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Interim report on the geology and ground-water resources of Northwestern Polk County, Florida ( FGS: Information circula...
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 Material Information
Title: Interim report on the geology and ground-water resources of Northwestern Polk County, Florida ( FGS: Information circular 23 )
Series Title: ( FGS: Information circular 23 )
Physical Description: vi, 83 p. : illus., map (fold.) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Stewart, Herbert G
Geological Survey (U.S.)
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1959
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Groundwater -- Florida -- Polk County   ( lcsh )
Water-supply -- Florida -- Polk County   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by H. G. Stewart.
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 79-83.
General Note: "Prepared by U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey and the Polk County Board of Commissioners."
Funding: Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001692720
oclc - 01721508
notis - AJA4794
System ID: UF00001083:00001

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Abstract
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Introduction
        Page 4
        Page 3
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Geography
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 7
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Geology
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 12
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Hydrology
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
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        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    References
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Copyright
            Copyright
Full Text



STATE OF FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Ernest Mitts, Director

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Robert O. Vernon, Director





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23





INTERIM REPORT
ON
THE GEOLOGY AND GROUND- WATER RESOURCES
OF
NORTHWESTERN POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA






By
Herbert G. Stewart, Jr., Geologist
U. S. Geological Survey




Prepared by U. S. Geological Survey
in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey
and the Polk County Board of Commissioners


Tallahassee, Florida
1959




6a, c0)


CAGRIt
aXTURALL
VISRA -




CONTENTS
Page
Abstract......................................... 1
Introduction....... .............................. 3
Purpose and scope of investigation .............. 3
Previous investigations ....... ................. 4
Methods of this investigation ................... 5
Well-numbering system ........................ 6
Acknowledgments ............................. 6
Geography..................... ................. 7
Location, population, and industry .............. 7
Topography .................................. 8
Drainage...................................... 9
Climate...................................... 10
Geology. ............... ....................... 12
Solution features .............................. 12
Summary of stratigraphy ...................... 17
Eocene series ................................. 17
Avon Park limestone...................... 17
Ocala group .............................. 19
Inglis formation .............. .......... 20
Williston formation .................. .. 20
Crystal River formation ............... 20
Oligocene series ............................ 21
Suwannee limestone ..................... 21
Miocene series. ................. .......... 21
Tampa formation...................... 22
Hawthorn formation ..................... 23
Pliocene series ................... .......... 24
Bone Valley formation ................... 24
Pleistocene series .......................... 25
Structure ......................... ........... 25
Hydrology. ............................. ........... 26
Surface water ........... ....................... 26
Ground water .......................... ........ 26
Occurrence .. ............................ 26
Nonartesian aquifer ....................... 28
Uppermost artesian aquifer ................. 29
Secondary artesian aquifer .................. 29
Piezometric surface ..................... 31
Floridan aquifer ............................ 32
Piezometric surface ............ ......... 37
Water-level history ............ ......... 38
Hydraulics.................................... 39
Specific capacity of wells ................... 39





Pumping tests ............................... 39
Laboratory analyses ........................ 41
Quality of water ........ ....................... 41
Use of water.................................. 47
Public supplies ............................. 47
Industrial supplies .................... ...... 47
Domestic supplies ........................... 49
Irrigation supplies ........................... 49
Summary of use ............................ 49
Water losses from the area .................... 49
Underflow and runoff ........................ 50
Evaporation ................................ 50
Transpiration.............................. 51
Recharge..... ................................. 51
Nonartesian aquifer ......................... 51
Uppermost artesian aquifer................... 54
Secondary artesian aquifer .................. 54
Floridan aquifer ............................ 54
Special problems.............................. 56
Lake Parker.................... ........... 56
Water budget............................. 61
Decline of lakes near Lake Parker ........... 67
Scott Lake area ........................... 69
Water budget......................... .. 75
References........................................... 79


ILLUSTRATIONS

Plate
1 Map of the Lake Parker area showing
contours on the piezometric surface of
the secondary artesian aquifer and loca-
tion of selected wells penetrating this
aquifer ............................. facing 6
2 Map of northwestern Polk County showing
contours on the piezometric surface of
the Floridan aquifer and location of wells
penetrating this aquifer. .............. facing 6
3 Map of the Lake Parker area showing
contours on the water table during the
period June 25-30, 1956, and location
of wells penetrating the nonartesian aqui-
fer ................................. facing 6




Figure
1 Map of Polk County showing the area cov-
ered by this report. Inset map shows
location of the county ................. 8
2 Graph showing annual rainfall at Lake-
land, 1915-55 .................. ...... 11
3 Geologic cross section showing forma-
tions penetrated by water wells in north-
western Polk County. ................. 18
4 Hydrographs of Lakes Wire, Hollings-
worth, Parker, and Deeson, and Crystal
Lake, in the Lakeland area. ........... 27
5 Hydrographs of wells inthe nonartesian
aquifers ........................... 30
6 Hydrographs of wells in the secondary
artesianaquifer ................. ... 32
7 Hydrograph of well 759-158-l inthe Flor-
idan aquifer.......................... 34
8 Hydrographs of wells in the Floridan
aquifer ...................... .... ... 35
9 Hydrographs of wells open to both the
secondary artesian and the Floridan
aquifer s ............................. 36
10 Annual pumpage of water by the Lake-
land city system....................... 48
11 Graph showing computed evaporation
from open-water surfaces at Orlando and
rainfall at Lakeland................. 53
12 Diagram showing sediments penetrated
in test hole 805-156-A, in Lake Parker 59
13 Hydrograph of Lake Parker for period of
record............................... 62
14 Hydrographs of Lake Parker and wells
803-154-10 and 806-154-1............ 63
15 Hydrographs of Lake Parker and wells
805-155-1 (nonartesian aquifer,805-155-2
(Floridan aquifer), and 805-155-3(sec-
ondary artesian aquifer), near southwest
shore of Fish Lake ................... 64
16 Hydrographs of Scott Lake and well
758-156-5 in the nonartesian aquifer... 71
17 Hydrographs of Scott Lake and well
757-155-3 in the secondary artesian
aquifer .............................. 72






18 Hydrographs of wells in the nonartesian
aquifer in the Scott Lake basin......... 73
19 Map of Scott Lake area showing locations
of wells, drainage divide, and water levels
during period of July 10-11, 1956...... 74


Table
1 Mean monthly temperature and rainfall
at Lakeland, Florida ................. 12
2 Solutional cavities penetrated by wells in
the Floridan aquifer .................. 14
3 Solutional cavities penetrated by wells
and springs in the secondary artesian
aquifer ............................ 15
4 Specific capacities of representative
wells in the Lakeland area ............ 40
5 Laboratory analyses of sand samples
from test hole 805-156-A ............. 42
6 Chemical analyses of water from wells,
lakes, and springs.................... 43
7 Evaporation and rainfall data from Or-
lando water plant, Orlando, Orange
County, Florida....................... 52
8 Water levels and temperature observed
in test hole 805-156-A. ............... 60
9 Stream-gaging measurements in the Lake
Parker and Saddle Creek areas. ....... 65








INTERIM REPORT ON THE
GEOLOGY AND GROUND-WATER RESOURCES OF
NORTHWESTERN POLK COUNTY, FLORIDA

By
Herbert G. Stewart, Jr.


ABSTRACT

The area of this investigation comprises about 360
square miles in northwestern Polk _Cunty~in the central
-- ~s__drial_b
part of peninsular Florida The area is underlain by lim--
-st6ne fromi-Z5 to 100 eet below the land surface to a depth
of several thousand feet. The upper limestones range in age
from middle Eocene to middle Miocene and are the principal
sources of water supplies in this area. The limestones dip
gently southwestward, as a part of the southwestern flank of
the Ocala uplift, and are overlain by unconsolidated sand
and clay of Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene age. The
Pleistocene sand and clay ranges from Ito 100 feet in thick-
ness and covers the entire area.

Groundwater in northwestern Polk County occurs under
both artesian and nonartesian conditions. The top of the zone
of saturation is close to the land surface in much of the area,
and fresh water extends downward to an unknown depth. The
nonartesian aquifer consists of sand of Pleistocene and
Recent age. Where this sand is more than 10 feet thick it
will generally furnish sufficient water for small domestic
and irrigation requirements. The uppermost artesian aquifer
is in the lower part of the Bone Valley formation, but it is
used very little. The so-called secondary artesian aquifer,
composed of limestones of middle Miocene age, supplies
water for domestic and small irrigation requirements. The
Floridan aquifer is the principal source of ground water in
the area. This aquifer is of great areal extent, underlying






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


all of Florida and parts of adjacent states. Although it is
composed of thick limestones that range in age from lower
Miocene to middle Eocene and differ in composition, it
functions as a single aquifer. It extends downward to an
unknown depth in this area. Wells drilled into the Floridan
aquifer range from 3 to 26 inches in diameter and from 150
to 1,200 feet in depth. The largest known yield from a well
in this area was 8,000 gpm (gallons per minute), with 23
feet of drawdown, from a well 24 inches in diameter and
1, 200 feet deep.

The records show a net decline of water levels in the
Floridan aquifer between 1936 and July 1956. This decline
is believed to be due primarily to below-average rainfall
during the 30-monthperiod preceding July 1956. The return
of average rainfall, along with a resultant decrease in the
demand for ground water, will probably result in a return
of the water levels to almost the 1936 levels.

The area around Lakelandis dotted with sinkholes which
originated with the collapse of caverns developed in the
underlying limestones. The caverns, which result from the
solution of limestoneby moving groundwater, are at consid-
erable depth below the land surface, and the networks of
connected caverns function as natural drains in the artesian
aquifers. It has long been thought that most of the recharge
to the Floridan aquifer was supplied by the lakes that occupy
many of the sinkholes in central Florida. Investigation of
the Lakeland area, however,has indicatedthat although some
recharge may come fromlakes in that area, the amount may
not be large. Further, most of the downward leakage from
some of these lakes is apparently recharging the secondary
artesian aquifer rather than the Floridan aquifer. Investi-
gation has shown also that these sinkhole lakes apparently
overlie lows in the piezometric surface of the Floridan
aquifer, and these lows may indicate the course of cavern
networks in the aquifer.

Lake Parker, in eastern Lakeland, recharges the arte-
sian aquifers at a low rate. Large withdrawals of ground
water are anticipated inthe area alongthe north shore of the
lake, and they may lower the lake level by reducing the
ground water discharged into the lake. They may even






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


establish hydraulic gradients away from the lake, thereby
increasing losses through the lake bottom. It appears,
however, that similar large withdrawals east of the lake
have not affected the lake level.

Scott Lake, a sinkhole lake south of Lakeland, is re-
charging the secondary artesian aquifer, and its level is
declining. The effect of withdrawals from the lake for
irrigation of citrus groves is equivalent to lowering the lake
level approximately 4. 5 inches per season, but the principal
!reasons for large seasonal declines of the lake level are:
;(1) continuing downward leakage to the secondary artesian
aquifer, (2) evaporation fromthe lake surface, and (3) below-
normal rainfall, which has caused the water table to decline
and has reduced the ground-water discharge into the lake.
At the north end of the lake basin the water table apparently
has declined to the extent that its gradient is reversed and
water is leaking from the lake into the nonartesian aquifer
also.


INTRODUCTION


Purpose and Scope of Investigation

The investigation upon which this report is based was
begun in April 1954 by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooper-
ation with the Florida Geological Survey and the Board of
County Commissione r s of Polk County. The primary purpo se
of the investigation was to provide basic information to assist
in the useful development of the water resources of Polk
County.

This reportpresents basic information regarding some
of the lakes and ground-water supplies in the northwestern
part of the county. The relation of the many lakes in the
areato the ground-water supply and the effects of large with-
drawals of ground water on both ground-water and surface-
water levels are matters of great interest in the county.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Previous Inve stigations

Some geologic and hydrologic work has been done in
PolkCounty as part of regional or statewide investigations.
Most of it has been done by the Florida Geological Survey
and the U. S. Geological Survey.

Cooke (1945), Vernon (1951), and Parker, Ferguson,
Love and others (1955) described the general geology of
central Florida and made many references to Polk County.
Cole (1941, 1945), Mansfield (1942), Cathcart and Davidson
(1952), Davidson (1952a, 1952b), Carr and Alverson (1953),
Puri (1953a, 1953b), and Bergendahl (1956) discussed the
geology of one or more of the formations present in Polk
County. Fenneman (1938), Cooke (1939), and MacNeil(1950)
discussed the topographic features of central Florida and
their origin and development.

Sellards (1908), Sellards and Gunter (1913, p. 262-
264), Matson and Sanford (1913, p. 388-390), and Gunter
and Ponton (1931) prepared early discussions and data con-
cerning ground water in Polk County and other parts of central
Florida. Stringfield (1935, 1936, p. 148, 172-173, 186)
investigated ground water in the Florida Peninsula and pre-
sented data from Polk County. One important result ofhis
investigation was apiezometric map of the principal artesian
aquifer of peninsular Florida (the Floridan aquifer of this
report) which indicates areas of recharge to and discharge
from the aquifer. This map was expanded to include most
of northwest Florida andpart of southern Georgiabythe work
of M.A. Warren, V. T. Stringfield, and F. Westendick, and
was shown by Cooper (1944, fig. 2). Cooper (1944), String-
field and Cooper (1951b), and Cooper, Kenner and Brown
(1953) discussed the ground water of Florida and referred
to recharge of the ground-water supplies in Polk County.
Papers by Ferguson, Lingham, Love and Vernon (1947) and
Stringfield and Cooper (1951b) described the geologic and
hydrologic features of springs in Florida and presented flow
measurements another data for some springs. Peek (1951) -
discussed the cessation of flow of Kissengen Springs in Polk
County.

Collins and Howard (1928), Black and Brown (1951), and
Wander and Reitz (1951) discussed the chemical quality of






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


establish hydraulic gradients away from the lake, thereby
increasing losses through the lake bottom. It appears,
however, that similar large withdrawals east of the lake
have not affected the lake level.

Scott Lake, a sinkhole lake south of Lakeland, is re-
charging the secondary artesian aquifer, and its level is
declining. The effect of withdrawals from the lake for
irrigation of citrus groves is equivalent to lowering the lake
level approximately 4. 5 inches per season, but the principal
!reasons for large seasonal declines of the lake level are:
;(1) continuing downward leakage to the secondary artesian
aquifer, (2) evaporation fromthe lake surface, and (3) below-
normal rainfall, which has caused the water table to decline
and has reduced the ground-water discharge into the lake.
At the north end of the lake basin the water table apparently
has declined to the extent that its gradient is reversed and
water is leaking from the lake into the nonartesian aquifer
also.


INTRODUCTION


Purpose and Scope of Investigation

The investigation upon which this report is based was
begun in April 1954 by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooper-
ation with the Florida Geological Survey and the Board of
County Commissione r s of Polk County. The primary purpo se
of the investigation was to provide basic information to assist
in the useful development of the water resources of Polk
County.

This reportpresents basic information regarding some
of the lakes and ground-water supplies in the northwestern
part of the county. The relation of the many lakes in the
areato the ground-water supply and the effects of large with-
drawals of ground water on both ground-water and surface-
water levels are matters of great interest in the county.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


ground and surface water in Polk County and other parts of
Florida.


Methods of this Investigation

Field work on this investigation began on May 1, 1954,
with an inventory of water supplies in northwestern Polk
County. Information obtained for approximately 500 wells
includes the depth of well and casing, water level, yield,
type of pump, and use and quality of the water. In addition,
information was obtained for some wells in other parts of
the county.

During the inventory, suitable wells were selected for
the observation of water-level fluctuations. The depth to
water was measured periodically in most of these observa-
tion wells, and water-level recording gages were installed
on seven of them.

The levels of several lakes also were measuredperiod-
ically, and recording gages were installed on Lake Parker
and Scott Lake, in the Lakeland area.

