, Gainesville, Waldo,
and Micanopy in Alachua County; Starkein Bradford County; Lake Butler
in Union County; and Keystone Heights in Clay County.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Quality

The chemical analyses of water from 15 wells that tap the Floridan
aquifer are given in table 6. Water from these wells is drawn from the
Floridan aquifer. A small part of the water from some of the wells,
however, may be drawn from the upper aquifers.

The water from these wells is suitable for most uses. The
dissolved-solids content ranged from 99 to 361 ppm. The concentration
of iron and the color intensity of the water were low. The highest
concentration of iron was 0.19 ppm, and the highest color intensity
was 5. The water was slightly alkaline as shown by pH values that
averaged 7.6.


SUMMARY

For the convenience of the reader, the report is summarized below
by item.

1. All lakes in the area fluctuate in stage some more than
others. Brooklyn Lake at Keystone Heights had a range in stage of
about 20 feet during the period 1948-58, whereas, Kingsley Lake in
Camp Blanding had a range in stage of 3.5 feet during the period 1947-58.

2. A major cause of the low lake levels in 1954-57 was a de-
ficiency in rainfall for the 3-year period 1954-56 of 23 inches.

3. The low lake levels will not be permanent, although they may
recur.

4. There are five principal river basins in the area: the St. Johns
River basin, the Etonia Creek basin, the Santa Fe River basin, the Black
Creek basin, end the Orange Creek basin.

5. The flow of the St. Johns River at Green Cove Springs is
estimated to be 4Y2 billion gallons per day.

6. The upper Etonia Creek in southwestern Clay County consists
of a chain of lakes. Surface flow from these lakes is intermittent.




Table 6. Chemical Analyses of Water from Wells Topping the Floridan Aquifer

Analyses by U.S. Geological Survey. Results are in parts per million except specific conductance, pH, and color. See fig. 39 for locations of vells]


Alachua County
932-231-1 -- 150 10/ 3/58 74 7.3 0.04 56 2.1 3.0 175 2.5 4.8 0.2 1.1 163 148 4 280 7.5 2
938-236-2 80 120 10/ 3/58 74 6.9 .06 49 2.3 2.8 155 3.5 3.8 .2 1.9 146 132 5 252 7.6 0
939-225-1 -- 162 10/ 3/58 73 15 .19 64 2.1 4.1 199 3.0 6.0 .2 2.3 195 168 5 318 7.5 3
940-217-1 205 368 10/ 3/58 72 30 .09 45 18 8.3 222 8.0.0 0 .5 .1 228 186 4 359 7.8 3I
940-224-1 -- 172 10/ 3/58 73 11 .06 77 2.9 3.7 239 6.2 4.2 .2 3.7 227 204 8 380 7.5 0
946-226-2 87 427 10/ 8/58 74 23 .07 80 14 24 245 86 12 .4 ,3 361 257 49 493 7.6 5
947-229-2 100 363 10/. 3/58 73 16 .12 70 13 6.0 192 66 10 .4 .1 277 228 70 436 7.6 2
951-224-2 144 175 10/ 3/58 73 23 .10 53 18 7.4 212 32 9.5 .5 .2 248 206 32 390 7.6 3
955-228-2 -- 156 10/ 2/58 73 10 .08 44 1.2 5.5 129 3.5 9.5 .3 4.4 142 115 10 238 7.6 3

Bradford County
956-206-1 170 610 9/29/58 -- 33 0.12 53 16 1 5 I250 1 3.5 15 0.5 0 .1 259 198 0 I 406 7.8 31

Clay County
947-201-1 184 332 10/ 2/58 70 10 0.10 24 5.1 3.9 96 3.0 4.8 0.2 0.6 79 81 2 165 7.7 0
958-139-1 276 650 9/30/58 79 13 .08 30 14 7.6 105 51 6.5 .3 .1 174 132 46 272 7.6 3
002-142-1 72 400 9/30/58 73 13 .10 21 9.6 6.9 101 14 6.0 .4 .1 121 92 9 190 7.7 0
00-149-1 80 481 9/30/58 75 11 .11 20 83 3.0 8 8.2 5.5 .3 .1 00 84 11 173 7.7 2

Union County
001-219-2 30 402 10/ 8/58 1--1 4.1 -- 1161 5.4 11 47 1 36 6.0 0.5 I 0.2 1 02 1 62 1 24 1 168 7.0 0
SCombined values of sodium plus potassium.