Exposures of consolidated rock in this area are rare.
All the original rock descriptions made during the investi-
gation were made from cuttings collected during the drilling
of wells and test holes. Therefore, except for the rocks
exposed in mine pits, all the rocks described in this study
were observed from cuttings taken from 33 wells and 4 test
holes. The U. S. Geological Survey arranged for the drilling
of 25 of these wells and the 4 test holes to depths ranging
from 3 to 311 feet, in order to obtain additional water-level
and geologic data in the vicinity of Lake Parker.

Electric logs of 27 wells in Polk County were made by
the Florida Geological Survey during this investigation.
Some of these logs were made of wells from which rock
cuttings were available, in order to aid in the interpretation
of the electric logs of wells from which no cuttings were
available. Gamma-ray logs of 36 wells in the county were
made bythe Minerals Deposits Branch of the Federal Survey.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


This type of logging was undertaken in an attempt to provide
an additional basis for identifying the stratigraphic units
penetrated, but the results were not encouraging.


Well-Numbering System

The well-numbering system usedinthis reports based
on latitude and longitude coordinates. The well number was
assigned by first locating eachwell on a map that is divided
into 1-minute quadrangles of latitude and longitude, then
numbering each well in a quadrangle in the order of inventory.
The well number is a composite of three numbers separated
by hyphens: The first number is composed of the last digit
of the degree and the two digits of the minute of the line of
latitude on the south side of a 1-minute quadrangle, the second
number is composedof the last digit of the degree and the two
digits of the minute of the line of longitude on the east side
of a 1-minute quadrangle, and the third number gives the
order in which the well was inventoried in the quadrangle.
For example, well 826-131-3 is the third well inventoried
in the 1-minute quadrangle north of 28 26' north latitude
and west of 81" 31' west longitude. Bymeans of this system
wells referred to by number in the text can be located on
plates 1, 2 and 3, and figure 19.

The same system is used in numbering geologic test
holes and exposed sections that were measuredand describ-
ed, except that consecutive letters of the alphabet are used
instead of consecutive numbers. For example, 905-156-A
was a test hole. The test holes were filled and abandoned
immediately after drilling, and therefore are distinguished
from wells.


Acknowledgments

This investigation was greatly aided by the interest and
cooperation of the residents and industries of the area, who
readily gave information regarding the wells. Special recog-
nition andthanks are here given to Mr. Arthur Crago, General
Manager of the American Cyanamid Company, Brewster,






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


Florida, and to his engineering and development staffs for
their cooperation and assistance; to Mr. Roy Wilt and Bar-
ney's Pumps, Inc., well drillers of Lakeland; to Mr. Curtis
A. Dansby and Mr. George Moran, retired well drillers of
Auburndale, who supplied well records and other information;
to Mr. Howard E. Godwin, well driller of Lakeland, who
supplied well records, collected rock cuttings from wells,
and made water-level measurements; to Mr. D. O. Payne,
City Manager of Lakeland, the late Mr. Charles Larsen,
Superintendent of the Light and Water Department, and Mr.
F. E. Wilson, City Engineer, who furnished manpower and
equipment to determine the altitudes of wells in the area; to
Mr. W. O. Johnson, U. S. Weather Bureau, Lakeland, for
his assistance in compiling and analyzing climatological data;
and to Mr. Walter Buehler, resident of the Scott Lake area
of Lakeland, who serviced the recording gage on Scott Lake.


GEOGRAPHY

Location, Population, and Industry

Polk County comprises an area of 1, 861 square miles
in the central part of peninsular Florida.; The northwestern
part of the county, considered in this report, includes about
360 square miles generally west of Auburndale and north of
Scott Lake (fig. 1, pl. 2). The northern third of this area is
sparsely populated and is occupied largelyby cattle ranches.
Much of the remaining area is used for truck farming, open-
pit phosphate mining, and the growing and processing of
citrus fruits.

Lakeland, the largest city in the county, is a thriving
/tourist center and is growing rapidly. Between 1890 and
1950 its population increased from about 500 to about 31, 000.
Current and planned improvements in transportation facilities
should result in additional growth of population and industry
in the city and surrounding areas, and these increases will
cause a corresponding increase in the demand for water.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


Topography

Polk County is part of the highland that trends along the
longitudinal axis of the Florida Peninsula. The major topo-
graphic features in the county are three long, irregular ridges
which are separated and bounded by relatively flat lowlands.

The area of this report is part of the Central
Highlands topographic division of Cooke ( 1939, p. 14,
fig. 3), the limesink and lake regions of the Floridan
section of the Atlantic Coastal Plain province of Fenneman
(1938, p. 46-65), and the Atlantic Coastal Plain ground-
water province of Meinzer (1923a, p. 309-314). The area
contains the northern part of the westernmost ridge in the
county, on which the city of Lakeland is situated. The land
surface along the crest of this part of the ridge is generally


Figure 1. Map of Polk County showing the area covered by
this report. Inset map shows location of the
county.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


200 to 270 feet above mean sea level. The ridge loses defi-
nition north of Providence and slopes down onto broad flat-
lands which continue to the northern boundary of the county.
These flatlands range from 100 to 140 feet above mean sea
level. On the west side of the ridge the surface slopes down
onto flatlands which extend to the Gulf of Mexico and Tampa
Bay. On the east side of the ridge the surface slopes down
onto the flat lowland along the course of Saddle Creek. The
juncture of ridge and lowland is sharply defined in only a
few places, andthese are on the east face of the ridge in the
southern part of the area.

The maximumlocal topographic relief is 155 feet, inthe
area between Scott and Banana lakes, south of Lakeland.
Total relief in the area of this investigation is approximately
180 feet.


Drainage

Surface drainage is poorly developed in the area. On
the flatlands there are hundreds of individual perennial and
ephemeral swamps and many basins of interior drainage.
In the ridge areabasins of interior drainage are even greater
in number, depth, and diameter than on the lower flatlands.
Inbothareas some of the basins of interior drainage contain
lakes but others do not.

Parts of the drainage basins of four streams are within
northwestern Polk County. The southern of the two Withla-
coochee rivers of Florida forms part of the northern boundary
of the county, and its tributaries drain some of the northern
part of the county. The Withlacoochee flows west into Pasco
County, where it turns abruptly north and empties into the
Gulf of Mexico near Inglis, in Levy County.

The west-central part of the area, west of the ridge,
is in the headwaters of the Hillsborough River, which flows
west into Hillsborough County and empties into Hillsborough
Bay at the city of Tampa. The southwestern part of the area,
west of the ridge, is in the headwaters of the Alafia River,
which flows southwest into Hillsborough County and empties
into Hillsborough Bay we st of Riverview.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


East of the ridge, and generally south of State Highway
33, are the headwaters of Saddle Creek, which flows south
through Lake Hancock into the Peace River. The Peace
River flows generally southward and empties into Charlotte
Harbor near Punta Gorda, in Charlotte County.

These four rivers flow inpoorly defined channels border-
ed in many places by extensive swamps, and they have very
few well defined tributary streams. The course of the Withla-
coochee River, inthe area of this investigation, is a cypress
swamp whose average width is a little more than a quarter
of a mile and whose maximum width is a little more than a
mile. Wherethe channel of the Withlacoochee canbe defined
within the swamp, it is generally less than a hundred feet
wide.


Climate

All climatic data used in this report are takenfrom the
published records of the U. S. Weather Bureau station at
Lakeland. The data from this station are believed to be
sufficiently representative to permit their general application
to the hydrology of the area.

The area has a subtropical climate and only two pro-
nounced seasons winter and summer. The average annual
temperature is 72 "F, and the average monthly temperatures
range from 61" F in January and December to 82 Fin Au-
gust. The average annual rainfall is 51.43 inches, about
three-fifths of which occurs during June to September, in-
clusive. Most of the rainfall comes from thunderstorms,
which average about a hundred per year. Total annual rain-
fall at Lakeland, for the period of record, is shown graph-
ically in figure 2. The mean monthly temperature and rain-
fall through 1955 are shown in table 1.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


Florida, and to his engineering and development staffs for
their cooperation and assistance; to Mr. Roy Wilt and Bar-
ney's Pumps, Inc., well drillers of Lakeland; to Mr. Curtis
A. Dansby and Mr. George Moran, retired well drillers of
Auburndale, who supplied well records and other information;
to Mr. Howard E. Godwin, well driller of Lakeland, who
supplied well records, collected rock cuttings from wells,
and made water-level measurements; to Mr. D. O. Payne,
City Manager of Lakeland, the late Mr. Charles Larsen,
Superintendent of the Light and Water Department, and Mr.
F. E. Wilson, City Engineer, who furnished manpower and
equipment to determine the altitudes of wells in the area; to
Mr. W. O. Johnson, U. S. Weather Bureau, Lakeland, for
his assistance in compiling and analyzing climatological data;
and to Mr. Walter Buehler, resident of the Scott Lake area
of Lakeland, who serviced the recording gage on Scott Lake.


GEOGRAPHY

Location, Population, and Industry

Polk County comprises an area of 1, 861 square miles
in the central part of peninsular Florida.; The northwestern
part of the county, considered in this report, includes about
360 square miles generally west of Auburndale and north of
Scott Lake (fig. 1, pl. 2). The northern third of this area is
sparsely populated and is occupied largelyby cattle ranches.
Much of the remaining area is used for truck farming, open-
pit phosphate mining, and the growing and processing of
citrus fruits.

Lakeland, the largest city in the county, is a thriving
/tourist center and is growing rapidly. Between 1890 and
1950 its population increased from about 500 to about 31, 000.
Current and planned improvements in transportation facilities
should result in additional growth of population and industry
in the city and surrounding areas, and these increases will
cause a corresponding increase in the demand for water.












60



1 50
u


j 40


a:
30



20


Figure 2. Graph showing annual rainfall at Lakeland, 1915-55.


AVERAGE X
y-5 / 1.43 /

- Z -z- -1 -,< ,Z. ,7 7




--o


_~II__I____Ilr.- nmY~--IC~1-ICI-lllr~-~~ -- -III~CCCIIII





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 1. Mean Monthly Temperature and Rainfall
at Lakeland, Florida

Temperature Rainfall
Month (F) (inches)

January 62.8 2. 13
February 63.8 2.42
March 67.5 3.27
April 72.1 3.02
May 77.0 4.34
June 80.4 7.58
July 81.6 8.21
August 82.0 7.36
September 80.4 6.33
October 74.8 2.74
November 67.1 1.81
December 63.1 2.00


GEOLOGY

Solution Features

The solution of limestone by circulating water is greatly
facilitated by joint cracks and open bedding planes in the
limestone, because water moves more freely through them
than through the generally very small interstices in the
rock. Solution and removal of limestone is therefore most
effective along the fractures and bedding planes, especially
at their intersections. However, solution occurs also in the
unfractured limestone by the circulation of water through
the original interstices of the rock.

As a result of solution, small cavities enlarge and
coalesce, and the limestone may develop a spongy, or
"honeycomb", appearance. If solution progresses further,
substantial cavern systems may develop. This process pro-
gressively increases the water-transmitting ability of the
lime stone.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


The limestones of Florida contain many interconnected
solutional cavities which range from a fraction of an inch to
many feet in diameter. Small cavities were observed in
pieces of the Avon Park limestone that were recovered during
well drilling operations from depths greater than 500 feet.
According to Vernon (in Ferguson and others, 1947, p. 21),
cavities have been penetrated at a depth of 8, 000 feet in oil
test wells in Florida, and circulation of drilling mud has
been lost at even greater depths, indicating the presence of
cavities at these depths.

Cavities ranging from 1 to 40 feet in diameter have been
penetrated in well drilling operations in northwestern Polk
County. Tables 2 and 3 give the data available regarding
these cavities. All wells listed in table 2 are located on
plate 2; those in table 3 are located on plate 1.

In Florida, limestone caverns may be observed in the
vicinities of Marianna (Jackson County) and Ocala (Marion
County), where they are now above ground-water level.
Though similar features are present in the area of this
report, they are below ground-water levels and cannot be
observed directly. Sinkholes are one surface indication of
subsurface solution of limestone. They maybe formed when
cavern ceilings collapse and the overlying materials settle
into the caverns, leaving depressions in the land surface.
Though sinkholes originate in other ways, the collapse origin
is most common to those formed recently in northwestern
Polk County.

The solution of limestone by ground water is one of the
-nost active geologic processes in central Florida today.
This fact was well illustrated by the formation of three new
sinkholes in the area of investigation between April 1954 and
May 1955. One sinkhole was reported to have formed in
April or May 1954 on the W. A. Jeffries property, one mile
east of Lake Parker and half a mile north of U. S. Highway
92. A second sinkhole was formed in the fall of 1954 on the
property of the American Cyanamid Company, in the lowland
along Saddle Creek approximately one mile north of U. S.
Highway 92 and half a mile west of the creek. The third
sinkhole formed on May 8, 1955, on the Gordon property,
about half a mile southwest of Highland City. The surface









Table 2, Soluaional Caviies Penetrated by Walls in the Floridan Aquifer


well
number
756.156.1
757.15Z-1
757.153.2


757.154-3
718.163-1
758-1543.1
758.154-1
759-159-1
759-201-1
800-153.3
800-156-2


Elevation of land
surface
(lfet above mel)
221*
117
132*


Depth to cavity
(aeet below
land surface)
805
540
157
360


Apparent diameter
of cavity
(feet)
6
15
a
40


802-149-4 W-3633
802-150-3
802-151-19
802-155-4

802-157-16 -
802-158-1 W-2767

803-147-12 -
803-153-28 W-3424
803-154-31
805-147-3
805-155-2 W-3766
805-159-1 W-3312
807-154-4 W-3883
807-201-1 W-2774
808-200.4

810-155-1 W-3866

817-149-2
*Estimated.


FraS,
well
number

W.1441



W-2241
W.1864

W-2129
W-633
W-724


Avon Park limestone
Avon Park limestone

Avon Park limestone
Suwannee limestone
Suwannee limestone
Avon Park limestone
Suwannee limestone
Suwannee limestone
Avon Park limestone
?
Avon Park limestone


Formation
Avon Park limestone
Avon Park limestone
Suwannee limestone
Crystal River formation

Avon Park limestone
Avon Park limestone
Avon Park limestone
Avon Park limestone
Avon Park limestone
Avon Park limestone
Avon Park limestone

Avon Park limestone
Suwannee limestone
Tampa formation
Suwannee limestone


Suwannee limestone Electric log
Crystal River formation Electric log
Avon Park limestone Driller's log


Remarks


Well clogged above cavity cannot be
checked with electric log.


Source of
data
Driller's log
Driller's log
Electric log
Driller

Driller's log
Driller's log
Driller's log
Driller's Log
Driller's log
Driller's log
Driller

Driller's log
Electric log
Electric log
Driller's log

Driller'l tog
Driller's log

Driller's log
Driller's log
Driller's log
Driller's log
Electric log
Driller's log
Driller's log
Driller's log
Driller's log


Also reported by driller.
"Honeycomb zone, not a single cavity.

Log is indefinite.
Lose of cuttings reported. "Honeycomb
zone," not a single cavity.


Loss of cuttings reported. "Honeycomb
zone," not a single cavity.
Log is indefinite.

























Table 3, Solutional Cavities Penetrated by Wells and Springs in the Secondary Artesian Aquifer


U.SS. s. F.O.S.
well well
number number
759-200-1 W-2954
802-154-2
803-153-12
805-153-4

805-156-2 W-3769
806-156-2 W-3771


Spring
Spring


Elevation of land Depth to cavity Apparent diameter
surface (feet below of cavity
(feet above mel) land surface) (feet)
136* 74 2
142* 40 -
124 55 8
130* 65 19


112*
112*


Formation
Hawthorn
Hawthorn
Hawthorn
Hawthorn

Hawthorn
Hawthorn
Hawthorn
Hawthorn


Source of
data Remarks
Driller's log This well location shown on plate 2.
Owner Drilled by owner.
Owner Drilled by owner,
Driller's log "Honeycomb zone," not a single open
cavity.
Driller's log
Driller's log
Observation Saddle Creek Mine.
Observation Saddle Creek Mine.


* Estimated.


I__





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


depressions were all small, less than 30 feet in diameter
and less than 30 feet deep when observed. The sinkhole on
the Gordon property, however, is reported to have been 40
feet deep immediately after it was formed. Five other
similar sinkholes formed in central Florida from May 7 to
May 10, 1956, in a broad area extending eastward from
Plant City in Hillsborough County to the Winter Haven and
Lake Wales areas of Polk County. Others were reported in
the western part of the city of Bartow in 1953 and 1954. The
size and location of these sinkholes indicate that all may have
originated in the lime stone members of the Hawthorn forma-
tion of Miocene age. Three of the sinkholes developed grad-
ually during a period of about 24 hours, but the rest formed
suddenly and without warning. The collapse of great thick-
nesses of relatively soft limestone, to form sinkholes might
be triggered at times by large reductions of artesian pres-
sure, but there are not enough data to substantiate this hy-
pothesis.

Evidence of solutional activity in the geologic past is
plentiful in northwestern Polk County. The ridge area con-
tains many nearly circular basins, a few of which are as
much as a mile in diameter. Few data are available regarding
the original depth of these sinkholes.

The shape of the basin of Scott Lake, south of Lakeland,
strongly suggests that it was formed by two coalescent sink-
holes which were partly filled by the initial collapse and
subsequent erosion of the sides. Well 758-156-3 (fig. 19),
drilled near the northeast shore of the lake in December,
1955, started atan altitude of 175 feet above mean sealevel,
and the driller reported that he penetrated only sand and
clay, presumably the filling of a sinkhole, before drilling
into the Suwannee limestone, in place, at a depth of 65 feet
below mean sealevel. The Hawthorn and Tampa formations,
which normally overlie the Suwannee limestone in this area,
were not penetrated in this well. The cavern whose roof
collapsed, therefore, is in or below the Suwannee limestone.
The average altitude around the crest of the lake basin is
approximately 230 feet above mean sea level. The original
depth of the sinkhole thus appears to have been at least 300
feet and possibly more, because the well probably does not
penetrate the deepest part of the partly filled depression.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 1. Mean Monthly Temperature and Rainfall
at Lakeland, Florida

Temperature Rainfall
Month (F) (inches)

January 62.8 2. 13
February 63.8 2.42
March 67.5 3.27
April 72.1 3.02
May 77.0 4.34
June 80.4 7.58
July 81.6 8.21
August 82.0 7.36
September 80.4 6.33
October 74.8 2.74
November 67.1 1.81
December 63.1 2.00


GEOLOGY

Solution Features

The solution of limestone by circulating water is greatly
facilitated by joint cracks and open bedding planes in the
limestone, because water moves more freely through them
than through the generally very small interstices in the
rock. Solution and removal of limestone is therefore most
effective along the fractures and bedding planes, especially
at their intersections. However, solution occurs also in the
unfractured limestone by the circulation of water through
the original interstices of the rock.

As a result of solution, small cavities enlarge and
coalesce, and the limestone may develop a spongy, or
"honeycomb", appearance. If solution progresses further,
substantial cavern systems may develop. This process pro-
gressively increases the water-transmitting ability of the
lime stone.





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


The lake occupying the basin is elongate, measuring approx-
imately 1. 1 miles by 0. 4 mile. The dimensions of the basin
appear tobe about twice those of the lake surface. Sounding
operations in May 1954 indicated that the lake bottom at the
lowest point was 152 feet above mean sea level.

All the large sinkholes in the area of this investigation
are partly filled by material that has collapsed from the
sides, andmany of them are occupied bylakes such as those
in the city of Lakeland. These lakes were not more than 25
feet deep in May 1954. Sounding operations by the U. S.
Geological Survey in May 1954 indicatedthat the lowest points
on the lake bottoms were as follows: Lake Beulah and Lake
Hunter, 153 feet above mean sea level; Lake Wire, 174 feet
above mean sea level; Lake Mirror, 163 feet above mean sea
level; and Lake Morton, 155 feet above mean sea level. The
size of the surface expression of these sinkholes is not nec-
essarilythe size of the original collapse, because slump and
erosion of the sides of the sinkhole may have enlarged the
original surface dimensions.


Summary of Stratigraphy

In the following discussions of rock formations, liberal
use is made of the work of Vernon (1951), Cooke (1945),
andothers The formations penetrated by wells in this area
are chiefly limestones that range in age from middle Eocene
to Recent. Though older formations (principally limestone)
extend to depths of several thousand feet, they are not tapped
by water wells in this area and are not discussed herein.

The formations with which we are concerned are dis-
cussed in order, from oldest to youngest. Figure 3 is a
geologic cross section from southwest to northeast across
the area. The trace of the cross section is shown by line
A-A' on plate 2.

Eocene Series

Avon Park Limestone: The Avon Park limestone under-
lies the entire northwestern part of Polk County, and in most
places it is more than 400 feet thick. It is the thickest and










1I 200-- -T -n
c2 c0

S100 Bone Vlley
H) ffmotion '.
z H a -t h z > r m a lo n j i" m i, o n e
10 0-- 6 00 Suwannee








U-I300- *



j 0 I 2
S-400-- Avon Park limestone
, Note: Tampa formation and (
do not conform wlth U
0 -50 Survey nomenclature.
SBottom of we//
-/,064 f. MSL.

-600


Figure 3. Geologic cross section showing formations penetrated by water
wells in northwesternPolk County. (See line A-A', plate 2. )





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


oldest formation ordinarily penetrated by water wells in this
area. It is a cream to dark brown hard dense fine grained,
locally crystalline limestone, but in some places it is chalky,
dolomitic, gypsiferous, or cherty. Many fragments from
400 to 900 feetbelowthe land surface contain abundant small
solution cavities. Well 807-154-4, a large industrial well
drilled six miles northeast of Lakeland, in May 1956, pene-
trated the top of the Avon Park at a depth of 355 feet below
the land surface. The well was terminated at a depth of
1, 200 feet, apparently still in the Avon Park. This formation
appears to have the greatest water-transmitting ability of
all known formations in the area.

According to Vernon (1951, p. 99), the Avon Park uncon-
formably overlie s the Lake City lime stone andunconformably
underlies the Inglis formation of the Ocala group.

Ocala Groupl: Work by the Florida Geological Survey
in recent years has resulted in areclassificationof the rocks
formerly called the Ocala limestone. Vernon (1951, p. 113-
171) divided this sequence of rocks into the Ocalalimestone
(restricted) and the underlying Moody's Branch formation.
He divided the Moody's Branch formation into two parts.
The lower unit was named the Inglis member, and the upper
unit was named the Williston member.

Puri (1953a) gave the name Crystal River formation to
Vernon's Ocala limestone (restricted) and gave formation
rank to the Inglis and Williston members of the Moody's
Branch formation. The Crystal River, Williston, and Inglis


The stratigraphic nomenclature used in this report
conforms to the usage of the Florida Geological Survey. It
conforms also to the usage of the U. S. Geological Survey,
with the exception of the Ocala group and its subdivisions
and the Tampa formation of Miocene age. The Florida Geo-
logical Survey has adopted the Ocala group as described by
Puri (1953a), but the U. S. Geological Survey regards these
rocks as a single formation, the Ocala limestone. The Tampa
limestone, as officially used by the Federal Survey, is re-
ferred to as the Tampa formation by the Florida Geological
Survey.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


formations are now referred to as the Ocala group by the
Florida Geological Survey. All three underlie the entire
area of this investigation.

The Inglis Formation: The Inglis formation is a cream
colored porous hard granular limestone of marine origin.
It is 25 to 50 feet thick. It unconformably overlies the Avon
Park limestone and conformably underlies the Williston
formation, according to Vernon (p. 115-116). The conform-
able upper contact is important because itprovides a refer-
ence horizon for structural interpretation and for correlation
of the geologic section across the State.

The Williston Formation: The Williston is a cream to
tan generally soft porous, granular limestone, 15 to 30 feet
thick. Vernon (p. 141, 144) indicates that this formation is
conformable with both the underlying Inglis formation and the
overlying Crystal River formation. The Williston-Crystal
River contact is difficult to determine because it is transi-
tional. The Williston-Inglis contact, therefore, is preferred
for correlation purposes.

The CrystalRiver Formation: The Crystal River forma-
tion is a white to cream porous very soft coarse rained
limestone. It is about 100 to 150 feet thick in this area, and
it is composedprincipallyof the shells of large foraminifers
of the- p e which are set in a fine grained
matrix of calcium carbonate. These large, single celled
marine animals had shells that were generally disc shaped
and as much as three-fourths of an inch in diameter. In
some of the species the disc had a saddle-like shape. Be-
cause the Crystal River formation contains many of these
distinctive fossils, it is very easily recognized.

The Crystal River conformably overlies the Williston
formation and unconformably underlies a bed tentatively
identified as the Suwannee limestone, of Oligocene age.

The specific yield of wells terminating in the Crystal
River is small. It can generally be increased by deepening
the wells into one or more of the underlying formations.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


Oligocene Series

The Suwannee Limestone: The Oligocene series is re-
presented by the Suwannee limestone, which is believed to
underlie nearly the entire area of this investigation. The
Suwannee is a light to dark cream granular detrital porous
soft, very pure limestone 40 to 100 feet thick. It contains
many fossil fragments and casts of molds of fossils, and
local well drillers usually call it "coquina. Locally, at or
near the top, it contains extremely hard darkbrown masses of
chert. The masses of chert are commonly one inch to two feet
thick, but in a fewplaces they maybe as much as 10 feet thick.

The Suwannee unconformably overlies the CrystalRiver
formation. In the southern part of the area it is overlain
unconformably by limestones of the Miocene series, and in
the northern part by unconsolidated sand and clay, which
may range in age from Oligocene to Recent. Part of these
unconsolidated sediments may be a weatheredresidue of the
Suwannee limestone.

Cooke (1945, p. 98)reports that the Suwannee is present
in northern Polk County, but Vernon (1951) does not mention
Polk County in his discussion of this formation.

The formation generally supplies enough water for do-
mestic use.


Miocene Series

Correlation of the formations of Miocene age in Florida
and adjacent states has long been a major geologic problem.
Recently (Puri, 1953b) great strides have been made with
this problem in the Florida Panhandle. Major problems still
exist, however, in the peninsular part of the State. Since
World War II the Miocene and younger deposits in the central
part of the peninsula have been studied by geologists of the
U. S. Geological Survey. A report by Bergendahl (1956,
p. 69-84) contains a summary of the problem, and publica-
tions by Cooke (1945, p. 109, ff), Vernon (p. 178-186),





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Puri(1953b, p. 15, ff), and others contain other summaries.

Cooke (1945) and Vernon (1951)both identified the Tampa
formation (lower Miocene) and the overlying Hawthorn forma-
tion (middle Miocene) in Polk County. Cole (1941, p. 6), on
the basis of lithology, identified the Tampaformationbetween
depths of 117and 180 feet in a well four miles northof Lake-
land.

Field evidence obtained duringthis investigation didn't
justify a positive identification of the Tampa, but the Suwannee
limestone is overlain by a sandy limestone that is litholog-
ically similar to the Tampa. This sandy limestone seems
to be an extension of known Tampa in southern Hillsborough
County, and it is here tentatively assigned to the Tampa on
thebasis oflithologyandon scatteredfinds of the foraminifer
Sorites sp., Archaias floridanus, a foraminifer commonly
accepted as being diagnostic of the Tampa, has not been
found in this area.

The combined thickness of the Suwannee limestone and
Tampa formation ranges generally from 40 to 140 feet in this
area. In places the entire section is lithologically similar
to the Tampa, and in other places to the Suwannee. In some
places the section appears to consist of both formations and
the contact between the two is gradational.

Tampa Formation: In northwestern Polk County the
Tampa formation is a dark gray to white generally hard
sandy limestone containing a few black and brown granules
ofphosphate. The thickness of the limestone ranges fromless
than one foot to about 60 feet. The contact between the Tampa
and the underlying Suwannee limestone is not easily defined,
but it is usually drawn where the pure limestone of the
Suwannee changes to the sandylimestone of the Tampa. Both
Cooke (1945, p. 109) and Vernon (1951, p. 179) indicate that
the Suwannee-Tampa contact is unconformable.

A variegated (blue-gray or blue-green and cream) silty,
sandy clay overlies the limestone of the Tampa formation.
The clay ranges in thickness from 3 to 15 feet and is more
widespreadthanthe limestone inthe area studied. In places
this part of the formation is shaly and contains less sand







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. Z3


than where it is clayey. The bed is relatively impermeable,
but drillers have reported obtaining very small water sup-
plies fromthe shalybeds in a few wells. The clay isbelieved
to be part of the Tampa formation, but additional study may
prove that it belongs in another formation. No fossils have
been found in the unit. Puri (1953b, p. 21) reports a similar
clay andincludes it in what is here called the Tampa forma-
tion.

Vernon (p. 183, table 14) indicates that the contact of
the Tampa formation and the overlying Hawthorn formation
is unconformable in this area.

Hawthorn Formation: In northwestern Polk County the
Hawthorn formation consists of interbedded sandylimestone
and clays or silts which are not individually distinctive.
The limestone units are light cream to tan, very sandy,
phosphatic, and locally silicified, and their hardness and
permeability differ from place to place. They contain large
casts, molds, and silicified shells of marine invertebrates,
and silicified and phosphatized bones. The limestone units
are generally covered by one to six feet of brown sandy,
gritty clay.

In the Saddle Creek areathe upper limestone is overlain
locally by brown well indurated clayey sandstone which, in
places, fills the solution cavities on the limestone surface.
In some smallareas the limestone is overlain unconformably
by lenses of white to dark green massive, dense blocky
clay. Both the clayey sandstone and the dense clay are here
included in the Hawthorn formation.

In most places the limestones are sufficiently permeable
to supply water for domestic requirements, and locallythey
contain well developed solution cavities which enable them
to yield large quantities of water.

In well 803-156-11, in Lakeland, fourbeds of limestone
were penetrated between depths of 51 and 119 feet. These
limestones are separated by clayey strata which may be
weathered residues of the underlying limestones. In well
803-151-11, half a mile north of Carters Corners, and in
other wells on the lowland along Saddle Creek, only one or





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


HYDROLOGY

Surface Water

The amount of water withdrawn fromlakes and streams
in the area of this investigation is small compared with the
amount withdrawn from ground-water sources. Small
amounts of water are pumped from lakes for irrigation of
lawns and citrus groves. The city of Lakeland pumps water
from Lake Parker and Lake Mirror for cooling purposes in
adjacent power plants and then returns it to the lakes. Lake
Gibson has been used extensively for irrigation of citrus
groves, as have Crystal Lake and Lake Bonny. Scott Lake
is still used extensively for such irrigation. A few shallow
pits have been dug to the water table for livestock supplies
and for irrigating small farms.

Figure 4 shows the hydrographs of representative lakes
in the area. The hydrographs of Lakes Wire and Hollings-
worth are similar to those of Lakes Hunter, Beulah, Morton,
andGibson, all in the ridge section. Lakes Parker, Deeson,
Crystal, and Bonny are on the lower flatland. The level of
Lake Parker was relatively stable during the period of rec-
ord, but nearby Lake Deeson and Crystal Lake declined
almost continuously between October 1954 and June 1956.
The hydrograph of Lake Bonny, just south of Lake Parker,
is very similar to those of Lake Deeson and Crystal Lake.

Many lakes in the area were much smaller in 1956 than
they were in preceding years, as shownby evidence of former
shorelines obtained from drilling data, maps, aerial photo-
graphs, and encroaching vegetation. In 1956 many small
unnamed lakes and swamps were completely dry. A few of
these may have been drained artificially, but most of them
are dry because of below average precipitation, subsurface
drainage, or both.

Ground Water

Occurrence

Ground water is the subsurface water inthat part of the
zone of saturation in which all pore spaces are filled with
water under pressure greater than atmospheric. Essentially







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


Figure 4.


Hydrographs of Lakes Wire, Hollingsworth,
Parker, and Deeson, and Crystal Lake, in the
Lakeland area-


1 ] -I I -- --- I I I I I- I- 1- I- I I I I I I I I
108 LAKE HOLLINGSWORTH I I I I


132
-j
> 131

U -LAKE PARKER

















S- I-1297, I I I I I- I I I I | |

A S 0 N D J F M A M JAJ A MN D J F M M J J
1954 1955 1956



all of it that is usable is meteoric (derived from precipita-
tion). Part of the precipitation returns to the atmosphere
by evapotranspiration, and part runs off into lakes and

streams; the remainder percolates downwarduntil it reaches
the zone of saturation to become ground water. The ground

water then moves laterally, under the influence of gravity,
toward places of discharge such as wells, springs, surface
streams, lakes, or the ocean.


Ground water may occur under either nonartesian or
artesian conditions. Where it is not confined its upper sur-
face, the water table, is free to rise and fall and it is said
I-





b3o














streams; the remainder percolates downwar until it reaches
the zone of saturation to become ground water. The ground
water then moves laterally, under the influence of gravity,
toward places of discharge such as wells, springs, surface
streams, lakes, or the ocean.


Ground water may occur under either nonartesian or
artesian conditions. Where it is not confined its upper sur-
face, the water table, is free to rise and fall and it is said






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


to be nonartesian. Where the water is confined in a perme-
able bed between less permeable beds, so that its surface
is not free to rise and fall, it is said to be artesian. The
term "artesian" is applied to ground water that is confined
under sufficient pressure to rise in wells above the top of
the permeable bed that contains it, though not necessarily
above the land surface. The height to which water will rise
in a tightly cased artesian well is called the "artesian pres-
sure head. The imaginary surface coinciding with the
water levels of artesian wells is called the 'piezometric
surface. "

An aquifer is a formation, group of formations, or part
of a formation, in the zone of saturation, that is permeable
enough to transmit usable quantities of water. Areas in
which aquifers are replenished are called recharge areas.


Nonartesian Aquifer

In the area of this investigation ground-water supplies
are obtained from four different aquifers, which were first
recognized by Matson (Matson and Sanford, 1913, p. 389).
The uppermost of the four aquifers is in the unconsolidated
surface sand of Pleistocene age. This sand covers the entire
area and contains unconfined water. The water is used for
domestic supply and for irrigating garden plots that require
relatively small amounts of water. Tubular wells in this
aquifer range from 1- to 4 inches in diameter and from 7 to
35 feet in depth; there are a few dug wells and pits also.
Hand (pitcher)pumps are commonly used for domestic pur-
poses, andgasoline-driven suctionpumps are used for irri-
gation. These wells do not produce more than 20 to 30 gpm
(gallons per minute), except for a few wells in the broad,
flat area west of the Lakeland ridge.

Wells into this aquifer are commonly constructed (by
thetenant or owner)by driving small-diameter pipe into the
ground. The sand is then cleaned from the pipe, and the
well is deepened by water jetting. There are very few dug,
drive-point, screenedor gravel-packed wells in this aquifer
in the area of this investigation. Wells inthe aquifer rarely
retain their original depth because the loose sands will not






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


stand in the walls of an open hole. In several instances the
well casings have been nearly filled with sand by overpumping
the well.

The water-table map (pl. 3) covers only a very small
part of the area of this investigation, because there were
not enough nonartesian wells to provide the control necessary
for a reasonably accurate map of the entire area.

During the course of this investigation, water levels
were measured periodically in several nonartesian wells,
and hydrographs for representative wells are shown in fig-
ures 5, 15, 16, and 18. The location of these wells is
shown on plate 3 and figure 19.


Uppermost Artesian Aquifer

Within the Bone Valley formation, which immediately
underlies the Pleistocene sands, is an artesian aquifer of
undetermined thickness and areal extent which is referred
to as the "uppermost artesian aquifer. The aquifer is
confined between the upper, heavy, dense clays of the Bone
Valley and the lower clay zones which may be a part of the
Bone Valley or of the underlying Hawthorn formation. Very
little is known of this aquifer, and only a few wells obtain
water from it. The few wells known to penetrate it are sim-
ilar in construction to wells in the nonartesian aquifer. In
places the piezometric surface of this aquifer is near the
level of the water table. Generally, however, it is 3 to 6
feet below the water table.

Water-level observations made during the drilling of
deep wells indicate that the piezometric surface of this aquifer
is higher than that of the aquifers below it.


Secondary Artesian Aquifer

The "secondary artesian aquifer, which is formed in
the limestone members of the Hawthorn formation,. is used
much more than either of the two aquifers previously de-
scribed. It is confined above by the clay in-the upper part






1(0
137
-J36
~156


I I I I I l f i l I I I I


v .,


-K


134 Well 803-154-2
3 miles northeast of Lakeland Depth of well 15 ft. Depth of casing 15 ft.
z133
2122


<120

Wel I \1 -

,117
-J
> 116
115
W 114-
1 Well 804-153-7 /Depth of well 21 ft


4.1 miles northeast of Lakeland


"/ Depth of casing 20ft.?


Figure 5. Hydrographs of wells in the nonartesian aquifers.


M J J A S 0 N D J F M A M J J AS N D J FM A M J
1954 1955 1956


N






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


of the Hawthorn or the lower part of the Bone Valley forma-
tion, and is confined below by the blue clay of the Tampa
formation. Most of the wells that draw water from this
aquifer are in the lowland of Saddle Creek and are used for
domestic supply and for truck farm irrigation. They range
from 1- to 6 inches in diameter and from 30 to 75 feet in
depth. The casing in these wells is generally seated in the
uppermost part of a limestone bed, but in some wells it is
driven only into the clay overlying the limestone. Several
wells that utilize this aquifer in the ridge section are much
deeper than those in the lowland, because of differences in
the altitude of the land surface.

In the lowland areas, water levels in wells open only to
this aquifer are generally 5 to 10 feet below the water table.
In the ridge section, however, the water level may be more
than 100 feet below the water table. Figures 6 and 17 are
hydrographs of three wells which are open only to this aquifer.
Plate 1 and figure 19 show the location of these wells.

The Piezometric Surface: Plate 1 is a map of the piezo-
metric surface of the secondary artesian aquifer inthelow-
land along Saddle Creek. The large cones of depression
around the springs at points E, F, and G are caused by dis-
charge from the aquifer in mine pits operating at the time of
mapping.

Much of the area between Saddle Creek and the west
branch of Saddle Creek, south of the springs at point E, is
a mined-out area that is used for water storage. Limestone
of the Hawthorn formation is exposed at many places in the
floors of these abandonedpits. Artesian springs which issued
from the limestone during mining operations have been iso-
lated and dammed off, thus impounding the water. Water is
pumped from the operating pits and either is used in mining
operations or is stored in the abandoned pits.

Flowing artesian wells existed as late as 1948 in the
general vicinity of well 803-152-2, about half a mile north-
east of the U. S. Highway 92 bridge over Saddle Creek. Water
levels in this area were reported to have been about two feet
above the surface in 1948, but they had dropped to about 11
feet below the surface by 1956. The area of artesian flow
apparently extended about three-fourths of a mile on either
side of Saddle Creek; its north-south extent is unknown. The






32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 6. Hydrographs of wells in the secondary artesian
aquifer.


120
I
19-
S Well 803-154-10 Depth of well 69 ft.
32 miles northeast of Lakeland Depth of casing 39 ft



S1
w 1032
i^!0' --- ^ :: ---------- -<---------






95 i
0- 1954 -1955 -1956

g^ ------ ------------------------------ ----------


area was described by Sellards and Gunter (1913, p. 263),
and Matson and Sanford (1913, table facing p. 390) reported
a flowing well in this area.



Floridan Aquifer

-- The principal artesian aquifer in the area of this investi-
'gation is the Floridan aquifer, which consists of a series of
limestones that range from Eocene to Miocene in age. This
aquifer is the source of allmajor public, industrial, and ir-
rigation water supplies in northwestern Polk County. The
name "Floridan aquifer" was introduced by Parker (Parker
and others, 1955, p. 188-189) to include 'parts or all of the
middle Eocene (Avon Park and Lake City limestones, upper






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


Eocene (Ocala limestone), Oligocene (Suwannee limestone),
and Miocene (Tampa limestone, and permeable parts of the..
Hawthorn formation that are in hydrologic contact with the
rest of the aquifer). According- to Cooper, Kenner, and
Brown (1953, p. 17), this aquifer "underlies almost all of
Florida, the coastal area of Georgia, and the southeastern-
most parts of South Carolina and Alabama. "

In northwestern Polk County only a few wells penetrate
to. the base. of the -Avon Park limestone, of Eocene age.
Well 807-154-4, -one of the:deepest, ended in the Avon Park
limestone at a depth of 1, 200 feet below the land surface.
The top of the Floridan aquifer in this well is 80 feet below
the land surface. The total thickness of the aquifer is not
known.

The Floridan aquifer is known to be separate, fromthe
overlying secondary artesian aquifer be cause the water levels
of the Floridan aquifer are consistently lower than those of
the secondary artesian aquifer. In the lowlands the water
levels of the Floridan aquifer are generally 5 to 15 feet be-
low those of the,secondary artesian aquifer. In the ridge
section the difference in water levels appears to be much
greater, perhaps as much: as 40 to 80 feet. Wells penetrating
the Floridan aquifer range.from 6 to 24 inches in diameter
and from 150 to 1, 200 feet in depth.

Water level records are seldom kept by well drillers
duringthe drilling of a well, but some records were obtained
from drillers'logs of three wells inthe area and some were-
collected from 10 other wells during this investigation. The
data are incomplete for seven of the wells but relatively
complete for the other six wells. The measurements from
11 of these wells indicate that once the Floridan aquifer is
penetrated the water levels do not change appreciably with
increased depth. In two of the 13 wells, however, they are
reported to have changed substantially (more than 10 feet)
when sizable solutional cavities or zones were penetrated.
Figure 7 is a hydrograph of well 759-158-1, in the Floridan
aquifer, about 3, miles southwest of Lakeland. This well is
643 .feet deep and. is cased to a depth of 318 feetwith 18-, 16-
and 12-inch casing. Figure 8 shows the hydrographs of wells
757-152-1, just southeast of Highland City, and 800-156-1,
in: Lakeland, which are also ope' onlyto the.Floridan aquifer r.






34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Wells that are open to both the secondary artesian aquifer
and the Floridan aquifer are referred to as 'mnultiaquifer
wells. They range from 3 to 12 inches in diameter and
from 150 to 850 feet in depth. Most of themhave the smaller
diameters and are used for domestic and small irrigation
requirements.

Water levels in multiaquifer wells are about the same
as those in wells open only to the Floridan aquifer. When a
well is open to both aquifers its pressure head is reduced
quickly to about the pressure head of the Floridan aquifer.









o 64
60 I
66

I
I
70 -


I- 1

Z Depth of well 643 ft. I
LL -- -
,-





I
: ---- -Well 759-158-1, 3 miles southwest of --I
Lakeland. i
78







1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955


Figure 7. Hydrograph of well 759-158-1 in the Floridan
aquifer.
aquifer.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


27 -"'- '' f'----
27--
28
29
3C
31
32



35
Well 757-152-1

0.5 miles southeast of Highland City
37

Depth of well 576 ft

Depth of casing 104ft.

41


50
51--------
52------
53


55
56
Well 800-156-1
57 ---
In Lakelond

50
Depth of well 297 ft.
60
Depth of casing 190ft.
61
62
J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S 0 N D J F M A M J
1954 1955 1956




Figure 8. Hydrographs of wells in the Floridan aquifer.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


This is possible because the thickness of the Floridan aquifer
ranges from 10 to perhaps 40 times the thickness of the
secondary aquifer, and the water transmitting ability of the
Floridan aquifer is generally much greater than that of the
secondary aquifer.


Figure 9 shows hydrographs of multiaquifer wells in this
area.





too
99
98

97













0 Depth of casing 75 ft
Li
---- ----





wz 91 ----- /^ ------ \------
14 4-5miies southeast of Lakeland


gO Bi Depth of well 390ff.
,_ Death of casing 75 ft


>
-I

Li


-,I I


Well 805-157-3
116
1153.5 miles north of Lakelond


Depth of well 178 ft
113-----------
SDepth of casing 45 ft
J J A SO N DJ FM A M J J A S N D J F M A M
1 1954 1955 1956


Figure 9.


Hydrographs of wells open to both the secondary
artesian and the Floridan aquifers.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


The Piezometric Surface: Plate 2 is a highly general-
ized map of the piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer
in northwestern Polk County. A large, lobate high area may
be seen in the northeastern part of the map. From this high
the piezometric surface slopes downward to the west and
south through the ridge area in the vicinity of Lakeland,
following in a general way the topographic highs.

Only a few wells were being pumped during the time
when the water-level measurements for plate Z were made.
Most of these were being pumped almost continuously for
public and industrial supplies, but only two of them (806-
152- 1 and 759-155- )hadformed significant cones of depres-
sion. The hydraulic gradient and areal extent of these cones,
as shown on plate 2, are approximations, but the general
effect of pumping in the area is evident.

Plate 1, a map of the piezometric surface of the secondary
artesian aquifer, shows a general similarity to plate 2. The
depression in the piezometric surface along Saddle Creek,
shown on plate 1, was caused largely by heavy discharge
from artesian springs at point E.

On plate 2, the northward reentrant in the slope of the
piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in the Saddle
Creek area may be due, in part, to topography, because the
lowland along the creek is paralleledon the east andwest by
relativelyhigh ridges which may be supplying some recharge
to the aquifer. The reentrant may be due, in part, to the
continuous pumping of wells 759-155-1, 800-153-3, and
806-152-1. However, along U.S. Highway 92 for approxi-
mately a mile east and west of Saddle Creek, the reentrant
maybe partly due to upward leakage fromthe Floridan aquifer
to the secondary artesian aquifer. This is shown by the
generally coincident water levels of the two aquifers in that
area.

Plate 3, the map of the water table in the vicinity of
Lake Parker, is similar to both plates 1 and 2. The re-
entrant in the water table along Saddle Creek is caused by
discharge from the nonartesian aquifer into the creek and
active mine pits.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Several wells on plate 2 show anomalous high or low
water levels which are not clearly defined because of insuf-
ficient control data. Wells 803-154-31, 808-200-1, 758-156-7,
and 800-157-7 provide examples of these anomalies. In most
places the piezometric lows appear to underlie the large
sinkholes. Because surface and subsurface solution features
in limestones are directly related, the piezometric lows
may indicate great subsurface flow through cavernous zones
of the Floridan aquifer in which sinkhole collapse originated.

The local areas of high water levels all coincide with
local topographic highs. There is practically no surface
runoff in such areas and the water table is high, indicating
that these are areas of recharge to the nonartesian aquifer.
The piezometric surface of the Floridan aquifer is high in
these areas, indicating that they are areas of recharge to
that aquifer also.

Water-Level History: Few accurate data are available
on water-level fluctuations in the area of this investigation
before 1948. Records of water-level fluctuations in well
759-158-1, southwest of Lakeland, havebeen kept since 1948
and constitute the longest record available in this area (fig. 7).

Stringfield (1936, p. 172) lists water-level measure-
ments made in several wells that were observedalso during
the present study. His wells 11 and 15 are wells 802-157-3
and 804-147-2 of this report, and his well 10 is immediately
adjacent to well 803-158-1 (pl. 2). Measurements of water
levels in these wells made in June 1956 indicate that the
water levels have declined 8 to 12 feet since 1934. These
declines are not considered permanent, because Stringfield's
measurements were made during period that was preceded
by I- years of above normal rainfall, and the 1956 measure-
ments were made after 21 years of below normal rainfall.
After a period of normal rainfall the water levels probably
will rise and thus be nearer those reported by Stringfield.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


Hydraulics

Specific Capacity of Wells

Many specific-capacity tests have been made by local
well drillers. The results of some of these are shown in
table 4. Meinzer (1923b, p. 62) defined the tested capacity
of a well as "the maximum rate at which it is known to have
yielded water without appreciable increase in drawdown. "
He defined the specific capacity of a well as "its rate of yield
per unit of drawdown" and stated that "the term is applied
only to wells in whichthe drawdown varies approximatelyas
the yield. In such wells the specific capacity can be esti-
mated by dividing the tested capacityby the drawdown during
the test. "

The differences in the specific capacities shown in
table 4 result from lithologic changes within the aquifer and
from differences in the well diameters.


Pumping Tests

A pumping test was made in well 807-154-4 on July 9,
1956, to determine the coefficient of transmissibility of the
Floridan aquifer at one location in northwe stern Polk County.
The coefficient of transmissibility is a measure of the capac-
ity of an aquifer to transmit water. In customary units it is
the quantity of water, in gallons per day (gpd), at the pre-
vailing water temperature, that willmove through a vertical
section of the aquifer one foot wide and extending the full
saturated height, under a unit hydraulic gradient.

Well 807-154-4 is northeast of Lake Parker (pl. 2) and
is open to the Williston and Inglis formations and the Avon
Park limestone. The well is 26 inches in diameter and
1, 200 feet deep. During the test it was pumped by a diesel-
driven turbine pump for eight hours at a nearly constant rate
of 6, 500 gpm. Computations of the coefficient of transmis-
sibility were made from measurements of the recovery of
the waterlevel in the well. The coefficient of transmissibility
for the part of the aquifer open to this well was computed to
be about 1,000,000 gpd per foot.
















Table 4, Specific Capacitie of Representative Wells in the Lakelend Area

Static water
Diameter of Depth of Depth of level (teat Pumping rate Specific capacity Pumping
Well casing casing well *Aquifer below land Drawdown (tested capacity) (gpm/foot of time
number (inches) (feet) (teset surface) (test) (gpm) drawdown) (hours) Remarks
802-151-10 4 42 325 2 & 3 11.6 3,2 90 28 0.5 Measured by U.S.G.S,
602.152-10 3 55 65 2 10.2 1,8 60 33 1,0 Measured by U, S.G.S.
803.151-6 3 36 193 2 & 3 10.4 8,3 55 6,7 2.5 Measured by U.S.G.S
803.151.9 4 48 239 2 & 3 13.7 2.0 46 23 1.0 Measured by U.S.G.S.
803.153.29 4 60 154 2 & 3 18.3 4.3 65 15 1.0 Measured by U.S.G. S.
804-152-2 3 45 59 2 14.0 .6 29 48 .3 Meseured by U.5.0.S.
804-153-13 3 39 59 2 10.7 3.9 24 6,1 .5 Measured by U.S.0.S.
805-153-2 3 45 72 3 ? 14.3 2.8 24 8.6 .5 Measured by U.S.G.S.
806.156-2 3 63 103 2 20.9 .6 22 37 .5 Measured by U.S.G.S.
807-154-2 3 32 56 2 5.4 4.1 24 5.8 .5 Measured by U.S.G. .
807154.3 6 53 411 2 & 3 13.2 3.4 290 85 .3 Measured by U.S.G.S.
807.154.4 26 292 1,200 3 14.7 11.6 6,500 560 6.5 Measured by U.S. .S.
808-153-1 3 56 93 3- ? 13.7 4.0 24 5.8 .5 Measured by V.S.G.S.
809-153-1 6 43 385 2 & 3 13.4 11.3 300 26 1.0 Measured by U.S.G.S.
759-155-1 24 294 1,220 3 20.0 50.0 5,000 100 8,07 Reported by driller, .
800-153-3 24 118 1,037 3 15.0 15.0 3,000 200 8.0? Reported by driller.
806-152-1 24 285 1,285 3 10,0 55.0 4,000 73 8.07 Reported by driller.
810.153.1 10 45 396 2 3 12,0 9.0 1,000 110 1.04 Reported by driller.
810-154-1 10 246 562 3 8,0 11.0 1,100 100 1.0+ Reported by driller.

2, Secondary artesian
S3, Floridan p






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


Pumping-test data collected from other wells are too
incomplete for use in computing the coefficient of transmis-
sibility of the Floridan aquifer. In general, they are from
multiaquifer wells that are open to formations above the Avon
Park. The data indicate that the coefficient oftransmissibility
of the upper part of the Floridan aquifer is appreciably less
than 1,000,000 gpd per foot, and that the transmissibility
differs considerably in different sections of the aquifer.


Laboratory Analyses

Test hole 805-156-A was drilled in the bottom of Lake
Parker, near the mouth of the northwest arm of the lake,
and samples of the sediments were collected and described
(fig. 12). The sand samples collected from the test hole
were studiedand tested by the U. S. Geological Survey Hydro-
logic Laboratory at Denver (table 5). As some of the finer
sediments may have been lost during the recovery of the
disturbed samples, the coefficients of permeability shown
in table 5 are probably higher than those of the undisturbed
sediments.


Quality of Water

Chemical analyses were made of water samples from
66 wells and 3 lakes in the area of this investigation. An
analysis was made also of a water sample from a spring in
the American Cyanamid Company's Saddle Creek mine. All
analyse s were made by the U. S. Geological Survey laboratory
at Ocala, Florida. Samples from four municipal supply wells
were analyzed for all the common chemical constituents,
and the other samples were analyzed for only selected con-
stituents. The results of these analyses are shown intable 6.

The concentrations of dissolved minerals in the water
of the aquifers in northwestern Polk County differ consider-
ably within each aquifer, and the ranges of concentration in
a given aquifer overlap those of other aquifers. It is not
practical, therefore, to differentiate the aquifers on the
basisiof the chemical quality of their water, but further study
of water quality may reveal relationships that will be useful
in locating sources of recharge to the aquifers.









Table 5. Laboratory Analyses of Sand Samples from Test Hole 805-156-A
(Analyses by USGS Hydrologic Laboratory, Denver, Colorado)


Depth below lake bottom
(feet)
5-7
11-12
15-16
20-23
24-26
27-28
35-37
44-45
50
55-56
60
70
73-77


Porosity
(percent)
37.1
34. 0
35.0
32.7
34.2
35.2
36.9
36.2
32.2
39.7
44.8
45.4
43.2


Coefficient of permeability
(gpd per square foot)1
75
40
50
80
20
60
90
150
95
180
110
115
40


lGallons per day at 60F through a cross section of one square foot under unit hydraulic
gradient.


Sample
no,


5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13





Table 6.--Chemical analyses of water from wells, lakes, end springs (Chemical constituents given in parts per million)
CAquifert 1, nonartesian; 2, secondary artaesin; 3, Floridan; 4, uppernmos artesian]






S&I1 t a 1 Vo l i 3 I
757-152-2 City of Lakeland 252 90 3 6-11-56 77 224 180 396 7.4 16 0.08 54 11 13 0.7 192 8.0 24 0.0 1.5 --

757-156-2 Marvin Pipkin 120 77 2 6-11-56 76 115 96 192 7.6-- -- -- 0.00

757-158-1 olk Board of Public 325 163 3 6-11-56 77 178 156 299 7,2 -- - -- -- -- .00 At Medulla
Instruction School

758-155-2 Mrs. J. weaver 811 133 2,3 6-11-56 77 177 148 296 7.7 -- -- -- -- .00
759-155-1 bavison Chemical Co. 1,220 294 3 6-11-56 80 289 216 418 7,41 -- -- .00 1.G.S. W-1835

800-153-3 American Cyananid Co. 1,037 118 3 2-15-55 80 226 174 359 7,5 -- .01 46 14 212 4 11 -- -- F.G.S. W-724

800-157-1 City of Lakeland 773 219 3 6-11-56 7S 189 164 311 8.0 -- -- --- .00 F.G.6, W-2015
(city well 7,
Orleans Ave.)
801-149-1 R, n. Wilkes 225 100 3 6- 7-56 80 211 204 356 7.9 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 00

801-155-1 Sason-King, Inc. 560 120 3 6- 7-56 76 165 144 279 7.4 ..-..- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- '.04

802-150-5 Davison Chemical Co. 82 42 2 6- 7-56 76 197 168 332 7.4 --- 2,10
802-151-10 J. P. CarrBll 325 42 2,3 6- 7-56 74 167 136 280 7.5- -- -- -- -- ---- .06
802-152-10 T, F. Palmer 65 55 2 2-14-55 73 140 114 229 8.0 .14 30 9.5 129 3 10 *-t -- F.G.S. W-3422

802-153-6 H. W, Kolp 116 55-60 2,3 2-14-55 76 192 160 319 7.7 -- .55 32 19 162 5 22 ......
802-153-12 L. J. Lovett 46 45 2 6- 7-56 74 159 128 279 7.3 -- -- -- "- .. -- -- .00

802-155-1 City of Lakeland 746 160 3 6- 9-56 79 237 188 383 7,2 ..- .. -- -- .28 (city well 6,
Lake Parkec
plant)
802-156-1 Lakeland Cement Co. 12 12 1 2-15-55 72 300 202 406 7,6 -- .14 57 15 -- 205 22 14 .

802-156-2 A. F. Jett 118 -- 2,3 2-15-55 72 158 132 250 7.6 -- .17 24 18 .* -- 144 2 10I -
802-157-12 City of Lakeland 828 280 3 1- 6-55 80 227 198 394 8.0 17 .01 54 15 7.5 1.0 249 2.4 6 .2 1 .1 Crbonate 0.
FPC.S. W-946
(city wall 5,
Lake Mirror)
----- I-----------I -- I -- I -- --- I- I I -- --- -- L -- I I -- -- I I I -- -- I I -- -- I ------ l b







Table 6. --Cont~nued



a s j E G S


j1a g is Hn II Isa 1

802-159-1 Publix Super Markets 635 114 3 6-11-56 81 211 172 322 7.8 ...... .. .. ... .. .. .. 0,12
803-150-1 B. M, Johns 50 45-50 2 6- 7-56 74 394 258 654 7,7 .00
803-150-5 U.S. Geological Survey 14 11 4 6- 7-56 74 534 232 737 6,8 -- -* *- -- -- -- ** .14
803-151-5 V, R. Roberts 59 40-50 2 2-14-55 74 334 284 575 7.6 -- 0,03 64 30 -- *- 337 10 22 -
803-151-6 do 193 36 2,3 2-14-55 75 214 182 366 7.9 -- .06 38 21 ** ** 216 7 12 -
803-153-3 Polk County Sportsman's 361 55 2,3 2-15-55 72 244 202 380 7,8 -- .03 46 21 ** ** 237 5 10 .- .* **
Club
803-153-b C. e. Baader 56 52 2 2-15-55 -- 180 136 269 7,2 .- .02 26 17 ** 144 3 16 *
803-153-28 Cecil Cambee 127 53 2,3 2-14-55 71 202 172 339 7.8 -- .09 34 21 -. 202 2 11 **
803-153-36 C. B. Thonpson 59 51 2 2-14-55 76 202 232 0 7,8 -- .04 40 20 ** 197 1 13
803-154-6 J, W. Reynolds 20 20 1 2-15-55 74 68 26 64 5.7 ** .51 4 3.9 -. 12 4 11 -
803-154-9 Ralph D. Carter 64 40-45 2 2-15-55 -- 200 154 294 7.5 .13 30 19 174 3 9 -- -
803-154-22 A. L, Combee 50 40 2 2-15-55 74 236 200 358 7.3 .25 42 23 222 3 9 .- -. -
803-154-25 W. A. Jefferies 60 40 2 2-15-55 74 248 208 363 7,6 .25 44 24 .. 232 4 26 --

804-150-1 Wm. Croom 82 58 2 6- 7-56 76 139 116 229 7.8 -- --*- -- -- .00
804-151-6 John E. Yost 373 40 2,3 6- 7-56 76 218 176 353 7.5 -- -- -- -- -- -- .00
804-152-2 U.S. Geological Survey 42 18 4 12-20-55 74 276 195 412 7.7 -- -- 47 19 7.1 -- 202 31 10 -- --. F. .S. W-3767
804-153-6 L Wlls 60 40 2 6- 9-56 75 437 302 724 7.5 -- -- -- .00
804-153-13 U.S. geological Survey 59 39 2 6- 7-56 74 234 226 437 7.7 -- --" *- -- --- -- -- .04 F.G.S. W-3770
804-154-2 Gordon Howell 31 20 1 2-14-55 74 44 32 74,3 5.8 .04 3.2 5.8 -- 10 2 13 -
804-154-4 W. W. Deeson 126 78 2,3 2-14-55 72 54 32 61,0 5.6 .71 4 5.4 -- 12 3 11 --
do I- -- 9-26-56 -- 280 228 435 7.2 -- -- 45 28 -- 260 -- 18






Table 6. --Continued







a "I g u B s 1 9
& a __s g K ________ai S o a a a j
Ss _aa a_ i nfo ? *S ^ji 5,. & Bf _s
g~ I IB ga i h gggtj ^ li


804-194-7
804-154-8

804-154-17
805-147-1

805-153-2

805-154-2

805-155-2




805-155-3
805-156-2



805-157-15

805-159-1

806-149-5
806-149-6

806-152-1
806-155-3

806-156-2

807-154-2


6- 9-56
6- 9-56

12- 8-55

6-11-56

6- 9-56

6- 9-56
11-28-55
12- 5-55
12- 5-55


12- 6-55
12-27-55
12-27-55


J. D. Lewis

J. A. Wiley

U.S. Geological Survey
City of Auburndale

U.S. Geological Survey
Elmer McArthur

U.S. geological Survey



do

do



United Brotherhood of
Carpenters & Joiners
Polk Board of Public
Instruction

U.S. Geological Survey
do

Coronet Phosphate Co.
Lakaland Amvet Club

U.S. Geological Survey


6-11-56176


122 1239


17 1 6- 7-56 79 710 430 924

.03 2 12-19-55 77 179 141 261

!85 3 6- 9-56 78 298 260 526

60 2,3 6- 9-56 75 206 190 351
63 2 1- 2-56 74 180 154 295

32 2 1- 3-56 74 335 280 557


-- -- 50

- -- 458
-- -- 48


7.21--


- 220 1
- 252 1
- 225 1


-- 320 1


- F.G.S, W-3764

-- F.G.. W-2647
(City "Winond
Park" well)
.06 F.G.S. W-3841
.02

- F.G.S. W-3766
- (water aamples
-- collected dur-
ing drilling of
Well)
-- F.G.S. -3765
-- F.,.8. W-3769
-- (water eamplee
collected dur-
ing' drilling of
well)
.00 F1G.S. W-448

.00 FGS., W-3312,
Griffin School

.00
-- F.G.S. W-3768

.06
.06

-- F.G.S. 1-3771
- F.G,S. W-3763
P.C. W-3 63


L _______________I I I I I


Ioj




au


I-


2,3 6- 9-561 76 168 144 1280


550 67

261 203








Ta4hs 6.--Conninued












Instruction Kathleen Ele-
mentry School
808-148-4 E. L. Lundy 130 105 3 6- 7-56 76 97 74 157 6.7 -- s-- 00

808-153-1 U.S, Oeological Survey 93 56 37 6- 9-56 77 234 224 434 7.7 --- -- ---- -- -- *--- -------.00 F,G,S, W-3837
808-155-2 American Cyanamid Co. 14 14 1 6- 9-56 76 68 60 138 6.9 -- -- 7.9 2--*- 1 12 -- -B, W--.-300

808-156-2 D, L. Snyder 225 64 2,3 6- 9-56 76 125 96 199 7,4 -- -- -- -- --- -- -- -- -- .00

809-153-3 T, J. .xford, Jr. 488 46 2,3 6- 9-56 77 243 226 20 7,7 -- -- -- -- -- -- .-- -- -- .02 F,,.S. W-3865
809-155-1 American Cyanamid Co. 62 53 2 6- 9-56 78 43 22 64.6 6.7 -- -- -- -- --- --- --- .89

810-149-1 City of Lakeland 567 200 3 6-11-56 80 122 103 206 7.6 14 0.63 31 6.2 3.1 0,50 120 3 4.8 0.0 0.1 -- Polk County well
2, WSP 773-c
814-148-2 Craig Linton 392 40 3 6- 9-56 76 175 166 299 7.6 --- -- -- -- -- .00

815-157-2 U..B Oeological Survey 108 41 3 6- 9-56 76 165 148 307 7,6 -- -- ** -- -- -- .00 F.G.S. W-3839

Lake Park' .----......--.-........ --- --- 1 2-14-55 58 164 50 L27 6,8 -- .14 11 5.5 -- -- 36 49 15 -

Lake Wire .....--------.....- -.... -- -- 1 2-15-55 66 108 80 158 7.4 .03 23 5.5 79 4 8

Scott Lake --------------------- -..- --- 1 6-11-56 84 68 16 87.2 5.1 -- -- -- -- -- --,30

Springs American Cyanamid Co. -- -- 2 2-14-55 74 226 190 381 7.7 -- .01 49 16 -- -- 218 9 16 ---
Saddle Creek Mine






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


During this investigation some analyses of water were
furnished by well owners and municipalities. Many additional
analyses of water from Polk County have been published by
Black and Brown (1951, p. 94-95, 114-115, 117), Collins
and Howard (1928, p. 226-227), Wander and Reitz (1951,
p. 9, 11, app.), and others.


Use of Water

Public Supplies

The communities of Lakeland, Highland City, Polk City,
Sand Gully, and Tancrede (Standard Village) have separate
public water-supply systems which are operated and main-
tained by the city of Lakeland. The systems consist of nine
wells in Lakeland and one well in each of the other commu-
nities. Gibsonia has a privately owned system which supplies
many local residents.

The Lakeland city system is the onlyone for which rec-
ords of total pumpage are kept. Annual pumpage for Lake-
landincreased from about 500 million gallons in 1935 to about
2, 200 million gallons in 1955 when the average daily pumpage
was 5,950,000 gallons (fig. 10).


Industrial Supplies

Most industrial water supplies are obtained from wells
in the Floridan aquifer, but the phosphate mining industry\
obtains water from wells and mine pits. These pits cut through
the nonartesian and uppermost artesian aquifers, and some
cut into the secondary artesian aquifer. The estimated
average daily pumpage by industries is as follows:

Phosphate industry
Wells.............. .................. 8,600,000 gpd
Pits................... .............. 13,000,000 gpd
Citrus industry
Wells, for processing juice and
concentrate......................... 6,000,000 gpd
City system, for packing .............. -
Laundries (using own wells) ............ 500, 000 gpd
Ice manufacture (wells) ............... 900, 000 gpd






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


MILLIONS OF GALLONS
._ .- *
-Ih 0a CDO 0O I"O -i 0 O 0 O M
O O O O O O O O ,O O
0 0 0 __0 0 0 0 0 0 0
00 00. -0
cnVFVKKr~7rr


N







Figure 10. Annual pumpage of water by the 1.ak;ek-aid' cdity
system\. .
t -i,..\
^ :? ^^ ^ ^^ ^- ^ \\ \\ \\ \\ \\ N^






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


Domestic Supplies

Domestic supplies throughout the area are obtained from
wells. The average daily withdrawal for this purpose, in
additionto that from municipal supply wells, is estimated to
be 2 million gallons.


Irrigation Supplies

Both ground and surface water are used for irrigation,
but ground water is more important. Most irrigation wells
obtain water from the Floridan aquifer or the secondary
artesian aquifer, or both. A few farm irrigation systems
use water from wells in the nonartesian aquifer, and a very
few use shallow nonartesian water pumped from artificial
ponds. The principal use of surface water is for the irri-
gation of citrus groves. The estimatedaverage use of water
for irrigation is as follows:

Citrus crops
Wells................................... 3,000,000 gpd
Lakes .................................. 150, 000 gpd
Farm crops
Wells........; ......................... ..... 500,000 gpd
Ponds ................................. 500 gpd


Summary of Use

The estimated average daily use of water for all purposes
is about 40, 000, 000 gallons approximately 28, 000 gpm. Of
course, not all this water is consumed. For example, part
of the water used for irrigation infiltrates to the zone of
saturation.


Water Losses from the Area

Most of the precipitation in northwestern Polk County
is removed from the area by surface runoff, evaporation,
and transpiration; and, after reachingthe zone of saturation,
by underflow that leaves the area and by pumping. Pumping





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


has been discussed previously. The other types of water
losses are discussed briefly in the following paragraphs.


Underflow and Runoff

Water in liquid form leaves the area ofthis investigation
by ground-water flow and surface runoff. The surface sand
is very permeable and absorbs water rapidly from rainfall.
A considerable part of the water that enters the soil reaches
the zone of saturation and leaves the area by lateral under-
ground flow.

Because of the high permeability of the surficial sand,
surface drainage is poorly developed. A large part of the
streamflow, therefore, comes by seepage from the nonarte-
sian aquifer. Available data do not permit satisfactory
estimates of the amount of water carried out of the area by
surface streams. The U. S. Geological Survey maintains
permanent gaging stations on the Withlacoochee, Alafia, and
Hillsborough rivers, well outside of Polk County. The
nearest permanent gaging station on the Peace River system
is inBartow, within Polk Countybut outside the report area.
Data gathered from the gaging stations are published annually
in water-supply papers of the U. S. Geological Survey. The
average annual runoff inthe four rivers mentionedabove for
the period 1940 through 1954 (calculated as inches of water
over the basin) was 13. 11 inches. The records show great
differences of runoff in each drainage basin from year to
year and between basins during the same year.


Evaporation

The source of data on evaporation from free water sur-
faces nearest the area described in this report is a U. S.
Weather Bureau evaporation pan at the Orlando water plant
in Orange County. This pan is of the standard type (class A)
used by the Weather Bureau and is four feet in diameter.
The Orlando station, about 50 miles northeast of Lakeland,
is 111 feet above mean sea level. The elevation at Lake-
land is 214 feet above mean sea level. Evaporation and other
climatic factors at Orlando differ somewhat from those af
Lakeland, but in the absence of data from Lakeland the data






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


from the Orlando station are used in this report. A pan co-
efficient of 0.7 is applied to correct the annual rate of evap-
oration from the pan to that from a lake (Linsley, Kohler,
and Paulhus, 1949, p. 163). The evaporation and rainfall
data from the Orlando station, for the period January 1954
through June 1956, are given in table 7.

Figure 11 is a graphic comparison of the corrected
evaporation data from the Orlando water plant and the rain-
fall at Lakeland, from January 1954 through June 1956, in-
clusive.


Transpiration

"Transpiration "is the evaporation fromplants of water
used in their life processes. No accurate method has been
developed for measuring the rate of transpiration in a humid
subtropical climate such as that of Polk County, but trans-
piration is undoubtedly a significant factor in the discharge
of water.


SRecharge

Nonarte sian Aquifer

-Rainfall is the principal source of recharge to the non-
artesian aquifer in the area of this investigation, and a part
of it enters the soil. Of this, some is retained in the soil,
later to be returned to the atmosphere by evapotranspira-
tion. The remainder reaches the water table to become part
of the ground-water body.

Reasonable estimates of the amount of recharge to the
pnarte sian aquifer from rainfall cannot be made at this time.
Precipitation data from surrounding weather bureau stations
are not satisfactory because the thunderstorms that account
for much of the rainfall in this area are erratically distri-
buted in time and location. Precipitation data are being
collected near observation wells, and these will be very
helpful in future computations of recharge.
























Table 7. Evaporation and Rainfall Data from Orlando Water Plant, Orlando, Orange County, Florida
(Inches of water)

January February March April May June July August September October November December Total
1954
Pan evaporation 2,56 3,40 4 55* 5.49* 6.70* 6.60 6.05* 6.85* 5.03 4.61* 2,90 2.13 56.87
Rainfall .64 1.16 1.12 6.96 3.49 4.42 11.00 7.47 4.43 4.85 2.73 1.67 49.94

1955
Pan evaporation 2.64 2.94 4.97 6,48 7.74* 6.14 5.32* 6,14* 5.20* 4, 0 3.03 1.77 56.45
Rainfall 2.14 1.29 1.71 2.19 4.40 3.79 8.33 7.07 5.79 1.83 .39 1.65 40.58

1956
Pan evaporation 2.57 3.32 5.89 6.66 7.70* 6,76 6-month totals: 32.90
Rainfall 1.79 1.00 .33 4.23 5.30 2.89 15.54
*Adjusted to full month,

































Figure 11.


Graph showing computed evaporation from open-water surfaces at Orlando
and rainfall at Lakeland.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Uppermost Artesian Aquifer

No data are available on recharge of the uppermost
artesian aquifer, but it is inferred from water-level rela-
tionships that the aquifer is recharged largely, if not entirely,
by downward seepage from the nonartesian aquifer.


Secondary Artesian Aquifer

The data obtained for the secondary artesian aquifer
(pl. 1) are not adequate for determining the major recharge
areas of the aquifer. However, some of the lakes in the
ridge area may be the principal sources of recharge, as
water from wells penetrating the aquifer near these lakes
is generally muchless mineralized than water from wells at
a distance (table 6).

Well 757-156-2 is about 300 feet from the shore of Scott
Lake, on the lower southwestern slope of the lake basin, and
well 757-155-3 is about halfamile southeast of the lake (fig.
19). On July 10, 1956, the lake level was 165. 3 feet above
mean sea level, the water level in well 757-156-2 was 157. 0
feet above mean sea level, and at well757-155-3 was 101.0
feet above mean sea level, showing a hydraulic gradient
descending fromthe lake. The land surface atwell 757-156-2
is approximately 180 feet above mean sea level, and at well
757-155-3 it is approximately 264 feet.


Floridan Aquifer

The area of recharge for the Floridan aquifer in penin-
sular Florida was esc e generally by Stringfed-
1936).7HMsmap of the piezometric surface (1936, pl. 12)
__showsan extensive dome-(recharge area), Whi is centered
in-north-central PolkCounty. Stringfield (1936, p.
noted that ;the unco solidate deposits overlyng the lime-
stones are relatively impermea e in parts of the recharge
area but are sufficiently permeable to allow-recharge by
downwardpercolation of-rainfall in other parts of the area.
He-tates 5althat withinn teeaethere are numerous lakes







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


phatprobably occupy old sinkholes now filledwith sands that
/permit downward percolation of water. There are few
surface streams in this area, and the rainfall drains into
the numerous lakes and depressions, providing a large
source of water for recharge. "

Geologic and hydrologic data are scarce for the part of
the area of this investigation lying generally north of the
latitude of Polk City (pl. 2), and it is not possible to deter-
mine the amount of recharge to the Floridap aquifer at this
time. Plate 2 clearly indicates, however that recharge is
7Orc-curring over thisb-radflataalrearfogenerally poor surface-
drainage conditions, and few sinkholes. Here recharge is
apparently occurring by slow downwardpercolation of water
from the nonartesian aquifer, through aleaky confining bed,
into the Floridan aquifer. Inthis areathe secondary artesian
aquifer is absent. The uppermost artesian aquifermay he
present local, though such presence hadnot been established
by-jne-19 56.

Figure 4 shows the hydrographs for Lake Wire and Lake
Hollingsworth, sinkhole lakes in the city of Lakeland. The
hydrographs of Lakes Mirror, Beulah, Hunter, and Morton,
though not included inthis report, are very similar to those
of Lakes Wire and Hollingsworth. If the materials filling these
sinkhole basins were sands having permeabilities similar to
those shown in table 5, the rate of downward leakage from
the lakes could be substantial. These lake levels remain
essentially stable (fig. 4), indicating that the recharge to the
lakes is enough to balance the discharge re suiting from down-
ward leakage. Most of these lakes occupy closed basins that
are relatively small, generally only one to three times the
area of the water surface. Topographic gradients, and
presumably water-table gradients as well, are low within
the basins. It is probable, therefore, that recharge to the
lakes from the nonartesian aquifer are small. If this is the
case, their downward leakage from the lakes must also be
small, or the lake basins would soon be dry.

;the Floridan aquifer receives significant recharge by
the downwardpercolation of water through the sinkhole basins
and sinkhole lakes, there shouldbe piezometric "highs "under
d around them. In June and July, 1956, observation wells






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


near the shores of the large sinkholes in the Lakeland area
were too few to determine conclusively if there were piezo-
metric highs in the Floridan aquifer under any of the sink-
holes. Water levels in several wells (pl. 2), however, indi-
cate that the piezometric surface in the vicinity of some of
the sinkholes and sinkhole lakes is anomalously low. This
association of low water levels and surface and subsurface
solutional features is believed to indicate the discharge of
large quantities of water through cavern systems. The
caverns thus serve as subsurface drains M5n ee limestone,
into which ground water moves from all sides. A higher
pressure head would be required in the limestone surround-
ing the caverns than in the caverns themselves, in order for
water to flow from the limestones to the caverns. It is log-
ical to assume, therefore, that the cavernous areas would
be indicated by low pressure head. The point of discharge
of this concentrated subsurface flow may be the large arte-
sian springs in adjacent Hillsborough and other counties.


Special Problems

Lake Parker

One of the local problems of considerable importance
concerns the future of Lake Parker in eastern Lakeland.
The possibility that the water level in this lake might be
greatly lowered by future large withdrawals of ground water
near the northern and eastern shores is a matter of great
concern to the residents of Lakeland, to the city government,
and to industry.

Lake Parker covers about 2, 200 acres and is generally
very shallow. Sounding operations, in May 1954, indicated
that at the deepest point the lake was approximately nine
feet deep. The lowest point on the lake bottom is approxi-
mately 119 feet above mean sea level.

The northern part of the lake's drainage basin is low
and relatively flat. On the east and south sides of the lake
the drainage divide is relatively close to the shore. In the
southwestern part of the basin there is a steep gradient from
the ridge in central and northern Lakeland. Northwest of







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


the lake the basin widens appreciably.

Small streams enter Lake Parker from a large sinkhole
basin west of the lake in northern Lakeland, and from Lake
Gibson another sources northwest of Lake Parker. Several
small canals enter the northeast arm of the lake from sur-
rounding swampy areas. The lake overflows through a canal
extending from the east shore into the Saddle Creek drainage
system. A concrete control structure in this canal, near
the lake, prevents outflow when the lake level is lower than
129. 6 feet above mean sea level.

The city of Lakeland has a multimillion dollar power-
plant on the south shore of Lake Parker, at the site of well
802-155-1 (pl. 2). This plant, which produces 45, 000 kilo-
watts, uses water mostly from Lake Parker for cooling the
power units. The plant when in full operation uses lake
water at a rate in excess of 68, 000 gpm. This usage is
more than 10 times the maximum pumpage from any well in
the area and several times the maximum pumpage for the
city system in June 1956. The water withdrawn from the
lake, plus a small amount used from the nearby city supply
well, returns to the lake after passing through the power-
plant. In order for the intake system of the plant to operate,
the lake level must be more than 125. 45 feet above mean sea
level. 2

Some data concerning the subsurface geology in the Lake
Parker area were obtained from the prospecting records of
the American Cyanamid Company and some were obtained
by drilling test holes. A composite section made from these
data follows:







Personal communication from Mr. Dan Macintosh,
Resident Engineer, Light and Water Department, Lakeland,
September 6, 1956.


2Ibid.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Material Thickness
(feet)
Sand, quartz, gray to dark brown 2 20
Sand, clayey, tan to brown 5 10
Clay, sandy, phosphatic, yellow to gray-green 5 10
Clay, sandy, yellowto brown; phosphate pebbles 3 10
Clay, sandy, brown; limestone fragments 1 4
Limestone, sandy, phosphatic -

This general sequence of sediments is found throughout the
lowland area around Lake Parker.

Occasionally, in prospecting for phosphate, so-called
"blank holes" are encountered. In the Saddle Creek Lake
Parker area, the term 'blank holes" refers to test borings
in which only traces of phosphate are present or to borings
in which no phosphate is present. Usually, sand is the only
material penetrated. Prospect borings generally terminate
just below the base of the phosphate-bearing clays, short of
the underlying limestone. "Blank holes generally terminate
at depths well below the level of phosphate deposits found in
nearby test holes. The surficial sands are not known to ex-
tend to the limestone in the area adjacent to Lake Parker.

In some places the mapped locations of the 'blank holes "
appear to follow a pattern much like a stream course. One
suchpatternwas notedin the area in and around the northern
arms of Lake Parker, by personnel of the American Cyanamid
Company. If the sand sections in these patterns continue
downward to the underlying limestone, then they would permit
much greater local leakage, or recharge, from the lake to
the aquifers than would occur through the clay confining beds
normally found throughout northwestern Polk County. Test
hole 805-156-Awas drilledinthe bottom of Lake Parker near
the mouth of the northwest arm of the lake, in one of the
deepest sand sections of the pattern, to determine if the sand
extended downward to the limestone bedrock. Figure 12
shows the materials penetrated, and table 8 gives the water-
level observations made during the drilling. The data from
the test drilling indicate that the normal sand and clay se-
quence is probably under the lake, as does examination of
hundreds of logs of phosphate prospecting holes in the area





INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23 59




0 Z.Z.ZZZz Muck, block, soupy
'.*'.:" Sand,dork-brown much fine
.*.*'.*'.:* organic debris.

10 **-.: Sad
-.*.. Sand, light-tan; slight amount
of organic material; becomes
*'.'- lighter colored downward.

20-- -.: :

0 .- Sand, chocolate-brown; sharp
I- .. '. contact with lighter colored
30- sand above; much fine
O organic material; becomes
.- very slightly clayey in
S*"- lower 5 feet.

< 40- ..'
'40- ':" Peat, block, porous; very little
.sand or clay.
31
w 50-

.. Sand, chocolate-brown, slightly
*. clayey; amount uf organic
S matter increases below
LL 60- .. : 58 feet.
Z


l-70- "'* .-
L .'.:' Sand, brown, lighter than above;
much organic matter; becomes
slightly to moderately clayey
80 -' below 74 feet.
. .... .Clay, gray-green, very sandy, tough,
-dense; becomes waxy and has
little sand below 85 feet.
Clay, yellow-brown,dry, tough, greasy.
90- ----
.--_-~* Clay, greenish-gray, sandy, gritty; contains
_-- ,-- tough dense yellow streaks.
Clay, as above; contains weathered lime-
stone fragments.


Figure 12. Diagram showing sediments penetrated in test
hole 805-156-A, in Lake Parker.











Table 8. Water Levels and Temperatures Observed in Test Hole 805-156-A


Depth of
casingl, 2
(feet)
40-45
74
84
85
87
87


Depth to water
below lake level3
(feet)


35-40
40*
Dry
600


Type of Lake
material temperature
(OF)
Sand 62
Sand 65
Sand
Clay
Clay
Clay 65


Well-water
temperature
('F)
72.5
75




74.5


1Depth of hole and depth of casing measured below lake bottom.
2Casing driven ahead of drill to prevent sand heaving into test hole.
3Lake level was 128. 9 feet above mean sea level.


Date
4-10-56
4-13-56
4-13-56
4-13-56
4-16-56
4-16-56


Depth of
hole
(feet)
37
52
60
84. 5
93
95






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


many of which were drilled in ponds, lakes, and swamps.
However this does not preclude the absence of clays from
very small areas, because prospecting holes are generally
drilled 100 yards apart.

Figure 13 is the hydrographof Lake Parker for the period
of record. A continuous water-level recorder was installed
on Lake Parker on July 21, 1954. Prior to that time, meas-
urements by the engineers of the city light plant were made
at a staff gage on the pier at the plant. Figure 14 shows the
hydrographs of Lake Parker; well 803-154-10, in the second-
ary artesian aquifer; and well 806-154- 1, amultiaquifer well.
Figure 15 shows the hydrographs of Lake Parker; well
805-155-1, in the nonartesian aquifer; well 805-155-3, in
the secondary artesian aquifer; and well 805-155-2 in the
Floridan aquifer. These wells are equipped with water-level
recorders.

Water Budget: In order to evaluate the relation of Lake
Parker to the adjacent and underlying aquifers, a water bud-
get was compile that estimates the recharge to and discharge
from the lake during the period January 1 to June 20, 1956.

Rainfall on the lake, assumed to be the same as that
measured at the Lakeland station, contributed approximately
17 inches of water to the 2, 200 acres of lake surface during
the period of study.

In order to determine the general relationship and
magnitude of surface-water inflow to and outflow from Lake
Parker, the discharge of all streams flowing into or out of
the lake was measured once in September 1955 and again in
February 1956 by the Ocala, Florida, office of the U. S.
Geological Survey. Plate 3 shows the location of all gaging
points, and table lists the two sets of measurements made
at these points. In September 1955 the lake was above the
level of the outlet-control structure, total surface inflow
was 6.84 cfs (cubic feet per second), and total outflow was
3. 38 cfs. In February 1956, when the lake was below the
level of the outlet control, total surface inflow was 1. 50 cfs
and there was no surface outflow. Surface inflow therefore
probably exceeds surface outflow during most or all of the





























Figure 13. Hydrograph of Lake Parker for period of record.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


13 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1





1 LAKE PARKER
129




127 I I I I I

-iJ 126-
- 125

to
" 124







I- 120 Well 803-154-10
" 3.2 miles northeast
of Lakeland.
z Depth of well 69 ft.
_ 1I 8 -Depth of casing 39 ft

117

a 125
I-
1215






S121 Well 806-154-1
miles northeast of
SLakeland
S Depth of well 130 ft.
119 -Depth of casing 72 ft


MJ J ASONDJ FMAMJ JASONDJFMAMJ
1954 1955 1956


Figure 14. Hydrographs of Lake Parker and wells
803-154-10 and 806-154-1.
_-803-154-10 and 806-154-1.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


I "


AFA----AYJNUAS





J114- -- AU





JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT


Figure 15.


Hydrographs of Lake Parker andwells 805-155-1
(nonartesian aquifer), 805-155-2 (Floridan aqui-
fer), and 805-155-3 (secondary artesian aquifer),
near southwest shore of Fish Lake.






INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


year. For budget purposes an average of the inflow shown
by the two measurements was used. From this the inflow
to the lake during the test period was computed to be 8. 1
inches over the lake surface; the outflow during the same
period was computed to be 3. 3 inches.

City storm sewers carry the drainage from approxi-
mately 1.7 square miles (1, 100 acres) into Lake Parker,
but probably not more than 25 percent of the total rainfall
on this area reaches Lake Parker through the sewers. Thus,
1, 100 acres x 17 inches x 25% -. 2, 200 acres = 2. 1 inches
of water contributed to Lake Parker from storm sewers.

Lake Parker receives some overflow water from Lake
Mirror through gravity-flow drains. Lake Mirror, in turn,
receives overflow from Lake Wire. The amount of water
added to Lake Parker from this source is unknown.


Table 9. Stream-gaging measurements in the Lake Parker
and Saddle Creek areas (measurements by U. S.
Geological Survey, Ocala, Florida).

Station shown Flow (cfs) Flow (cfs)
on plate 3 9-15-55 2-15-56
Lake Parker
K (Inflow) 1.67 1.00
L (Inflow) .54 .22
M (Inflow) 4.63 .28
N (Outflow) 3.38 .00

Saddle Creek
A 9.96 14.00
B 45.20 8.22
C 15.30 3.00
J 116.00 14.00
P 169.00 53.70





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Ground-water inflow to Lake Parker from the nonarte sian
aquifer canbe computed bythe use of Darcy's law, which can
be written as Q = PIA, where Q is the flow, in gallons per
day; P is the coefficient of permeability; I is the hydraulic
gradient, in feet per foot; and A is the area, in square feet,
of the cross section through which the flow is taking place.
The average permeability of the sands listed in table 5 (85
gpdper square foot) was used in making these computations.
Hydraulic gradients were determined from plate 3, a map of
the water table in the Lake Parker area. Saturatedthicknesses
of the nonartesian aquifer were taken from drilling and test
data. The total ground-water inflow to Lake Parker was thus
computed to be 220, 000 gpd. This amounts to approximately
0. 7 inch of water over the lake surface from January through
June 1956.

The evaporation loss from the lake between January 1
and June 20, 1956, based onthe average monthly evaporation
shownby Meyer (1942), was approximately 24 inches (table 7).

The approximate water budget may then be tabulated as
follows:

Gains: Inches of water
Rainfall 17.0
Surface inflow 8. 1
Storm-sewer inflow 2. 1
Ground-water inflow .7
Lake Mirror overflow ?
27.9+
Losses:
Evaporation 24. 0
Surface-water outflow 3. 3
Ground-water outflow in nonarte sian
aquifer 0.0
27. 3

Difference (downward flow to aquifers) 0. 6

The amount of this difference is well within the accuracy
limits of some of the data used in computing it and there-
fore has little significance. During this period, the lake
declined about 14. 5 inches (fig. 14). This decline is probably







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. Z3


due primarily to vertical seepage from Lake Parker to one
or more of the underlying artesian aquifers.

It is not known whether recharge to the artesian aquifers
from Lake Parker occurs over most of the lake bottom or in
only certain areas. Chemical analysis of ground-water
samples, however, shows that the mineral content of the
water from both the Floridan and the secondary artesian
aquifers is lowest near the northeastern arm of Lake Parker
and Fish Lake, suggesting that the best connection between
Lake Parker and the artesian aquifers is in that area.

The contours on plate 1 indicate that water may leak
from Lake Parker into the secondary artesian aquifer and
move laterally through the aquifer to discharge at spring E,
near Saddle Creek. In December 1954, water was pumped at
a rate of 7,500 gpmfrom an active mine pit inthe secondary
artesian aquifer, o. 3 mile south of spring E (pl. 1). Such
withdrawals have been made in the general vicinity of springs
E, F, and G (pl. 1) since late in 1953. The decline of Lake
Parker is consistent with the decline of other lakes in the
vicinity that are farther from the mining area.


The future withdrawal of ground water from mine pits
in the nonartesian aquifer in the area south of State High-
way 33 and north and northeast of Lake Parker may tend to
lower the level of the lake in two ways: (1) it will reduce the
ground-water inflow into the lake, and (2) it might induce
ground-water outflow from the lake toward areas where the
water table is drawn down to especially low levels.

SWithdrawal of water for mining from the secondary
artesian aquifer also will lower the piezometric surface and
increase the hydraulic gradient away from the lake, thus
increasing the rate of leakage from the lake to the aquifer.


Decline of Lakes Near Lake Parker

Water levels in Lakes Deeson, Crystal, and Bonny,
near Lake Parker (pl. 3), declined about six feet between
December 1954 and July 1956, whereas the water levels in






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Lake Parker and other nearby lakes remained about the
same (fig. 4). Hydrographs of the five lakes for 1954 (fig. 4)
correlate reasonablywell. The hydrographs of Lakes Deeson
and Crystal for 1955 begin to depart from those of the other
lakes. Lakes Deeson and Crystal responded only slightly to
rainfallduring 1955 and ended that year with a net decline of
2. 5 feet. Lakes Hollingsworth and Parker showed net rises
of about half a foot for the same period, and Lake Wire de-
clined lessthan halfafoot. The departures of Lakes Deeson
and Crystal fromthe trend of the other three lakes continued
through July 1956. The water level of Lake Crystal had fallen
below the level of Lake Parker by July 1956, and that of Lake
Deeson about to that of Lake Parker. Though not illustrated
in this report, the water level of Lake Bonny followed the
trend of Lakes Deeson and Crystal; it fell below the level of
Lake Parker a little earlier, however, about January 1956.

One phosphate test hole near the west shore of Lake Crys-
tal showed predominantly sandy materials extending from
the surface downward to the limestone bedrock. A good
hydraulic connection such as this may exist in parts of Lakes
Deeson, Crystal, and Bonny, permitting relatively rapid
downward leakage, but drilling and test-hole data are rela-
tively few.

From January 1, 1955, through June 30, 1956, Lake
Deeson declined 65.2 inches, Lake Bonny declined about 53
inches, and Lake Crystal declined 77.4 inches. Rainfall at
Lakeland during this period was 61.08 inches (about 11.6
inches below the mean of record) and evaporation (fig. 11)
was about 62.55 inches. It is possible that during this gen-
erally dry period the rate of evaporation was higher than
normal. The 11. 6-inch deficit in rainfall obviously cannot
account for the observed declines of lake levels.

Lakes Bonny, Crystal, and Deeson have no surface in-
flow or outflow. Topographic gradients within the basins
are generally low, and the slope of the water table also is
assumed to be low. The average flow of ground water into
the lakes is probably equivalent to only a few inches per
year over the lake surface, and it was undoubtedly well be-
low average during the dry period. Ground-water outflow
into the nonartesian aquifer is believed to be zero.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


During the same dry period(January 19 55 to June 1956),
pumping from the artesian aquifers increased as recharge
decreased, lowering artesian water levels 5 to 10 feet. This
probably increased the hydraulic potential between the lake
levels and the artesian aquifers and increased the rate of
leakage from the lakes.

The combination of decreases in rainfall and ground-
water inflowplus increases in evaporation and vertical leak-
age, including that due to declines in artesian head, may be
sufficient to account for the decline in lake levels.


Scott Lake Area

Early in 1953 the Board of County Commissioners of
Polk County requested that the U. S. Geological Survey in-
vestigate the water problems in the Scott Lake area, south
of Lakeland. Property owners were concerned about the
observed decline of lake level because of the lake's recrea-
tional value and its value as a source of water for the irri-
gation of adjacent citrus groves. In 1953 a staff gage was
installed on a boat dock on the southeast shore of the lake.
Later a recording gage was installedat the same place, and
wells were inventoried in the lake basin. Recording gages
were installed on an abandoned well in the secondary artesian
aquifer (757-155-3) near the ridge crest, southeast of the
lake, and on a well inthe nonartesian aquifer (758-156-5) on
the north shore of the lake (fig. 19).

Water-level information from the Scott Lake area indi-
cates that the secondary artesian and Floridan aquifers are
present in the ridge section. Both aquifers are in use, but
wells into the Floridan aquifer are much more numerous.
Because of the pump installations, very few of the wells
around the lake shore can be used for water-level measure-
ments. Observed and reported water levels indicate,
however, that the water level in the Floridan aquifer may be
as muchas 80 feet belowthatofthe secondary artesian aquifer
on the basin floor, and approximately 20 feet below that of
the secondary artesian aquifer on the ridge top east of Scott
Lake.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figures 16, 17, and 18 are hydrographs of Scott Lake
and six wells in the Scott Lake area. The location of wells
inthe Floridan, nonartesian, and secondary artesian aquifers,
in the vicinity of Scott Lake, is shown on figure 19.

Figure 16 shows that the hydrographs of Scott Lake and
well 758-156-5 cross and recross, indicating periods of
reversalin the direction of ground-water flow in the nonarte-
sian aquifer near Scott Lake. Figure 18 shows that the water
level in well 758-156-1 also fluctuates from above to below
the level of Scott Lake.

Available data are inadequate to permit determination
of the cause of the reversal of ground-water flow. The
permeability of the nonartesian aquifer may be greater under
wells 758-156-5 and 758-156-1 than it is under Scott Lake;
thus, vertical percolation of ground water to the underlying
artesian aquifers would be greatest under the wells. During
periods of normal rainfall, recharge to the nonartesian
aquifer may be sufficient to maintain the normal hydraulic
gradient toward Scott Lake in spite of the large amount of
downward percolation near the wells but during periods of
low recharge the downward percolation maylower the water
table near the wells so much that a cone of depression forms
and subsequently expands to Scott Lake, reversing the direc-
tion of ground-water flow.

Another explanation is that the permeability of the non-
artesian aquifer may be approximately the same throughout
the Scott Lake area. If this is true, the excessive lowering
of the water table at the wells during drought periods canbe
explained by the fact that downward percolation of a given
amount of water would cause a greater lowering of the water
table than of lake level. A given amount of water drained
from Scott lake might lower the lake level one inch, whereas
the same amount drained fromthe nonartesian aquifer would
lower the water table 5 or 10 inches, the coefficient of
storage of the aquifer requires that a large volume of the
aquifer be unwateredto provide the amount of water contained
in a layer one inch thick over the lake surface. If such an
explanation can be considered correct, correlation of the
fluctuations of lake level and water table during drought






171
LJ
>z
170
w
Sin 169
z
_ 168
U

8 167

. 166

z
- 165


-1 164
UJ
I-
B 163


Figure 16. Hydrographs of Scott Lake and well 758-156-5 in the nonartesian aquifer.


lxI..l l7--lI 71 I llI-- I I I -



Note. Pftted /n A
ond /15/h of month.




...Scott Lke /



... .,-, .,,..










-J F M A M J J A S O N D J'F M A M J J A S O N 'D J F M A M J
1954 1955 1956


0


17
.5





0


1-'





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


1693 -7 T I -T i 1I I I I I I I I

Note: P/otted on first
of month only

SI68




< 167
ILl

U) SCOTT LAKE



166



-6-!log---:---P-------------- first-


105



10, Depth of well 251 ft I I I I I
II-
LL










DG 10-------^ -- f -- -- ---- ----
3 TI mile southeast of








Figure 17. Hydrographs of Scott Lake and well 757-155-3
0in the secondary artesian aquifer.
Ioo0-- Depth of casing unknown

98



95MJ J A SOUND J FMAM J dASO ND J FMAMJ
1954 1955 1956



Figure 17. Hydrographs of Scott Lake and well 757-155-3
in the secondary artesian aquifer.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


18 89 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I ll

Well 757-157-3
187- mile southwest
of Scott Lake
186 Depth of well 20 ft
Depth of casing 20ft.
1854



-J 18-3
U 182
z
s ---'- / v



o 18 0 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
-1 1 5-71 -1
0m

wL--y "K 1 I._/ -SWell 758-157-4 'l I I
LL 173 mile northwest
z of Scott Lake
j 172 '- -.Depth of well 42 ft.
> Depth of casing unknown
-' 171


N 7 /WAell 757-157-4


Figure 18. Hydrographs of wells in the nonartesian aquifer
in the Scott Lake basin.







74 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


8~8 57' 56' 8
28a*C
EXPLANATION

Wellpenetrting nonresin aquifer

Well penetrating seondcry artesin aquifer
Well penetrating secondcry artesian aquifer
0
Well penetrating Floridan aquifer

59' Well penetrating solution cavity

Upper number is well number. lower number
is altitude of water level, in feet above
mean sea level.
No _.


N


3 1/4 1/2 3/4 I mile

27"56' 1i 27
ar58 57 56' 8155'


Figure 19. Map of Scott Lake area showing locations of
wells, drainage divide, and water levels during
period of July 10-11, 1956.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


periods might provide a reasonable estimate of the coef-
ficinet of storage of the nonartesian aquifer.

Still another explanation is that the lake has a silty,
clayey sand bottom of lowpermeability which checks leakage
from the lake and tends to maintain the lake level. The water
table may maintain its slope toward the sinkhole throughout
the year. During periods of normal rainfall ground-water
flow from the nonartesian aquifer recharges the lake, but
during drought periods the water table falls below the lake
bottom and leaves the lake perchedabove the cone of depres-
sion in the water table.

Figure 17 shows the general correlation of water-level
fluctuations in well 757-155-3, in the secondary artesian
aquifer, with those of Scott Lake. The major drawdowns,
in the spring seasons, are caused by local heavy pumping
from multiaquifer irrigation wells. An irrigation well 50
feet away from well 757-155-3 is open only to the Floridan
aquifer aid is in daily use for domestic purposes, but pumping
of this well has not affected the water levelin well 757-155-3.

Figure 18 shows the hydrographs of wells in the non-
artesian aquifer, near the west end of Scott Lake. They are
shown with the topographically highest well at the top of the
figure and the lowest at the bottom.

Water Budget: In order to determine the reason for the
decline of Scott Lake it is necessary to establish a water
budget for the basin. The period January 1 through June 30,
1956, was selected.

Surface outflow from the lake may occur through a water
gap in the sinkhole rim that opens westward from the north-
west bulge of the shoreline. The swampy channel occupying
the gap, called the "Lake Drain", is shown on figure 19.
Phosphate mining operations have interrupted the natural
flow through the Lake Drain at point C. Water may now flow
through a canal on the north side of mine pit D, figure 19,
only when the lake level is above (possibly several feet above)
an altitude of 168 feet above mean sea level. At point B,
figure 19, a small earthen dam prevents westward flow from






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


the lake when the lake level is less than 168 feet above mean
sea level. A concrete control structure has beenbuilt in the
channel, on the lakeward side of the highway crossing the
Lake Drain. The top of this structure is 168 feet above mean
sea level, and the bottom of the control weir is 166 feet
above mean sea level. Thus, water will not flow through
the Lake Drain if the lake level is less than 168 feet above
mean sea level. Since the maximum lake level during the
budget period was only 167 feet above mean sea level, no
outflow occurred.

When the lake level is low, generally less than 166 feet
above mean sea level, water is permitted to flow from an
abandoned mine pit (point E, figure 19) by the land owner.
Such was the case during the last half of the budget period.
This observed inflow, though not gaged, is believed to have
been much less than one cubic foot per second. For budgetary
purposes, therefore, surface inflowis established, but quan-
titatively unknown. (It is to be noted that an average inflow
of 0.25 cfs for the three months would be approximately
equal to two inches over the lake surface.) Surface inflow
also occurs intermittently into the lake at its southwest bulge,
as shown on figure 19.

In the following computations the average coefficient of
permeability for the nonarte sian aquifer is taken from table 5
(85 gpd per square foot). The lake basin was divided into
segments and the ground-water inflow was computed for each
segment. Hydraulic gradients were approximated from data
from the observation wells shown in figure 19. Onthe basis
of available well data, the average saturated thickness of the
aquifer around the shoreline is believed to be 25 feet, and
possiblymore. Ground-water inflow was therefore computed
to be equivalent to approximately 17 inches over the lake
surface from January 1 through June 30, 1956 (776, 051 gpd).
It is believed, and it was assumed, that there is no ground-
water outflow from the Scott Lake basin in the nonartesian
aquifer.

Rainfall at the Lakeland station was approximately 17
inches from January 1 through June 30, 1956. Evaporation,
according to table 7, was about 24 inches.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


The lake level is lowered by pumping for citrus irriga-
tion, as well as by evaporation. Pump capacities and the
duration of pumping periods reported by owners of the irri-
gation systems indicate that the total seasonalpumpage from
the lake is approximately 38, 000, 000 gallons. Such with-
drawals are usually made from January through April. The
area of the lake is about 300 acres. According to these fig-
ures, average irrigation pumping lowers the lake about 4. 5
inches per season.

The water budget for Scott Lake maybe summarized for
the period January 1 through June 30, 1956, as follows.
Quantities are given in whole inches, as some of the data are
less precise than those for Lake Parker (p. 66).

Inches of water
Gains:
Rainfall 17
Surface inflow --- +
Ground-water inflow 17
34 +
Losses:
Evaporation 24
Surface outflow 0
Irrigation pumping 4
Ground-water outflow in nonartesian
aquifer 0
28

Difference (downward flow to artesian aquifer) 6 +

These figures indicate a small surplus for the 6-month
period. However, figure 16 shows that the lake level declined
24 inches during the same period. The conclusion is drawn
that the lake was recharging one or more of the underlying
artesian aquifers during this period, and that the total re-
charge was equivalent to about 30 inches (24-inch loss + 6-
inch calculated surplus of gains over losses) over the lake
surface.

The observed water levels in wells 757-156-2 and
757-155-3, inthe secondaryartesianaquifer, show a definite
pie zometric gradient away from the lake, indicating re charge






78 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

of the aquifer by the lake. Observed and reported ground-
water levels, however, show that the piezometric surface
of the Floridan aquifer is low under Scott Lake, indicating
discharge from that aquifer. If some recharge to the Flor-
idan aquifer occurs from Scott Lake, it is not enough to
prevent the piezometric surface of the aquifer from remain-
ing at a low level in the vicinity of the lake.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


REFERENCES

Alverson, D.C. (see Carr, W. J.)


Bergendahl,
1956


M. H.
Stratigraphy of parts
counties, Florida: U.
1030-B.


of DeSoto and Hardee
S. Geol. Survey Bull.


Black, A. P.
1951


(and Brown, Eugene) Chemical character of
Florida's waters 1951: Florida State Board
Cons., Div. Water Survey and Research,


Paper 6.


Brown, Eugene (see Black, A. P.; Cooper, H.H. Jr.)


Carr, W.
1953











Cathcart,
1952


Cole, W.
1941


J.
(and Alverson, D. C. ) Stratigraphy of Suwan-
nee, Tampa, and Hawthorn formations in Hills -
borough andparts of adjacent counties, Florida,
in Geologic Investigations of Radioactive De-
posits Semiannual Progress Rept., June 1,
1953, to Nov. 30, 1953: U. S. Geol. Survey
TEI-390, p. 175 ff., issued by U. S. Atomic
Energy Comm. Tech. Inf. Service, Oak Ridge,
Tennessee.

J.B.
(and Davidson, D. F.) Distribution and origin
of phosphate in the land-pebble phosphate dis-
trict of Florida: U.S. Geol. Survey TEI-212,
issued by U. S. Atomic Energy Comm. Tech.
Inf. Service, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

Storrs
Stratigraphic andpaleontologic studies of wells
in Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 19.


1945 Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells
in Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 28.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Collins, W.D.
1928 (and Howard, C. S.) Chemical character of
waters of Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-
Supply Paper 596-G.

Cooke, C.W.
1939 The scenery of Florida interpreted by a geol-
ogist: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 17.

1945 The geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 29.

Cooper, H.H., Jr. (see also Stringfield, V. T.)
1944 Ground water investigations in Florida (with
special reference to Duval and Nassau counties):
Am. Water Works Assoc. Jour., v. 36, no. 2,
p. 169-185, 1944.

1953 (andKenner, W. E. and Brown, Eugene) Ground
water in central and northern Florida: Florida
Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 10.


Davidson,
1952a


D. F. (see also Cathcart, J. B. )
Relation of the "Topography" of the Hawthorn
formation to size of phosphate particles in the
deposits, and to topography, in the northern
part of the land-pebble phosphate field, Florida:
U. S. Geol. Survey TEM-337, issued by U. S.
Atomic Energy Comm. Tech. Inf. Service,
Oak Ridge, Tennessee.


1952b Grain size distribution in the surface sands
andthe economic phosphate deposits of the land-
pebble phosphate district, Florida: U. S. Geol.
Survey TEM-362, issued by U. S. Atomic
Energy Comm. Tech. Inf. Service, Oak Ridge,
Tennessee.


Fenneman,
1938


N.M.
Physiography of eastern United States: New
York, McGraw-Hill Book Company.







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


Ferguson,
1947


G. E. (see also Parker, G. G. )
(and Lingham, C. W., Love, S. K., and Vernon,
R. O. ) Springs of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 31.


Gunter, Herman (see also Sellards, E.H. )
1931 (and Ponton, G. H. ) The need for conservation
andprotection of our water supply with special
reference to waters from Ocala limestone:
Florida Geol. Survey 21st-22d Ann. Repts.,
p. 43-55.

Howard, C.S. (see Collins, W.D. )

Kenner, W.E. (see Cooper, H.H., Jr.)

Kohler, Max A. (see Linsley, Ray K. )

Lingham, C. W. (see Ferguson, G.E.)

Linsley, R. K., Jr.
1949 (and Kohler, Max A., and Paulhus, J. L. H. )
Applied hydrology: New York, McGraw-Hill
Book Company.

Love. S. K. (see Ferguson, G. E.; Parker, G. G.)

MacNeil, F. Stearns
1950 Pleistocene shorelines in Florida and Georgia:
U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 221-F.

Mansfield, George R.
1942 Phosphate resources of Florida: U. S. Geol.
Survey Bull. 934.

Matson, G.C.
1913 (and Sanford, Samuel) The geology and ground
waters of Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-
Supply Paper 319.

Meinzer, O. E.
1923a The occurrence of ground water in the United
States, with a discussion of principles: U. S.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 489.

1923b Outline of ground-water hydrology with defini-
tions: U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper
494.

1949 (and Wenzel, L. K. ) Movement of ground water
and its relation to head, permeability, and
storage: Chap. 10b in Meinzer, O. E., ed.,
Hydrology, v. IX of Physics of the Earth: New
York, Dover Publications.

Meyer, A. F.
1942 Evaporation fromlakes and reservoirs: Minn.
Res. Comm., maps 24-35.

Parker, G. G. -
1955 (and Ferguson, G. E., Love, S. K. and others)
Water resources of southeastern Florida: U. S.
Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1255.


Paulhus, J. L. H. (see Linsley, Ray K. )


Peek, Harry
1951


M.
Cessation of flow of Kissengen Springs, in Polk
County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept.
Inv. 7, pt. 3.


Ponton, G. H. (see Gunter, Herman)

Puri, Harbans S.
1953a Zonation of the Ocala group in peninsular Flor-
ida (abstract): Jour. Sedimentary Petrology,
v. 23, p. 130.

1953b Contributions to the study of the Miocene of the
Florida Panhandle: Florida Geol. Survey Bull.
36.

Reitz, H. J. (see Wander, I. W.)


Sanford, Samuel (see Matson, G. C.)







INFORMATION CIRCULAR NO. 23


Sellards, E.H.
1908 Preliminary report on the underground water
supply of central Florida: Florida Geol. Survey
Bull. 1.

1913 (and Gunter, Herman) The artesian water
supply of eastern and southern Florida: Florida
Geol. Survey 5th Ann. Rept., p. 103-290.


Stringfield,
1935


V. T.
The piezometric surface of artesian water in
the Florida Peninsula: Am. Geophys. Union
Trans., p. 524-529.


1936 Artesian water in the Florida Peninsula: U. S.
Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 773-C.

1950 (and Cooper, H. H., Jr.) Ground water in
Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 3.

1951a Economic aspects of ground water in Florida:
Mining Eng., p. 525-533. June.

1951b Geologic and hydrologic features ofanartesian
submarine spring east of Florida: Florida
Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 7, pt. 2.

Tolman, C.F.
1937 Ground water: New York, McGraw-Hill Book
Company.

Vernon, R. O. (see also Ferguson, G. E.)
1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 33.

Wander, I. W.
1951 (and Reitz, H. J.) The chemical composition
of irrigation water used in Florida citrus
groves: Univ. of Florida Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull.
480.


Wenzel, L. K. (see Meinzer, O. E. )










FLRD GEOLOSk ( IC SUfRiW


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